Draft Outlines of Research and Management
Development Programmes in the Field of
Rural Development for
Asian Centre for Development Administration
OUTLINE OF THE PROG, RAIE OF iU ML DEV_.ORI, i TT FOR 1 7--75
Summary of Programme Elements.
This programme would undertake primarily four activities during 1974-75:I. Organise a management development programme for senior officials,.
of Asian governments for a duration of two to three weeks in the
first quarter of 1975. (For details see section II below).
II. Implement a research programme providing support to the management development programmes. The research projects listed are:
(A) A comparative study of approaches to rural development
in Asia with a view to determining their relative
(B) Study of "programme innovations" in the field of rural
development in Asian countries.
(Details of research programme given in section III below).
III. Diffuse useful literature in the field of rural development among scholars, administrators, and relevant institutions. An effort
would be made to undertake the following activities in this area:
(A) Prepare an annotated bibliography on rural development;
(B) Compile already published material which could be useful
for policy-making and programme implementation in the
field of rural development;
(C) Prepare and circulate a digest of significant developments
in the field of rural development.
(For details see section IV below).
IV. Collaboration with other international organizations on projects relevant to ACDA's research interests.
(For details see section V below).
MANAGIZNT DEVELO7IMNT PROGRV7IE
Policies and Programmes of Rural Development in Asia
The chances of improvement in the quality of life of many Asians, who mostly live in rural areas, depends upon the effectiveness of the rural development programmes of their countries. 'The effectiveness of these programmes is determined by various factors such as the extent to which they are part of a comprehensive policy and strategy of national development, the degree to which they make correct diagnosis of the
causes of rural underdevelopment and mobilize and organize adequate human and material resources to overcome it.
Due to a variety of political, economic, social and administrative factors operating in different Asian countries, the rural development programmes have come to develop different characteristics and consequently achieve different degrees of effectiveness. The purpose of this management development programme is to:(a) Understand the process of conception and formulation of
policies and programmes of rural development in different
countries of Asia;
(b) Isolate the critical factors which determine their
(c) 'Examine tie relationship between the elements of
different approaches to rural development and the
problems different countries face.
It is expected that the programme would be able to achieve the following:-.
(a) It will sensitize the participants to the critical
factors which determine the effectiveness of these
(b) It will enhance their capacity to organize, implement
and evaluate rural development programmes of theircountries;
(c) It will deepen the understanding of the participants of
the rural development programmes of Asian countries in general and those of their own countries in particular.
Contents of Programme
The central focus of this programme would be a study of why
different approaches to rural development were adopted in different countries; what programme characteristics and societal conditions explain the varying impact of these approaches on rural communities; and finally what can be done to enhance the effectiveness of different country programmes.
The following method would be used. To evaluate the impact of rural development programme, the contemporary conditions of rural communities determined through community stiidies and micro-data would be compared with conditions at an earlier historicaj point (say at the time of end of Second Wrld War) to determine the extent of change that has sinee occurred. Suoh a change could be the result of the combined impact of the feroes of unplanned change and planned programmes of rural development. Independent determination of the Impact of either would enable the evaluation of 14e impact of the other.
The impact of rural development programmes would be evaluated in terms of their avowed goals as well as in terms of desired developmental changes they produce including the following:(a) Impact on productivity, income distribution, poverty;
(b) Impact on rural social structure flexibility in class
structure, changes in leadership, consolidation of
(C) Impact on national integration (rural-urban) popular
Isolation of the factors which explain the differential impact of rural development programme is a difficult methodological task. There are numerous inter-related factors and it is difficult to
separate them analytically and empirically. An effort would be made to seek an explanation in terms of the content of policies governing rural development, structure and scope of these programmes, the
pattern in which they are introduced mobilizational and administrative capacity of the governments, the level of socio-economic
development of the country and finally the resource constraints. Hopefully, such analysis would lead to generalizations which could be helpful in reconstructing rural development programme in Asia. (For details of contents of this programme see Appendix A).
I. All participants would be requested to bring along with them
the major basic documents concerning their country programmes
as well as prepare a short paper analysing their country
II. After a period of a week's stay at Kuala Lumpur during which
they would be exposed to different approaches to rural
development, the participants would be divided into groups
for field work. They would proceed to selected countries for field observations. A. field observation guide would
be prepared by the group itself. After termination of the
field work, the participants would re-assemble in Kuala
Lumpur and discuss and compare their observations. Each
participant would prepare a paper on some aspect of the
country programmes he observed.
III. During the last week of the programme, the participant would
be required to prepare a critical review of their country programmes and prepare a blueprint of changes they would
Participants in this course would include-officials of the following categories:-------------------- - - - -------- -- ---,--------
(a) National/regional directors of the programmes of rural
(b) National/regional directors of departments of cooperation,
or local government, or agricultural extension services;
(c) Senior officials of Ministries dealing with rural development;
(d) Senior members of staff of training institutes concerned
with training for rural development.
