Annual report
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00055292/00007
 Material Information
Title: Annual report
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 23-28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Bean/Cowpea Collaborative Research Support Program
Publisher: Michigan State University
Place of Publication: East Lansing, Mich
Publication Date: 1983-1984
Frequency: annual
regular
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Beans -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Numbering Peculiarities: Issued in parts: Part one. Technical summary.--Part two. External review panel.
General Note: Description based on: 1983.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 19930082
lccn - sn 89013327
System ID: UF00055292:00007

Full Text






ANNUAL REPORT
Oct. 1, 1983 - Sept. 30, 1984
Bean/Cowpea CRSP
Medical Aspects of Feeding Cowpeas to Children


EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

The objective of this project is to investigate the possibility
of a relationship between cowpea consumption and gastrointestinal
(GI) problems in Nigerian children. The Universities of Ibadan
and Jos in Nigeria, and Michigan State University are cooperating
in this task.

To this date two surveys were conducted around Ibadan and
Jos. Approximately 2,000 mothers filled pertinent
questionnaires, with the help of trained interviewers. Both
surveys indicated that approximately 10% of the children who eat
cowpeas manifest GI symptoms, most commonly diarrhea. Younger
children, 6 to 24 months old, are more susceptible to these
disorders. Frequent consumption of cowpea meals (within 3 days)
increases the likelihood for the onset of these symptoms. Other
family circumstances, such as socioeconomic status, educational
level and method of cooking cowpeas do not seem to affect the
relationship between cowpea ingestion and GI symptoms.
Experiments are in progress in which children consume weighed
quantities of cowpeas and their bowel habits are monitored by
nurses.

At Michigan State University experiments were initiated on
the digestibility of cowpea carbohydrates in humans. Two adult
subjects consumed measured quantities of cowpeas, and the
concentration of hydrogen in their exhaled air was measured. It
was found that a rapid rise in breath hydrogen concentration
begins about 3 hours after the cowpea meal and it peaks at 5 to 6
hours. The hydrogen in the breath is related to the fermentation
of indigestible carbohydrates in the lower intestine.











TECHNICAL SUMMARY

Title: Medical Aspects of Feeding Cowpeas to Children

Investigators: USA: P. Markakis, PI; W. Chenoweth, CoPI; D.
Greenbaum, consultant; H. Sadoff, consultant; all with
Michigan State University (MSU).
Jos, Nigeria: D. Drew, PI; P. Isichei, CoPI, both of the
University of Jos.
Ibadan, Nigeria: A. Omololu, PI (on leave); A.M. Hussain,
CoPI; I. Akinyele, CoPI; all with the University of Ibadan.

Objectives: a) To explore a possible relationship between eating
cowpeas and gastrointestinal problems in young children;
b) To identify the factors present in cowpeas which may cause
the problems; c) To remove these factors from cowpeas so that
children may benefit from this otherwise nutritious food.

Research outputs: The survey work commenced a year ago around
the towns of Ibadan and Jos continued this year. At Ibadan,
analysis of 855 questionnaires filled by mothers with the help of
trained interviewers indicated that 63 children experienced
gastrointestinal (GI) problems following the ingestion of
cowpeas, while 792 children who also ate cowpeas were free of
such problems. It appeared that a) younger children were more
susceptible to cowpea-related GI distress (mostly diarrhea) than
older children; b) greater frequency of cowpea intake (within 3
days) resulted in higher likelihood of GI distress; and c) the
incidence of GI disorders as a result of cowpea ingestion
disappeared as the child grew in age. The results of an
experiment in which 34 control (non-reacting) children and 34
susceptible children were fed weighed quantities of cowpeas,
under medical supervision, have not been analyzed yet.

At Jos, a similar survey indicated that 13% of the families
interviewed reported GI problems in children who ate cowpeas,
with diarrhea again being the most common symptom. Another 4% of
the families reported cowpea-related GI distress among adults.
Further analysis of the questionnaires indicated that the GI
problems attributed to cowpea consumption were not statistically
related to socioeconomic status, educational level, method of
cooking cowpeas and feeding practices. The results of another
200 families interviewed for the same purpose have not been
reported yet.

