Front Cover
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Organization of the bean/cowpea...
 Project annual reports
 Budget report
 Management office conclusions
 Back Cover

Annual report
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00055292/00005
 Material Information
Title: Annual report
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 23-28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Bean/Cowpea Collaborative Research Support Program
Publisher: Michigan State University
Place of Publication: East Lansing, Mich
Publication Date: 1981
Frequency: annual
Subjects / Keywords: Beans -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
Numbering Peculiarities: Issued in parts: Part one. Technical summary.--Part two. External review panel.
General Note: Description based on: 1983.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 19930082
lccn - sn 89013327
System ID: UF00055292:00005

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page i
    Title Page
        Page ii
    Table of Contents
        Page iii
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
    Organization of the bean/cowpea CRSP
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
    Project annual reports
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
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        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
    Budget report
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
    Management office conclusions
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
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    Back Cover
        Page 112
Full Text








Prepared by:
Bean/Cowpea CRSP
Management Office Staff
Michigan State University
East Lansing, Michigan 48824 U.S.A.

December 1981




( CRSP )



INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
Goal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
Objectives Distributed Among Projects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
Objectives Shared by All Projects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
Bean/Cowpea CRSP Strategy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
Unique Features of the Bean/Cowpea CRSP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
Features of CRSPs in General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3

ORGANIZATION OF THE BEAN/COWPEA CRSP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
The Board of Directors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
The Technical Committee . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
The External Review Panel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
The Management Office. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7

PROJECT ANNUAL REPORTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Summaries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10

BUDGET REPORT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
Table 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
Table 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
Table 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30

MANAGEMENT OFFICE CONCLUSIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31

A - Report from Chairperson of Board of Directors
B - Report from Chairperson of Technical Committee
C - Plan of Work - Women in Development
D - Project Annual Reports


The Bean/Cowpea CRSP is a coordinated effort established on September 30,
1980, to address hunger and malnutrition in Africa and Latin America through
research on the production and utilization of beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) and
cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata).

Beans and cowpeas are dietary staples in the countries associated with
this CRSP. Among the poor, these legumes provide the major source of high
quality, affordable protein, as well as an important source of B vitamins.
The CRSP focus is on beans and cowpeas grown as food for household consumption,
rather than as export crops.

Based on a global plan developed in concert with Host Country colleagues,
the CRSP is made up of a series of discrete but integrated international
research projects involving teams of scientists collaborating in a study of
individual facets of the overall plan. Eighteen research projects, each led
by a Principal Investigator from one of the U.S. research institutions, were
developed from over 80 proposals initially received.

These vigorous international research partnerships directly involve
research institutions in 12 Host Countries, 2 International Centers and 14
U.S. agricultural research institutions, including the nine having lead roles
in the CRSP.

Special emphasis is placed on the needs and resources of the subsistence
farm family. These family units are major producers and consumers of beans
and cowpeas. As a group they are highly susceptible to problems of hunger,
malnutrition, and poverty. Resources for food production are very limited,
including productive soils, water, improved seed, fertilizer, pesticides, and
machinery. Climates are often hostile, and farming operations are usually
conducted by hand labor, although animal power is used when available.

Storage, preparation, and human utilization of beans and cowpeas present
additional problems. Storage loss to insects is high, and represents
debilitating loss of labor inputs as well as other resources. Traditional
bean and cowpea preparation methods require high investments of not only water
and fuel, but time and labor as well.

In much of the world, women are uniquely involved in production, storage,
and utilization of beans and cowpeas. Therefore, it is reasonable that the
Bean/Cowpea CRSP should maintain a special purview of the role of women and of
the implication of CRSP research on women in its activities and objectives.
The objective that application of CRSP findings must maintain or improve the
quality of family ecology follows easily from the focus on women in
international development.


Reflecting the mission of the "Famine Prevention and Freedom from Hunger
Act" (Title XII) under which the program is funded, the goal of the
Bean/Cowpea CRSP is to make a substantive contribution to the eradication of
hunger and malnutrition in identified developing countries where beans and
cowpeas are a major source of calories and protein.

Objectives Distributed Among Projects

- Variety improvement
- Insect and disease control
- Productive and stable farming systems
- Efficient nitrogen fixation and soil phosphorus utilization
- Drought and heat tolerance
- Improved nutrition and digestibility
- Improved seed and seed availability
- Reduced cooking requirements
- Improved storage and methods of preparation
- Understanding of the socioeconomic implications of agronomic intervention
- Understanding of the farming systems within which beans and cowpeas are

Objectives Shared by All Projects

- Training Host Country professional and technical personnel
- Development of research capability in collaborating institutions
- Participation of senior U.S. researchers with their counterparts in
research institutions in Host Countries

Bean/Cowpea CRSP Strategy

The Bean/Cowpea CRSP strategy is to identify universal constraints to
production, availability and consumption of beans and cowpeas, and to address
them through research in settings where they have unique local importance.

The CRSP avoids duplicating existing research. It participates with
national programs and regional and international centers in identifying
constraints, and in planning and executing research. It will utilize the same
linkages to disseminate its research findings.

Unique Features of the Bean/Cowpea CRSP

While the Bean/Cowpea CRSP shares common features with other CRSPs it has
organizational or administrative characteristics which tend to give it a
separate identity. These include:

1. A manageable number of Title XII Lead Institutions (9) and a
straight-forward organizational structure.


2. Collaboration with a number of Host Countries including: Brazil,
Cameroon, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Guatemala, Honduras, Kenya,
Malawi, Nigeria, Senegal, Tanzania.

3. Diffusion of 18 projects in East and West Africa, Central and South
America and the Caribbean, averaging $97,000 USAID annual contribution
per project.
One country hosts 3 projects
Three countries host 2 projects
Eight countries host single projects

4. Prior to operational establishment of the CRSP the entire array of
projects, U.S. and Host Country institutions, and investigators were
identified in the planning process.

5. A Women in International Development Specialist on the CRSP
Management Office staff.

6. U.S. Lead Institutions prepared to provide programmatic and fiscal
management of research on either beans or cowpeas, supplemented by
researchers from collaborating U.S. institutions to create teams with
broad technical expertise and unique resources.

One project includes 5 collaborating U.S. institutions
One project includes 2 collaborating U.S. institutions
Three projects include 1 collaborating U.S. institution
The remaining 10 projects involve a single U.S. institution

In addition, Boyce Thompson Institute for Plant Research will
manage one project.

Features of CRSPs in General

The Bean/Cowpea CRSP is one of four current CRSP programs, which
collectively involve 30 universities, 27 countries, and six international
centers. Unique advantages of CRSPs include:

a. Involving leading scientists from U.S. institutions, many of whom
would not otherwise be engaged in international work.

b. Obtaining major resource contributions from U.S. and Host Country
institutions, which combine to nearly equal the USAID contributions.

c. Creating scientist-to-scientist and institution-to-institution
linkages, with major emphasis on program activities in Host Countries.

d. Accruing dual benefits to both U.S. and Host Country agriculture
which offer an incentive to state legislatures and universities to



The Bean/Cowpea CRSP Grant was awarded by USAID to Michigan State
University on September 30, 1980. Michigan State University was designated as
the Management Entity (ME) of the CRSP. The University has created a
Management Office (MO) for CRSP activities. On January 2, 1981 the CRSP
Management Office staff was expanded to its present size, and moved into new
offices. Three groups work closely with the University and MO to guide the
CRSP in areas of policy, budget management, technology, and review.

The Board of Directors

The Board of Directors, herein referred to as the Board, is the executive
committee for CRSP policy and budget. It consists of 5 institutional
representatives (IR's), elected for 2-year terms by the entire group of 9
IR's. IR's are designated by the presidents of their institutions to
represent them for CRSP policy and administrative matters. They are typically
administrators of international programs. The Board elects a chairman and

The members of the Board of Directors for FY-81 were:

Dr. J.F. Metz, Jr. (Chairperson) Dr. Robert Hougas (Secretary)
Director, International Agriculture Director, Experiment Station
Cornell University University of Wisconsin

Dr. E. Broadus Browne, Director Dr. Dale Harpstead, Chairperson
Coastal Plains Experiment Station Department Crop and Soil Sciences
University of Georgia Michigan State University

Dr. R.W. Kleis, Dean and Director
International Programs
Inst. of Agriculture & Natural Resources
University of Nebraska

The Board held five meetings during the year. Action taken at those
meetings included:

1. Selection of a Director for the Bean/Cowpea CRSP Management Office,
approval of additional support staff and creation of Management
Office facilities.

2. Establishment of budget policies for the Management Office and
project management.

3. Review and approval of contract documents to be used in Host Country
negotiations (MOU, Subagreement) and review of document between
Management Entity (MSU) and the Lead Institutions and Contractor in
the United States.


4. Review and approval of project proposals, following recommendation to
the Board by the Technical Committee and independent review by the

5. Nomination of External Review Panel candidates for USAID/JRC action.

6. Certification of election of new members to the Board, and election
of new members to the Technical Committee.

The report from Board Chairperson Dr. Joseph Metz is included as Appendix
A of this report.

The Technical Committee

The Technical Committee, herein referred to as TC, advises the Board, ME,
and MO in areas of research technology, project management, and technical
review. It has specific responsibility for review of candidate projects for
inclusion in the CRSP. The TC consists of five investigators engaged in CRSP
projects from U.S. institutions, plus two international members - one from an
international research center, and one from a participating Host Country
institution. TC members are appointed to 2-year terms by the Board.

The members of the Technical Committee for FY-81 were:

Dr. Barbara Webster (Chairperson)
Department Agronomy & Range Science
University of California-Davis

Dr. M. Wayne Adams
Department of Crop & Soil Sciences
Michigan State University

Dr. Jean M. Due
Department of Agricultural Economics
University of Illinois-Urbana

Dr. Aart van Schoonhoven, Coordinator
Bean Program - CIAT

The Technical Committee held 5 meetings

Dr. Larry R. Beuchat (Secretary)
Department of Food Science
University of Georgia

Dr. Azuka Dike
Department Sociology/Anthropology
University of Nigeria

Dr. Donald H. Wallace
Plant Breeding Department
Cornell University

during the year. Actions taken

1. Participation in the review of candidates for the Director for the
Bean/Cowpea CRSP Management Office, and recommendations on selection
to the CRSP Board of Directors.

2. Review of contract documents to be used in Host Country negotiations
(MOU, Subagreement) and between the Management Entity (MSU) and the
Lead Institutions in the United States (Subgrants).

3. Review and support of plans for major Bean/Cowpea-related
publications, a State-of-the-Art (SOTA) being compiled by Dr. M.
Wayne Adams, and an annual publication "Advances in Grain Legume
Science" for which Dr. Donald Wallace is taking development
responsibilities, as Editor-in-Chief.

4. Nomination of candidates to represent the Host Countries and
International Centers on the Technical Committee.

5. Establishment of mechanisms for maintaining linkages with
International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA) and
International Center for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT).

6. Substantive review of each project proposal. On the basis of initial
review by committee members individually, the TC agreed as a group to
forward proposals to the Board for approval, or return to the
Principal Investigator for adjustments.

7. Recommendation of candidates for the External Review Panel to the

8. Personnel recommendations in response to Technical Assistance

9. Consideration of project reporting, forward planning and budgeting
procedures to be established for each project Principal Investigator.

10. Plans for a Bean Workshop at CIAT (November, 1981) to strengthen
linkages between project teams and the international center.

The report from Technical Committee Chairperson Dr. Barbara Webster is
included as Appendix B of this report.

The External Review Panel

The External Review Panel, herein referred to as ERP, advisory to USAID,
the ME, and the CRSP, will be responsible for review and evaluation of CRSP
management and the progress of research activities. It will consist of
eminent scientists experienced in research and management of development
activities similar to CRSP programs. The ERP is to be appointed by USAID,
with recommendations from the Board and ME

It is expected that the ERP will convene for the first time in November,
1982. The Board submitted its recommendations to USAID during FY-81, but no
appointments were made within the fiscal year.


The Management Office

The Managment Office, herein referred to as MO, is charged with
facilitating activities of the CRSP on behalf of the ME, providing staff
resources to the Board and TC, and supporting activities of the ERP. MO
consists of a Director, Deputy Director, Women in International Development
(WID) Specialist, and Administrative Officer, plus office staff, totalling
4 3/4 FTEs.

The Management Office staff and facilities were initiated within FY-81.
In January, 1981, the staffing was complete, and includes:

Dr. Donald R. Isleib, Director
Dr. Pat Barnes-McConnell, Deputy Director
Mrs. Nancy W. Axinn, WID Specialist
Mr. George A. Davies, Administrative Officer
Ms. Darlene Ashley, Administrative Assistant
Mrs. Mary K. Carter, Secretary

The offices, in 200 Center for International Programs, provide adequate
work space and facilities for the on-going activities of the CRSP. Word
processing equipment, capable of handling documentation and the accounting and
bookkeeping for the multiple budgets of the CRSP, was purchased and installed.

The activities of the staff in the Management Office in FY-81 focused on
getting projects from the planning stage into active collaborative research
with appropriate documentation and budgetary support. In most cases, this
included travel to the Host Country for a representative of the Management
Office, with the Principal Investigator, and frequently co-investigators.
Documents were reviewed with appropriate officials in the Host Country,
including USAID mission personnel, Host Country government officials, and the
institution of the Host Country Principal Investigator, usually a research
station or university. In many cases, the documents were adapted in response
to particular national or institutional requirements. Signatures on each
document were obtained following those meetings. Typically, six months has
been required to complete the CRSP documents.

Extensive review of the research project proposal also occurred during
these trips. Refinement of goals, time frames and budgetary needs were
developed when PIs from the Lead U.S. institution and the Host Country had the
opportunity for the final face-to-face dialogue before implementation. Money
transfer and audit considerations were also reviewed. In some cases it was
possible to establish procedures which were mutually acceptable; in other
cases, this process is still being developed.

In each case, it was clear that this additional opportunity for all
concerned parties to meet at the Host Country research site at this critical
stage greatly strengthened the collaborative spirit and reduced the
communication problems which develop when mail is slow and telephone
communication unreliable.

While appropriate documents were being reviewed and established in Host
Countries, the principal documents (Subgrants and Subordinate Agreements) were
being reviewed and signed at U.S. Lead Institutions. MO staff traveled to
some institutions to assist with this process. As project proposals were
approved, the MO processed requests to USAID for travel clearances and
purchase approvals and waivers.

Publications from the MO during FY-81 include a CRSP brochure and the
first issue of a Newsletter to be published regularly.

In August, the Women in International Development Specialist position was
expanded from one-quarter time to three-quarters time. An expanded plan of
work was developed, focusing on strengthening the involvement of women in the
research process in the U.S. and Host Country, networking women scientists who
are involved in related research projects at other institutions, and
continuing to develop the Principal Investigators' awareness of Women in
International Development issues as they relate to each particular project and
Host Country. The 1981 version of this plan is included as Appendix C of this
report. News items and publications which strengthen the WID component of the
CRSP are shared with research scientists, as appropriate. Additionally,
the specialist's experience and expertise in field research in developing
countries is supporting research projects as they involve rural women.



Initiation of the eighteen research projects identified in the CRSP Grant
was among the first objectives adopted by the MO. The CRSP Board of Directors
and MO staff agreed on the concept that no project activity should be
undertaken with CRSP funds in the U.S. until such time as the project was
ready for initiation in an identified Host Country. Furthermore, all
participants, including Host Country governments and USAID Missions, would be
involved in project development and committed to project proposals and budgets
before any Subgrant to a U.S. Lead Institution would be established.

The process for project initiation included: 1) project proposal review
by the CRSP Technical Committee (proposals written by U.S. Lead Institution
Principal Investigator based on earlier discussions with Host Country
Principal Investigator on site); 2) follow-up conference of the U.S. project
teams with Host Country collaborators for review/revision of each proposal,
and 3) final approval of the proposal by the CRSP Board of Directors. An
additional requirement was that a Memorandum of Understanding was signed by an
appropriate Host Country official, a Host Country research institution-
administrator, a USAID Mission representative and a Bean/Cowpea CRSP MO
program staff member.


While the planning process had identified the projects, U.S. and Host
Country institutions and project leaders, considerable administrative and
technical detail remained to be completed. These tasks had been initiated for
one project during 1980; by August-1981, CRSP teams had visited 10 countries
to develop 15 projects. Twelve of these projects were established in the Lead
Institutions during FY-81, three more awaited only final Host Country action
to conclude the process.

