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 Front Cover
 Title Page
 Acknowledgement
 Table of Contents
 External evaluation panel...
 Summary
 CRSP Orgaizational chart
 Location of collaborating institutions...
 Location of collaborating institutions...
 Project institutional roster
 1984 review process
 Project evaluation reporting...
 Glossary of acronyms
 Project evaluation profiles
 Project evaluation matrix
 EEP site review protocol
 CRSP management office evaluat...
 Program evaluation
 Back Cover


PETE FLAG IFAS PALMM



Annual report
ALL VOLUMES CITATION SEARCH THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00055292/00003
 Material Information
Title: Annual report
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 23-28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Bean/Cowpea Collaborative Research Support Program
Publisher: Michigan State University
Place of Publication: East Lansing Mich
Creation Date: 1984
Frequency: annual
regular
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Beans -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
 Notes
Numbering Peculiarities: Issued in parts: Part one. Technical summary.--Part two. External review panel.
General Note: Description based on: 1983.
Funding: Electronic resources created as part of a prototype UF Institutional Repository and Faculty Papers project by the University of Florida.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 19930082
lccn - sn 89013327
System ID: UF00055292:00003

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Title Page
        Page i
        Page ii
    Acknowledgement
        Page iii
    Table of Contents
        Page iv
        Page v
    External evaluation panel membership
        Page vi
    Summary
        Page 1
        Page 2
    CRSP Orgaizational chart
        Page 3
    Location of collaborating institutions in the US and Latin America
        Page 4
    Location of collaborating institutions in Africa
        Page 5
    Project institutional roster
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
    1984 review process
        Page 9
    Project evaluation reporting methods
        Page 10
        Project evaluation scales
            Page 10
        Overall recommendation rating
            Page 11
        Five-point category evaluation scale
            Page 11
    Glossary of acronyms
        Page 12
    Project evaluation profiles
        Page 13
        Botswana
            Page 13
            Page 14
        Brazil (Boyce Thompson Institute/Roberts)
            Page 15
            Page 16
        Brazil (University of Wisconsin/Bliss)
            Page 17
            Page 18
        Brazil (University of Wisconsin/Maxwell)
            Page 19
            Page 20
        Cameroon
            Page 21
            Page 22
        Dominican Republic (University of Nebraska)
            Page 23
            Page 24
        Dominican Republic (University of Puerto Rico)
            Page 25
            Page 26
        Ecuador
            Page 27
            Page 28
        Guatemala
            Page 29
            Page 30
        Honduras
            Page 31
            Page 32
        INCAP
            Page 33
            Page 34
        Kenya
            Page 35
            Page 36
        Malawi
            Page 37
            Page 38
        Mexico
            Page 39
            Page 40
        Nigeria (Michigan State University)
            Page 41
            Page 42
        Nigeria (University of Georgia)
            Page 43
            Page 44
        Senegal
            Page 45
            Page 46
        Tanzania
            Page 47
            Page 48
    Project evaluation matrix
        Page 49
    EEP site review protocol
        Page 50
    CRSP management office evaluation
        Page 51
        Page 52
    Program evaluation
        Page 53
        Summary statements
            Page 53
            Page 54
            Page 55
            Page 56
            Page 57
            Page 58
            Page 59
            Page 60
            Page 61
        The role of the CRSP in international agricultural research and development
            Page 62
        Specific contributions of the bean/cowpea CRSP to development
            Page 63
        Specific contributions of the bean/cowpea CRSP to US agriculture
            Page 64
        Program weaknesses
            Page 65
        Overall evaluation
            Page 66
    Back Cover
        Back Cover
Full Text







ANN~UA
REPOR


THE BEAN/COWPEA
COLLABORATIVE RESEARCH SUPPORT PROGRAM (CRSP)
MICHIGAN STATE UNIVERSITY













1984 REPORT


EXTERNAL


EVALUATION


THE BEAN/COWPEA COLLABORATIVE


RESEARCH


SUPP RT


PR GRAM


(CRSP)


MICHIGAN STATE


UN I VERSITY


Funded through USAID/BIFAD Grant No. AID/DSAN-XII-G-0261


PANEL















































For further information contact:

Bean/Cowpea CRSP
200 Center for International Programs
Michigan State University
East Lansing, Michigan 48824-1035
U.S.A.

Telephone: (517) 355-4693
Telex: 810-251-0737
MSU INT PRO ELSG








ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS


The EEP acknowledges with gratitude the cooperation of all US and HC groups
associated with the Bean/Cowpea CRSP in providing the necessary materials,
making arrangements for in-country travel and meetings, and facilitating the
flow of communications and travel that were required for this very complex
review.
Special appreciation is extended to the Host Country institutions and
government officials, as well as the on-site USAID personnel, who went out of
their way to accommodate the requirements of the ERP mission. The success of
this effort reflects the extent of their critical cooperation.
The EEP is indebted to the MO for its strong support during the extended,
seven-month review process. Without the MO's help with countless details, the
review would not have been possible. The Panel was assisted in valuable
fashion by Dr. B. L. Pollack, the AID Program Officer for this CRSP, throughout
its deliberations during its Annual Meeting in Atlanta. The Panel extends its
best wishes to Dr. Pollack as he enters retirement and welcomes Dr. Harvey
Hortik.


-iii-








REPORT OF THE BEAN/COWPEA CRSP EXTERNAL EVALUATION PANEL FOR 1984

Table of Contents


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS .

SUMMARY .

CRSP ORGANIZATIONAL CHART .

LOCATION OF COLLABORATING INSTITUTIONS IN THE US AND LATIN AMERICA

LOCATION OF COLLABORATING INSTITUTIONS IN AFRICA . .

PROJECT INSTITUTIONAL ROSTER .

1984 REVIEW PROCESS .

PROJECT EVALUATION REPORTING METHODS . . .

Project Evaluation Scales .

Overall Recommendation Rating .

Five-Point Category Evaluation Scale .

Contribution to Development in the Host Country .

Overall Major Project Strengths/Deficiencies .

GLOSSARY OF ACRONYMS .. .

PROJECT EVALUATION PROFILES

Botswana .

Brazil (Boyce Thompson Institute/Roberts) . .

Brazil (University of Wisconsin/Bliss) .

Brazil (University of Wisconsin/Maxwell) .

Cameroon. .

Dominican Republic (University of Nebraska).. . .

Dominican Republic (University of Puerto Rico) . .

Ecuador .

Guatemala .

Honduras. .


. iii



S 3
. 1









10



11

. 11

. 11
. 5















13
. 17











19

21
. 23

. 25

. 27

S. 29


. 31
. 11

. 11













. 19

. 21

. 23

. 25

. 27

. 29

. 31









. 33


Kenya .

Malawi .

Mexico .

Nigeria (Michigan State University)

Nigeria (University of Georgia)

Senegal .

Tanzania .

PROJECT EVALUATION MATRIX . .

EEP SITE REVIEW PROTOCOL . .

CRSP MANAGEMENT OFFICE EVALUATION .

PROGRAM EVALUATION . .

Summary Statements . .

The Role of the CRSP in International
Agricultural Research and Development


S 35

S 37

39

41

S 43

45

. . .. 47

. . .. 49

S 50

. 51

. 53

S 53


. . .. 62


Specific Contributions of the Bean/Cowpea CRSP to Development .

Specific Contributions of the Bean/Cowpea CRSP to US Agriculture .

Program Weaknesses .

Overall Evaluation .


-V-


S 63

S 64

S 65

S 66


INCAP








EXTERNAL EVALUATION PANEL MEMBERSHIP


Name


1984


Dr. Clarence C. Gray, III
(Chair)





Dr. Mel Blase





Dr. Hugh Bunting





Dr. Luis H. Camacho





Dr. Peter Hildebrand






Dr. Antonio M. Pinchinat






Dr. Charlotte E. Roderuck


Affiliation


Professor
International Extension and International Studies
Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University,
Blacksburg (formerly of the Rockefeller Foundation)



Professor
Agricultural Economics
University of Missouri, Columbia



Professor
Agricultural Development Overseas
University of Reading, United Kingdom



INTSOY Plant Breeder
CIAT
Cali, Colombia



Professor
Food and Resource Economics Department
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
University of Florida, Gainesville



Tropical and Agricultural Research and Development
Specialist
IICA
Lima, Peru



Director
World Food Institute
Iowa State University, Ames


-vi-








SUMMARY


This is the third annual evaluation of the Bean/Cowpea CRSP by the External
Evaluation Panel. Eighteen research and training collaborative projects on
beans (twelve) and cowpeas (six) make up the CRSP. There are no free-standing
projects in the US without HC partnerships. These projects involve nine US
lead universities, one US research institute, and counterpart institutions/-
agencies in thirteen cooperating countries. The CRSP has been underway for
four years, with its individual projects having been active for two to three
and one-half years. While some of the lead universities are responsible for
only one project, five US universities have two projects each and one US
university has three projects. Some of the projects enjoy the support of more
than one US institution; in one such project there are five cooperating US
universities. In addition, there are several individual researchers having
assignments which cross projects. On both a formal and informal basis,
projects test one another's materials and individuals act as advisors to one
another, offering different disciplinary perspectives. These relationships
are increasing, even cross-nationally, as a result of the successes of
individual projects and the rotating involvement of project researchers on the
Technical Committee.
The 1984 External Evaluation of the Bean/Cowpea CRSP began in June 1984
and ended in January 1985. In contrast to 1983 when each overseas CRSP site
was visited, 1984 EEP site visits were mainly to US lead institutions. Visits
to collaborating overseas institutions were limited to those whose activities
required special attention and support. The Annual EEP Meeting was held in
Atlanta, Georgia, January 6-10, 1985, where reports of these site visits were
reviewed along with CRSP technical reports and Management Office reports. Of
the eighteen projects, ten were rated satisfactory for continuation without
major changes or adjustments. Five were judged satisfactory for continuation
with identified changes or adjustments. Two were recommended to be
restructured and one was recommended to be phased-out in 1985.
As in the past, the EEP considered the overall management of the CRSP, with
special regard to the performance of the CRSP Management Office. The Management
Office is firmly based in and adequately supported by the management structure
of Michigan State University. The EEP is much impressed with the devotion,







industry and competence of the staff of the Management Office and with the
remarkably wide range of tasks which they perform effectively. The Panel
recommends that the Management Office be strengthened by making the post of
Deputy Director, now half-time, full-time and by adding a full-time typing
position. The Panel noted that no external audit has been conducted on CRSP
activities, either in the US or abroad.
In the first years of this CRSP, the EEP has directed attention mainly to
individual CRSP projects. This has been done and the Panel judges that with
several noted exceptions, CRSP projects are well-established and progressing
satisfactorily towards the accomplishment of their objectives. Notwithstanding
these individual CRSP achievements, the Panel recognizes the need to move to
consideration of the global impact of the Bean/Cowpea CRSP, with special
attention given to its place in existing national and international arrange-
ments for bean and cowpea research. Several "first approximations" on the
status of specific topics were volunteered by EEP members during the Atlanta
meeting and are included in this report. More thorough and comprehensive
evaluations of such topics will be prepared in the future.
A principal shortcoming of the CRSP is that its potential for becoming a
key component of the existing (and evolving) international research system for
beans and cowpeas is not being exploited fully. Opportunities for regional and
global networks and interactions between and among CRSP projects in Africa and
Central and South America exist but will languish unless necessary specific
program arrangements are made.








The Bean/Cowpea CRSP Organizational Chart


U S A I D BIFAD
CARDR)


MANAGEMENT ENTITY

MICHIGAN STATE UNIVERSITY

CRSP COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE AND
BOARD OF NATURAL RESOURCES
DIRECTORS

CRSP MANAGEMENT OFFICE--MSU







US LEAD INSTITUTIONS


CRSP
EXTERNAL EVALUATI
PANEL


CRSP
TECHNICAL
COMMITTEE


US HOST COUNTRY
COLLABORATING COLLABORATING
INSTITUTIONS INSTITUTIONS


Figure 1.





Location of Collaborating Institutions in the United States and
Collaborating Host Countries in Latin America.


B2 B2 \


rJ1.


i~i 1


Figure 2.


KEY:
B = Bean
C = Cowpea
* = US Institutions


Lead Institutions in
the United States:
Colorado State University
Cornell University
Michigan State University
University of California-
Davis and Riverside
University of Georgia
University of Nebraska
University of Puerto Rico
University of Wisconsin
Washington State University

Host Countries
B1 Mexico
82 Guatemala
B Honduras
B Dominican Republic
B5 Ecuador
B6 Brazil
C1 Brazil






Figure 3. Location of Collaborating Host Countries in Africa.


KEY:
BC=
C =


Host Countries:
B7 Kenya
B88 Tanzania
9 Malawi
C2 Senegal
C3 Nigeria
C Cameroon
C5 Botswana







BEAN/COWPEA CRSP PROJECT INSTITUTIONAL ROSTER


Host Country Institution


Ministry of Agriculture


BOTSWANA


Lead US Institution


Colorado State University


Development of Integrated Cowpea Production
Systems in Semiarid Botswana


Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa
Agropecuaria (EMBRAPA)


BRAZIL


Boyce Thompson Institute


Insect Pathogens in Cowpea Pest Management
Systems for Developing Nations


BRAZIL


EMBRAPA


University of Wisconsin


Identification of Superior Bean-Rhizobia
Combinations and Utilization in Cropping
Systems Suitable for Small Farms in Brazil


BRAZIL


EMBRAPA


University of Wisconsin


Improved Techniques for Development of Multiple
Disease Resistance in Phaseolus vulgaris L.


