Associate ie. o foi s.c.
*.**'^ .:'" - ' D, '! "* * '* i :''*'^ *'Clarence C. Gray, 11, C hairim in .. .''- *' : -^,?:
: . -r :... . " : ' " . . " '. : AssociateD'irector' forAgricultural.Sciences,. . : : . . . '.: . ii;:,^.yi!: :'.
The Rockef lierFoFindation
Dr. Melvin Blase r. Peter E derand
. professor, Agricultural Economics .:: :ofessor Food ; Res6urce Econo6cs Dep
University of Missouri, Coliumbia 've, .sityof Flonda 'Ga ines.ile
Dr. HughBunting . Dr .An toni M Pincina.t!: CPC
Professor of Agricultuial Developmet .Overseas ; Coord actor Agricultural Prduction Coin ittee'
University of 'Reading, England IICA; Sn Jose C-osia: Rica ,
S' . Luis H. Camaco Dr :. : .. . . :::.lott.,E. Rodrc .
INSTOY Plant Breed t er .. ". : ircorWorld Fod Institute.::.
. University Purto Rico, Mayaguez :. wa State Univsiy, Aiies - .
S: " - :, " ,Michigan State Unv esity. . ... .
East Lansing, Michigan 424-1035 US A.
REPORT OF THE BEAN/COWPEA CRSP EXTERNAL REVIEW PANEL -
Michigan State University
East Lansing, Michigan
October 31 - November 5, 1982
Table of Contents
Acknowledgements. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
ERP Scope of Work . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
ERP Members . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
CRSP Organizational Chart .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Maps showing location of Collaborating Institutions . . . . . . . . . . 7
Progress Towards Accomplishment of CRSP Objectives. . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Review of Individual CRSP Projects. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... 11
Review by Subject Matter Areas. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
CRSP Administration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
Problems and Constraints. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . 23
Financial Review. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . 24
Findings and Recommendations. . . . . . ..... . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 25
Executive Summaries of 1982 Research Project Annual Reports . . . . . . 29
The External Review Panel was able to accomplish the assignment in the
week of November Ist to 5th because the Bean/Cowpea CRSP research scientists
had completed their annual reports in a timely and scholarly way; assembled
from all over the world, presented their material to the panel and responded
to questions in a collegial manner; and contributed additional information as
needed. These efforts are much appreciated by the panel.
The panel acknowledges the helpfulness of the candid discussions held
with the Management Entity, the Board of Directors, the Technical Committee
and the Management Office Staff.
The hospitality of the staff, the participants and the Kellogg Center are
The team expresses its appreciation to BIFAD for the opportunity to
undertake this most important task. The combination of fields of expertise
and personalities of those assembled made this both a stimulating and a
The Panel wishes to recognize the support of CIAT and IITA in having key
personnel in attendance during the week of review, participating in the
technical committee activities, and supporting individual projects through
training, sharing germ plasm and collaborative activities. The Panel also
recognizes support of representatives of USAID who were in attendance
throughout the week.
TIME AND PLACE.
The review was held during the period October 31 - November 5, 1982 at the
Kellogg Center, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan.
EXTERNAL REVIEW PANEL.
Dr. Clarence C. Gray III, the Rockefeller Foundation (Chair)
Dr. Melvin G. Blase, University of Missouri
Dr. A. Hugh Bunting, Reading University, England
Dr. Luis A. Camacho, Intsoy, Puerto Rico
Dr. Peter E. Hildebrand, University of Florida
Dr. Antonio M. Pinchinat, IICA, San Jose, Costa Rica
Dr. Charlotte E. Roderuck, Iowa State University
All components of the Bean/Cowpea CRSP were reviewed. External Review
Panel members were given individual project assignments and subject matter
assignments. Two days were devoted to presentation of CRSP projects by U.S.
and host country Principal Investigators in general sessions followed by
question and answer periods. The ERP held separate meetings with the
Management Entity, Management Office, Technical Committee and the Board of
Directors. Prior to the formal Review, some ERP members made site visits to
individual CRSP projects (U.S. only); thus the ERP had some familiarity with
most of the U.S. components of the CRSP before the review.
Two senior AID/W staff were present for the entire review period; a third
participated for part of the period.
Members of the Technical Committee, most of whom were Principal
Investigators, attended and participated in the review. Two new members of
the Board also attended the review.
FINDINGS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
The CRSP has involved a number of able senior U.S. university scientists
in support of overseas development, and has linked those scientists and their
home institutions in cooperative programs of work for development with
overseas institutions for the benefit of both overseas and U.S. institutions.
There are now clear indications that a flow of highly useful technology
will be forthcoming in the foreseeable future. Institutionalizing this
capacity in the host country institutions seems likely for the long run.
FINDINGS AND RECOMMENDATIONS (Continued)
Bean/Cowpea CRSP-activities have markedly benefitted both the host
countries and the U.S. institutions where they take place. The CRSP provides
relatively small but critically needed financial support to the collaborating
host country institutions, allowing them to acquire staff, equipment, and
other support and thereby enhance their capacity for successfully conducting
the planned research activities.
A remarkable and mutually rewarding working relationship, in most cases,
has developed between PIs from the U.S. and host country institutions.
Scientific knowledge and know-how.has been shared or transferred. In addition
non-technial constraints and potentials of the host country institutions are
relatively better understood and dealt with on the part of the U.S. scientists.
Recommendations of the Panel, contained in this report, include some
specific to individual research projects and some to the subject matter of the
overall research program, others are of a general and technical nature for the
whole CRSP, while others are related to the administration of the CRSP.
Participation in the CRSP is beginning to create a concept of program
identity among the PIs and a much broader awareness and understanding of the
roles and significance of beans and cowpeas in third world agriculture. This
understanding, together with the emphasis on the role of women in agricultural
development, will substantially strengthen research efforts toward solution of
production and consumption problems.
EXTERNAL REVIEW PANEL - SCOPE OF WORK
The scope of work for the first External Review of the Bean/Cowpea CRSP
1. Review 18 research projects and the activities of the groups
supporting that research: the Technical Committee, Board of
Directors, Management Entity and Management Office Staff, as well as
administrators in each of 9 lead institutions.
2. Evaluate the appropriateness of research activities to project goals,
communications and linkages, level of management and support provided
by ME, external factors affecting the achievement of CRSP goals, and
technical services response.
3. Recommend appropriate follow-up action, strategies for supporting
linkage development and information sharing, and cite specific
accomplishments and problems.
Bean /Cowpea CRSP External Review Panel
Clarence C. Gray, III (Chairman)
Acting Director for Agricultural Sciences
The Rockefeller Foundation
1133 Avenue of the Americas, New York, N.Y. 10036
phone: (212) 869-8500
Professor, Agricultural Economics
200 Mumford Hall
University of Missouri-Columbia; Columbia, MO 65211
phone: (314) 882-4324
Home address: R.R.I., Columbia, MO 65201
Home phone: (314) 474-4515
Professor of Agricultural Development Overseas
Plant Science Laboratories
University of Reading
Reading, England RG6, 2AS
phone: (0734) 875-123, ext.7907
Telex: 847813 RULIB
Luis H. Camacho
INTSOY Plant Breeder
College of Agricultural Sciences
University of Puerto Rico-Mayaguez Campus
College Station, Mayaguez, Puerto Rico 00708
phone: Isabela Experiment Station - (809) 872-2815 or 872-2390 or 872-2547
Mayaguez - (809) 872-2390 or 872-2547
Peter E. Hildebrand
Professor, Food and Resource Economics Department
1125 McCarty Hall
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
University of FLorida
Gainesville, Florida 32611
phone: (904) 392-1860
Antonio M. Pinchinat, CPCS
Coordinator, Agricultural Production Committee
IICA, P.O. Box 55-2200 Coronado
San Jose, Costa Rica
Telex: 2144 IICA; Cable IICA
Charlotte E. Roderuck
Director, World Food Institute
Iowa State University
102 E.O. Building
Ames, Iowa 50011
phone: (515) 294-7699
THE' BEAN/COWPEA CRSP ORGANIZATIONAL CHART
MICHIGAN STATE UNIVERSITY
COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE AND
Figure 2. Location of collaborating institutions in the United States and
collaborating host countries in Latin America.
S' -' Lead Universities in
N( the United States:
"\ i. ._.< - Y --., _ .- _ _ _---- .
-/ ./ " Colorado State University
S, " ' Cornell University
.- -. " Michigan State University
' \- i \ ' " '' � University of California-
///, "'' - .-'-. Davis and Riverside
University of Georgia
/ University of Nebraska
I / --^. / }' University of Puerto Rico
S/" - '. University of Wisconsin
- 1" Washington State University
Figure 3. Location of collaborating host countries in Africa.