Through pre-Subgrant project proposal development travel, both by Host
Country personnel in the U.S. and by U.S. teams to Host Countries, strong
contributions were made to the CRSP network.

In addition to completion of CRSP documents, pre-Subgrant travel was
undertaken for the purpose of interviewing staff and graduate students for
assignment to Host Country project research sites.

Review of Principal Investigator's annual reports reveals that in addition
to the planned collaborative research, there is a spin-off of interaction
among concerned scientists, some who are project participants, and some who
are not, culminating in a greater focus on beans and cowpeas than was
envisioned originally. A network of research practitioners is developing
which will strengthen the scientific field in the United States and throughout
the developing world.

Women scientists are involved in many of the Bean/Cowpea research
projects. They are the Principal Investigators in two projects. They are
co-investigators in four projects (one recently resigned from the
collaborating university since the initiation of the project, and was replaced
by a man). They are technicians in five projects; in some cases assigned 100%
to the CRSP research. In others it is a part of their total responsibility.
Women graduate assistants are involved in several of the projects.

In the Host Countries, a few women scientists have been involved as
co-investigators. Some women students have also participated in project
work. In Brazil, women scientists in the topic area have been identified, and
will be used as consultants. Three women have already been nominated as
trainees. Unfortunately one of these who matriculated at a U.S. university
found the adjustment too difficult and returned home. Field activity is too
recent to reflect implications of the research for women who are cultivators,
processors and consumers of beans and cowpeas.

Training of Host Country scientists is an important component of each CRSP
research project. Even in the planning stage of the projects, attention is
given to identify candidates for advanced graduate training, or specific short
term training appropriate for the research project. Several people from Host
Countries are already in graduate school at the collaborating U.S.
institutions in Masters and PhD degree programs. U.S. research scientists are
also receiving training in language and socio-cultural aspects of the areas in
which they will be working. Additionally, they are making preparation for the

field work and analysis they will be carrying out in the Host Country. Short
term training in the U.S. for Host Country scientists in specific scientific
techniques needed for research activities is planned. Details of these
training arrangements can be found in the full text of the Principal
Investigators' Annual Reports.

MO summaries from Principal Investigators' annual reports follow. The
complete FY-81 annual reports as submitted by the Principal Investigators are
included in Appendix D.


"Identification of Superior Bean-Rhizobia Combinations and Utilization
in Cropping Systems Suitable to Small Farms in Brazil"

Principal Investigator:


Principal Investigators,

Dr. Fred A. Bliss
Department of Horticulture
University of Wisconsin-Madison

Dr. Frank Dazzo
Crop & Soil Science Department
Microbiology Department
Michigan State University

Mr. Pedro Pereira
Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de Arroz e Feijao
EMBRAPA, Goiania

Mr. Ricardo da Roche

Summary of progress:

Project planning and documents nearly complete in Brazil and the U.S.

Project not initiated in FY-1981.

Trainee for future graduate work has been identified.

One international trip was made to develop administrative and research



"Insect Pathogens in Cowpea Pest Management Systems for Developing Nations"

Principal Investigator: Dr. Donald W. Roberts
Insect Pathology Resource Center,
Boyce Thompson Institute for Plant Research

Co-Investigator: Dr. Richard Soper
USDA Insect Pathology Research Unit
Boyce Thompson Institute

Principal Investigator,
Brazil: Dr. Almiro Blumenschein
Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de Arroz e Feijao

Co-Investigators: Dr. Evani Ferreira
Entomologist, CNPAF

Dr. Gerson Pereira Rios
Plant Pathologist, CNPAF

Belmiro Pereira das Neves
Entomologist, CNPAF

Summary of Progress:

Project planning and documents completed in Brazil and the U.S.

Arrangements have been completed to establish the Insect Pathology
Resource Center (Brazil) in CNPAF/EMBRAPA, Goiania.

Arrangements have been made to conduct surveys for cowpea pests in
cowpea-growing regions in Brazil.

Equipment and facilities are in place for the establishment of an Empoasia
colony at BTI.

BTI scientist prepared for long-term on-site assignment at CNPAF/EMBRAPA.

One Brazilian entomologist will work as trainee (counterpart) with on-site
project scientist posted from BTI. He will later be nominated for PhD

(Summary continued on following page)



Short-term training initiated for scientists at CNPAF (including one

Training opportunity identified for non-Brazilian Latin American
scientists as part of the program at CNPAF.

Two international CRSP Team trips were made to develop and complete
administrative and research plans.


"Pest Management Strategies for Optimizing Cowpea Yields in Cameroon"

Principal Investigator: Dr. Richard B. Chalfant
Department of Entomology and Fisheries
Coastal Plain Station
University of Georgia

Co-Investigators: Dr. J.A.A. Renwick
Boyce Thompson Institute

Dr. P. Richard Hughes
Boyce Thompson Institute
Principal Investigator,
Cameroon: Dr. J.P. Eckebil
Institute of Agricultural Research
Department of Agronomy and Forestry Research
Yaounde, Cameroon

Co-Investigator: To be named by IRA, Cameroon

Summary of progress:

Documents not yet signed by Cameroon government.

Entomologist, completing PhD at the University of Ibadan and IITA
recruited and approved by HC government as long term researcher to be
posted at Maroua when documentation is completed. (Expected to begin in
early 1982).

An African and U.S. strain of cowpea weavil are in culture at BTI.

One international CRSP Team trip was made to develop administrative and
research plans.



"Biology, Epidemiology, Genetics and Breeding for Resistance
to Bacterial and Rust Pathogens of Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L)"

Principal Investigator: Dr. Dermot P. Coyne
Department of Horticulture
University of Nebraska

Co-Investigators: Dr. Max L. Schuster
Department of Plant Pathology
University of Nebraska

Dr. James R. Steadman
Department of Plant Pathology
University of Nebraska

Principal Investigator,
Dominican Republic: Dr. Cesar V. Paniagua
Secretaria de Estado de Agricultura

Summary of progress:

Project planning and documents completed in Dominican Republic and the U.S.

Varietal trials for blight tolerance have begun.

Pathogenicity of blighted samples being tested.

Experiments on survival of bean bacteria on bean debris under field
conditions will be planned.

Implementation of a disease free seed program is being considered.

Dominican Republic candidate for graduate study returned to Dominican
Republic; new candidates are being identified.

Three international CRSP Team trips have been made to develop and complete
administrative and research plans.



"Improvement of Bean Production in the Dominican Republic Through Breeding
for Multiple Disease Resistance in the Preferred Standard Cultivars"

Principal Investigator: Dr. Julio Lopez-Rosa
University of Puerto Rico
Mayaguez Institute of Tropical Agriculture (MITA)

Co-Investigator: Dr. George F. Freytag

Principal Investigator,
Dominican Republic: Dr. Cesar Paniagua
Secretaria de Estado de Agricultura

Summary of progress:

Project planning and documents completed in Dominican Republic and the U.S.

New germ plasm tested.

Disease resistant populations identified and experiments initiated which
would reduce time lag constraints.

Development of P. coccineus and recurrent selection populations proceeding.

Bacterial blight resistant breeding line XR-235-1-1 formally released.

Field trials on small farms in the Dominican Republic initiated.

Breeding program to transfer multiple disease resistance to standard
Dominican Republic cultivars initiated.

One Dominican Republic scientist is enrolled in a master's program in the
Department of Crop Protection, MPR, Mayaguez campus.

Two international CRSP Team trips were made to develop and complete
administrative and research plans.



"Agronomic, Sociological and Genetic Aspects of Bean Yield and Adaptation"

Principal Investigator: Dr. Donald H. Wallace
Department of Plant Breeding and Biochemistry
Cornell University

Co-Investigators: Dr. Patricia Garrett
Rural Sociology Department
Cornell University

Dr. Roger F. Sandsted
Vegetable Crops Department
Cornell University

Dr. H. Chris Wien
Vegetable Crops Department
Cornell University

Principal Investigator,
Ecuador: Cesar Chiriboga
Institute Nacional de Investigaciones Agropecurias

Administrative Advisor: Patricia Espinosa
Institute Nacional de Investigaciones Agropecurias

Summary of progress:

Project planning and documents completed in Ecuador and the U.S.

Project adjusted to emphasize socioagronomic aspects of the research, in
response to request from Ecuador.

Arrangements made that physiological genetics of bean maturity research
applicable in Ecuador will be carried out by scientists stationed in CIAT
and Guatemala.

Arrangements made for site selection and long term researchers to be
assigned to site in FY-82.

One international CRSP Team trip was made to develop and complete
administrative and research plans.


"Agronomic, Sociological and Genetic Aspects of Bean Yield and Adaptation"

Principal Investigator: Dr. Donald H. Wallace
Department of Plant Breeding and Biochemistry
Cornell University

Co-Investigators: Dr. Patricia Garrett
Rural Sociology Department
Cornell University

Dr. Roger F. Sandsted
Vegetable Crops Department
Cornell University

Dr. H. Chris Wien
Vegetable Crops Department
Cornell University

Principal Investigators,
Guatemala: Porfirio N. Masaya, Bean Program Leader
Institute de Ciencia y Technologia Agucolas

Selvin Arreigo, Farming Systems Leader
Institute de Ciencia y Technologia Agucolas

Summary of progress:

Project planning and documents completed in Guatemala and the U.S.

Research at Cornell on the effects of day length and temperature on beans
has demonstrated that beans and other crop species with photoperiod sensi-
tivity exhibit an optimal temperature for development toward flowering.
The complexities of the physiological-genetics of photoperiod control of
delays in flowering of beans have been demonstrated by the collaborating
Principal Investigators. Guatemala has projects underway on breeding for
early maturity for both moderate and high elevation locations. Further
field research is planned at CIAT for variable elevations.

Guatemalan member of the socio-agronomic team of Guatemala's crop research
organization has been nominated for graduate study in social science at

A graduate student from Cornell will undertake the physiological-genetic
studies at CIAT germane to the Guatemala crop environment.

Three international CRSP Team trips were made to develop and complete
administrative and research plans.



"Improvement of

Principal Investigator:


Principal Investigators,

Bean Production in Honduras Through Breeding for
Multiple Disease Resistance"

Dr. Julio Lopez-Rosa
Department of Crop Protection
University of Puerto Rico
Mayaguez Campus

Dr. George F. Freytag
University of Puerto Rico
Mayaguez Campus

Dr. James S. Beaver
Department of Agronomy
University of Puerto Rico
Mayaguez Campus

Dr. Pablo E. Paz
Department of Agronomy
Escuela Agricola Panamericana

Dr. Mario Contreras
Department of Agronomy
Escuela Agricola Panamericana

Summary of progress:

Project planning and documents nearly complete in Honduras and the U.S.

Unique relationship of Escuela Agricola Panamericana (EAP) to Honduras has
complicated documentation negotiations, as has establishment of research
policy by EAP Board of Directors.

A positive collaborative relationship between EAP, the Ministry of
Agriculture in Honduras, and the CRSP is anticipated.

Two international CRSP Team trips were made to develop administrative and
research plans.



"Improved Biological Utilization and Availability of Dry Beans"

Principal Investigator:


Dr. Barry G. Swanson
Department of Food Science and Technology
Washington State University

Dr. Elizabeth Varriano-Marsten
Department of Grain Science
Kansas State University

Dr. Donald Wood
Department of Agronomy
Colorado State University

Dr. George Hosfield
Department of Crop and Soil Sciences
Michigan State University

Dr. Mark A. Uebersax
Department of Food Science
Michigan State University

& Human Nutrition

Dr. Julio Lopez-Rosa
Agricultural Experiment Station
University of Puerto Rico

Principal Investigator,


Dr. Ricardo Bressani, Chief
Division of Agriculture and Food Science
Institute for Nutrition in Central America and
Panama (INCAP)

Edgar Braham

Luis Elias

Mario Molina

R. Gomez-Brenes

(Summary continued on following page)



Summary of Progress:

Project planning and documents are nearly complete in Guatemala and the

Initial work has begun on the evaluation of analytical methodology for
characterizing polyphenols, both hydrolyzable and condensed tannins, of
dry beans. Preliminary experiments demonstrated that the procyanidin
fraction of total polyphenolic compounds interacted with the proteins of
dry beans.

Research has begun to establish analytical methods to determine the cause
of the "hard-to-cook" phenomenon on dry beans. Preliminary research with
protein isolation and purification techniques using affinity chromato-
graphy has been completed. Procedures are being established at Washington
State University to study the in vitro digestability of dry bean proteins.

Genetic programs have been initiated to study the proteins developed in
dry beans during seed development, and their relationship to inheritance
of the "hard-to-cook" phenomenon in dry beans.

One international CRSP Team trip was made to develop administrative and
research plans.


"Improvement of Drought and Heat Tolerance of Disease Resistant Beans
in Semi-Arid Regions of Kenya"

Principal Investigators: Dr. Barbara D. Webster
Department of Agronomy and Range Science
University of California-Davis

Dr. J. Giles Waines
Department of Botany and Plant Science
University of California-Riverside

Co-Investigators: Dr. Ken W. Foster
Department of Agronomy and Range Science
University of California-Davis

Dr. Anthony E. Hall
Department of Botany and Plant Science
University of California-Riverside

(Summary continued on following page)



Principal Investigator,
Kenya: Dr. Daniel M. Mukunya
Department of Crop Science
Faculty of Agriculture
University of Nairobi
Kabete Campus

Co-Investigators: Dr. E.M. Gathuru

Dr. F. Itulya
Faculty of Agriculture
University of Nairobi
Kabete Campus

Summary of Progress:

Project planning and documents completed in Kenya and the U.S.

Site selected (Kutumani Drylands Research Station, Machakos District) for
preliminary experimental work in Kenya.

Preparations made for UCD Research Associate to begin field data
collection in Kenya.

Equipment purchases initiated.

Most promising Kenyan cultivar (Mweji Mojo) now growing in UCD where
resistance to temperature stress and screening for abscission are being

Preliminary analyses using Quantimet Image Analyzer undertaken at UC-Davis.

Tepary beans planted at UC-Riverside to assess drought tolerance, growth
habit, disease resistance, salt tolerance and boron toxicity. Tepary seed
increased for tests for diseases prevalent in Kenya. Selected teparies
crossed with major Kenyan vulgaris lines and hybrid embryos cultured.

U.S. graduate student identified to participate in experimental work in
Davis and Kenya.

Two international CRSP team trips have been made to develop and complete
administrative research plans, including visit of Host Country Principal
Investigator to Davis and Riverside facilities and field sites.



"An Analysis of Genetic, Agro-Ecologic and Sociocultural
Factors which Account for Persistent Patterns of Bean Land-Race
Diversity in Malawi"

Principal Investigator:


Principal Investigator,

Dr. M. Wayne Adams
Department of Crop and Soil Science
Michigan State University

Dr. Pat Barnes-McConnell
Office of Women in International Development
Michigan State University

Dr. Julia Miller
Department of Human Ecology
Virginia State University

Dr. Todo Edje
Department of Crop Production
Bunda College

Summary of progress:

Project planning and documents not yet completed in Malawi and the U.S.

Candidate for field assignment with the social science component

U.S. graduate student working with bean research in U.S. sites and in
language-training identified and awaiting field assignment with the
agriculture component.

Malawi graduate student, FAO funded, enrolled in PhD program at MSU and
collecting data on bean diseases in Malawi cooperating with CRSP Team.

No international person trips in FY-81 due to inability to secure Malawi



"Medical Problems Associated with Feeding Cowpeas to Children"

Principal Investigator:


Dr. C. Amechi Akpom
Department of Community Health
Michigan State University

Dr. David S. Greenbaum
Department of Medicine
Michigan State University

Dr. Wanda Chenoweth
Department of Food Science
Michigan State University

Dr. Pericles Markakis
Department of Food Science
Michigan State University

Dr. Harold Sadoff
Department of Microbiology
Michigan State University

Principal Investigators,

& Human Nutrition

& Human Nutrition

& Public Health

Dr. Ade Omolulu, Chairman
Department of Human Nutrition
Ibadan University

Dr. David Drew
Pediatrics Department
Faculty of Medicine
University of Jos


Dr. Nicholas Okere,
Community Medicine
University of Jos

Dr. 1.0. Akinyele
Department of Human
Ibadan University

Dr. Heussein
Department of Human
Ibadan University

Acting Chairman,



(Summary continued on following page)




Summary of progress:

Project planning and documents completed in Nigeria and the U.S.

