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 Front Cover
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Introduction
 Ogranization of the bean/cowpea...
 Program highlights FY 84
 Project annual reports FY 84
 Table of acronyms
 Back Cover


PETE FLAG IFAS PALMM



Annual report
ALL VOLUMES CITATION SEARCH THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00055292/00002
 Material Information
Title: Annual report
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 23-28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Bean/Cowpea Collaborative Research Support Program
Publisher: Michigan State University
Place of Publication: East Lansing Mich
Creation Date: 1984
Frequency: annual
regular
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Beans -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
 Notes
Numbering Peculiarities: Issued in parts: Part one. Technical summary.--Part two. External review panel.
General Note: Description based on: 1983.
Funding: Electronic resources created as part of a prototype UF Institutional Repository and Faculty Papers project by the University of Florida.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 19930082
lccn - sn 89013327
System ID: UF00055292:00002

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Title Page
        Title Page 1
        Title Page 2
    Table of Contents
        Table of Contents 1
        Table of Contents 2
    Introduction
        Page 1
        Bean/cowpea CRSP log frame
            Page 2
            Page 3
        Bean/cowpea CRSP global plan
            Page 4
        General features of CRSPs
            Page 5
        Unique features of the bean/cowpea CRSP
            Page 5
    Ogranization of the bean/cowpea CRSP
        Page 6
        The board of directors
            Page 6
            Page 7
        The technical committee
            Page 8
        The external review panel
            Page 9
        The management office
            Page 9
            Page 10
            Staff
                Page 11
            Communications
                Page 11
                Page 12
            Travel
                Page 13
            Equipment
                Page 14
            Technical assistance
                Page 14
            Grant extension
                Page 15
            Collaboration with IARCs
                Page 16
    Program highlights FY 84
        Page 17
        Research achievements
            Page 17
            Page 18
        Training achievements
            Page 19
            Page 20
    Project annual reports FY 84
        Page 21
        Botswana
            Page 21
            Page 22
            Page 23
            Page 24
            Page 25
            Page 26
            Page 27
            Page 28
            Page 29
            Page 30
            Page 31
            Page 32
            Page 33
        Brazil (Boyce Thompson Institute)
            Page 34
            Page 35
            Page 36
            Page 37
            Page 38
            Page 39
            Page 40
            Page 41
            Page 42
            Page 43
            Page 44
        Brazil (University of Wisconsin/Bliss)
            Page 45
            Page 46
            Page 47
            Page 48
            Page 49
            Page 50
            Page 51
            Page 52
            Page 53
            Page 54
        Brazil (University of Wisconsin/Maxwell)
            Page 55
            Page 56
            Page 57
            Page 58
            Page 59
            Page 60
            Page 61
            Page 62
            Page 63
        Cameroon
            Page 64
            Page 65
            Page 66
            Page 67
            Page 68
            Page 69
            Page 70
            Page 71
            Page 72
            Page 73
        Dominican Republic (University of Nebraska)
            Page 74
            Page 75
            Page 76
            Page 77
            Page 78
            Page 79
            Page 80
            Page 81
            Page 82
            Page 83
            Page 84
            Page 85
        Dominican Republic (Univeristy of Puerto Rico)
            Page 86
            Page 87
            Page 88
            Page 89
            Page 90
            Page 91
            Page 92
            Page 93
            Page 94
            Page 95
            Page 96
            Page 97
        Ecuador
            Page 98
            Page 99
            Page 100
            Page 101
            Page 102
            Page 103
            Page 104
            Page 105
            Page 106
            Page 107
            Page 108
            Page 109
            Page 110
        Guatemala
            Page 111
            Page 112
            Page 113
            Page 114
            Page 115
            Page 116
            Page 117
            Page 118
            Page 119
            Page 120
            Page 121
            Page 122
        Honduras
            Page 123
            Page 124
            Page 125
            Page 126
            Page 127
            Page 128
            Page 129
            Page 130
            Page 131
            Page 132
            Page 133
            Page 134
        INCAP
            Page 135
            Page 136
            Page 137
            Page 138
            Page 139
            Page 140
            Page 141
            Page 142
            Page 143
            Page 144
            Page 145
            Page 146
            Page 147
            Page 148
            Page 149
            Page 150
            Page 151
            Page 152
            Page 153
        Kenya
            Page 154
            Page 155
            Page 156
            Page 157
            Page 158
            Page 159
            Page 160
            Page 161
            Page 162
            Page 163
            Page 164
            Page 165
        Malawi
            Page 166
            Page 167
            Page 168
            Page 169
            Page 170
            Page 171
            Page 172
            Page 173
            Page 174
            Page 175
            Page 176
            Page 177
        Mexico
            Page 178
            Page 179
            Page 180
            Page 181
            Page 182
            Page 183
            Page 184
            Page 185
            Page 186
            Page 187
            Page 188
            Page 189
            Page 190
        Nigeria (Michigan State University)
            Page 191
            Page 192
            Page 193
            Page 194
            Page 195
            Page 196
        Nigeria (University of Georgia)
            Page 197
            Page 198
            Page 199
            Page 200
            Page 201
            Page 202
            Page 203
            Page 204
            Page 205
            Page 206
            Page 207
            Page 208
            Page 209
            Page 210
            Page 211
        Senegal
            Page 212
            Page 213
            Page 214
            Page 215
            Page 216
            Page 217
            Page 218
            Page 219
            Page 220
            Page 221
            Page 222
        Tanzania
            Page 223
            Page 224
            Page 225
            Page 226
            Page 227
            Page 228
            Page 229
            Page 230
            Page 231
            Page 232
            Page 233
            Page 234
    Table of acronyms
        Page 235
        Page 236
    Back Cover
        Back Cover
Full Text





I)r


9^1 I I 1 I ~I l I ^^^^
1984

ANNUAL

REPORT


THE BEAN/COWPEA
COLLABORATIVE RESEARCH SUPPORT PROGRAM (CRSP)
MICHIGAN STATE UNIVERSITY
















1 9 8 4 ANNUAL REP RT

PART I, TE C H N I CAL SUMMARY


THE BEAN/CO

RESEARCH


WPEA COLLABORATIVE

SUPPORT PROGRAM

(CRSP)


MICHIGAN STATE


UNIVERSITY


The 1984 Annual Report: Part II, External Review Panel Report is available
from the ManaQement Office.


Funded through USAID/BIFAD Grant b. AID/DSAN-XII-G-0261








Translations of the individual project reports into the Host Country official
language are available from the Bean/Cowpea CRSP Management Office.






For further information contact:

Bean/Cowpea CRSP
200 Center for International Programs
Michigan State University
East Lansing, Michigan 48824-1035, USA

Telephone: (517) 355-4693
Telex: 810 251 0737
MSU INT PRO ELSG





























COVER PHOTOS:
Front: Small Malawian boy in mother's field: beans intercropped with wheat.
Back: Guatemalan verdor sorting beans in a market.
Pests and diseases are serious problems in West African cowpea
production.
neans in pod and shelled.







TABLE OF CONTENTS


INTRODUCTION . . .. . . . . 1

Bean/Cowpea CRSP Log Frame . . .... . . 2

Bean/Cowpea CRSP Global Plan . . ... . 4

General Features of CRSPs . . . . . 5

Unique Features of the Bean/Cowpea CRSP . . . 5


ORGANIZATION OF THE BEAN/COWPEA CRSP . . ... 6

The Board of Directors . . . . . . 6

The Technical Committee . . . . . 8

The External Review Panel . . .... ....... 9

The Management Office . . . . . . 9

Staff . . .. . . . . 11

Communications . . . . . . 11

Travel . . . . . . . 13

Equipment . . . . . . 14

Technical Assistance . . . . . 14

Women in Development . . . . . .. 14

Grant Extension . . . . . . 15

Collaboration with IARCs . . . . .. 16


PROGRAM HIGHLIGHTS FY 84 . . . . . .. 17

Research Achievements . . . . . .. 17

Training Achievements . . . . . . 19


PROJECT ANNUAL REPORTS FY 84 . . . . . .. 21

Botswana . . . . . . . 21


Brazil (Boyce Thompson Institute) .








Brazil (University of Wisconsin/Bliss) . . . 45

Brazil (University of Wisconsin/Maxwell) . . . .. 55

Cameroon . . . . . . . 64

Dominican Republic (University of Nebraska) . . .... .74

Dominican Republic (University of Puerto Rico) . . .... .86

Ecuador . . . . ... . . . 98

Guatemala . . . . .. . . 111

Honduras . . . . ... . . .... 123

INCAP . . . . . . . 135

Kenya . . . . . . . ... 154

Malawi . . . . .. . . 166

Mexico . . . . ... . . . 178

Nigeria (Michigan State University) . . . .... 191

Nigeria (University of Georgia) . . . .... .197

Senegal . . . . . . . .. 212

Tanzania . . . . ... . . . 223


. . . . . . . 235


TABLE OF ACRONYMS









INTRODUCTION


The Bean/Cowpea CRSP is a program of coordinated projects in Africa and
Latin America addressing hunger and malnutrition through research on the
production and utilization of beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) and cowpeas (Vigna
unguiculata). The goal of the Bean/Cowpea CRSP reflects the mission of the
Title XII "Famine Prevention and Freedom from Hunger" section of the US Foreign
Assistance Act under which the program is funded. The CRSP is to establish
active and vigorous collaborative research efforts that will contribute to the
alleviation of hunger and malnutrition in developing countries by improving the
availability and utilization of these legumes. In the true spirit of collab-
oration, the CRSP also makes a significant contribution to agriculture in the
US through the increased knowledge and materials generated by the research
partnerships with Host Countries (HCs). The research findings and identified
biological resources hold potential for solving or reducing important agricul-
tural constraints to bean and cowpea production in all legume-producing nations.

Beans and cowpeas are dietary staples in the. HCs associated with this CRSP.
Among many families, these legumes provide the major source of high quality,
affordable protein as well as an important source of B vitamins. Beans and
cowpeas generally are grown as food for household consumption, rather than as
export crops. They are typically grown on subsistence farms and, in some
countries, are grown solely by women, on whose shoulders rests the major
responsibility for providing the food for family consumption. CRSP research
seeks to strengthen the resources available to these producers.

To support its goal, the CRSP directs its attention to:

1. Building strong and collegial professional relationships among the HC and
US leadership in each project.

2. Making financial resources available for both HC and US research activity.

3. Emphasizing multi-disciplinary research integrating production and non-
production issues.

4. Focusing on research in traditional settings.

5. Paying specific attention to the roles and participation of women.

6. Being alert to mechanisms for information dissemination.

7. Supporting HC educational resources in order to strengthen long-term legume
research capability within the country.

CRSP research is concerned with genetics and plant breeding, entomology and
pathology, agronomics, economics, nutrition and socio-cultural factors. A
Logical Framework (Log Frame) and a global research plan developed jointly by
HC and US colleagues form the basis for the eighteen collaborative projects.

The CRSP avoids unnecessary duplication of existing research. It
participates with national programs and regional and international centers in
identifying constraints and in planning and executing research. It will utilize
the same linkages to disseminate its research findings.








BEAN/COWPEA CRSP LOG FRAME


Program Goal

Make a significant contribution to
the improvement of living conditions
of small farm producers in developing
countries and increase the availabil-
ity of low cost, nutritious food in
the marketplace for the rural and
urban poor.


Purpose

Organize and mobilize financial and
human resources necessary for mount-
ing a major multi-institutional US/HC
collaborative effort in research and
training.

Provide the knowledge base necessary
to achieve significant advances in
alleviating the principal constraints
to improved production, marketing and
utilization of beans and cowpeas in
HCs.

Improve the capabilities of HC insti-
tutions to generate, adopt and apply
improved knowledge to local condi-
tions.


Objectively Verifiable Indicators

Development of important research
results addressing identified
constraints.

Stronger national research program
addressing identified constraints.

CRSP products accepted by farmers,
extension agents, HC private initia-
tives in ways which will advance goal.

Increased participation of women.


Objectively Verifiable Indicators

US/HC administrations' support of
projects.

HC and US teams functioning with good
working relationships established.

Research teams operating with effective
level of equipment, supplies and tech-
nical support.

Effective communications among all par-
ticipants especially among those work-
ing on the same constraints across
projects.

Mechanism established for the identi-
fication and support of US and HC male
and female CRSP students.

Useful secondary data identified.

Improved research infrastructure with
laboratory and field research in
process.


Verifiers

Annual reports and positive TC/ERP
reviews of progress.

Increased overall size of national
program research team with greater
multidisciplinary competence and
HC investment in the project.

Adaptation of findings by external
agents: farmers, IARCs, extension
agents, commercial interests.

Increased male and especially
female CRSP graduates in the
professional pipeline.


Verifiers

Smooth management with good
communication with MO.

US/HC quarterly and annual reports.

Formal commitment of participants.

Consistent pattern of student
training established.

Documentation of secondary data.

Primary data analyses available in
reports and publications.

HC contributions to CRSP documented
in each year's budget analysis.


Assumptions

Food and nutrition problems in the
developing nations can be solved in
part through research.

Collaboration between US and HC can be
of mutual benefit.

Achievement from this program can
reach the rural and urban poor.

Achievements of this Program can con-
tribute to development in ways which
do not increase the marginalization of
women and their families.


Assumptions

HC will maintain interest in the
commodity and in CRSP participation.

Coups and other forms of political or
social disturbances will not be of a
magnitude at project sites as to
severely and insurmountably affect
progress.

Necessary basic equipment, facilities
and supplies will be available or ac-
quirable within reasonable time frame.

There is a sufficiently large pool of
students from which to draw for
advanced training at least at the
secondary school graduate level.









Outputs

Strong, better quality yields pro-
duced under stressful conditions.

Greater understanding by US and HC
collaborators of the socio-cultural
and the agri-cultural environment.

Products of research packaged
appropriately for consumer use.

Information dissemination for a
variety of audiences.

Production and utilization research
findings useful for the wider
research community.

Many male and female graduates of
training programs.


Objectively Verifiable Indicators

Yield increase under an array of
stressful conditions to which produced
varieties are resistant.

Multidisciplinary research generated.

Informational materials available.

Interest of wider international and
national research and development
community in products.

Better health among those making use
of project outputs.

Male and especially female graduates
returning to HC research institutions.


Verifiers

Yield data from local and national
census.

Reports of projects incorporate
and integrate socio-cultural with
agri-cultural information.

Materials acknowledged as received
by many groups and increased con-
sumer demand.

Requests from professional community
for information and products
increased.

Site visits.

CRSP graduates identified in HC
research positions.


Assumptions

There exists in the HC at least a
skeletal infrastructure for informa-
tion dissemination.

There are HC and US women sufficiently
interested in advanced education and
professional employment to work their
way through the system when it is
opened to them.


Increased numbers of male and female
students continually in short-term o
and long-term training.


Inputs

Necessary long-term/short-term
personnel from HC/US institutions
who can communicate with each other.

Financial contributions from AID and
US and HC institutions.

Management support from MO, US and
HC institution administrations.

Equipment such as vehicles, lab,
field and office equipment.

Facilities and supplies for HC/US
teams.

Information and support from external
groups.


Objectively Verifiable Indicators

Annual allocation from AID.

CRSP funds flowing on regular bases to
US and HC research teams.

Annual plan of work and budget docu-
ment with US/HC contributions.

Active backstopping by administrators
of US institutions with effective
levels of communication.

Frequent and regular communication
among AID, MO, US and HC.

Participation in CRSP research and
training activity by external groups
(i.e., AID-sponsored FSR teams, IARCs,
USAID missions).


Verifiers

Increase in communications initiated
by participants with one another.

Review of annual documents by
TC and BOD.

AID letter of credit authorizing
funds.

Regular reimbursement requests with
quarterly reports.

Letters, phone calls and other
expressions of interest and
problem-solving support from
US administrators.

AID approvals to purchase indicated
equipment received.

Site visits.

Meetings and other forms of com-
munication with external agents.


Assumptions

AID will generate necessary approvals
in timely fashion.

AID will have funds available for
use by the CRSP.

All parties making input will continue
to feel the mutual benefits worth the
investments.











GLOBAL RESEARCH PLAN:

BEAN/COWPEA CRSP


NIGERIA
1. Cowpea processing and
preservation; 2. child health
associated with cowpea foods


KENYA
Drought and heat resistance
in disease-resistant beans for
semi-arid regions


CAMEROON

Non-pesticide control of
cowpea pests in field and
storage


SENEGAL
A program to improve the
quality of cowpea varieties
for production and utilization
in semi-arid zones


BOTSWANA
Cowpea farming systems
research and variety
evaluation in semi-arid areas


BRAZIL

1. Multiple bean disease
resistance screening;
2. cowpea insect pathogens;
3. N-use efficiency of bean
production


ECUADOR

Nature of wide adaptation in
beans and soclo-cultural
interpretations (replication
varying natural environmental
factors --see Guatemala)


AFRICA


SCollaboration and interaction
with CRSP cowpea programs


Collaboration and interaction
with CRSP bean programs



LATIN AMERICA



INCAP

Cooking time and proteih
digestibility of beans


MEXICO
Bean plant responses to
stress and N-fixation


TANZANIA

Responses to bean Insect and
disease problems and their
economic viability for small
farmers


MALAWI
Bean germplasm evaluations
and the basis of maintenance
of land race diversity


DOMINICAN REPUBLIC

Introgression of disease-
resistant germ plasm in
adapted bean cultivars for
the Caribbean


HONDURAS

Increase and stabilization
of Honduran bean production
through disease resistance


GUATEMALA


Nature of wide adaptation in
beans and soclo-cultural
interpretation (replication
varying natural environmental
factors-see Ecuador)


m I








General Features of CRSPs

The Bean/Cowpea CRSP is one of seven CRSPs. Unique features include:

1. The involvement of leading scientists from US institutions, many of whom
would not otherwise be engaged in international work.

2. Major contributions from US and HC institutions nearly equaling the
contributions of the Agency for International Development (AID).

3. Scientist-to-scientist and institution-to-institution linkages with major
emphasis on program activities in HCs.

4. Dual benefits to both US and HC agriculture which offer an incentive to
state legislatures and universities to participate.

Unique Features of the Bean/Cowpea CRSP

While the Bean/Cowpea CRSP shares common features with other CRSPs, it has
organizational and administrative characteristics which give it a separate
identity. These characteristics are listed below.

1. A manageable yet large enough number (nine) of Title XII lead institutions
provide a rich pool of professional leadership and ecological diversity for
CRSP research: Colorado State University (CSU), Cornell University (CU),
Michigan State University (MSU), University of California (UC), University
of Georgia (UGA), University of Nebraska (UNE), University of Puerto Rico
(UPR), University of Wisconsin (UW) and Washington State University (WSU).

2. Research teams from lead institutions are often augmented by investigators
from other US institutions. One project includes five US institutions, one
includes three, and five include two. The remaining ten projects involve
a single US institution. In addition, Boyce Thompson Institute for Plant
Research manages one project.

3. Collaborative relationships exist with institutions and/or universities in
thirteen countries in East and West Africa, Central and South America and
the Caribbean: Botswana, Brazil, Cameroon, Dominican Republic, Ecuador,
Guatemala, Honduras, Kenya, Malawi, Mexico, Nigeria, Senegal and Tanzania.
Brazil hosts three projects; the Dominican Republic, Guatemala and Nigeria
each hosts two projects; and the remaining countries host one project.

4. In the planning process, the projects, institutions and investigators were
identified. Thus, the collaborative partnerships were in place at the
initiation of each project.

5. There is a Women-in-Development (WID) position on the CRSP Management
Office (MO) staff. With a program management role, the WID specialist is
well integrated into the on-going functioning of the MO. Responsibilities
include drawing the attention of project investigators to project-related
WID issues and encouraging the participation of women as students,
technicians and researchers in the program.

6. A policy of expending a minimum of one-half of project funds in or directly
on behalf of the project's HC is maintained. These funds include money for
HC nationals studying in the US and HC equipment purchased in the US.








General Features of CRSPs

The Bean/Cowpea CRSP is one of seven CRSPs. Unique features include:

1. The involvement of leading scientists from US institutions, many of whom
would not otherwise be engaged in international work.

2. Major contributions from US and HC institutions nearly equaling the
contributions of the Agency for International Development (AID).

3. Scientist-to-scientist and institution-to-institution linkages with major
emphasis on program activities in HCs.

4. Dual benefits to both US and HC agriculture which offer an incentive to
state legislatures and universities to participate.

Unique Features of the Bean/Cowpea CRSP

While the Bean/Cowpea CRSP shares common features with other CRSPs, it has
organizational and administrative characteristics which give it a separate
identity. These characteristics are listed below.

1. A manageable yet large enough number (nine) of Title XII lead institutions
provide a rich pool of professional leadership and ecological diversity for
CRSP research: Colorado State University (CSU), Cornell University (CU),
Michigan State University (MSU), University of California (UC), University
of Georgia (UGA), University of Nebraska (UNE), University of Puerto Rico
(UPR), University of Wisconsin (UW) and Washington State University (WSU).

2. Research teams from lead institutions are often augmented by investigators
from other US institutions. One project includes five US institutions, one
includes three, and five include two. The remaining ten projects involve
a single US institution. In addition, Boyce Thompson Institute for Plant
Research manages one project.

3. Collaborative relationships exist with institutions and/or universities in
thirteen countries in East and West Africa, Central and South America and
the Caribbean: Botswana, Brazil, Cameroon, Dominican Republic, Ecuador,
Guatemala, Honduras, Kenya, Malawi, Mexico, Nigeria, Senegal and Tanzania.
Brazil hosts three projects; the Dominican Republic, Guatemala and Nigeria
each hosts two projects; and the remaining countries host one project.

4. In the planning process, the projects, institutions and investigators were
identified. Thus, the collaborative partnerships were in place at the
initiation of each project.

5. There is a Women-in-Development (WID) position on the CRSP Management
Office (MO) staff. With a program management role, the WID specialist is
well integrated into the on-going functioning of the MO. Responsibilities
include drawing the attention of project investigators to project-related
WID issues and encouraging the participation of women as students,
technicians and researchers in the program.

6. A policy of expending a minimum of one-half of project funds in or directly
on behalf of the project's HC is maintained. These funds include money for
HC nationals studying in the US and HC equipment purchased in the US.