* . "
� * *L
Progress toward Accomplishment of CRSP Objectives:
Although most of the CRSP research projects were reporting their first-
complete year of research activity, and a number of projects had not been
underway one year, progress toward particular research goals and the larger
objectives of the program as a whole was identified. The following sections
describe progress toward CRSP objectives.
DIRECTLY TRANSFERRABLE TECHNOLOGY
Some of this progress was reported as research outputs of directly
transferrable technology. This included, for example: 1) identification of
microorganisms which are pathogens to cowpea pests; 2) development of some
techniques for reducing dry grain legume (bean and cowpea) storage losses due
to insects; 3) quantification of storage losses in some areas;
4) development of some new lines more resistant to various diseases than
those traditionally used; 5) development of some lines with enhanced BNF
(biological nitrogen fixation) capability; 6) improvement of irrigation
techniques for field trials; and 7) development of processes to obtain
tannin-free bean flour.
HIGHLY PROMISING TECHNOLOGY
The scientists also identified highly promising technology which should be
available within the next three years, including: 1) use of insect pathogens
for biological control of cowpea and bean insect pests; 2) varieties which
offer moderate resistance and practices which reduce damage from major insect
pests; 3) conditions for harvest and storage which will minimize insect
infestation; 4) heat tolerant cowpea germ plasm; 5) improved planting and
harvesting technology including intercropping systems for cowpeas; 6) new
varieties with resistance to common bean diseases; 7) improved seed
production practices and cultural management to reduce bacterial diseases;
8) additional lines with enhanced BNF capability under field conditions;
9) improved processing and development of ready-to-use cowpea meal or flour;
10) improved drying and storage methods to maintain cooking quality of dry
beans; 11) fermentation techniques to improve nutritional quality of beans,
and release of germ plasm for quick cooking beans.
DIRECTLY TRANSFERRABLE METHODS
The research scientists reported new methods ready for direct transfer.
These include: 1) techniques for production of insect pathogens for use in
biological control; 2) breeding procedures and a screening system to identify
heat tolerant cowpea germ plasm; 3) use of a portable image analyzer for
rapid assessment of leaf area in studies of plant growth and development; 4)
a rapid, reliable, efficient method for rust inoculation; 5)
phytopathological techniques for bacterial blight work; 6) methods to
estimate relative BNF capability under field conditions; 7) improved assays
for procyanidins and lectins; 8) new farming systems research methods (in
both Spanish and English); and 9) comparison of production labor costs
between village areas, and between men and women.
HIGHLY PROMISING METHODS
PIs also identified highly promising methods which are expected to-be .
available in one to three years. These include: 1) strategies for microbial
control agents in insect pest management programs; 2) use of natural
epizootics of disease in pest populations; 3. low water volume methods of
insecticide application; 4) low cost seed storage with protection from pests;
5) pretreatment procedures to maximize milling efficiency; 6) screening for
lines with improved rooting; 7) prediction of performance and quality of
products prepared with cowpea meal/flour; 8) analysis of genetic diversity;
9) rapid screening techniques for multiple disease resistance; 10) genetic
methods to incorporate higher levels of resistance to blight and reduce seed
transmission of bacterial pathogens; 11) standardized methods for analyzing
cooking responses of beans; 12) simultaneous innoculation against major bean
diseases; and 13) improved guides in Spanish and English for farming systems
research as well as for analyzing secondary data for farming systems research.
The 18 projects in the CRSP have stimulated a great number of linkages
with other research systems in the countries where they are located, as well
as internationally. Close ties between CRSP researchers and other research
and extension personnel have developed within a number of countries, often
through the medium of workshops initiated to share new research findings.
These have sometimes included commodity research personnel from universities
as well as from ministries. These new linkages strengthen national research
Strong interface has developed with the international research centers,
particularly CIAT and IITA, for example, as germ plasm and expertise are
shared. The CRSP may be especially effective in strengthening the
international centers' links with national programs, as well as focusing
attention at the centers on the production problems and needs of local
farmers. CRSP scientists have expanded their network to include scientists
from other countries who are doing research in host countries, as well. This
observation is particularly noticed in Africa, where there is a long history
of work by research scientists from European nations. Links with USDA are
supported in a number of projects but particularly with the MITA station in
Puerto Rico, and at Washington State University, Boyce Thompson Institute, and
Michigan State University.
An impressive amount of training has been initiated through the CRSP
research projects. This includes non-formal training in new methods, use of
research equipment, and new techniques of analysis. A high proportion of
participants receiving non-formal training have been women. Formal training
includes short courses designed to teach new techniques and methods usually to
ministry personnel, as well as, degree programs.
One of the main objectives of the CRSP research projects is to help
strengthen national research institutions. This is accomplished through the
development of improved research skills via training, acquiring new equipment
and facilities to support research, and assignment of host country resources
to the projects. In all these facets of institution building, impressive
accomplishments are reflected in the relatively short time the projects have
been in progress. The Prinicipal Investigators demonstrate an awareness of
the need to develop strong permanent ties to the appropriate scientists and
institutions to establish a lasting base for relevant research.
REVIEW OF INDIVIDUAL CRSP PROJECTS
Of the 18 projects in the Bean/Cowpea CRSP, three were initiated-too '
recently to allow assessment, although their goals and objectives are
Seven appear to the Panel to be satisfactory in all major respects. One
appears likely to develop satisfactorily in the near future.
The remaining seven have operational defects of various kinds. We have
every confidence that the MO and TC, working with the PIs of the U.S. and host
country, can correct existing deficiencies.
In the judgment of the Panel, none of the projects warrant consideration
for termination at this time. Brief comments by the External Review Panel for
each project follow.
BOTSWANA/Colorado State University/DeMooy: "Development of Integrated Cowpea
Production Systems in Semi-Arid Botswana"
This project started in September, 1982, and so the report lists
aspirations rather than achievements. It is clearly too soon to evaluate this
project. Dr. DeMooy has good support from IITA, but he should also draw as
fully as possible on the other AID financed projects in the country as well as
the work done in neighboring countries. He will also benefit from 10 years of
useful research and development in dry land farming in Botswana.
Perhaps the first task will be to find out to where, by whom, and how
cowpeas are grown at present in Botswana, what the varieties or land races are
like (habit, phenology), what the yields are and how the product is stored,
used, processed, and marketed. Cattle predominate the agricultural statistics
of Botswana, so it is important to define the place of cowpeas in the small
However, there are important regions of rainfed, arable farming south of
Gaborone, and of irrigated farming on the Limpopo, in either or both of which
there may be useful work to do on cowpeas.
BRAZIL/Boyce Thompson Institute/Roberts: "Insect Pathogens in Cowpea Pest
Management Systems for Developing Nations"
Through effective collaboration, this project has made impressive progress
toward accomplishment of its stated objectives in Brazil: establishing an
insect pathology center, conducting surveys of insect pathogens and
characterizing such pathogens, identifying and establishing lines of
communication, and providing basic training in insect pathology techniques and
biological (microbial) control procedures for Brazilian and Latin American
scientists and technicians. Adapting methods and procedures developed in the
People's Republic of China, project personnel are on the threshold of
preparing and making available low cost biological materials for controlling
cowpea insects in Brazil and elsewhere.
The results obtained in Brazil should be tested in the Cameroon project
and elsewhere as may prove feasible. The potential economic benefits
world-wide of this project are significant.
BRAZIL/University of Wisconsin/Bliss: "Identification of Superior
Bean-Rhizobia Combinations and Utilization of Cropping Systems Suitable to
Small Farms in Brazil"
In this project the cooperative efforts between Brazilian experts in
rhizobiology and U.S. researchers emphasize development of host plants with
increased capacity to fix nitrogen. Procedures have been selected for 1)
estimation of BNF and 2) comparisons of BNF at the same stage of maturation
among bean cultivars in quite different micro-climates. In addition, the
effects of intercropping of beans and maize in BNF will be examined. Since
the project has a large breeding component, the project could benefit not only
the host country soil microbiologist on the team but also a Brazilian plant
breeder. Linkages have been established and the training program has been
initiated. Overall, the project appears to hold considerable promise.
BRAZIL/University of Wisconsin/Hagedorn: "Improved Techniques for Development
of Multiple Disease Resistance in Phaseolus Vulgaris, L."
In spite of the fact that this project is officially less than six months
old, preliminary field testing has been done in Wisconsin for reaction to
simultaneous 1 h organisms causing corL n blight and angular leaf
spot. Plans include strategies for studying various combinations of pathogens
causing six major diseases.
Practical techniques and research strategies for use by bean breeders to
screen for multiple disease resistance appear to be possible within the 5 year
period of proposed research activities.
Because the host country institution EMBRAPA/CNPAF, at Goiania, Brazil has
a bean research program which includes phytopathological and breeding work,
facilities are available for the rapid incorporation of the project into the
national program. Some informal training of Brazilian counterparts has taken
place. Cooperation among related CRSP components as well as research workers
at CIAT and the University of Illinois has been established. The US PI should
travel to Brazil before the onset of the next growing season to consolidate
training plans and to acquaint himself with the environmental conditions of
the bean production areas.
