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Annual report
ALL VOLUMES CITATION SEARCH THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00055292/00006
 Material Information
Title: Annual report
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 23-28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Bean/Cowpea Collaborative Research Support Program
Publisher: Michigan State University
Place of Publication: East Lansing, Mich
Publication Date: 1982
Frequency: annual
regular
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Beans -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Numbering Peculiarities: Issued in parts: Part one. Technical summary.--Part two. External review panel.
General Note: Description based on: 1983.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 19930082
lccn - sn 89013327
System ID: UF00055292:00006

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Main
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
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        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
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        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
    Back Cover
        Page 19
        Page 20
Full Text


The Bean/Cowpea
Collaborative Research
Support Program
(CRSP)
1982
Annual Report
Executive Summary











An international community of per-
sons, institutions, agencies and gov-
ernments committed to collectively
strengthening health and nutrition
in developing countries by improv-
ing the availability and utilization
of beans and cowpeas.









THE BEAN/COWPEA CRSP CONCEPT

The Bean/Cowpea CRSP is a coordinated effort
addressing hunger and malnutrition in Africa and
Latin America through research on the production
and utilization of beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) and
cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata).
Beans and cowpeas are dietary staples in the
countries associated with this CRSP. Among the
poor, these legumes provide the major source of high
quality, affordable protein, as well as an important
source of B vitamins. Beans and cowpeas generally
are grown as food for household consumption,
rather than as export crops. They are typically grown
on subsistence farms; and in some countries, are
grown solely by women on whose shoulders fall the
major responsibility for providing the food for family
consumption.
Based on a global plan developed in concert with
Host Country colleagues, the CRSP is made up of a
series of discrete but integrated international research
projects involving teams of scientists collaborating in
a study of designated facets of the overall plan.
Eighteen research projects, each led by a principal
investigator from one of the 9 lead U.S. research
institutions, were developed from over 80 proposals
initially received.
These vigorous international research partnerships
directly involve research institutions in 13 Host
Countries, 2 International Centers and 14 U.S.
agricultural research institutions, which include the 9
having lead roles in the CRSP.
The Bean/Cowpea CRSP has now been in existence
for two years. Goals and objectives identified in the
CRSP planning documents and grant are being
pursued by teams of U.S. and host country
researchers representing the 18 projects which make
up the program.
Policies to guide CRSP procedures have been
adopted by the Board of Directors. The Board has
approved the project proposals on advice from the
Technical Committee and Management Office,
where careful assessments of proposed research and
application have been conducted.

THE MANAGEMENT OFFICE
Michigan State University
The CRSP Management Office staff has provided
support to research teams in establishing projects
with host country institutions, and has taken the lead
role in negotiating memoranda of understanding
with the governments and the appropriate research






institutions in each country. Support to projects in
accord with AID guidelines has also been provided
by the Management Office (facilitating country travel
clearances, equipment purchase approvals, etc.).
The Management Office has provided staff support
to the Board, the Technical Committee and the
Management Entity (MSU), and performed liaison
functions with AID and BIFAD staffs. Planning and
managing an external review of the CRSP has been a
major task during fiscal year 1982. Documenting
information for the review, facilitating the External
Review Panel visits to U.S. project sites, and
organizing the External Review Panel meeting in
November were among the tasks performed.
Special responsibilities of the Management Office
include assuring that the CRSP incorporates
sensitivity to women's issues throughout its
functions, and that a balance among disciplines and
perspectives of research participants is maintained.
With the entire roster of projects established, these
functions absorb an increasing share of staff time.
Provisions for exchange of current developments
with colleagues both within and outside the CRSP,
and support to projects for development of strategies
to insure the transfer of research findings to cultivator
and consumer have also become more prominent in
Management Office activities. These functions are
served by Management Office staff participation in
team reviews and planning activities at U.S. and host
country research sites.

THE BEAN/COWPEA CRSP PROJECT
SUMMARIES
The following executive summaries were prepared
by the project principal investigators. The
Management Office has exercised editorial license to
meet the goals of brevity adopted for this report.
Complete project reports as submitted by principal
investigators and an annual report consisting of
Management Office summaries of project reports are
available on request.