It is expected that not more than 25 persons will participate in the programme and that more than one participant will generally be invited from each participating country. Period
The course should run at least for 15-20 working days. Follow U2
The follow up may take the following form:
(a) The participants from each country may be asked to arrange
a seminar at national/regional level and present the blueprint prepared by them at the Centre to such a seminar;
(b) A particular area/region may be selected to implement the
(o) A national institute concerned with training and research
in problem of rural development should be associated with this area to evaluate the consequences and utility of the
(d) The ACDA staff should associate itself with such
experimentation ,nd evaluate it when possible.
RESEARCH PROGRAMME ON .RURAL DEVELIOPMET IN ASIA
It is suggested that ACDA should engage in a comprehensive research programme on rural development. The importance of such a
programme cannot be over-emphasized. The success of national development programmes is reflected as well as determined by the extent to which problems of rural areas, where most of the people in Asia live, are effectively tackled. But precise knowledge about these problems and the efforts made to solve them is scanty and fragmented. The purpose of this research programme would be to generate systematic and useful knowledge in this field.
Main Components of Program-me
This research programme would have two basic components:(a) Comparative study of effectiveness of programmes of
rural development in Asia;
(b) Study of programme innovations in rural development in
The research programme would be useful to ACDA in three different ways:(a) It will strengthen ACDA's capacity to advise Asian
Governments on formulation of policies and programme;
(b) It will provide useful and relevant material for
training programmes for Asian rural development
(c) It would make useful professional contributions -Lo
the body of knowledge dealing with development.
A. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF DIFFERENT APPROACHES TO RURAL
The main purpose of this project would be to collect
systematic and useful analytical information pertaining to the
impact of rural developmnt programmes on Asian rural communities.
An effort would be made to organize data from individual countries
in such a way that useful hypotheses about the process of rural development are generated and tested. The end-product of this
project would be a statement specifying different approaches to rural development and isolating the conditions which determine
their impact. This statement would not only be a useful academic
contribution to the field but would also provide necessary material for management development programmes at ACDA and enhance its capability to advise Asian governments on rural
development policies and programmes.
The project would be divided into three phases:(a) In the first phase, a paper could be prepared by ACDA staff suggesting the research design for the survey. This paper would be presented to scholars willing to collaborate on this project.
(b) The research scholars would then conduct research, do field work where necessary and submit papers to LCDA which would be discussed in a symposium
(c) The revised papers would be edited and published by ACDA.
The basic foci of research interest would be the following:-
(a) Delineation of the characteristics of the rural
communities in different countries, including social, economic and political aspects; description of major
problems of rural communities such as poverty, unemployment, low productivity, rural migration, etc.
(b) Mapping the dynamics of change; description of the
external and internal unplanned forces of change such as demographic imbalance, monetization of the village
economy, penetration of mass media, increase in physical
mobility, and their impact on the traditional rural
society would be analysed.
(c) Description and analysis of programmes of planned
change. The programmes of planned change to be studied would include land reforms, local government, community
development, cooperatives, communes, peasant associations,
agricultural e.oxtension, family planning, etc. The
evaluation and analysis of these programmes would cover a brief historical review, analysis of basic assumptions
and goals, determination of their structural adequacy,
and their overall capacity to achieve the developmental
(d) Isolation of critical variables which determine the
impact of rural development on rural poverty, unemployment, maldistribution of income, productivity, popular
(For statement on specific studies, see Appendix B).
B. STUDY OF PROGRAM IE RNOVATIONS IN RURAL DEVELOPOTT
IN ASIA iv
The purpose of this study would be to select certain
"programme innovations" in Asia in the field of rural development
and systematically study them. This study would hopefully suggest the conditions under which such innovations emerged and made their,
impact on rural communities.
I. The innovations may include a new co-operative approach, a
new unit of local administration, or a method of implementing land reforms.
II. About two to three innovations evolved in different
countries of Asia would be selected for study.
III. Main foci of interest would be:(a) To describe the conditions under which the
(b) To describe and analyse the processes through
which such innovations overcome resistance, and
diffuse through the society;
(c) To evaluate the impact of these innovations on
development of rural areas.
I. A common research design would be developed to study
II. The research staff of a national research institute may
be contacted to do the field work on these innovations.
The project should not take more than a year to complete.
COLLABORATION WITH.. INTERNWYTTIOALT OR-ANISATION ON
PROJECTS RELEVA1-T TO ACDA'S RESEMiHCH INTERESTS
ACDA is already collaborating with Social Development Division
of ECAFE. Research linkages with other organizations will be established and strengthened.