L'Institut de Recherche
Agronomique au Cameroun


CAMEROON


University of Georgia


Pest Management Strategies for Optimizing
Cowpea Yields in Cameroon


DOMINICAN REPUBLIC
Secretaria de Estado de Agricultura


University of Nebraska


Biology, Epidemiology, Genetics and Breeding
for Resistance to Bacterial and Rust Pathogens
of Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)







DOMINICAN REPUBLIC
Secretaria de Estado de Agricultura University of Puerto Rico

Improvement of Bean Production in the
Dominican Republic through Breeding for
Multiple Disease Resistance in the
Preferred Standard Cultivars


ECUADOR
Institute Nacional de Investigaciones
Agropecuarias (INIAP)


Cornell University


Agronomic, Sociological and Genetic
Aspects of Bean Yield and Adaptation


Institute de Ciencias y
Tecnologfa Agrfcola (ICTA)


GUATEMALA


Cornell University


Agronomic, Sociological and Genetic
Aspects of Bean Yield and Adaptation


Escuela Agricola Panamericana (EAP)


HONDURAS


University of Puerto Rico


Improvement of Bean Production in Honduras
through Breeding for Multiple Disease Resistance


Institute of Nutrition of Central
America and Panama (INCAP)


INCAP


Washington State University


Improved Biological Utilization
and Availability of Dry Beans


University of Nairobi, Kabete


KENYA


University of California, Davis


Improvement of Drought and Heat Tolerance
of Disease Resistant Beans in Semiarid
Regions of Kenya







MALAWI


Bunda College of Agriculture


Michigan State University


Genetic, Agronomic and Socio-Cultural Analysis of
Diversity among Bean Landraces in Malawi


MEXICO
Institute Nacional de Investigaciones
Agricolas (INIA)


Michigan State University


Improving Resistance to Environmental Stress in
Beans through Genetic Selection for Carbohydrate
Partitioning and Efficiency of Biological
Nitrogen Fixation


NIGERIA


Ibadan University
University of Jos


Michigan State University


Medical Aspects of Feeding Cowpeas to Children


NIGERIA


University of Nigeria, Nsukka


University of Georgia


Appropriate Technology for Cowpea Preservation
and Processing and a Study of Its Socio-Economic
Impact on Rural Populations in Nigeria


SENEGAL


Institute Senegalais de
Recherches Agricoles (ISRA)


University of California-
Riverside


A Program to Develop Improved Cowpea Cultivars
for Production and Utilization in Semiarid Zones


TANZANIA


Sokoine University of Agriculture,
Morogoro


Washington State University


Breeding Beans for Disease and Insect Resistance
and Determination of Economic Impact on
Smallholder Farm Families








THE 1984 REVIEW PROCESS


The 1984 External Evaluation process was governed primarily by results of
the Bean/Cowpea CRSP Three-Year Extension Review conducted by the JCARD Panel
on CRSPs and the Agricultural Sector Council Sub-Committee on Cereal Grains and
Legumes on May 22, 1984. That review recommended continuation of funding for
the overall CRSP beyond FY 85. Because of the need to permit individual CRSP
projects to operate an additional year, recommendations for extensions of
funding were to depend largely upon the 1984 EEP evaluations. The 1984 process
therefore was guided by the specific need to make follow-up reviews at the Host
Country and US sites of troubled projects, as well as at all US sites. These
were accomplished with strong support from Host Country, USAID Mission and/or
US Embassy personnel and the Management Office.
Visits to the US and Host Country sites began in June 1984. This review
process continued intermittently until December and culminated in the Annual
Meeting held in Atlanta January 6-10, 1985. As in previous reviews, final
evaluations were based on discussions of site visits, technical reports
prepared by CRSP Principal Investigators and other reports and information
supplied by the Management Office. Management Office representatives and
AID/Washington program officers provided needed background information,
clarifications and useful perspectives of USAID and BIFAD procedures, interests
and policies regarding the CRSP.







PROJECT EVALUATION REPORTING METHODS


Following the EEP Annual Meeting, a draft report was prepared by the EEP
Chairperson with assistance from the MO and distributed to the members for
their changes and approval. A final draft was reviewed and approved by the
Chairperson.


Project Evaluation Scales
Each project was assessed in seven categories. These categories are
related to the in-country review protocol agreed upon at the beginning of the
process. The categories are as follows:
1. Administration of Project

1.1 Host Country
1.2 United States
1.3 AID
1.4 Interaction

2. Technical Personnel

2.1 Host Country
2.2 United States
2.3 Collaboration

3. Project Progress

3.1 Log Frame/Consistency of Objectives with Activities
3.2 Achievement of Natural Science Objectives
3.3 Achievement of Social Science Objectives
3.4 Achievement of Training Objectives
3.5 Publications/Information Dissemination
3.6 Food and Nutritional Component
3.7 Consideration of Women in Development (WID) Issues
3.8 Application to Systems Used by Small Farmers
3.9 Contribution to Development in the Host Country

4. Linkages

4.1 Host Country
4.2 AID Projects
4.3 International

5. Overall Major Project Strengths/Deficiencies

AID Mission Involvement
Host Country and US Commitment

5.1 Strengths
5.2 Deficiencies
-10-







PROJECT EVALUATION REPORTING METHODS


Following the EEP Annual Meeting, a draft report was prepared by the EEP
Chairperson with assistance from the MO and distributed to the members for
their changes and approval. A final draft was reviewed and approved by the
Chairperson.


Project Evaluation Scales
Each project was assessed in seven categories. These categories are
related to the in-country review protocol agreed upon at the beginning of the
process. The categories are as follows:
1. Administration of Project

1.1 Host Country
1.2 United States
1.3 AID
1.4 Interaction

2. Technical Personnel

2.1 Host Country
2.2 United States
2.3 Collaboration

3. Project Progress

3.1 Log Frame/Consistency of Objectives with Activities
3.2 Achievement of Natural Science Objectives
3.3 Achievement of Social Science Objectives
3.4 Achievement of Training Objectives
3.5 Publications/Information Dissemination
3.6 Food and Nutritional Component
3.7 Consideration of Women in Development (WID) Issues
3.8 Application to Systems Used by Small Farmers
3.9 Contribution to Development in the Host Country

4. Linkages

4.1 Host Country
4.2 AID Projects
4.3 International

5. Overall Major Project Strengths/Deficiencies

AID Mission Involvement
Host Country and US Commitment

5.1 Strengths
5.2 Deficiencies
-10-







6. Response to Prior EEP Project Recommendations


7. Overall Recommendation Rating

The items within each of the seven categories were assessed using the
scales presented below.


Overall Recommendation Rating:
General project performance was considered with each project receiving one
of four recommendations: #1 continuation with no major changes, #2 continua-
tion with some changes recommended, and #3 restructure (involves major changes
in activities, including termination and/or addition of activities) and #4
phase out (termination by the end of FY 85).


Five-Point Category Evaluation Scale (for items 1-3.8, 4 and 6):
Within a project each category was judged to be either Exceptional (E),
Highly Satisfactory (HS), Satisfactory (S), Less than Satisfactory (LS), or
Unacceptable (UA). In some cases a specific criterion was not applicable and
thus was rated Not Applicable (NA).


Contribution to Development in the Host Country (for item 3.9):
Evolving development potential was evaluated on the basis of Limited (L),
Potentially Limited (PL), Potentially Important (Pol), Potentially Useful (PU),
Already Important (AI), Highly Promising (HP), Long-Term Potential (LTP), and
Beginning to Show Potential Worldwide Significance (WW).


Overall Major Project Strengths/Deficiencies (for item 5):
Brief descriptive statements included in texts of Project Evaluation
Profiles.


-11-







6. Response to Prior EEP Project Recommendations


7. Overall Recommendation Rating

The items within each of the seven categories were assessed using the
scales presented below.


Overall Recommendation Rating:
General project performance was considered with each project receiving one
of four recommendations: #1 continuation with no major changes, #2 continua-
tion with some changes recommended, and #3 restructure (involves major changes
in activities, including termination and/or addition of activities) and #4
phase out (termination by the end of FY 85).


Five-Point Category Evaluation Scale (for items 1-3.8, 4 and 6):
Within a project each category was judged to be either Exceptional (E),
Highly Satisfactory (HS), Satisfactory (S), Less than Satisfactory (LS), or
Unacceptable (UA). In some cases a specific criterion was not applicable and
thus was rated Not Applicable (NA).


Contribution to Development in the Host Country (for item 3.9):
Evolving development potential was evaluated on the basis of Limited (L),
Potentially Limited (PL), Potentially Important (Pol), Potentially Useful (PU),
Already Important (AI), Highly Promising (HP), Long-Term Potential (LTP), and
Beginning to Show Potential Worldwide Significance (WW).


Overall Major Project Strengths/Deficiencies (for item 5):
Brief descriptive statements included in texts of Project Evaluation
Profiles.


-11-







GLOSSARY OF ACRONYMS


AI
ATIP
BIFAD
BNF
BOD
BTI
CGIAR
CIAT

CNPAF

CRSP
DR
E
EAP
EMBRAPA

EEP
HC
HS
ICTA

IICA
IITA
INCAP

INIA

INIAP

IRA
ISRA

JCARD
LS
LTP
MO
NA
PCCMCA


PI
PU
Pol
S
SAFGRAD
SEA
SODECOTON
TC
UPR
SAID
USDA
WID


-12-


Already Important
Agricultural Technology Improvement Project
Board for International Food and Agricultural Development
Biological Nitrogen Fixation
Board of Directors
Boyce Thompson Institute
Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research
Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical (International
Center of Tropical Agriculture)
Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de Arroz e Feijao (National Center
of Research for Rice and Beans)
Collaborative Research Support Program
Dominican Republic
Exceptional
Escuela Agr'cola Panamericana (Pan-American Agricultural School)
Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuaria (Brazilian
Enterprise for Agricultural Research)
External Evaluation Panel
Host Country
Highly Satisfactory
Institute de Ciencias y Tecnolog{a Agricola (Institute of
Agricultural Science and Technology)
Institute Interamericano de Ciencias Agricola
International Institute of Tropical Agriculture
Institute de Nutricion de Centroamerica y Panama (Institute of
Nutrition of Central America and Panama)
Institute Nacional de Investigaciones Agrfcolas (National
Institute of Agricultural Investigations)
Institute Nacional de Investigaciones Agropecuarias (National
Institute of Agricultural Investigations)
Institute de la Recherche Agronomique au Cameroun
Institute Sinegalais de Recherches Agricoles (Senegalese
Institute of Agricultural Research)
Joint Committee for Agricultural Research and Development
Less than Satisfactory
Long-Term Potential
Management Office
Not Applicable
Program Cooperativo Centroamericano para el Mejoramiento de
Cultivos Alimenticios (Central American Cooperative Program for
the Improvement of Food Crops)
Principal Investigator
Potentially Useful
Potentially Important
Satisfactory
Semiarid Food Grain Research and Development Project
Secretaria de Estado de Agricultura
Cotton production cooperative in Cameroon
Technical Committee
University of Puerto Rico
United States Agency for International Development
United States Department of Agriculture
Women in Development







PROJECT EVALUATION PROFILE


BOTSWANA COLORADO STATE UNIVERSITY (Initiated July 1982)
deMooy


Development of Integrated Cowpea Production Systems in Semiarid Botswana


RECOMMENDATION RATING: 1

REVIEW:
Facing the situation of very limited and unpredictable rains, the main
objectives of this project are (1) to devise tillage and planting practices
which will allow the planting of cowpeas immediately when sufficient rain has
fallen and (2) to produce varieties adapted to the conditions of the country,
including very low input requirements.
This project continues to be dynamic and is increasingly being integrated
into the national agricultural research and extension programs in Botswana.
There is increasing collaboration with the ATIP project which conducted a base-
line survey for the CRSP in two areas, analyzed the data and wrote reports and
is beginning to test technology coming from the CRSP. These activities will
increase as the ATIP puts relatively less emphasis on multiple visit surveys and
more on field trials. Continued efforts in enhancing this relationship will
improve the research/validation/extension methodology for all agricultural
commodities in Botswana. Additional baseline information was obtained from
within the project and from other sources.
A CRSP screening trial verified that the early, erect variety ER7 was
superior under Botswana conditions. It was subsequently released by the
Government of Botswana and created a great deal of enthusiasm. Continued
attention to improvement of cultivars similar to ER7 and research on the
technique of blending cultivars to provide multi-purpose products (leaves for
human consumption, forage for livestock and grain) should be encouraged.
Implements, adapted by the CRSP in cooperation with the engineering department
of the DAR, to facilitate planting are ready for testing. The collection of
germplasm has grown to 700 lines collected in Botswana. The project should
immediately address the slow progress made in training Botswanan personnel. The
research is satisfactory and should continue without major changes.