O BOTSWANA-COLORADO STATE
UNIVERSITY
"Development of Integrated
Cowpea Production Systems in
Semi-Arid Botswana"

Dr. C. J. deMooy, the principal investigator in this
project, is on long-term assignment in Botswana to






develop field research on cowpeas grown in arid
conditions. This project is in collaboration with the
Department of Agricultural Research in the Ministry
of Agriculture and receives additional support from
USAID/Botswana as a part of their Agricultural
Technology Improvement Program (for which
Kansas State is the lead U.S. institution). Field
studies began in November 1982 with seedbed
preparation, planting practices and variety testing.
Cultural practices will be studied during this first
growing year.




O BRAZIL-BOYCE THOMPSON
INSTITUTE
"Insect Pathogens in Cowpea
Pest Management Systems for
Developing Nations"

Cowpeas are a principal staple in the diet of
subsistence farmers in sub-Saharan Africa, parts of
Central America, and northern South America.
Insect pests are among the most serious constraints
to adequate cowpea production in these truly poor
areas of the world. The areas involved all suffer from
imbalance of payments, and one of the objectives of
the CRSP project will be to develop insect control
measures based on insect disease agents which can
be produced locally with a minimum of capital
outlay. Another objective will be to train Latin
American scientists in the use of this relatively new
methodology so they can expand the work into larger
areas. Surveys conducted to date by combined CRSP
and Brazilian research teams have found that insect
diseases are active in cowpea fields, sometimes at
high levels. This work has been conducted from the
newly established CRSP-supported insect pathology
laboratory at the Brazilian National Rice and Bean
Research Station (CNPAF) in Goiania. College
students are currently studying with the full-time
CRSP-supported insect pathologist at CNPAF. A
short course on insect pathology and microbial
control will soon be conducted at this station for 15
Latin American students. The outcome of this project
will be insect control measures of low cost and high
efficacy available to subsistence farmers for cowpea
production and possibly for other crops. In addition,
a cadre of newly trained insect pathologists will be
available to assist other developing nations with their
insect-control problems.






O BRAZIL-UNIVERSITY OF
WISCONSIN
"Identification of Superior
Bean-Rhizobia Combinations
and Utilization of Cropping
Systems Suitable to Small Farms
in Brazil"
Brazil is the world's leading producer and consumer
of dry beans, using about 2.5 million metric tons
annually, with an average per capital consumption of
24.8 Kg. Nearly 70 per cent of this production is on
farms of less than 10 hectares in associated cropping
systems. Beans often nodulate poorly and show low
levels of biological nitrogen fixation (BNF). Although
poor performance is often attributed to suboptimal
physical and environmental factors and to ineffective
Rhizobium phaseoli, it is evident that the bean plant is
also a limiting factor. Most cultivars do not support
high levels of BNF. The objective of this project is to
develop bean cultivars with potential for enhanced
levels of BNF in association with superior strains of
R. phaseoli, and with potential to produce high yields
in Brazilian cropping systems without supplemental
nitrogen fertilizer. Populations of inbred backcross
lines using adapted Brazilian cultivars and high
nitrogen-fixing parents are being developed. Field
trials in Brazil have shown that black bean lines
previously selected for high nitrogen-fixation in
Wisconsin perform well in Brazil. These high fixing
lines are being used to screen for competitive,
effective rhizobial strains and in experiments designed
to elucidate factors that affect fixation in prevailing
cropping systems. Preliminary experiments have
shown that when soil nitrogen is limiting, the use of
lines capable of enhanced BNF will provide yield
increases equivalent to the addition of 40 Kg/ha of
nitrogen. Adoption of improved cultivars by small
farmers should provide increased bean yields with a
minimum of additional inputs.


O BRAZIL-UNIVERSITY OF
WISCONSIN
"Improved Techniques for
Development of Multiple
Disease Resistance in Phaseolus
Vulgaris, L."
The goal of this research is to develop improved
techniques, research strategies and methodology for
use by bean breeders all over the world in the
development of multiple disease resistance in the






bean Phaseolus vulgaris L. Particular emphasis will be
given to six diseases which are especially important
in Brazil and all of Latin America: anthracnose
(Colletotrichum lindemuthianum); angular leaf spot,
(Isariopsis griseola); bean common mosiac, (bean virus
1); bean golden mosaic virus; common blight,
(Xanthomonas phaseoli); and rust (Uromyces phaseoli f.
sp. typical . Efficient and practical techniques for
use in greenhouse, screenhouse and field will be
studied. Project planning and documentation were
completed this year. Research is being initiated in
Brazil and Wisconsin. Collaborating scientists from
Brazil met with the principal investigator in Wisconsin
to review field research, and discuss plans for work
in Brazil.