ORGANIZATION OF THE BEAN/COWPEA CRSP


Michigan State University was awarded the Bean/Cowpea CRSP grant and became
the Management Entity (ME) in September 1980. The University created the MO
to carry out its responsibilities. Three groups--a Board of Directors (BOD),
a Technical Committee (TC) and an External Review Panel (ERP)--work closely
with the University and MO to guide the CRSP through policy decisions, budget
allocations, research strategy, review and evaluation. In addition, the CRSP
enjoys critical support both from an AID program officer, Dr. B. L. Pollack,
and a liaison to the Board for International Food and Agricultural Development
(BIFAD), Mr. William F. Johnson.

The Board of Directors

The BOD is the executive committee for CRSP policy and budget. It consists
of five institutional representatives (IRs) from the US lead institutions. The
terms of office were changed this year to reflect the complexity of the tasks.
Members now serve for three years. IRs are designated by the chief executives
of their institutions to represent them in CRSP policy and administrative
matters. These IRs are typically administrators of international agriculture
programs, deans of agriculture or experiment station directors. The BOD elects
its own chairperson and secretary.

The members of the BOD for Fiscal Year (FY) 84 were:

Dr. Landis L. Boyd (Chair) Dr. Charles Laughlin (Secretary)
Director, Agricultural Research Center Associate Director of the Agriculture
Washington State University, Pullman Experiment Stations
University of Georgia, Griffin

Ing. Miguel Gonzalez-Roman Dr. Roger Uhlinger
Associate Dean and Sub-Director Head, Department of Horticulture
of Agriculture Experiment Station University of Nebraska, Lincoln
University of Puerto Rico

Dr. Dale Harpstead
Chair, Department of Crop and Soil
Sciences
Michigan State University

The BOD held three meetings during the year. Action taken at those meetings
included:

1. Review of the ERP report and enactment of policy decisions as appropriate
in response to the ERP findings.

2. Institutional backing in project conflict resolution in the US.

3. Guidance and support in the organization and functioning of the MO.

4. Review and approval of project and MO budgets for FY 85.


5. Cumulative BOD actions on CRSP policy are as follows:








ORGANIZATION OF THE BEAN/COWPEA CRSP


Michigan State University was awarded the Bean/Cowpea CRSP grant and became
the Management Entity (ME) in September 1980. The University created the MO
to carry out its responsibilities. Three groups--a Board of Directors (BOD),
a Technical Committee (TC) and an External Review Panel (ERP)--work closely
with the University and MO to guide the CRSP through policy decisions, budget
allocations, research strategy, review and evaluation. In addition, the CRSP
enjoys critical support both from an AID program officer, Dr. B. L. Pollack,
and a liaison to the Board for International Food and Agricultural Development
(BIFAD), Mr. William F. Johnson.

The Board of Directors

The BOD is the executive committee for CRSP policy and budget. It consists
of five institutional representatives (IRs) from the US lead institutions. The
terms of office were changed this year to reflect the complexity of the tasks.
Members now serve for three years. IRs are designated by the chief executives
of their institutions to represent them in CRSP policy and administrative
matters. These IRs are typically administrators of international agriculture
programs, deans of agriculture or experiment station directors. The BOD elects
its own chairperson and secretary.

The members of the BOD for Fiscal Year (FY) 84 were:

Dr. Landis L. Boyd (Chair) Dr. Charles Laughlin (Secretary)
Director, Agricultural Research Center Associate Director of the Agriculture
Washington State University, Pullman Experiment Stations
University of Georgia, Griffin

Ing. Miguel Gonzalez-Roman Dr. Roger Uhlinger
Associate Dean and Sub-Director Head, Department of Horticulture
of Agriculture Experiment Station University of Nebraska, Lincoln
University of Puerto Rico

Dr. Dale Harpstead
Chair, Department of Crop and Soil
Sciences
Michigan State University

The BOD held three meetings during the year. Action taken at those meetings
included:

1. Review of the ERP report and enactment of policy decisions as appropriate
in response to the ERP findings.

2. Institutional backing in project conflict resolution in the US.

3. Guidance and support in the organization and functioning of the MO.

4. Review and approval of project and MO budgets for FY 85.


5. Cumulative BOD actions on CRSP policy are as follows:








A. Bean/Cowpea CRSP Policy on US/HC Distribution of Funds:

(1) The policy previously adopted by the CRSP Board indicates that not
less than 50 percent of USAID funds for support of projects be
spent in or directly on behalf of Host Countries. In order:

(a) To insure CRSP focus on the solution of Host Country problems
rather than on the maintenance of existing research programs
of US institutions and

(b) To nourish a climate of collaboration and partnership between
the US and Host Country Principal Investigators (PIs),

this policy is upheld and is to be based on each grant period.

(2) However, experience has demonstrated that the US PI is uniquely
restricted when institutional indirect costs for project support
are taken solely from the US 50 percent of the total funds.
Therefore, the 50/50 split is to be applied to the total project
budget exclusive of all indirect costs.

(3) Some projects have not settled into a spending pattern in the Host
Country comparable to that in the US. Thus, in order to maintain
a 50/50 split, more of each year's funds must be allowed to the
half of the team spending less. Assuming that authorized project
spending suggests the progress of approved research activity, it
is appropriate to encourage Host Country utilization of project
funds. Therefore, where Host Country spending patterns are
seriously below the expected level, the HC and US PIs will be
requested to submit to the MO for TC discussion the reasons for
the spending patterns and their suggestions for addressing the
issue, including possible recognition of an unrealistic Host
Country budget level.

B. Bean/Cowpea CRSP Policy on Institutional Involvement:

The Bean/Cowpea CRSP Board of Directors is concerned about the degree
to which institutional participation occurs in CRSP projects beyond
activities associated with the individual PIs. Of special concern is
the extent to which PIs interact with their Institutional Representa-
tives and the extent to which the administration of the lead institu-
tion is aware of the project's progress. It is strongly recommended
therefore that at each institution significant steps be taken to
strengthen institutional ownership through (a) internal project reviews
with attention to greater institutional integration, (b) identification
of project strengths and weaknesses with appropriate institutional
response and (c) when relevant, institutional participation in on-site
project analyses.

C. Bean/Cowpea CRSP Policy on Project Allocations:

If there is an effective and consistent quarterly spending pattern of
80 percent (actual costs reimbursement not including encumbrances),
projects may be considered for allocations up to 100 percent of project








need as requested and demonstrated by the Principal Investigator.
Maintenance of spending patterns less than 80 percent receives alloca-
tions commensurate with the prior spending pattern at a level which
will discourage the accumulation of excess carry-forward funds.

D. Bean/Cowpea CRSP Policy on Training:

The Bean/Cowpea CRSP has as a major goal the strengthening of HC
institutions through the training of HC nationals, a critical resource
necessary for successful long-term research. To achieve this goal,
CRSP projects are to give emphasis to the training of Host Country
persons over the training of US persons. This policy adopts a Host
Country priority rather than US exclusion and refers to both short-term
training and graduate education.

E. Bean/Cowpea CRSP Policy on Participation of Non-CRSP Developing
Countries:

Whereas the Bean/Cowpea CRSP has institution building and strengthening
as a major goal, the BOD endorses the concept of CRSP Host Countries
inviting scientists, representing limited-resource nations in CRSP
regions of the world, to participate in Host Country collaborative
research and training efforts which may provide mutual benefits.

The Technical Committee

The TC advises the BOD, ME and MO in areas of project management and
technical research strategy and technology. It has specific responsibility for
technical monitoring of the eighteen CRSP projects, review/revision of the CRSP
Global Plan, establishment of priorities for new research, evaluation of new
proposals, development of criteria for evaluation of existing projects and
development of plans for TC meetings abroad. The TC consists of five investi-
gators engaged in CRSP projects from US institutions plus two international
members--one from an international research center and one from a participating
HC institution. TC members are appointed to two-year terms by the BOD.

The members of the TC for FY 84 were:


Dr. Matt Silbernagel (Chair)
USDA/SEA/AR
Irrigated Agricultural Research and
Extension Center
Washington State University, Prosser

Dr. Ricardo Bressani, Chief
Division of Agriculture and Food Science
INCAP, Guatemala

Dr. A. E. Hall
Department of Botany and Plant Science
University of California, Riverside

Dr. George Hosfield
Department of Crop and Soil Sciences
Michigan State University


Ms. Kay McWatters (Secretary)
Department of Food Science
University of Georgia Experiment
Station, Experiment


Dr. Donald Roberts
Insect Resource Pathology Center
Boyce Thompson Institute

Dr. Shiv R. Singh
Assistant Director and Group Leader
Grain Legume Improvement Program
IITA, Nigeria








The TC held four meetings during the year. Actions taken included:

1. Monitoring of CRSP projects and discussion with project leaders of the
appropriateness of changes or additions in project objectives and
strategies as these were proposed to the group.

2. Review and follow-up of the ERP recommendations with appropriate project
actions taken, especially relative to identified troubled projects.

3. Cooperation with the Director of the Grain Legume Program at IITA in
planning the World-Wide Cowpea Conference to be held fall, 1984.

The External Review Panel

The ERP is advisory to USAID/BIFAD, the ME and the CRSP as a whole. It is
responsible for review and evaluation.of CRSP management and the progress of
project research activities. The panel members, nominated by the BOD and
approved by the Joint Research Committee (now Joint Committee for Agricultural
Research and Development) of BIFAD, are:


Dr. Clarence C. Gray, III (Chair)
Professor, International Extension
and International Studies
Virginia Polytechnic Institute and
State University

Dr. Melvin Blase
Agricultural Economics Department
University of Missouri


Dr. A. Hugh Bunting
Agricultural Development Overseas
University of Reading, England


Dr. Peter E. Hildebrand
Food and Resource Economics Department
University of Florida



Dr. Antonio M. Pinchinat
Tropical Agricultural Research
and Development Specialist
IICA, Lima, Peru

Dr. Charlotte E. Roderuck
Director, World Food Institute
Iowa State University


Dr. Luis H. Camacho
INTSOY Plant Breeder
CIAT, Cali, Colombia

The 1984 review focused on evaluation of the research and management of the
projects at the US sites. Selected HC sites were also reviewed. Of particular
significance were the ERP recommendations for individual project extensions.
Those projects previously designated as troubled received special attention.
The MO publishes the 1984 ERP report as Part II of its Annual Report.

The Management Office

The MO, the operational arm of the Management Entity (Michigan State
University), has assumed the duties necessary to effect a successful
collaborative research program. The responsibilities as stated in the grant
document are:


1. Accept total bean/cowpea funds and responsibility for same.








The TC held four meetings during the year. Actions taken included:

1. Monitoring of CRSP projects and discussion with project leaders of the
appropriateness of changes or additions in project objectives and
strategies as these were proposed to the group.

2. Review and follow-up of the ERP recommendations with appropriate project
actions taken, especially relative to identified troubled projects.

3. Cooperation with the Director of the Grain Legume Program at IITA in
planning the World-Wide Cowpea Conference to be held fall, 1984.

The External Review Panel

The ERP is advisory to USAID/BIFAD, the ME and the CRSP as a whole. It is
responsible for review and evaluation.of CRSP management and the progress of
project research activities. The panel members, nominated by the BOD and
approved by the Joint Research Committee (now Joint Committee for Agricultural
Research and Development) of BIFAD, are:


Dr. Clarence C. Gray, III (Chair)
Professor, International Extension
and International Studies
Virginia Polytechnic Institute and
State University

Dr. Melvin Blase
Agricultural Economics Department
University of Missouri


Dr. A. Hugh Bunting
Agricultural Development Overseas
University of Reading, England


Dr. Peter E. Hildebrand
Food and Resource Economics Department
University of Florida



Dr. Antonio M. Pinchinat
Tropical Agricultural Research
and Development Specialist
IICA, Lima, Peru

Dr. Charlotte E. Roderuck
Director, World Food Institute
Iowa State University


Dr. Luis H. Camacho
INTSOY Plant Breeder
CIAT, Cali, Colombia

The 1984 review focused on evaluation of the research and management of the
projects at the US sites. Selected HC sites were also reviewed. Of particular
significance were the ERP recommendations for individual project extensions.
Those projects previously designated as troubled received special attention.
The MO publishes the 1984 ERP report as Part II of its Annual Report.

The Management Office

The MO, the operational arm of the Management Entity (Michigan State
University), has assumed the duties necessary to effect a successful
collaborative research program. The responsibilities as stated in the grant
document are:


1. Accept total bean/cowpea funds and responsibility for same.





-10-


2. Work out with each sub-grantee institution the structure, process and
procedures for the re-allocation of funds.

3. Negotiate with each sub-grantee institution the desired backstopping to
meet guidelines and regulations to meet performance objectives.

4. Develop detailed yearly budgets with the US and HC institutions.

5. Effect US agency approvals.

6. Effect necessary approvals from participating host governments and
participating US institutions.

7. Continue "fine-tune" planning, assuring the integration of all Bean/Cowpea
CRSP activities into a single research effort.

8. Meet regularly with and provide staff support for the Board of Directors.

9. Meet regularly with and provide staff support for the Technical Committee.

10. In cooperation with appropriate groups, develop evaluation plans,
highlighting critical points in the research and indicating appropriate
criteria by which to measure progress.

11. Receive and disseminate annual project summaries and other documentation
as arranged.

12. Provide staff support for the External Review Panel.

13. Facilitate the auditing process.

14. Facilitate communication, information sharing and feedback among all
appropriate parties, US and HC, with attention to cross-cultural
understandings, translation of communications and national prerogatives.

15. Confer in advance with each US sub-grantee institution regarding travel
procedures and regulations and other guidelines to avoid "disallowed" costs
to any participating institution. Distribute and interpret amendments to
Standard Provisions every six months or as issued.

16. Receive required fiscal documents and facilitate money flow.

The MO works closely with the sub-grantee institutions. Communication among
the research teams insures maximum effectiveness of the program. To this end,
regular written communications, conferences, etc. are sponsored by the MO.

By monitoring and facilitating the research and training efforts of the
eighteen CRSP projects, the MO supports the development of effective relation-
ships among the members of the cross-cultural, multi-disciplinary and bi-gender
teams. A high level of MO activity has served the goals and objectives of the
program during the past year. These efforts included (1) monitoring project
activity in the US and at HC sites as needed, (2) providing support and
guidance to all projects as appropriate, (3) reinforcing attention to the WID
perspective, (4) reinforcing communication among the US and HC researchers,




-11-


administrators and management support groups (BOD, TC and ERP), (5) encouraging
better project integration with the lead and HC institutions, (6) providing
staff support to the BOD, TC and ERP--who together held eight meetings during
the year, (7) carrying out the policies and recommendations of these groups,
(8) maintaining information flow between the CRSP and AID/BIFAD, (9) receiving
project reports and increasing published output and (10) representing the CRSP
in wider national and international settings.

Staff

With nearly 100 percent new staff, the MO has demonstrated outstanding
skill and dedication to program support. At the end of FY 84, the MO staff was
as follows:

Director: Dr. Pat Barnes-McConnell
Deputy Director: Vacant
WID Specialist: Ms. Anne Ferguson
Administrative Officer: Mr. John Niles
Executive Secretary: Ms. Sue Bengry
Secretary/Receptionist: Ms. Irma Gutierrez

In March 1983, an automobile accident so incapacitated the newly appointed
deputy director that he was unable to return to work. Thus, for nearly all of
FY 84, the office has been without a deputy director. While a replacement is
being sought, the existing staff organized to meet the critical and priority
responsibilities of the office. While most of these responsibilities were
covered, it was at considerable cost to the staff.

Communications

As the CRSP completes its fourth year of operation and as projects become
more fully institutionalized, additional research findings are being generated
and training efforts are being intensified. One of the primary responsibilities
of the MO is to disseminate information about these achievements. This includes
the following types of activities:

1. Making research findings available to researchers and to lay audiences in
the US and the HCs.

2. Fostering the integration of the individual CRSP projects into a cohesive
program through cross-project communications and activities.

3. Making presentations to appropriate organizations: AID, professional
associations and conferences, HC and US institutions.

To insure that CRSP research findings reach a wide audience, the following
publication series were initiated in FY 84:

Vanguard: Periodic reports on major, advanced research findings written
for informed lay and academic audiences. The first in this series is:

Temperature x Photoperiod, Adaptation and Yield in Phaseolus Vulgaris
by Dr. Donald H. Wallace, Dr. Porfirio N. Masaya and Mr. Paul A.
Gniffke of the Guatemala/Cornell University project.




-11-


administrators and management support groups (BOD, TC and ERP), (5) encouraging
better project integration with the lead and HC institutions, (6) providing
staff support to the BOD, TC and ERP--who together held eight meetings during
the year, (7) carrying out the policies and recommendations of these groups,
(8) maintaining information flow between the CRSP and AID/BIFAD, (9) receiving
project reports and increasing published output and (10) representing the CRSP
in wider national and international settings.

Staff

With nearly 100 percent new staff, the MO has demonstrated outstanding
skill and dedication to program support. At the end of FY 84, the MO staff was
as follows:

Director: Dr. Pat Barnes-McConnell
Deputy Director: Vacant
WID Specialist: Ms. Anne Ferguson
Administrative Officer: Mr. John Niles
Executive Secretary: Ms. Sue Bengry
Secretary/Receptionist: Ms. Irma Gutierrez

In March 1983, an automobile accident so incapacitated the newly appointed
deputy director that he was unable to return to work. Thus, for nearly all of
FY 84, the office has been without a deputy director. While a replacement is
being sought, the existing staff organized to meet the critical and priority
responsibilities of the office. While most of these responsibilities were
covered, it was at considerable cost to the staff.

Communications

As the CRSP completes its fourth year of operation and as projects become
more fully institutionalized, additional research findings are being generated
and training efforts are being intensified. One of the primary responsibilities
of the MO is to disseminate information about these achievements. This includes
the following types of activities:

1. Making research findings available to researchers and to lay audiences in
the US and the HCs.

2. Fostering the integration of the individual CRSP projects into a cohesive
program through cross-project communications and activities.

3. Making presentations to appropriate organizations: AID, professional
associations and conferences, HC and US institutions.

To insure that CRSP research findings reach a wide audience, the following
publication series were initiated in FY 84:

Vanguard: Periodic reports on major, advanced research findings written
for informed lay and academic audiences. The first in this series is:

Temperature x Photoperiod, Adaptation and Yield in Phaseolus Vulgaris
by Dr. Donald H. Wallace, Dr. Porfirio N. Masaya and Mr. Paul A.
Gniffke of the Guatemala/Cornell University project.





-12-


Research Highlights: Periodic reports on research in progress designed for
lay audiences. Issues published in FY 84 are:

Developing Cowpea Varieties with Improved Yield under Conditions of
Extreme Drought and Heat, Vol. 1, No. 1, by Dr. Anthony Hall,
Senegal/University of California, Riverside project.

Five Improved Multiple Disease Resistance Lines Released, Vol. 1, No.
2, by Dr. Julio Lopez-Rosa, Dominican Republic/University of Puerto
Rico project.

Fungal Disease in Leafhopper Control, Vol. 1, No. 3, by Dr. Donald
Roberts, Brazil/Boyce Thompson Institute project.

Improving Food Accessibility Through Village Level Production of
Cowpea Meal, Vol. 1, No. 4, by Ms. Kay McWatters, Nigeria/University
of Georgia project.

New Bean Technology for Detection and Identification of International
Seed Borne Viruses, Vol. 1, No. 5, by Dr. Matt Silbernagel,
Tanzania/University of Washington project.

Two other series were also developed. The first is designed to assist
on-going projects in achieving their objectives and the second to outline
potential new directions in bean and cowpea research:

Women-in-Agriculture Resource Guides: Designed for specific Bean/Cowpea
CRSP projects, these provide a summary of the Host Country small-farm sector
with particular attention paid to women's roles in agriculture. Information
on Host Country women's organizations and an annotated bibliography are
included. Under the direction of the series editor, Ms. Anne Ferguson, the
following Resource Guides have been completed:

Women in Agriculture, Cameroon. Prepared by Ms. Anne Ferguson and
Ms. Nancy Horn

Women in Agriculture, Botswana. Prepared by Ms. Nancy Horn and Ms.
Brenda Nkambule-Kanyima.

Monographs: The first report exploring potential new directions in
research is:

Beans and Cowpeas as Leaf Vegetables and Grain Legumes by Dr. H. C.
Bittenbender, Mr. Robert P. Barrett and Mr. Bernard M. Indire-Lavusa.

In addition, the following reports were published:

1983 Annual Report: Technical and Executive Summaries: These
publications provide a review of the 1983 research for the eighteen
projects. The Technical Summary in its entirety is available in
Spanish. The summaries for the three Brazil projects are available
in Portuguese and the Cameroon and Senegal summaries may be obtained
in French.





-13-


1983 Annual Report: External Review Panel: This report provides an
evaluation of the individual projects and the program as a whole
conducted by a panel of seven distinguished outside researchers.

Collaborative Research in the International Agricultural Research and
Development Network: A Case Study: This Bean/Cowpea CRSP progress
report was compiled for the grant extension request and details
research and training progress through spring 1984.

The Office also publishes a quarterly newsletter, Pulse Beat, and has
developed a general Program Brochure and Women-in-Development Pamphlet.

Program integration is carried out through a variety of means. The Annual
Reports, Research Highlights, Vanguard and Pulse Beat have been a particularly
useful means of conveying information among projects in the CRSP as well as to
outside individuals and organizations. In addition, they have acted as a
catalyst in generating more research and discussion. Of equal importance to
these published communications are the constant flurry of letters, phone calls
and telexes which link projects to one another and to the MO. Further, personnel
from the various projects communicate with one another for consultation in areas
where additional expertise is needed. Through the Technical Committee, these
persons also form multi-disciplinary technical assistance teams.

While publications represent an important means of communicating within the
CRSP and to a broader audience, a number of formal and informal presentations
on CRSP activities were made by MO personnel during the year at professional
meetings and in the course of visits to project sites and to AID/Washington.
In addition, the MO has received many visitors from HC and US institutions and
other development organizations during the year.

Travel

Management Office staff travelled extensively in FY 84 to carry out their
administrative responsibilities. On the domestic side regular trips were taken
to Washington, DC to confer with AID. This included a presentation to AID and
BIFAD for a three-year extension of the Bean/Cowpea CRSP. US lead institutions
were visited to handle project management issues and problems. Staffing was
provided for three BOD meetings, four TC meetings and one ERP meeting. The MO
also arranged travel and meeting facilities for the CRSP management groups.
Presentations were given at various national meetings and workshops.

MO staff visited the following Host Countries in support of project
activities and to address problems identified by the ERP: Brazil, Cameroon,
Dominican Republic, Guatemala, Honduras, Kenya and Nigeria.