To date, progress has been satisfactory.
CAMEROON/University of Georgia/Chalfant: "Pest Management Strategies for
Optimizing Cowpea Yields in Cameroon"
The objective of this project is to improve the yield and quality of
cowpeas on small farms through a pest management program. This project is
proceeding satisfactorily. Initial efforts in Cameroon to identify principal
pests are underway, as is screening of cultivars and insecticides for
effectiveness in Georgia and Cameroon. The practicality of ultra low volume
insecticide application should be scrutinized carefully, givenfth�i target-
The collaborative research of BTI into weevil damage -,i storage is
proceeding according to plan with some interesting preliminary results.
Linkage of the Cameroon project with the BTI program in Brazil should be
established. However, the failure to name a senior Cameroonian counterpart
and-ot-erwise thoroughly institutionalize the project in IRA should be
DOMINICAN REPUBLIC/University of Nebraska/Coyne: "Biology, Epidemiology,
Genetics and Breeding for Resistance to Bacterial and Rust Pathogens of Beans
(Phaseolus Vulgaris L.)"
Satisfactory progress is being made toward utilization of inherited
resistance to combat common blight and rust. Trials to screen resistance to
pathogens were conducted on farmers' fields in the Dominican Republic and on
experiment station test plots in Nebraska. In the Dominican Republic, in
addition to the cultivar Pompadur Checa, 2 black-seeded lines (MITA 2B51 and
, q MITAB Q19 and a white seeded line (MITA 2W332) were found to be superior to
Slack Venezuela #44 in tolerance to common blight and resistance to rust.and
will be considered for release in 1983. Meanwhile, two students from the
Dominican Republic have been learning English and will begin studies in plant
breeding and in plant pathology at the University of Nebraska in January,
1983. CRSP research will help Nebraska team members develop lines resistant
to rust, which has recently been observed for the first time in Nebraska.
The baseline information for assessing impact of project activities on
small farmers and their families in the Dominican Republic is lacking;
however, plans have been made to obtain such information in the next year.
The ERP urges the project to give priority to collection of data on current
agronomic practices, areas in beans, yields, storage facilities, marketing
potentials, assessment of losses, labor use, and availability of necessary
DOMINICAN REPUBLIC/University of Puerto Rico/Lopez-Rosa: "Improvement of Bean
Production in the Dominican Republic Through Breeding for Multiple Disease
Resistance in the Preferred Standard Cultivars"
This project is firmly institutionalized at the University of Puerto
Rico/Mayaguez campus. It has resulted in an impressive amount of research and
training activities at both the U.S. and host country institutions. Several
promising bean lines have been identified for advanced testing and probable
early release for mass production. One host country student is pursuing the
second year of a Master of Science program in plant pathology (nematology) and
two technicians from the host country project team have received in-service
training at the University of Puerto Rico/Mayaguez campus.
To maximize project efficiency and speed up attainment of host country
objectives in the CRSP, joint planning with the University of Nebraska of
research and training activities for and in the Dominican Republic would-be
advisable. Also, to develop technology that meets the farmer's needs, the
constraints and potential of the farming environment should be assessed; these
concerns are referred to the MO and TC.
ECUADOR/Cornell University/Wallace: "Agronomic, Sociological and Genetic
Aspects of Bean Yield and Adaptation"
The socio-ant olpgin Pmpnts of thp farming systems nmponent of this
project appear to be well underway in accordacawith thee-wisht f the
Ecuadorians. Activities of INIAP (the host country collaborating institution)
are dbeig supported satisfactorily by Cornell. However, the presence (and
input) of plant breeders and/or agronomist in t-plnning a phe
are essenti alto achieve the project's goal of "cultural practices or
technology which would be appropriate for small scale bean producers, given
agronomic, economic, social and cultural considerations." Further, the TC and
MO should review this project with the PIs of INIAP and Cornell with the view
of modifying the project description to reflect current reality or initiating
components/activities in line with the origiLna project proposal.
GUATEMALA/Cornell University/Wallace: "Agronomic, Sociological and Genetics
Aspects of Bean Yield and Adaptation"
The physiological-genetic studies of bean maturity and adaptation, mainly
analyses of responses of bean cultivars to the interactions of day-length and
temperature, have been of a fundamental nature with significant potential
value for increased production in the tropics. For socio-political reasons
beyond the control of Cornell personnel, this line of research has been
conducted outside of Guatemala with minimal involvement of Guatemalan agencies
and scientists. The other principal components of the project, the
socio-economic and agronomic aspects of bean production have not been
initiated because of conditions in Guatemala. Graduate training has been
initiated. Thus, progress toward the achievement of project objectives has
been only partially satisfactory. Integration by the scientists of social and
biological aspects is needed. The TC and MO should review this project to
ascertain 1) if the collaborating country component should be shifted and 2)
whether to continue CRSP sponsorship of the physiological-genetic studies now
underway, if a shift cannot be arranged.
HONDURAS/University of Puerto Rico/Lopez-Rosa: "Improvement of Bean
Production in Honduras Through Breeding for Multiple Disease Resistance"
The Honduras/UPR Bean CRSP project shares with the Dominican Republic/UPR
project the advances noted in CRSP research activities carried out at the
UPR/Mayaguez campus. In the host country, however, research work was slow to
start and data are preliminary. No training of host country participants has
yet taken place. The limited involvement or the host country's official bean
research institution in the planning andaiiplementation of the bean CRSP
activitiesin Rte country appears to be the major constraint to the
satisfactory performance of the project.
INCAP/Washington State University/Swanson: "Improved Biological Utilization
and Availability of Dry Beans"
The INCAP/Washington State project addresses digestibility, nutrient
availability, cooking qualities, and changes in cooking qualities during
storage of dry beans. Such attributes of beans as amount and type of
polyphenols in the seed coat, seed hardening, rate of water uptake, time to
cook, protein quality and digestibility are examined in an overall approach to
improve the nutritional value of foods prepared from beans and to increase
consumption of such foods. The overseas component of this project is located
in a distinguished institution, INCAP. It seeks to assess the influence of a
number of attributes of beans on their usefulness as foods. The large number
of stated objectives should be organized for clearer presentation. Better
coordination among the sub-projects is also necessary to achieve more
efficient use of the varied resources.
The U.S. institutions have supported this project with more fundamental
chemical and genetic studies. Some progress has recently been made in the
coordination of work among the U.S. institutions, but taken as a whole, the
project has not so far been satisfactory.
KENYA/University of California-Davis/Webster: "Improvements of Drought and
Heat Tolerance of Disease Resistant Beans in Semiarid Regions of Kenya"
Variety trials, drought tolerance trials, and semi-arid adaptation trials
have been completed in Kenya. Substantially drought tolerant materials have
been identified in Kenya within a large germplasm collection. Crosses of
Kenyan common beans and teparies appear to be additional potential sources of
drought and heat tolerance. Use of the image analyzer has enabled people in
California to measure leaf areas in order to supplement physiological work
done in Kenya. Two Kenyan students are enrolled in the MS program at
University of California-Davis.
The forthcoming Fulbright award to the Principal Investigator will enable
her to concentrate on the project. No doubt the lead institution will
consider how best its management responsibilities toward this project can be
executed during the PIs impending extended visit to Kenya and in the light of
her transfer to administrative duties. This project will not become fully
satisfactory until its components at the three participating institutions are
integrateoi a single program.
MALAWI/Micnigan State University/Adams: "Genetic, Agronomic, and
Socio-Cultural Analysis of Diversity Among Bean Land Races in Malawi"
This newly activated project promises to be a useful, thorough and
extensive 'baseline' study, including a well-planned socio-economic component,
of the production of beans in Malawi. It revolves around the remarkably wide
range of diversity in beans in Malawi. The project seeks to ascertain why
this occurs and how it is maintained in a largely inbred crop. The study will
provide information on the adaptation of the crop to variations in the
environment. Knowledge about the farming systems that have emerged in that
environment, in turn, will guide subsequent production - oriented research.
In addition, it will be interesting to determine whether (as was shown some
years ago to be the case in "traditional" races of maize in Malawi) the
diversity of beans there resembles that found in Brazil the country from which
both crops apparently were introduced to Malawi.
MEXICO/Michigan State University/Adams: "Improving Resistance to
Environmental Stress (Drought, Nitrogen) in Beans Through Genetic Selection
for Carbohydrate Partitioning and Efficiency of Biological Nitrogen Fixation."
This project has only very recently been approved. The training program
is underway. Its purposes are sound, the objectives and methods proposed are
both appropriate and straight-forward, and the investigators are fully
competent to execute them. The project parallels parts of the
Senegal/UC-Riverside/Hall project on cowpeas and parts of the
Kenya/UC-Davis/Webster project on beans, as well as parts of the
Brazil/U-WI/Bliss project on beans. No doubt the work will be spread over a
range of environments and production systems in Mexico, where broad baseline
studies could be possible along the lines used by the Malawi/MSU/Adams
project. The potential for making a comparative analysis of the two projects
should not be overlooked.
