Draft Outlines of Research and Management
Development Programmes in the Field of
Rural Development for
Asian Centre for Development Administration
OUTLINE OF THE PROGRACIE OF I.' IRU.L
DEVELOFPMEtT FOR 1974-75
Summary of Programme Elements.
This programme would undertake primarily four activities during
I. Organise a management development programme for senior officials,
of Asian governments for a duration of two to three weeks in the
first quarter of 1975. (For details see section II below)*
II. Implement a research programme providing support to the manage-
ment development programmes. The research projects listed are:
(A) A comparative study of approaches to rural development
in Asia with a view to determining their relative
(B) Study of "programme innovations" in the field of rural
development in Asian countries.
(Details of research programme given in section III below).
III. Diffuse useful literature in the field of rural development among
scholars, administrators, and relevant institutions. An effort
would be made to undertake the following activities in this area:
(A) Prepare an annotated bibliography on rural development;
(B) Compile already published material which could be useful
for policy-making and programme implementation in the
field of rural development;
(C) Prepare and circulate a digest of significant developments
in the field of rural development.
(For details see section IV below).
IV. Collaboration with other international. organizations on projects
relevant to ACDA's research interests.
(For details see section V below).
MANAGEMENT DEVELOI~ENT PROGRAPIE
Policies and Programmes of Rural Development in Asia
The chances of improvement in the quality of life of many Asians,
who mostly live in rural areas, depends upon the effectiveness of the
rural development programmes of their countries. The effectiveness of
these programmes is determined by various factors such as the extent to
which they are part of a comprehensive policy and strategy of national
development, the degree to which they make correct diagnosis of the
causes of rural underdevelopment and mobilize and organize adequate
human and material resources to overcome it.
Due to a variety of political, economic, social and administra-
tive factors operating in different Asian countries, the rural develop-
ment programmes have come to develop different characteristics and
consequently achieve different degrees of effectiveness. The purpose
of this management development programme is to:-
(a) Understand the process of conception and formulation of
policies and programmes of rural development in different
countries of Asia;
(b) Isolate the critical factors which determine their
(c) Examine the relationship between the elements of
different approaches to rural development and the
problems different countries face.
It is expected that the programme would be able to achieve the
(a) It will sensitize the participants to the critical
factors which determine the effectiveness of these
(b) It will enhance their capacity to organize, implement
and evaluate rural development programmes of their
(c) It will deepen the understanding of the participants of
the rural development programmes of Asian countries in
general and those of their own countries in particular.
Contents of Programme
The central focus of this programme would be a study of why
different approaches to rural development were adopted in different
countries; what programme characteristics and societal conditions
explain the varying impact of these approaches on rural communities;
and finally what can be done to enhance the effectiveness of different
The following method would be used. To evaluate the impact of
rural development programme, the contemporary conditions of rural com-
munities determined through community studies and micro-data would be
compared with conditions at an earlier historical point (say at the time
of end of Second World War) to determine the extent of change that has
since occurred. Such a change could be the result of the combined impact
of the faroes of unplanned change and planned programmes of rural deve-
lopment. Independent determination of the Impact of either would enable
the evaluation of 1he impact of the other.
The iripact of rural development programmes would be evaluated
in terms of their avowed goals as well as in terms of desired develop-
mental changes they produce including the following:-
(a) Impact on productivity, income distribution, poverty;
(b) Impact on rural social structure flexibility in class
structure, changes in leadership, consolidation of
(C) Impact on national integration (rural-urban) popular
Isolation of the factors which explain the differential impact
of rural development programme is a difficult methodological task.
There are numerous inter-related factors and it is difficult to
separate them analytically and empirically. An effort would be made
to seek an explanation in terms of the content of policies governing
rural development, structure and scope of these programmes, the
pattern in which they are introduced mobilizational and administra-
tive capacity of the governments, the level of socio-economic
development of the country and finally the resource constraints.
Hopefully, such analysis would lead to generalizations which could
be helpful in reconstructing rural development programme in Asia.
(For details of contents of this programme see Appendix A).
I. All participants would be requested to bring along with them
the major basic documents concerning their country programmes
as well as prepare a short paper analysing their country
II. After a period of a week's stay at Kuala Lumpur during which
they would be exposed to different approaches to rural
development, the participants would be divided into groups
for field work. They would proceed to selected countries
for field observations. A. field observation guide would
be prepared by the group itself. After termination of the
field work, the participants would re-assemble in Kuala
Lumpur and discuss and compare their observations. Each
participant would prepare a paper on some aspect of the
country programmes he observed.
III. During the last week of the programme, the participant would
be required to prepare a critical review of their country
programmes and prepare a blueprint of changes they would
Participants in this course would include officials of the
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(a) National/rogional directors of the programmes of rural
(b) National/regional directors of departments of cooperation,
or local government, or agricultural extension services;
(c) Senior officials of Ministries dealing with rural develop-
(d) Senior members of staff of training institutes concerned
with training for rural development.