The MO acts as a liaison between the projects and AID for international
travel approvals. Procedures for obtaining international travel clearances
were reviewed with Principal Investigators in an effort to reduce the number
of last-minute requests and to insure that adequate information was provided
to justify the travel. At the suggestion of AID, the MO is making plans to
submit a CRSP FY 85 travel plan to expedite clearance approvals.




-14-


Equipment

The MO acts as a liaison between the projects and AID regarding approval
for equipment purchases. The delays and uncertainty involved in obtaining
equipment approvals have been a source of frustration for the MO and project
PIs. In addition to the obvious impact on research, there are problems
in determining the most effective use of funds. For instance, the majority of
carry-forward funds in project budgets represent funds allocated for equipment
that have not been approved by AID. The current list of outstanding equipment
requests includes items that were submitted in 1982. A top priority for the
MO in FY 85 is a resolution of this problem.

The MO, in cooperation with the Malawi project, purchased a WANG personal
computer which is now hooked up to the WANG office word processor and the MSU
CYBER mainframe. Use of the PC in analyzing and manipulating data is a less
expensive alternative than relying entirely on the University's mainframe. The
next step will be greater computerization of office data management and
implementation of telecommunications between the MO and AID.

Technical Assistance

MO technical assistance activities included initiatives in the West Indies
and Uganda. A four-person team visited the University of the West Indies (UWI)
and the Caribbean Agricultural and Development Institute (CARDI) in July to
identify cowpea research needs and to determine the extent to which those needs
fit research gaps in CRSP activities. A proposal to add an informal, small-
scale UWI/CARDI project to the Senegal/University of California, Riverside
project has been submitted by Dr. A. E. Hall. Discussions will continue in FY
85 with support contingent on CRSP financial resources.

A two-person team visited Uganda to discuss and develop a scope of work for
the CRSP/Uganda portion of the CRSP/CIAT East African project submitted to the
AID Africa Bureau. Dr. Howard Schwartz, a pathologist from Colorado State
University who was previously located at CIAT, was a member of the team that
travelled through the bean-growing areas identifying constraints to bean
production and exploring research options for Uganda. When the needed research
was identified, various funding possibilities were discussed. The scope of work
was forwarded to the Africa Bureau as part of the proposed CRSP/CIAT effort.

Women in Development

From its inception, the Bean/Cowpea CRSP has incorporated a strong women
in development (WID) focus and has included a WID Specialist on its Management
Office staff. As currently structured, the position is a full-time appointment
with half time spent on WID and the remainder in more general program activi-
ties, including preparation of the newsletter and editing of other CRSP
publications. Major goals with regard to WID include:

1. Assuring that gender issues are taken into account in information
gathering. This requires an awareness of the ways gender influences
resource allocation, decision-making processes and the division of labor
within farming households.




-14-


Equipment

The MO acts as a liaison between the projects and AID regarding approval
for equipment purchases. The delays and uncertainty involved in obtaining
equipment approvals have been a source of frustration for the MO and project
PIs. In addition to the obvious impact on research, there are problems
in determining the most effective use of funds. For instance, the majority of
carry-forward funds in project budgets represent funds allocated for equipment
that have not been approved by AID. The current list of outstanding equipment
requests includes items that were submitted in 1982. A top priority for the
MO in FY 85 is a resolution of this problem.

The MO, in cooperation with the Malawi project, purchased a WANG personal
computer which is now hooked up to the WANG office word processor and the MSU
CYBER mainframe. Use of the PC in analyzing and manipulating data is a less
expensive alternative than relying entirely on the University's mainframe. The
next step will be greater computerization of office data management and
implementation of telecommunications between the MO and AID.

Technical Assistance

MO technical assistance activities included initiatives in the West Indies
and Uganda. A four-person team visited the University of the West Indies (UWI)
and the Caribbean Agricultural and Development Institute (CARDI) in July to
identify cowpea research needs and to determine the extent to which those needs
fit research gaps in CRSP activities. A proposal to add an informal, small-
scale UWI/CARDI project to the Senegal/University of California, Riverside
project has been submitted by Dr. A. E. Hall. Discussions will continue in FY
85 with support contingent on CRSP financial resources.

A two-person team visited Uganda to discuss and develop a scope of work for
the CRSP/Uganda portion of the CRSP/CIAT East African project submitted to the
AID Africa Bureau. Dr. Howard Schwartz, a pathologist from Colorado State
University who was previously located at CIAT, was a member of the team that
travelled through the bean-growing areas identifying constraints to bean
production and exploring research options for Uganda. When the needed research
was identified, various funding possibilities were discussed. The scope of work
was forwarded to the Africa Bureau as part of the proposed CRSP/CIAT effort.

Women in Development

From its inception, the Bean/Cowpea CRSP has incorporated a strong women
in development (WID) focus and has included a WID Specialist on its Management
Office staff. As currently structured, the position is a full-time appointment
with half time spent on WID and the remainder in more general program activi-
ties, including preparation of the newsletter and editing of other CRSP
publications. Major goals with regard to WID include:

1. Assuring that gender issues are taken into account in information
gathering. This requires an awareness of the ways gender influences
resource allocation, decision-making processes and the division of labor
within farming households.





-15-


2. Ascertaining that innovations such as improved seed varieties, new
techniques and technologies are appropriate to the small farm context and
do not marginalize women or increase their already heavy work loads.

3. Encouraging the participation of women in the projects as researchers,
technicians and students. Over the long run these efforts promise to
diminish male biases in research and hence contribute to more equitable
and successful development efforts.

Toward these ends, the following activities were undertaken during FY 84:

1. Development of a workplan and a pamphlet that outline WID concerns with
regard to the CRSP.

2. Completion of Women-in-Agriculture Resource Guides on Cameroon and Botswana
plus initial work on the Guatemala Resource Guide. The purpose of these
documents is to assist investigators in achieving project goals through
reviewing secondary source materials on the HC small farm sector and
women's roles in agricultural production.

3. Begin compiling a list of women's organizations in the CRSP Host Countries
and a list of US and HC researchers who can serve as consultants to the
projects in their efforts to better incorporate women.

4. Presentations on the CRSP Women in Development strategy and achievements
in research and training to AID, BIFAD, the CRSP BOD, TC and MSU
organizations.

5. Attendance at professional meetings such as the Farming Systems Conference,
the American Anthropologicial Association Meetings and the Association of
Women in Development Conference to represent the CRSP and to establish
contacts useful to the program in achieving its goals. In addition, the
WID Specialist participated in meetings and discussions with project
personnel, visitors to the CRSP MO and various campus organizations.

6. Participation in the INCAP/Washington State University project's team
meeting in Guatemala to identify a person to carry out a secondary data
search of materials relevant to the Guatemalan Women-in-Agriculture
Resource Guide and discuss holding a WID seminar in conjunction with the
proposed summer 1985 Bean Quality Improvement Workshop.

Grant Extension

A major demand on the MO resources during the year was preparation of
documentation for the three-year extension request and presentation of the
materials first to the JCARD Panel on CRSPs and the Agricultural Sector
Council Sub-Committee on Cereal Grains and Legumes and later to BIFAD and AID
representatives.

The documentation, initially organized as a two-volume looseleaf notebook
and later printed in bound form, was prepared with the assistance of the MSU
Instructional Media Center and the MSU College of Agriculture and Natural
Resources Information Services. The major document entitled Collaborative
Research in the International Agricultural Research and Development Network:




-16-


A Case Study was, in effect, a three-year report of the Bean/Cowpea CRSP. It
provides a program overview including planning process, goals, constraints,
global plan, management organization and activity, composite figures on
research organization and personnel, summary of research and training achieve-
ments, linkages with International Agricultural Research Centers, individual
one-sheet project profiles and complete program budget summaries. More
detailed information and materials on each of these items, including project
Log Frames, evaluations, extension requests and US/HC letters of support, were
also included. The CRSP publications, outlined previously, were part of this
documentation.

Each of the projects provided illustrative slides which, when added to
those taken by MO personnel in the field, contributed to the extension
audio-visual presentation. The slide show was organized to highlight the
collaborative nature of the projects and their achievements.

Recognition of program accomplishments was demonstrated by the unanimous
support given by BIFAD and AID representatives for the requested three-year
extension.

Collaboration with International Agricultural Research Centers (IARCs)

CIAT and IITA are the two IARCs associated with this CRSP. Representatives
of their legume programs have participated in CRSP planning and served as
technical advisors from the CRSP's inception. In 1984, Dr. Shiv Singh of IITA
served on the CRSP Technical Committee. As well as reviewing projects and
providing important technical input to program activity, he worked with the
CRSP in planning and organizing a Worldwide Cowpea Conference at IITA in
November 1984. Substantial CRSP funds were committed to this activity.

Following a CIAT workshop in the fall of 1983, the CRSP and CIAT submitted
a joint proposal to the AID Africa Bureau for work in East Africa. The
separate but well-integrated plans which made up the proposal were developed
during several joint meetings and in collaboration with representatives of the
appropriate Host Countries. In addition, discussions have been held with
representatives of the United Nations Development Programme concerning joint
work with CIAT on angular leaf spot.

As a result of extension approvals, increased interactions with and
contributions from these centers can be anticipated. Rather than having one
center's representative serve a two-year term, the two centers will now
alternate representation on a meeting-by-meeting basis. Thus, the CRSP will
more frequently benefit from the participation of both entities.






-17-


PROGRAM HIGHLIGHTS FY 84

Research Achievements

Collaboration of Host Country nationals with US persons from the Land-Grant
system to carry out research critical to increasing the availability of beans
and cowpeas is the primary purpose of the CRSP. In the three years of
individual project existence, CRSP researchers have been making considerable
progress. While some of the accomplishments reported this year were reported
earlier in preliminary stages, work in FY 84 has given greater precision,
reliability and validity to the findings. Some of the most notable achieve-
ments are listed below.

1. Fertile progeny has resulted from the successful crossing of tepary beans
(Phaseolus acutifolius), a desert-adapted legume often classified as
drought escaping, with common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris), a legume
requiring more water and a longer growing season.

2. Black bean lines with genetic potential to fix high levels of nitrogen have
been identified and disseminated to national programs for further breeding
and on-farm trials, to CIAT for phosphorus evaluation trials, to other CRSP
projects and to scientists in the US. Superior N-fixing strains of
Rhizobium phaseoli have been identified under controlled conditions.

3. The Dominican Republic/University of Puerto Rico-University of Nebraska
teams have released six new multiple disease resistant bean cultivars (one
black, two red- and three white-seeded lines) to US, national and
international bean improvement programs, including CIAT.

4. The Senegal/University of California, Riverside team has developed cowpeas
which produced 500-1000 kg/ha in Senegal for two years when the rainfall
was only 135 and 180mm and which gave substantial mature pods at forty-nine
days. Local varieties produced around 200 kg/ha during these periods.

5. The Guatemala/Cornell University project has shown the photoperiod
(latitude) x temperature (altitude) x bean genotype interactions to control
maturity, adaptation and subsequent yield. The importance of this concept
in breeding is demonstrated by the pending release for New York state of
an early-maturing, photoperiod-temperature insensitive red kidney that
yields 20 percent more per land area per growing season than the standard
variety and is 43 percent more economical. When applied globally, this
concept can divide the world into four major zones.

6. A new bean technology for detection and identification of seed-borne
viruses was developed by the Tanzania/Washington State University team
using monoclonal antisera and will be produced by private industry for use
in international exchange of potentially useful breeding stock between
national and international programs, including CIAT. This technique will
also facilitate the screening of segregating populations in breeding
programs.

7. The Brazil/Boyce Thompson Institute team has identified over 150 fungal
disease isolates in Brazil for use by the scientific community as insect
control agents.






-17-


PROGRAM HIGHLIGHTS FY 84

Research Achievements

Collaboration of Host Country nationals with US persons from the Land-Grant
system to carry out research critical to increasing the availability of beans
and cowpeas is the primary purpose of the CRSP. In the three years of
individual project existence, CRSP researchers have been making considerable
progress. While some of the accomplishments reported this year were reported
earlier in preliminary stages, work in FY 84 has given greater precision,
reliability and validity to the findings. Some of the most notable achieve-
ments are listed below.

1. Fertile progeny has resulted from the successful crossing of tepary beans
(Phaseolus acutifolius), a desert-adapted legume often classified as
drought escaping, with common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris), a legume
requiring more water and a longer growing season.

2. Black bean lines with genetic potential to fix high levels of nitrogen have
been identified and disseminated to national programs for further breeding
and on-farm trials, to CIAT for phosphorus evaluation trials, to other CRSP
projects and to scientists in the US. Superior N-fixing strains of
Rhizobium phaseoli have been identified under controlled conditions.

3. The Dominican Republic/University of Puerto Rico-University of Nebraska
teams have released six new multiple disease resistant bean cultivars (one
black, two red- and three white-seeded lines) to US, national and
international bean improvement programs, including CIAT.

4. The Senegal/University of California, Riverside team has developed cowpeas
which produced 500-1000 kg/ha in Senegal for two years when the rainfall
was only 135 and 180mm and which gave substantial mature pods at forty-nine
days. Local varieties produced around 200 kg/ha during these periods.

5. The Guatemala/Cornell University project has shown the photoperiod
(latitude) x temperature (altitude) x bean genotype interactions to control
maturity, adaptation and subsequent yield. The importance of this concept
in breeding is demonstrated by the pending release for New York state of
an early-maturing, photoperiod-temperature insensitive red kidney that
yields 20 percent more per land area per growing season than the standard
variety and is 43 percent more economical. When applied globally, this
concept can divide the world into four major zones.

6. A new bean technology for detection and identification of seed-borne
viruses was developed by the Tanzania/Washington State University team
using monoclonal antisera and will be produced by private industry for use
in international exchange of potentially useful breeding stock between
national and international programs, including CIAT. This technique will
also facilitate the screening of segregating populations in breeding
programs.

7. The Brazil/Boyce Thompson Institute team has identified over 150 fungal
disease isolates in Brazil for use by the scientific community as insect
control agents.





-18-


8. Large collections of bean and cowpea germplasm have been made throughout
Africa and Latin America.

9. In the US and in African and Latin American Host Countries, large numbers
of local and exotic bean and cowpea lines have been screened for pest
resistance, disease resistance, heat resistance and drought resistance.

10. Breeding programs were initiated incorporating these materials with those
from the US collections and from the IARCs. These materials were also
shared with national and international programs. Testing has begun at
many sites offering an array of altitude/latitude variations.

11. One national germplasm guide, growing out of the extensive germplasm survey
and research in the Host Country, has been published by the Host Country.

12. Basic research on the genetics of inheritance of resistance is making
important progress.

13. Research on variations among strains of plant pathogens is generating
information critical to disease control.

14. Interactions were identified among bacterial isolates, their concentrations
and host plant genotypes as important components in disease control.

15. Insect control research on identified cowpea pests' life-cycles and
reproductive habits is generating important findings.

16. Secondary research continues to generate important information on the role
of women in food production.

17. Socio-cultural and socio-economic studies are providing important
information which will contribute to decision-making in breeding programs.

18. Methodology is being developed for village-level production of cowpea meal
acceptable for use in traditional foods.

19. An extensive survey of methods used for evaluation of bean quality has been
carried out, and a report of these methods is being prepared for use by the
scientific community.

20. Secondary research was completed on the eating of legume leaves and their
role in traditional diets.

21. Appropriate farming implements were developed (jointly with other groups)
which are suitable for an identified Host Country farming system and
environment.

Details of the above and additional research progress are reported in the
individual project reports.





-19-


Training Achievements

From its inception, the CRSP has emphasized the training of persons from
the US and developing nations. As of June 1984, CRSP data on training for FY
84 were even more impressive than FY 83. Gains were made in the annual total
number of people in training which reflected both continuing students from 1983
and new students added in 1984. In the non-degree category alone, which tends
not to have continuing persons, the number of participants grew from 91 in FY
83 to 133 in FY 84. There was also an increase in the number of females
enrolled in programs.

Gender: During FY 84, of the 116 enrolled in degree programs 71 (61 percent)
were males and 46 (39 percent) were females. During FY 83, of the 75 people in
degree programs 49 (65 percent) were males and 26 (35 percent) were females.

During FY 84, of the 133 people in non-degree programs 81 (61 percent) were
males and 52 (39 percent) were females. During FY 83, of the 91 in non-degree
programs 51 (56 percent) were males and 40 (44 percent) were females.

Overall, of the 249 people in degree and non-degree programs in FY 84, 152
(61 percent) were males and 97 (39 percent) were females. In FY 83, there were
166 trainees: 100 (60 percent) males and 66 (40 percent) females.

Country of Origin: In FY 84, of the 116 people in degree programs 45 (39
percent) were from the US, 52 (45 percent) were from CRSP HCs and 19 (16
percent) were from other developing countries. During FY 83, of the 75 people
in degree programs, 28 (37 percent) were from the US, 33 (44 percent) were from
CRSP HCs and 14 (19 percent) were from other developing countries.

In FY 84, of the 133 people in non-degree programs 19 (14 percent) were
from the US, 108 (81 percent) were from CRSP HCs and 6 (5 percent) were from
other developing countries. During FY 83, of the 91 people in non-degree
programs, 14 (15 percent) were from the US, 68 (75 percent) were from CRSP HCs
and 9 (10 percent) were from other developing countries.

Overall, for FY 84, of the 249 people in training programs, 64 (26 percent)
were from the US, 160 (64 percent) were from Host Countries and 25 (10 percent)
were from other developing countries. In FY 83, of the 166 people in training
programs, 42 (25 percent) were from the US, 101 (61 percent) from HCs and 23
(14 percent) from other developing countries.

---------------------------------------
TRAINEES ON CRSP PROJECTS BY GENDER AND SOURCE OF FINANCIAL SUPPORT


Males Females
CRSP- Other CRSP- Other Grand
Funded Funds Total Funded Funds Total Total
Degree Programs

US Citizens 16 6 22 18 5 23 45
Host Countries 28 6 34 14 4 18 52
Other 12 3 15 4 0 4 19
Total 56 15 71 36 9 45 116





-20-


Males Females
CRSP- Other CRSP- Other Grand
Funded Funds Total Funded Funds Total Total
Non-Degree Programs

US Citizens 9 0 9 9 1 10 19
Host Countries 67 0 67 41 0 41 108
Other 5 0 5 1 0 1 6
Total 81 0 81 51 T 52 133

Grand Total 137 15 152 87 10 97 249*

*Some trainees participated in degree and non-degree programs and, in these
cases, have been counted in both categories.



Three workshops were held this summer under CRSP auspices. A workshop on
MSTAT, a computer program that assists agricultural scientists in designing,
managing and analyzing experiments, was held at MSU under the sponsorship of
the Malawi/Mexico/MSU projects. There were two sessions: August 20-24 and
27-31. A total of twenty-three people participated, twelve in the first
session and eleven in the second. There were five US graduate students and
fifteen Host Country graduate students attending, in addition to three HC
Principal Investigators. The workshop, which presumed no previous micro-
computer experience, was intensive. It stressed the fundamentals of micro-
computer operation and familarized students with MSTAT capabilities.

The Third Annual Bean Workshop at the newly created Sokoine University,
Morogoro, Tanzania was held August 27-28. It was sponsored by the Tanzania/-
Washington State University project and provided students with the opportunity
to present their senior research papers.

The First Regional Caribbean Seminar on Biological Nitrogen Fixation was
held in Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic, August 6-10. This was sponsored by
the Secretary of State for Agriculture (SEA) of the Dominican Republic, the
University of Puerto Rico, the FAO and the Bean/Cowpea CRSP. Its principal
organizer was Lic. Elfrida Pimentel (SEA) and a participant on the Dominican
Republic/University of Puerto Rico CRSP project. Areas covered included the
process of infection and nodulation; preparation and use of inoculants;
rhizobium genetics, biochemistry, isolation, physiology and taxonomy; and
statistics and experimental design applied to biological nitrogen fixation.
Representatives from the Dominican Republic, Haiti, Puerto Rico,
Trinidad/Barbados and the US attended.





-21-


BOTSWANA COLORADO STATE UNIVERSITY


Development of Integrated Cowpea Production Systems in Semiarid Botswana


I. PROJECT ROSTER


A. US Lead Institution: Colorado
Principal Investigator:


On-Campus Representative:*

Administrative Officer:

Contracts and Grants Officer:

Institutional Representative:


State University (CSU)
Dr. C. J. deMooy, Department of
Agronomy, CSU (resident in
Botswana)
Dr. W. R. Schmehl, Department of
Agronomy, CSU
Ms. Maxine Tamlin, College of
Agricultural Sciences, CSU
Mr. Galen Frantz, Contracts and
Grants Office, CSU
Dr. Wayne Keim, Department of
Agronomy, CSU


B. Botswana Counterpart Institution: Government of Botswana (GOB),
Ministry of Agriculture (MOA)
Principal Investigator: Dr. K. Land, Director, Department
of Agricultural Research (DAR),


Co-Principal Investigator:
Assistant Research Officers:

Technicians:

US Research Associates:



US Assistant Researcher:

C. USAID Project Officer:


MOA
Dr. David Gollifer, DAR, MOA
Ms. Mmasera Manthe, DAR, MOA
Mr. Peter Montshiwa, DAR, MOA
Mr. Efedile Mosarwe, DAR, MOA
Mr. Thuso Nkago, DAR, MOA
Ms. Karen Conniff, Department of
Agronomy, CSU
Ms. Barbara deMooy, Department
of Agronomy, CSU**
Ms. Julie Concannon, Peace Corps

Dr. Anita Mackie, Liaison Officer,
USAID/Gaborone


II. PROJECT OBJECTIVES


A. Overall (Five Year) Objectives:


The general project objective is


to identify and remove constraints in cowpea production which cause
traditional low yield levels. Project objectives are designed
keeping in mind that:

1. Improvements must be conceived at the grassroots level to be
applicable to farmers' conditions.


*Dr. Donald R. Wood was on leave during FY 84. Dr. W. R. Schmehl took over
his Bean/Cowpea CRSP responsibilities for the year.
**Ms. Barbara deMooy returned to the US to complete requirements for an M.S.
degree at Michigan State University, fall term 1984.