NIGERIA/Michigan State University/(Akpom)-Markakis: "Medical Problems
Associated with Feeding Cowpeas to Children"
This re-focused project is now aimed at the alleged relation between
eating cowpeas and unusually high evidence of diarrhea and associated poor
development among children aged 6 to 24 months in less developed countries.
Two breath hydrogen analyzers have been purchased, one for Jos and one for
MSU, and will be used to establish standards for metabolic studies of
children. Such studies are needed and will be valuable, whether or not
cowpeas turn out to be the villain of the piece at the end of the day.
Weanling and infant diarrhea are widespread in developing countries. The
project does not explain how the contribution of cowpeas is to be identified
and studied separately from the other causes of diarrhea in young children.
Such an explanation and means to isolate effects of several possible causes of
diarrhea should be built into the research design of the project. Careful
monitoring of this project during the next year or two is recommended to
determine whether the assumptions made originally can be documented.
NIGERIA/University of Georgia/McWatters: "Appropriate Technology for Cowpea
Preservation and Processing and a Study of its Socio-Economic Impact on Rural
Populations in Nigeria"
This project has achieved satisfactory progress in technology, but has
been less than satisfactory in sociological research. The socio-political
setting in the HC makes progress difficult. Research is oriented toward
processing and storage of cowpeas to increase rural and urban utilization of
them. This project took advantage of the availability of village scale
processing equipment developed in Canada. Whether this equipment is expected
to reduce drudgery for women or to produce an improved product and thereby
expand the urban market needs to be determined. Clearly, the host country
survey should proceed as rapidly as possible to begin to get answers to such
questions. The ERP suggests survey be restricted to needs of this project
alone and that U.S. as well as HC scientists be involved in survey design,
execution, and evaluation.
US personnel are rapidly gaining international experience. The two
components of the project are well established in the appropriate departments
of the HC institution (U. of Nigeria-Nsukka) and the US participants are
working closely with their Nigerian colleagues. A potential new product for
US cowpea producers is being explored.
SENEGAL/University of California-Riverside/Hall: "A Program to Develop
Improved Cowpea Cultivars for Production and Utilization in Semiarid Zones"
The progress of this project has been satisfactory to date. It is a
worthy effort which, as the investigators' understanding of the nature of
problems in farmers' fields and life-systems advances, should produce useful
and usable results. How directly these will stem from Riverside one cannot be
sure, but apparently the methods, knowledge and understandings developed at
Riverside will enable the investigators to comprehend more rapidly the
differences as well as the similarities between the two environments. Thus
far, promising lines have been identified and a useful method for screening
large numbers of cultivars for drought resistance has been developed. Links
have now been established with IITA, SAFGRAD and the Sudan, but not with
ICRISAT and INTSORMIL. The training component of the project is well
advanced, with a Sengalese student about to return upon completion of his MS
program. This will further strengthen this project which benefits from much
previous institution building of the host institution.
One should hesitate to proclaim-too soon, on experience in the Imperial
Valley, that Prima and TVu 4552 are heat tolerant in Senegal without more
experience in that country. In general the two environments, of California
and Senegal, are sufficiently different to require caution in extrapolating
from one to the other.
TANZANIA/Washington State University/Silbernagel: "Breeding Beans (Phaseolus
Vulgaris) for Disease and Insect Resistance and Determination of Their
Economic Impact-on Subsistence Farm Families"
In conjunction with the University of Dar es Salaam and the University of
Illinois this project has "gotten off on the right foot" by obtaining
background data in several ecological zones. Disease studies have been
initiated for rust, angular leaf spot, anthracnose and bean common mosaic
virus. Linkages between U.S. and HC CRSP participants and other agencies in
Tanzania have been established. Networks among the bean scientists at the
University and the Ministry's experiment stations have been initiated so all
bean research in Tanzania benefits from research findings. Both short-term
and degree training programs have been initiated. Overall, the project
appears to be on its way toward making a significant contribution.
CRSP activities have promoted intra institutional cooperation within
Tanzania. Progress is regarded as highly satisfactory.
REVIEW BY SUBJECT MATTER AREAS
The Bean CRSP projects have been effectively operational for about a
year. Significant technology development cannot be expected in so short a
time. Capitalizing on previous work, however, especially that carried out by
the host institutions, some bean projects will yield early technological
innovations. These will center principally on improved and disease resistant
varieties. Also as improved nitrogen management is practiced, appreciable
savings in production costs will accrue. Methods appropriate to CRSP
objectives have been developed and will have utility beyond CRSP programs.
Increasingly close cooperation 1) among the scientists of the Bean CRSP and 2)
between them and scientists in national/international bean programs can be
expected to speed up advances in bean production technology as envisioned in
the Bean/Cowpea CRSP global plan.
The CRSP, as a whole, is only one month into its third year. Of the six
cowpea projects, five began work late in 1981; one started in 1982. It is in
general too soon to expect significant proven new contributions to cowpea
technology. Nevertheless, two valuable developments can be recorded:
a) Identification, multiplication and testing of some fungal pathogens of
cowpea insects in Brazil.
b) Identification in California of two varieties that appear likely to be
particularly tolerant of hot conditions in Senegal.
Useful technical information is accumulating on cooking and processing
methods and their effects on nutritional value.
The Bean/Cowpea CRSP has as its goal reducing hunger and malnutrition in
LDCs where beans and cowpeas are a major source of energy and protein. Among
the ten specific objectives distributed among projects at least four are
clearly related to nutritional concerns.
Three projects address nutritional objectives directly, two for countries
where cowpeas are a primary staple and one for countries which produce and
consume dry beans. Among the components of nutritional concerns are: 1) food
habits including weaning practices;-2) beliefs about food; 3) food
preferences; 4) composition of foods as consumed; 5) availability of nutrients
from foods digestibilityy, presence of anti-nutritional factors); 6) changes
in nutritive value due to storage and processing; 7) indicators of inadequate
nutrient intake, and 8) interaction of environmental and nutritional factors
resulting in disease or reduced rate of growth.
Five additional projects have components importantto understanding --..
factors influencing consumption practices, and therefore may suggest possible
intervention to improve nutrition. These projects include information on food
consumption patterns, food preparation and storage as well as indicators of
inadequate nutrient intake (particularly among women, infants, and children).
Investigators in all projects should be encouraged to consider nutritional
issues at general meetings of PIs or special meetings should be held for CRSP
scientists concerned with the collection of nutritionally related data.
SOCIAL SCIENCE COMPONENT
Attention in this CRSP so far has been devoted to the first of the
following questions: What are the physical possibilities of producing beans
and cowpeas? Is the production and utilization of these commodities
economically feasible? Is it institutionally permissible to do so?
Quite correctly, early emphasis on physical production possibilities is
appropriate. However, several potential pitfalls lie ahead. There is the
danger of developing methods which are not appropriate for low resource, small
farmers. There is the possibility of overproducing for a limited market, with
income consequences for those who produce a marketable surplus. There is a
chance that the lack of a comprehensive institutional infra-structure will
prevent new technology from being the "engine" of the development process.
Without relevant and integrated information on social and economic matters all
these dangers may become realities. The CRSP needs to anticipate the
development problems, largely of a socio-economic nature, which will affect
the choice and the acceptance of improved methods of production.
Specifically, in those projects where the social science work is underway,
closer coordination and integration with the physical science research is
required. More important, the conspicuous absence of economic and
sociological analysis in most projects must be overcome.
One of the important components is to identify the respective parts played
by men and women and to recognize specifically that in many developing
countries women have a leading role in economic activity. The CRSP is to be
congratulated for making sure these matters are studied. It has also ensured
equal opportunities for women to participate in the projects.
One of the main purposes of the CRSP is to help producers to increase-the
output of beans and/or cowpeas in existing systems of agriculture. To do
this, it is necessary to describe and analyze the existing system in order to
understand its technical, social and economic rationale, to assess the
technical potential of farming systems and to identify the constraints which
hinder larger outputs. Then it will be possible with further research to
identify appropriate options which seem likely to remove constraints. These
options can then be tested by experiments and trials in real-life farming
The CRSP has therefore endeavored to develop methods of survey and
analysis, using economic and social as well as environmental and biological
components. Although work of this sort has been started in several of the
projects, there is evidence that the PIs generally do not really understand
the farming systems approach. Hence, their treatment of the subject is
somewhat superficial, with no formalized institutionalization of the
procedures. Where grower surveys were undertaken, very limited collaboration
with social scientists or agronomic/socio-economic team effort has occurred or
is indicated for future efforts.
The new Farming Systems Support Project (USAID/University of Florida)
could be requested to provide some training or technical assistance to the
investigators in this CRSP.