-13-







PROJECT EVALUATION PROFILE


BOTSWANA COLORADO STATE UNIVERSITY (Initiated July 1982)
deMooy


Development of Integrated Cowpea Production Systems in Semiarid Botswana


RECOMMENDATION RATING: 1

REVIEW:
Facing the situation of very limited and unpredictable rains, the main
objectives of this project are (1) to devise tillage and planting practices
which will allow the planting of cowpeas immediately when sufficient rain has
fallen and (2) to produce varieties adapted to the conditions of the country,
including very low input requirements.
This project continues to be dynamic and is increasingly being integrated
into the national agricultural research and extension programs in Botswana.
There is increasing collaboration with the ATIP project which conducted a base-
line survey for the CRSP in two areas, analyzed the data and wrote reports and
is beginning to test technology coming from the CRSP. These activities will
increase as the ATIP puts relatively less emphasis on multiple visit surveys and
more on field trials. Continued efforts in enhancing this relationship will
improve the research/validation/extension methodology for all agricultural
commodities in Botswana. Additional baseline information was obtained from
within the project and from other sources.
A CRSP screening trial verified that the early, erect variety ER7 was
superior under Botswana conditions. It was subsequently released by the
Government of Botswana and created a great deal of enthusiasm. Continued
attention to improvement of cultivars similar to ER7 and research on the
technique of blending cultivars to provide multi-purpose products (leaves for
human consumption, forage for livestock and grain) should be encouraged.
Implements, adapted by the CRSP in cooperation with the engineering department
of the DAR, to facilitate planting are ready for testing. The collection of
germplasm has grown to 700 lines collected in Botswana. The project should
immediately address the slow progress made in training Botswanan personnel. The
research is satisfactory and should continue without major changes.


-13-








SUMMARY:


1. Administration of Project
Host Country-HS
United States-HS
AID-S
Interaction-S


2. Technical Personnel
Host Country-LS
United States-HS
Collaboration-HS


3. Project Progress
Log Frame/Consistency of Objectives with Activities-S
Achievement of Natural Science Objectives-E
Achievement of Social Science Objectives-S
Achievement of Training Objectives-HS
Publications/Information Dissemination-HS
Food and Nutritional Component-LS
Consideration of WID Issues-S
Application to Systems Used by Small Farmers-HS
Contribution to Development in the Host Country-Pol

4. Linkages
Host Country-E
AID Projects-S
International-HS

5. Overall Major Project Strengths/Deficiencies
See text above

6. Response to Prior EEP Project Recommendations-HS


-14-








PROJECT EVALUATION PROFILE


BRAZIL BOYCE THOMPSON INSTITUTE (Initiated October 1981)
Roberts


Insect Pathogens in Cowpea Pest Management Systems for Developing Nations


RECOMMENDATION RATING: 1

REVIEW:
The principal problem with this project identified in the 1983 annual
review--the lack of a working research counterpart PI--has been solved. Mr.
Bonifacio P. Magalhaes has been named as the Brazilian Principal Investigator.
However, more depth of professional staff is needed in Brazil, especially in
cowpea entomology and insect pathology.
Noteworthy progress continues to be made in this project. More than fifty
new pathogen isolates were discovered in Brazil in 1984. Considerable progress
was made in the establishment of cowpea pest colonies there. The screening and
development of biological assays of entomopathogenic fungi and bacteria against
cowpea pests continued. The information gathering process was started on the
ecology and epizootiology of mycoses of cowpea pests. Screenhouse and field
trials were conducted at CNPAF of EMBRAPA and in Northern Brazil with selected
insect pathogens. Research continued on the small-scale production and
formulation of other insect pathogens for use in field trials. Suffice it to
say, the activities of the project were appropriate to its goals.
While the first experiments at Goiania have been very promising, the
development phase has not yet yielded usable results. In fact, no cowpea
insects have yet been controlled by pathogens on a substantial scale in Brazil
and, indeed, considerable time may well be required before that happens.
However, the fact that Metarrhizum is already used commercially to control
spittle bugs in sugar cane in Brazil suggests the economic potential of this
approach to pest management.
The training program has been quite productive. A week-long course on
insect pathology and microbial control was offered in Brazil for twenty post-
graduate scientists. In conjunction with other training programs at CNPAF,


-15-







thirty-five additional scientists received one day of training. Further, three
research interns were trained for three months or more at CNPAF. The Brazilian
PI studied for five weeks in the US. In addition, the project is sponsoring
M.S. training for four other participants. Finally, the potential for training
in this project should be viewed as being considerable in the future. CNPAF
could become a world-wide center for training on insect pathogens in cowpea
pest management systems.
The project continues to hold promise for the agricultural sectors of
developing countries, especially their low income farmers. However, it is in
its research phase and has not yet reached the development phase. Hence, its
progress can be applauded but success cannot be confidently forecast.

SUMMARY:

1. Administration of Project 2. Technical Personnel
Host Country-HS Host Country-S
United States-HS United States-E
AID-HS Collaboration-S
Interaction-HS

3. Project Progress
Log Frame/Consistency of Objectives with Activities-HS
Achievement of Natural Science Objectives-E
Achievement of Social Science Objectives-NA
Achievement of Training Objectives-HS
Publications/Information Dissemination-S
Food and Nutritional Component-NA
Consideration of WID Issues-S
Application to Systems Used by Small Farmers-HS
Contribution to Development in the Host Country-PU

4. Linkages
Host Country-S
AID Projects-NA
International-HS

5. Overall Major Project Strengths/Deficiencies
See text above

6. Response to Prior EEP Project Recommendations-HS


-16-








PROJECT EVALUATION PROFILE


BRAZIL UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN (Initiated February 1982)
Bliss


Identification of Superior Bean-Rhizobia Combinations and
Utilization in Cropping Systems Suitable to Small Farms in Brazil


RECOMMENDATION RATING: 1

REVIEW:
This project aims at developing superior common bean varieties capable of
enhanced biological nitrogen fixation and at identifying superior strains of
Rhizobium phaseoli, in an effort to reduce the need for supplemental nitrogen
fertilizer in different bean farming systems. It is being developed in the
Department of Horticulture at the University of Wisconsin-Madison in the US and
in the CNPAF of EMBRAPA in Brazil. It also involves the Department of
Microbiology and Public Health of Michigan State University, East Lansing,
Michigan. It enjoys excellent back-up support and interest at all three
institutions. The communication between the US and Brazilian teams is highly
satisfactory.
Both superior bean selections and more effective strains of Rhizobium
phaseoli have been identified, paving the way to higher bean yields at lower
production costs. At the same time, cropping practices which seem to further
enhance biological N2 fixation are being assessed.
The project will produce its first Brazilian graduate at the M.S. level by
the summer of 1985. It is providing graduate training to another student from
the Tanzania/Washington State University/Silbernagel CRSP bean project. It
also has given non-degree training to two participants from Brazil and to two
more from other countries. In response to previous EEP recommendations, it is
addressing the role of WID in both its US and Brazilian components and is
accelerating the transfer of technology to small farmer systems in Brazil.
The project is satisfactory for continuation without major adjustments.


-17-







SUMMARY:


1. Administration of Project
Host Country-HS
United States-HS
AID-HS
Interaction-HS


2. Technical Personnel
Host Country-S
United States-E
Collaboration-HS


3. Project Progress
Log Frame/Consistency of Objectives with Activities-HS
Achievement of Natural Science Objectives-E
Achievement of Social Science Objectives-NA
Achievement of Training Objectives-S
Publications/Information Dissemination-S
Food and Nutritional Component-NA
Consideration of WID Issues-S
Application to Systems Used by Small Farmers-HS
Contribution to Development in the Host Country-Pol

4. Linkages
Host Country-E
AID Projects-NA
International-HS

5. Overall Major Project Strengths/Deficiencies
See text above

6. Response to Prior EEP Project Recommendations-HS


-18-







PROJECT EVALUATION PROFILE


BRAZIL UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN
Maxwell


Improved Techniques for Development of
Multiple Disease Resistance in Phaseolus vulgaris L.


RECOMMENDATION RATING: 2

REVIEW:
This project is set up to develop improved technology and methodology for
achieving multiple disease resistance in beans. Institutionally it is now
strongly supported by both the University of Wisconsin-Madison and the CNPAF
of EMBRAPA in Brazil. Adjusting to recommendations from the EEP, an External
Evaluation Panel of Plant Pathologists and the Technical Committee, the project
is stressing the development of reliable and efficient field and greenhouse
methods to identify and breed for resistance to four (instead of six) major
bean pathogens in the US and Brazil.
New PIs have taken over the program management of the project at the US and
Brazilian sites. The US and Brazilian research teams are showing strong common
interest in the development of improved methodologies to breed for multiple
disease resistance in beans. The Brazilian team has been technically reinforced
with the placement of a US resident scientist at CNPAF. Communications and
joint management of the project have notably improved.
With those changes, the overall bean program at CNPAF stands to benefit,
but this requires resolute and sustained efforts to accelerate and deepen the
training of Brazilian participants at the graduate (M.S. and Ph.D.) as well as
the informal (non-degree) levels.
The project should be continued under monitoring to insure actual
implementation of recommended changes now in process.

SUMMARY:

1. Administration of Project 2. Technical Personnel
Host Country-HS Host Country-S
United States-HS United States-HS
AID-HS Collaboration-S
Interaction-S


-19-







3. Project Progress
Log Frame/Consistency of Objectives with Activities-S
Achievement of Natural Science Objectives-S
Achievement of Social Science Objectives-NA
Achievement of Training Objectives-LS
Publications/Information Dissemination-S
Food and Nutritional Component-NA
Consideration of WID Issues-S
Application to Systems Used by Small Farmers-PU
Contribution to Development in the Host Country-Pol

4. Linkages
Host Country-S
AID Projects-NA
International-S

5. Overall Major Project Strengths/Deficiencies
See text above

6. Response to Prior EEP Project Recommendations-E


-20-








PROJECT EVALUATION PROFILE


CAMEROON UNIVERSITY OF GEORGIA (Initiated September 1981)
Chalfant


Pest Management Strategies for Optimizing Cowpea Yields in Cameroon


RECOMMENDATION RATING: 2

REVIEW:
A major, active cowpea insect research program has been developed in
northern Cameroon in cooperation with the IRA. The goal is to develop methods
for optimizing yield and quality of cowpeas through pest management research.
Major insect pests have been identified (e.g., aphids and bruchids together
account for large pre- and post-harvest losses) and increasing yields resulted
when 0, 1, 2 and 3 chemical treatments were applied in the field. Because the
parastatal SODECOTON has introduced the use of insecticides in production of
cotton, IRA personnel are convinced that farmers in the area are likely to
adopt the use of chemicals for other crops. The EEP, nevertheless, urges that
attention be given to non-chemical control of insects both in the field and
during storage.
Date of planting, plant density and selection of cultivars with resistance
to insect pests affect yields. For one cultivar, 3236, recommendations for
production have been supplied to SODECOTON, which has been given a mandate to
serve as an extension service for food crops. This cultivar also yields well
when intercropped with sorghum S-35. Storage studies, using both traditional
and modern methods, were added to the research program in FY 84 and will be
continued.
This project has been integrated into IRA's research program at the Maroua
Center and considerable support has been provided, e.g., laboratory and office
space, land and land preparation for field tests, vehicles for transportation,
technicians and housing for one of the research counterparts. A HC PI has been
identified by IRA; however, in-service training for technicians at Maroua and
short-course training at IITA plus one student studying for a Master's degree
at the University of Georgia will provide only minimal increase in research
capability in Cameroon. Candidates for advanced study of entomology, agronomy,
plant breeding, food technology or other related subjects should be nominated
promptly.


-21-







Research has been initiated at Boyce Thompson Institute on basic biology
of Callosobruchus, the serious storage pest, and on the aphid A. Craccivora.
Identification of substances that modify insect behavior may lead to practical
procedures for pest management.
The EEP concluded that most of this project's deficiencies have been
corrected and judged it is satisfactory for continuation with the recommenda-
tion that greater efforts be expended to identify Cameroonians for advanced
study.