-21-


BOTSWANA COLORADO STATE UNIVERSITY


Development of Integrated Cowpea Production Systems in Semiarid Botswana


I. PROJECT ROSTER


A. US Lead Institution: Colorado
Principal Investigator:


On-Campus Representative:*

Administrative Officer:

Contracts and Grants Officer:

Institutional Representative:


State University (CSU)
Dr. C. J. deMooy, Department of
Agronomy, CSU (resident in
Botswana)
Dr. W. R. Schmehl, Department of
Agronomy, CSU
Ms. Maxine Tamlin, College of
Agricultural Sciences, CSU
Mr. Galen Frantz, Contracts and
Grants Office, CSU
Dr. Wayne Keim, Department of
Agronomy, CSU


B. Botswana Counterpart Institution: Government of Botswana (GOB),
Ministry of Agriculture (MOA)
Principal Investigator: Dr. K. Land, Director, Department
of Agricultural Research (DAR),


Co-Principal Investigator:
Assistant Research Officers:

Technicians:

US Research Associates:



US Assistant Researcher:

C. USAID Project Officer:


MOA
Dr. David Gollifer, DAR, MOA
Ms. Mmasera Manthe, DAR, MOA
Mr. Peter Montshiwa, DAR, MOA
Mr. Efedile Mosarwe, DAR, MOA
Mr. Thuso Nkago, DAR, MOA
Ms. Karen Conniff, Department of
Agronomy, CSU
Ms. Barbara deMooy, Department
of Agronomy, CSU**
Ms. Julie Concannon, Peace Corps

Dr. Anita Mackie, Liaison Officer,
USAID/Gaborone


II. PROJECT OBJECTIVES


A. Overall (Five Year) Objectives:


The general project objective is


to identify and remove constraints in cowpea production which cause
traditional low yield levels. Project objectives are designed
keeping in mind that:

1. Improvements must be conceived at the grassroots level to be
applicable to farmers' conditions.


*Dr. Donald R. Wood was on leave during FY 84. Dr. W. R. Schmehl took over
his Bean/Cowpea CRSP responsibilities for the year.
**Ms. Barbara deMooy returned to the US to complete requirements for an M.S.
degree at Michigan State University, fall term 1984.





-22-


2. Recommended practices must be made specific for moisture and
other environmental conditions.

3. Proposed solutions must so completely suit farmers that they
will be hard put not to accept the improvements. Although not
always specifically mentioned, project objectives are meant to
lead to solutions designed for several categories of small
farmers.

4. The needs of farmers in different resource categories must be
borne in mind.

5. Separate solutions may be necessary for farmers using tractor
versus animal draft power.

6. Solutions need to be sought for the special problems encountered
by women farmers.

B. FY 84 Objectives: Many specific objectives pursued by the project
are being worked on simultaneously:

1. Devise a set of tillage/planting practices whereby planting can
begin immediately at the start of the rainy season.

2. Evaluate the merits of reduced tillage with simple tools,
especially for sandy, non-compacting soils.

3. Initiate a continuing variety screening program involving local
germplasm as well as exotic lines.

4. Undertake field research for improvement of cultural practices
under specific sets of conditions.

5. Combine whole-plant harvesting techniques with a search for
suitable varieties and machine threshing for greater returns on
labor.

6. Incorporate resistance to Alectra vogelii into cowpea varieties
once the trait is found by screening of cultivars by the
Evaluation of Farming Systems and Agricultural Implements
Project (EFSAIP).

7. Test research findings in farmers' fields with and without
subsidized inputs.

8. Arrange self-evaluation meetings to solicit suggestions and
opinions from peers.

III. CHANGES IN FY 84 OBJECTIVES: None.

IV. CONSTRAINTS TO ACHIEVEMENT OF OBJECTIVES

A. Most of the constraints reported during FY 83 have been corrected
by DAR management. An additional field technician was appointed.





-23-


B. Seed multiplication facilities which were lacking in FY 83 are much
improved by allocation of two hectares of irrigable land to the
project.

C. New irrigation facilities were installed during July/August 1984.

D. Transportation remains a problem. The DAR provides official
vehicles on a day-to-day basis when possible. The project needs
two vehicles of its own. After AID refused to purchase Toyota Land
Cruisers, efforts are now underway to buy a US model. A project
with seven researchers active in the field and with experiments
scattered over a 1000 km radius needs regular access to vehicles.

V. PROGRESS TOWARD OBJECTIVES

The main objective for the second year of project operations was to
expand field experimentation to the full scope described in the Project
Paper.

A. Tillage/Planting Practices: Evaluation of the ridgeshaper/planter
and cultivator/planter by joint efforts of EFSAIP and the project
indicated that good crop stands can be obtained with minimal draft
power. The reduced draft power requirements enable farmers to begin
planting sooner after the start of the rainy season. Ten more
ridgeshapers/planters were produced in local workshops and are ready
for testing on a wider scale.

B. Tillage and Moisture Conservation: The cultivator/planter proved
suitable for once-over strip tillage and planting on certain soils.
Evaluation of the moisture conservation risk of compaction and the
types of soil for which the implement can be recommended must be
continued at several locations over several years.

C. Variety Testing: Screening of local germplasm and exotic lines
received high priority. Replicated trials were conducted at five
locations (see VI).

D. Cultural Practices

1. Mouldboard plowing and use of a row planter with a tractor were
compared with a plowplanter using six oxen, cultivator/planter
with two oxen and cultivator followed by ridgeshaper/planter.
The seasonal conditions were not conducive to the test as no
rainfall occurred after the date of planting. Two trials
involving three dates of planting could not be interpreted
because only one suitable planting period occurred during the
season.

2. It was shown that thrips pose no economic threat in drought
years.


3. Minimum row spacing in drought years is 100 cm.





-24-


4. Mulching reduced flower bud abscission, reduced maximum soil
temperatures, increased available soil moisture and improved
plant growth.

E. Harvesting Techniques: No data could be obtained since none of the
cooper-'ing farmers in the region had sufficient harvest to make
compE qs or warrant the use of a machine.

F. Alectra vogelii: Research on this parasitic weed was conducted by
EFSAIP. No project activity was needed.

G. Tests in Farmers' Fields: This new program was launched with
collaboration from the government extension service (DAFS) and
several farming systems groups in the country. The trials conducted
(variety/spraying tests) were based on several findings of the
previous year and turned out to be a success. Thirty extension
officer, participated and more than forty-five have expressed
interest for next year.

H. Self-Evaluating Meetings: Three self-evaluating meetings were held
with crop production officers, extension personnel and others. Each
time, suggestions were made to further expand the range of topics
covered in collaborative field experiments. This was considered in
the design of experiments for the following year.

VI. RESEARCH OUTPUTS DURING FY 84

A. Current Research Efforts: Farmers in Botswana and surrounding
regions with similar extreme climatic conditions urgently need new
cowpea varieties capable of flowering and producing grain in as
short a period as possible. These must be suitable under conditions
where drought stress is broken by occasional rains at unpredictable
intervals. Additional requirements of these varieties are a high
degree of resistance to disease and insect pests and high yielding
ability. Among many other desirable qualities is the capacity to
recover from serious desiccation damage. This suggests high
priority be given what may be termed the fast approach in variety
development.

1. The fast approach

a. After identification of the variety ER7 as a temporary
solution to the problem, the focus of attention has been on
developing even better cowpea lines. The method followed
was continued exposure of all promising materials to the
variable ecological conditions in Botswana.

b. Progress in canopy development and flowering was recorded.
Some lines managed to set pods and produce grain whereas
most others succumbed to environmental stress. Forty
varieties were selected for continued screening from more
than 100 foreign accessions studied in the first year.
These forty varieties were narrowed down to twenty-four
during 1984. Approximately seventy-five new accessions from





-25-


IITA and the Semiarid Food Grain Research and Development
Project (SAFGRAD) were added for screening during the past
year. Twenty-three of these lines were selected for
continued screening. It is anticipated that two or three
out of the total of forty-seven varieties will be selected
next year for seed multiplication and nation-wide testing.

2. The long-term approach

a. The long-term approach began with local germplasm collection
and evaluation in the field to be followed by breeding to
incorporate missing traits into otherwise promising material.

b. In anticipation of the project's expansion into crop breeding
activities, cowpea breeders from IITA and SAFGRAD assisted
with crosses between three or four local cultivars which
displayed vigorous growth under drought conditions, desirable
plant type, high yielding ability and absence of virus
disease symptoms and exotic varieties having very early
maturity and very high yielding capacity in their regions of
origin. ER7 was one of these exotic varieties. F2 and
F3 materials derived from the crosses were made during 1983
and are now available for testing in Botswana. A consulting
entomologist and a breeder/pathologist were appointed during
1984 to help accelerate development of local-base cowpea
varieties.

3. Botswana germplasm collection and evaluation: The germplasm
collection grew to just under 700 accessions, 246 of which were
grown and evaluated in the field during the year. Another
twenty-four lines, for which only a few seeds were available,
first had to be increased in the greenhouse. Owing to drought,
complete information was recorded on only 157 cultivars. These
were classified using fifty-two descriptors as had been done in
the previous year. The results are reported in the Botswana
Cowpea Germplasm Catalogue, Vol. 2, published by the Ministry of
Agriculture. This activity supports the national as well as the
international breeding programs. It should be realized that
changing weather conditions from season to season will affect
comparisons between cultivars catalogued in 1983 (Vol. 1) and
those described in 1984 (Vol. 2).

4. Search for aphid resistance in local germplasm: One hundred and
sixty-eight cultivars from the germplasm collection were grown
in the greenhouse, inoculated with aphids and evaluated for
resistance. The search was successful. Four cultivars proved
highly resistant to aphids in two separate, replicated trials.
The cultivars were B031, a brown-seeded variety; B037, white-
seeded with brown eye; B142, brown-seeded with black eye; and
B232, cream-colored with brown eye. All four cultivars are
described in the Botswana Cowpea Germplasm Catalogue. This
activity was conducted in support of the local and foreign cowpea
breeding programs.





-26-


5. Evaluation of percentage natural outcrossing: The percentage
outcrossing was evaluated at 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 cm plant
spacing of two cowpea varieties, a white-seeded and a black-
seeded one, in a replicated experiment with and without the
natural insect population. The outcome will become known when
the collected seed of the white-seeded variety is planted next
season.

6. Determination of cause of excessive shedding of flowers in
cowpeas: Nearly complete shedding of flowers and buds during
bloom results in crop failure. The known causes of abnormally
high flower drops are thrips and drought. An experiment was
conducted with three soil moisture levels, each with and without
the presence of thrips, to determine the contribution from each
cause. It was found that the cause of excessive flower-drop was
overwhelmingly due to drought stress. This will shift research
emphasis from thrip control to varieties and breeding.

7. Search for appropriate cultural practices: Cultural practices
concerning tillage, planting methods, time of planting, draft
animal requirements, weeding and harvesting also deserve
attention. Two implements were designed for planting with
reduced draft animal requirements. One was produced by the
project and the other by the agricultural engineering section of
the DAR. Both offer opportunities for minimum tillage practices.
Their range of application needs to be delineated.

8. Collaborative program with the Department of Agricultural Field
Services: A collaborative program was set up to permit
agricultural extension officers to widely test CRSP research
findings in farmers' fields. Evaluation of the materials and
practices by the extension officers and feedback from cooperating
farmers served to suggest directives for research priorities,
provide further improvement of techniques, acquaint the extension
officers with Bean/Cowpea CRSP activities and distribute small
amounts of seedand equipment to the farmers.

B. Available for Immediate Use

1. The cowpea variety ER7, originating from Nigeria (IITA) which
was officially released in Botswana last year, proved to be in
high demand by the farmers. Since no supply of seed was avail-
able for distribution, access to ER7 in 1983 was limited to
contacts with the Bean/Cowpea CRSP and the Department of
Agricultural Field Services (Extension Service) conducting
collaborative field trials in farmers' fields. None of the
cooperating farmers who had received ER7 seed were willing to
sell some of their ER7 grain harvest to the project. This is
indicative of fast acceptance of the new technology. During
1984, the seed multiplication unit of the DAR managed to produce
eighteen tons of ER7, all of which was distributed to the
farmers.





-27-


2. The Botswana Cowpea Germplasm Catalogue, Volume 1, appeared in
print during January 1984. The local germplasm collection
program was continued and the results summarized in Volume 2 of
the Botswana Cowpea Germplasm Catalogue, which was published in
September 1984. Copies are available from the Director,
Department of Agricultural Research, Private Bag 0033, Gaborone.

C. Available for Use Within One to Two Years

1. In collaboration with the agricultural engineering section of
DAR, two minimum-tillage planters are in the testing stage: a
cultivator/planter built by DAR and a ridgeshaper/planter
produced by the project.

2. Two or three cowpea varieties capable of producing seed under
Botswana's harsh ecological conditions may be expected to result
from the on-going field screening program involving more than
200 exotic varieties introduced from IITA (Nigeria) and SAFGRAD
(Burkina Faso).

VII. TRAINING OUTPUTS


A. Degree Training


Surname Sex University Department


Date
Degree
Degree Received


US Citizens:
Conniff
deMooy


Botswana Citizens:
Manthe F CSU
Montshiwa M CSU

Others:
None

B. Non-Degree Training

Surname Sex Affiliation


Agronomy
Crop & Soils


Agronomy
Agronomy


Training Location Duration


US Citizens:
deMooy
Conniff


F MSU
F CSU


Botswana Citizens:
Mosarwe M DAR
Shubo M DAR
Manthe F CSU
Montshiwa M CSU


MSTAT Wkshp.
Cowpea breed.
strategies


Cowpea agron.
Cowpea agron.
MSTAT Wkshp.
MSTAT Wkshp.


Others:
None


CRSP
Support


Ph.D.
M.S.


M.S.
M.S.


Total
Total


Partial
Partial


MSU
IITA


IITA
IITA
MSU
MSU


One week
One week


months
months
week
week





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In the US, Ms. Karen Conniff completed academic coursework and the
preliminary exam for the Ph.D degree at CSU and, in September 1984, was
transferred to Botswana for dissertation research. Ms. Barbara deMooy
completed thesis research for a M.S. degree, followed by a year of
regular project research in Botswana as a research associate and was
transferred to Michigan State University (MSU) in August 1984 for
fulfillment of academic requirements for the degree.

Ms. Mmasera E. Manthe commenced academic coursework leading to the M.S.
degree at CSU and will continue thesis research at Sebele upon her return
to Botswana in September 1985. Mr. Peter Montshiwa also commenced
academic coursework leading to the M.S. degree at CSU in January 1984 and
will return to Botswana in December 1984 for thesis research at Sebele.
Short-term, non-degree training at IITA (Nigeria) was offered to Mr.
Efedile Mosarwe, holder of a four-year diploma in agriculture from
Botswana Agricultural College and technical officer with the project, and
Mr. M. Shubo, holder of an agricultural certificate from the same college
who is assigned part-time to the project in the Maun region. Both
received two months training in all aspects of cowpea field research and
breeding at IITA. Ms. Karen Conniff also received a week of training at
IITA.

VIII. BASELINE DATA

The Agricultural Technology Improvement Project (ATIP) conducted cowpea
baseline surveys in the Francistown and Mahalapye areas. The Francistown
survey dealt with cowpea cultivation and utilization practices in the
Tutume District. In all, 275 households were interviewed. The Mahalapye
survey was administered to 49 ATIP farmers in the Shoshong and Makwate
areas.

The project administered a woman farmers' survey to 170 households
throughout the eastern provinces. Very useful data were gathered on
traditional cultivation practices, insect infestation, constraints to
increased production, varietal preferences for consumption, outlets for
selling grain and utilization of residues for grazing.

It appears that drought and lack of seed are the main constraints to
increased production. It was surprising that none of the surveys
assigned great importance to tillage and harvesting problems. The women
farmers did not emphasize tillage operations and implements or
harvesting as constraints.

Interpretation of the surveys has not been completed. The relevance of
the findings to project objectives should be the subject of several
meetings with ATIP and extension service personnel.

IX. WOMEN IN DEVELOPMENT

A. United States

1. Three out of four US researchers resident in Botswana were women.
They were involved in training under supervision of the PI.





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2. A Women-in-Agriculture Resource Guide was prepared under the
direction of Ms. Anne Ferguson of the Bean/Cowpea CRSP Manage-
ment Office (MO). This document provides a review of the
literature on the small farm sector in Botswana with special
attention given to women's roles in agricultural production.

B. Botswana: One of the two assistant research officers assigned to
the project was a woman. Besides conducting research, she received
M.S. degree training. She will play an important role in project
research policy in a few years.

Project impact on women's roles in agriculture was evaluated in the
women farmers' survey discussed above and is bound to be significant
because most cowpea farmers are women.

X. INSTITUTIONAL RESOURCES CONTRIBUTED TO PROJECT

A. United States

Personnel input: $36,992.00.

B. Botswana: GOB inputs for Bean/Cowpea CRSP Project
Value
1. Facilities (P/annum)

Office for agronomist, clerical
support, postage and supplies $1,000
Vehicle, maintenance and fuel $5,000
Subsistence in travel status $2,000
Land at experiment station and substations,
tillage, fertilizers and other materials $2,000
Laboratory support work $5,000

TOTAL facilities $15,000

2. Staff

Two technical assistants, full-time, entomology $6,000
One technical assistant, three months, plant pathology $1,000
One technical officer, three months $1,000
One assistant agricultural research officer,
three months $1,000
One technical assistant, three months $1,000

TOTAL staff $10,000

GRAND TOTAL $25,000

XI. PROFESSIONAL AND ORGANIZATIONAL LINKAGES

A. United States

1. Colorado State University: As the US lead institution, this
university supports the project's research program. During Dr.





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C. J. deMooy's TDY in June/July 1984 at CSU, it was decided that
CSU will develop a breeding program for resistance to low night
temperatures in cowpeas. Arrangements were made with Dr. D.
Wood, on-campus representative of the project, to initiate this
support program. Dr. W. Keim, Head of the Department of
Agronomy, serves as on-campus administrator. The department
also provides on-campus advisers for the two Botswana graduate
students who are spending one year at CSU to complete academic
coursework required for a Master's degree.

2. Michigan State University: The Bean/Cowpea CRSP MO provides
administrative support and backstopping services. A two-week
TDY by Dr. C. J. deMooy to the CRSP MO during August 1984 was
utilized for exchange of ideas and writing of several articles
summarizing project research. The Department of Crop and Soil
Sciences at MSU is in charge of the M.S. degree program of a US
graduate student. Ms. B. E.deMooy completed her thesis research
in Botswana under sponsorship of the project.

3. University of California, Riverside: Dr. C. J. deMooy and Ms.
B. E. deMooy visited Dr. Anthony Hall, US Principal Investigator
(PI) of the Senegal/University of California, Riverside
Bean/Cowpea CRSP project during July 1984 for discussion of
cowpea research in Africa. This project and the Botswana
project deal with drought problems. Dr. Hall made seeds avail-
able from thirty-one lines of cowpea breeding material. Contact
between the two projects was continued during a meeting with
Dr. Hall at Bambey, Senegal, during September 1984.

4. Kansas State University (KSU): Dr. C. J. deMooy presented a
seminar on research findings and scope of the Botswana cowpea
project at KSU in August 1984. KSU is the US lead university
of ATIP, a farming systems research project located in Botswana.
Results obtained by the two projects must be integrated in
recommendations made for the agricultural development of the
country.

5. US Peace Corps: Assignment of a Peace Corps volunteer to the
Botswana Legume Improvement Project of the Department of
Agriculture Research has enabled the project to conduct a
research program that is more likely to be useful to farmers
than would otherwise have been the case. The Peace Corps also
contributed by supplying low volume handsprayers to farmers
cooperating with the insect control trial program launched by
the DAFS and the project.

6. US Plant Introduction Center, Beltsville, Maryland: Communica-
tion with the US Plant Introduction Center was continued by
mutual exchange of germplasm resources.

B. Botswana: The linkages established during FY 83 were further
developed.




-31-


1. A collaborative program was established with the Department of
Agriculture Field Services. Thirty extension personnel partici-
pated, each conducting variety/spraying trials with cooperating
farmers in their respective districts. The tests provided much
needed information and suggestions for improvement.

The department changed directors in July 1984. The new
director, Mr. T. Taukobong, expressed interest in continuing the
joint program. More than 45 extension agents from the Northern,
Gaborone and Southern regions will be cooperating during the
1984/85 season along lines developed in joint meetings as a
result of FY 83 findings. The program will be more diversified
than that of the previous year.

2. Very useful information was gained through cooperation with the
Integrated Farming Pilot Project (IFPP). Eighteen field trials
were completed and two minimum-tillage planters tested in the
field. The IFPP will be terminated as a British-supported
farming systems project during 1985, but the joint program will
continue under management by the DAFS.

3. Collaboration with EFSAIP was very fruitful. Four variety/-
spraying field trials were completed. The two minimum tillage
planters were tested in the field at Sebele and modifications
were suggested for next year. EFSAIP ceased to exist as a
farming systems project, but both cooperators, Messrs. C. R.
Riches and D. Horspool, have joined DAR as regular staff, and
collaboration will continue as before. Mr. Riches will also
continue research on the parasitic weed Alectra vogelii.

4. ATIP contributed by conducting cowpea benchmark surveys in the
Francistown and Mahalapye areas which provided the project with
very useful baseline information. ATIP utilized the forty dual-
purpose cowpea lines provided by the project. Further materials
will be supplied to ATIP and seed sources increased as necessary.
Prototypes of planters, developed to date by the project, will
be made available to ATIP research staff if desired.

5. The Mahalapye Development Trust (MDT) conducted three variety/-
spraying trials as part of the nationwide collaborative field
program. MDT also increased the seed supply of introduced
varieties which the project requested.

6. Cooperation with IITA, Ibadan, Nigeria, continued as before.
Dr. B. B. Singh, cowpea breeder of the Grain Legume Improvement
Program (GLIP), visited Botswana and Dr. C. J. deMooy visited
IITA. Seed resources were exchanged. IITA assisted the project
with breeding activities. F3 generation seed resulting from
the.crosses made by Dr. B. B. Singh at IITA arrived for field
screening in Botswana. IITA also provided the entomology con-
sultant, Dr. L. Jackai, requested by the project in January 1984.

7. Cooperation with SAFGRAD in Burkina Faso continued. Cowpea
varieties distributed by SAFGRAD for evaluation were tested under
Botswana conditions. Dr. Vas Aggarwal of SAFGRAD contributed





-32-


by making special crosses between selected Botswana germplasm and
high yielding varieties from his region. F2 generation seed
resulting from these crosses is being evaluated in Botswana.

8. First contact was established with Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa
Agropecuaria (EMBRAPA) at Goiania, Brazil, where three
Bean/Cowpea CRSP projects are located. Besides the insight
provided on insect pathogen applications for cowpeas developed
by the Brazil/Boyce Thompson Institute Bean/Cowpea CRSP project,
EMBRAPA has significant research programs in cowpea drought
resistance screening and plant pathology. Exchange of seed and
resistance sources between the two countries was arranged through
a visit by Dr. C. J. deMooy and Ms. B. E. deMooy to EMBRAPA in
June 1984.