Training of host-country professional staff is viewed as a major product
of the CRSP projects. About 80 host-country CRSP project team members have
received informal training from the US lead institutions. In addition, 50
others are enrolled in graduate study programs, at the MS and PhD levels.
This is commendable. Nevertheless, several suggestions are in order for
strengthening this component.
The information provided by project leaders on CRSP training activities
should be better organized to facilitate objective assessment of
achievements. Informal training should be clearly delineated. In addition,
training data should be more precise and should differentiate training
sponsored by this CRSP as part of specific host-country Bean/Cowpea CRSP
projects from other training efforts. Finally, reporting numbers of trainees
by sex would help assess the involvement of women in the CRSP.
The formal structure of the management of the CRSP is set out in the
organizational chart presented earlier in this report.
Given the innovative and unprecedented nature of the management tasks, we
have concluded that the management is remarkably effective. We have been
particularly impressed by the competence of the Management Office and by the
knowledge and understanding of CRSP affairs exhibited by the members of the
Management Entity. The Board of Directors has led in the development of
policy. It has also a role as the representative of the participating
universities. This might, in theory, tend to discourage change, but no
problems have arisen so far on this score.
The Board, the ME and the MO are advised on technical matters by the TC.
This committee is drawn from the PIs, both U.S. and HC, together with
representatives of IITA and CIAT. Its members serve for two years, so
arranged that half the members retire each year. The TC has largely guided
the building of the technical structure and content of the CRSP and clearly
fulfills an essential function. However, because it is also representative,
it may tend to preserve existing structures and arrangements against
substantial change. No problems have arisen so far on this score, but the TC
may well confront difficult decisions as projects mature, people change, and
new problems and opportunities arise. How the TC confronts those challenges
will be the real test of its quality and usefulness.
We feel that two years may be too short a term for members of the TC and
suggest that the Board of Directors and MO should consider whether a longer
term might, on balance, be desirable. The Board must also determine the
appropriate roster from which candidates for the Technical Committee may be
The external influences in the management structure are provided by BIFAD,
AID and the ERP. BIFAD and AID are elements in the common structure which
controls funding, whereas the ERP has the role of an independent peer review.
We conclude that ERP, or some similar body, has an essential continuing role.
PROBLEMS AND CONSTRAINTS
Problems unique to individual research projects have'been identified in
the project reviews. A survey of the Prinicipal Investigators at the time of
the review identified some problem areas in the following categories:
a. Administrative constraints: More than half the PIs commented on some
aspect of this, centered usually on difficulty of getting equipment
purchase approvals through USAID, or country clearances for travel,
or the amount of paperwork in project administration they, as
research scientists, found themselves doing.
b. Financial constraints: Nearly all the PIs identified constraints on
their total budget available, or the effect of inflation and exchange
rate in their host countries on their budgets. A few identified
problems in establishing a means of transferring funds to the host
country, or in receiving invoices from them for reimbursement.
Concern was expressed that the annual funding level being provided by
USAID was less than that committed at the time the CRSP grant was
c. Technical constraints: Very few of these were identified. A lack of
facilities for germ plasm or other storage was mentioned, as was the
effort required for insect rearing.
d. Human constraints: The temporary nature of assignments for
scientists in some host countries has been identified as a concern.
Personnel turnover is probably inevitable, but it does hamper
research progress. In surprisingly few projects have personality
problems emerged which could threaten research progress.
Communication difficulties between the U.S. and some countries impede
progress. Language constraints exist in several projects where the
U.S. P.I. is just developing host country language skills.
e. Socio-political constraints: These are obvious, and are a concern to
the PIs in a couple of countries in which the CRSP is operating. In
most countries, however, the scientists seem to be functioning well
within the socio-political setting.
None of the constraints identified by the scientists seem to be
threatening the viability of the research projects. Rather, they are
complications or minor handicaps which slow down expected progress, and create
Excellent financial summaries by project and CRSP are available in the
records and reports of the MO. Funding has been and will be flexible to allow
for required changes project by project. Following is a summary by project
showing FY-81, FY-82 allocations and spending and projected funding allocation
Table 1. Summary of FY-81 + FY-82 project financial history
FY 81 + 82
FY 81 + 82
as % of
$1 000 %
FINDINGS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
The CRSP is valuable because a, it has involved or increased the
involvement of a number of able senior U.S. university scientists in support
of overseas development, b) it has linked those scientists and their home
institutions in cooperative programs of work for development with overseas
institutions. It has weaknesses, because many of the U.S. scientists are
ill-informed, both about the natural and human attributes of developing
countries, and about the nature and difficulties of the development process.
As a result, some of their activities seem naive. However, the U.S. workers
are aware of these weaknesses and they will be offset as the projects develop
and experience accumulates.
High marks should be given the CRSP for at least two additional reasons.
First, there are now clear indications that a flow of highly useful technology
will be forthcoming in the foreseeable future. Second, institutionalizing this
capacity in the host country institutions holds promise for the long run.
Effective collaboration of social and biological scientists in examining
production and utilization in small farming systems has been achieved in one
project and is a model that can be recommended for other investigators in the
Bean/Cowpea CRSP activities have markedly benefited both the host
countries and the U.S. institutions where they take place. Unique
opportunities have been provided for teams of diverse disciplines to focus on
different bean and cowpea production and utilization problems and where
possible, to join efforts towards their study and solutions. The sense of
urgency among the project scientists to produce or adapt methods and
technologies aimed at improving bean and cowpea cropping systems has been
perceived. This mission-oriented conceptual framework seems likely to hasten
the attainment of the Bean/Cowpea CRSP's final goals. It must be understood,
however, that the relative socio-economic importance of these two crops in the
farming systems will vary with host countries or among regions of particular
The CRSP provides relatively small but critically needed financial support
to the collaborating host country institutions, allowing them to acquire
staff, equipment, and other support and thereby enhance their capacity for
successfully conducting the planned research activities. This mechanism
facilitates research, testing, and sharing of U.S. technology with the
developing countries participating in the Bean/Cowpea CRSP.
A remarkable and mutually rewarding working relationship, in most cases,
has developed between PIs from the U.S. and host country institutions. On the
one hand, scientific and practical knowledge has been more easily shared or
transferred, and, on the other hand, non-technial constraints and potentials
of the host country institutions have come to be better understood and dealt
with on the part of the U.S. scientists.
That the projects, and their management, have invited external review is a
reflection of its administrations' commitment to open, objective evaluation.
Bean and cowpea research projects conducted under the CRSP address
production and utilization problems which affect poor farmers in developing
countries. The expected result of this effort is the delivery of research
outputs such as disease and insect resistant cultivars, biological methods of
pest control, genetically enhanced nitrogen fixation, and nutritionally
improved products. The availability and proper use of these materials and
methods should advance the production and consumption of beans and cowpeas.
The training component not'only helps the conduct and progress of each
individual project but also enables a host country institution to carry on
research on production, marketing, and utilization as well as to carry on
production activities beyond the life of the CRSP project.
Three projects address nutritional concerns specifically, while others
have components important for improving utilization of beans or cowpeas. The
overall goal of the CRSP is reduction of hunger and malnutrition in developing
countries where these crops are consumed as major sources of energy and
protein; however, no mechanism yet exists for coordinating all the nutrition
and nutrition-related activities.
Participation in the CRSP is beginning to create a concept of program
identity in the PIs and a much broader awareness and understanding of beans
and cowpeas in third world agriculture. This will substantially strengthen
research efforts toward solution of production and consumption problems.
The CRSP is commended for including a Women in Development Specialist in
the MO. She has encouraged individual projects and PIs to give appropriate
attention to the involvement of women in production, marketing, processing,
and consumption of beans and cowpeas.
Panel recommendations have been included in the short review comments for
each project, and in the subject matter reviews. The following
recommendations apply generally across the CRSP.
1. CRSP scientists should receive background training to increase their
knowledge of and sensitivity to:
a. the tropical crop environment.
b. the social and political settings in which CRSP research is
c. the special features of the development process, and the unique
features of subsistence farm life which affect the methods and
probabilities of success for agricultural development research.
2. Given the importance of the CRSP initiative with its capacity to
mobilize research resources far beyond those available to any U.S.
agency, and recognizing USAID support to the CRSP from both the Bureau
of Science and Technology and Missions, USAID should encourage broad
support by the agency as a whole, for the CRSP concept as well as
support for the particulars of CRSP project research in specific host
3. U.S. and host country scientists should work together to create a
closer professional relationship, especially by performing some of the
tasks of collecting field data together. This could include
acquisition of farming systems information. Integration along these
lines will maximize benefits to each project and to the total CRSP.
4. Both U.S. and host country scientists in each project need to develop
an economic analysis of the production, marketing, and consumption
systems for beans or cowpeas in the areas of their research activity.