Plans refined to meet needs of host country.

Equipment purchases initiated.

Survey methodology was integrated with survey planned for the University
of Nigeria, Nsukka and the University of Georgia study to combine data
collection activities, and expand information base for both projects.

Training planned for Principal Investigator from Nigeria on specific
analysis technique.

Two International CRSP Team trips were made to develop and complete
administrative and research plans.


"Appropriate Technology for Cowpea Preservation and Processing
and A Study of Its Socioeconomic Impact on Rural Populations in Nigeria"

Principal Investigator: Ms. Kay McWatters
Agricultural Research Scientist, Food Science
University of Georgia
Agricultural Experiment Station

Co-Investigators: Dr. Larry R. Beuchat

Dr. Manjeet S. Chhinnan

Dr. R. Dixon Phillips

Dr. Robert E. Worthington
Department of Food Science
University of Georgia
Agricultural Experiment Station

(Summary continued on following page)



Principal Investigator,
Nigeria: Dr. Patrick Obi Ngoddy
Department of Food and Home Sciences
University of Nigeria, Nsukka

Co-Investigators: Dr. George S. Ayernor

D.O. Nnanyelugo

Dr. Zak A. Obanu

Dr. I.C. Obizoba

Ms. Veronica I. Onuorah

Dr. N.D. Onwuka
Department of Food and Home Sciences
University of Nigeria, Nsukka

Dr. Azuka Dike
Department of Sociology/Anthropology
University of Nigeria, Nsukka

Summary of progress:

Project planning and documents completed in Nigeria and the U.S.

Preliminary development of survey instrument and survey methodology to
determine socio-cultural and dietary factors initiated.

Survey methodology is being integrated with survey planned for Nsukka
area, Ibadan area and Jos area to combine data collection activities, and
to eventually reinforce information base of both GA/Nigeria and
MSU/Nigeria projects.

Local sources in Nigeria have contributed N 40,000 ($72,000) to supplement
the CRSP in addition to the University of Nigeria, Nsukka institutional

Two international CRSP Team trips were made to develop and complete
administrative and research plans.



"A Program to Develop Improved Cowpea cultivars for Production
and Utilization in Semi-arid Zones"

Princial Investigator:

Dr. Anthony E. Hall
Department of Botony and Plant Sciences
University of California, Riverside


Dr. Ken W.

of Agronomy and Range Sciences
of California-Davis

Dr. Victoria Marcarian
Department of Plant Sciences
University of Arizona

Principal Investigator,


Dr. M. Mbodj, Director
Centre National de Recherches
Agronomiques (CNRA), Bambey

M. Diatta
Director du Departement d'Agronomie et de
CNRA, Bambey

M. Ndoye
CNRA, Bambey

C. Dancette
CNRA, Bambey

Summary of Progress:

Thirty advanced cowpea lines are being tested in Senegal and evaluated for
drought resistance and yield potential at University of California,
Riverside and Davis sites. University of Arizona evaluated a sprinkler
gradient system for determining drought resistance .

Three cowpea strains have been identified, using a field method developed
at University of California-Riverside, which appear to have superior heat
tolerance to either Bambey, Senegal types or California Blackeye types.

A breeding project has been initiated at University of California-Davis to
incorporate improved canopy structure and plant type.

Attention is being given to the development of cowpeas with improved
resistance to fusarium wilt at University of California-Davis.

One international CRSP team trip was made to develop administrative and
research plans. The project leader in Senegal visited all three
collaborating campuses in the -U.S.



"Breeding Beans for Disease and Insect Resistance and Determination
of Economic Impact on Subsistence Farm Families"

Principal Investigator:

Dr. M.J. Silbernagel
USDA, ARS, Research Plant Pathologist
Washington State University


Dr. Jean Due,
Department of
University of

Agricultural Economics

Principal Investigator,

Dr. Bruno Ndunguru, Head
Department of Crop Science
Faculty of Agriculture, Forestry and
Veterinary Science
University of Dar es Salaam
Morogoro, Tanzania

Summary of progress:

Project planning and documents completed in Tanzania and the U.S.

Socioeconomic baseline studies initiated and preliminary data analysis

Local and exotic varieties of beans collected are being evaluated for pest
resistance and agronomic characteristics at Morogoro.

African bean lines have been screened to identify sources of resistance
best suited for initial hybridization at WSU (Prosser).

Tanzanian staff member from Morogoro has begun PhD studies at the
University of Illinois.

Equipment purchases initiated.

One international CRSP Team trip was made to develop and complete
administrative and research plans. Also, one Host Country Agricultural
Economist visited University of Illinois to participate in setting up
computer analysis of socioeconomic survey data.



"Semi-arid Cowpea Farming Systems"

Principal Investigator: Dr. C.J. deMooy
Department of Agronomy
Colorado State University
Fort Collins, Colorado

Summary of Progress:

The project in the Grant identified for C.S.U./deMooy was in Guyana.
Subsequently, USAID/Guyana concluded it would not be possible for Guyana
to participate effectively in the CRSP.

MO and CSU staffs have investigated alternative projects in Upper Volta
and Botswana. USAID/Botswana solicited interest from the CRSP; this
overature will culminate in a planning trip of MO and CSU personnel to
Botswana in December, 1981.

Two international trips were made to IITA to discuss new project


Summary information on Bean/Cowpea CRSP finances during FY-81 are shown in
Tables 1, 2, and 3.

Table 1 summarizes the allocation of USAID support to projects. Three
groups of projects are identified:

a. those established in Lead Institutions during FY-81

b. those with project proposal and budget in order, but not established
pending signature of some CRSP document either in Host Country or U.S.

c. those not yet initiated

Table 2 lists the contributions to total project budgets from USAID and
U.S. Lead Institutions. Figures for Host Country contribution have not been
accumulated in every case are, therefore, omitted from this report. However,
they are substantial. MO expects the non-USAID component of project budgets
to total nearly 50%.

Table 3 summarizes MO expenditures. Three categories were overspent:
personnel, travel/per diem and other direct costs. These were offset by
savings in other categories, even though MO budget was required to support
pre-Subgrant project planning travel of project teams - an expense not
originally anticipated.


FY-81 Bean/Cowpea CRSP Advance of Funds and

Date of Amount of Total
Initial Initial Amount
Project I.D. Beginning Date Advance Advance Obligated

A. Executed Subgrant Details

D. Rep/PR/Lopez-Rosa 06/01/81 06/04/81 $40,000.00 $92,350.00
Tanzania/WSU/Silbernagel 06/01/81 06/17/81 48,940.00 117,460.00
INCAP/WSU/Swanson 06/01/81 06/26/81 66,540.00 159,700.00
D. Rep/NE/Coyne 06/01/81 06/29/81 46,448.00 92,350.00
Senegal/UC-R/Hall 08/01/81 10/07/81 58,330.00 134,400.00
Kenya/UC-D/Webster 08/15/81 10/19/81 56,000.00 134,400.00
Guatemala/Cornell/Wallacea 08/15/81 37,190.00 89,250.00
Nigeria/GA/McWatters 09/01/81 09/28/81 32,000.00 67,200.00
Nigeria/MSU/Akpomb 09/01/81 09/23/81 32,000.00 67,200.00
Ecuador/Cornell/Wallacea 09/01/81 37,190.00 89,250.00
Brazil/BTI/Robertsa 09/15/81 34,960.00 83,900.00
TOTAL $489,598.00 $1,127,460.00

B. Pending Subgrant Details

Brazil/WI/Bliss $34,960.00 83,900.00
Cameroon/GA/Chalfant 52,500.00 126,000.00
Honduras/PR/Lopez-Rosa 21,040.00 $50,500.00
Malawi/MSU/Adamsb 38,535.00 92,482.00
TOTAL $147,035.00 $352,882.00
C. Delayed Subgrant Details

Brazil/WI/Hagedorn $34,960.00 $83,900.00
CIAT/MSU/Adams 22,770.00 54,650.00
/CSU/deMooy 49,042.00 117,700.00
TOTAL $106,772.00 $256,250.00

GRAND TOTAL $743,405.00 $1,736,592.00

alnitial advances not applied for during FY-81.
bMSU projects do not require subgrants.


Table 2.
FY-81 U.S. Lead Institution Financial Commitment to

CRSP Budgets (15 projects)

% of Total Distribution
Total U.S. Project to Host of U.S. AID
Country/ U.S. AID Institution U.S. Inst. Country Contribution
Institution Contribution Contribution Contribution Contrib. U.S. H.C.

INCAP/WSU $159,700 $73,130 31% $73,834 $85,782
Honduras/PR 50,500 20,075 28% 25,250 25,250
Guatemala/Cornell 89,250 27,871 24% 12,250 71,419
Brazil/WI (B) 83,900 11,617 12% 41,869 41,333
Brazil/WI (H) 83,900 26,809 24% 37,431 37,650
Brazil/BTI 83,900 29,704 26% 11,519 72,381
D. Rep./PR 92,350 31,168 25% 46,175 46,175
D. Rep./NE 92,350 48,320 34% 35,400 57,114
Senegal/UC-R 140,000 48,830 26% 61,835 78,165
Cameroon/GA 126,000 31,546 20% 42,786 83,215
Nigeria/MSU 67,200 31,542 32% 18,895 45,105
Nigeria/GA 67,200 21,333 24% 21,333 42,667
Kenya/UC-D 134,400 44,840 25% 44,800 89,600
Tanzania/WSU 117,460 63,682 35% 39,154 78,307
Malawi/MSU 92,482 12,928 12% 38,638 53,692
$1,480,592 $523,395 26% $551,169 $907,855

1. AID Contributions to project support (15 projects) = $1,480,592

2. Allocation of AID:

H.C. = $907,855
U.S. = $551,169

3. U.S. Institution Match Required: $551,169

= $183,723

Match provided = $523,395 Excess Match = $339,672
Match provided = 2.85x match required


Table 3.
FY-81 Management Office Planned and Actual Expenditures

Line Items

1. Personnel

2. Equipment and

3. Travel & Per Diem

4. Technical Assistance

5. Other Direct Costs

6. Overhead




















After more than two years of intensive planning, the Bean/Cowpea CRSP was
implemented September 30, 1980. The planners had developed a global plan for
CRSP research responsive to major constraints, and had identified the U.S. and
Host Country researchers and institutions who would form the CRSP project
research teams. Administrative organization of the CRSP had been conceived
and incorporated in the Grant. All that remained was to establish the MO,
conclude project plans, obtain formal commitments from all participants, and
initiate the plans developed earlier.

PIs are enthusiastic with the working relationships developing among
project collaborators in both the U.S. and Host Countries. Generally
excellent cooperation has existed during pre-Subgrant project development
meetings, typified by expressions such as "enthusiastic", "patient",
"congenial", "effective", and "helpful". Host Country personnel often went
far beyond professional expectations in accommodating the PI and MO

In most cases the USAID missions were helpful beyond any required
obligation. Continued contacts have permitted procedures responsive to the
needs of both CRSP and missions to develop.

All participants have been eager for the projects to pass the start-up
phase, and anticipate that project goals and objectives will be met as agreed
upon. The MO staff is encouraged by the international community of
professionals that is emerging from CRSP activities.

Inevitably, problems arose which were not anticipated - either by
planners, principal investigators, institutional administrators, or management
office staff.

Principal Investigators were asked to identify problems which were cause
for concern. In retrospect, many of these seem unique to the initiation stage
of project status, and probably will not recur. Others may be chronic, and
may increase in frequency as more projects become operational and the pace of
research activity increases in Host Countries.

It is the view of the MO staff that problems (and their frequency)
observed to date are probably not representative of the long-term array.
Nevertheless, a summary of the concerns reported by Principal Investigators

Most frequently expressed concerns:

Physical communications difficulties between PIs in U.S. and Host

Time delays in obtaining signatures on CRSP documents from Host
Country Officials.


Administrative details in completing subordinate agreements between
U.S. Lead Institutions and U.S. and Host Country Collaborating

Identifying qualified Host Country candidates for graduate study in
U.S. institutions.

Next most frequently expressed concerns:

Developing an appropriate mechanism for transfer of funds from U.S.
Lead Institutions to Host Country Institutions.

Administrative work imposed on research scientists deters their
research and training efforts.

Least frequently expressed concerns:

Too much money required to comply with the USAID/CRSP requirement for
a high degree of accountability.

Restrictions and encumberances of excessive paper work creating an
undue burden on complex tasks undertaken in distant countries.

Selection of the best possible site for field research in a Host
Country very difficult.

Host Country not able to identify appropriate co-PI.

Importation of research equipment/vehicles to Host Country for use on
CRSP project .demanding and difficult to execute.

Establishment of a senior U.S. CRSP scientist in Host Country

Return of a Host Country graduate student who was unable to adjust to
the U.S. system.

In addition, MO staff has identified some areas of concern from the
perspective of involvement with many project teams at various levels, ranging
from Host Country negotiations to work with administrative components of Lead
Institutions. Discussions of four such concerns follow:

1. USAID Mission Directors and agricultural staff have been
supportive of CRSP goals, research proposals and teams. One problem
addressed in CRSP MOUs, but probably not resolved by that mechanism,
is duty-free status for research equipment and vehicles to be
provided to Host Country institutions for use on CRSP projects. It
seems important to find means to include this component of CRSP
activities in the Bilateral Agreements between USAID and Host


Countries. No other consideration of the Bilateral Agreement is as
imperative to Bean/Cowpea CRSP projects, unless U.S. researchers on
long-term assignment to Host Country project sites must be included
in the mode which is part of the Agreement.

2. The CRSP philosophy includes the goal of obtaining commitments
from eminent, senior U.S. scientists to engage in collaborative
research with peers in Host Country institutions. The Bean/Cowpea
CRSP organization provides that both technological and fiscal
management of individual CRSP projects is assumed by the U.S. Lead
Institution and Principal Investigator.

This has created a considerable administrative burden on
researchers (PIs) who are committed to a lead technological role, but
who are not eager to assume a broad administrative burden.

It is the position of the MO that the U.S. Lead Institutions
should provide sufficient administrative support so that PIs can
focus on research and provide overall project leadership with only
nominal demands on them for routine administrative functions. Cost
of such support can be borne by indirect cost levied by the Lead
Institution against CRSP projects.

3. The CRSP has taken a position that the role of the U.S. senior
scientist is to give experienced leadership and supervision to all
facets of project implementation in close collaboration with the Host
Country counterpart. In some cases this has meant the senior person
will spend an extended period in the Host Country but in most cases
the senior scientist will be travelling to the Host Country for
shorter periods several times a year. Between visits he/she will
supervise and make input by mail, telex or where possible by
telephone. Travel budgets for this latter pattern reflect the
anticipated collaborative activities.

4. The Bean/Cowpea CRSP experience has produced considerable
insight into CRSP administrative matters, including development and
execution of formal documents. MO is concerned that this experience
and similar experience gained in other CRSPs should be made available
to and utilized by recently created CRSP entities.

A strong beginning has been made on the excellent plan developed for the
Bean/Cowpea CRSP. Amendments to the plan are anticipated, and will be
developed through the joint efforts of PIs, the CRSP Board and Technical
Committee and USAID staff, facilitated by the CRSP MO.

Assistance in identifying adjustments needed is expected from the External
Review Panel which will meet in November, 1982.


Meanwhile, CRSP administrative entities will support projects in every
possible way, including initiatives in socioeconomic evaluation and technical
services. While both U.S. and Host Country institutions have made significant
commitments to support CRSP research, the success of the CRSP is, and will
continue to be, a function of continued support from USAID.

The Management Entity, Board, Technical Committee, and MO are confident
that CRSP PIs and their collaborators in Host Country and U.S. institutions
will achieve the objectives they have adopted, provided their efforts are
supported in accord with the CRSP Grant.



Appendix A

The Board of Directors of the Bean/Cowpea CRSP
Annual Report of the Chairperson

The past year was one in which the organizational structure of the CRSP
was established, and the ground work for the research program deveToped.

The members of the Board of Directors were elected by representatives of
the 10 participating institutions. The Board proceeded to formulate policy
guidelines for the CRSP, and to act on recommendations prepared by the
Technical Committee and the management staff.

A major accomplishment was the selection of the Director of the Management
Office and the staffing of the total management team. The Program and
participants are fortunate to have a group of highly qualified, competent and
dedicated individuals providing the management functions together with the
support of Michigan State University.