9. Periodic contacts were maintained with the Centre National de
Recherches Agronomiques (CNRA), Bambey, Senegal. After the visit
by Dr. M. Ndoye to Botswana during FY 83, Dr. C. J. deMooy
visited CNRA in September 1984 to exchange ideas concerning field
problems, procedures and varieties.

10. The Baptist Mission, Maun, Botswana continued to receive seed
shipments from the project in support of their efforts to
estimate cowpea growing in northern Botswana.

XII. FY 85 PROPOSED PLAN OF WORK

No changes are anticipated in project objectives and rationale. The
Botswana institution supports the project's work program. Some expansion
is envisaged in breeding new varieties based on local germplasm incor-
porating desirable traits from exotic material such as multiple insect
and disease resistance and high yield capacity. Also a more precise
identification of virus infections and degree of disease and insect
resistance would be desirable.

Temporary appointments of a legume pathologist/breeder (50 percent) and
legume entomologist (25 percent) will assist in establishing the intended
emphasis. Recent changes in project personnel included transfer of Ms.
B. E. deMooy to MSU in August 1984 for completion of M.S. degree require-
ments. Ms. deMooy's return travel to Botswana is anticipated in June
1985. Ms. Karen Conniff joined the field staff in Botswana in September
1984 for dissertation research. Two Botswana students will return from
CSU during the next year to commence thesis research leading to the M.S.
degree. Mr. P. Montshiwa will arrive in December 1984 and Ms. M. Manthe
in September 1985.

A. United States: Supportive research on low night temperature
resistance breeding at CSU is in the planning stage.

B. Botswana: Experiments are planned in the areas of germplasm
evaluation, general evaluation of USDA cowpea materials, screening
of new cowpea lines from IITA and SAFGRAD. Also anticipated are
variety adaptation trials, evaluation of F3 and F5 breeding
materials derived from Botswana germplasm x exotic crosses and





-33-


estimation of percentage of natural outcrossing in cowpeas at various
plant populations under Botswanan environmental conditions. Inter-
cropping, cultural practices, moisture conservation, nodulation
evaluation, soil fertility and integrated cowpea pest control trials
will also be carried out. Appropriate tests in farmers' fields will
be conducted.

XIII. LIST OF ARTICLES AND PRESENTATIONS ON PROJECT RESEARCH DURING FY 84

deMooy, B. E. In press. Variability of Characteristics of Botswana
Cowpea Germplasm. Tropical Grain Legume Bulletin, IITA, Ibadan,
Nigeria.

In press. Cowpea Germplasm Collecting in Botswana.
Plant Genetics Resources Newsletter, FAO, Rome.

1984. Botswana Cowpea Germplasm Catalogue (Vigna
unguiculata [L] Walp.), Vol. 1. Gaborone, Botswana: Ministry of
Agriculture.

1984. Botswana Cowpea Germplasm Catalogue (Vigna
unguiculata [L] Walp.), Vol. 2. Gaborone, Botswana: Ministry of
Agriculture.

deMooy, C. J. In press. Search for More Suitable Cowpea Varieties for
Semiarid Conditions in Botswana. Research Highlights II(1). East
Lansing, MI: Michigan State University, Bean/Cowpea CRSP Management
Office.

In press. The Development of More Appropriate Cultural
Practices and Agricultural Implements for Cowpea Production in
Semiarid Botswana. Research Highlights. East Lansing, MI: Michigan
State University, Bean/Cowpea CRSP Management Office.

1984. Early Maturing Cowpea Varieties. Paper presented
at Department of Agricultural Field Services, Gaborone Region
Meeting, Sebele, Botswana, February 27-29, 1984.

1984. Variety Trials for Botswana. Paper presented at
Department of Agricultural Field Services, Southern Region Meeting,
Pelotshetlha, Botswana, May 21-25, 1984.

1984. The Bean/Cowpea CRSP in Botswana. Seminar for the
Department of Agronomy, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS,
August 24, 1984.

USAID. 1984. The Cowpea CRSP Program in Botswana. Presentation in
US Economic Assistance to Africa Film produced by AID/Washington.




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BRAZIL o BOYCE THOMPSON INSTITUTE


Insect Pathogens in Cowpea Pest Management
Systems for Developing Nations


I. PROJECT ROSTER


A. US Lead Institution: Boyce Thor
Principal Investigator:


Co-Principal Investigator:

Postdoctoral Associate:
Research Assistants:

Laboratory Assistant:

Financial Officer:
Institutional Representative:



B. Brazil Counterpart Institution:

Principal Investigator:


Collaborator:
Consultants:


US Research Associate:

Laboratory Assistants:








Administrative Advisor:


C. USAID Project Officer:


npson Institute (BTI), Ithaca, NY
Dr. Donald W. Roberts, Insect
Pathology Resource Center (IPRC),
BTI
Dr. Richard S. Soper, US Department
of Agriculture (USDA), BTI
Dr. Stephen P. Wraight, IPRC, BTI
Mr. James Wenban, Biological Control
Program, BTI
Ms. Claudia Orr, Biological Control
Program, BTI
Mr. John Dentes, Treasurer, BTI
Dr. Edwin Oyer, Director,
International Agriculture Program,
Cornell University

Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa
Agropecudria (EMBRAPA), GoiaFia
Mr. Bonifacio P. Magalhles, Centro
Nacional de Pesquisa de Arroz e
Feijao (CNPAF), EMBRAPA
Mr. Massaru Yokoyama, CNPAF, EMBRAPA
Mr. Belmiro Pereira das Neves,
CNPAF, EMBRAPA
Dr. Evane Ferreira, CNPAF, EMBRAPA
Dr. Richard A. Daoust, CNPAF,
EMBRAPA
Mr. Sabastiao M. dos Santos, CNPAF,
EMBRAPA
Ms. Laila H. Mihsfelt, CNPAF,
EMBRAPA
Ms. Heloisa da Silva Coelho, CNPAF,
EMBRAPA
Ms. Filiane da Silva Coehlo, CNPAF,
EMBRAPA
Ms. Janine Ribeiro Silva, CNPAF,
EMBRAPA
Dr. Almiro Blumenschein, Director,
EMBRAPA

Mr. Howard Lusk, US Embassy,
Brasilia, Brazil





-35-


II. PROJECT OBJECTIVES

A. Overall (Five Year) Objectives

1. Develop insect pathogens as pest management tools compatible
(integrated) with other insect control practices. This will be
done by conducting basic and applied research in a cowpea-
producing nation (Brazil) and in the US to increase the
currently inadequate database. Experienced insect pathologists
will be sent to Brazil to conduct experiments with Brazilian
scientists since Brazil currently has no insect pathologist who
can be committed to cowpea pests.

2. Train developing-country scientists in insect pathology so they
can function independently in microbial control projects for
cowpeas and other crops. In addition to the training accom-
plished in conducting experiments with Brazilian scientists,
more formal training of scientists and aspiring scientists from
developing countries in insect pathology and microbial control
will be conducted.

B. FY 84 Objectives: See V below.

III. CHANGES IN OBJECTIVES: None.

IV. CONSTRAINTS TO ACHIEVEMENT OF OBJECTIVES

A. Technical difficulties include the labor-intensive and time-consuming
nature of laboratory insect rearing. Some species have proved
difficult to recycle in the laboratory. Good progress was made,
however, with other pest species, as mentioned below (V.3). Many
insects found in Latin American cowpea fields have not been
unequivocably identified; and their life histories, distributions and
relative importance as pests are poorly documented. This has
ramifications in the development of pest-control strategies. (The
literature on cowpea insect pests, including informally published
research reports, is being gathered for presentation to cowpea
researchers as a review published in collaboration with an IITA
scientist and as a paper delivered to an international meeting on
cowpeas.) Adequate basic information is also lacking on conditions
appropriate to initiating epizootics in the field. This is
recognized as one of the project's major research areas, and studies
are underway.

B. Since the project's beginning, a major hindrance to research in
Brazil has been the difficulty in importing equipment and supplies.
Equipment purchases within Brazil generally were not permitted with
AID funds. Therefore, equipment importation was required. Import
permits, however, were granted slowly or not at all even though the
items were to be donated to EMBRAPA prior to shipping from the US.
Nevertheless, through a combination of hard work on the part of some
Brazilian authorities, patience and good fortune, a significant
number of items were imported between 1982 and 1984. There was no
consistent system for importation. The Brazilian government





-36-


instituted a policy in 1984 to permit importation without license
of shipments valued at less than $3,000. This system was tested and
found workable in mid-1984. Accordingly, future importation of
small equipment should be facilitated. Since USAID did not act upon
requests for equipment budgeted for FY 84, the items could not be
purchased. Only equipment requested and approved in earlier years
but delayed because of Brazilian importation problems was obtained
in 1984.

C. Until early 1984, Dr. Almiro Blumenschein, the Director of CNPAF,
served as Host Country Principal Investigator (PI) and principal
administrator. This was necessary because EMBRAPA had no permanent
employees engaged in insect pathology at CNPAF. As noted elsewhere
in this report, the project was conducting considerable training of
potential EMBRAPA insect pathologists. Nevertheless, in January 1984
the Bean/Cowpea CRSP External Review Panel recommended that a HC PI
active in research be appointed as soon as possible to facilitate
project institutionalization. Accordingly, a CNPAF entomologist, Mr.
Bonifacio P. Magalh'es, was appointed by Dr. Blumenschein as HC PI.
Mr. Magalhaes is very interested in insect pathology/microbial control
and plans to make this his major research activity. He completed a
one-month study period at BTI in 1984.

V. PROGRESS TOWARD OBJECTIVES

The FY 84 project objectives and results were as follows:

A. Continue Development of an Insect Pathology Unit in Brazil: Many
new isolates of entomopathogenic fungi and bacteria were added to
the microorganism repositories in Brazil, and US training materials
on the microbiological control of cowpea pests were developed and
translated into Portuguese. The literature repository was
increased, and supplies and equipment valued at over $15,000 were
imported from the US during 1984.

B. Extend Surveys for Pathogens of Cowpea and Bean Pests: Survey trips
to cooperatives, research centers, universities and local bean and
cowpea farmers were made. Many of these were to areas of Brazil not
previously visited, including the states of Sao Paulo, Parand, Santa
Catarina, Rio Grande do Sul, Rondonia, Acre, Amazonas, Gofas (north
of Goiania), Alagoas and new parts of Pernambuco and Paranaiba.
More than fifty new pathogen isolates were discovered in 1984.

C. Commence Graduate Degree Training in Brazilian and US Universities
and Non-Degree Training at CNPAF and BTI: The training program was
very active. See VII below.

D. Continue Development of Laboratory Colonies of Cowpea Pests:
Considerable progress was made in the establishment of cowpea pest
colonies in Brazil including Empoasca kraemeri, Cerotoma arcuata,
Chalcodermus aeneus, Elasmopalpus lignosellus, Spodoptera spp. and
two predatory species, Coleomegilla maculata and Eriopis conexa,
found in cowpea fields.





-37-


E. Continue Screening and Development of Biological Assays of
Entomopathogenic Fungi and Bacteria Against Cowpea Pests: Entomo-
pathogenic fungi in the genera Erynia, Beauveria, Metarhizium,
Paecilomyces, Nomuraea and Hirsutella were tested against cowpea
pests. Several of these were highly pathogenic to Elasmopalpus
lignosellus, Chalcodermus aeneus, Cerotoma arcuata and Empoasca
kraemeri. Fungi were less promising as control agents against
Spodoptera spp. Tests with entomopathogenic bacteria were initiated
against C. arcuata. Dosage-mortality bioassays were conducted
against C. aeneus, C. arcuata and E. kraemeri with insect pathogenic
fungi. Empoasca fabae (US) was proved similarly susceptible to
Erynia radicans as Empoasca kraemeri (Brazil).

F. Commence Gathering Information on the Ecology and Epizootiology of
Mycoses of Cowpea Pests: Field experiments to study the
epizootiology of E. radicans on E. kraemeri were carried out in
Brazil. Studies were conducted on the stability of the
entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana on natural hosts and on
taiuia under field conditions. It was demonstrated that the fungus
can remain viable under field conditions, if protected from the sun
and rain, for more than thirty-two weeks. Tests to determine the
safety of fungi to beneficial insects in cowpea fields were
initiated. Both E. radicans and B. bassiana were non-pathogenic to
insect-predatory species (Coleomegilla maculata and Eriopis conexa)
but were highly pathogenic to pest insects (E. kraemeri and
Cerotoma sp.) in bioassays.

G. Conduct Screenhouse and Field Trials with Insect Pathogens:
Screenhouse and field trials were conducted at CNPAF and in northern
Brazil with B. bassiana strain CP 5 against chrysomelid beetles.
Results were promising for both foliar applications and for the use
of the chrysomelid beetle-attracting root, Cayaponia tayuya.
Diabrotica speciosa and Cerotoma arcuata were highly susceptible to
B. bassiana under these conditions. Field tests of Hirsutella
guyana, Erynia radicans and Metarhizium anisopliae against caged
populations of Empoasca kraemeri were unsuccessful, producing less
than 10 percent mortality. These results were attributed to the
dry, cool conditions which prevailed in the field at the time of
the tests (mid-July).

H. Continue Research on Small-Scale Production and Formulation of
Selected Pathogens (For Use in Field Trials): A method developed
for production of a dry, powder formulation of Erynia radicans (see
Bean/Cowpea CRSP 1983 Annual Report: Technical Summary) was
successfully applied to an isolate of Hirsutella guyana from
Empoasca kraemeri.

VI. RESEARCH OUTPUTS

A. Available for Immediate Use

1. The survey for insect-disease agents in Brazilian pests of
cowpea and other legumes has provided more than 150 fungal
isolates to the scientific community. Some of these were




-38-


distributed to interested Brazilian, US and other scientists for
possible use as insect-control agents. Many fungal strains are
not only identified and in pure culture (under liquid nitrogen
storage) but have been evaluated in the laboratory for
pathogenicity to certain insect species.

2. Methods for fungal mass production and bioassay are directly
applicable to other studies of entomopathogenic fungi worldwide.

3. Development and/or refinements of insect rearing methods made
some cowpea insect species available for non-pathology as well
as insect-pathology studies in Brazil.

4. Training of Brazilian scientists in insect pathology has led
them to request collaborative research and to provide diseased
specimens. This increase in interest and knowledge in insect
pathology will enhance the chances of success for Brazilian
microbial control projects.

B. Available for Use Within One to Two Years

1. Planned surveys will provide additional insect pathogens for
use by the scientific community.

2. Current epizootiology studies under field and semi-controlled
conditions (screenhouses) will provide methodologies and
concepts which can be applied to similar studies worldwide.

3. Formal (degree) training of Brazilian scientists will
significantly increase the expertise available in that nation
in insect pathology and microbial control of insect pests.

VII. TRAINING OUTPUTS


A. Degree Training


Surname Sex


US Citizens:
Wraight F

Brazil Citizens:
de Lima F
Quintela F
Fernandes M


University Department


Cornell Entomology


ESAL*
ESALQ**
ESALQ**


Plant Protec.
Entomology
Entomology


Date
Degree
Degree Received


Ph.D.


M.S.
M.S.
M.S.


Others:
None



*Escola Superior de Agricultura de Lavras
**Escola Superior de Agricultura de Luiz Queiroz


CRSP
Support


Total


Total
Total
Total




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B. Non-Degree Training

Surname Sex Affiliation Training Location Duration

US Citizens:
None

Brazil Citizens:
Pereira M CNPAF Research Intern. CNPAF 9 months
de Lima F CNPAF Research Intern. CNPAF 14 months
Fernandes M CNPAF Research Intern. CNPAF 8 months
Magalhaes M CNPAF Research Intern. BTI 5 weeks
Nine females and
eleven males Training Course CNPAF 1 week
Ten males ** Training Course CNPAF 1 day
Fourteen females Summer Interns
and eleven males *** Training Course CNPAF 1 day

Others:
Camarena F Mexico Short-term Intn. CNPAF 3 weeks

During FY 84, a week-long lecture and laboratory course on insect
pathology and microbial control was offered at CNPAF for twenty
scientists. All held B.S., M.S. or Ph.D. degrees. Nine were women,
including a scientist from Mexico. In addition, thirty-five
Brazilian scientists, twenty-one men and fourteen women, received
one-day training at CNPAF as part of other CNPAF training programs.
Three long-term (three months or longer) research internships were
sponsored and directed by the project at CNPAF. Two men and one
woman participated. The Brazilian PI spent five weeks in the US
studying insect pathology concepts and techniques. Four CRSP-
supported scientists, one man and three women, started degree pro-
grams in two Brazilian and one US university. The three Brazilians
will conduct research under project direction at CNPAF. M.S. degree
training of a Brazilian in the US has been arranged for 1985.

VIII. BASELINE DATA

Cowpea production in Brazil is extremely variable. Large producers (100
hectares or more) exist, but much smaller holdings are the norm.
Virtually all cowpeas on small holdings are intercropped with up to five
other plant species. The climates vary from the moist littoral and
Amazons to extremely arid regions. Cowpeas are eaten as green beans in
certain areas, e.g. Bahia, but most are used as dried beans. Consumers
of dried cowpeas show regional differences regarding acceptable color,
size and taste and, therefore, utilize different cowpea lines.


*Second Training Course on the Microbiological Control of Cowpea Pests with
participants from eleven Brazilian states and one from Mexico.
**Second Course on the Production of Cowpeas with participants from throughout
Brazil.
***Summer interns--participants from throughout Brazil.









With such variability in cropping patterns, it is difficult for a
project with limited funds and expertise in social sciences and
economics to gather baseline data. The specific areas) where microbial
control agents may be utilized on a wide-scale basis needs to be identi-
fied before gathering data. An overview of topics such as where cowpeas
are produced, in what amounts and which lines are preferred is available
from Dr. Earl Watt of IITA who works with the Brazilian National Cowpea
Improvement Program. To date, Dr. Watt and the project personnel's
informal observations made during survey trips have served as informa-
tion sources. Should more detailed information be required, the project
should be expanded to employ properly qualified specialists.

In FY 84, project staff made visits to various locations in Brazil where
entomopathogenic fungi are produced and used in pasture and sugarcane.
This represented an effort to estimate the level of growers' acceptance
of new technology such as the use of insect diseases for pest control.
Although not quantifiable, this group's enthusiasm indicates high
acceptance by Brazilian administrators and farmers.

IX. WOMEN IN DEVELOPMENT

From its inception, the project has had significant participation by
women. This is particularly true in the training area. Almost half of
those trained by the project in Brazil are women and the project's only
degree candidate in the United States is a woman. For details see
section VII.

X. INSTITUTIONAL RESOURCES CONTRIBUTED TO PROJECT

A. United States: The BTI administrative officers have been very
supportive of the project since its inception and have encouraged
enthusiastic pursuit of its goals. Accountable financial support
from BTI is expected to be $75,383 in FY 84 distributed as follows:

1. Personnel $31,243

2. Materials and supplies $989

3. Other direct costs $1,702

4. Travel $655

5. Indirect costs and facilities $40,794

The fungal isolates collected in Brazil have been maintained by the
USDA group at BTI headed by Co-PI, Dr. R. Soper, and identification
of the fungal specimens was done by Dr. R. Humber of the USDA group.
Although their monies are federal and, therefore, not applicable as
matching funds for the grant, several months of salary from USDA
base funds were expended in the support of this project.

B. Brazil: The EMBRAPA administration, including the President, Dr.
Eliseu Alves, and the CNPAF Director, Dr. Almiro Blumenschein, has
been supportive of the collaborative project. Dr. Blumenschein has





-41-


been particularly interested in insect pathology training at CNPAF
and in encouraging collaborative research between CNPAF scientists
and the CRSP research associate at CNPAF. Extensive collaborative
efforts are now under way. The CNPAF Business Office estimates that
the financial input into the collaborative work from their base
funds will be equivalent to approximately US $46,000 in FY 84.

XI. PROFESSIONAL AND ORGANIZATIONAL LINKAGES

A. As a result of the project's extensive survey, collaborative
research and teaching activities in Brazil, the staff has had
significant interactions with more than thirty university and state
and federal government groups located in virtually all cowpea-
growing areas of the country. These interactions have been very
productive and cordial, and extensive exchanges of materials, ideas
and personnel are expected in future years.

B. Productive training affiliations were instituted with two Brazilian
universities in 1984. The universities are providing courses to
three CRSP-supported M.S. students. The M.S. theses will be done
at CNPAF with the CRSP project's research associate as advisor. The
students will receive degrees from these universities: Escola
Superior de Agricultura de Lavras, Lavras, Minas Gerais, and Escola
Superior de Agricultura de Luiz Queiroz, Universidade de Sao Paulo,
Piracicaba, S.P.

C. The principal international center interaction was between Dr. N.
Jackai of IITA and Dr. R. A. Daoust of BTI (Brazil) who began a
joint review article on insect pests of cowpeas.

XII. FY 85 PROPOSED PLAN OF WORK

A. Research Objectives and Strategy

1. Surveys: The search for new and/or more virulent strains of
entomopathogens will continue through surveys in Brazil.
Surveys, however, will be emphasized less in 1985 in order to
accelerate research activities at CNPAF and with collaborators
in northern Brazil and to devote more time to training graduate
students and interns at CNPAF.

2. Bioassays and insect rearing: Major emphasis will be placed on
improving the rearing facility and training staff in the
laboratory culture of cowpea and bean pests in Brazil.
Techniques to more efficiently rear cowpea pests will be
emphasized. Laboratory screening of fungal and bacterial
pathogens will continue in Brazil and the US.

3. Epizootiological and field studies with entomopathogens:
Epizootiological studies will be continued to gather baseline
data on the physical and biological factors effecting disease
incidence of major pests in Brazil and the US in the field and
laboratory. Empoasca and chrysomelid leaf-feeding beetles will




-42-


be emphasized. Research will continue in the screenhouse and
field at CNPAF and in the Amazonas state to develop B. bassiana
for chrysomelid beetle control. Studies will also continue on
pathogen stability in the field and the laboratory under
controlled conditions and on the safety of pathogens to natural
enemies of cowpea pests.

B. Training Objectives and Strategy

1. In 1985, training in insect pathology and microbial control in
Brazil will continue as a major priority. A one-week course
will be offered on bean and cowpea entomology in cooperation
with CNPAF. Training of B.S. level research interns will
continue in Brazil.