This analysis should be used to identify what areas of research are
most likely to lead to practically useful results, and what CRSP
research findings are economically feasible. It should also allow
investigation to anticipate the effect on market price of widespread
adoption of CRSP findings.
5. Research on BNF by cowpeas should be incorporated into CRSP activities
on at least one site and linkages with NIFTAL should be established.
6. The Technical Committee should develop means for monitoring research
performance vis-a-vis stated project objectives, for developing
forward plans based on research achievements, and for adjusting
project proposals and objectives in response to new findings and the
identification of new problems.
The Technical Committee should also develop criteria for concluding
projects which have achieved their objectives, or revising or
terminating projects which do not achieve their stated objectives.
7. CRSP-sponsored graduate students should be encouraged to carry out all
or part of their thesis research in their host country to insure
continuing contact between these students and the national bean/cowpea
research programs as well as CRSP research programs.
Training opportunities at international centers also should be
utilized to best advantage.
8. Investigators in all projects should interact at general meetings of
PIs or at special meetings of scientists concerned with collection of
nutritionally related data, to insure that all CRSP investigators
improve their understanding of factors which influence consumption
patterns. This will enhance the possibility of successful
interventions to improve nutrition.
9. The CRSP should try to establish linkage with the new Farming Systems
Support Project (USAID/University of Florida). This Project should be
requested to provide training or technical assistance to the
investigators in this CRSP-.
10. Investigators are encouraged to continue to make appropriate use of
the genetic and agronomic technology developed by CIAT and IITA, in
order to enhance the progress of CRSP projects in tropical regions.
11. The Management office should develop project administrative materials
and conduct workshops in their use, and enlist support for PIs from
U.S. lead institution grants and contracts and international programs
offices in such areas as procurement, budget preparation, project
accounting and reporting.
12. A standard format should be adopted for annual reports in order to
facilitate project review. Reports should be prepared jointly by the
U.S. and host country PIs and should include contributions from the
entire research teams. Each report should include a statement of
overall project goals, annual objectives (quantified where
appropriate), the plan of work, quantitative summaries of research
results, and an annual budget.
13. The Management Office and Board of Directors should develop procedures
for dealing with changes in project management and programs, such as
changes in research leadership (PIs) in U.S. or host countries,
modification or termination of research in progress, and evaluation of
proposed new initiatives.
14. The Technical Committee should assume responsibility for completing a
State of the Art document on production and utilization of beans and
cowpeas, and on current research on these grain legumes. They also
should develop a plan for updating this document periodically.
15. Information on training should be presented in straight forward
fashion in project annual reports, including identity and gender of
trainees supported from CRSP resources, training objectives (short
term non-degree, undergraduate, M.S., or PhD) and date of training.
Executive Summaries of 1982 Research Project Annual'Reports -
BOTSWANA/COLORADO STATE UNIVERSITY/DEMOOY
"DEVELOPMENT OF INTEGRATED COWPEA PRODUCTION SYSTEMS IN SEMI-ARID BOTSWANA"
Dr. C. 3. deMooy, the principal investigator in this project, is on long
term assignment in Botswana to develop field research on cowpeas grown in arid
conditions. This project is in collaboration with the Department of
Agricultural Research in the Ministry of Agriculture and receives additional
support from USAID/Botswana as a part of their Agricultural Technology
Improvement Program (for which Kansas State is the lead U.S. institution).
Field studies began in November 1982 with seedbed preparation, planting
practices and variety testing. Cultural practices will be studied during this
first growing year.
BRAZIL/BOYCE THOMPSON INSTITUTE/ROBERTS
"INSECT PATHOGENS IN COWPEA PEST MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS FOR DEVELOPING NATIONS"
Cowpeas are a principal staple in the diet of subsistence farmers in
sub-Saharan Africa, parts of Central America, and northern South America.
Insect pests are among the most serious constraints to adequate cowpea
production in these truly poor areas of the world. The areas involved all
suffer from imbalance of payments, and one of the objectives of the CRSP
project will be to develop insect control measures based on insect disease
agents which can be produced locally with a minimum of capital outlay.
Another objective will be to train Latin American scientists in the use of
this relatively new methodology so they can expand the work into larger
areas. Surveys conducted to date by combined CRSP and Brazilian research
teams have found that insect diseases are active in cowpea fields, sometimes
at high levels. This work has been conducted from the newly established
CRSP-supported insect pathology laboratory at the Brazilian National Rice and
Bean Research Station (CNPAF) in Goiania. College students are currently
studying with the full-time CRSP-supported insect pathologist at CNPAF. A
short course on insect pathology and microbial control will soon be conducted
at this station for 15 Latin American students. The outcome of this project
will be insect control measures of low cost and high efficacy available to
subsistence farmers for cowpea production and possibly for other crops. In
addition, a cadre of newly trained insect pathologists will be available to
assist other developing nations with their insect-control problems.
BRAZIL/UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN/BLISS
"IDENTIFICATION OF SUPERIOR BEAN-RHIZOBIA-COMBINATIONS'AND UTILIZATION IN
CROPPING SYSTEMS SUITABLE TO SMALL FARMS IN BRAZIL"
Brazil is the world's leading producer and consumer of dry beans, using
about 2.5 million metric tons annually, with an average per capital consumption
of 24.8 Kg. Nearly 70 per cent of this production is on farms of less than 10
hectares in associated cropping systems. Beans often nodulate poorly and show
low levels of biological nitrogen fixation (BNF). Although poor performance
is often attributed to suboptimal physical and environmental factors and to
ineffective Rhizobium phaseoli, it is evident that the bean plant is also a
limiting factor. Most cultivars do not support high levels of BNF. The
objective of this project is to develop bean cultivars with potential for
enhanced levels of BNF in association with superior strains of R. phaseoli,
and with potential to produce high yields in Brazilian cropping systems
without supplemental nitrogen fertilizer. Populations of inbred backcross
lines using adapted Brazilian cultivars and high nitrogen-fixing parents are
being developed. Field trials in Brazil have shown that black bean lines
previously selected for high nitrogen-fixation in Wisconsin perform well in
Brazil. These high fixing lines are being used to screen for competitive,
effective rhizobial strains and in experiments designed to elucidate factors
that affect fixation in prevailing cropping systems. Preliminary experiments
have shown that when soil nitrogen is limiting, the use of lines capable of
enhanced BNF will provide yield increases equivalent to the addition of 40
Kg/ha of nitrogen. Adoption of improved cultivars by small farmers should
provide increased bean yields with a minimum of additional inputs.
BRAZIL/UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN/HAGEDORN
"IMPROVED TECHNIQUES FOR DEVELOPMENT OF MULTIPLE DISEASE RESISTANCE IN
PHASEOLUS VULGARIS, L."
The goal of this research is to develop improved techniques, research
strategies and methodology, for use by bean breeders all over the world in the
development of multiple disease resistance in bean, Phaseolus vulgaris L.
Particular emphasis will be given to six diseases which are especially
important to Brazil and all of Latin America: anthracnose (Colletotrichum
lindemuthianum); angular leaf spot, (Isariopsis griseola); bean common mosiac,
(bean virus 1); bean golden mosaic virus; common blight, (Xanthomonas
phaseoli); and rust (Uromyces phaseoli f. sp. typical . Efficient and
practical techniques for use in greenhouse, screenhouse and field will be
studied. Project planning and documentation were completed this year.
Research is being initiated in Brazil and Wisconsin. Collaborating scientists
from Brazil met with principal the investigator in Wisconsin to review field
research, and discuss plans for work in Brazil.
CAMEROON/UNIVERSITY OF GEORGIA/CHALFANT
"PEST MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES 'FOR OPTIMIZING COWPEA YIELDS IN CAMEROON"
In northern Cameroon the cowpea is the major indigenous pulse; however,
production is severely limited by pre- and post-harvest insects which small
farmers are unable to control with existing technology and finances. This
project is planned to develop methods for optimizing yields and quality of
cowpeas through a collaborative research and training program in cowpea pest
management involving Cameroonian and U.S. scientists. In Cameroon a scientist
trained in entomological research on cowpeas has been stationed at the
Institute de la Recherche Agronomique (IRA), and is actively engaged in
research. In the U.S. at Boyce Thompson Institute, U.S. and African strains
of the cowpea weevil have been established and biological studies are in
progress. A repellent substance deposited by the egg-laying female has been
found. Vegetable oils which have been reported to protect peas from the
cowpea weevil in storage were found to be effective for only a short period of
DOMINICAN REPUBLIC/UNIVERSITY OF NEBRASKA/COYNE
"BIOLOGY, EPIDEMIOLOGY, GENETICS AND BREEDING FOR RESISTANCE TO BACTERIAL AND
RUST PATHOGENS OF BEANS (PHASEOLUS VULGARIS L.)