CAMEROON-UNIVERSITY OF
GEORGIA
"Pest Management Strategies for
Optimizing Cowpea Yields in
Cameroon"
In northern Cameroon the cowpea is the major
indigenous pulse; however, production is severely
limited by pre- and post-harvest insects which small
farmers are unable to control with existing technology
and finances. This project is planned to develop
methods for optimizing yields and quality of cowpeas
through a collaborative research and training program
in cowpea pest management involving Cameroonian
and U.S. scientists. In Cameroon a scientist trained
in entomological research on cowpeas has been
stationed at the Institute de la Recherche
Agronomique (IRA) and is actively engaged in
research. In the U.S. at Boyce Thompson Institute,
U.S. and African strains of the cowpea weevil have
been established and biological studies are in
progress. A repellent substance deposited by the
egg-laying female has been found. Vegetable oils
which have been reported to protect peas from the
cowpea weevil in storage were found to be effective
for only a short period of time.

O DOMINICAN REPUBLIC-
UNIVERSITY OF NEBRASKA
"Biology, Epidemiology,
Genetics and Breeding for
Resistance to Bacterial and Rust
Pathogens of Beans (Phaseolus
Vulgaris L.)
Bacterial and rust diseases of dry beans are a major
yield and seed quality constraint in the Dominican






Republic. There is a serious need to reduce these
problems and to train research people to work on this
crop. The first year's objectives entailed: screening
germ plasm/breeding lines for pathogen resistance,
yield and adaptation; investigating the genetic
variability of the pathogens; improving research
facilities; and identifying graduate students for study
at the University of Nebraska. Eighteen trials were
grown on small farms (1981-1982). Two black seeded
lines (MITA 2B51 and MITA B190) and a white
seeded line (MITA 2W332) were superior to Venezuela
#44 in yield, tolerance to common blight and in
resistance to rust. These three lines will be considered
for release in 1983. Collections of isolates of the
common blight and rust pathogens were made in the
Dominican Republic. A differential reaction to the
common blight isolates was noted in a greenhouse
test indicating that it is important to test germ plasm
against a wide array of isolates. Tests indicated that
Mexico 309, MITA B190, some CIAT lines, and
Pompadour Checa (DR) had high resistance to the
rust pathogen. Two Dominican Republic students are
presently enrolled in an intensive English language
training program at the University of Nebraska in
preparation for graduate study. A new screenhouse
and two storage rooms have been constructed and a
plant pathology laboratory is being equipped in the
Dominican Republic. As a result of this research,
higher yielding disease resistant black seeded varieties
should be available for small farmer use in 1984-1985,
which hopefully will improve income and bean
consumption.



O DOMINICAN REPUBLIC-
UNIVERSITY OF PUERTO RICO
"Improvement of Bean
Production in the Dominican
Republic Through Breeding for
Multiple Disease Resistance in
the Preferred Standard
Cultivars"

The Dominican Republic/University of Puerto Rico-
Mayaguez Project, in collaboration with the Mayaguez
Institute of Tropical Agriculture (USDA-ARS),
addresses the problem of production losses in dry
beans associated with susceptibility to diseases. The
objectives of the project are to identify germ plasm
with resistance to the economically important
diseases, to combine this disease resistance in






advanced lines with other characteristics which help
reduce disease losses such as improved plant types
and earliness, and to transfer these traits to the
preferred national bean cultivars. The project has
determined that some of the Dominican Republic
standard cultivars already have a fairly high level of
resistance to some diseases and has identified the
major disease susceptibilities. The project is finding
new and improved disease resistant germ plasm
which is being transferred into suitable breeding
lines for use in the Dominican Republic and by other
projects. Substantial progress has been achieved as
the project's advanced lines being tested in the small
farmers' fields show resistance to several of the major
diseases. With the conversion of the disease
susceptible traditional cultivars into disease resistant
and higher yielding types, an increase in production
and stability over the years would be possible.