DIFFUSION OF USEFUL LITERATURE ON RURAL DEVELOPMENT
The purpose of these activities would be to inform the administrators, scholars and other agencies interested in rural development about the literature produced on the subject of rural development. Following three activities would be undertaken:A. Preparation of an annotated bibliography on rural development:(a) The bibliography would cover the published material
pertaining to all aspects of rural development in Asia;
(b) An effort would be made to include significant material
published in English and possibly in French during the
last ten years;
(c) An effort would be made to include the significant
material available in local languages if translation
facilities are available.
B. Compilation of published material for use in management development programme as well as for circulation among interested
scholars and administrators. An effort would be made to compile material on rural development-published in scholarly journals and
not easily available to Asian scholars and administrators. This compilation would also be served as background readings for the
management development programme on rural development.
C. Preparation of biannual digest on significant developments in
the field of rural development in Asia.
Apandi i A
I. Introduction to Asia Rural Community:
1. Rural communities in different Asian countries types.
(b) Cultural and Social structural;
(c) Economic; (d) Political.
2. Major problems of Asian rural communities.
(a) Low productivity;
(b) Unemployment, underemployment;
(c) Maldistribution of income;
(d) Rural migration;
(e) Population increase;
3. Effects of unplanned forces of change on Asian communities.
(a) Effect of demographic changes;
(b) Extension of market and monetization of rural economy;
(c) Effect of mass media;
(d) Effect of increased physical mobility.
Policies and Programmes of Rural Development
Constraints and choices in policy-making for rural development:
1. Determinants of Policies of Rural DeVelopmont.
(a) Ideology and doctrine:
(i) Sources of ideology; indigenous,
(ii) Regime orientations and commitments;
(i) Economic constraints;
(ii) Political constraints;
(iii) Administrative constraints.
(c) Framework of decision-making.
2. Major Policy-models of Rural Development in Asia:
(a) L:issez fair productivity model;
(b) Limited intervention solidarity model;
(c) Extensive intervention equality model.
3. Typology of programmes of rural development:
(a) Technology-oriented programmes agricultural
extension agro-based industry; assumptions,
scope, limitations, impact;
(b) Solidarity-oriented programmes community
development cooperatives, local government,
assumptions, scope, limitations, impact;
(c) Equality-oriented programmes land reforms;
assumptions, scope, limitations, impact.
Administration of Rural Development
1. Institution Building for Rural Development:
(i) Importance of institutions'in rural development.
(ii) Problems of institution building.
(iii) Strategies of institution building.
(iv) Models of institution building.
2. Implementation of Rural Development Programme -Major
(i) Problem of coordination between different rural
developments departments, different mechanisms
(ii) Problems of motivations and understanding of rural
development programmes by rural development
(iii) Training for rural development;
(iv) Relationship between rural development administration
and the local community in context of power structure;
(v) Relationship between political parties, rural development administration and local government.
Evaluation of Rural Deyelo2pment Programme
1. Criteria of evaluation:
(i) Impact on productivity income distribution, creation
of opportunities for the less privileged, redistribution of resources -urban vis-a-via rural areas.
(ii) Impact on rural social structure flexibility in
class structure, leadership changes, participation
of lower classes.
(iii) National integration (rural-urban) political
2. Determinants of impact on Rural Development:
.(i) Programmatic:(a) Contents of policy; structure of programmes and pattern of their introduction.
(ii) Administrative and mobilizational capacity of
(iii) Societal development:(a) Level of socio-economic and political development of the country.
(iv) Ecological constraints; resource endowment,
Future of Rural. Development
1. Critique of existing approaches.
2. Exploration of alternative approaches.
Research Studies to be armed under "Comparative
Study of Different Approaches to Rural Development in Asia"
There would be two types of studies under this programme:
(A) Comparative studies of similar type of programmes
in several countries and case studies of rural
development in individual countries;
(B) Country studies.
(A) Comparative Studies STUDIES TO BE PPCPARED BY ACDA STAFF
(Subject to availability of research assistance).
1. Basic approaches to rural development in Asia;
2. Effect of international, transnational and national
ideologies on programmes and policies of rural
3. Cooperatives and rural development in Asia; 4. Institution building for rural development. II. STUDIES TO BE PREPARED BY CONSULTANTS
1. Analysis of factors influencing policies of rural
2. Effects of community development programmes on
rural productivity, unemployment, distribution of
incomes and popular participation;
3. Land reforms and their impact on rural development
4. Effects of farm technology on productivity, unemployment, distribution of income;
5. Analysis of government policies toward rural
6. Role of peasant organisation in rural development.
(B) Country Studies
There will be two types of country studies under this
programme. First, all participants in management development programmes would be requested to bring with them a short review of programmes in which they are engaged. An outline for preparing such studios would be supplied in advance. Second, there would be ten studies of country programmes prepared by professional social scientists. These studies will be distributed as follows: two on India, two on China, one on Iran, one on Philippines, one on Korea, one on Malaysia, one on Thailand and one on Pakistan. As far as possible national scholars would be asked to prepare these studies.