The Board reviewed 15 project proposals for final acceptance following
review by the Technical Committee. Proposed Memoranda of Understanding with
participating developing countries were also reviewed and suggestions of the
Board were incorporated into the final documents.

Progress has been slow but steady, the first research projects are getting
underway. Negotiations with many foreign governmental agencies and research
centers have been time consuming and at times uncertain. Four Memoranda of
Understanding have been signed, and others are in final stages of completion.
A major factor in future success hinges upon the extent of commitment and
cooperation of participants in the various countries.

The groundwork has been prepared, and the Board is confident that the
dedication and competence of participating scientists from U.S. and abroad
will overcome the difficulties of working on many projects in many countries.

The budget for the first year is adequate for the initial work proposed
and a carry over should be available to supplement funds received during the
second year. Concern is expressed about the outlook for the third year and
beyond because USAID has indicated that budget cuts are likely to be made for
collaborative research programs.

The Board has had the pleasure of participating in the implementation of
the Bean/Cowpea CRSP. The total research program has great potential for
contributing knowledge that leads to increased production and utilization of
crops that serve as a major food source for many people of the world. The
U.S., as well as countries abroad will benefit from this research. We look
forward with anticipation to the continued development and growth of this

J.F. Metz, Jr., Chairman
Board of Director
Bean/Cowpea CRSP

Appendix B

The Technical Committee of the Bean/Cowpea CRSP
Annual Report of the Chairperson

The Technical Committee of the Bean/Cowpea CRSP is charged to serve as the
principal advisory group to the Management Entity on operational matters,
functioning as an internal project review and research coordination panel. It
is my pleasure to present the first annual report summarizing the major
activities of the Committee in these regards.

The Committee, comprised of Jean Due, Wayne Adams, Donald Wallace, Larry
Beuchat (Secretary) and Barbara Webster (Chair) reviewed and evaluated
applications for the position of Program Coordinator and interviewed the most
highly qualified candidates. Recommendations were presented to the Board of
Directors and to the existing Management Entity. The Committee expressed its
pleasure and approval at the selection of Dr. Donald Isleib for the position.

To enhance the global view of the Bean/Cowpea activities the Committee
added to its membership a representative from CIAT (Aart van Schoonhoven) and
one from a developing country - Azuka Dike (University of Nigeria, Nsukka),
thus establishing its final complement of seven members. Designated as
alternates to the Committee were Dermot Coyne, Donald Roberts, Kay McWatters,
Peter Graham and Patrick Ngoddy. Terms of Committee membership were
established at one year and two years to insure overlap and to enhance

The Committee reviewed collaborative research proposals as submitted to
assure consonance of the work proposed with policies and guidelines of the
Program, focussing particularly on the agreed-upon objectives and the
professionalism of the project. In so doing, the Committee suggested
procedural modifications to expedite and strengthen the review process and to
enhance communication among PIs and the Management Entity. Working closely
and diligently with the Coordinator and the Deputy Director of the CRSP, the
Committee developed methodology to expedite review, revision, and approval of
proposals submitted. Its relative success during the year in this regard can
be gauged by the May, 1981, Management Office recommendation to the Board of
Directors for final approval, or approval with proviso, of 12 projects Senegal
- University of California, Riverside (Hall); Brazil - Boyce Thompson Insitute
(Roberts); Tanzania - Washington State (Silbernagel); INCAP - Washington State
(Swanson); Dominican Republic - University of Puerto Rico (Lopez-Rosa);
Dominican Republic - University of Nebraska (Coyne); Nigeria - Michigan State
(Akpom); Cameroon - University of Georgia (Chalfant); Nigeria - University of
Georgia (McWatters); Kenya - University of California, Davis (Webster);
Ecuador and Guatemala - Cornell (Wallace).

The Committee pursued interest in development of a state-of-the-art (SOTA)
document for Beans/Cowpeas and in publication of an annual volume reflecting
advances in grain legume science. Such documents are viewed as extremely
important to the exchange of current information among principal
investigators, collaborating scientists, and all other persons interested in
research involving beans and cowpeas.

Page 2
T/C Annual Report

The Committee regularly received with gratitude current articles of
special interest from the Women in Development Specialist (Nancy Axinn) and
from the Deputy Director (Patricia Barnes-McConnell) in the Management
Office. Some reports were designed to enhance sensitivity toward the
involvement of women in the development process both as professional
participants in and beneficiaries of Federal Programs. Others were articles
of general interest and reports of specific pertinent programs in developing

The Committee discussed and pursued initiation of additional research and
other efforts deemed relevant to the achievement of CRSP goals. These ranged
from formulation of new projects to workshop meetings of investigators at an
international center.

Throughout the year the Technical Committee advised the Program
Coordinator on technical matters pursuant to the discharge of management
responsibilities. The Management Office actively and consistently sought the
input of the Committee on matters appropriate to the change.

This summarizes briefly the major activities and accomplishments of the
Technical Committee during the first year of its operation. However, it would
be shortsighted indeed to conclude this report without mention of the
excellent experience which Committee participation afforded its members,
enhancing their knowledge of and sensitivity to the program and goals of the
Bean/Cowpea CRSP. It would also be remiss to conclude this report without an
expression of gratitute to those who laid the foundation for this program:
Wayne Adams, Donald Wallace and Patricia Barnes-McConnell; to those from the
Management Office who have expedited its implementation during the year:
Donald Isleib, George Davies, Darlene Ashley, Kay Carter, and Nancy Axinn; to
our USAID representative, John Yohe; and to Joseph Metz, Chair and to members
of the Board of Directors for their concern and interest in the activities of
the Committee.

Finally, on behalf of the Committee I express sincere thanks to the
principal investigators of projects in this CRSP. Their constructive response
to suggestions for strengthening their programs, their high level of
enthusiasm, and their cooperation with the Committee have contributed in
significant measure to the successes which the committee has achieved in the
first year of its operation.

Respectfully submitted,

Barbara D. Webster
Chair, Bean/Cowpea CRSP, 1980-81

Appendix C

Bean/Cowpea CRSP Women-In-Development Specialist Plan of Work

Nancy W. Axinn
June 9, 1981

The Women-in-Development position was created to support the Bean/Cowpea CRSP in
addressing famine prevention and freedom from hunger in the developing countries of the
world. This includes a specific focus on strengthening the individual projects, as they
are developed to respond to the constraints identified in the production and utilization
of food crops. It also implies recognizing that women can, and do, participate in the
larger arena, as research scientists and technicians, as production agriculturalists, as
food processors and as consumers.

It is proposed that the Women-in-Development Specialist develop programs to support
the Bean/Cowpea CRSP efforts in the following four areas:

A. CRSP/WID Support to the Separate Research Projects. Appropriate to the type of
research planned, support is given to individual projects.

1. Some research proposals involve women as producers, processors, and/or
consumers from their inception. Others do not. Among this latter group
are insect and disease research proposals which can be encouraged to
involve women as researchers, technicians and trainees. Later, the
implications of the research findings need to be evaluated in terms of
their impact on the lives of women and families. This is an on-going
concern of research focusing on bean/cowpea varieties and new agricultural
practices. The diagram below illustrates the baseline of the two groups
and projects the time line flow of their research endeavors over the years.

Broad Field Testing Broad Field Testing,
Adoption Phase Adoption Phase

\ / Specific

SProble problem Identification
pecif c Survey Focus

Base Line (Present)

2. A WID assessment of each project, can identify the involvement of women as
researchers, trainees, and technicians. It also focuses on the
programmatic implications of the research, as the process and the findings
will affect the lives of women and their families both at the research
site, and in the broader context of famine prevention.

B. Program integration of the unique WID findings and implications of each
separate research project. Project findings and implications must be
integrated in a way which can support the growth and development of each other
research project. This can build on the Global Plan, and strengthen the total
Bean/Cowpea CRSP.

C. Develop ways to share WID related insights. As insights evolve from the total
CRSP they need to be shared with the larger development and academic communities
to maximize U.S. efforts to address famine prevention and freedom from hunger.

D. Document the Bean/Cowpea CRSP research process. Documentation, as it relates
to women's involvement is a critical factor in the total program. It is
important to document the extent to which various mixes of professional women
and men scientists affect the outcome of research. This includes the variables
of different disciplines, different locales and sites, different levels of
involvement, and different positions in the research hierarchy as well as
different sexes, in combinations as they exist in the CRSP. Baseline
information can be collected, and the dynamics of attitude change, adjustment
of research plans, etc. traced through the life of each project.

A matrix (attached) has been developed which illustrates some of the means by which
A,B,C, and D can be accomplished. This matrix has become the work plan for a Women-in-
Development Specialist. The WID Specialist is currently funded at one-quarter time.
The matrix illustrates what is possible at a quarter-time level, and what would be
possible at a full-time level, if funds were available.

While many of the activities identified in the matrix involve the WID Specialist in
an educational role, there is additional need which includes participating in forward
planning for years 3, 4, & 5 and beyond. Not included in the matrix are:

a. developing mechanisms for expanding the researchers' awareness (understanding)
of the impact of their findings, and

b. developing mechanisms for involving researchers from different disciplines than
those currently involved with the project.

WID Support
To Each




Share WID
As They
From Total

Process As
It Relates

1. Review quarterly PI reports,
and follow-up

2. Brief MO before project
visits re WID at site

3. Review trip reports for WID
focus, and follow-up

4. Regular column in newsletter

5. Give WID related research
methodology assistance (i.e.
time and place gender
sensitivity, etc.)

6. Share insights from current
WID related methodology

7. Meet with PIs (TC mtgs)

8. Encourage PIs to share WID
Related findings

9. Respond to requests for help
in specific WID related

10. Site visits and follow-up

11. Seminar participation, pro-
fessional publication

12. Identify & utilize a WID
research network relating
to B/C

13. Assist with development of
forward planning for each
research project

14. Develop WID research plan for
outside funding

A tIM(e


Appendix D

(to October 1981)

Principal Investigator: F. A. Bliss

Project Code: Brazil/Wisconsin/F. A. Bliss
(Country/Institution/Name of P.I.)

Date Subgrant received:___ ______

Date Subordinate Agreements (if any) made with collaborating institutions
(Copies should be attached):

A. Progress to date: The project is not yet operation. It is anticipated

that it will become operational by November 15, 1981.

B. (1) Current problems:

Integration of the "microbiological" component into the overall

project. There has been little agreement by the host-country

personnel, principal investigators and the technical committee as

to the problems this component should address.

C. Travel.

June 14-19, 1981 Travel to C.N.P.A.F. for participation in annual

meeting of Brazilian nitrogen-fixation workers and to plan the

current project.

D. Three Brazilian women research scientists are currently working in

the host country on problems related to this project. While they

are not located at C.N.P.A.F., their collaboration is anticipated to

be an important facet of this project.

E. Participant training.

Mr. Pedro Pereira, currently the Host Country Principal Investigator

has been identified for advanced degree training at the University

of Wisconsin beginning fall, 1983. He will be supported by funds

from Brazil rather than through # Bean/Cowpea CRSP funds.


Principal Investigator: Donald W. Roberts

Project Code: Brazil/CNPAF/BTI/Roberts

Date Contract received: September 1, 1981

Date Subordinate Agreements (if any) made with collaborating
institutions (Copies should be attached):

June 9 and 17, 1981

A. Summary of Over-all Progress

A pre-project development trip was conducted in March, 1981 to set
up a general outline of how this and other Brazilian projects will
interface with EMBRAPA (Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuaria). A
subagreement between the research and specific research groups involved,
namely Centro Nacional Pesquisa - Arroz e Feijio (CNPAF) and Boyce
Thompson Institute (BTI) was signed in June. A Memorandum of
Understanding (MOU) between EMBRAPA and Michigan State University (MSU)
was prepared in three different versions and was finally signed by both
parties in September, 1981. Two BTI scientists, Donald W. Roberts and
Richard A. Daoust, visited Brazil in September to complete the
arrangements for our working in Brazil. At this time the method for
handling financial commitments at CNPAF was decided. BTI was assigned
to work in the very spacious Phytopathology section of the new CNPAF
research facility. A survey trip to search for diseases of cowpea pest
insects was organized for November, 1981. This will include Dr. R.
Daoust of BTI and four CNPAF scientists. Activities at BTI on the
Cornell campus included a very comprehensive literature search on pests
and diseases of pests of cowpea and other legumes and we are in the
process of obtaining many of these articles to be taken to Brazil.
Equipment has been constructed to establish a leafhopper colony at BTI,
and insects will be grown on a regular basis starting in October.
Arrangements were made in Brazil for Dr. Daoust for housing and
transportation during his September visit. He will continue the
literature work at BTI and will select and order equipment for Brazil
during early October and move with his family to Brazil near the end of

A member of the CNPAF staff has expressed interest in taking
training in insect pathology and a number of other names have been
proposed to us to contact.

Due to the fact that the project did not begin until after the
middle of September, the above accomplishments only partially cover the
objectives listed on page 8 of our grant application. However,
significant progress was made:

a. Arrangements have been completed to establish the Insect
Pathology Resource Center (Brazil) in CNPAF/EMBRAPA, Goiania.

b. Arrangements have been made to conduct surveys for cowpea
pests in cowpea-growing regions in Brazil.

c. An Empoasca colony will soon be established at BTI. The
equipment and facilities are in place now.

d. We have one identified trainee for the project and proposals
for others have been made by CNPAF.

B. 1. Current Problems

The problems at present are those associated with virtually any
overseas research, namely, the importation of equipment, the
establishment of a senior scientist in a foreign country, etc.

2. Unusual Developments

The signing of the MOU proved to be very complicated and greatly
delayed the initiation date of the project.

3. Favorable Aspects

The Brazilian scientists at CNPAF are very eager to have us
participate in the research at their station. The facilities are new
and a great deal of laboratory and office space will be available to our
resident staff. The scientific environment is very good and we expect
to develop good collaborative arrangements with our Brazilian

C. Summary of Travel

March 21-28 Pre-Contract Project Development Travel
Participants: Drs. D.R. Isleib and D.W. Roberts
Destination: Brasilia and Goiania.
Purpose: To make arrangements for signing MOU and sub-
agreement and to discuss details of our proposed project
in Brazil.

September 15-25 Establishment of Details for Working in Brazil
Participants: Drs. D.W. Roberts and R.A. Daoust
Destination: Brasilia and Goiania
Purpose: To make arrangements for laboratory work, surveys
for pathogens, identify training contacts (including
women), and seek housing and transportation for R.A.

D. Summary of Roles of Women

A woman in Brazil with strong potential as a trainee has been
identified. We hope to eventually enter her in an advanced degree
program, but CNPAF suggests that short-term training be done in the near
future. A woman has been assigned to the project full-time in Ithaca to
conduct Empoasca research, literature procurement, and assisting with
such items as supply and equipment expediting to Brazil.

E. Training

Candidates Identified

Belmiro Neves, a CNPAF entomologist, will work with Richard A.
Daoust until 1983 or 1984 when he is scheduled to begin a Ph.D. program.
He is interested in biological control of insects and will probably do
his dissertation on insect pathology. As mentioned under "D" above, at

least one short-term trainee has been identified. Several others are
expected to be proposed within the next two months.

CNPAF is actively searching now for a candidate who they think
would be appropriate to the insect pathology program and has already
been authorized by LMBRAPA for advanced training. As soon as they
identify such person or persons they will extend an invitation to them.
BTI is seeking suggestions as to non-Brazilian Latin American scientists
who may wish to receive training with our group at CNPAF.

F. Suggestions

We think we can trace some of our major difficulties in obtaining
the necessary formal documents in Brazil to a failure in communication
by the written word. Accordingly, we propose that requests sent to
developing nations be stated very concisely and that letters of request
be limited to the pertinent topic only.

G. Differences for FY-82 from the Project Proposal

The major differences from the proposed 1982 objectives are
associated with the fact that the proposed objectives for 1981, although
started in 1981, must be completed in 1982. A large part of our
expenses proposed for 1981 were associated with establishing a
laboratory overseas and establishing an American scientist there full-
time. Even though the project did not start as early in 1981 as we
anticipated, these fixed costs still exist and the money will have to be
spent in 1982. Accordingly, it is our current estimate that the
operating funds for FY-82 will require the amount originally assigned to
1981 and 1982.