O ECUADOR-CORNELL UNIVERSITY
"Agronomic, Sociological and
Genetic Aspects of Bean Yield
and Adaptation"


Collective farming systems research is being
conducted in Ecuador by Cornell University and the
Institute Nacional de Investigaciones Agropecuarias
(INIAP). CRSP research is intended to complement
INIAP programs directed at smallholders and to
identify researchable problems for the legume
program. Short-term objectives of the project include:
the systematization of existing secondary data, the
development of an economical farming systems
research methodology, and the conduct of exploratory
field research. The first objectives were addressed by
work at Cornell during the 1981-1982 academic year.
The third objective was addressed by joint Cornell/
INIAP research in the Province of Imbabura during
July-August 1982. Outcomes of the summer research/
training activity include the training of ten INIAP
staff in Cornell's farming systems methodology, the
revision of the draft methodology, and the
preparation of several technical reports. Efforts will
continue to redefine "dominios de recomendacion"
in the Province of Imbabura and to develop systematic
criteria to permit their more precise definition in
other provinces. The Cornell methodology allows
technicians to distinguish among adjacent subregions
which differ along important agronomic and/or
socioeconomic variables. This allows research and






extension services with small staffs and limited
resources to target their activities to benefit
smallholders more precisely. Professional and
financial resources are very limited. Furthermore,
smallholders control very limited land bases, a fact
which limits increased agricultural production, even
with appropriate technology.


O GUATEMALA-CORNELL
UNIVERSITY
"Agronomic, Sociological and
Genetic Aspects of Bean Yield
and Adaptation"
This project is directed at small subsistence farmers,
particularly the indigenous Indian farmer of the
highland areas of Guatemala. The physiological-
genetic studies are directed toward understanding
the genetic (genotype) and environmental (daylength
and temperature) contributions to maturity of beans.
Temperature plus rainfall patterns establish the
duration of the growing season of a specific location.
Genotype must adapt the cultivar to durations
ranging from about 65 days in some lowland areas to
9 months in some highland areas. Data of one season
has been partially collected in Guatemala, and the
data for a second season is now being collected at
CIAT. Growth chamber studies at Cornell have
demonstrated that bean cultivars have an optimum
temperature that gives minimal days to flower. This
minimal possible days to flowering may be 30 or 40 or
50 days and is genetically but not physiological
independent of the daylength (photoperiod) and
temperature (low and high) effects on maturity.
These findings have a worldwide interpretation for
control of maturity in beans, and also in any other
crop that has a slight to large photoperiod sensitivity.
The minimal days to flowering and the photoperiod-
temperature response for beans and other crops all
appear to be controlled by separate 2-3 gene systems.


OHONDURAS-UNIVERSITY OF
PUERTO RICO
"Improvement of Bean
Production In Honduras
Through Breeding for Multiple
Disease Resistance"
The Honduras/University of Puerto Rico Bean/
Cowpea CRSP Project, in collaboration with the
USDA-ARS Mayaguez Institute of Tropical






Agriculture, was initiated in March 1982. The
contracting host country institution is the
Panamerican School of Agriculture. Like the
Dominican Republic/UPR Bean/Cowpea CRSP
Project, this project addresses the problem of dry
bean production losses associated with susceptibility
to diseases. The objectives of the project are: 1) to
identify germ plasm with resistance to the
economically important diseases 2) to combine these
disease resistances in advanced lines with other
characteristics, such as improved plant types and
earliness, which help reduce disease losses and 3) to
transfer these traits to the preferred national bean
cultivars. Evaluation of the project's multiple disease
resistant advance lines was initiated in farmers' fields
in Honduras in June 1982. Harvest of the experimental
plantings was completed in September. Preliminary
reports indicated several project lines (including
B190) show exceptional resistance under Honduran
conditions, so that the program to convert the
disease susceptible traditional cultivars into resistant
and higher yielding types can be initiated. The
availability of improved cultivars should increase and
stabilize future production. This increased production
is anticipated to benefit small farm/subsistence
families in Honduras and in other areas with similar
conditions.