At MSU two studies are being conducted, one dealing with the
amount of exhaled hydrogen following the ingestion of cowpeas,
and the other being an attempt to measure the lectins
(hemagglutinins) present in cowpeas. The concentration of
hydrogen in the breath has been correlated to the volume of
flatus. Gas generation in the gut is mainly attributed to
undigestible diet carbohydrates which are fermented in the lower
intestines.










In the breath hydrogen study, two adult female subjects
ingested on different days 100 g, 150 g and 200 g of cowpeas
prepared as ewa-ibeji (boiled whole cowpeas) or as moin-moln
(steamed dehulled cowpeas) and the exhaled hydrogen was measured
by means of a hydrogen breath analyzer (Quintron Co., Milwaukee)
at 1/2 hour intervals for 8-10 hours postprandially. The amount
of exhaled hydrogen started increasing about 3 hours after the
meal and peaked at about the 5th or 6th hour. At that time the
concentration of hydrogen in the exhaled air was 10-12 times
greater than at zero time. The excretion of hydrogen in the
breath continued at a lower rate even after the 8th hour. A meal
based on rice did not result in any respiratory rise of
hydrogen. The method of preparation of the cowpea meals did not
appear to affect the excretion rate of hydrogen. While increased
intake of cowpeas resulted in increased excretion of breath
hydrogen, the increase in hydrogen concentration was not
proportional to the size of the cowpea meal.

Training outputs: The project fully supports one Nigerian
graduate student, Ms. Phillipa Ogun. She initiated her doctoral
program at MSU in March 1983 and she will-strive to complete it
in three years. Her research deals with the nutritional aspects
of cowpeas. A number of Nigerian students were trained at the
Universities of Ibadan and Jos for the task of interviewing
families and monitoring feeding experiments with children in
connection with this project.

Women in development: Two women play cardinal roles in this
project. One is a Co-PI of the MSU team and the other is a
Nigerian doctoral candidate devoting all her research effort to
this project. A number of young women in Nigeria have also been
trained to conduct nutritional surveys.

Professional linkages: This project is a collaborative
undertaking between the Universities of Ibadan and Jos in
Nigeria, and Michigan State University. The teams of these three
institutions exchange information with the University of Nsuka,
which conducts a socioeconomic study of cowpeas in Nigeria and
with the University of Georgia which is investigating certain
technological aspects of cowpeas.

Institutional resources: While MSU initiated this study under
the Bean/Cowpea CRSP, most of the research on the relationship
between cowpea consumption and the health of children is
conducted in Nigeria. The Universities of Ibadan and Jos
provide the academic and auxiliary personnel as well as the
physical facilities (laboratories, hospitals) where most of the
work is performed. The MSU team, in addition to its coordinating
and consulting role, is also engaged in certain chemical,
biochemical and nutritional cowpea studies which can be conducted
here.










Constraints: This project has been adversely affected by
difficulties in communication between the HC and US, and by
changes in the composition of the research teams. Dr. Akpom, who
originated the project, retired; Dr. Omololu, the PI of the
Ibadan team, went on extended leave; Dr. Drew, the PI of the Jos
group, resigned in August, 1984 to return to the UK and his Co-
PI, Dr. Okere, moved to another institution. The survey in
localities around Ibadan was handicapped by the lack of a vehicle
assigned to the project, and recently a portable electrical
generator which was necessary for the human feeding experiments
in Ibadan broke down.

Progress: The rather extended surveys completed this year (FY
84) constitute a significant progress for the project. Although
the results of the circa 2,000 interviews with families have not
been fully scrutinized yet, it appears that in Nigeria
approximately 10% of the children in the age range of 6-24 months
react adversely to the consumption of cowpeas (main symptom -
diarrhea), at least according to the perception of their
mothers. Experiments in which susceptible and control children
are fed cowpeas under supervision are still in progress. As
already mentioned under "Research outputs", breath hydrogen tests
with adults clearly indicate that ingestion of cowpeas results in
large increase in breath hydrogen excretion. New methodology for
the testing of lectins in cowpeas is being sought.