SUMMARY:

1. Administration of Project 2. Technical Personnel
Host Country-S Host Country-S
United States-S United States-HS
AID-S Collaboration-S
Interaction-S

3. Project Progress
Log Frame/Consistency of Objectives with Activities-HS
Achievement of Natural Science Objectives-HS
Achievement of Social Science Objectives-LS
Achievement of Training Objectives-LS
Publications/Information Dissemination-S
Food and Nutritional Component-NA
Consideration of WID Issues-LS
Application to Systems Used by Small Farmers-S
Contribution to Development in the Host Country-Pol

4. Linkages
Host Country-HS
AID Projects-HS
International-HS

5. Overall Major Project Strengths/Deficiencies
See text above

6. Response to Prior EEP Project Recommendations-HS


-22-








PROJECT EVALUATION PROFILE


DOMINICAN REPUBLIC UNIVERSITY OF NEBRASKA (Initiated June 1981)
Coyne


Biology, Epidemiology, Genetics and Breeding for Resistance
to Bacterial and Rust Pathogens of Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)


RECOMMENDATION RATING: 1

REVIEW:
Bacterial and rust diseases of dry beans are a major constraint for both
yield and seed quality of this important food crop in the Dominican Republic.
Low cost technology is needed to solve these problems for the benefit of poor,
small farm producers. Resistance to rust and common blight pathogens has not
been stable. This project is (1) identifying pathogen strain variation and
resistant germplasm and (2) determining genetic information and strategy that
will lead to incorporation of greater amounts of stable resistance to
bacterial and rust pathogens.
Significant findings include: (1) the reaction of leaves and pods to
common blight were inherited quantitatively and different genes were involved
in controlling the reaction in different plant parts; (2) a genotype x
isolate interaction to common blight indicates the lines should be tested with
a wide array of isolates to identify lines with broad resistance; (3) although
several lines were resistant to blight in Nebraska, two were susceptible in
the Dominican Republic; subsequent studies indicated that photoperiod
differences in the two sites explained the increased susceptibility;
(4) resistance to strains of rust were determined by two major genes in
Pompadour Checa, a red mottled dry bean; and (5) no association has been
detected between reactions of pathogens causing rust and blight.
Baseline survey data in the Dominican Republic indicated that abiotic and
biotic stresses (insects, diseases) were the most important constraints
affecting production. Research in this project is related to some of the most
important biotic stresses and complements the breeding for multiple disease
resistance approach used in the DR/UPR/Beaver project.
When the HC PI was replaced in FY 84, no discernible change in
collaboration occurred. In addition to an especially competent research team
at Nebraska, strong support and encouragement for the project are provided


-23-







both by the University of Nebraska and by the Ministry of Agriculture's
research program in the DR.
Attention was given to EEP recommendations in the past year, and the EEP
has found no serious weaknesses in this project; therefore, the project is
satisfactory for continuation without major changes or adjustments.

SUMMARY:

1. Administration of Project 2. Technical Personnel
Host Country-HS Host Country-S
United States-HS United States-HS
AID-S Collaboration-E
Interaction-HS

3. Project Progress
Log Frame/Consistency of Objectives with Activities-HS
Achievement of Natural Science Objectives-HS
Achievement of Social Science Objectives-LS
Achievement of Training Objectives-HS
Publications/Information Dissemination-HS
Food and Nutritional Component-NA
Consideration of WID Issues-HS
Application to Systems Used by Small Farmers-Pol
Contribution to Development in the Host Country-Pol

4. Linkages
Host Country-S
AID Projects-NA
International-HS

5. Overall Major Project Strengths/Deficiencies
See text above

6. Response to Prior EEP Project Recommendations-HS


-24-







PROJECT EVALUATION PROFILE


DOMINICAN REPUBLIC UNIVERSITY OF PUERTO RICO (Initiated June 1981)
Beaver


Improvement of Bean Production in the Dominican Republic Through
Breeding for Multiple Disease Resistance in the Preferred Standard Cultivars


RECOMMENDATION RATING: 1

REVIEW:
The goal of this project is to produce cultivars with multiple disease
resistance and with physical and sensory characteristics preferred by con-
sumers. Cultivars developed and tested at MayagUez before the Bean/Cowpea CRSP
was initiated provided materials that could be grown in the DR soon after this
project began. Five cultivars (two kidney bean lines, two navy bean lines and
one brown dry bean line) have been resistant or highly resistant to root rots,
a serious problem in both Puerto Rico and the Dominican Republic. They also
are resistant to bean common mosaic virus and rust races in Puerto Rico. The
HC and US PIs both agree that plant breeding activities should be added in the
DR, e.g., multiple disease resistant cultivars should be crossed with the
Pompadour bean. In addition to developing genetic resources to control yield
losses due to diseases, consideration will be given to management practices
such as crop rotation and intercropping. The baseline data on traditional
farming practices will be used to design these experiments.
Communication by telephone and travel by air between Puerto Rico and the
DR are easy; consequently, coordination and consultation can occur frequently.
The US PI was replaced during FY 84 without any loss of momentum; the HC PI
was also replaced without causing any problems in continuity. In fact, the
new HC PI has been connected with the bean research program in the DR for a
long time; he also brings a particular interest in examining problems
associated with production of high quality foundation seed.
This project and that at the University of Nebraska are complementary and
exhibit effective collaboration across projects and PIs. Within the CRSP,
cooperation also occurs with projects at Michigan State, Cornell and Wisconsin.
Potentially, a combination of enhanced BNF and multiple disease resistance
could be achieved by exchanging germplasm between Dr. Bliss at Wisconsin and


-25-







Dr. Beaver at Puerto Rico. Because of the importance of root rot resistance
in Puerto Rico and the DR, cooperation with Dr. Silbernagel at Prosser,
Washington, may be useful because he has been screening bean cultivars for
resistance to root rots.
With respect to training, consideration should be given to selecting
individuals interested in plant breeding and other areas needed in the DR for
development of a well-rounded team of researchers. The EEP did not find any
apparent weaknesses in the research program being conducted and therefore
judged that this project is satisfactory for continuation without major
changes/adjustments.

SUMMARY:

1. Administration of Project 2. Technical Personnel
Host Country-HS Host Country-S
United States-HS United States-HS
AID-S Collaboration-E
Interaction-E

3. Project Progress
Log Frame/Consistency of Objectives with Activities-HS
Achievement of Natural Science Objectives-HS
Achievement of Social Science Objectives-LS
Achievement of Training Objectives-HS
Publications/Information Dissemination-HS
Food and Nutritional Component-S
Consideration of WID Issues-HS
Application to Systems Used by Small Farmers-HS
Contribution to Development in the Host Country-AI

4. Linkages
Host Country-S
AID Projects-NA
International-HS

5. Overall Major Project Strengths/Deficiencies
See text above

6. Response to Prior EEP Project Recommendations-HS


-26-







PROJECT EVALUATION PROFILE


ECUADOR CORNELL UNIVERSITY (Initiated September 1981)
Wallace


Agronomic, Sociological and Genetic Aspects of Bean Yield and Adaptation


RECOMMENDATION RATING: Restructure

REVIEW:
The sociological research work conducted in the Pimampiro area in 1982 and
1983 identified some agronomic constraints for increased production of beans by
small farmers in this region. These problems are being addressed by the grain
legume program of INIAP in collaboration with the CRSP personnel. Experiments
on crop management that include fertilization and planting densities were
designed and conducted in farmers' fields in two growing seasons of 1984. A
cultivar test to study the performance of bean varieties at different locations
was also planted. This experiment was intended to prepare for a more elaborate
research study of the effects of temperature on the adaptation of bean
genotypes in tropical environments.
The experience gained in the highlands of Pimampiro has stimulated the
interest of the sociology team to develop surveys in lowland areas of the
province of Manabi where other grain legume crops, mainly cowpeas and lima
beans, are intercropped with maize and produced for consumption at the farm
level. The farming systems research team of INIAP has joined in this effort.
The initial work in the new study zone has resulted in the collection of 155
landraces of food legumes for evaluation and characterization in future studies
by the agronomy research team.
The EEP is pleased with the response to its recommendations to post one
agronomist and one sociologist to work in Ecuador on a full-time basis. The
proposed plan to conduct research work in Manabi on food legume species
different from the common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris, implies a major change of
the program goal of this CRSP; and a new Log Framework matrix to include beans
and cowpea research should, therefore, be submitted for approval.


-27-







The research work conducted in Pimampiro is consistent with objectives of
the project, but the proposed plan to work in this area on seed storage and
other constraints already addressed by other projects in the CRSP should be
conducted by INIAP and not by the CRSP personnel. The EEP notes the lack of a
plan for the physiological genetics research work in 1985 and concurs that this
component should be terminated in Ecuador.
In view of the above considerations, the EEP cannot provide an evaluation
profile for this project.


-28-







PROJECT EVALUATION PROFILE


GUATEMALA CORNELL UNIVERSITY (Initiated September 1981)
Wallace


Agronomic, Sociological and Genetic Aspects of Bean Yield and Adaptation


RECOMMENDATION RATING: Restructure

REVIEW:
Building on ICTA's recognized strength in utilizing an integrated socio-
economic/biological approach to technology development, highly satisfactory
progress continues to be made toward achieving the natural science objectives
of this project. Ten black seeded bush cultivars, representing the range of
adaptation classes of Guatemala, were grown at elevations of 50 to 2,400 meters
with mean temperatures of 260 to 120 C, the range of temperatures at which
beans can be grown in the tropics. Results showed that in the tropics, to the
contrary of temperate zones, it is temperature, with a lesser effect of day-
length, that influences the action of the genes to alter time of flowering,
adaptation and yield. These physiological/genetic findings enhance the
possibility of breeding for adaptation, improved architecture and increased
bean production in the lowlands. In the highlands, these findings enhance the
possibility of breeding disease resistant cultivars with higher bean yield and
less maize yield reduction when these two crops are grown together. There is
obvious worldwide potential from these results.
ICTA contributed to the sociological/agronomic objectives by augmenting the
personnel participating in its ongoing activities in order to provide greater
emphasis to beans in the Chimaltenango area. Although adjustments were made
in US personnel and project objectives were modified in response to concerns
of the EEP, many problems remain in the sociological component. Communication
problems exist between the US Co-PI who speaks no Spanish and the HC Co-PI who
speaks no English. A bilingual administrator hired by the project has
facilitated communication to some extent as has the short-term and proposed
longer-term bilingual American epidemiologist/sociologist located in Guatemala.
However, these are not substitutes for adequate direct communication between
PIs.


-29-







During 1984, one additional factor has further limited the capabilities of
the CRSP to work effectively with the socio-economic unit of ICTA. Concern at
Cornell about working with small farmers under present conditions in Guatemala
makes it difficult to conduct sociological research for this project. This has
eliminated the proposed CRSP-funded position in ICTA for a female anthropologist
and would effectively restrict the resident US sociologist to the capital city,
working on secondary data or primary data gathered by ICTA personnel in the
field using Guatemalan funding. Although US and Guatemalan institutions have
agreed to this approach, it is considered to be an unacceptable solution by the
EEP.
The EEP recognizes the need for socio-economic and natural scientists to
work together in the field and the benefits to be derived from this integration
of activities. Although ICTA would benefit from additional sociological support
in its socio-economic unit, this unit is still providing much of the information
required by the natural science component.
On balance, because of the constraints imposed on the sociological component
by the Human Subjects Committee at Cornell and the difficulties of providing
adequate field support, the sociological component of this project cannot be
recommended for extension. However, the natural science component is
recommended for extension with all efforts made to facilitate continuing
collaboration between the CRSP and the ICTA bean program, the socio-economic
unit of ICTA and the technology testing (agronomy) team in Chimaltenango.
In view of the above considerations, the EEP cannot provide an evaluation
profile for this project.


-30-







PROJECT EVALUATION PROFILE


HONDURAS UNIVERSITY OF PUERTO RICO (Initiated March 1982)
Beaver


Improvement of Bean Production in Honduras
Through Breeding for Multiple Disease Resistance


RECOMMENDATION RATING: 2

REVIEW:
The rapid turnover of the HC PI, the principal weakness of the project
identified by the EEP last year, has been remedied by the appointment of Ing.
Rafael Diaz to that position. Further, the US PI has changed and Dr. James
Beaver now fills that position. Ing. Diaz and Dr. Beaver work admirably well
together. Hence, it is not surprising that they have implemented a highly
viable, productive research program at EAP and UPR. For example, during the
three growing seasons in 1984 in Honduras, the following field trials were
conducted: 27 in Zamorano, 24 in Danli and 24 in Olancho. The CRSP research
team has established firm collaborative work with (1) CIAT to evaluate bean
nurseries and (2) Ministry of Natural Resource personnel to establish on-farm
trials in various bean production areas of the country. An equally impressive
research program is underway at UPR.
One of the basic objectives of the project is to develop multiple disease
resistant bean germplasm because diseases are considered one of the major
constraints to bean production in Honduras. The extent of damage by diseases
depends upon factors such as variety grown, season of production and environ-
mental conditions of the area of production. Hence, the approach adopted by
the project to evaluate bean varieties in different environments is appropriate
to identify sources of disease resistance and genotypic adaptation. In addi-
tion, experiments have been designed to determine the extent of yield reduction
under various levels of disease infection and the realized yield potential
under complete disease protection. The information gained from these experi-
ments will be basic for designing breeding strategies which will lead to the
development of disease resistant (disease tolerant) varieties for production
in the country.


-31-







Progress has also been made in the area of training and the involvement of
women in the project. A modest training program, focusing on short course,
B.S. and M.S. level training, is underway. More than six women have been
actively involved in the program in 1984.
Although trials are being conducted jointly with small farmers in two
departments from which production and utilization data are being obtained, a
systematic baseline study has not yet been undertaken. This is a major
limitation of the project. Remedying it would provide not only a basis for
judging future progress but also insights into the farmers' most important
problems concerning production and utilization.