Bacterial and rust diseases of dry beans are a major yield and seed
quality constraint in the Dominican Republic. There is a serious need to
reduce these problems and to train research people to work on this crop. The
first year's objectives entailed: screening germ plasm/breeding lines for
pathogen resistance, yield and adaptation; investigating the genetic
variability of the pathogens; improving research facilities; and identifying
graduate students for study at the University of Nebraska. Eighteen trials
were grown on small farms (1981-1982). Two black seeded lines, MITA 2B51 and
MITA B190, and a white seeded line, MITA 2W332 were superior to Venzuela #44
in yield, tolerance to common blight and in resistance to rust. These three
lines will be considered for release in 1983. Collections of isolates of the
common blight and rust pathogens were made in the Dominican Republic. A
differential reaction to the common blight isolates was noted in a greenhouse
test indicating that it is important to test germ plasm against a wide array
of isolates. Tests indicated that Mexico 309, MITA B-190, some CIAT lines,
and Pompadour Checa (DR) had high resistance to the rust pathogen. Two
Dominican Republic students are presently enrolled in an intensive English
language training program at the University of Nebraska in preparation for
graduate study. A new screenhouse and two storage rooms have been constructed
and a plant pathology laboratory is being equipped in the Dominican Republic.
As a result of this research, higher yielding disease resistant black seeded
varieties should be available for small farmer use in 1984-1985, which
hopefully will improve income and bean consumption.
DOMINICAN REPUBLIC/UNIVERSITY OF PUERTO RICO/LOPEZ-ROSA
"IMPROVEMENT OF BEAN PRODUCTION IN THE'DOMINICAN REPUBLIC THROUGH BREEDING-FOR
MULTIPLE DISEASE RESISTANCE IN THE PREFERRED STANDARD CULTIVARS"
The Dominican Republic/University of Puerto Rico-Mayaguez Project, in
collaboration with the Mayaguez Institute of Tropical Agriculture (USDA-ARS),
addresses the problem of production losses in dry beans associated with
susceptibility to diseases. The objectives of the project are to identify
germ plasm with resistance to the economically important diseases, to combine
this disease resistance in advanced lines with other characteristics which
help reduce disease losses such as improved plant types and earliness, and to
transfer these traits to the preferred national bean cultivars. The project
has determined that some of the Dominican Republic standard cultivars already
have a fairly high level of resistance to some diseases and has identified the
major disease susceptibilities. The project is finding new and improved
disease resistant germ plasm which is being transferred into suitable breeding
lines for use in the Dominican Republic and by other projects. Substantial
progress has been achieved as the project's advanced lines being tested in the
small farmers' fields show resistance to several of the major diseases. With
the conversion of the disease susceptible traditional cultivars into disease
resistant and higher yielding types, an increase in production and stability
over the years would be possible.
AGRONOMICC, SOCIOLOGICAL AND GENETIC ASPECTS OF BEAN YIELD AND ADAPTATION"
Collective farming systems research is being conducted in Ecuador by
Cornell University and the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Agropecuarias
(INIAP). CRSP research is intended to complement INIAP programs directed at
smallholders and to identify researchable problems for the legume program.
Short-term objectives of the project include: the systematization of existing
secondary data, the development of an economical farming systems research
methodology, and the conduct of exploratory field research. The first
objectives were addressed by work at Cornell during the 1981-1982 academic
year. The third objective was addressed by joint Cornell/INIAP research in
the Province of Imbabura during July-August 1982. Outcomes of the summer
research/training activity include the training of ten INIAP staff in
Cornell's farming systems methodology, the revision of the draft methodology,
and the preparation of several technical reports. Efforts will continue to
re-define "dominios de recomendacion" in the Province of Imbabura and to
develop systematic criteria to permit their more precise definition in other
provinces. The Cornell methodology allows technicians to distinguish among
adjacent sub-regions which differ along important agronomic and/or
socioeconomic variables. This allows research and extension services with
small staffs and limited resources to target their activities to benefit
smallholders more precisely. Professional and financial resources are very
limited. Furthermore, smallholders control very limited land bases, a fact
which limits increased agricultural production, even with appropriate
AGRONOMICC, SOCIOLOGICAL-AND GENETIC ASPECTS OF BEAN YIELD AND-ADAPTATION"' .
This project is directed at small subsistence farmers, particularly the
indigenous Indian farmer of the highland areas of Guatemala. The physio-
logical-genetic studies are directed toward understanding the genetic (geno-
type) and environmental (daylength and temperature) contributions to maturity
of beans. Temperature plus rainfall patterns establish the duration of the
growing season of a specific location. Genotype must adapt the cultivar to
durations ranging from about 65 days in some lowland areas to 9 months in some
highland areas. Data of one season have been partially collected in
Guatemala, and the data for a second season are now being collected at CIAT.
Growth chamber studies at Cornell have demonstrated that bean cultivars have
an optimum temperature that gives minimal days to flower. This minimal
possible days to flowering may be 30 or 40 or 50 days and is genetically but
not physiologically independent of the daylength (photoperiod) and temperature
(low and high) effects on maturity. These findings have a worldwide inter-
pretation for control of maturity in beans, and also in any other crop that
has a slight to large photoperiod sensitivity. The minimal days to flowering
and the photoperiod-temperature response for beans and other crops all appear
to be controlled by separate 2-3 gene systems.
HONDURAS/UNIVERSITY OF PUERTO RICO/LOPEZ-ROSA
"IMPROVEMENT OF BEAN PRODUCTION IN HONDURAS THROUGH BREEDING FOR MULTIPLE
The Honduras/University of Puerto Rico Bean/Cowpea CRSP Project, in
collaboration with the USDA-ARS Mayaguez Institute of Tropical Agriculture
(MITA), was initiated in March 1982. The contracting host country institution
is the Panamerican School of Agriculture. Like the Dominican Republic/UPR
Bean/Cowpea CRSP Project, this project addresses the problem of dry bean
production losses associated with susceptibility to diseases. The objectives
of the project are: 1) to identify germ plasm with resistance to the
economically important diseases, 2) to combine these disease resistances in
advanced lines with other characteristics, such as improved plant types and
earliness, which help reduce disease losses and 3) to transfer these traits to
the preferred national bean cultivars. Evaluation of the project's multiple
disease resistant advance lines was initiated in farmers' fields in Honduras
in June, 1982. Harvest of the experimental plantings was completed in
September. Preliminary reports indicated several project lines (including
B-190) show exceptional resistance under Honduran conditions, so that the
program to convert the disease susceptible traditional cultivars into
resistant and higher yielding types can be initiated. The availability of
improved cultivars should increase and stabilize future production. This
increased production is anticipated to benefit small farm/subsistence families
in Honduras and in other areas with similar conditions.
INCAP/WASHINGTON STATE UNIVERSITY/SWANSON
"IMPROVED BIOLOGICAL UTILIZATION AND AVAILABILITY OF DRY BEANS"
The objectives of this proposed research are: (a) to find out why the
protein in dry beans is not as digestible and available as proteins from other
food sources, (b) to look at the way farmers store dry beans and find out why
some beans don't take up water or soften during cooking, and (c) to begin to
breed new lines of dry beans with better nutritional and cooking qualities.
Standardized ways to look at protein quality and evaluate other compounds that
are present in beans and may prevent digestion or absorption of nutrients are
being developed. These experiments are being conducted at five universities
and INCAP to insure reproducible results. In Guatemala, beans are one of the
first foods given infants and continue to be an important source of protein
for children and adults. Beans are not generally soaked before cooking in
Guatemala. Dry beans grown in Guatemala have been studied to determine
composition, cooking time and acceptability. In the laboratory, both soaking
and cooking were shown to be detrimental to protein digestibility and protein
quality. Low digestibility (about 50-65% of the protein available) may be
enhanced if beans are eaten with a cereal such as corn or rice. Preliminary
observations suggest tannin compounds may be responsible for the low
digestibility of dry bean proteins. Two treatments, heating dry beans in
steam and soaking dry beans in salt water, were studied in an attempt to
reduce the hard-to-cook phenomenon. Both treatments reduce the concentration
of tannin compounds in dry beans. The outcome of this research is expected to
provide rural Guatemalan and Central and South American families with dry
beans that are more nutritious and easier to cook than dry beans available
now. The resulting increase in dry bean production and consumption will
improve the general diet and lifestyle of families in rural Central and South
KENYA/UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA-DAVIS/WEBSTER
"IMPROVEMENT OF DROUGHT AND HEAT TOLERANCE OF DISEASE RESISTANT BEANS IN
SEMIARID REGIONS OF KENYA"
Kenya has exhibited a continuing decline in per capital food production and
a dramatic increase in population, and suffers the detrimental human,
economic, social and political consequences of these trends. To meet food
needs, particularly the requirement for protein, a substantial increase in the
productivity of small farmers is needed. This research program is designed to
develop cultivars of beans which are tolerant of the water and temperature
regimes which characterize the semiarid lands of Kenya. First year objectives
included 1) establishment of collaborative relationships between Kenyan
scientists at the University of Nairobi and at other appropriate locations
(e.g., CIAT, Malawi, Tanzania, and U.S. institutions); 2) initiation of a
pilot project on effects of environmental stress on flower and pod abscission
and yield in California; 3) development of screening techniques for characters
that improve drought and heat adaptation; 4) initiation of a bean and tepary
breeding program; 5) introduction and initiation of germplasm between the U.S.
and Kenya; and 6) identification of Kenyan students and technicians for the
training in the U.S. Progress on all objectives has been realized.