(to October 1981)

Principal Investigator: Richard B. Chalfant

Project Code; Cameroon, University of Georgia, Chalfant

Date -Subgrant Received: Not received

Subordinate Agreements: Not made


A. The Memorandum of Understanding and the Subagreement between the U.S.
institution and Cameroon has been signed by the Director, USAID/Yaounde.
DGRST and IRA have recommended that both documents be reviewed and
approved by the Office of the Prime Minister. This was of June 22, 1981
and no status change has been reported.

Mr. Moffi Ta'Ama,' an entomologist currently at the University of Ibadan
in Nigeria was proposed as the researcher for the program in Maroua,
Cameroon. As of Aug. 27, 1981 he was approved by DGRST.

An African and U.S. strain of cowpea weevul are in culture at Boyce
Thompson Institute.

B. (1) Current problems: The -IOU has not been signed by the appropriate
official of the Prime Ministers Office of Cameroon as of September 22,
1981. There is no entomologist at the research site in Maroua, thus
there is no true U.S. counterpart in the project.

C. Travel:

1. March 31 to April 11, 1980 to Cameroon in order to develop the
project. Visits were made to Yaounde, the capitol and Maroua,
where the research will occur. Information was obtained relative
to research needs and the potential collaborators.

2. February 13 to Feb. 28, 1981 to Cameroon in order to receive the
project with the host country and sign the MOU. Visist were made
to Yaounde and the experiment station at Maroua. The format of
the project was changed to fit USAID protocol. The project and
MOU were then delivered to USAID/Yaounde for signature.

3. May 10 - May 15, 1981. To IITA at Ibadan, Nigeria to attend Cowpea
Insect Workshop, interview candidates for entomologist position at
Maroua, Cameroon, and develop liason with cooperators.

E. WID in US: Four women will be working part time on the project.

WID in Cameroon: Technicians and clericals have not been designated.
Every attempt will be made to hire qualified women.

F. Nothing to report.

G. No change in 1982 budget.

Bean/Cowpea CRSP Report - Funding Year 1981
June 1 to Sept. 30, 1981)

Principal Investigator: Dr. Dermot P. Coyne, Department of Horticulture, Univer-

sity of Nebraska, Lincoln, Nebraska, 68583-0724.

Project Code: Dominican Republic/Secretaria de Estado de Agricultura/Dr. Cesar

V. Paniagua.

A. Summary: Our project has been operational for four (June to Sept. 1981)

months so at this time we are just getting our research initiated as described


(a) Varietal Adaptation Trials on Small Farms and Testing of Lines at an

Experimental Station

During Drs. Cesar Paniagua and P. Vargas's visit to Lincoln, Nebraska,

August 25-26, we assembled seed of 4 bean lines, which have shown resis-

tance to common blight in Nebraska, for testing in trials on farmers

fields at'different elevations around San Juan de Maguana bean growing

area, Dominican Republic. This is the main bean production area in the

D.R. UPR and MITA, Puerto Rico, also provided lines to include in these

tests. They also brought back part of this seed to Dr. George Freytag,

UPR-MITA, our cooperator, for testing in 3 trials in Puerto Rico and 1

in Honduras. The Nebr. dry bean lines were EP-1 (Pinto), WM2-79-12 (Pinto),

GN Emerson, and Tepary. Seed of 10 other bean 1-ines were also assembled

for testing for common blight tolerance at the San Juan de Maguana Experi-

ment Station. Six of these lines have shown tolerance to common blight in

Nebraska and have been used in our breeding program. Bean lines growing

on trials on the small farms and on the Experiment Station will be evaluated

for reaction to common blight, rust, other pathogens and information will

be recorded on general adaptation and performance during our next visit

scheduled for November 15-21, 1981. This phase of the work is in accor-

dance with the Addendum to our CRSP Research Project Proposal (I, 2a & 2b)

dated April 23, 1981
(b) Bacterial Blight Investigations - Epidemiology
(i) Bean seed and leaves collected by D.P. Coyne during his trip to D.R.

on March 25-28, 1981 did not yield bacterial pathogens of beans.

During his visit to Nebraska, August 25-26, 1981 Dr. Cesar Paniagua

brought blight infected bean samples from D.R. Bacteria isolated

from these samples were purified, and we are in the process of

determining their pathogenicity. The reaction of germ plasm to

these isolates will be investigated in order to identity sources

of resistance/tolerance. More diseased leaf and seed samples will

be collected during our trip Nov. 21-25. This objective is in

accordance with the Addendum of our CRSP Research Project Proposal

(I, 2c).

(ii) During Dr. Paniagua's visit, August 25-26, 1981, to Lincoln,

Nebraska, Dr. Schuster and Dr. Paniagua planned experiments on

survival of bean bacteria on bean debris under field conditions

in the D.R. To facilitate survival studies, supplies and equip-

ment were requisitioned for D.R. pathology laboratory. This phase

of the research is in accordance with the Addendum of our CRSP

Research Project Proposal April 23, 1981 (I, 2d).

(c) Clean Seed Program

Plans to develop a clean seed program will be discussed to possibly

implement a disease free seed program during our next visit to the D.R.

(Nov. 15-21, 1981). This is in accordance with the Addendum to our

project, April 23, 1981 (I-2f).

(d) Rust

Initial samples of rust collected in the D.R. and mailed or hand carried

to Lincoln have not retained their viability. Another collection (dried

first before mailing) will be made by Dr. Paniagua. Seed assembled by

CIAT for the international bean rust nursery has been sent to Dr. Paniagua

for testing at two locations and two planting dates in the D.R. In addi-

tion, 10 cultivars with different rust reactions in the D.R. were sent

to Paniagua for an observation nursery. These cultivars will give some

information on horizontal rust reaction and will be further studied in

the greenhouse at Nebraska. Rust nurseries will also be established in

Puerto Rico in cooperation with Drs. Freytag and Lopez-Rosa. These ob-

jectives are in accordance with the Addendum to our CRSP Research Project

(I, 2b and 2c), April 23, 1981.

B. (a) Current problems and (b) Unusual developments

(i) We were not successful in persuading Maritza Rosario Valdez to

complete her intensive english language training at UNO. She missed

her family, became very depressed, and returned to the Dominican

Republic after only 1 month. We were disappointed that she did not

remain in the US to complete her english and graduate programs as

she is a talented person and would have been a great asset to the

bean research program in the D.R. We have found it difficult to

identify superior graduate student prospects during these early

months but hope that with the assistance of Drs. Paniagua and Vargas

that we will be able to identify two graduate student candidates

to start them in english language programs next semester (Jan. 1982).

(ii) The amount of paper work involved for the working scientists is a

detriment to the research and training effort. It also tends to-

lessen enthusiasm- for the effort. A great waste of money is involved

in trying to attain a high degree of accountability. It is diffi-

cult enough to work in a distant country on complex problems with-

out the added restrictions and encumbrances of excessive paper work!

(c) Favorable aspects

We have established a congenial and effective cooperative working

relationship with Drs. Paniagua and Vargas. They have showed much

enthusiasm for the project. In order to expedite the initiation of

the project they flew in August to Nebraska to discuss the problem

of the transfer of project funds to the D.R., the purchase and ship-

ment of a vehicle, and plans for variety trials and other experiments.

They brought back to the D.R. experimental seed samples for planting

in Sept. at 5 locations in the D.R. Because of their visit we were

able to quickly arrange for the transfer of funds to their S.E.A. and

the purchase of a Malibu diesel station wagon for shipment to the

D.R. during this Nov./Dec. for use in the project in the D.R. Also,

the other Ministry of Agriculture and AID persons have been enthusi-

astic and helpful in promoting the Title XII effort.

C. Summary of Travel

(a) Drs. D.P. Coyne, PI, and Dr. J.R. Steadman,-Univ.. of Nebraska visited Drs.

G. Villanueva and C. Paniagua, Dominican Republic, October, 1980 to discuss

the state of bean research and problems in the D.R., needed research, and

our joint cooperation in the D.R. We also visited MITA, Puerto Rico, to

discuss our cooperation with UPR/MITA in the D.R. and our division of

responsibilities in the D.R. This trip facilitated our ability to write

the grant.

(b) Drs. D.P. Coyne, PI, and J.R. Steadman, University of Nebraska (UN) along

with Dr. D.R. Isleib, Title XII Bean/Cowpea CRSP Management Office,

Michigan State University, Dr. Julio Lopez Rosa, University of Puerto Rico

(UPR) and George Freytag, USDA, MITA, Puerto Rico, visited the Dominican

Republic, March 23-28, 1981 in order to discuss the total Bean CRSP

Project with Dr. G. Villanueva, Administrator, and Dr. C. Paniagua, PI,

SEA, Dominican Republic. Cooperative procedures, budgeting and program

plans, specifics and responsibilities were discussed. A graduate student,

Maritza Rosario was identified as a suitable candidate to pursue studies

for the MS degree at the University of Nebraska. UPR and UN investigators,

and Dr. Isleib, met with AID officers (Brian Rudert and Ken Ellis) to

discuss Title XII Bean Project and general agricultural and some specific

bean problems in the country. UPR and UN investigators also met to dis-

cuss cooperative aspects of their respective CRSP proposals in the D.R.

UPR and UN representatives also met with Dr. Steve Temple, Plant Breeder,

CIAT, to discuss cooperative interaction and also to inspect CIAT bean

germ plasm disease nurseries. UN representatives also attended the PCCMCA

meetings which were held during the period of our visit and met many bean

research people from other Latin American countries.

(c) Drs. C. Paniagua and P. Vargas, D.R. visited Nebraska August, 25-28, 1981,

to plan for transfer of funds, plan experiments, collect seed for immediate

planting, and to make arrangements for the purchase and shipment of a Mali-

bu diesel station wagon to D.R.

(d) James R. Steadman visited CSU Ft. Collins, Colorado to discuss bean rust

resistance sources with Drs. Marcial Pastor-Corrales of CIAT and Howard

Schwartz, former CIAT bean pathologist. The trip was taken Sept. 17 and

18 and also involved viewing an international bean nursery at Fort Collins.

D. Roles and Responsibilities of Women

The first graduate student we identified for training in the US was a woman,

Gloria Maritza Rosario. However, she was not successful in attaining her

academic goals because she missed her family, became depressed and returned

home. We are in the process of identifying new students and we hope one of

them will be female. There are three female technicians working on some

phases of this project at the University of Nebraska. Facets of our work

which affect women have been dealt with in the Addendum of our CRSP Project

(II - Role of Women), page 3, date April 23, 1981.

E. Status of participant training:

We have no students at the present time. Our student from the Dominican

Republic, Gloria Maritza Rosario, returned home in July after a month, without

completing her english language training and MS degree program. We are pre-

sently seeking new prospective students in the D.R. with the help of Dr. C.


F. Information sharing

(a) Based on our experience with students from overseas, we feel they perform

better if their families are allowed to accompany them during training and

some financial allowances are made for family support.

G. Fy-82-D.R. Graduate Students versus Domestic Student Help.

Since no graduate students or trainees from the D.R. have been identified yet,

funds allocated for grad student stipends will need to be utilized by domestic

(Nebraska) student help to initiate research on bean rust and common blight.

If grad students are identified by Jan. 1, 1982, only funds identified from

June, 1981 to Dec. 31, 1981 will need to be shifted to student or technical


* .


(to October 1981)

Principal Investigator: Julio H. L6pez-Rosa

Project Code: Dominican Republic/University of Puerto Rico/L6pez-Rosa
(Country/Institution/Name of P.I.)

Date Subgrant received: 1st June 1981

Subordinate Agreements: No subordinate agreements made


A. Progress.

New Germ Plasm. (Ref.: P.R. Work Plan - Obj. 1)

Seed harvested from the Isabela planting (January-April) of the
58 collections from Mexico and the 122 collections from Guatemala of new germ
plasm from the Vakili-Freytag explorations of 1978, was cleaned, weighed
and evaluated. Seed increase has been adequate to send one (1) pound samples
of 25 of the Mexican collections and 46 of the Guatemalan collections to
USDA's long-term seed storage facilities. Other collections had poor
germination or were not adapted and thus will have to be planted again to
obtain enough seed for long-term storage and evaluation. All Phaseolus
coccineus and P. polyanthus collections will have to be planted in Adjuntas
where temperatures are lower. Since these species are not adapted to the
climate at Isabela they did not set seed. It is interesting to note that two
teparies from Guatemala were highly susceptible to Xanthomonas blight.
Incidence of seed-borne virus diseases was negligible. This suggests that
there is no major risk of bringing in such diseases. Several Mexican lines
with high seed number (9 to 10) per pod were found. This may be a valuable
and useful trait for improving yields (most of our advanced lines have 6-8
ovules) if it is compatible with other characteristics within our lines.
Also many lines showed resistance to the prevalent diseases, which were rust,
angular leaf spot, powdery mildew, bacterial blight and some caused by viruses.

Development of disease resistant populations. (Ref.: P.R. Work Plan - Obj. 2)

Because we have on hand some outstanding germ plasm for rust and
bacterial blight resistance we have temporarily suspended the development of
RSP's by field crossing in order to concentrate our efforts on uniformly
incorporating the rust and bacterial blight resistance into our advanced
lines by manual crossing. A procedure was also adopted tSis year to gain a
generation by modifying our work plan which calls for crosses in December and
planting Fl'S in the field in April. Instead, the crosses were made in
March and April and Fl increase was planted in the greenhouse in August and

September (because of excessive rainfall). In this way F2's should be
available a year ahead of time to plant in the field by December 1981 for
selection for resistance to foliar diseases.

The crosses made for this purpose were: 13 selected lines from the
Michigan State University cooperative program of improved plant type (and
derived from MITA/UPR multiple disease resistant lines) and 5 of the improved
standard cultivars from the Dominican Republic, all of which were crossed to
4 MITA/UPR donor lines, viz., B-190, a rust immune line, XR-235-1-1, a release
highly resistant to bacterial blight, and W-117 and 2W-33-2, both multiple
disease resistant white lines. Most crosses and reciprocals were successful.
The F1 seed has been planted in the greenhouse and most of these plants have
begun to flower as of this date.

Plantings of F3's for selection to bacterial blight were -ade on
schedule (June 1981) in Fortuna. Many of these F3's were derived from a cross
between XR-235-1-1 (bacterial blight resistant) and B-190 (rust immune), as
well as from crosses between the aforementioned lines and Dr. R. Wilkinson's
(Cornell) advanced lines resistant to bacterial blight. Several F2 lines
(include snap bean crosses which are to be selected for bacterial blight
resistance) received from Dr. Mark Bassett (Florida) are also included.

Inoculation of this material with Xanthomonas has been made twice.
Blight symptoms are well developed in susceptible checks (8-190 and W-117).
At this date the planting is in full pod and still flowering. Some lines are
beginning to look exceptionally good. A number of selections is expected from
this material. Plant growth has been exceedingly vigorous. Frequent
separation of the vines between rains has been necessary to permit entry, even
though the row spacing is one meter. This may be due to the good root systems
which characterizes line XR-235.

Development of P. coccineus RSP. (Ref.: P.R. Work Plan - Obj. 3)

The inoculation of the 158 selections of P.-coccineus, which were
increased by rooting cuttings, has been completed for testing foliar resistance
to two virulent strains of Xanthomonas. The plants with highest resistance
were transplanted to the field in Adjuntas during July and August. Additional
sets of these 158 selections have been tested for resistance to CPMV by
inoculation and the majority were found to be resistant. The susceptible clones
will be removed from the Adjuntas field crossing block. Only Bean Golden
Mosaic Virus (BGMV) has yet to be tested by inoculation. This we expect to do
in October as soon as sufficient inoculum can be produced in P. vulgaris.

Development and release of breeding lines. (Ref.: P.R. Work Plan - Obj. 4)

The formal release announcement of the bacterial blight resistant
breeding line XR-235-1-1 was finally signed. It took over a year to make a
formal presentation and obtain the required signatures from the three
organizations involved in the development of this germ plasm release. The
announcement is being sent to 272 bean scientists in our mailing list. Our
cooperating scientists have already received seed.

Field trials for Dominican Republic. (Ref.: D.R. Work Plan - Obj. 1)

During the early visit of Dr. Paniagua to UPR (June 1981), discussions
were held concerning the preparation of field trials for the Host Country.
The area available per small farm was given as 200 m . It was therefore
decided to use two replications of a split plot trial in which half of each
test line would be handled according to the farmer's traditional planting
system and the other half would receive the same treatment but with the
addition of the recommended fertilizer applications. Nine sets of twenty
test lines, which include the farmer's variety, local checks, CIAT lines,
4 Nebraska parentals and 9 MITA/UPR lines were planted in September in various
sites in the San Juan de la Maguana area. We will expect to obtain information
on the effect of planting systems, disease resistance and locations on yield
and on the interaction of variety with these factors.