~ NCAP-WASHINGTON STATE
UNIVERSITY
"Improved Biological Utilization
and Availability of Dry Beans"

The objectives of this proposed research are: (a) to
find out why the protein in dry beans is not as
digestible and available as proteins from other food
sources (b) to look at the way farmers store dry beans
and find out why some beans don't take up water or
soften during cooking and (c) to begin to breed new
lines of dry beans with better nutritional and cooking
qualities. Standardized ways to look at protein
quality and evaluate other compounds that are
present in beans and may prevent digestion or
absorption of nutrients are being developed. These
experiments are being conducted at five universities
and INCAP to insure reproducible results. In
Guatemala, beans are one of the first foods given
infants and continue to be an important source of
protein for children and adults. Beans are not generally
soaked before cooking in Guatemala. Dry beans
grown in Guatemala have been studied to determine
composition, cooking time and acceptability. In the






laboratory, both soaking and cooking were shown to
be detrimental to protein digestibility and protein
quality. Digestibility (about 50-65% of the protein
available) may be enhanced if beans are eaten with a
cereal such as corn or rice. Preliminary observations
suggest tannin compounds may be responsible for
the low digestibility of dry bean proteins. Two
treatments, heating dry beans in steam and soaking
dry beans in salt water, were studied in an attempt to
reduce the hard-to-cook phenomenon. Both
treatments reduce the concentration of tannin
compounds in dry beans. The outcome of this
research is expected to provide rural Guatemalan and
Central and South American families with dry beans
that are more nutritious and easier to cook than dry
beans available now. The resulting increase in dry
bean production and consumption will improve the
general diet and lifestyle of families in rural Central
and South America.



O KENYA-UNIVERSITY OF
CALIFORNIA (DAVIS)
"Improvement of Drought and
Heat Tolerance of Disease
Resistant Beans In Semiarid
Regions of Kenya"

Kenya has exhibited a continuing decline in per
capital food production and a dramatic increase in
population, and suffers the detrimental human,
economic, social and political consequences of these
trends. To meet food needs, particularly the
requirement for protein, a substantial increase in the
productivity of small farmers is needed. This research
program is designed to develop cultivars of beans
which are tolerant of the water and temperature
regimes which characterize the semiarid lands of
Kenya. First year objectives included: 1) establishment
of collaborative relationships between Kenyan
scientists at the University of Nairobi and at other
appropriate locations (e.g., CIAT, Malawi, Tanzania,
and U.S. institutions) 2) initiation of a pilot project on
effects of environmental stress on flower and pod
abscission and yield in California 3) development of
screening techniques for characters that improve
drought and heat adaptation 4) initiation of a bean
and tepary breeding program 5) introduction and
initiation of germ plasm between the U.S. and
Kenya; and 6) identification of Kenyan students and
technicians for training in the U.S. Progress on all
objectives has been realized.






O MALAWI-MICHIGAN STATE
UNIVERSITY
"Genetic, Agronomic, and
Socio-Cultural Analysis of
Diversity Among Bean Land
Races in Malawi"
Project objectives are: 1) to produce a quantitative
estimation of the diversity within and between the
bean populations ("land-races") which some 2/3 or
3/4 of the farmers currently grow 2) to determine
which plant/seed characteristics play the major roles
in distinguishing one race from another 3) to obtain
objective descriptions of the major agronomic-climatic
factors and biological forces operating in the
environments in which genetic diversity prevails
4) to determine the family-farmer (socio-cultural)
considerations that might be associated with
preference for and acceptance of particular land-races
or components of such races 5) to identify
contributions of farm women to bean production and
consumption, and their relationship to the central
problem of reasons for maintenance of genetic
diversity and 6) to develop a synthesis of the
agronomic, genetic, and socio-cultural factors that
would explain the diversity patterns observed in
Malawi, and reasons for their maintenance. A very
successful germ plasm collection trip has been made
in the northern region of Malawi, and a team of
Malawian young women has spent some 212 months
in training, and in interviewing and observing in
farm households identified during the collection trip
as being appropriate for the socio-cultural research.
Students at the masters, doctoral, and post-doctoral
levels have been identified and arrangements made
for their participation in the project.


O MEXICO-MICHIGAN STATE
UNIVERSITY
"Improving Resistance to
Environmental Stress (Drought,
Nitrogen) in Beans Through
Genetic Selection for
Carbohydrate Partitioning and
Efficiency of Biological Nitrogen
Fixation."