It is expected that not more than 25 persons will participate in the
programme and that more than one participant will generally be invited
from each participating country.
The course should run at least for 15-20 working days.
The follow up may take the following form:
(a) The participants from each country may be asked to arrange
a seminar at national/regional level and present the blue-
print prepared by them at the Centre to such a seminar;
(b) A particular area/region may be selected to implement the
(c) A national institute concerned with training and research
in problem of rural development should be associated with
this area to evaluate tho consequences and utility of the
(d) The ACDA staff should associate itself with such
experimentation and evaluate it when possible.
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RESEARCH PROGRAMME O, RURAL DEVL-OPIEMT IN ASIA
It is suggested that ACDA should engage in a comprehensive
research programme on rural development. The importance of such a
programme cannot be over-emphasized. The success of national develop-
ment programmes is reflected as well as determined by the extent to
which problems of rural areas, whore most of the people in Asia live,
are effectively tackled. But precise knowledge about these problems
and the efforts made to solve them is scanty and fragmented. The
purpose of this research programme would be to generate systematic
and useful knowledge in this field.
Main Components of Programme
This research programme would have two basic components:-
(a) Comparative study of effectiveness of programmes of
rural development in Asia;
(b) Study of programme innovations in rural development in
The research programme would be useful to ACDA in three
(a) It will strengthen ACDA's capacity to advise Asian
Governments on formulation of policies and programme;
(b) It will provide useful and relevant material for
training programmes for Asian rural development
(c) It would make useful professional contributions -Lo
the body of knowledge dealing with development.
A. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF DIFFERENT APPROACHES TO RURAL
The main purpose of this project would be to collect
systematic and useful analytical information pertaining to the
impact of rural development programmes on Asian rural communities.
An effort would be made to organize data from individual countries
in such a way that useful hypotheses about the process of rural
development are generated and tested. The end-product of this
project would be a statement specifying different approaches to
rural development and isolating the conditions which determine
their impact. This statement would not only be a useful academic
contribution to the field but would also provide necessary
material for management development programmes at ACDA and
enhance its capability to advise Asian governments on rural
development policies and programmes.
The project would be divided into three phases:-
(a) In the first phase, a paper could be prepared by
ACDA staff suggesting the research design for the
survey. This paper would be presented to scholars
willing to collaborate on this project.
(b) The research scholars would then conduct research,
do field work where necessary and submit papers
to LCDA rhich would be discussed in a symposium
(c) The revised papers would be edited and published
The basic foci of research interest would be the following:-
(a) Delineation of the characteristics of the rural
communities in different" countries, including social,
economic and political aspects; description of major
problems of rural communities such as poverty, un-
employment, low productivity, rural migration, etc.
(b) Mapping the dynamics of change; description of the
external and internal unplanned forces of change such
as demographic imbalance, monetization of the village
economy, penetration of mass media, increase in physical
mobility, and their impact on the traditional rural
society would be analysed.
(c) Description and analysis of programmes of planned
change. The programmes of planned change to be studied
would include land reforms, local government, community
development, cooperatives, communes, peasant associations,
agricultural extension family planning, etc. The
evaluation and analysis of these programmes would cover
a brief historical review, analysis of basic assumptions
and goals, determination of their structural adequacy,
and their overall capacity to achieve the developmental
(d) Isolation of critical variables which determine the
impact of rural development on rural poverty, unemploy-
ment, maldistribution of income, productivity, popular
(For statement on specific studies, see Appendix B).
B. -STUDY OF PROGRATI E INNOVATIONS IN RURAL DEVELOPMEnT
IN ASIA f
The purpose of this study
"programme innovations" in Asia
and systematically study them.
the conditions under which such
impact on rural communities.
would be to select certain
in the field of rural development
This study would hopefully suggest
innovations emerged and made their,
The innovations may include a new co-operative approach, a
new unit of local administration, or a method of implemen-
ting land reforms.
II. About two to three innovations evolved in different
countries of Asia would be selected for study.
III. Main foci of interest would be:-
(a) To describe the conditions under which the
(b) To describe and analyse the processes through
which such innovations overcome resistance, and
diffuse through the society;
(c) To evaluate the impact of these innovations on
development of rural areas.
I. A common research design would be developed to study
II. The research staff of a national research institute may
be contacted to do the field work on these innovations.
The project should not take more than a year to complete.
COLLABORATION WITH INTERITATIO:GTALT ORC-ANISATION ON
PROJECTS RELEVAIIT TO ACDA'S RESEP.RCH INTERESTS
ACDA is already collaborating with Social Development Division
of ECAFE. Research linkages with other organizations will be established
DIFFUSION OF USEFUL LITERATURE ON RURAL DEVELOPMENT
The purpose of these activities would be to inform the adminis-
trators, scholars and other agencies interested in rural development
about the literature produced on the subject of rural development.