Breeding Program to transfer multiple disease resistance to standard D.R.
cultivars. (Ref.: D.R. Work Plan - Obj. 2)

Preliminary crosses were made with 5 standard cultivars with 4 MITA/UPR
donor lines (See Dev. of Resist. Pop., above). Fl's of these crosses are
progressing satisfactorily in the greenhouse. F2 seed is expected to be
available for selection for this coming December plantings.


(1) Current Problems.

The Host Country Co-PI has informed us that project funds transferred
from the University of Puerto Rico to the special account ("Programas de
Recursos Externos - SEA, Num. 01-0391504-4, Banco de Reservas de la RepGblica
Dominicana"), in the Dominican Republic have not yet been made available for
disbursement. Salaries of personnel hired as of Ist July, as well as other
Project expenditures, have not been paid. In spite of these serious difficulties
the moral]of the group is very high and work has continued on schedule.

(2) Unusual Developments.

Ing. Guillermo Villanueva who was Director of Agricultural Research
and with whom we conducted all Project planning for the Host Country was
replaced by Dr. Cesar L6pez. The fruitful relationship initiated with the
Department of Agricultural Research of the Secretarta de Estado de Agricultura
and Ing. Villanueva is anticipated to continue through his successor.

(3) Favorable Aspects.

The Host Country Co-PI, Dr. Cesar Paniagua, has been able to establish
a smooth working relationship with personnel of the Secretarta de Estado de
Agriculture and has recruited a group of three highly motivated young
agronomists to initiate Project operations. Seven small farmers willing to
have trials planted on their farms have been selected.

C. Travel.

1. Dominican Republic; 16-18 April 1980.

Drs. George F. Freytag and Julio H. Lopez-Rosa travelled to Santo
Domingo to establish formal contacts and to initiate discussions with
authorities from the Secretarta de Estado de Agricultura (SEA) and from the
Interamerican Institute for Agricultural Cooperation (IICA) towards development
of a Dominican Republic/University of Puerto Rico Bean/Cowpea CRSP Project.
A project proposal was drafted and submitted to MSU at the Bean/Cowpea CRSP
Development Meeting on 28 April 1980.

2. Dominican Republic; 6-8 October 1980.

Dr. Julio H. L6pez-Rosa was accompanied in this trip to Santo Domingo
by Drs. M. W. Adams, D. Coyne, and J. Steadman, who attended the Annual Meeting
of the Caribbean Division, American Phytopathological Society, held in San
Juan, Puerto Rico, and visited with the Bean/Cowpea research personnel at UPR/MITA.
Further discussions and negotiations towards development of the Puerto Rico and
Nebraska Bean/Cowpea Projects for the Dominican Republic were held with SEA and
IICA representatives. The AID Mission was also contacted. Additional information
was obtained on this trip for preparation of the formal proposal.

3. Dominican Republic; 22-28 March 1981.

Drs. George F. Freytag and Julio H. Lopez-Rosa held meetings in Santo
Domingo with Drs. 0. Coyne and J. Steadman (Univ. of Nebraska), Dr. D. Isleib
(MSU) and representatives from SEA and IICA to further discuss plans for Bean/
Cowpea Projects at UPR and UN. Sessions were also held with the AID Mission
Agricultural Officer. Project plans were reviewed and many useful suggestions
were incorporated. Visits were made to field stations and surrounding localities
in major bean production areas. The PCCMCA meetings were attended and three
papers on bean research at UPR/MITA were presented.

4. Puerto Rico; 25-27 February 1981.

Ing. Guillermo Villanueva travelled to Puerto Rico, at no expense to
the CRSP Management Office nor to UPR, to help Drs. G. F. Freytag and J. H.
L6pez-Rosa prepare the response to the points raised by the Technical Committee
on the DR/UPR Bean/Cowpea CRSP Project proposal.

5. Puerto Rico; 21-26 June 1981.

Dr. Cdsar Paniagua travelled to Puerto Rico for discussions related
to initiation of Project operations in the Dominican Republic. Modifications
of the work plan were agreed upon and incorporated. It was decided, that as
long as transportation from in-country is not available, to concentrate
operations in the general area of San Juan de la Maguana. This trip to Puerto
Rico afforded Dr. Paniagua the opportunity to become familiar with the bean
research facilities at MITA and at UPR in Mayaguez, and to visit the field
stations where research is conducted.

6. Puerto Rico; 29-31 August 1981

Dr. Cdsar Paniagua and Ing. Polibio Vargas, Director of the Southern
Agricultural Development Center (CESDA) of SEA visited Puerto Rico on the
return from a trip to the University of Nebraska. They brought to Puerto
Rico the Nebraska bean lines that are to be used in plantings in the
Dominican Republic, Puerto Rico and Honduras. They also hand-carried the seed
sets from Puerto Rico for the initial planting in the Dominican Republic.
Project progress, both in Puerto Rico and the Host Country, was discusses
and a modified and more realistic project budget for 1981-82 was developed.
Dr. Paniagua and Ing. Vargas also had the opportunity to visit extensively
with Ing. Miguel A. MartTnez, the Project-sponsored student at the UPR,
Mayaguez Campus.

D. Roles and Responsibilities of Women.

There are two women in the technical staff of the Project. Miss Mildred
Zapata, Department of Crop Protection, UPR - Mayaguez Campus, is in charge of
laboratory, greenhouse and field work related to evaluations for resistance to
diseases. She is currently writing her M.S. Thesis in plant pathology and
expects to complete the requirements for the degree in December 1981. The
other individual is one of the three agronomists recruited in July 1981 to
initiate Project activities in the Dominican Republic.

E. Status of Participant Training.

One candidate, Ing. Miguel Marttnez, was identified at the early phase
of development of the Project. Mr. MartTnez was admitted to the Department
of Crop Protection, UPR - Mayaguez Campus. He initiated his M.S. program in
August 1981. He is well adapted and is making good progress. Completion of
the M.S. requirements is anticipated for May 1983.

F. Insight to Share with Colleagues in Other Projects.

Efficient telephone service is extremely useful, especially in the
early stages of project implementation. It has been our experience that
telephone communication with our Dominican counterparts has allowed us to
make immediate contact to clarify matters and take steps to modify procedures
or take action which has saved time and project monies.

Our experience in the Dominican Republic confirms the usefulness of a
knowledge of the language and of an understanding of the culture of the Host

G. Details for FY-82 Different from the Project Proposal.

The Project calls for the establishment of Project operations in
three major bean production areas in the Dominican Republic, namely, San
Juan de la Maguana, Santiago and Higuey. However, due to lack of experience
of the field personnel and lack of in-country means of transportation for
long distance travel (vehicle is to be acquired by the UN Project for use also

by personnel of UPR Project) the work plan had to be modified. Project operations
are to be centered around the San Juan de la Maguana area, the most important
bean district in the country. Sites are to be located in the San Juan Valley,
in the highlands surrounding the valley and in the semi-arid irrigated district
of Azua, south of San Juan de la Maguana.

The 1981-82 budget was revised and increased in response to the needs
of the project, both in Puerto Rico and the Dominican Republic. These needs
are created by the rising operation costs due to inflation and normal salary
and wage increases. An increased awareness of the importance of frequent
travel of UPR Project personnel to the Host Country and of having a project
evaluation meeting are also reflected in the increased budget.

Increments in the Dominican Republic budget :obey,also to rising
operational costs and the need of paying a higher pGrt-o1n of the salary of the
Co-PI since he has now a full time responsibility for the Bean/Cowpea CRSP
Projects (UPR and UN). Adjustment of the monthly stipend paid to the graduate
student was made to put it in line with real costs and with the allowance for
AID participants at the University of Puerto Rico - Mayaguez Campus.

Funds for the proposed increment in 1981-82 are to come from the
unspent portion of the 1980-81 budget.

Other modifications to the work plan are mentioned and explained under
Development of disease resistant populations (pp. 1-2).

(to October 1981)

Principal Investigator: D. H. Wallace

Project Code: Ecuador
Title: Agronomic, Sociological and Genetic Aspects
of Bean Yield and Adaptation.
Institution: Instituto Nacional'de Investigaciones Agropecuarias (INIAP)
Principal Investigator: Cesar Chiriboga

Date Subgrant received: October 1 or November 1, 1981

Date of Subordinate Agreements: None.

A. Summary of Progress. Progress has been made on the physiological genetics of bean
maturity. This is reported in full in the Guatemalan report. See G. for
changes in this objective.

B. Current Problems. To identify a post doctorate and graduate student. To
acquire and analyze secondary data. To determine the Ecuadorian site at which
this work will be conducted.

C. Summary of Travel. Pre grant planning trip to Ecuador in late March, early April
by Wallace, Sandsted, Garrett. This travel was for planning. A post grant trip
to Ecuador is planned for mid November, 1981, for Wallace and Sandsted.

D. Roles and Responsibilities of Women. Dr. Patricia Garrett of the Cornell Rural
Sociology Department is responsible for the sociological aspects of this work.

G. Details for FY-82 different from the project proposal. During the March-April
discussion with INIAP, the decision was made to fund the socio-agronomic aspects
of this proposal. The genetic and physiological aspects were not funded for
Ecuador. This latter work will be done in Guatemala and through Guatemalan
and Cornell cooperation with CIAT. We intend to look after Ecuadorian interests
in this area. The findings at Guatemala, CIAT and Cornell will generally be
applicable in Ecuador.

The socio-agronomic approach is relatively new in Ecuador. We will rely to
some extent upon the greater experience in this area of ICTA in Guatemala.

(to October 1981)

Principal Investigator: fl. H. Wallace

Project Code: Guatemala
Title: Agronomic, Sociological and Genetic Aspects of
Bean Yield and Adaptation.
Institution: Instituto de Ciencia y Technologia Agricolas (I.C.T.A.)
Principal Investigator: Porfiro N. Masaya

Date Subgrant received: September 1, 1980

Date of Subordinate Agreements: Mr. Paul Gniffke, a Ph.D. candidate at Cornell
University, has been appointed to CIAT for two years, beginning about
November 15, 1981. For his Ph.D. research, he will study the physiology
and genetics of regulation of bean plant maturity by daylength and temperature,
and its relevance to adaptation and yield of bean cultivars. D. H. Wallace,
P. N. Masaya, and Paul Gniffke are probably the three most knowledgeable
people in the bean research world relative to photoperiod and temperature
effects on the maturity and development of beans. The phenomena under
investigation have relevance to most crops. The objective is to determine
on a worldwide basis how the variations of daylength and temperature achieve
control of plant development, maturity and adaptation.

A. Summary of Progress.

Research at Cornell on the effects of daylength and temperature on beans
has demonstrated the following features.

1. Beans and other crop species with photoperiod sensitivity exhibit an
optimal temperature for development toward flowering. This optimum gives flowering
in the minimal possible number of days. Temperatures lower than the optimum tem-
perature delay flowering by a Q10 effect on rate of node initiation and also inter-
act with the effect of davlength. Temperatures above the optimum temperature for
development towards flowering delay flowering by accelerating the processes that
give the photoperiod caused delay of flowering. Thus, they also interact with photo-
period on a Q10 basis.

2. The effect of photoperiod on flowering is virtually absent at the optimum
temperature and is enlarged with the range of temperature deviation, both below and
above, from the optimum temperature.

3. The aspect of temperature that has the largest influence on the photoperiod
response of plants is the day/night difference in temperature. Maximization of the
delay in flowering caused by photoperiod requires that the day/night difference in
temperature also be maximized. Vice versa, amaximized temperature difference effect re-
quires long daylength.

4. P. N. Masaya's Ph.D. thesis,plus the Master's thesis just completed by
Paul Gniffke, demonstrate the following complexities of the'physiological-genetics
of photoperiod control of delays in flowering of beans. The segregation data for
several crosses consistently demonstrate that two genes are controlling the segre-
gation. A complication, however, is that the segregation ratio differs from planting
to planting within a year and among the plantings of different years. The number of
early non-delayed plants has by adequate statistical significance been demonstrated
to be 1/16, 3/16, 5/16, 6/16, and 7/16 of the plants of the F2 population. This
variation occurs when the very same F2 population is grown in repeated plantings.
It demonstrates a sliding scale of dominance as controlled by the environment.
The above data are all for field plantings where the Fl of these same crosses was

always delayed, rather than early. When the same F2 populations are grown in the
growth chamber, the Fl is early. That is, the dominance is reversed between the I
field and the growth chamber. In the growth chamber, the number of early segregates
of the same F2 has been observed to be 9/16 and 11/16. This same phenomenon has
been partially defined for maturity segregates in barley.

5. Cultivars that are very insensitive to photoperiod become sensitive in
the presence of a large day/night difference in temperature. Simultaneously, the I
sensitivity of sensitive cultivars is greatly enhanced.

6. Guatemala has projects underway on breeding of maturity for both moderate
ovation and high elevation locations. These are an integral part of this project. '

7. A graduate student was appointed to obtain, assort, and evaluate secondary-
Guatemalan data. These data will become the baseline from which achievement for thil
project will be measured.

3. Current problems (1). Cniffke will use the superior resources of CIAT to j
study the same genetic and temperature and photoperiod regulations of plant maturity
under tropical environments. He will plant the parental and F1 and F2 populations
in the fields at both Palmira (1000 meters) and Popayan (near 2000 meters). At both
locations the populations will be grown under the natural 12 hr daylength, plus an
extended 16 hr daylength achieved via Mazda lamps placed in the field.

From these crosses, Gniffke expects by single seed descent procedures to develi
100 or more homozygous populations representing each F2 population. The 100 or so
families will represent a random selection of the possible segregates of the F2 popu-
lation. Because they will be advanced to the homozygous stage, it will be possible |
to evaluate the average time of flowering and maturity with only about 20 plants.
Such populations will ultimately be grown in many parts of the world to ascertain
the effects of the different genotypes on regulation of plant development, maturity,
and adaptation.

(2) Unusual developments. The above descriptions of the responses of bean plan
to variations of daylength and temperature constitute the most thorough investigation
of the maturity vs. photoperiod and temperature relationship thus far undertaken with
crop plants. The identification of an optimum temperature for development is unique.
The term and a clear concept of the phenomenon does not occur in the crop plant litel
ture. Nevertheless, the research.literature is replete with statements that cool tem
peratures delay flowering and that high temperatures also delay' flowering. The lite
ture is also replete with findings that high temperatures sometimes make flowering
earlier (for insensitive cultivars), while for other (sensitive) cultivars, high
temperatures make flowering later. These concepts promise to revolutionize the studio
of photoperiod and temperature regulation in all crop plants. Elucidation of the
floating dominance concept and of the reversal of dominance by certain environments
is also revolutionary. These concepts are adequately demonstrated in the literature
but are generally termed simply as instances of interaction between genes, i.e. epist
Improved understanding of the effects of daylength and temperature on maturity and
adaptation of beans and other crops will ultimately bring about more collaboration
between breeders, because certain locations (environments) of the world have special
merit in terms of selecting consistently for these characteristics.

C. Summary of travel. No travel was undertaken on this project through September 3(
1981. Travel is planned to Guatemala during November. Pre-subgrant project develop-
ment travel was done in March and August of 1981.


D. Roles and Responsibilities of Women. The principal investigator from Cornell
for the sociological aspects of this project is a woman, Dr. Patricia Garrett.
Also, the first graduate student nominated by Guatemala for study at Cornell is
a woman. She will study in the area of social sciences. She has been a member
of the socio-agronomic team of Guatemala's crop research organization (ICTA).

E. Training. Identification of the woman from Guatemala to study in the social
science area, and the assignment of Paul Gniffke to CIAT to undertake the physio-
logical-genetic studies represent accomplishments to date in this area.

(to October 1981)

Principal Investigator: Julio Lopez-Rosa

Project Code: Honduras/University of Puerto Rico/Lopez-Rosa

i. Pre-subgrant development activities.

Drs. Lopez-Rosa, Freytag, and other members of the UPR CRSP project team
drafted a project proposal to describe the collaborative research previously
discussed with Drs. Paz and Contreras of E.A.P.