2. Three Brazilian graduate students (M.S.) in two Brazilian
universities will begin thesis work in GoiaTia. Another
Brazilian will begin graduate study at Cornell University in
January 1985. A US graduate student (Ph.D.) will commence field
research on the epizootiology of Erynia in Empoasca populations.

3. Short-term internships for Brazilians will also continue at
CNPAF and at BTI. In this regard, it is expected that the
Brazilian PI will visit the US in 1985 for continued training.

4. On-site training of cowpea scientists in northern and
northeastern Brazil and exchange of information with Brazilian
colleagues will continue through discussions, exchange of
pathogen cultures, collaborative research and visits.

C. Anticipated Personnel/Location Changes: After serving a productive
three-and-one-half years as research associate for the project in
Brazil, Dr. Richard A. Daoust will return to the US in March 1985.
Dr. Jeffrey C. Lord, an insect pathologist trained at the University
of Florida, Gainesville, will replace Dr. Daoust in Brazil after a
short overlap period. The project will continue to be centered at
CNPAF.

XIII. LIST OF ARTICLES AND PRESENTATIONS ON PROJECT RESEARCH DURING FY 84

Anderson, T. E. and D. W. Roberts. 1983. Compatibility and Use of
Beauveria bassiana--Insecticide Combinations. XVI Annual Meeting
Society for Invertebrate Pathology, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY,
August 7-11, 1983; pp. 29,32 (Abstract).

Cai, B.-L., D. W. Roberts and R. A. Humber. 1984. Biological
Characterization of Erynia delphacis Isolates from the South of
People's Republic of China. XVII Annual Meeting Society for
Invertebrate Pathology, University of California, Davis, CA, August
5-9, 1984; p. 26 (Abstract).

Daoust, R. A. 1984. Conducting Insect Pathology/Microbial Control
Short Courses. Workshop Keynote Speaker at the XVII Annual Meeting
Society for Invertebrate Pathology, University of California, Davis,
CA, August 5-9, 1984.




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Daoust, R. A., P. M. Fernandes, B. P. Magalhaes and M. Yokoyama. 1984.
Pathogenicity of Beauveria bassiana Applied to Cowpea Foliage and
Curcubitacid Tubers, Cayaponia sp., to Adult Diabrotica speciosa and
Cerotoma sp. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) in Brazil. XVII Annual
Meeting Society for Invertebrate Pathology, University of
California, Davis, CA, August 5-9, 1984; pp. 40-41 (Abstract).

Daoust, R. A., D. W. Roberts and R. S. Soper. 1983. The Enzootic and
Epizootic Occurrence of Diseases in Insect Species Associated with
Cowpeas in Central, North and Northeast Brazil. Annual Report of
the Bean Improvement Cooperative 26:86-87.

1983. Fungal Diseases of Cowpea Pests in North,
Northeast and Central West Brazil. XVI Annual Meeting Society for
Invertebrate Pathology, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, August 7-11,
1983; p. 42 (Abstract). Also available in Portuguese as Ocorrencia
de enzootias e epizootias em especies de insetos associados com
caupi, nas regioes Norte, Nordeste e Brasil Central. Boletim do
Grupo Pesquisadores de Controle Biologico, 4:15-16.

Fernandes, P. M., M. R. Albertoni and R. A. Daoust. 1983.
Patogenicidade de Metarhizium anisopliae ao caruncho Callosobruchus
maculatus do caupi (Vigna unguiculata). Boletim do Grupo
Pesquisadores de Controle Biologico, 4:17-19.

Fernandes, P. M., R. A. Daoust, B. P. Magalhaes and M. Yokoyama. 1984.
Patogenicidade de Beauveria bassiana aplicada sobre folhas de caupi
(Vigna unguiculata) e tuberculos de Cayaponia sp. a Diabrotica
speciosa e Cerotoma sp. IX Congresso Brasileiro de Entomologia,
Londrina, PR, Brazil, July 22-27, 1984; p. 174 (Abstract).

Ferreira, E. and B. P. Magalhaes. 1984. Eficiencia da joaninha
Coleomegilla maculata como predador. Pesquisa em Andamento 44, 2
pp. Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuaria (EMBRAPA), Centro
Nacional de Pesquisa de Arroz e Feijao (CNPAF).

Lima, M. G. A. de, R. A. Daoust and R. S. Soper. 1984. Patogenicidade
de fungos a Elasmopalpus lignosellus e outros lepidopteros pragas
do caupi (Vigna unguiculata Walp) pulverizados diretamente numa
torre calibrada. IX Congresso Brasileiro de Entomologia, Londrina,
PR, Brasil, July 22-27, 1984; p. 178 (Abstract).

Loria, R., S. Galaini and D. W. Roberts. 1983. Survival of Inoculum
of the Entomopathogenic Fungus, Beauveria bassiana, as Influenced
by Fungicides. Environmental Entomology 12:1724-1726.

Roberts, D. W. 1984. Fungal Disease in Leafhopper Control. Research
Highlights 1(3). East Lansing, MI: Michigan State University,
Bean/Cowpea CRSP Management Office.

1983. An Overview of the Use of Fungi Worldwide for the
Control of Insect Pests. Chair presentation at Symposium on Recent
Advances in Entomogenous Fungi, 3rd International Mycological
Congress, Tokyo, Japan, August 28-September 3, 1983.





-44-


1983. Current Status of Entomopathogenic Fungi as
Insect Control Agents. North Chicago, IL: Abbott Laboratories.

______. 1983. Insect Control with Microbes in Several Regions
Worldwide. Seminar presentation to CNPAF, EMBRAPA, Goia ia,
Brazil, November 1983.

Roberts, D. W. and J. R. Aist (eds.). 1984. Infection Processes of
Fungi. A Bellagio Conference Report, March 21-25, 1984. New York,
NY: The Rockefeller Foundation.

Teetor-Barsch, G. H. and D. W. Roberts. 1983. Entomogenous Fusarium
Species. Mycopathologia 84:3-16.

Wraight, S. P., R. S. Soper and D. W. Roberts. 1983. In vitro Culture
and Bioassay of Erynia radicans (Entomophthoraceae) Isolated from
Empoasca kraemeri. XVI Annual Meeting Society for Invertebrate
Pathology, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, August 7-11, 1983; pp.
43-44 (Abstract).

Wraight, S. P., R. A. Daoust, B. P. Magalhles and D. W. Roberts. 1983.
Preliminary Laboratory Studies of a Recently Isolated Mononematous
Hirsutella Species from Empoasca kraemeri. XVI Annual Meeting
Society for Invertebrate Pathology, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY,
August 7-11, 1983; p. 46 (Abstract).





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BRAZIL UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN


Identification of Superior Bean-Rhizobia Combinations for Utilization
in Cropping Systems Suitable to Small Farms in Brazil


I. PROJECT ROSTER


A. US Lead Institution:
Principal Investigat

Co-Principal Investi


Contract Officer:
Institutional Repres


B. Brazil Counterpart Institution:

Principal Investigator:


US Research Associate:
Field Technician:
Field Staff:



Laboratory Technicians:



Laboratory Auxiliary:

General Auxiliary:

Scholarship Student
(Bolsista):
Administrative Advisor:


C. USAID Project Officer:


University of Wisconsin (UW), Madison
or: Dr. Fredrick A. Bliss, Department
of Horticulture, UW
gator: Dr. Frank Dazzo, Department of
Microbiology and Public Health,
Michigan State University (MSU)
Ms. Barb Keenan, UW
entative: Dr. Richard L. Lower, Assistant
Dean, College of Agricultural and
Life.Sciences, UW


Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa
AgropecuAria (EMBRAPA)
Mr. Ricardo Silva Araujo, Centro
Nacional de Pesquisa de Arroz e
Feijao (CNPAF), EMBRAPA
Dr. Robert Henson, CNPAF, EMBRAPA
Mr. Abdala F. Borges, CNPAF, EMBRAPA
Mr. Helio Dionizio de Rezenda,
CNPAF, EMBRAPA
Mr. Trago Monteiro Damascino,
CNPAF, EMBRAPA
Mr. Carlos A. Cavalcante, CNPAF,
EMBRAPA
Mr. Alfonso Celso da Costa, CNPAF,
EMBRAPA
Mr. Aldimar Ferreira dos Santos,
CNPAF, EMBRAPA
Mr. Bob Aliso Renascenca, CNPAF,
EMBRAPA
Ms. Lilian F. da Cunha, CNPAF,
EMBRAPA
Dr. Almiro Blumenschein, Chief
CNPAF, EMBRAPA

Mr. Howard Lusk, US Embassy,
Brasilia, Brazil


II. PROJECT OBJECTIVES

A. Overall (Five Year) Objectives: Develop superior common bean
cultivars capable of enhanced biological nitrogen fixation (BNF)
that, in association with superior strains of Rhizobium phaseoli,
produce high yields under bean monoculture and intercropping
systems without supplemental nitrogen fertilizer.




-46-


B. FY 84 Objectives

1. Research

a. Plant improvement through selection

(1) Assess in field accessions and breeding populations
for N2 fixation.

(2) Develop additional populations segregating for high
N2 fixation.

b. Rhizobium collection and evaluation

(1) Develop methods for enumerating rhizobia from field
soil.

(2) Evaluate selected R. phaseoli strains for
effectiveness.

(3) Produce rifampicin-resistant strains of R. phaseoli
for field ecological studies.

c. Study of factors affecting N2 fixation

(1) Quantify N2 fixation of beans grown in monoculture
and corn/bean relay.

(2) Investigate differences in N2 fixation relative to
cropping systems.

d. Dissemination of plant materials and scientific information

(1) Provide selected bean lines to national programs,
Bean/Cowpea CRSP projects and US scientists.

(2) Provide information on methods and techniques for
quantifying soil rhizobia, selecting superior
competitive strains of R. phaseoli and selecting bean
lines for enhanced N2 fixation.

2. Training

a. Provide M.S. degree training in plant breeding and plant
genetics at UW.

b. Provide advanced-level non-degree training in rhizobiology
at MSU.

III. CHANGE IN FY 84 OBJECTIVES: None.





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IV. CONSTRAINTS TO ACHIEVEMENT OF OBJECTIVES

A. Technical: Accurate direct estimation of actual amounts of N2
fixed under field conditions is difficult to obtain for large
populations of plant families.

B. Administrative: Difficulty was experienced in spending funds in
Brazil at the anticipated level. Insufficient funds were available
for purchase of small items. The budget for FY 84 was not approved
until August 15, 1984.

C. Human: Mr. Ricardo Silva Araujo, the Host Country (HC) Principal
Investigator (PI) working on rhizobiology could stay at MSU for
only three months to pursue studies of the basis for enhanced
nodulation of beans grown in relay compared to monoculture.

D. Physical-logistical: The planned purchase of equipment by UW to be
donated to CNPAF was not possible. There are too few research
vehicles at CNPAF. Permission to purchase an alcohol-fueled truck
in Brazil was requested six months ago.

V. PROGRESS TOWARD OBJECTIVES

A. Training: Graduate degree training in plant breeding and plant
genetics was provided for two M.S. degree candidates. Both
attended the MSTAT computer workshop at MSU and one completed a
tour of US bean research projects.

B. Research

1. Plant improvement through selection: A three-stage procedure
for field-testing was used to assess N2 fixation potential of
black bean and colored bean lines. Some sixty inbred backcross
lines of WI Pop. 22 were evaluated at CNPAF and also at UW.
Thirteen lines were chosen for further testing and five lines
(22-3, 22-8, 22-24, 22-34 and 22-50) for elite evaluation
trials. Six lines were provided to Dr. Thung for the CIAT
preliminary yield trials. Selection 22-34 was used extensively
in experiments, including the on-farm trials in Brazil, the
CNPAF rust screening and CIAT's screening for response to low
phosphorus. The best selections compared favorably to the CIAT
line BAT 76.

Four colored-bean lines--Honduras, Lustroso, F. V. Roxa and IPA
1--were promising.

Three populations of inbred backcross lines--Goiaaia Precoce,
carioca and rosinha seed types--were evaluated at UW. Other
populations are being developed in cooperation with Dr. Mar'a
Jos6 Zimmermann at CNPAF.

2. Rhizobium collection and evaluation: The R. phaseoli strains
evaluated under controlled conditions for nodulation and N2
fixation at MSU and found to be the most effective were CNPAF





-48-


150, CIAT 632, CIAT 640, 127K81-3, KIM-5, MG336, J033 and
J034. For interstrain competition studies, the ineffective R.
phaseoli strains isolated were: J025, J029 and J031.

Rifampicin resistant strains were produced for use in field
ecological studies at CNPAF. Mutants that fixed nearly as well
as the wild type included 150 (R4), 189 (R1), 189 (R4), 189
(R5) and KIM-5 (R3).

Improved methods to enumerate bean rhizobia from soil were
developed. The most common method, the plant infection count
using the most probable number (MPN) technique in Leonard jars,
is open to microbial contamination. A tube culture MPN
technique was developed to overcome this problem.

Network experiments were conducted at several locations in
Brazil to identify the best R. phaseoli strains on a standard
set of common bean lines.

3. Evaluation of factors affecting N2 fixation under field and
controlled environment conditions: Experiments were conducted
in the field and glasshouse to evaluate the effects of genotype
and plant growth stage on nodulation characteristics. All
genotypes had fewer nodules, less nodule dry weight and lower
total acetylene reduction (AR) in the field than in the
glasshouse; but specific nodule activities were similar. The
standard cultivar, Rio Tibagi, produced fewer nodules than
Negro Argel and WI 22-34.

Beans grown in monoculture showed different amounts of
nodulation compared to beans grown in relay with maize.
Treatments containing maize roots and stalks favored production
of more nodules. Bean roots from plants grown in these
experiments are being examined for endomycorrhizae, using new
methods for fixing and clearing roots.

Experiments were conducted at UW to identify bean lines that
grow well at low P levels. Factors considered were three bean
genotypes and comparison of fertilizer N vs N derived from N2
fixation. Differences in total dry matter were similar for each
genotype regardless of N source. Nodule dry weight and nodule
number were positively correlated with P level, and relative
differences between genotypes were maintained over the range of
P from 50 to 400 mM (loading concentration on activated
alumina).

Beans alley-cropped between rows of Leucaena showed no reduced
production per unit of land area. The benefits from Leucaena
would still be realized.

4. Dissemination of plant materials and scientific information:
Promising black bean breeding lines were provided to other
programs at CNPAF, including the on-farm trials, network
experiments throughout Brazil, phosphorus evaluation trials of





-49-


CIAT at CNPAF, preliminary yield trials of CIAT and the disease
resistance Bean/Cowpea CRSP project at CNPAF. Selected breeding
lines have been provided to other Bean/Cowpea CRSP projects and
to US scientists.

Dissemination of scientific information has been through
participation of project personnel in scientific meetings,
workshops and training sessions.

VI. RESEARCH OUTPUTS DURING FY 84

A. Available for Immediate Use

1. Black bean lines with genetic potential to fix high levels of
N2 have been developed: lines 22-3, 22-8, 22-24, 22-34 and
22-50.

2. Breeding and selection methods exist that are suitable for use
in bean improvement programs that include enhancement of N2
fixation.

3. Strains of Rhizobium phaseoli were developed having high N2
fixing ability under controlled conditions: Kim-5, CIAT 632,
CIAT 640, 127K81-3, MG 336, J033, J035 and CNPAF 150.

B. Available Within One to Two Years

1. Information will be gathered about bean production and
utilization on farms in Brazil.

2. Breeding lines of important market classes, e.g. Goiania
Precoce, black, carioca, rosinha will be developed with genetic
potential to fix high levels of N2 when grown in prevailing
production systems.

3. Information will be published describing effective breeding
procedures and selection methods for increasing the N2
fixation potential of common bean will be delineated.

4. Features of mixed cropping and monoculture systems that either
enhance or decrease the N2 fixation of beans.

5. Rabbit antisera will be developed against sonicated cells of R.
phaseoli Kim-5 strain.

6. Highly competitive, ineffective strains of bean rhizobia
indigenous to Brazil will be sought.

7. Strains of bean rhizobia that effectively nodulate bean lines
in competition with ineffective indigenous strains will be
sought.

8. An account of improved methods for enumerating bean rhizobia by
the MPN technique under microbiologically controlled conditions
will be published.




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VII. TRAINING OUTPUTS

A. Degree Training Date
Degree CRSP
Surname Sex University Department Degree Received Support

US Citizens:
None

Brazil Citizens:
Pereira M UW Horticulture M.S. None

Others:
Nchimbi F UW Horticulture M.S. Total

B. Non-Degree Training

Surname Sex Affiliation Training Location Duration

US Citizens:
None

Brazil Citizens:
Araujo M CNPAF Adv. trng. MSU Three mo.
rhizo. tech.
Pereira M CNPAF MSTAT Wkshp. MSU One week
da Cunha F CNPAF Adv. trng. CNPAF One year
N2 fix.

Other:
Flores M Mexico Trng. in MSU Six months
rhizo. tech.
Mloza-Banda M Malawi Same MSU Three mo.
Nchimbi F Tanzania MSTAT Wkshp. MSU One week

Mr. Araujo and Dr. Bob Henson presented a half-day lecture and gave
laboratory demonstrations on N2 fixation at CNPAF.

VIII. BASELINE DATA

A. Bean production and utilization data are being acquired through the
farming system survey at CNPAF.

B. The N2 fixation potential of Brazilian landrace cultivars and
commonly-grown introduced cultivars is being obtained.

C. Brazilian landrace cultivars grown by farmers are being collected
and evaluated at CNPAF.

D. Superior introduced and indigenous strains of R. phaseoli are being
evaluated in network trials.

E. Isolates of R. phaseoli are being collected from cultivars and bean
selections growing in Brazil to determine the competitiveness and
effectiveness of native rhizobia.





-51-


IX. WOMEN IN DEVELOPMENT

A. United States: Ms. Susan Nchimbi (supported by Tanzania/Washington
State University Bean/Cowpea CRSP project), is pursuing an M.S.
degree in plant breeding and plant genetics at UW. Her research
will have direct relevance to women's roles in Tanzania.

B. Brazil: Ms. Lilian Ferro da Cunha (B.S. degree in agronomy from
the Rural Federal University at Rio de Janeiro) has received a
one-year scholarship for training in bean research at CNPAF.

The breeding program of Dr. Marfa Jose Zimmermann at CNPAF includes
collaborative studies with this project.

X. INSTITUTIONAL RESOURCES CONTRIBUTED TO PROJECT

A. United States

1. Personnel

Dr. F. A. Bliss, professor, UW, Madison, 20 percent, $7850
Dr. Frank Dazzo, associate professor, MSU, 5 percent, $2370

2. Student training: None.

3. Facilities

MSU: Two research labs (878 + 1500 square feet)
UW: Three research labs (2000 square feet), two student desks,
greenhouse space (200 square feet), experimental field at the
Arlington horticulture farm and the Hancock experiment station,
use of travel van.

4. Materials and supplies: Paid for by CRSP funds.

5. Travel: Paid for by CRSP funds.

B. Brazil

1. Personnel

Dr. Ricardo Silva Araujo, rhizobiologist, CNPAF
Mr. Helio Dionizio de Rezende, field staff
Mr. Thiago Monteiro Damasceno, field staff
Mr. Carlos Alberto Cavalcante (until 3/84), lab technician
Mr. Alfonso Celso da Costa (since 6/84), lab technician
Mr. Aldimar Ferreira dos Santos, lab auxiliary
Mr. Bob Aliso Renascenca, general auxiliary

2. Student training

Mr. Pedro Pereira, research assistant, approximate value $15,000


Ms. Lillian Ferro da Cunha, bolsista





-52-


3. Facilities: Research labs, offices, greenhouse space, field
plots at CNPAF, Goiania, Gofas.

XI. PROFESSIONAL AND ORGANIZATIONAL LINKAGES

A. New Linkages

1. United States

a. Michigan State University: Dr. F. Dazzo serves on the
degree committee of Ms. Catalina Samper, a graduate student
on the Mexico/MSU Bean/Cowpea CRSP project.

Mr. Henry Mloza-Banda, a graduate student on the Malawi/MSU
Bean/Cowpea CRSP project, received three months training in
rhizobiology in Dr. Dazzo's lab.

b. University of Wisconsin: Mr. N. Wassimi, a student with
Dr. G. Hosfield at MSU on the INCAP/Washington State
University Bean/Cowpea CRSP project, analyzed 1200 bean
flour samples for percentage seed protein at UW.

c. Sixty black bean lines were screened for rust reaction at
CNPAF by the Brazil/UW Bean/Cowpea CRSP disease resistance
project.

2. Brazil

a. Relationships were established with the extension and
farming systems groups at CNPAF, EMBRAPA.

b. Linkages were made with bean researchers at other stations
throughout Brazil.

B. On-Going Linkages

1. United States

a. University of Wisconsin: Research relationships continued
with:

(1) The Honduras/University of Puerto Rico Bean/Cowpea
CRSP project.

(2) The Dominican Republic/University of Puerto Rico and
University of Nebraska Bean/Cowpea CRSP projects.

(3) The Mexico/MSU Bean/Cowpea CRSP project.

2. Brazil: Relationships continued with:

a. Other Brazilian programs in N2 fixation, e.g. EMBRAPA Km
47 (Rio de Janeiro), CENA Piracicaba, Sao Paulo and others.





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b. Other bean researchers at CNPAF, EMBRAPA, e.g. Dr. Maria
Jos6 Zimmermann, Dr. Josias de Faria and others.

XII. FY 85 PROPOSED WORK PLAN

A. Research Objectives and Strategy

1. Research objectives

a. United States

(1) University of Wisconsin

(a) Administration and coordination of the project.


(b) Mr. Pedro Pereira will continue
research.

(c) Ms. Susan Nchimbi will initiate
research.

(d) Data from experiments in Brazil
and analyzed.


M.S. thesis


Ph.D. thesis


will be compiled


(e) New breeding populations will be developed.

(2) Michigan State University

(a) R. phaseoli strain evaluation for effectiveness
N2 fixation on selected bean lines will be
completed.

(b) Competitiveness of selected superior strains
against ineffective, competitive indigenous
strains will be evaluated.

(c) Total and specific AR activity of nodules formed
by KIM-5 strain on standard and selected bean
lines will be measured.

(d) The new MPN technique will be further evaluated
and the results published in a scientific journal.

b. Brazil--CNPAF


(1) Further evaluation and selection of
accessions for superior N2 fixation
N fertilizer are to take place.


breeding lines and
with and without


(2) Superior selections for testing in on-farm trials,
network trials, disease evaluations and intercropping
experiments will be provided.