Following three activities would be undertaken:-
A. Preparation of an annotated bibliography on rural development:-
(a) The bibliography would cover the published material
pertaining to all aspects of rural development in Asia;
(b) An effort would be made to include significant material
published in English and possibly in French during the
last ten years;
(c) An effort would be made to include the significant
material available in local languages if translation
facilities are available.
B. Compilation of published material for use in management develop-
ment programme as well as for circulation among interested
scholars and administrators. An effort would be made to compile
material on rural development-published in scholarly journals and
not easily available to Asian scholars and administrators. This
compilation would also be served as background readings for the
management development programme on rural development.
C. Preparation of biannual digest on significant developments in
the field of rural development in Asia.
Appond x A
I. Introduction to Asia Rural Commnity:
1. Rural communities in different Asian countries types.
(b) Cultural and Social structural;
2. Major problems of Asian rural communities.
(a) Low productivity;
(b) Unemployment, underemployment;
(c) Maldistribution of income;
(d) Rural migration;
(e) Population increase;
3. Effects of unplanned forces of change on Asian communities.
(a) Effect of
(c) Effect of
(d) Effect of
of market and monetization of rural
increased physical mobility.
__ _ __ _ -~_ ~~- --__~_~_
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Policies and Programmes of Rural Development
I. Constraints and choices in policy-making for rural development:
i. Determinants of Policies of Rural Developmont.
(a) Ideology and doctrine:
(i) Sources of ideology; indigenous,
(ii) Regime orientations and commitments;
(i) Economic constraints;
(ii) Political constraints;
(iii) Administrative constraints.
(c) Framework of decision-making.
2. Major Policy-models of Rural Development in Asia:
(a) L-.issez fair productivity model;
(b) Limited intervention solidarity model;
(c) Extensive intervention equality model.
3. Typology of programmes of rural development:
(a) Technology-oriented programmes agricultural
extension agro-based industry; assumptions,
scope, limitations, impact;
(b) Solidarity-oriented programmes community
development cooperatives, local government,
assumptions, scope, limitations, impact;
(c) Equality-oriented programmes land reforms; -
assumptions, scope, limitations, impact.
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Administration of Rural Development
1. Institution Building for Rural Development:
(i) Importance of institutions'in rural development.
(ii) Problems of institution building.
(iii) Strategies of institution building.
(iv) Models of institution building.
2. Implementation of Rural Development Programme Major
(i) Problem of coordination between different rural
developments departments, different mechanisms
(ii) Problems of motivations and understanding of rural
development programmes by rural development
Training for rural development;
Relationship between rural development administration
and the local community in context of power structure;
(v) Relationship between political parties, rural develop-
ment administration and local government.
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Evaluation of'Rural Development Programme
1. Criteria of evaluation:
(i) Impact on productivity income distribution, creation
of opportunities for the less privileged, redistri-
bution of resources urban vis-a-vis rural areas.
(ii) Impact on rural social structure flexibility in
class structure, leadership changes, participation
of lower classes.
(iii) National integration (rural-urban) political
2. Determinants of impact on Rural Development:
(a) Contents of policy; structure of programmes
and pattern of their introduction.
(ii) Administrative and mobilizational capacity of
(iii) Societal development:-
(a) Level of socio-economic and political
development of the country.
(iv). Ecological constraints; resource endowment,
Future of Rural. Development
1. Critique of existing approaches.
2. Exploration of alternative approaches.
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Research Studies to be prepared under "Comparative
Study of Different .Approaches to Rural
Development in Asia"
.There would be two types of studies under this programme:
(A) Comparative studies of similar type of programmes
in several countries and case studies of rural
development in individual countries;
(B) Country studies.
(A) Comparative Studies
I. STUDIES TO BE PREPARED BY ACDA STAFF
(Subject to availability of research assistance).
1. Basic approaches to rural development in Asia;
2. Effect of international, transnational and national
ideologies on programmes and policies of rural
3. Cooperatives and rural development in Asia;
4. Institution building for rural development.
II. STUDIES TO BE PREPARED BY CONSULTANTS
1. Analysis of factors influencing policies of rural
2. Effects of community development programmes on
rural productivity, unemployment, distribution of
incomes and popular participation;
3. Land reforms and their impact on rural development
4. Effects of farm technology on productivity, un-
employment, distribution of income;
5. Analysis of government policies toward rural
6. Role of peasant organisation in rural development.
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(B) Country Studies
There will be two types of country studies under this
programme. First, all participants in management development
programmes would be requested to bring with them a short review
of programmes in which they are engaged. An outline for preparing
such studios would be supplied in advance. Second, there would be
ten studies of country programmes prepared by professional social
scientists. These studies will be distributed as follows: two
on India, two on China, one on Iran, one on Philippines, one on
Korea, one on Malaysia, one on Thailand and one on Pakistan. As
far as possible national scholars would be asked to prepare these