The project proposal was reviewed by the CRSP Technical Committee and
endorsed for review/revision with collaborators in Honduras.

Drs. Lopez-Rosa (UPR-P.I.) and Isleib (M.O.) conferred in Honduras with
Steven Wingert, USAID/Honduras; and Drs. Simon Malo, Director, Pablo Paz, Head
of Dept. of Agronomy, and Mario Contreras, plant pathologist of Escuela
Agricola Americana to review and revise the project proposal, MOU, and
subagreement for this project.

E.A.P. Director Malo reviewed the CRSP documents with E.A.P. Board
Chairman Smith. Since the E.A.P. Board had not previously adopted policies
governing establishment of research relationships, it was decided that such
policies should be adopted before Director Malo entered into commitments
between E.A.P. and organizations such as the Bean/Cowpea CRSP. This process
was not completed before the end of FY-81.

There are several unique features of importance to the CRSP/E.A.P.

1. E.A.P. has no resources identified for support of research.
However, several E.A.P. staff are committed to research,
including the Director.

2. E.A.P. is not a Honduras national institution.

3. The CRSP team has developed a MOU with the Secretario de
Recourses Naturales confirming a cooperative relationship
between the CRSP project at E.A.P. and the M.R.N.

ii. No technical activities have been undertaken except as the Dominican
Republic/UPR/Lopez-Rosa project compliments the Honduras project.

iii. The Honduras project was budgeted at the lowest figure.of any CRSP

(to October 1981)
Principal Investigator: Barry G. Swanson

Project Code: Guatemala/INCAP/Ricardo Bressani

Date Subgrant received: 1 June, 1981

Date Subordinate Agreements (if any) made with collaborating institutions
(Copies attached): 1 July, 1981 - University Puerto Rico;
Colorado State University, Kansas State University, Michigan State
University and INCAP.

A. Summary of over all progress

Initial work has begun on the evaluation of analytical methodology for
characterizing polyphenols, both hydrolyzable and condensed tannins,
of dry beans. Numerous modifications of the vanillin procedure for
condensed tannins, and the Folen-Dennis procedure for total phenolics
are currently being studied and assays conducted to determine their
acceptance to the research program. Dr. Telek and Freytag, University
Puerto Rico, have defined a method to study the polyphenol-protein
interactions reacting standard proteins and-dry bean proteins with the
extracted polyphenols from dry beans. It was found that only the
procyanidins, condensed tannins, reacted with the protein fractions in
these experiments. The polyphenol-protein interactions were studied
during soaking and cooking and the results enabled development of a
quantitative method for the determination of protein binding polyphenols
of dry beans.

Drs. Varianno-Marsten and Jackson, Kansas State University, stored dry
black beans at high temperatures and relative humidities for short time
periods and observed alterations in the cell wall and plasmallema
of the dry beans. The structural changes did not affect the mode of
water penetration into the beans, but do help explain the increased rate
of electrolyte leakage from stored beans during soaking. It will be
necessary to design additional experiments to establish analytical method
to determine the cause of the "hard-to-cook" phenomenon in dry beans.

Preliminary research with protein isolation and purification techniques
using affinitive chromatography has been completed. Condensed tannins
solvent extraction and purification using LH20 chromatography is
proceeding. Computer software for evaluation of condensed-tannin-
protein interaction has been developed and recorded. Experimental
procedures for analyzing condensed tannin-protein interaction has been
Procedures are being established at Washington State University to study
the in vitro digestibility of dry bean proteins. It will be necessary to
establish standard procedures for enzyme hydrolysis and for
evaluation of the protein. Evaluation of bean protein will be carried out
both as an in vitro enzyme hydrolysis and an apparent evaluation of protein
quality using in vivo studies with Tetrahymena.

Drs. Donald Wood, Colorado State University, and Drs. George Hosfield,
Michigan State University, have initiated genetic programs to study the
proteins developed in dry beans during seed development, and the relationshipi
of inheritance to the "hard-to-cook" phenomenon in dry beans.

Twenty strains of dry beans favored by consumers in Latin America were
grown during the summer of 1980 (Table 1). These strains differed in
seed-coat color, seed characteristics, and agronomic traits and where
evaluated for protein content, soaking characteristics and percentage of
hard seed. The results of the screening test showed large differences
among lines for the rate of water uptake (Table 2). In addition,
inter-strain differences were noted for the percentage of hard seed after
48 hours soaking time (Table 2). Bean strains fell into one of two soaking
categories (data not shown). Strains with few hardshell beans after
48 hours soaking reached a water uptake plateau for soaking after 12 hours,
but strains with a significant amount of hard beans after 48 hours soaking
never reached their water uptake plateau. The percentage of hard seed
among genotypes ranged from 0 to 56% with red and brown seed strains
apparently most affected. Protein content among strains range: from
22.1% to 28.4% and soaked bean texture ranged from 408 Kg/IOOg to
1,034 Kg/1OOg. Simple correlation coefficients (Table 3) show no
associations between percentage protein and texture and percentage
hard seed defect may be associated with seed-coat pigments and tannin
levels. Texture, however, appears to be independent of seed-coat color
and tannin level.

Based on the 1980 results, 8 strains (Table 4) were selected for genetic
analysis of soakability, cookability, hardshell development, and tannin
content. In addition to the 8 strains the cultivars 'San Fernando' and
'Nep-2' were included because of their known cooking characteristics
(Table 4). During the winter of 1980-81, the 10 strains were crossed
in diallel (including reciprocals). The 90 F crosses and 10 parents
were grown in the field during the summer of 1981.

Seed from the 10 parents and F1 crosses will be evaluated in the laboratory
for the above characteristics. In addition, the F2 seed produced on F,
plants will be grown in the greenhouse to generate F3 families for
laboratory evaluations and genetic analysis.

The assessment of the role dry beans play in the diet of urban and rural
populations of Guatemala has been studied briefly. A more complete
assessment awaits the completion of administrative details and the
successful signing of subordinate agreements with the collaborative
institution, INCAP in Guatemala.

B. ' 1. Current problems

- administrative detail in completing subordinate agreements.

2. unusual developments - we have through the contacts provided by
the Dry Bean/Cowpea CRSP administrative office developed a collaborative
research arrangement with Julia Kornegay at CIAT and received
samples of dry beans bred for leaf hopper resistance which may be
of interest. We have agreed to plant and grow these dry beans
and determine the polyphenolic content of the plant material and the
seeds for both nutritional and phytochemical evaluation.

3. favorable aspects - all the principle investigators have been very patient
and understanding, and are proceeding with research projects
and experiments designed to answer some of the objectives and goals
stated in the overall research project. I believe the experience
gained in the past and the cooperative atmosphere will enable us to
meet the objectives of the research proposal within budget restraints.

C. Summary of travel

1. March 23-29, 1980; Guatemala
The purpose of this trip was to attend a meeting (PCCMCA); to prepare
USAID Dry Bean/Cowpea research proposal in conjunction with the
Institute Nutricion Central American and Panama (INCAP) and to discuss
nutritional evaluation research with scientists at INCAP.

2. December 6-14, 1980; Guatemala.
The purpose of the trip was to revise and evaluate the Dry bean/Cowpea
CRSP proposal with scientists at INCAP; to discuss the administrative
procedures in establishing a subordinate agreement with INCAP; and
to gain experience with the way in which dry beans are produced,
stored and used by the rural population of Guatemala.

D. The Co-investigator at Kansas State University during the first
period of this project was Elizabeth Varrano-Marsten. She conducted
research on the "hard-to-cook" phenomenon in dry beans and has published
a paper entitled "Hard-to-cook phenomenon in beans: structural changes
during storage and imbibition" (JFS 46,1379). I have initiated cooperative
research with a Ms. Julia Kornegay, visiting Research Associate, CIAT, Colombia.
It is my understanding that the position which Dr. Variano-Marsten has
given up at Kansas State University will be continued by a woman. Because
we have not been in close contact with the research and planning in Guatemala
recently, I am not able to address the roles and responsibilities of women
in the host country at the present time. The in vitro digestibility and
Tetrahymena research at Washington State University will be conducted by a woman
graduate student, Tak-Ling Aw, who is supported by the Nutritional Quality
Evaluation Lab (NQEL) at Washington State University.

E. We have not identified candidates for training in this project at the
present time. I have included Mr. William E. Artz, as a research assistant
at Washington State University, but have not received word about any candidates
for training either at Washington State University or other institutions
in the United States, or of candidates for training iin Guatemala at INCAP.

F. Information/suggestion/insights: It is apparent to me that a great deal
of patience is necessary to establish subordinate agreements and financial
arrangements with institutions inside and outside of the United States. It

is most important to be open-rinded and keep lines of communication open
so that suggestions, ideas and changes can be incorporated into ongoing
research at any time.

G. Details for FY-82 different fi
report a proposed budget for F'
agreements could be completed
stated in the initial proposal
and that more detailed results

rom proposal - I will include with this
Y-82. I would hope that the subordinate
within this fiscal year, that the objectives
for year 1 and year 2 can be accomplished,
could be presented within the next year.

TABLE 1. Pedigree seed coat characteristics, and source of 20 strains of dry beans.





BRASIL 2 Bico de ORO

F F 12-13-1

F F 16-15-1-CM-M-M

A 5



A 35

A 30

F F 16-3-1-M-M-M

F F 16-10-1-CM-M-M

F F 16-26-13


P 766


P I 196299

P I 196936


Black Turtle Soup


Dark Brown











Dark Brown



Glossy beige





Dark Brown








University of








Washington State

Washington State

Michigan State

Michigan State

Michigan State

Michigan State











Table 2. Percent water uptake at 20C and eight time intervals, percent hard seed, protein content, and
soaked bean texture for 20 strains of dry beans.

Strain Coat Color

Soaking Interval

2 4 8 .12 20 28 48

----------------Water Uptake %- ----------

After 48 Hrs.






Dark Brown

Beige Mottl

Glossy Beig


* 22.9 39.5 55.8 65.2

3.0 9.7 34.4 71.9

2.3 4.7 10.3 20.0

3.4 4.2 8.5 11.9

23.6 30.2 53.8 72.3

40.8 55.3 86.3 101.7

1.4 3.3 3.3 5.0















v 11 Red 64.1 104.1 132.0











































































134.3 135.3 139.2 141.5

1.1 . 25.5 537

Table 2 Continued

v12 Brown 24.1 64.2 98.4 112.5 118.9 122.6 123.0 0.0 25.3 462

v13 Beige 0.8 5.0 25.2 65.3 i00.7 11..1 115.0 0.0 23.3 510

v14 Dark Brown 2.3 3.1 3.8 12.7 49.8 73.2 105.0 3.8 25.3 619

v15 Red 2.4 3.9 6.8 .11.6 33.4 63.8 112.5 10.3 28.3 456

v16 Yellow 10.5 15.5 34.0 48.7 78.8 8;.7 102.2 12.3 24.5 408

v17 Dark Brown 1.6 4.1 13.0 34.6 96.1 10. .3 105.7 0.0 23.7 564

v18 Black .. 4.6 27.9 65.7 86.8 106.8 11..3 116.0 0.0 25.0 605

v19 White 73.2 105.9 114.0 114.0 114.0 11-.0 114.0 0.0 27.9 665

v20 Beige 13.8 25.5 40.1 49.2 83.4 9(.0 106.6 7.7 25.0 537

Table 3. Simple correlations among protein content, texture, and percentage
hard seed in 20 strains of dry beans.



Protein vs Texture

Hard Seed vs Protein

Hard Seed vs Texture






Pedigree, seed coat characteristics, and source of 10 strains of

dry beans crossed in diallel during 1980.


Brasil 2 Bico de ORO

F F 12-13-1

FF 16-15-1-CM-M-M







Glossy Beig,


A 35

A 30

Black Turtle Soup











San Fernando








University of



Michigan State

Michigan State

Michigan State

Michigan State

Sanilac and Black Turtle Soup = Control strains.


(to October 1981)

Principal Investigator: Barbara D. Webster

Project Code: U.S. University of California, Davis / Barbara D. Webster
(Country/Institution/Name of P.I.)

Date Subgrant received: September 1981

Date Subordinate Agreements (if any) made with collaborating institutions
(Copies should be attached):

Please include the following in your summary:
A. Summary of over all progress, including results obtained to date, and a
comparison of actual accomplishments with proposed goals/objectives for
the period. (Please refer to project proposal.)

B. Indicate and explain: (1) current problems, (2) unusual developments"
(3) favorable aspects.

C. Summary of travel involved in the project (dates and destinations) through
September 30, 1981 (including pre-Subgrant project development travel).

D. Summary of roles and responsibilities of women (U.S. and Host Country)
technically involved in the project. Please also include project facets
which have addressed women's work in Host Country related to beans/cowpeas
during FY 81.

E. Status of participant training in your project at this time:
Candidates identified:
Candidates now in training:
Where studying/training .
Level of program

F. Information/suggestions/insights gained to share with colleagues in other

G. Details for FY-82 different from the project proposal, i.e. program or
budget adjustments. (Project review at end of FY 82 will be based on this

Project roster attached to be completed and returned with this report

A: Summary of progress

1) Memorandum of Understanding and Subagreement signed by all
appropriate entities.
2) U.S. and H.C. co-investigators designed:
U.S.: Ken W. Foster, Anthony E. Hall
H.C.: E. M. Gathuru, D. M. Mukunya, F. Itulya
3) H.C. consultant identified: C. Caulson
4) Site for preliminary experimental work in H.C. selected:
Katumani Drylands Research Station, Machakos District
5) Consultative relationship with AID-Kenya scientist established:
Ian Stewart, Agrometerologist
6) Experimental site visited (twice) and arrangements for field
plots finalized with the station director (Albert Marimi)
7) Budget negotiated and finalized by personnel at U. Nairobi
and U.C. Davis
8) Budget allocations finalized for distribution to collaborators
in the U.S. (Giles Waines) and principal collaborator in H.C.
(Daniel Mukunya)
9) Proposal for research program reviewed and finalized
10) H.C. principal collaborator visit to U.C. Davis and U.C. Riverside
11) Staff research assistant hired, to be based at U.C. Davis (Donald
12) Preparations finalized for UCD research associate to collect data
on first experiment in the field in Kenya in Fall, 1981
13) Seed of most promising Kenyan cultivar (Mweji mojo) grown at Davis
and data on growth and development, yield, and problems collected
14) Camera and appropriate lenses and filters for pictorial field
records purchased.
15) Preliminary analyses using Quancimet Image analyzer at UCD undertaken
16) Plantings of tepary beans at UC Riverside
17) Lectures presented at UC Davis on the Title XII program and on the
research project
18) Collaborative relationships established between H.-C. scientists and
scientists at CIAT and U. Washington (Tanzanian project) established
19) Preliminary screening trial on Kenyan cultivar (Mweji mojo) for
resistance to temperature stress and for abscission carried out in
greenhouse at U.C. Davis
20) Preliminary request and application made for other promising
germplasm of Kenyan cultivars

NB--All first year objectives were addressed and were accomplished in whole
or in part. The only parts not carried out were establishment of collabora-
tive relationship between UCD scientists and those on the Malawi project
(the project is just now underway), and the identification of a Kenyan
student for training in the U.S. (one student, Julius Nyabundi, arrived at
UC Davis from Kenya prior to the availability of project funds; it is not
clear whether he is designated to receive project support eventually).