MALAWI/MICHIGAN STATE UNIVERSITY/ADAMS
"GENETIC, AGRONOMIC, AND SOCIO-CULTURAL ANALYSIS OF DIVERSITY AMONG BEAN LAND"
RACES IN MALAWI"
Project objectives are: 1) to produce a quantitative estimation of the
diversity within and between the bean populations ("land-races") which some
2/3 to 3/4 of the farmers currently grow; 2) to determine which plant/seed
characteristics play the major roles in distinguishing one "race" from
another; 3) to obtain objective descriptions of the major agronomic-climatic
factors and biological forces operating in the environments in which genetic
diversity prevails; 4) to determine the family-farmer (socio-cultural)
considerations that might be associated with preference for and acceptance of
particular "land-races" or components of such "races"; 5) to identify
contributions of farm women to bean production and consumption, and their
relationship to the central problem of reasons for maintenance of genetic
diversity; and 6) to develop a synthesis of the agronomic, genetic, and
socio-cultural factors that would explain the diversity patterns observed in
Malawi, and reasons for their maintenance. A very successful germplasm
collection trip has been made in the Northern Region of Malawi, and a team of
Malawian young women has spent some 2 1/2 months in training, and in
interviewing and observing in farm households, identified during the
collection trip as being appropriate for the socio-cultural research.
Students at the masters, doctoral, and post-doctoral levels have been
identified and arrangements made for their participation in the project.
MEXICO, INSTITUTE NATIONAL DE INVESTIGACIONES AGRICOLAS (I.N.I.A.)/MICHIGAN
"Improving Resistance to Environmental Stress (Drought, Nitrogen) in Beans
Through Genetic Selection for Carbohydrate Partitioning and Efficiency of
Biological Nitrogen Fixation."
The project was approved in September, 1982. Two field experiments were
established at Michigan State University in June, 1982. One involved beans
under low and supplemental levels of soil nitrogen, the objective being to
screen for ability to grow on N-deficient soil. The other involved beans
previously screened for growth and yield under drought conditions, obtained
from CIAT and MSU, and grown under combinations of irrigated vs rainfed and
high and low nitrogen conditions. No data are available at this time.
NIGERIA/UNIVERSITY OF GEORGIA/MCWATTERS
"APPROPRIATE TECHNOLOGY FOR COWPEA PRESERVATION AND PROCESSING AND A STUDY OF
ITS SOCIO-ECONOMIC IMPACT ON RURAL POPULATIONS IN NIGERIA"
Problems being addressed by this project are post-harvest storage losses
of cowpeas and cowpea products and time-consuming, laborious, energy-demanding
methods of preparing cowpeas for food. Objectives of the project research are
to: (a) identify cowpea usage patterns and constraints which limit.
utilization, (b) develop treatments which prevent storage losses of cowpeas
and cowpea products, (c) develop processes to produce a convenient,
shelf-stable, functional, and nutritious cowpea product (meal/flour) and
optimize process conditions, and (d) train host country and U.S. graduate
students in techniques of food science and technology related to the
objectives (a-c). Progress made to date includes: (a) preparation of the
first draft of the survey instrument, (b) partial survey of existing
technologies to decorticate and mill cowpeas, (c) acquisition by UGA of
equipment for dry, abrasive decortication of cowpeas, (d) acquisition of
cowpea seeds from Nigeria for processing studies and for planting 1983 crop of
several cultivars, and (e) completion of preliminary study of the
microbiological quality of cowpea flour processed by existing techniques from
an American cultivar. Additional project-related activities included
extrusion cooking of cowpeas and preliminary studies on milling and its effect
on physical characteristics, functionality, and nutritional quality of
cowpeas. Successful project research should foster increased utilization of
cowpeas among Nigerians by development of means to increase the quantity of
cowpeas available for consumption and to facilitate their use in preparation
of traditional dishes.
NIGERIA/MICHIGAN STATE UNIVERSITY/MARKAKIS
"MEDICAL PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH FEEDING COWPEAS TO CHILDREN" -
This project seeks to explore the relationship between cowpea consumption
and the high incidence of diarrhea and other adverse effects in weaned
children aged between 6 months and 24 months in less developed countries
(LDCs). Evidence suggests that mothers in LDCs are reluctant to feed cowpeas
to their weanlings because of the associated undesirable effects on bowel
function at this age. Recent demonstration (by two of our co-workers) of the
presence of undigestable oligosaccharides in cowpeas suggests a possible patho-
physiologic explanation for this effect in weanlings. A multidisciplinary
team of researchers has designed several human, animal laboratory, and
community studies to be carried out both in the United States and Nigeria, to
determine the major causes of such adverse effects in order to eliminate
them. The first year has been largely organizational. The instruments for
assessing the prevalence of side effects of cowpeas fed to weanlings have been
purchased and training in their use has been received by U.S. and Nigerian
scientists. Retirement of the original principal investigator has required
the appointment of a replacement. Communication problems have greatly
hampered implementation of this project. With the expected increase in food
demand in Africa (76% by 1985), a greater reliance will be placed on cowpeas
as a high source of nutrients. The successful completion of this research
project has the potential of increasing protein availability to the at-risk
population of young children.
SENEGAL/UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA-RIVERSIDE/HALL
"A PROGRAM TO DEVELOP IMPROVED COWPEA CULTIVARS FOR PRODUCTION AND UTILIZATION
IN SEMIARID ZONES"
The objectives of this project are to develop improved cowpea cultivars
and management methods for hot, semiarid environments, and cowpea production
systems for farmers in Senegal that will enable them to produce adequate
supplies of food even with variations in environmental and economic
conditions. Collaborators from the Senegalese Institute of Agricultural
Research (ISRA) have been (a) evaluating different cowpea production systems
in contrasting semiarid environments in Senegal, (b) developing guidelines
concerning the cropping systems, cultivars, and methods for preventing damage
due to insect pests that are appropriate for farmers. University of
California, Riverside scientists have developed advanced cowpea lines from
crosses between cultivars from California and Senegal which have improved
resistance to drought. Several of these lines have been yield tested over two
seasons in wet and dry environments in California and in Senegal. A cowpea
breeding project has been initiated at UCR. A member of ISRA is presently
receiving training in cowpea breeding at the University of California, Davis
(UCD). The program at UCD has produced cowpea lines with earliness and high
yield potential which are being yield tested this summer in Davis, Riverside,
and Senegal together with advanced lines from Senegal, UCR, and IITA.
Screening tests for tolerance to drought and salinity, and for differences in
nodulation under drought are being developed at the University of Arizona.
TANZANIA/WASHINGTON STATE UNIVERSITY/SILBERNAGEL
"BREEDING BEANS (PHASEOLUS VULGARIS) FOR DISEASE AND INSECT RESISTANCE AND
DETERMINATION OF THEIR ECONOMIC IMPACT ON SUBSISTENCE FARM FAMILIES"
The goal of this project is to breed beans (Phaseolus) for disease and
insect resistance and to determine their economic impact on subsistence farm
families. A socio-economic study of 60 families in each of two or three
villages in different ecological zones provides background data against which
to measure future progress. An economic evaluation will be made of the major
disease and insect problems that affect production and storage. Women's
involvement in the production, storage, consumption and marketing of beans
will be identified.
The breeding program has been initiated at Prosser and CIAT. Mixed cropping
system studies (beans and maize) involving interactions with major diseases
and field insects are in progress. Village level demonstrations on the control
of storage insects with oil are underway. Disease studies to develop screening
methods and to evaluate pathogen variation have been initiated for rust,
angular leaf spot, anthracnose and bean common mosaic virus. The effect of
boron and molybdenum on nodulation and yield is being investigated. Five
graduate students (3 Tanzanian) are working on advanced degrees. The project
has attracted the interest and active collaboration of non-project researchers
in three Tanzanian research centers, and of CIAT. A bean researchers' work-
shop was held in Morogoro; about 10 non-project and 14 project researchers
participated. By 1985, village level trials by small farm families should be
showing 50% gains in yields (using an interim variety with resistance to
angular leaf spot, rust and anthracnose), and 50% reduction in storage losses
due to bean weevils. Stepwise increment improvements with more resistance
will begin by 1990. By 2000 high yielding, widely adapted, disease and insect
resistant new varieties should be averaging about 1500 kg/ha instead of the
present 700 kg/ha.