SUMMARY:

1. Administration of Project 2. Technical Personnel
Host Country-S Host Country-HS
United States-S United States-HS
AID-S Collaboration-HS
Interaction-S

3. Project Progress
Log Frame/Consistency of Objectives with Activities-S
Achievement of Natural Science Objectives-S
Achievement of Social Science Objectives-LS
Achievement of Training Objectives-S
Publications/Information Dissemination-S
Food and Nutritional Component-Pol
Consideration of WID Issues-S
Application to Systems Used by Small Farmers-S
Contribution to Development in the Host Country-Pol

4. Linkages
Host Country-HS
AID Projects-S
International-S

5. Overall Major Project Strengths/Deficiencies
See text above

6. Response to Prior EEP Project Recommendations-S


-32-







PROJECT EVALUATION PROFILE


INCAP WASHINGTON STATE UNIVERSITY (Initiated November 1981)
Swanson


Improved Biological Utilization and Availability of Dry Beans


RECOMMENDATION RATING: 1

REVIEW:
The overall objective of the research is to improve availability,
utilization and nutritional quality of dry beans for human consumption in
developing countries. To increase availability, activities among the following
on bean quality must be coordinated: (1) production factors, (2) changes
during handling and storage, (3) effects of processing and development of food
products and (4) nutritional characteristics of improved varieties. Standard-
ized methods to evaluate quality of beans have been developed by the five
cooperating US universities and the division of agriculture and food sciences
at INCAP. The principal contribution of the cooperating institutions are:
INCAP Examination of a broad range of factors
influencing bean quality and evaluation of
bean quality for human consumption, handling
and storage changes, feeding studies, cooking
time, trypsin inhibition, protein efficiency
ratios, digestibility and food processing.
Baseline survey data in Guatemala have been
gathered by INCAP personnel.
Washington State University Study of the role of lipid, carbohydrates and
protein components of beans and the genetic
basis for their distribution. The "hard-to-
cook" phenomenon is also being examined in
relationship to the chemical composition and
physical microstructure of beans.
Colorado State University Impact of genetic/environmental interactions
on bean quality.
Kansas State University Identification of chemical changes, usually
developed during storage, related to the
"hard-to-cook" phenomenon in beans.


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Michigan State University Evaluation of the genetic relationship to
constituents in the seed coat of beans,
especially polyphenols and lectins.
University of Puerto Rico Development of an assay for procyanidins in
beans.
Coordination of research in many different sites has been difficult and
requires a considerable amount of the WSU Principal Investigator's time. In
some cases the collaborating institutions appear to be sub-contractors rather
than active participants in the CRSP, however. More frequent team meetings
are desirable.
The collection and documentation of standard methods for evaluating bean
quality for human consumption has been a major accomplishment of the project.
Linkages to other projects in the Bean/Cowpea CRSP have been established so
that improved cultivars developed by breeders can be evaluated for bean
quality.
The EEP judged that this project is highly satisfactory and should be
continued without major changes/adjustments.

SUMMARY:

1. Administration of Project 2. Technical Personnel
Host Country-S Host Country-E
United States-S United States-HS
AID-S Collaboration-HS
Interaction-S

3. Project Progress
Log Frame/Consistency of Objectives with Activities-HS
Achievement of Natural Science Objectives-HS
Achievement of Social Science Objectives-S
Achievement of Training Objectives-HS
Publications/Information Dissemination-HS
Food and Nutritional Component-HS
Consideration of WID Issues-S
Application to Systems Used by Small Farmers-Pol
Contribution to Development in the Host Country-Pol

4. Linkages
Host Country-HS
AID Projects-S
International-HS

5. Overall Major Project Strengths/Deficiencies
See text above

6. Response to Prior EEP Project Recommendations-HS


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PROJECT EVALUATION PROFILE


KENYA UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA-DAVIS (Initiated August 1981)
Webster


Improvement of Drought and Heat Tolerance of
Disease Resistant Beans in Semiarid Regions of Kenya

RECOMMENDATION RATING: 2

REVIEW:
The objective of this project is to improve drought and heat tolerance in
disease resistant bean cultivars for cultivation in semiarid areas of Kenya.
The major problem for bean production in these areas is the lack of appropriate
bean cultivars that produce good yields within the short and unpredictable
period of rainfall in the growing season (250 to 350 mm). The CRSP project is
helping to lessen this constraint by establishing physiological and agronomic
experiments to determine the adaptability of Kenyan bean cultivars of different
degrees of drought stress. Information obtained could be used for direct
recommendation to farmers and to develop a breeding program on drought
adaptation.
The plant physiology experiments are being conducted at the University of
Nairobi Research Station in Kabete and at the National Dryland Research Station
in Katumani, using a line source sprinkler system to provide gradients of water
supply and consequently of drought stress. These experiments are concerned
with the measurement of characteristics such as dry matter production, leaf
area, seed growth and flower abscission and with physiological traits
affecting plant growth such as leaf temperature, leaf water potential and
stomatal resistance.
The agronomic experiments are being conducted at Katumani and Machanga
under rain-fed conditions. Variations in moisture stress are imposed through
planting densities, dates of planting within a given growing season and
intercropping.
The limited number of varieties so far studied are not disease resistant
but they do show a range of responses in plant growth and yield under different
moisture stress conditions. These varieties were chosen from the ones
recommended to farmers by the National Agricultural Station at Thika. The
experimental results indicate that early maturing varieties are better able to
survive under dry conditions than the later maturing ones.


-35-







Several experiments have failed at Katumani because of extreme effects of
drought on seed germination and establishment and early growth. This problem,
however, has been recently solved with the completion of a line source
sprinkler system, which is being used by the plant physiologist and the
agronomist.
The EEP is pleased with the actions taken in Kenya to correct weaknesses
in administration and financial accountability. It feels, with hindsight, that
UCD could have provided stronger management support. It also notes that the
environment at Davis would have to be handled in a more sophisticated manner
than has been the case hitherto if the results of drought screening there are
to be directly useful to the program in Kenya. Alternatively, the drought
screening might better be conducted at UC-Riverside or in some other more
appropriate environment in the US.
The EEP recommends the reorganization of this project in conjunction with
the Senegal project within the University of California to better coordinate
drought research and project management.

SUMMARY:

1. Administration of Project 2. Technical Personnel
Host Country-S Host Country-HS
United States-LS United States-S
AID-S Collaboration-S
Interaction-LS

3. Project Progress
Log Frame/Consistency of Objectives with Activities-S
Achievement of Natural Science Objectives-S
Achievement of Social Science Objectives-LS
Achievement of Training Objectives-S
Publications/Information Dissemination-S
Food and Nutritional Component-NA
Consideration of WID Issues-LS
Application to Systems Used by Small Farmers-S
Contribution to Development in the Host Country-PU

4. Linkages
Host Country-S
AID Projects-S
International-S

5. Overall Major Project Strengths/Deficiencies
See text above

6. Response to Prior EEP Project Recommendations-S


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PROJECT EVALUATION PROFILE


MALAWI MICHIGAN STATE UNIVERSITY (Initiated February 1982)
Adams


Genetic, Agronomic and Socio-Cultural Analysis of
Diversity Among Bean Landraces in Malawi


RECOMMENDATION RATING: 1

REVIEW:
This project is well established in the Department of Crop Production at
Bunda College, which in turn is regarded by the Agricultural Research Council
of Malawi as the lead agency for the national research program on beans. In
the United States it is firmly based in the Department of Crop and Soil
Sciences at Michigan State University. It is well-regarded by the USAID
Mission in Malawi. The program is in touch with bean research in East Africa,
including two bean CRSP projects.
The diversity of bean landraces in different parts of Malawi is being
collected, described and conserved. The breeding biology and patterns of
inheritance of seed coat colors and markings has been investigated by the
small team in Malawi, including a US graduate student working for an M.S.
degree at MSU. Associated agronomic improvement work continues in Malawi.
Studies of the production and use of beans in Malawian rural families, with
particular reference to the activities of women, have assembled useful new
descriptive information, but these studies have not yet determined whether (as
seems likely), and if so how and for what reasons, deliberate selection (by
women, who are responsible for the seed stock) is significant in maintaining
the observed patterns of diversity. It is by answering questions of this sort
that the synergistic value of the partnership of natural scientists and social
scientists in this project will be measured.
The project continues to be well run, the more so because some
administrative misunderstandings were solved during the year. As Malawians
currently in training at MSU on agronomic and genetic subjects return to
Malawi, the contribution of Malawians will become more visible. The
complementary relations between the groups in the US and Malawi are markedly
collegial and productive.


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The work at MSU includes analysis of data collected in Malawi and isozyme
studies of the genetic constitution of the bean populations from Malawi.
Notwithstanding the comparative weakness of the professional interaction
between the natural science and human science components, the project is
making good progress toward both its scientific and training objectives and is
satisfactory for continuation without significant changes.

SUMMARY:

1. Administration of Project 2. Technical Personnel
Host Country-S Host Country-HS
United States-S United States-S
AID-S Collaboration-HS
Interaction-S

3. Project Progress
Log Frame/Consistency of Objectives with Activities-S
Achievement of Natural Science Objectives-S
Achievement of Social Science Objectives-HS
Achievement of Training Objectives-HS
Publications/Information Dissemination-S
Food and Nutritional Component-S
Consideration of WID Issues-HS
Application to Systems Used by Small Farmers-HS
Contribution to Development in the Host Country-LTP

4. Linkages
Host Country-HS
AID Projects-S
International-S

5. Overall Major Project Strengths/Deficiencies
Slow development of synergistic interaction between social and natural
science parts.

6. Response to Prior EEP Project Recommendations-NA


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PROJECT EVALUATION PROFILE


MEXICO 0 MICHIGAN STATE UNIVERSITY (Initiated March 1983)
Adams


Improving Resistance to Environmental Stress in Beans Through
Genetic Selection for Carbohydrate Partitioning and
Efficiency of Biological Nitrogen Fixation

RECOMMENDATION RATING: 1

REVIEW:
The project has completed two growing seasons only. It made a good start
in 1983 and has continued it in 1984. Research workers of the Mexican national
agency INIA, cooperating with the investigators in Michigan, have achieved a
useful degree of consistency in identifying lines or populations of beans which
are adapted to the types of dry conditions experienced at their testing sites,
as well as to nitrogen-poor soils. In the United States, valuable work has
been done on the capability of different lines of the host to become success-
fully infected by Rhizobium and to fix satisfactory quantities of nitrogen, but
the results have yet to be transferred to the field for testing in Mexico.
Conceptually, the work on adaptation to dry conditions at Michigan has made
important progress in 1984 in understanding the diverse phenomenon represented
by the term "drought," and the physiological work on partition of carbohydrate
has been started.
The training objectives at MSU are being satisfactorily pursued. A
Colombian female student has completed an M.S. degree in association with the
project. One male Mexican is in training; he may be expected in due course to
return to the Mexican part of the project, which lacks fully qualified research
staff at present. The project seems to be well anchored in Mexico and to be
in touch with those CRSP and other projects which are working on growth and
nitrogen metabolism of beans in dry conditions. Materials which have been
improved physiologically by the project must also be attractive to consumers.
In Mexico, the seed industry should be able to deliver materials to producers.
The project is satisfactory for continuation without significant change.


-39-








SUMMARY:


1. Administration of Project 2. Technical Personnel
Host Country-HS Host Country-HS
United States-HS United States-HS
AID-HS Collaboration-HS
Interaction-HS

3. Project Progress
Log Frame/Consistency of Objectives with Activities-HS
Achievement of Natural Science Objectives-HS
Achievement of Social Science Objectives-NA
Achievement of Training Objectives-S
Publications/Information Dissemination-S
Food and Nutritional Component-NA
Consideration of WID Issues-S
Application to Systems Used by Small Farmers-Pol
Contribution to Development in the Host Country-Pol

4. Linkages
Host Country-S
AID Projects-NA
International-S

5. Overall Major Project Strengths/Deficiencies
See text above

6. Response to Prior EEP Project Recommendations-NA


-40-








PROJECT EVALUATION PROFILE


NIGERIA MICHIGAN STATE UNIVERSITY (Initiated November 1981)
Markakis


Medical Aspects of Feeding Cowpeas to Children


RECOMMENDATION RATING: Phase Out

REVIEW:
Events during 1984 have not been favorable for this project. One of the
two PIs in Nigeria has left the country and the other has made little progress
with the essential task of demonstrating by feeding trials the adverse
reaction which is said to occur when cowpeas are fed to some weanling
infants. Nor has the association between fermentable carbohydrate, breath
hydrogen and the claimed adverse reaction been rigorously demonstrated.
The work at MSU made little progress in 1984 and no direct contact between
the MSU PI and the remaining PI in Nigeria occurred until November 1984.
The EEP does not recommend this project for extension. Appropriate
provision should be made for the discharge of remaining obligations to project
staff and students in line with CRSP Board-approved policy.