Future plans: The continuation of this project will proceed
according to the lines originally drawn. The survey results,
which show that a small proportion of young children react
adversely to cowpea intake, will be supplemented with controlled
feeding tests (already begun). The breath hydrogen studies with
adults will continue in order to secure sufficient data for
statistical analysis. The study of antinutritional factors
(lectins, trypsin inhibitors, and undigestible oligosaccharides)
in cowpeas will continue. Ultimately, ways will be sought
(genetic, physical, chemical, biochemical) for the purpose of
removing the offending constituents from cowpeas.











TECHNICAL REPORT


Title: Medical Aspects of Feeding Cowpeas to Children

Investigators: USA: P. Markakis, PI; W. Chenoweth, CoPI; D.
Greenbaum, consultant; H. Sadoff, consultant; all with
Michigan State University (MSU).
Jos, Nigeria: D. Drew, PI; P. Isichei, CoPI, both of the
University of Jos.
Ibadan, Nigeria: A. Omololu, PI (on leave); A.M. Hussain,
CoPI; I. Akinyele, CoPI; all with the University of Ibadan.

Objectives: a) To explore a possible relationship between eating
cowpeas and gastrointestinal problems in young children; b) To
identify the factors present in cowpeas which may cause the
problems; c) To remove these factors from cowpeas so that
children may benefit from this otherwise nutritious food.

Research outputs: The main research findings at each of the three
collaborating institutions are as follows:

Ibadan University. A survey form containing 75 questions was
filled by 855 mothers with the help of trained interviewers. A
t-test and a chi-square-test indicated that a) the incidence of
GI disorders among children was related to ingestion of cowpeas
(p<0.01); b) younger children were more susceptible to such
disorders (p<0.01); c) repeated ingestion of cowpeas within 3
days increased the incidence of these disorders (p<0.001); and
d) the GI symptoms disappeared as the child grew in age (p<
0.001). Other questions mostly related to the socioeconomic
status of the family did not appear to be significantly related
to GI disorders of the children.
The results of an experiment in which 34 children who
apparently experienced GI problems upon cowpea consumption and 34
children who did not experience such problems were fed weighed
quantities of cowpeas and subsequently monitored by nurses for 3
days regarding GI disorders, have not been analyzed yet.

Jos University. The survey work continued and 200 additional
families were interviewed. From the accounts of the mothers
interviewed to this date, it appears that a small proportion
(about 13%) of children who consume cowpeas experience GI
disorders, mainly diarrhea. Family circumstances, such as
socioeconomic status, educational level, method of cooking
cowpeas and feeding practices do not seem to affect the
relationship between cowpea consumption and GI reactions of
children. The Jos team reported that a newly acquired Quintron
Hydrogen Analyzer was in good operating condition a few months
ago, but no results relative to the breath hydrogen analysis of
children consuming cowpeas have been reported yet.