The project was approved in September 1982. Two
field experiments were established at Michigan State
University in June 1982. One involved beans under
low and supplemental levels of soil nitrogen, the






objective being to screen for ability to grown on N-
deficient'soil. The other involved beans previously
screened for growth and yield under drought
conditions, obtained from CIAT and MSU, and
grown under combinations of irrigated vs. rainfed
and high and low nitrogen conditions. No data are
available at this time.



O NIGERIA-UNIVERSITY OF
GEORGIA
"Appropriate Technology for
Cowpea Preservation and
Processing and a Study of its
Socio-Economic Impact on Rural
Populations in Nigeria"

Problems being addressed by this project are post-
harvest storage losses of cowpeas and cowpea
products and time-consuming, laborious, energy-
demanding methods of preparing cowpeas for food.
Objectives of the project research are to: (a) identify
cowpea patterns and constraints which limit
utilization (b) develop treatments which prevent
storage losses of cowpeas and cowpea products
(c) develop processes to produce a convenient, shelf-
stable, functional, and nutritious cowpea product
(meal/flour) and optimize process conditions and
(d) train host country and U.S. graduate students in
techniques of food science and technology related to
the objectives (a-c). Progress made to date includes:
(a) preparation of the first draft of the survey
instrument (b) partial survey of existing technologies
to decorticate and mill cowpeas (c) acquisition by
UGA of equipment for dry, abrasive decortication of
cowpeas (d) acquisition of cowpea seeds from
Nigeria for processing studies and for planting 1983
crop of several cultivars and (e) completion of
preliminary study of the microbiological quality of
cowpea flour processed by existing techniques from
an American cultivar. Additional project-related
activities included extrusion cooking of cowpeas and
preliminary studies on milling and its effect on
physical characteristics, functionality, and nutritional
quality of cowpeas. Successful project research
should foster increased utilization of cowpeas among
Nigerians by development of means to increase the
quantity of cowpeas available for consumption and to
facilitate their use in preparation of traditional
dishes.






O NIGERIA-MICHIGAN STATE
UNIVERSITY
"Medical Problems Associated
with Feeding Cowpeas to
Children"

This project seeks to explore the relationship
between cowpea consumption and the high incidence
of diarrhea and other adverse effects in weaned
children aged between 6 months and 24 months in
less developed countries (LDCs). Evidence suggests
that mothers in LDCs are reluctant to feed cowpeas
to their weanlings because of the associated
undesirable effects on bowel function at this age.
Recent demonstration (by two of our co-workers) of
the presence of undigestable oligosaccharides in
cowpeas suggests a possible pathophysiologic
explanation for this effect in weanlings. A
multidisciplinary team of researchers has designed
several human, animal laboratory, and community
studies to be carried out both in the United States
and Nigeria, to determine the major causes of such
adverse effects in order to eliminate them. The first
year has been largely organizational. The instruments
for assessing the prevalence of side effects of cowpeas
fed to weanlings have been purchased and training
in their use has been received by U.S. and Nigerian
scientists. Retirement of the original principal
investigator has required the appointment of a
replacement. Communication problems have greatly
hampered this project. With the expected increase in
food demand in Africa (76% by 1985), a greater
reliance will be placed on cowpeas as a high source of
nutrients. The successful completion of this research
project has the potential of increasing the protein
availability of the at-risk population of young
children.



SSENEGAL-UNIVERSITY OF
CALIFORNIA (RIVERSIDE)
"A Program to Develop
Improved Cowpea Cultivars for
Production and Utilization in
Semiarid Zones"

The objectives of this project are to develop
improved cowpea cultivars and management
methods for hot, semiarid environments, and
cowpea production systems for farmers in Senegal
that will enable them to produce adequate supplies






of food even with variations in environmental and
economic conditions. Collaborators from the
Senegalese Institute of Agricultural Research (ISRA)
have been (a) evaluating different cowpea production
systems in contrasting semiarid environments in
Senegal (b) developing guidelines concerning the
cropping systems, cultivars, and methods for
preventing damage due to insect pests that are
appropriate for farmers. University of California at
Riverside (UCR) scientists have developed advanced
cowpea lines from crosses between cultivars from
California and Senegal which have improved
resistance to drought. Several of these lines have
been yield-tested over two seasons in wet and dry
environments in California and in Senegal. A cowpea
breeding project has been initiated at UCR. A member
of ISRA is presently receiving training in cowpea
breeding at the University of California at Davis
(UCD). The program at UCD has produced cowpea
lines with earliness and high yield potential which
are being yield tested this summer in Davis, Riverside,
and Senegal together with advanced lines from
Senegal, UCR, and IITA. Screening tests for tolerance
to drought and salinity, and for differences in
nodulation under drought are being developed at the
University of Arizona.