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(3) Studies on nodule formation and longevity under
different cropping systems with and without maize will
be continued.

(4) Amounts of N2 fixed by advanced selections and
standard cultivars using 15 N labeled compounds will
be estimated.

2. Research strategy: The strategy is to develop improved bean
lines responsive to both native and introduced rhizobia. The
most promising lines will be evaluated under cropping systems
used in Brazil. Early evaluation of promising lines will be
made in on-farm trials. Promising lines will be provided to
other projects for wide evaluation.

Selection of competitive R. phaseoli strains on improved bean
selections will be made. When superior strains are available,
studies will be made in parallel with the plant evaluations
indicated above under prevailing cropping systems in Brazil.

B. Training Objectives and Strategy

1. United States

a. University of Wisconsin: Degree training will be continued
for Mr. Pedro Pereira and Ms. Susan Nchimbi.

b. Michigan State University: Non-degree training in
rhizobiology will be provided as needed.

2. Brazil--CNPAF

a. A workshop on improving N2 fixation is planned.

b. Practical training in N2 fixation for the scholarship
student, Ms. Lilian Ferro da Cunha, is anticipated.

D. Anticipated Personnel/Locational Changes: None.

XIII. LIST OF ARTICLES AND PRESENTATIONS ON PROJECT RESEARCH DURING FY 84

Bliss, Fredrick A. 1984. Breeding for Enhanced Dinitrogen Fixation
Potential in Common Bean. In P. Ludden and J. Burris (eds.).
Nitrogen Fixation and CO? Metabolism. Proceedings of the 14th
Steenbock Symposium, June 17-22, 1984. New York: Elsevier
Publishing Co.

Henson, R. and R. S. Araujo. 1984. Fixagao de N2 no Sistkma de
Substituicao Milho/Feij o. Paper presented III Reuniio Nacional de
Pesquisa com Feijao (P. vulgaris) em Consorcio. EMCAPA, Cariacica,
Espirito Santo, 4-6 June, 1984.




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BRAZIL UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN


Improved Techniques for Development of Multiple Disease
Resistance in Phaseolus vulgaris L.


I. PROJECT ROSTER

A. US Lead Institution: University of Wisconsin (UW), Madison
Principal Investigator: Dr. Douglas P. Maxwell, Department
of Plant Pathology, UW
Co-Principal Investigator: Dr. Donald J. Hagedorn, Department
of Plant Pathology, UW
Research Associate: Dr. Debra Ann Inglis, Department of
Plant Pathology, UW
Specialist: Mr. Robert Rand, Department of Plant
Pathology, UW
Technical Assistants: Mr. Eric Carlson, Department of
Plant Pathology, UW
Ms. Jayne Frauenfelder, Department
of Plant Pathology, UW
Contract and Grant Officer: Mr. Robert Erickson, Research
Administration, UW
Institutional Representative: Dr. R. Lower, Assistant Dean,
College of Agricultural and Life
Sciences, UW

B. Brazil Counterpart Institution: Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa
Agropecuaria (EMBRAPA), Goaia
Principal Investigator: Dr. Josias C. de Faria, Centro
Nacional de Pesquisa Arroz e
Feijio (CNPAF), EMBRAPA
Co-Principal Investigators: Mr. Aloisio Sartorato, CNPAF,
EMBRAPA
Mr. Carlos A. Rava, CNPAF, EMBRAPA
Dr. Marfa J. Zimmermann, CNPAF,
EMBRAPA
Laboratory Technicians: Mr. Elcio de Oliveira Alves, CNPAF,
EMBRAPA
Mr. Jackson Marciano, CNPAF, EMBRAPA
Mr. S. Mota, CNPAF, EMBRAPA
Ms. Marfa de Lourdes Soares, CNPAF,
EMBRAPA
Administrative Advisor: Dr. Almiro Blumenschein, Chief,
CNPAF, EMBRAPA

C. USAID Project Officer: Mr. Howard Lusk, US Embassy,
Brasilia, Brazil

II. PROJECT OBJECTIVES

A. Overall (Five Year) Objectives: The goal is to develop improved
techniques, research strategies and methodology for use by bean
breeders worldwide in the development of multiple disease resistance




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in Phaseolus vulgaris L. Particular emphasis will be given to six
diseases which are especially important to Brazil and all of Latin
America: anthracnose (Colletotrichum lindemuthianum), angular leaf
spot (Isariopsis griseola), common blight (Xanthomonas campestris
pv. phaseoli), rust (Uromyces appendiculatus) bean common mosaic
virus and bean golden mosaic virus. Efficient, practical techniques
for use in greenhouse, screenhouse and field will be developed.
Supportive research to provide background data on expected stability
of resistance will also be undertaken. This will involve studies
concerning pathogen variability and an emphasis on screening methods
which detect general or rate-reducing resistance as well as specific
resistance.

B. FY 84 Objectives

1. Evaluate dry "natural" inoculum of Xanthomonas phaseoli,
Isarioposis griseola and Colletotrichum lindemuthianum for
inoculation of beans.

2. Develop a multiple inoculation schedule for five bean pathogens.

3. Continue to study the variability of bean pathogens in Brazil.

4. Continue to evaluate disease testing sites in Brazil.

5. Continue to test collections of bean strains for resistance to
bean pathogens.

III. CHANGE IN FY 84 OBJECTIVES

After an extensive process of project review, the following objectives
were pursued:

A. Develop techniques for multiple disease testing of germplasm under
growth chamber, greenhouse and field conditions.

B. Develop methods for field screening of germplasm with selected
pathogens.

C. Determine the variability of selected pathogens.

D. Determine environmental influences on the development of selected
diseases.

IV. CONSTRAINTS TO ACHIEVEMENT OF OBJECTIVES

A. Administrative: Delays occurred in purchasing equipment; however,
procedures have been established which should make equipment
importation easier. Also, procedures are now available to ship
supplies purchased in the US directly to CNPAF. Scientists have
spent many hours on the review of this project.

B. Physical-logistical: Some difficulties were experienced in Brazil
with the culture incubators. Also, greenhouses in Brazil are not
adequately cooled so there is a delay in experimentation.





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V. PROGRESS TOWARD OBJECTIVES

A. Multiple Disease Evaluation: The investigation of new techniques
for multiple disease testing of germplasm has progressed under
growth chamber, greenhouse and field conditions. Promising results
were obtained using sequential inoculations in the field and green-
house (Brazil) and simultaneous inoculations in the greenhouse and
in growth chambers (US). A protocol for screening for disease
resistance with multiple pathogens will be available in the near
future. In addition, the use of detached trifoliolate leaves in
glass dishes in growth chambers offers a way to carefully
investigate, evaluate and verify various phenomena observed when
multiple inoculations are done in the greenhouse or field (US).

B. Field Evaluation for Disease Reaction: A new technique using dry
rather than liquid inoculum to inoculate beans in the field with
Colletotrichum lindemuthianum or Isariopsis griseola was confirmed
to be reliable and repeatable (US). This technique offers a good
alternative to traditionally-used conidial suspensions for field-
screening purposes. Methods were developed to prepare and calibrate
dry inoculum using simple laboratory procedures.

Bean disease reaction plots have been established in separate
locations in Brazil for web blight, bean golden mosaic virus,
anthracnose and anthracnose/common blight. Breeding lines planted
in these locations were evaluated for their disease reaction and
the best lines selected for additional testing.

C. Pathogen Variability: The presence of strains or races of bean
common mosaic virus, I. griseola, C. lindemuthianum and Uromyces
appendiculatus was evaluated. Several races of each fungal pathogen
were detected, but all isolates of bean common mosaic virus were
identified as strain number 1 (US type strain).

D. Environmental Influence on Disease Development: A better under-
standing of the temperature requirements of Isariopsis griseola for
development of typical symptoms of angular leaf spot was achieved.
Now the symptoms of the disease so apparent in the field chlorosiss
and premature defoliation) can be duplicated with greenhouse or
growth chamber inoculations.

VI. RESEARCH OUTPUTS DURING FY 84

A. Available for Immediate Use: Dry inoculum techniques for I.
griseola and C. lindemuthianum are available for research in the US.
These techniques have not yet been adequately evaluated in Brazil.

B. Available for Use Within One to Two Years: A protocol for
evaluation of bean germplasm to four pathogens (Xanthomonas
campestris pv. phaseoli, Uromyces appendiculatus, I. griseola and
C. lindemuthianum) will be available soon. Field testing is
underway in Brazil.




-58-


VII. TRAINING OUTPUTS

A. Dr. Debra Inglis is a post-doctoral fellow at the University of
Wisconsin, Madison. She is studying with Dr. D. J. Hagedorn.

B. One Brazilian laboratory technician received short-term training
(three months) in Brazil on laboratory and field disease
evaluations.

VIII. BASELINE DATA

A. Techniques for multiple pathogen inoculation of beans are not
available.

B. A few Brazilian bean cultivars have race-specific resistance to no
more than two pathogens. The extent of general resistance in bean
cultivars is very limited.

C. Bean germplasm with resistance to bean golden mosaic is not available.

IX. WOMEN IN DEVELOPMENT

A. United States: Dr. Debra A. Inglis has major responsibility for
research at the University of Wisconsin. She has hired a woman
hourly laboratory helper.

B. Brazil: Dr. Marla J. Zimmermann has joined the project as a plant
breeder. She has responsibility for the national bean program in
Brazil. Two women laboratory helpers have assisted with the
technical aspects of this project.

X. INSTITUTIONAL RESOURCES CONTRIBUTED TO PROJECT

A. United States

1. Personnel

Dr. Douglas P. Maxwell, chairman and professor, 15 percent
Dr. Donald Hagedorn, professor, 40 percent
Mr. Robert Rand, specialist, 40 percent
Secretaries, 20 percent
Greenhouse supervisor, 2 percent
Budget and fiscal specialists, 2 percent
Superintendent at experimental farms, 2 percent
Approximate value: $38,000

2. Student training: None.

3. Facilities

Research laboratories, 1-1/3
Offices, 1-1/2
Greenhouse space, 90m2
Experimental fields: Hancock Experiment Station, 0.6 ha;
Arlington Experiment Station, 0.4 ha
Vehicle, 60 percent




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4. Materials and supplies: $200

5. Travel/transportation: None.

6. Indirect costs: $12,125

B. Brazil

1. Personnel

Dr. J. C. de Faria, CNPAF, 90 percent
Mr. A. Sartorato, scientist, 15 percent
Mr. C. A. Rava, scientist, 15 percent
Dr. A. Blumenschein, Chief, 2 percent
Secretary, 15 percent
Phototrapher, 2 percent

2. Student training: One (for three months).

3. Facilities

Research laboratory, two
Office, 1-1/2
Greenhouse, 200m2
Experimental fields: Fazenda Capivara (GO), 4.0 ha; Rio Verde
(GO), 1.0 ha; Uberaba (MG), 0.7 ha; Irati (PR), 2.0 ha;
Londrina (PR), 0.7 ha; Pelotas (RS), 0.06 ha; Poco Verde (SE),
0.06 ha; Santana do Ipanema (AL), 0.06 ha; Lagoa Seca (PB),
0.06 ha; Venda Nova (ES), 0.01 ha
Vehicle, 5 percent

4. Materials and supplies: As necessary.

5. Travel and transportation: Travel provided to all experimental
plots.

XI. PROFESSIONAL AND ORGANIZATIONAL LINKAGES

A. New Linkages

1. United States: Dr. R. Durbin, Department of Plant Pathology,
UW, Madison evaluated toxin production by Isariopsis griseola.

2. Brazil

a. Dr. Fernando Assis Paiva, Uberaba, MG, helped with pathogen
identification.

b. Dr. Guilhermo Galvez, Costa Rica, supplied seed for
evaluation.

c. Information exchange continued with Dr. Dermot P. Coyne,
University of Nebraska (UNE), Lincoln (Dominican Republic
(DR)/UNE Bean/Cowpea CRSP project).




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d. Contact was maintained with Dr. George F. Freytag,
MayagUez, University of Puerto Rico (UPR) (DR/UPR
Bean/Cowpea CRSP project).

e. Dr. R. Stavley, USDA, Beltsville, Maryland supplied seeds
for race determinant for bean rust and information on rust
typing.

f. Dr. J. C. Dianese, University of Brasilia, Brasilia worked
on strain determination of bean pathogen.

B. Ongoing Linkages

1. United States

a. Relationships were maintained with Drs. J. Lopez-Rosa, G.
Freytag and J. Beaver, Mayaguez, UPR (DR/UPR Bean/Cowpea
CRSP project).

b. Information exchange continued with Drs. J. Steadman and D.
Coyne, UNE (DR/UNE Bean/Cowpea CRSP project).

c. Contact was maintained with Dr. M. J. Silbernagel, Washing-
ton State University (WSU), Prosser, WA (Tanzania/WSU
Bean/Cowpea CRSP project).

d. Drs. Aart van Schoonhoven, S. Temple, and M. A.
Pastor-Corrales, CIAT, Cali, Colombia supplied seed.

e. Drs. S. K. Mohan and T. Mohan, Fundacao Instituto Agronomico
do Parana, Londrina, Parana, Brazil assisted with race
determination and field evaluation.

2. Brazil: Relationships were maintained with Drs. S. Temple and
M. A. Pastor-Corrales, CIAT, Cali, Colombia.

XII. FY 85 PROPOSED PLAN OF WORK

A. Research Objectives and Strategies

1. United States

a. Objective: To further develop and utilize techniques for
multiple disease testing of germplasm under growth chamber
and greenhouse conditions.

Strategy: Seedlings grown in pots will be simultaneously
and sequentially inoculated with U. appendiculatus, X.
campestris pv. phaseoli, I. griseola and C. lindemuthianum.

Experimental factors considered will be placement of
inoculum, timing of inoculations, concentration of inoculum
and environmental conditions. It is anticipated that this
information will lead to a scheme which can be used for
field inoculations.





-61-


b. Objective: To further investigate methods for preparing and
storing dry inoculum of I. griseola and C. lindemuthianum
produced in the laboratory and used in field inoculations.

Strategy: Inoculum will be grown in glass jars on natural
media (e.g. sorghum seed, rice seed, bean pods). Once the
inoculum is dried and ground, the number of surviving
propagules under different storage conditions will be
assessed by dilution plating techniques. The relationship
between viable inoculum and disease development will also
be determined.

c. Objective: To study the possible protective and/or
synergistic interactions among pathogens and races of a
pathogen which are observed when multiple inoculations are
done in the growth chamber, greenhouse or field.

Strategy: Whole plants as well as detached trifoliolate
leaves in glass dishes will be inoculated and maintained in
growth chambers to further characterize the nature of the
interactions between pathogens. The cause of these
interactions will be pursued.

2. Brazil

a. Objective: To complete the evaluation of the multiple
disease inoculation protocol for use under field conditions.

Strategy: Beans will be simultaneously and sequentially
inoculated with four pathogens (X. campestris, U.
appendiculatus, phaseoli, I. griseola and C. linemuthianum)
under field conditions. The experimental factors will be:
cultivars, timing of inoculation, sequence of pathogens used
in inoculation and the use of maize border rows around the
plots. It is anticipated that these experiments will
provide information which can be used to formulate a
protocol for multiple pathogen inoculation of a large field.
An experiment will be performed to compare results of a
small disease nursery with those from a large field plot.

b. Objective: To evaluate the disease reactions for X.
campestris pv. phaseoli obtained on primary leaves prick-
inoculated in the disease nursery with the adult plant
reaction under field conditions.

Strategy: Primary leaves of young plants will be prick-
inoculated with the bacterium under disease nursery condi-
tions. On the same day, plots planted to the same bean
cultivars will be subjected to inoculation by three
different techniques: (1) sand-blast plants and then spray
bacterial cell suspension onto them; (2) mix carborundum
with bacterial suspension and spray plants; (3) spray plants
with a bacterial suspension at high pressure.




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c. Objective: To study the role of rate-reducing resistance
to control bean diseases.

Strategy: After identification of specific races of the
pathogens, selected highly aggressive races will be used to
assess parameters known to correlate with rate-reducing
resistance, such as infectious efficiency (frequency),
latent periods, colony and lesion size and spore production.
Since this type of resistance generally shows a more
continuous quantitative type of variation among host
cultivars, quantification of disease rather than the use of
the infection type only will be attempted.

d. Objective: To study the genetic variability of selected
bean pathogens.

Strategy: Collections of new isolates of bean pathogens are
continually made during field visits to different regions.
The plant material is brought to the lab, the fungus/-
bacteria isolated and inoculated onto a set of differential
cultivars for race determination. An isolate is also
maintained for future studies. These studies allow an
evaluation of a shift in virulence genes over time.

e. Objective: To develop procedures for evaluation of
resistance to bean golden mosaic virus.

Strategy: Disease nursery and management plots will be
established in three locations. The disease nursery plots
will contain over 400 accessions from CNPAF, CIAT and other
research programs. The smaller management plots will be
planted with six cultivars and the level of white flies
controlled. These plots should provide information on the
connection of insect vector pressure to disease severity.

f. Objective: To evaluate the inoculation procedures used for
detection of multiple disease resistance plants in breeding
lines and development of multiple disease resistant
germplasm.

Strategy: Breeding lines from crosses between parents with
resistance to different diseases will be inoculated using
the multiple inoculation techniques previously developed.
These crosses are being made by scientists at CNPAF and
CIAT.

Germplasm resistant to bean golden mosaic virus is being
developed. Interspecific crosses between Phaseolus spp. are
being made by CNPAF and CIAT. Material generated from these
crosses will be evaluated at the level of F3-F4 families.

A complete strategy for selection of multiple disease
resistant germplasm will be developed.




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g. Objective: To study the observed interaction between rusts
and anthracnose.

Strategy: Plants resistant and susceptible to anthracnose
will be inoculated with rust and at different intervals with
C. lindemuthianum. The possible cause of this interaction
and the possibility of avoiding it will be pursued.

B. Training Objectives and Strategies

1. United States: A research associate from the US will join
the project at CNPAF, Brazil in November 1984.

2. Brazil: A workshop on bean breeding for multiple disease
resistance will be presented at CNPAF, May 1985. It will
consist of six to ten days of lectures, discussions, demon-
strations and field trips for ten to fifteen scientists from
Brazil. Instructors will include mainly CRSP project
personnel. Brazil scientists will attend national meetings
and visit major research programs on bean diseases.

C. Anticipated Personnel/Locational Changes

1. Dr. M. J. Havey, research associate at UW, Madison, will
join the research group at CNPAF in November 1984.

2. Dr. Marfa J. Zimmermann, bean breeder at CNPAF, will become
more involved with this project.

3. Dr. D. A. Inglis, research associate, will terminate her
appointment in April 1985 at UW-Madison.
XIII. LIST OF ARTICLES AND PRESENTATIONS ON PROJECT RESEARCH DURING FY 84

Faria, J. C. 1984. Identification of Common Bean Germplasm with Low
Bean Common Mosaic Virus Seed Transmissibility. 1984 Annual
Meeting, American Phytopathological Society, Guelph, Ontario,
Canada, August 12-16, 1984 (Abstracted in Phytopathology 74:818).

Inglis, D. A. and D. J. Hagedorn. 1984. Temperature Requirements by
Isariopsis griseola (IG) for Infection and Disease Development on
Red Kidney Beans. 1984 Annual Meeting, American Phytopathological
Society, Guelph, Ontario, Canada, August 12-16, 1984 (Abstracted in
Phytopathology 74:856).

Inglis, D. A., Hagedorn, D. J. and R. E. Rand. 1984. Using Dry
Inoculum in the Field for Testing Beans for Resistance to Angular
Leaf Spot. 1984 Annual Meeting, American Phytopathological
Society, Guelph, Ontario, Canada, August 12-16, 1984 (Abstracted in
Phytopathology 74:884).

1983. A New Technique for Testing Beans for Resistance
to Anthracnose and Angular Leaf Spot. Proceedings of the 1983
Biennial Meeting of the Bean Improvement Cooperative, Minneapolis,
MN, November 7-10, 1983 (Abstract).





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CAMEROON UNIVERSITY OF GEORGIA


Pest Management Strategies for Optimizing Cowpea Yields in Cameroon


I. PROJECT ROSTER

A. US Lead Institution: University of Georgia (UGA)
Principal Investigator: Dr. Richard B. Chalfant, Department
of Entomology, UGA Coastal Plain
Experiment Station (CPES)
Co-Principal Investigators: Dr. J. A. A. Renwick, Boyce
Thompson Institute (BTI)
Dr. Pat Hughes, BTI
Research Associate: Dr. Frank Messina, BTI
Technician: Ms. Joyce Barmore, BTI
Administrators: Dr. W. C. McCormick, Director, UGA
CPES.
Dr. Max Bass, Head, Department of
Entomology, UGA
Contracts and Grants Officer: Mr. Ted Proffer, College of
Agriculture Business Office, UGA
Institutional Representative: Dr. Charles Laughlin,, Associate
Director of the Agricultural
Experiment Stations, UGA

B. Cameroon Counterpart Institution: Institut de la Recherche
Agronomique (IRA)
Principal Investigator: Mr. Zachee Boli, IRA Maroua Station
Director
Research Associate: Dr. Moffi E. Ta'Ama, IRA
Research Counterparts: Mr. Endondo Chevalier, IRA
Mr. Georges Ntoukam, IRA
Technicians: Mr. Amboui Bellow, IRA
Mr. Vatsayi Hayata, IRA
Ms. Dominique Amadou, IRA
Mr. Tchiegue, IRA
Ms. Mele Kairama, IRA
Ms. Mariel Nguizaye, IRA
Ms. Rachel Kobu, IRA
Administrator: Dr. J. P. Eckebil, Director, IRA
Secretaries: Ms. Gousman, IRA
Ms. Fadimatou, IRA

C. USAID Project Officer: Dr. Abdel Moustafa, USAID/Yaounde

II. PROJECT OBJECTIVES

A. Overall (Five-Year) Objectives

1. United States

a. Identify behavior modifying chemicals' potential for
management of major cowpea insect pests.





-65-


b. Characterize the chemical and ecological nature of plant
resistance.

2. Cameroon

a. Identify key cowpea insect pests and their biology within
the principal cowpea-producing areas of northern Cameroon.

b. Evaluate cowpea cultivars for resistance to major insect
pests and characterize the mechanisms for resistance to
facilitate breeding for resistance.

c. Identify factors within cropping systems which affect
insect-plant relationships.

d. Develop and evaluate pest management methods suitable for
small farmers in northern Cameroon.

e. Train Cameroonian students and technicians for entomological
research.