SUMMARY:

1. Administration of Project 2. Technical Personnel
Host Country-LS Host Country-S
United States-S United States-S
AID-S Collaboration-LS
Interaction-LS

3. Project Progress
Log Frame/Consistency of Objectives with Activities-S
Achievement of Natural Science Objectives-LS
Achievement of Social Science Objectives-LS
Achievement of Training Objectives-S
Publications/Information Dissemination-LS
Food and Nutritional Component-LS
Consideration of WID Issues-S
Application to Systems Used by Small Farmers-S
Contribution to Development in the Host Country-Pol

4. Linkages
Host Country-LS
AID Projects-NA
International-LS


-41-








5. Overall Major Project Strengths/Deficiencies
See text above

6. Response to Prior EEP Project Recommendations-LS


-42-







PROJECT EVALUATION PROFILE


NIGERIA UNIVERSITY OF GEORGIA (Initiated April 1981)
McWatters


Appropriate Technology for Cowpea Preservation and Processing
and a Study of Its Socio-Economic Impact on Rural Populations in Nigeria


RECOMMENDATION RATING: 2

REVIEW:
Two good teams of research workers, one in Nigeria and one in Georgia, are
collaborating in studies to preserve and process different cultivars of cowpeas
and to assess nutritional, functional and sensory qualities of selected
cultivars. The project has made good progress in developing appropriate
technologies for processing cowpeas and preparing the traditionally accepted
food, akara, from the meal. Present milling procedures in Nigeria result in a
cowpea meal that is too fine for preparing a satisfactory product.
Improved methods for storage of cowpeas and meals which prevent infestation
by insects and inhibit growth of microflora have been established, and the
"hard-to-cook" phenomenon in stored seeds has been investigated. An appro-
priate village-scale technology for mechanically decorticating cowpeas and for
reducing cotyledons to meal suitable for traditional food preparations has been
developed. The nutritional, functional and sensory properties of cowpea meal
and of the traditional food, akara, made from it have been characterized. The
feasibility of extrusion cooking of cowpeas to produce nutritious, novel foods
has been demonstrated.
The PIs of the two teams have provided leadership that has led to signifi-
cant progress in the stated objectives. Team membership in each location has
been stable throughout the three-and-a-half years in which the project has been
active. Although the data from an initial socio-cultural survey related to
usage of cowpeas has not been interpreted, the nutritional status of pre-school
children in 250 households has been assessed by anthropometry (13 percent were
mildly malnourished, 41 percent were stunted) and methods for home preparation
and home storage of cowpeas were obtained. Reasons for infrequent use of
cowpea paste by some women included "hard work," "too time consuming" and "too
expensive."


-43-








Publications and papers at national and international conferences have been
recorded; more are in progress.
Efforts must be continued to establish a closer working relationship
between the US and HC teams. Because Nsukka has a well-established graduate
program in food science, it may not be necessary to include higher degree
training in the US in this project. However, specific in-service training on
methods and instrumentation for short periods to the US for graduate students
and junior faculty members may be valuable.
Both research teams consist of well-qualified individuals and include both
and women. They are to be commended for progress made in three-and-a-half
years of a new project requiring collaboration between institutions where
their communications and travel are so difficult.

SUMMARY:

1. Administration of Project 2. Technical Personnel
Host Country-HS Host Country-HS
United States-HS United States-HS
AID-S Collaboration-S
Interaction-S

3. Project Progress
Log Frame/Consistency of Objectives with Activities-S
Achievement of Natural Science Objectives-HS
Achievement of Social Science Objectives-LS
Achievement of Training Objectives-HS
Publications/Information Dissemination-HS
Food and Nutritional Component-HS
Consideration of WID Issues-S
Application to Systems Used by Small Farmers-NA
Contribution to Development in the Host Country-Pol

4. Linkages
Host Country-S
AID Projects-NA
International-S

5. Overall Major Project Strengths/Deficiencies
See text above

6. Response to Prior EEP Project Recommendations-S


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PROJECT EVALUATION PROFILE


SENEGAL UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA-RIVERSIDE (Initiated August 1981)
Hall


A Program to Develop Improved Cowpea Cultivars
for Production and Utilization in Semiarid Zones


RECOMMENDATION RATING: 1

REVIEW:
The long-term objective of this project is to develop cowpea production
systems leading to increased production and stable yields in hot semiarid zones.
The project is fully integrated into the University of California-Riverside,
where it receives institutional back-up support for training and research.
Highly satisfactory progress has been achieved in the areas addressed by the
project with results applicable to both the California cowpea growers and the
Senegalese farmers.
Training of Senegalese counterparts on methodologies to conduct field
research in crop management and germplasm improvement has resulted in the
formation of a local research team highly productive at ISRA. Research results
in crop management in Senegal indicate that using intercropping systems that
combine early erect varieties, developed at UCR and UCD, with local more
prostrate ones, could improve yield stability in semiarid zones.
The research work on heat tolerance, especially adaptation to warm nights,
has been successful in developing methodologies to differentiate between heat-
tolerant and heat-susceptible cultivars. The mode of inheritance of heat
adaptation has also been established. Breeding and selection work has produced
cowpea lines with heat tolerance which are moderately early, erect and day-
neutral and have adequate seed quality. These lines have been sent to Senegal
for agronomic evaluation and selection under local conditions.
Techniques to screen for drought adaptation have centered on studies of root
penetration. Cowpea strains obtained from cooperators have been screened by
this method, and results indicate that some cultivars show more extensive root
growth than others. Issues of diseases and insects related to cowpea production
in Senegal are not being directly addressed by the project at UCR. These


-45-







problems are being handled through collaborative linkages with other CRSP
projects and IITA. This project is recommended for continuation without major
changes.
The associated sub-project in Arizona made little progress in 1984, and the
Co-PI has taken up an overseas assignment expected to continue for three
years. The EEP recommends that the sub-project not be continued but that the
future use of a very satisfactory sprinkler line site at Yuma, Arizona, be
discussed with the University of Arizona.

SUMMARY:

1. Administration of Project 2. Technical Personnel
Host Country-HS Host Country-HS
United States-HS United States-HS
AID-HS Collaboration-E
Interaction-HS

3. Project Progress
Log Frame/Consistency of Objectives with Activities-S
Achievement of Natural Science Objectives-HS
Achievement of Social Science Objectives-S
Achievement of Training Objectives-HS
Publications/Information Dissemination-HS
Food and Nutritional Component-NA
Consideration of WID Issues-S
Application to Systems Used by Small Farmers-HS
Contribution to Development in the Host Country-AI

4. Linkages
Host Country-HS
AID Projects-HS
International-HS

5. Overall Major Project Strengths/Deficiencies
See text above

6. Response to Prior EEP Project Recommendations-HS


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PROJECT EVALUATION PROFILE


TANZANIA s WASHINGTON STATE UNIVERSITY (Initiated June 1981)
Silbernagel


Breeding Beans for Disease and Insect Resistance and
Determination of Economic Impact on Smallholder Farm Families


RECOMMENDATION RATING: 1

REVIEW:
This project has been institutionalized as an integral part of the bean
program of the Sokoine University of Agriculture in Tanzania. Its research
and training components are very active and productive in both its US and
Tanzanian sites.
Significant progress has been achieved in crop improvement for disease
resistance, and some lines with resistance to insects have been identified.
Heat-tolerant lines have been screened in the US; and low-cost production
practices, such as the use of neem oil to control field insects or bean
mixtures to reduce the incidence of diseases, have been evaluated. Socio-
economic studies on bean production and utilization systems, a research area
of great importance to the global contribution of the CRSP, have not, however,
advanced greatly. Insufficient time of key Tanzanian project staff and limited
experience of both the US and Tanzanian teams in farming systems research has
somewhat delayed on-farm testing of technology developed through the project.
Training at the graduate (M.S. and Ph.D.), undergraduate and non-degree
levels has been provided to participants from the US, Tanzania and other
countries. Collaboration between the US and Tanzanian teams is remarkable, and
effective linkages have been established with other CRSP and international bean
projects.
This project should be extended without major changes, except for
adjustments needed to strengthen socio-economic and on-farm research.

SUMMARY:

1. Administration of Project 2. Technical Personnel
Host Country-S Host Country-S
United States-HS United States-HS
AID-S Collaboration-HS
Interaction-S


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3. Project Progress
Log Frame/Consistency of Objectives with Activities-S
Achievement of Natural Science Objectives-HS
Achievement of Social Science Objectives-S
Achievement of Training Objectives-HS
Publications/Information Dissemination-S
Food and Nutritional Component-LS
Consideration of WID Issues-S
Application to Systems Used by Small Farmers-Pol
Contribution to Development in the Host Country-Pol

4. Linkages
Host Country-HS
AID Projects-S
International-HS

5. Overall Major Project Strengths/Deficiencies
See text above

6. Response to Prior EEP Project Recommendations-S


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1 9 8 4 EXTERNAL EVALUATE N PANEL PROFILES


RESPONSE
ADMINISTRATIVE TECHNICAL PROGRESS LINKAGES TO ERP RATING*
1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 2.1 2.2 2.3 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3. 3.8 3.9 4.14.24.3 6 7
BOTSWANA HS HS S S LS HS HS S E S HS HS LS S HS Pol E S HS HS 1
BRAZIL/ROBERTS HS HS HS HS S E S HS E NA HS S NA S HS PU S NA HS HS 1
BRAZIL/BLISS HS HS HS HS S E HS HS E NA S S NA S HS Pol E NA HS HS 1

BRAZIL/MAXWELL HS HS HS S S HS S S S NA LS S NA S PU Pol S NA S E 2
CAMEROON S S S S S HS S HS HS LS LS S NA LS S Pol HS HS HS HS 2
DR/COYNE HS HS S HS S HS E HS HS LS HS HS NA HS Pol Pol S NA HS HS 1

DR/BEAVER HS HS S E S HS E HS HS LS HS HS S HS HS AI S NA HS HS 1
ECUADOR U N R A T E D Restructure
SGUATEMALA U N R A T E D Restructure

'HONDURAS S S S S HS HS HS S S LS S S Pol S S Pol HS S S S 2
INCAP S S S S E HS HS HS HS S HS HS HS S Pol Pol HS S HS HS 1
KENYA S LS S LS HS S S S S LS S S NA LS S PU S S S S 2

MALAWI S S S S HS S HS S S HS HS S S HS HS LTP HS S S NA 1
MEXICO HS HS HS HS HS HS HS HS HS NA S S NA S Pol Pol S NA S NA 1
NIGERIA/MARKAKIS LS S S LS S S LS S LS LS S LS LS S S Pol LS NA LS LS Phase Out

NIGERIA/MC WATTERS HS HS S S HS HS S S HS LS HS HS HS S NA Pol S NA S S 2
SENEGAL HS HS HS HS HS HS E S HS S HS HS NA S HS AI HS HS HS HS 1
TANZANIA S HS S S S HS HS S HS S HS S LS S Pol Pol HS S HS S 1


KEY:
E Exceptional
HS Highly Satisfactory
S Satisfactory


LS Less Than Satisfactory
NA Not Applicable
PU Potentially Useful


Pol Potentially Important
AI Already Important
LTP Long-Term Potential


*See text of individual project profiles for clarification of additional issues considered in this evaluation.


S U M R









EEP PROJECT REVIEW AGENDA
1984 US Project Review


1. Involvement and Support from US Institution
a. Institutional integration: range of departments, number of persons,
services utilized
b. Institutional back-up support provided
c. Institutional interest in continued involvement
d. Actions needed

2. Project Administration
a. Fiscal management
b. Program management and logistics
c. Actions needed

3. Personnel
a. Paid/unpaid
b. Adequate number and type
c. Involvement of women
d. Effectiveness
e. Staff concerns
f. Actions needed

4. Equipment and Facilitities
a. Availability
b. Adequacy
c. Actions needed


5. Project Progress
a. Frequency and usefulness of US/HC team travel
b. Level of US/HC team communication and communication with
c. Appropriateness of activities to goals
d. Progress toward research objectives
e. Progress toward training objectives
f. Attention to issues of related disciplines including WID
g. Contribution of work to small farmer systems
h. Contribution of work to US agriculture
i. Actions needed


HC AID Mission


6. Active Linkages Established
a. HC organizations
b. US organizations
c. Other CRSP projects
d. Actions needed

7. Summary of Status
a. Specific strengths
b. Specific weaknesses
c. Change from previous review
d. Expected schedule of future outputs

8. Summary of Recommendations


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CRSP MANAGEMENT OFFICE EVALUATION


RECOMMENDATION RATING: 1

REVIEW:
The Management Office is responsible for a very wide range of executive
functions essential for the funding, accounting, operation, reporting and
forward planning of the CRSP. It acts under the authority of the Management
Entity (Michigan State University) and the Board of Directors. It services the
Board, the EEP and the Technical Committee. It is organized as part of the
Institute of International Agriculture of Michigan State University, which
falls under the Vice Provost and Dean of the College of Agriculture and Natural
Resources and is partially supported by the Dean of International Studies and
Programs. It is, as a result, firmly based in and served by the management
structure of the University.
The office staff includes three-and-a-half professional positions (Director,
half-time Deputy Director, Finance Officer, WID Officer), two support positions
and some part-time help. The half-time post of Deputy Director was in effect
vacant through most of the year so that the staff has been heavily overworked.
The EEP is much impressed with the devotion, industry and competence of the
staff of the MO and with the remarkably wide range of tasks which they perform
effectively.
For the more effective working of the CRSP, the EEP advises that the post
of Deputy Director be made full-time and filled and that an additional typist
post be created in order to provide the extra support which will be needed in
consequence.
The working of the MO, and of the projects within the CRSP, has been
hampered since the establishment of the CRSP by delays in obtaining approvals
from AID Washington, particularly for purchases of equipment. Recently, as a
result of the personal intervention of the Finance Officer in Washington, most
of the outstanding requests have been filled. However, we can have no assurance
that future delays will not occur. Moreover, they should never have occurred
in the first place in a responsible civil service department. It is a necessary
part of our responsibility to bring this long-standing difficulty to the
attention of the Board of Directors and of BIFAD, with a strong recommendation
for urgent action.