Michigan State University. Two cowpea-related studies are
being conducted: one deals with the excretion of hydrogen through
exhaling (breath hydrogen) in adults following cowpea ingestion,
and the other with the determination of lectins (hemagglutinins)
in Nigerian cowpeas.
a. Breath hydrogen tests. Two female adult volunteers,
free of known food allergies, with no GI and respiratory
disorders, non-smokers and not using antibiotics consumed meals
prepared in a traditional Nigerian manner and then subjected to
breath hydrogen testing for the following 8 to 10 hours. One
meal is known as ewa-ibeji and is prepared by soaking cowpeas in
cold water for 15 min. and then cooking with corn oil, tomato
sauce, hot pepper and salt. The preparation of the other meal,
moin-moin, involves two phases. First, soaking the cowpeas in
cold water for 30 min, removing the seedcoat by hand and redrying
the dehulled cowpeas in air for 24 hours. Second, resoaking the
dehulled cowpeas in cold water for 10 min, grinding to a paste,
mixing the paste with tomato sauce, hot pepper, salt and corn
oil, wrapping the mixture in aluminum foil and immersing the
wrapped paste in boiling water for 75 minutes. The experimental
meal was fed in the morning and about 4 hours later a lunch was
provided consisting of milk-free french bread, ham, Swiss cheese
and canned pineapple.
In order to establish a base line for breath hydrogen, a
"control" meal was used. It consisted of rice cooked with the
additional ingredients (corn oil, tomato sauce, etc) used in the
"test" cowpea meals. The quantities of cowpea meal consumed by
each subject on different days were as follows: 100 g, 150 g and
200 g of whole cowpeas (dry weight) as ewa-ibeji; 100 g and 150 g
of dehulled cowpeas (dry weight) as moin-moin. Hydrogen
concentrations in breath samples of the subjects were determined
by means of the Quintron Breath Hydrogen Analyzer. The results
are summarized in Table 1. It is apparent that at about 3 to 4
hours after a cowpea meal a rapid rise in respiratory hydrogen
begins; this rise peaks at about 5 or 6 hours and subsequently
diminishes gradually. But even 9 hours after a cowpea meal the
hydrogen content of the exhaled air is much higher than that of a
rice meal. It also appears that the mode of preparation of the
cowpea meal does not affect significantly the concentration of
breath hydrogen. Increasing the amount of cowpea meal ingested
increased the concentration of hydrogen in the breath, but a
direct proportionality between the two variables is not clear.
b. Lectins in cowpeas. Legumes and other plants contain
substances, lectins, which agglutinate red blood cells. An
effort to determine quantitatively the lectins of ten Nigerian
cowpea varieties was as follows. A 2 gram sample of ground
cowpeas was extracted with 10 ml of phosphate buffered saline
(PBS) in a Waring blender. The extract was centrifuged at
40,000xg for 30 min, and the supernatant was saved for the
assay. Red blood cells (RBC) were prepared from freshly drawn
pig blood and separated by centrifugation to a serum and











precipitated RBC. The RBC were washed with PBS, incubated with
trypsin, centrifuged again, rewlshed and finally suspended in PBS
to give a Coulter count of 4xlO cells/ml. Four different
aliquots of cowpea extract, 10 p1, 20 1i, 50 li and 100 pl, drawn
in duplicates, were incubated with 2 ml of RBC suspension for one
hour, the mixture was then centrifuged at 400xg for 45 see, and
the sediment was resuspended by shaking. After 15 min, two 10 pi
samples were drawn off from the midpoint of the suspension, they
were mixed with 10 ml PBS each and the erythrocytes of the
mixtures were counted using a Coulter Counter. Table 2 shows the
results on five varieties of cowpeas. These measurements are not
satisfactory both because the agreement between duplicates from
the same extract is poor and because the readings obtained with
increasing volumes of aliquots do not follow a consistent or
meaningful pattern. The hemagglutination data on the remaining
five cowpea cultivars were equally unsatisfactory as those on the
first five cultivars. The investigator made a serious effort to
standardize the procedure to no avail. A new spectrophotometric
method will be attempted in the near future for estimating the
lectins of cowpeas.

Training outputs: One Nigerian student, Ms. Ogun, is fully
supported by the project in her doctoral work at MSU..A number of
young women were trained in Nigeria to conduct nutritional
surveys.









Table 1. Hydrogen concentration (ppm) in the air exhaled by 2 subjects after cowpea


Hours after ingestion
Meal Subject 0 .5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5 5.0 5.5 6.0 6.5 7.0 7.5 8.0 8.5 9.0


100 g cowpeas as
"ewa-i bejl"


150 g cowpeas as
"ewa-ibejI"


200 g cowpeas as
"ewa-ibejl"


100 g cowpeas as
"moin-moin"


150 g copweas as
"moin-moin"


85 g rice
control meal


1
2
Av.
1
2
Av.
1
2
Av.
1
2
Av.
1
2
Av.
1
2
Av.