O TANZANIA-WASHINGTON STATE
UNIVERSITY
"Breeding Beans (Phaseolus
Vulgaris) for Disease and Insect
Resistance and Determination of
Their Economic Impact on
Subsistence Farm Families"
The goal of this project is to breed beans (Phaseolus)
for disease and insect resistance and to determine
their economic impact on subsistence farm families.
A socio-economic study of 60 families in each of two
or three villages in different ecological zones provides
background data against which to measure future
progress. An economic evaluation will be made of
the major disease and insect problems that affect
production and storage. Women's involvement in
the production, storage, consumption and marketing
of beans will be identified. The breeding program has
been initiated at Prosser and CIAT. Mixed cropping
system studies (beans and maize) involving
interactions with major diseases and field insects are
in progress. Village level demonstrations on the
control of storage insects with oil are underway.
Disease studies to develop screening methods and to






evaluate pathogen variation have been initiated for
rust, angular leaf spot, anthracnose and bean common
mosiac virus. The effect of boron and molybdenum
on nodulation and yield is being investigated. Five
graduate students (3 Tanzanian) are working on
advanced degrees. The project has attracted the
interest and active collaboration of non-project
researchers in three Tanzanian research centers, and
of CIAT. A bean researchers' workshop was held in
Morogoro; about 10 non-project and 14 project
researchers participated. By 1985, village level trials
by small farm families should be showing 50% gains
in yields (using an interim variety with resistance to
angular leaf spot, rust and anthracnose), and 50%
reduction in storage losses due to bean weevils.
Incremental improvements with more resistance will
begin by 1990. By 2000, high yielding, widely adapted,
disease and insect resistant new varieties should be
averaging about 1,500 kg/ha instead of the present
700 kg/ha.






















For further information contact:
Bean/Cowpea CRSP
200 Center for International Programs
Michigan State University
East Lansing, Michigan 48824
U.S.A.
Telephone: (517) 355-4693
Telex: 810-251-0737
MSU INT PRO ELSG






BEAN/COWPEA CRSP
BOARD OF DIRECTORS, 1982
Dr. J. F. Metz, Jr., Chairperson
Director, International Agriculture
Cornell University
Ithaca, NY 14853
Dr. Dale Harpstead
Chairperson, Department of Crop & Soil Sciences
Michigan State University
East Lansing, MI 48824
Dr. Robert Hougas
Director, Experiment Station
University of Wisconsin
Madison, WI 53706
Dr. Donal D. Johnson
Dean, College of Agricultural Sciences
Colorado State University
Fort Collins, CO 80523
Dr. Calvin Qualset
Associate Dean, College of Agriculture and
Environmental Sciences
University of California-Davis
Davis, CA 95616

BEAN/COWPEA CRSP
TECHNICAL COMMITTEE, 1982


Dr. Barbara Webster
Chairperson
Dept. of Agronomy &
Range Science
University of California
Davis, CA 95616

Dr. Larry R. Beuchat
Dept. of Food Science
University of Georgia
Agr. Experiment Station
Experiment, GA 30212

Dr. Fred Bliss
Dept. of Horticulture
University of Wisconsin
Madison, WI 53705


Dr. Dermot P. Coyne
Dept. of Horticulture
University of Nebraska
Lincoln, NE 68583

Dr. Azuka Dike
Dept. of Sociology/
Anthropology
University of Nigeria
Nsukka, NIGERIA

Dr. Julio Lopez-Rosa
Office of the Dean
University of Puerto Rico
College of Agricultural
Sciences
Mayaguez, PR 00708


Dr. Aart Van Schoonhoven
Coordinator, Bean Program
Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical (CIAT)
Apartado Aereo 6713
Cali, COLOMBIA










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