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We have reviewed the record of past expenditures by the CRSP. We find this
has been managed by the MO in a rational and orderly fashion. Of funds provided
through 9/31/84 and projected for 1985, of $14.7m, only $0.7m is unallocated.
We have to report, however, that no external audit has been conducted, either
in the US or abroad, in spite of requests from the MO. We understand that
internal auditing within MSU is satisfactory and acceptable to USAID.


-52-







PROGRAM EVALUATION


Summary Statements
During the Annual Meeting in Atlanta and without advance notice, several
EEP members were asked to make summary comments on several CRSP topics. These
comments were explorations into the status and potential of CRSP activities.
These are presented below. Because it is now timely to begin measuring the
global impact of the Bean/Cowpea CRSP, more comprehensive, in-depth evaluations
will be attempted in 1985 and subsequent years.

0 Status/Progress and Prospects for CRSP Bean Research
(Dr. Antonio Pinchinat)

Bean production research is addressed by eleven of the eighteen CRSP bean
projects. They cover biological N2 fixation, methodology to facilitate
pathology and breeding work in multiple disease resistance, genetics of
reaction to diseases, breeding for single and multiple disease resistance,
production, physiology and agronomy, heat resistance, genetic variability,
adaptation to drought and insect resistance. Except for some limited work on
specialized local constraints, this research at cooperating Host Country and
US sites addresses global problems of bean production in the world.
Several of the CRSP bean projects are applying unique strategies to improve
biological nitrogen production both from an efficacy and efficiency standpoint.
This BNF work looks simultaneously at the bean plant and the Rhizobium organism.
As a result, bean genotypes and Rhizobium strains are demonstrating enhanced BNF
and improved production efficiency. Similarly, the practical advantage of dry
disease inoculum over its liquid form has been demonstrated. More efficient
techniques to apply disease inoculum on the bean plant is facilitating breeding
work. Differential reaction of different parts of the plant to pathogens has
been observed. The biological reaction of several pathogens on the same plant
has been studied and advances in inheritance of disease resistance have been
registered. More reliable and repeatable methods to screen for disease
resistance have been developed. The effects of ecological factors such as
photoperiod and temperature on plant development have been evaluated, and the
results of this work may be useful for breeding for ecological adaptation and
stability in bean production. Techniques to study the physiology and genetics
of adaptation to drought and reaction to heat are being refined. Improved
varieties of beans have been identified or developed. Progress has been made
in trying to increase crop production stability through physical mixtures of


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PROGRAM EVALUATION


Summary Statements
During the Annual Meeting in Atlanta and without advance notice, several
EEP members were asked to make summary comments on several CRSP topics. These
comments were explorations into the status and potential of CRSP activities.
These are presented below. Because it is now timely to begin measuring the
global impact of the Bean/Cowpea CRSP, more comprehensive, in-depth evaluations
will be attempted in 1985 and subsequent years.

0 Status/Progress and Prospects for CRSP Bean Research
(Dr. Antonio Pinchinat)

Bean production research is addressed by eleven of the eighteen CRSP bean
projects. They cover biological N2 fixation, methodology to facilitate
pathology and breeding work in multiple disease resistance, genetics of
reaction to diseases, breeding for single and multiple disease resistance,
production, physiology and agronomy, heat resistance, genetic variability,
adaptation to drought and insect resistance. Except for some limited work on
specialized local constraints, this research at cooperating Host Country and
US sites addresses global problems of bean production in the world.
Several of the CRSP bean projects are applying unique strategies to improve
biological nitrogen production both from an efficacy and efficiency standpoint.
This BNF work looks simultaneously at the bean plant and the Rhizobium organism.
As a result, bean genotypes and Rhizobium strains are demonstrating enhanced BNF
and improved production efficiency. Similarly, the practical advantage of dry
disease inoculum over its liquid form has been demonstrated. More efficient
techniques to apply disease inoculum on the bean plant is facilitating breeding
work. Differential reaction of different parts of the plant to pathogens has
been observed. The biological reaction of several pathogens on the same plant
has been studied and advances in inheritance of disease resistance have been
registered. More reliable and repeatable methods to screen for disease
resistance have been developed. The effects of ecological factors such as
photoperiod and temperature on plant development have been evaluated, and the
results of this work may be useful for breeding for ecological adaptation and
stability in bean production. Techniques to study the physiology and genetics
of adaptation to drought and reaction to heat are being refined. Improved
varieties of beans have been identified or developed. Progress has been made
in trying to increase crop production stability through physical mixtures of


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different landraces. Cropping systems to enhance BNF, reduce losses to diseases
and increase total biological and economic returns are being identified. But
efforts to increase resistance to insects so far have not produced any spec-
tacular results. This seems to be an area on which more research should focus.
There are areas of collaboration that the CRSP needs to develop among the
researchers of the different projects. A major interaction among researchers
working in common problems such as drought adaptation or disease and insect
resistance could lead to increased exchange of germplasm to enhance research
results. Some specific examples of collaboration can be suggested here:
(a) Among bean diseases, bacterial blights are of general occurrence in
most environments, consequently, any CRSP project dealing with disease
resistance could benefit from other findings in this research field.
(b) Certain diseases appear to be more prevalent in certain regions of the
world; golden bean mosaic and web blight for example are common
problems in bean production in Central America.
(c) Bean fly is important in East Africa where CRSP researchers could
interact with other bean programs being established in the area.
Summarizing then, the CRSP bean research has generated new basic knowledge,
advanced methodology and techniques and improved physical and biological
technology. In such a short time of work, this is a commendable performance.

Status/Progress and Prospects for Individual Bean CRSP Projects
(Dr. Luis Camacho)

1. BRAZIL/BLISS
Progress
a. Bean lines with genetic potential to fix high levels of N2 have been
identified.
b. Strains of Rh. phaseoli which have high level of N2-fixing ability
have been selected.
Prospects
a. New bean lines acceptable for the market in Brazil and having genetic
potential to fix high N2 levels will be developed.
b. Features of cropping that either enhance or decrease N2 fixation in
beans will be determined.
c. More effective bean Rhizobia strains will be identified or developed.
Training
Training has been accomplished in breeding beans for enhanced biological
N2 fixation and rhizobium technology.

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2. BRAZIL/MAXWELL
Progress
Dry inoculum techniques have been developed and successfully tested to
assess the reaction of beans to the major fungal diseases (Isarioposis
griseola and Colletotrichum lindemuthianum).
Prospects
The same methodology will be expanded to include two more pathogens
(Xanthro~onas campestris pv. phaseoli and Uromyces appendiculatus).
Training
Post-doctoral and short-term training active in plant pathology.


3. DOMINICAN REPUBLIC/UNIVERSITY OF NEBRASKA
Progress
a. It appears that there may be strains of common bacterial blight in the
tropics that have not been found in the United States.
b. One tropical landrace of beans shows a wide range of resistance to
rust.
c. Knowledge of inheritance of disease resistance in rust and common
blight has been advanced and used in breeding programs.
Prospects
Information on heterogeneity of rust and common blight pathogens, on
epiphytic bacterial population characteristics and on genetic control of
rust and common blight will be available for use in bean breeding programs.
Training
Plant breeding and plant pathology training are active in relation to
disease resistance.


4. DOMINICAN REPUBLIC/UNIVERSITY OF PUERTO RICO (Beaver)
Progress
a. A technique for enhancing manual bean crossing in the field through
drip irrigation has been developed.
b. Germplasm resistant to two races of root knot nematode has been
identified.
c. High yielding black and white bean lines showing stable performance
over a wide range of environments have been developed and released.
Prospects
a. New bean germplasm with resistance to different diseases will be
developed.


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b. Inoculation techniques for screening bean resistance of Macrophomina
phaseolina will be developed.
Training
Training in breeding for disease resistance and agronomy undertaken.


5. ECUADOR/CORNELL UNIVERSITY
Progress
On-farm trials of improved cultural practices and germplasm resources have
been tested in tropical highlands.
Prospects
Project will determine response of bean varieties to different temperatures
in production zones.
Training
None.


6. GUATEMALA/CORNELL UNIVERSITY
Progress
Photoperiod x temperature x genotyoe interaction has been demonstrated and
is being used in bean breeding programs.
Prospects
Increasingly useful information for bean breeding programs will be
developed.
Training
Plant breeding training was supported.


7. HONDURAS/UNIVERSITY OF PUERTO RICO
Progress
Same as DR/UPR.
Prospects
Same as DR/UPR.
Training
Same as DR/UPR.


8. KENYA/UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, DAVIS
Progress
a. Large-scale field methods are available for identifying drought
tolerance in beans.


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b. Cultivars with identifiable morphological markers related to drought
and heat tolerance were identified.
c. Physiological data on dry matter partitioning, water use efficiency,
sink source relationship and N fixation under drought conditions have
been gathered.
d. Techniques have been developed for rapid estimation of pollen
production and viability on an individual flower, whole plant or plant
population basis.
Prospects
a. More sophisticated drought tolerance studies in beans to be initiated.
b. Improved embryo culture techniques will facilitate the crosses of bean
x tepary for testing under drought conditions.
c. Improved bean tepary hybrids will be developed.
Training
Plant breeding, agronomy, nematology, physiology and genetics training
undertaken.


9. MALAWI/MICHIGAN STATE UNIVERSITY
Progress
a. Genetic diversity has been described in bean landraces and used in the
multivariate distance analysis (PCDA) to assess variability between
bean farms within areas and among lines within farms.
b. Performance of pure lines and mixtures have been assessed.
Prospects
More performance and stability trials will be carried out.
Training
Crop physiology, plant pathology, rhizobiology genetics training underway.


10. MEXICO/MICHIGAN STATE UNIVERSITY
Progress
Advances in improving resistance to environmental stress in beans through
selection for carbohydrate partitioning and for efficiency of biological
N2 fixation are being accumulated.
Prospects
Both more efficient and N fixing rhizobium and bean strains will be
identified together with increased tolerance to drought.


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Training
Crops and soil science training initiated.


11. TANZANIA/WASHINGTON STATE UNIVERSITY
Progress
a. Better yielding varieties of beans under dry conditions have been
developed.
b. High yielding disease and insect resistant lines have been selected.
c. The oil method to reduce bruchid damage in seed storage has been
tested.
d. Mixtures of cultivars to reduce losses due to disease in the field
have been evaluated.
e. Greenhouse for actual screening of bean common mosaic virus (BCMV) and
HB is ready for general use by bean breeding program.
Prospects
a. The use of monoclonal antibodies (MCAB) to assay for seed-borne BCMV
will be refined.
b. The ELISA serology kit for rapid BCMV identification will be available
for general use.
c. The home-grown neem oil method to control insect pests will be further
developed.
d. Several breeding lines with multiple disease resistance will be
available for on-farm testing.
e. Germplasm methodology for high temperature tolerance during bloom will
be available to other bean breeders.
Training
Breeding, entomology, plant pathology training is active.

Studies of the Rationale of Farming Systems
(Dr. A. H. Bunting)

Most current work in existing systems of rural production seeks to identify
possible constraints which restrict the output of particular commodities or
output from particular regions. This information is needed to design relevant
research and development proposals, and it is usually needed soon or now. The
methods used to obtain it are rapid and consequently somewhat superficial, but
they are nonetheless useful.


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These rapid methods usually describe the existing system, but they abbreviate
or by-pass, for lack of time, those parts of the following analytical phase which
can determine the rationale underlying the system. The rationale is scientif-
ically interesting in its own right, for both natural and human sciences, but it
is also potentially useful because it can indicate the extent to which structural
change in the system would be feasible if it were to become desirable for other
reasons. Put another way, it can determine which determining factors are
potentially modifiable and which are inherent in the general environment and
cannot therefore be changed.
These factors fall into at least three categories. The first covers the
natural environment and its variations over time. The principal components are
rainfall, radiation, temperature, water content of the air, wind, evaporation,
and the consequences for the soil/water cycle through the year (using daily
data); soil profile characteristics including structure at different seasons,
texture, depth, chemical characteristics including pH, drainage; land
characteristics (slope, aspects, drainage pattern), areas of land of different
classes per producing family; water, irrigation and future prospects.
The second category covers the human condition. Among the principal com-
ponents are the numbers of people and the rates of growth of numbers, family and
social structure, age structure of populations, settlement patterns in relation
to land, soil and water residues, structure and activity in the system, social
organization and management and allocation of resources between parts of the
society and between competing activities, economic circumstances of different
families, nutritional and other needs; income and other family and community
resources from outside the rural life system; property rights in products.
The third category covers the economic and political environment which
surrounds the rural production and life system. The main categories are volume
of effective demand for surplus products, the output delivery system (transport,
communication), the availability and cost of inputs (and possible changes in the
future), policy and practice of government affecting the interest of the
producers in raising a surplus for sale outside the family.
Work associating some of these environmental factors with the nature of
farming systems in developing countries is not new. Trapnell described the
farming systems of what is now Zambia 50 years ago and explained them in terms
of soil and climate. William Allan (who was associated with Trapnell in Zambia)
extended the description to much of tropical Africa in "The African Husbandman."