B. 1) Current problems

Uncertainty of amount of future funding and frequent changes
in budget
Lag time in obtaining grermplasm from Kenya
Uncertainty of U. Nairobi accountability procedures
Overwhelming amount of paperwork connected with project initiation
Uncertainty about the extent of responsibility of the U.S. PI
for expenditures, requisitions and procedures related to the project in
Frustration at relative infrequency of meetings of principal
researchers, collaborators and consultants

2) Unusual developments

Arrival of the principal Kenyan collaborator in Davis--penniless
Realization of the lack of knowledge of the Davis and Riverside
components of the project on the part of the Kenyan collaborator
Change in the roster of Kenyan collaborators
Strong suggestions for change of principal research site by
Kenyan collaborator from Katumani to an undeveloped site at Kibweze
Budget haggling

3) Favorable aspects

Excellent director of Katumani Research Station
Excellent US-AID resource person (Stewart)
Excellent cooperation between MO and UC Davis administration
and PI
Ambitious and hardworking research associate (Lotter)
Very good working relationship developed between UC Davis PI
(Webster) and cooperator at UC Riverside (Waines)
Excellent support staff in management entity
General attitude of all involved people of supportiveness
and encouragement
John Yohe
Superb work of members of the Technical Committee in expediting
final review of the project

C. Summary of Travel

1980 (March) Preliminary visit to U. Nairobi by Webster and Waines
to meet Kenyan collaborators, to visit prospective experimental sites,
to meet US-AID personnel, to visit Thika and Muguga to discuss possible

1981 (June) Visit to Nairobi to discuss budget, finalize project,
visit Ministry of Agriculture, determine final experimental site,
interact with US-AID personnel, seek signatures for Memorandum of
Understanding and Subagreement


D. Roles of Women

U.S. PI is female, and will coordinate and direct project
Contacts established with Maendelao na Wanawake in Kenya
Contact established with Kenyan director of the Peace Corps (Serah
No project facets have yet explored the roles of women in relation
to the subject of this research project

E. Participant Training

Candidate identified: Donald Lotter
Candidate in training: auditing relevant appropriate courses
at UC Davis
Level of program: Ph.D. (Lotter will eventually become a formal
Ph.D. student)

C Information and Insights

It came as a shock to realize how little the principal Kenyan
collaborator knew about U.S. (Californian) agronomic practices related
to growing beans. Just as we have made a conscientious effort to
familiarize ourselves with Kenyan nodus operandi in bean culture, so
we should make as great an effort to familiarize our counterparts with
the ways in which we grow, handle and use beans in the U.S.

It was also a shock to discover how much time can be consumed
in budget negotiations. It's a good thing I didn't have any perception
at the outset of what was to come.....

It has been extremely gratifying to have had the great encouragement
and cooperation from the Management Office; it sustains me in my hours
of need

G. F-82 Project Proposal

The Project has remained essentially the same for F-82. If budget
cuts do develop, information will be forthcoming and attached as
supplement to this report.

Barbara D. Webster
November 13, 1981

(to October 1981)

Principal Investigator: M.W. Adams

Project Code: Malawi/Bunda College/Edje

Date Contract received:

Date Subordinate Agreements (if any) made with collaborating institutions
(Copies should be attached):

A. Summary of progress.

1. General

Project proposal based on prior collaborative talks was developed and
distributed to Host Country colleagues.

2. Social Science component.

a. Collaborative arrangement discussed with participating U.S.
institution (Virginia State University).

b. Potential candidates for field assignment in Malawi were

c. Person to be assigned was identified (Julia Miller).

3. Agricultural component.

a. Interested and appropriate candidates were contacted for
assignments to Malawi project. Group under review.

b. One M.S. candidate chosen (Greg Martin).

(1) Is presently working with bean research in the U.S. sites.

(2) Is studying Chichewa, the principal indigenous language of
Malawi, formally and with a Malawi Student at MSU.

c. Malawi student at MSU on FAO funds (Wilson Msuku) corrdinating
his work with the CRSP project.

(1) Planning trip to Malawi for three months in December to
collect data and samples of bean diseases-in Malawi.

(2) Will be working with the CRSP research team .at MSU.

4. All of the above have been completed despite the delay in project
start up.

Page 2
Malawi/B. College/Edje/Adams

B. State of the project.

Despite vigorous attempts to the contrary, this project has been slow
to become established because of the repeated difficulties of getting
permission to travel in Malawi at the specific times that all three of the
researchers could travel to the sites. Because of the complexity of this
multidisciplinary study, the researchers are concerned that both the
agricultural and the social science planners work closely together with
each other and their Host Country counterparts in the final designation of
variables to be addressed, field sites chosen, methodologies, etc. This
trip had to be cancelled twice and ultimately was not held in FY-81. All
documents were in the hands of the Host Country persons for review and the
year ended with the travellers again prepared to make the journey.

C. Travel.

The Principal Investigator and Co-Investigator (breeder and social
scientist) work at the same institution therefore paid travel was not
needed for the numerous planning meetings held. A second Co-Principal
Investigator was identified at Virginia State University on a three day
visit to that University by Barnes-McConnell in mid-May, 1981. No other
travel for this project took place during the year.

D. Women in International Development (WID).

1. The two Co-Principal Investigators of this project are both
professional women with prior experience and training appropriate to
this project.

2. Project plans developed during FY-81 include substantive concern for
the roles and concerns of women as the major bean producers in Malawi.

3. Female surveyors will be identified from Bunda College to assist in
data gathering.


Principal Investigator: C. Amechi Akpom, M.D.

(Country/Institution/Name of P.I.)

Date Subgrant received: September 1, 1981

Date Subordinate Agreements (if any) made with collaborating
institutions (Copies should be attached):

August 31, 1981

Funding Year 1981
(to October 1981)

(A) Summary of Overall Progress

Joint planning of the research project which was started during the first

visit in 1980 was continued during the year with which this report is concerned.

Such joint planning involved both the host country and M.S.U. investigators as

well as the Deputy Director of the Bean/Cowpea CRSP Manaqement Office, and was

held in Nigeria.

During the first of the two visits, Dr. Akpom and Dr. Markakis, as members

of the M.S.U. co-investigating team,and Dr. Barnes/McConnell representing the

Management Office met with our counterparts at Ibadan and Jos. Detailed joint

review of the second draft of the proposal was undertaken, and the plan of work

as outlined in the draft proposal was modified to take into account the specific

concerns of the host country researchers. In addition, procedures were outlined

and responsibilities assigned to participants regarding the development of a
"national" survey instrument and the conduct of the survey. The survey, as

agreed, will utilize a single instrument, which will be developed and pretested

by the participants from all the sites involved and will be conducted at com-

munities respectively located close to each of the participating institutions

at Jos,.Ibadan and Nsukka. Resource requirements for each participating

institution were outlined for the project and inter-institutional collaboration

outlined. Based on this understanding and taking into consideration the con-

straints imposed by funding limitation, a third and final draft of the proposal

was developed and submitted to the Board of Management for their approval.

During this visit, also, administrative procedures required for the conduct

of these projects were discussed. These included the need to clarify arrange-

ments for transfer of funds, procedure for regular accounting and determination

of an appropriate official at each institution who will be responsible for

financial accounting. In addition, the need to obtain signatures on letters of

Institutional Subagreement and Memorandum of Understanding (signed by appropriate

institutional and country officials) was discussed. These documents were left

with host country principal investigators for processing and return to the

Management Office via the American Embassy.

By late July it was becoming very clear that the failure to obtain the

necessary signatures from Nigeria would unduly delay the release of funds for

the first year of the project. Letters and telex messages sent to Nigeria

elicited no responses. In addition, preproject activities revealed some imple-

mentation problems that needed immediate attention in order to salvage the pro-

posed inter-institutional and interdisciplinary survey. By mid-August the

Management Office thought it necessary to send Dr. Akpom to Nigeria to

(a) attempt to obtain the necessary signatures and (b) try to resolve the

problems related to the planned survey. Both goals were accomplished during

the trip. In addition, a plan of work was developed for a multidisciplinary

approach to the instrument development (see attachment 1).

Also, tentative plan was made for the visit of Dr. David Drew to the U.S.

As planned in the proposal (page29) Dr. Drew is to visit the U.S.A. for a period

of about four weeks to study the use of Gas Hydrogen Analysis technique in

metabolic study of weanling infants. Following his visit Dr. Drew is expected

to return to Nigeria with one of the equipment and at the end of the second

year is expected to have trained two Nigerians in the use of the technique.

In preparation for the visit, Dr. Wanda Chenoweth has made tentative plans

for Dr. Drew to spend some time at M.S.U. and then make a brief stop at the

laboratories of Dr. Noel Solomon at M.I.T., Cambridge, Massachusetts; Dr. Donald

Barr of the Department of Pediatrics at Montreal Children's Hospital, Montreal,

Canada; and one or two more sites where the technique is currently in use.

Trips to the factory where the instrument is manufactured are planned for some

of the PI's and Dr. Drew with a view to exploring the incorporation of modifica-

tions that would make the instrument appropriate for use in Nigeria. For

example, the power supply should be modified for use with 240 volts supply

and/or battery use. If necessary, moving parts or those that tend to wear out

would benefit from modular design which will allow for their unplugging and

-replacement with spares while the damaged parts are returned to the U.S.A. for


Also, Equipment Authorization and Request for Purchase forms are being

readied for the purchase of items requested in the budget which are necessary

for the initiation of the project.

1' Current Problems

The only major problem is the tardiness of communication between U.S. and

Nigeria. Even when one assumes that our host country colleagues will respond to

our letters on the same day as they receive them (rather unlikely event) the

minimum turnabout time will be between four to six weeks and often longer. In

some instances correspondence may get lost in the mail.

During his latest visit to Nigeria, Dr. Akpom has discussed the problem

with several host country participants. From this it was-learnt-that telex or

telephone messages from participating American Universities can be sent to the

National University Commission (NUC) in Lagos for transmission by radio to the

respective universities. Thus, there seems to be an alternative. However, the

implication is that a more expensive alternative may have to be used. But one

has to bear in mind that in comparison to the inevitable delays or loss of
-mail, the NUC route may be more cost-effective. This advantage notwithstanding,

certain mail (documents and supplies) cannot be sent by this route.

(B2) Unusual Developments

None so far.

(B3) Favorable Aspects
The amount of cooperation which was extended to the PI while he was in

Nigeria for this project was rather high and reassuring. Clear evidence of

enthusiasm for the project was manifested by almost all host country participants.

(C) Summary of Travels (October 1, 1980-September 30, 1981)

Two oversea travels were undertaken for the project during the year. Both

were discussed in Section A above.


1. April 3-April 12, 1981 - USA to Ibadan and Jos (return)

Travelers: Dr. P. Markakis and Dr. A. Akpom

Purpose: To complete arrangements and finalize plans for research

with host country participants.

2. August 22-September 6, 1981 - USA to Nsukka to Jos to Ibadan to Lagos (return)

Traveler: C. Amechi Akpom, M.D.

Purpose: To obtain relevant signatures on Institutional Subagreements

from collaborating Institutions and Memorandum of Understand-

ing from the Federal Ministry of Economic Planning in Nigeria.

Also to refine the plan of work for the development of joint

survey instruments.

(D) Summary of Roles and Responsibilities of Women

Dr. Wanda Chenoweth (MSU) has taken leadership for arranging sites for

the study of use of Breath Hydrogen Analysis technique for our host country

participant. She is our expert in this field and we rely heavily on her in

this area. Participation of host country women remains as planned in the

proposal. Until we are able to transfer funds to our counterparts in Nigeria,

they will not be in a. position to initiate participation.

(E) Status of Participant Training
As mentioned in Section A of this report, arrangements are underway for

Dr. Drew's visit to the USA to be trained in the Breath Hydrogen Analysis

Technique (see page 29 of the proposal).

Recruitment of graduate student for training in the USA is in progress

(page 29 of the proposal).

(F) Information/Suggestions/Insight to be Shared

Suggestions which were gained from trips to Nigeria were appended to the

Extended Trip Report submitted to the Management Office at MSU. They are

reproduced and attached here as Attachment 2.

(G) Details of FY-82 Different from the Proposal

The most important program adjustment anticipated is the shift in schedule
which recognized the fact that funds for the project were released in September

instead of 1st of July as initially expected. Hence, while certain activities

outlined for the first year have been initiated, the entire schedule of work-

outlined in the proposal (page 12a) has been moved forward for three to four

months. Similarly,budgetary adjustments will be undertaken by moving the

expenditure of the fourth quarter of FY-82 to the first quarter of FY-83. This

is expected to amount to 25% of Salaries and Wages or a total sum of $5,125

(i.e., 25% of AID salaries and wages contribution of $33,405 less the Graduate

Students' salary of $12,500). Other items on FY-82 such as equipment, supplies

and travel cost would have been expended or committed by the final quarter of

Bean/Cowpea CRSP Report - Funding Year 1981

(to October 1981)

Principal Investigator: Kay H. McWatters

Project Code: Nigeria/UGA/McWatters

Date Subgrant Received: September 1, 1981

A. Summary of Overall Progress

The Bean/Cowpea CRSP Management Office (MO) received signed Memorandum of

Understanding (MOU) and Subagreement documents for the Nigeria/UGA/McWatters

project on September 8, 1981. The MO notified Kay McWatters, P.I., on the

same date that administrative requirements for establishing the project had

been completed and that the initiation date for the project would be

September 1, 1981. Funds are in the process of being transferred from the MO

to the University of Georgia and subsequently to the University of Nigeria,


The major emphasis during the first year will be the development of a

survey instrument to determine socio-cultural and dietary factors associated

with cowpea consumption in the Anambra State of Nigeria. The instrument will

be pretested and refined as needed prior to its use in the survey. Other

activities planned for the first year include a survey of cowpea processing

technologies with special emphasis on dehulling and milling techniques,

acquisition of cowpea seed from Nigeria for studies to be conducted in the

U.S., initiation of storage studies of whole seeds to be held for subsequent

processing, and a preliminary study of the microbiological quality of cowpea


B. 1. Current Problems

Lack of telephone/telex service and slow mail service in Nigeria have

complicated and delayed communication between U.S. and Nigerian collaborators.

3. Favorable Aspects

We have recently learned that Dr. P. 0. Ngoddy, Host Country P.I., has

secured 4440,000 ($72,000) from local sources in Nigeria to supplement the CRSP


C. Summary of Travel Through September 30, 1981 (including pre-Subgrant


Dr. Larry R. Beuchat, Co-Investigator, University of Georgia, traveller to

Nsukka, Nigeria during the week of March 1-7, 1980 to discuss proposed

research with collaborators at the University of Nigeria. He was accompanied

by Dr. Pat Barnes-McConnell, Bean/Cowpea CRSP Management Office, and Dr. C.

Amechi Akpom, P.I., Michigan State University, who will be conducting research

in Jos ana Ibadan, Nigeria. The purpose of the trip was collaborative

planning and preparation of a project proposal in the area of cowpea

processing and utilization to be supported by the Bean/Cowpea CRSP.. The -

preliminary draft formed the basis of a detailed proposal prepared by the U.S.

team; it was reviewed by H. C. collaborators and the Technical Committee and

revised in accordance with their suggestions.

Kay McWatters, P.I., and Larry Beuchat, Co-Investigator, University of

Georgia, and 0. R. Isleib, Bean/Cowpea CRSP Management Office, travelled to

Nsukka, Nigeria, May 9-15, 1981 for final review and modification of the

project proposal with P. 0. Ngoddy, Host Country P.I., and Co-Investigators in

the Departments of Food and Home Sciences and Sociology/Anthropology at the

University of Nigeria. Roles of participants and budget allocations were

discussed, and a second-year budget was developed. Dr. Isleib also initiated

steps to execute the MOU and Subagreement with the University of Nigeria,

Nigerian University Commission, and the U.S. Embassy. Details of.buagets and

proposal revisions were incorporated by Kay McWatters upon return to the U.S.,

and the revised proposal was accepted by the Board of Directors on May 28,


Dr. Amechi Akpom returned to Nigeria in August, 1981 as a representative

of the Bean/Cowpea CRSP Management Office to determine the status ana location

of the CRSP documents (MOU's and Subagreements) for projects in Nsukka, Jos,

and Ibadan and to attempt to obtain the signatures required to complete the

documents. He also held discussions with Dr. P. 0. Ngoday, Host Country P.I.

in the Department of Food and Home Sciences, and Dr. Azuka Dike,

Co-Investigator in the Department of Sociology/Anthropology, concerning

management of the project and coordination of efforts between the two

departments and between the two CRSP projects in Nigeria. Dr. Akpom was

successful in his efforts and delivered the completed documents to the

Bean/Cowpea CRSP Management Office on September 8, 1981.

D. Roles and Responsibilities of Women Technically Involved in the Project

Kay '^cWatters is the U.S. Principal Investigator. In addition to project

coordination, she is responsible for the functional and organoleptic

evaluations for the U.S. team.

Veronica Onuorah is a H.C. Co-Investigator and is responsible for

organoleptic evaluations for the H.C. team.

Francisca Uzo, a June, 1981 graduate of the University of Nigeria,

Department of Food and Home Sciences, conducted research foF her thesis on

technologies to condition cowpeas for mechanical dehulling (seed coat

removal). Though her work was not supported by CRSP funds, the findings will

be extremely beneficial to U.S. and H.C. researchers for certain aspects of

the proposed research.

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