4.7
11.2
8.0
3.7
2.0
2.8
5.0
2.5
3.7
7.2
8.5
7.9
5.5
7.0
6.2
6.6
9.5
8.0


4.0
3.0
3.5
3.0
3.0
3.0
1.0
1.5
1.2
4.5
5.0
4.7
2.0
2.0
2.0
8.0
12.0
10.0


2.5
2.7
2.6
3.0
2.0
2.5
1.0
1.5
1.2
2.7
4.5
3.6
2.0
2.0
2.0
3.0
5.0
4.0


1.5
1.5
1.5
1.0
2.0
1.5
1.0
1.0
1.0
2.2
4.0
3.1
1.0
1.0
1.0
2.0
3.0
2.5


1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
19.0
10.0
3.5
7.0
5.2
1.5
3.0
2.2
1.0
2.0
1.5
2.0
3.5
2.7


1.0
1.5
1.2
2.0
20.0
11.0
14.0
16.0
15.0
1.0
3.5
2.2
1.0
8.0
4.5
1.0
10.0
5.5


3.5
6.0
4.7
2.0
16.0
9.0
13.5
28.0
20.7
1.0
16.2
8.6
1.0
33.0
17.0
1.0
4.0
2.5


11.0
8.5
19.7
6.0
43.0
24.5
29.5
38.0
33.7
2.2
19.5
10.8
8.0
33.0
20.5
1.0
3.0
2.0


18.0
20.5
19.2
9.0
31.0
20.0
40.0
46.0
43.0
13.0
33.0
23.0
17.0
46.0
31.5
1.0
2.0
1.5


30.5
40.0
17.2
15.0
24.0
19.5
62.0
56.0
49.0
19.0
32.5
25.7
24.0
32.0
28.0
1.0
2.0
1.5


26.2 31.0
29.5 37.5
27.9 34.2
25.0 30.0
26.0 23.0
25.5 26.5
48.0 45.0
43.0 40.0
45.5 42.5
19.2 38.0
28.0 35.2
23.7 36.6
39.0 30.0
29.0 29.0
34.0 29.5
1.0 1.0
- 3.0
2.0 2.0


30.5
44.2
37.3
43.0
20.5
31.7
45.5
37.5
42.5
25.5
30.5
28.0
34.0
25.0
29.5
2.0
2.0
2.0


23.2
32.7
28.0
49.0
20.0
34.5
40.0
38.0
39.0
27.7
21.0
24.3
42.0
22.0
32.0
1.0
1.0
1.0


30.5
43.5
37.0
48.0
15.0
31.5
48.0
21.0
34.5
19.7
18.5
19.1
45.0
24.0
34.5
1.0
1.0
1.0


32.0
23.5
27.5
22.0
22.0
22.0
52.0
38.0
45.0
13.0-
14.2
13.6
28.0
26.0
27.0
1.0
1.0
1.0


33.5
11.2
22.3
29.0
18.0
23.5
53.0
32.0
42.5
17.7
15.5
16.6
29.0
18.0
23.5
1.0
1.0
1.0


40.5
8.0
24.2
42.0
18.0
30.0
.30.0
45.0
37.5
21.5
15.0
18.2
48.0
8.0
28.0
1.0
1.0
1.0


22.0
15.7
18.8'
31.5
19.0
25.2
30.0
50.0
40.0
18.0
13.0
15.5
36.0
23.0
29.5
1.0
1.0
1.0


and control meals.









Table 2. Lectin assay on five cultivars of raw cowpeas.
suspension; a and b are duplicate aliquots from
readings of final suspension.)


(Numbers of non-agglutinated RBC/ml of final
cowpea extract and I and II duplicate Coulter


Cultivar 1 2 3 4 5

a b a b a b a b a b

10 Pl I 14,750 26,619 10,611 21,806 12,311 22,366 377 40,285 23,207 18,392
II 14,585 25,774 10,349 21,943 12,309 22,411 253 40,951 21,717 18,419

20 Pl I 6,134 37,720 19,087 21,151 17,013 28,707 16,381 22,768 15,130 23,746
II 6,006 37,726 19,428 21,081 17.798 28,808 16,474 23,116 15,418 21,594

50 pl I 4,403 1,020 2,767 22,608 206 21,904 16,274 18,288 20,811 24,340
II 4,497 1,235 2,643 23,025 229 22,329 16,118 17,430- 20,837 23,936
1,211
100 -pl I 1,697 618 8,229 1,292 13,886 26,896 12,662 20,845 18,534 18,499
II 1,689 615 8,108 1,308 13,802 27,013 12,575 20,835 18,724 18,492




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