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This work reflected the profound influence of Max Gluckman, a social anthro-
pologist who directed the Rhodes-Livingstone Institute in the late forties and
early fifties. Since then, environmental science has become more sophisticated,
and understanding of the social and economic determinants has also advanced.
The first view is to develop new methods of description and analysis as rapidly
as is consistent with reasonable accuracy. This can probably only be done by
attempting some analyses of contrasted selected systems for which parts of the
necessary data already exist.

Status/Progress and Prospects of CRSP Research
Re Small Farmers and Farming Systems
(Dr. Mel Blase)

Small farmers and farming systems in developing countries have two common
characteristics. First, presumptions to the contrary, there is a great deal
that is not known about them. Second, in many respects both are supposed to
be targets of the CRSP. Hence, there is a need for CRSP researchers to become
highly knowledgeable about both in the Host Country. Where this does not
happen, irrelevant technology may be produced. Unfortunately, in some cases
this may be the case.
How can such an inefficiency be avoided? By requiring a baseline study,
the probabilities will increase that research relevant to the problems of small
farmers will be undertaken. Further, such baseline data will provide a bench-
mark against which to measure progress due to the CRSP and other factors.
Suffice it to say, baseline studies should be viewed as a necessary but not
sufficient condition for successful CRSP performance. No project should be
approved for extension until a satisfactory baseline study has been done in the
Host Country and there is evidence that the data are being used in planning and
implementing the project.
Three Dimensions
Both small farmers and farming systems should be viewed from three
dimensions. They are physical possibilities, economic feasibilities and
institutional permissibilities. Each deserves elaboration.
Physical Possibilities--
Many scientists in the physical sciences think that this is what research
is all about. They struggle with questions such as "Is it possible to produce
a variety with multiple disease resistance?" "Is it possible to produce twice
as much grain per acre?" "Is it possible to increase cropping intensity?" All


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of these questions and many more are relevant to both small farmers and farming
systems. But if the CRSP stops with a concern only for increasing physical
possibilities, it may have relatively little impact on the welfare of small
farm families.
Economic Feasibilities--
When farmers are presented new technology, they usually seek to determine
if it is profitable. Even if the production is for home consumption, they will
endeavor to learn whether they can use fewer resources to produce a given
quantity needed by the family. Certainly in the case of market-oriented
production will the question of economic feasibility be raised. Much
agricultural technology, in the sense of knowing what is physically possible,
exists in the world today but is unused. Economics is one important although
not the only reason that technology may not be used.
Institutional Permissibilities--
Technology that is both physically possible and economically profitable may
still go unused. The reason is concerned with institutional permissibilities.
It has two dimensions, legal and sociological. Legal aspects are illustrated
by the fact that some crops--for example, from which drugs can be manufactured--
are against the law to produce. Sociological constraints are illustrated by
peer pressure. In most parts of the world farmers are quite concerned about
what their neighbors think of them and may make farm management decisions
accordingly.
Small Farmers and Farming Systems in 3D
The basic argument of this paper is that in order for a CRSP to be relevant
to small farmers and farming systems, it must take a three-dimensional approach.
Hence, a multi-disciplinary orientation is needed. Only when the research
results have dealt with physical, economic and institutional obstacles will the
CRSP impact on the welfare of the target audience in such a way as to have been
a good investment. Presently, the CRSP essentially is addressing only the
physical obstacles in a substantive way. Hence, papers need to be commissioned
in FY 85 on a global dimension to be added to the CRSP on institutional and
economics considerations.

Status/Progress and Prospects of CRSP Food and Nutrition Research
(Dr. Charlotte Roderuck)

All projects have been rated in "food and nutritional components" as part
of the evaluation profile. Ten were judged not to have food and nutritional
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components and eight were rated from LS to HS. Although Cameroon/UGA received
an NA in this and previous reviews, the research activities include preliminary
studies of traditional and modern methods to prevent post-harvest losses of
cowpeas during storage. This component is related to increasing the
availability of cowpeas for utilization and perhaps should be considered as a
contribution to food science or food technology.
Three projects address food science and nutrition issues directly. They
are INCAP/WSU, whose focus is on dry beans; Nigeria/MSU and Nigeria/UGA, both
addressing aspects related to cowpeas. Five (plus Cameroon/UGA) have a farming
systems and/or social science component that has collected some information on
the use of beans or cowpeas for food, what varieties are preferred, how they
are prepared, etc. It is not clear how this information has or will be used
nor whether the three projects with direct studies of nutritional issues have
been given access to data on use of these legumes in different areas.
Provision of more beans and cowpeas is a major goal of this CRSP; however,
wider availability and utilization, especially by the urban and rural poor, is
a stated purpose also, i.e., improvement of the nutritional state of the poor,
especially young children. No measures to evaluate changes in the nutritional
state of populations have been implemented in countries or regions where
projects are located overseas.
In order to assess availability and utilization, marketing information,
costs and changes in the purchase price of the legumes, evidence for increased
use in the diet with a resultant improvement in the quality of the diet should
be obtained in order to demonstrate a positive effect of this CRSP in
populations in many areas of Africa and Latin America. For instance, post-
harvest losses are reported to be large; if these losses are prevented, what
would be the impact on need or demand?
Breeding research should include evaluation of the quality of beans and
cowpeas to assure maintenance or improvement of protein quantity and quality
instead of focusing only on yield as a measure of success. In addition, the
demand for leaves and pods as green vegetables for human food should be
assessed.


The Role of the CRSP in International Agricultural Research and Development
Similar to the movement of several decades ago which began the establish-
ment of a network of International Agricultural Research Centers (IARCs), CRSPs


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were introduced into an evolving international agricultural research and
development system as a new and needed component. Their unique characteristics
present a cost-effective model, a model that can perform a critical inter-
national role beyond the mandates (and capabilities) of the IARCs and other
similar research organizations. Critical among the model's characteristics,
as demonstrated by the Bean/Cowpea CRSP, are:
1. The tremendous size of the resource base including the professional
expertise, the research facilities and the administrative support structure
represented by the US Land-Grant system;
2. The diversity of professional disciplines available to be called upon as
appropriate to contribute to the problem-solving efforts;
3. The working partnerships of committed colleagues rewarded for collaborating
across national boundaries with other participating nations; and
4. The management structure whose sole function is the integration and
coordination of all of the above components while maintaining a focus on
overall program goals.
Thus, as a member of the new CRSPs'initiative, the Bean/Cowpea CRSP comple-
ments and supplements IARCs and other public and private research organizations
by broadening and deepening the overall research support base. It is showing
itself to be a highly acceptable, interactive mode for technical assistance
which can bring the diverse, largely untapped resources of US centers of
excellence into collaborative international research and training activities.
Through these efforts, the CRSP is extending the worldwide network of institu-
tions and individuals cooperating in important bean and cowpea related research.
More broadly over time, it will help fashion and strengthen enduring linkages
throughout the international agricultural research and development system.


Specific Contributions of the Bean/Cowpea CRSP to Development
There is good evidence that:
1. The CRSP is a mechanism which supports better equity within research teams
engaged in development activity. The model develops a pattern of inter-
action which is not hierarchical but collegial in nature, providing an
important avenue for the active participation of HC professionals in the
development process.
2. The CRSP provides one vehicle for the contribution to development of
science and technology as a necessary but insufficient partner along with


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such factors as government pricing policy and extension. As such, the CRSP
is an important component of the US bilateral assistance program
contributing to the total AID effort to alleviate world hunger.
3. The CRSP has shown itself to be a rapid method of generating technology
fitting the specific needs of Host Countries. It is an effective way to
transfer and build greater capacity to generate new knowledge.
4. The CRSP is a catalyst for specific CRSP-related scientific work without
which, in many countries, the work could not be done.
5. The CRSP is a catalyst for scientific activity beyond the purview of the
CRSP itself as both the research and the professional relationships stimu-
late energy and initiatives that ripple farther than the original mandate.
6. The actual research, involving the collaboration of scientists cross-
nationally, and the training of new professionals effectively supports the
institution-building components of this CRSP. Both within the African and
Latin American regions and across regional lines, professional networks are
evolving which strengthen the institutional capacities of participating
organizations.
7. The CRSP training resources effectively utilize a variety of training modes
(degree/non-degree, formal/informal, domestic/international) directly
geared and linked to the needs of the countries. Further, HC students
have the opportunity to study in the US with US professors who are working
on behalf of the students' own countries and frequently are working
intermittently in these countries.
8. The CRSP has attracted a remarkable number of US and HC scientists. In
the US it has strengthened interest and capability of US institutions to
understand and participate in development.
9. The CRSP supports attention to the role of women in agriculture and the
involvement of women in its projects. It has improved the attitude of male
professionals toward working with professional women. Attention is being
paid to efforts to advance women through the system.
S10. The CRSP, in evolving a problem-solving network, has developed a community
of US and HC scientists for scientific and technological development which
should prove itself productive over the long term.


Specific Contributions of the Bean/Cowpea CRSP to US Agriculture
1. Bean/Cowpea CRSP projects/activities are concentrated largely on producing
superior bean and cowpea cultivars and supporting production technologies


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(e.g., enhanced N-fixation). Predictably, these cultivars and technologies
will contribute directly and indirectly to the development of superior
cultivars and production technologies for the United States.
2. An important related activity of most CRSP projects is the collecting,
describing, cataloguing and conserving of bean and cowpea germ plasm.
These irreplaceable genetic resources will become available over time to
the United States and to other bean and cowpea growing nations and,
therefore, will increase the range and diversity of genetic stocks
available for improvement programs.
3. New resources and procedures for the control of pests and diseases in bean
and cowpea production are emerging, i.e., insect pathogens, antiserum
procedures to assess virus strains in transported plant material. These
new technologies will not only support legume improvement programs in the
US and other legume-producing countries, but they will also expedite the
ability of nations to utilize one another's plant material in adaptation
trials and improvement programs across national boundaries.
4. The Bean/Cowpea CRSP has a limited, but highly important, focus on
improving the human nutritional characteristics of beans and cowpeas
through breeding, processing and food science programs. This focus can be
expected to have a salutory impact on bean/cowpea production research, as
well as home and commercial processing which ultimately will contribute to
United States industrial interests.
5. The Bean/Cowpea CRSP helps to build and support effectively functioning
international agricultural research networks. These networks are made up
of individual professionals, many of whom will have studied together under
CRSP sponsorship, as well as an array of research institutions which will
have been strengthened through their CRSP involvement. Such global
networks serve US agricultural interests and can frequently pay handsome
dividends in unexpected ways over the long term.


Program Weaknesses
1. The CRSP collegial and financial activity may alter the balance of
priorities within Host Countries, not in their own best interest.
2. Collaboration with other overseas development programs and agricultural
research efforts is still inadequate. Especially important is cooperation
with other US bilateral efforts within the same Host Countries.


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3. Economic analyses of production systems and the acquisition of baseline
data continue to lag behind biological research.
4. Linkages with other development agencies and institutions in the Host
Countries such as extension remain weak. Dissemination and use of
research findings therefore is likely to be poor. The international
linkages, valuable as they are, could be further strengthened.
5. Some HC PIs are administrators rather than working researchers. While
administrative support is critical to project success, having a PI who is
an administrator inhibits the progress of the actual research, the building
of professional collegial relationships among peers and the institutional-
ization of the project research at the operational level.


Overall Evaluation
Individual CRSP projects are established and operating smoothly and
effectively through the joint efforts of collaborating Principal Investigators
in the US and counterpart institutions in Africa, Central and South America.
The organizational framework within which the projects are administered--the
Management Entity and its Management Office, the Board of Directors and the
Technical Committee--is well-suited to promoting and supporting collaborative
research on beans and cowpeas. As presently constituted and operated, the
CRSP is composed of eighteen discrete projects operating independently with
minimal interactions between and among projects. Opportunities for regional
as well as global networks and interactions appear to be excellent and could
be key to the Bean/Cowpea CRSP's realizing its potential as an important
element of an evolving international research system for beans and cowpeas.
It may be timely and appropriate for the Board of Directors to consider
convening informal meetings of representatives (agricultural officers) of the
principal funding agencies for beans and cowpeas (held separately) and
selected research leaders/administrators to examine global research issues and
procedures to promote international cooperation in bean and cowpea research.


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THE BEAN/COWPEA CRSP
An international community of persons, institutions,
agencies and governments committed to collectively
strengthening health and nutrition in developing
countries by improving the availability
and utilization of beans and cowpeas







































For further information contact:
Bean/Cowpea CRSP
200 Center for International Programs
Michigan State University
East Lansing, Michigan 48824-1035
U.S.A.

Telephone: (517) 355-4693
Telex: 810-251-0737
MSU INT PRO ELSG