B. FY 84 Objectives: The objectives listed above are being pursued.
Increased research on storage insects, aphid resistance and mixed
cropping is planned.

III. CHANGES IN FY 84 OBJECTIVES: No changes were necessary.

IV. CONSTRAINTS TO ACHIEVEMENT OF OBJECTIVES

A. Telecommunication is difficult within Cameroon and between the US
and Cameroon.

B. The attempted coup d'etat in 1984 has placed strains on travel.

C. Religious and social customs make integration of WID more difficult.

D. There are insufficient funds to expand research to new locations.

E. Cost sharing between IRA and the CRSP is not well defined.

F. Confusion has occurred in lines of communication and responsibilities
among the various administrative units associated with the project.

G. Technicians are insufficiently trained.

H. There are insufficient vehicles, and transport of supplies is
difficult.

I. Permits to purchase equipment are difficult to obtain.

J. There is a need for a secretary/bookkeeper.

I. Computing facilities are needed.




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V. PROGRESS TOWARD PROJECT OBJECTIVES

A. Cameroon: Results reported here represent an expansion from eight
experiments in two locations in 1982 to twenty-three experiments in
seven localities in 1983. Rainfall was adequate (533 mm) at the
main station in Maroua (Guering) but less than at the other stations
(700-800 mm). Results are as follows:

1. A short-season, local cowpea cultivar, VYA, was identified which
yields as well as the improved cultivar, TVX3236-OIG, when both
are planted at proper densities (25,000, 100,000 plants/ha,
respectively)

2. Yield loss studies indicate best yields were obtained with
improved cultivars TVX3236-OIG, TVX1948, VITA 7 and local
cultivars VYA and MOGODA. Knowledge of optimum density would
improve results.

3. FG Maruca resistant cowpeas and local cultivars were evaluated
in observational plots. Five of these had acceptable yield,
grain color and foliage production for forage.

4. Date of planting studies indicated that mid-July was more
acceptable than mid-June or mid-August for grain production.
Seed quality suffers from June planting while peas planted in
August may suffer from drought although seed quality is good.

The cultivar IT82E60-OIG (60-day maturity) was very susceptible
to diseases and insects, particularly when planted in June or
July.

5. Five international varietal trials comprising sixty-four
cultivars from IITA and SAFGRAD were made. Their yields were
generally superior and double those of the local cultivars
affected by early drought.

In trial 1, IT82E67, IT82E56, IT82E60 and IT82E77 were most
acceptable. In trials 2 and 3, best yields were obtained with
TVX3236, TVX1948-012 and TVX4656, IT81D988, IT81D985 and
IT81D996. In the lab, IT81D985 showed resistance to bruchids.

Of the early-maturing SAFGRAD varieties, SIVATA 2, TVX1999-OIF,
White Wonder and IAR68 produced best, but the grain quality was
not acceptable to northern Cameroon.

6. Among various methods for expressing and counting thrips in
cowpea flowers, the acetic acid method was more effective than
alcohol or visual counts and sticky traps.

7. Economic threshold studies of thrips were confounded by
simultaneous floral infestations by Maruca.

8. At Guering (Maroua) a test comparing the conventional knapsack
spray method with the Electrodyn (electrostatic, waterless




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sprayer) indicated that the latter was 15 percent more effective
against thrips; however, this difference was not reflected in
yield.

9. A test with different insecticides formulated for the Electrodyn
sprayer showed that Cypermethrin plus Dimethoate formulation at
15 + 20 g/ha was more effective against thrips and aphids than
a Cypermethrin + Chlorpyrifos mixture or Cypermethrin alone.

10. Electrodyn sprays using doses of 30 + 60 g/ha of Cypermethrin +
Dimethoate on two cowpea cultivars produced better results at
Sanguere where insect pressure was greater. Control of thrips
at Maruca was significantly better with the Electrodyn than with
the water-base Solo knapsack sprayer.

11. At Sanguere, under heavy insect pressure, one, two and three
insecticidal applications increased yields two, fifteen and
twenty-two times.

12. Different insecticides were evaluated for control of the various
insect pests of cowpeas. Although significant differences in
efficacy occurred, these differences were not reflected in the
yields.

13. Studies of sorghum-cowpea intercropping showed that the
cultivars TVX3236-OIG (cowpeas) and S-35 (sorghum) were better
adapted to mixed cropping than cowpea cultivars VITA5 or VYA or
sorghum cultivar Mogoda.

14. Cotton and peanut oils in doses of ten ml/kg seed gave
satisfactory control of the cowpea weevil on stored cowpeas if
the initial infestation was light; however, the oils produced a
discoloration of the seed and 12 percent less germination.

15. Of the chemicals evaluated to control the cowpea weevil, only
phostoxin (aluminum phosphide) was satisfactory. Actelic
(pirimophos methyl), deltamethrin and Nexion (bromophos) were
less effective.

16. Of ten cultivars from IITA tested for resistance to the cowpea
weevil in the laboratory, IT81D985 sustained less damage than
the local check variety.

B. United States--Boyce Thompson Institute

1. The life cycle of the active form of the cowpea weevil was
analyzed to determine how it could be monitored and manipulated.

2. Differences among cowpea weevil strains from IITA (Nigeria),
Cameroon and Florida have been determined.

3. The production of active weevils was found to be controlled by
genetic and environmental factors.





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4'. Resistance to cowpea weevils in improved IITA cowpea lines was
traced to increased cowpea weevil developmental time.

5. IITA cowpea lines identified as cowpea aphid resistant did not
hold up in US experiments.
,6. Four PI lines from Experiment, GA, showed moderate resistance
to the cowpea aphid.

VI.' RESEARCH OUTPUTS DURING FY 84

A.' Available for Immediate Use: The following results have been
obtained:

1. Safe pesticides for control of major pests.

2. Desirable planting dates.

S .3. An improved cowpea cultivar adapted to northern Cameroon which
has increased yield and is thrips resistant over local
landraces.

4. Information on the biology of the cowpea weevil and prediction
of damage.

;,B. Available for Use Within One to Two Years: These outcomes are
anticipated:

1. Methods for control of storage insect pests.

.. 2. Improved varieties for cowpea/sorghum mixed cropping.

3. Information on use of pheromones for management of the cowpea
,,weevil.

4,4. Information on effects of environment on stability of aphid
resistance in cowpeas.

5. The most effective aphid and weevil resistant lines for
Cameroon will be identified.

VII. TRAINING OUTPUTS

A. Degree Training
Date
Degree CRSP
Surname Sex University Department Degree Received Support

SUS Citizens:
None

C' ameroon Citizens:
Ntoukam M UGA Entomology M.S. Total

Others:
None





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B. Non-Degree Training

Surname Sex Affiliation Training Location Duration

US Citizens:
None

Cameroon Citizens:
Ntoukam M IRA MSTAT Wrkshp. MSU One week
Tchougnia F IRA App. Ent. Maroua Two mos.
Amadou M IRA App. Ent. Maroua Six mos.
Tchiegue M IRA App. Ent. Maroua Six mos.
Nguizaye F IRA App. Ent. Maroua Six mos.
Kobu F IRA App. Ent. Maroua Six mos.
Kairama F IRA App. Ent. Maroua Six mos.

Others:
None

Mr. Georges Ntoukam of the Institut de la Recherche Agronomique entered
the University of Georgia in the M.S. program under Dr. R. B. Chalfant.
Five Cameroonian technicians have been trained in applied entomology at
the project site in Maroua. Mr. Ntoukam also received MSTAT micro-
computer training for one week at Michigan State University.

VIII. BASELINE DATA

A baseline data survey was conducted in northern Cameroon. The sample
size was 240 families divided equally into 48 villages, 12 sub-
departments and 6 departments. The results (partial and not analyzed)
are as follows:

A. Sex: 100 percent male.

B. Crops grown: Cowpeas 75 percent, peanuts 62 percent, millet 28
percent, cotton 49 percent, corn 25 percent.

C. Grown in association with cowpeas: Sorghum, millet.

D. Sixty-seven percent practiced mixed cropping.

E. Number of crops grown in association: Average of one (range 0-3).

F. Two or three seeds are placed per hill.

G. Land preparation: Flat 84 percent, ridges 10 percent, mounds 6
percent.

H. Thinning of cowpeas: 23 percent do, 77 percent do not.

I. Peas are weeded an average of two times.

J. Factors that affect yield are insects 47 percent, rain 41 percent,
weeds 11 percent.




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K. Grain color preference: White 72 percent, red 14 percent, brown 12
percent, multicolor 2 percent.

IX. WOMEN IN DEVELOPMENT

A. United States: One woman has been trained as a technician at BTI.

B. Cameroon: Three women are being trained as technicians in
entomology at Maroua.

C. Impact: Women do most of the weeding, harvesting and some of the
selling in northern Cameroon. Improved cultivar 3236 is easier to
harvest thus reducing time and labor. Effective herbicides
delineated by the project reduce time-consuming hand weeding.
Increased yield makes more food available for families under care
of women.

A Women in Agriculture Resource Guide was prepared for this project.
This provides valuable information on women's roles in agricultural
production in northern Cameroon.

X. INSTITUTIONAL RESOURCES CONTRIBUTED TO PROJECT

A. United States

1. Personnel

a. University of Georgia

Dr. Richard B. Chalfant 30 percent $13,500
Two technicians 53 percent 14,491
Three secretaries 20 percent 22,266

b. Boyce Thompson Institute

Dr. J.A.A. Renwick 25 percent $23,500
Dr. Pat Hughes 15 percent combined

2. Student training: One in Masters program, $20,000 value.

3. Facilities: University of Georgia and Boyce Thompson
Institute: 4 offices, 4 laboratories, 2 greenhouse units, 6
acres plot land, 1.5 vehicles, $30,000.

4. Material and supplies: Approximately 20 percent of the total
value of laboratory, building and research maintenance is
contributed to the project.

5. Travel/transportation: Approximately 20 percent of vehicle time
and maintenance of three trucks are contributed.


6. Indirect costs: $24,590.




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B. Cameroon

1. Personnel

a. Mr. Endondo Chevalier and Mr. Georges Ntoukam, agricultural
engineers, 100 percent of time, $13,000

b. Two technicians, 100 percent of time, $2,500

2. Student training: None


3. Facilities: Offices and laboratories,
land 30 ha, 1.5 vehicles.

4. Materials and supplies: One furnished
$25,000 per year.

5. Travel and transportation: $2,000

6. Indirect costs: $10,000.

XI. PROFESSIONAL AND ORGANIZATIONAL LINKAGES

A. New Linkages

1. Delegation of Protestant Missionaries:
were established in Gamboura.


1000 square feet, plot


house, running expenses,


Demonstration trials


2. Socidtd de Developpement du Coton (SODECOTON): Involvement was
increased due to significant value of cowpeas made evident by
this CRSP project. SODECOTON has a mandate for food crop
production and has established extension infrastructure.

3. Centre de Recherche Forestier: Intercropping cowpeas with
reforestation is being investigated.

B. On-Going Linkages

1. United States

a. USDA/Agricultural Research Station (ARS) Insect Biology
Laboratory, Tifton, GA: Plot land and technical advice is
supplied.

b. USDA/ARS Stored Insect Products Laboratory, Savannah, GA:
Technical advice and cooperation are lent.

c. USDA/ARS Vegetable Breeding Lab, Charleston, SC: Technical
advice and cowpea cultivars are given.


d. USDA/ARS Insect Attractants Lab, Gainesville, FL:
advice and insect-trapping equipment are given.


Technical





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e. USDA Plant Introduction Station, Experiment, GA: Cowpea
plant introductions are supplied for field evaluation.

f. Auburn University, Department of Horticulture, Auburn, AL:
Cowpea seeds and technical advice are given.

2. Cameroon

a. Semiarid Food Grain Research and Development Project
(SAFGRAD), Cameroon: The project works cooperatively with
the SAFGRAD agronomist in pre-extension trials.

b. National Cereals Research cnd Extension Project (NCRE):
Cooperative experiments with the sorghum breeder are
conducted.

c. IITA, Ibadan Nigeria: Statistical analysis, computer time,
cowpea seeds, insecticides and equipment were supplied.

d. Seed Multiplication Program, Cameroon: Cooperation takes
place on multiplication of cowpea germplasm, and plot land
is donated.

e. Socidt6 d'Expansion et de Modernisation de la Riziculture
de Yagoua (SEMRY): Cooperative experiments are undertaken,
and land for seed increase is supplied.

f. Agrilagdo, irrigated rice, Garoua, Cameroon: Extension
trials and land for seed increase are shared.

g. Catholic Order of Sacred Heart, Mokolo, Cameroon:
Cooperative research is being undertaken along with
pre-extension trials.

h. Groupment d'Etudes et de Recherche pour le Developpement de
l'Agronomie Tropicala (GERDAT): Cooperative research with
the entomologist is undertaken.

XII. FY 85 PROPOSED PLAN OF WORK

A. Research Objectives and Strategy

1. United States

a. Evaluate cowpea germplasm for resistance to major insect
pests.

b. Study biology of the cowpea weevil in relation to control.

c. Evaluate methods for controlling the cowpea weevil on stored
cowpeas.





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2. Cameroon

a. Continue germplasm screening for resistance to insect pests
with more emphasis on resistance to storage pests and
adaptation to mixed cropping.

b. Continue routine evaluation of pesticides with emphasis on
low mammalian toxicity.

c. Study chemical, physical and biological methods for control
of storage pests.

B. Training Objectives and Strategy

1. United States: The Cameroonian graduate student will continue
research at UGA and obtain an M.S. A new Cameroonian student
will be identified to replace present one after completion of
the degree.

2. Cameroon: The counterpart and technicians will be sent to IITA
for short-term training in cowpea entomology. Technicians will
be trained in applied entomology at Maroua.

C. Anticipated Personnel/Locational Changes: A secretary/bookkeeper
will be obtained at Maroua.

XIII. LIST OF ARTICLES AND PRESENTATIONS ON PROJECT RESEARCH DURING FY 84

Messina, F. J. 1984. Influence of Cowpea Pod Maturity on Oviposition
Choices and Larval Survival of a Bruchid Beetle, Callosobruchus
maculatus. Entomologia Experimental et Applicata 35:241-248.

Ta'Ama, Moffi. 1984. Performance of Cowpea Cultivars in Northern
Cameroon. Paper presented at the National Cereals Research and
Extension Project Conference, IITA, Nigeria, 4-9 March 1984.

S1984. Performance of Cowpea and Sorghum Cultivars for
Mixed Cropping. Paper presented at the National Cereals Research
and Extension Project Conference, IITA, Nigeria, 4-9 March 1984.

1984. Cowpea/Sorghum Mixed Cropping. Paper presented
at the National Cereals Research and Extension Project Conference,
Yaounde, February 1984.

1983. Yield Loss Studies in Cowpea in Northern Cameroon.
Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Entomological Society
of America, Detroit, MI, November 1983.




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DOMINICAN REPUBLIC o UNIVERSITY OF NEBRASKA


Biology, Epidemiology, Genetics and Breeding for Resistance to
Bacterial and Rust Pathogens of Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)


I. PROJECT ROSTER


A. US Lead Institution: University
Principal Investigator:

Co-Principal Investigator:

Investigators:



Research Technicians:










Research Associates:



Staff Secretary:

Institutional Representative:


of Nebraska (UNE)
Dr. Dermot P. Coyne, Department of
Horticulture, UNE
Dr. James R. Steadman, Department of
Plant Pathology, UNE
Dr. Anne K. Vidaver, Department of
Plant Pathology, UNE
Dr. D. T. Lindgren, Department of
Horticulture, UNE, North Platte
Ms. Cheryl Campbell, Department of
Horticulture, UNE
Mr. Larry Einemann, Department of
Plant Pathology, UNE
Mr. William Haskins, Department of
Plant Pathology, UNE
Mr. Douglas Hindman, Department of
Plant Pathology, UNE
Ms. Anne K. Weiss, Department of
Horticulture, UNE
Ms. Beth Cordell, Department of
Plant Pathology, UNE
Ms. C. Ishimaru, Department of Plant
Pathology, UNE
Dr. Meher Shaik, Department of Plant
Pathology, UNE
Ms. Terri Short, Department of
Horticulture, UNE
Dr. Roger D. Uhlinger, Head,
Department of Horticulture, UNE


B. Dominican Republic Counterpart Institution: Secretarfa de Estado de
Agriculture (SEA)
Principal Investigator:* Ing. Agron. Freddy Saladin Garcia,
Centro Sur de Desarrollo
Agropecuario (CESDA), SEA
Plant Pathologists: Ing. Alfonsina Sanchez, CESDA, SEA
Lic. Estella PeKa, CESDA, SEA
Ing. Milton Morales, CESDA, SEA
Ing. Agr6n. Bienvenido Montilla,
CESDA, SEA


*Ing. F. Saladin replaced Dr. Cesar Paniagua as PI in July 1984.





-75-


Agronomists:

Technician/Laborers:











Accountant:


C. USAID Project Officer:


Ing. Cristobal Adames, CESDA, SEA
Ing. Marino Tejada, CESDA, SEA
Sr. Orfelino de los Santos, CESDA,
SEA
Sr. Alfredo Perez Vicioso, CESDA,
SEA
Sr. Edgar Amancio, CESDA, SEA
Sr. Julio de Leon Sanchez, CESDA,
SEA
Sr. Juan Emilio Rosado, CESDA, SEA
Sr. Francisco A. Valenzuela, CESDA,
SEA
Sr. Leonel Montero Sanchez, CESDA,
SEA
Sr. Sergio Medina, CESDA, SEA
Lic. Francisco Morel-Pimentel,
CESDA, SEA

Dr. Marion H. Ford, US Embassy,
Santo Domingo


II. PROJECT OBJECTIVES

A. Overall (Five Year) Objectives: Common blight and rust are serious
diseases limiting yield of dry beans in the Dominican Republic (DR)
and in other countries. This project's aims are to develop
methodology, identify pathogen strain variation and resistant
germplasm and determine genetic information and strategy that will
lead to the incorporation of high levels of more stable resistance
to bacterial and rust pathogens. The project is expected to benefit
all bean production areas of the world which have these diseases.
The research is complementary to the Dominican Republic/University
of Puerto Rico Bean/Cowpea CRSP project, the main objective of
which is to develop bean varieties resistant to a wide number of
pathogens. The Nebraska project complements Puerto Rico's with a
more basic genetic and pest management approach.

Resistance to the rust and common blight pathogens has not been
stable so there is a critical need to develop new breeding
approaches. In addition, because of cost, the use of chemical
control is not a realistic disease management strategy for small
farms. The best management approach is to develop disease resistant
varieties.

B. FY 84 Objectives

1. United States

a. Graduate students: Continue the academic programs of Ing.
E. Arnaud-Santana (DR), Ing. W. Ramfrez (DR) and Ms. Luann
Finke (US) for M.S. degrees and Mr. H. Leyna (Tanzania) and
Mr. A. Aggour (Egypt) for Ph.D. degrees.





-76-


b. Post-doctorals: Hire two people to work on small rust
pustule resistance and on bacterial populations,
respectively epiphytess and seed transmission), in beans.

c. Breeding and genetics: Screen for sources of resistance,
study inheritance of reactions and breed for resistance to
the above two pathogens in beans.

2. Dominican Republic

a. Develop clean seed of breeding lines, screen for disease
resistance, isolate strains of pathogens, test field
performance of lines for yield, seed type, disease
resistance and adaptation.

b. Continue the breeding program to develop disease resistant
Pompadour and black bean types.

c. Publish the report of baseline data.

III. CHANGE IN FY 84 OBJECTIVES

No change was necessary. Objectives one and two in the proposal were
deferred because of lack of trained personnel in the DR. These will be
accomplished under the direction of the new project member, Dr. Anne
Vidaver (US) in cooperation with recently trained people in the DR.

IV. CONSTRAINTS TO ACHIEVEMENT OF OBJECTIVES

The long delay required to obtain AID approval for the purchase of
equipment has slowed research progress and interfered with budgets. In
addition, delays in shipping and receiving goods in the DR have, with
AID delays, postponed needed facility improvements for one-two years.

V. PROGRESS TOWARD OBJECTIVES

A. United States

1. Thesis research

a. Ms. Luann Finke (M.S.): Rust and common blight can be
studied simultaneously in the absence of an antagonistic or
synergistic interaction. The inheritance of resistance to
rust (three strains: two DR, one Nebraska [NE]) and common
blight (two strains: one DR, one NE) was studied
simultaneously in greenhouse-grown plants of the F2 and
F3 generations. Pompadour Checa (DR) (resistant to rust,
susceptible to common blight) x GN Tara (NE) (susceptible
to rust, resistant to common blight). It was hypothesized
that two major genes determined the reaction to rust with
the dominant gene for resistance exhibiting epistasis.
Rust susceptibility was expressed only in the presence of
the dominant allele for susceptibility and with homozygous
recessive alleles at the other locus. The continuous





-77-


distribution of the common blight reaction ratings indicated
a quantitative inheritance pattern. No association was
detected between the reactions of rust and common blight.
Resistance to rust and common blight were readily recombined
with Pompadour seed types.

b. Ing. E. Arnaud-Santana (M.S.): The inheritance of
resistance to common blight and its relation to flowering
and maturity dates were investigated in several crosses.
The derived populations were grown in the DR and in
Nebraska, but successful inoculation was not achieved in
the DR. An experiment was conducted to study the effect of
photoperiod and temperature on the reaction of beans to
common blight using growth chambers. The effect of
photoperiod on the reaction was also investigated in the
field. Plants of some genotypes grown under short
photoperiods in the field appeared to be more susceptible
to common blight than when grown under long photoperiods,
which may explain why Nebraska sources of resistance to
common blight are susceptible in the tropics.

c. Ing. W. Ramfrez (M.S.): Single pustule isolates of rust
obtained from locations in the DR and Nebraska were
inoculated on the "new set" of nineteen differential
cultivars. The results indicated that some isolates were
still mixtures and more isolation is necessary. Repeated
screening tests have shown the high resistance of Pompadour
Checa to all strains of rust in the DR and Nebraska. A
trial to determine the value of plant protection to rust was
conducted in Nebraska but was badly injured by herbicide
drift and virus infection.

d. Mr. Henry Leyna (Ph.D.): Mr. Leyna died suddenly from
unknown causes in November 1983. The thesis showed that
both the reaction of pods and leaves to common blight were
determined quantitatively and that the genes involved were
different. The degree of virulence of the isolates affected
the inheritance pattern of the reactions.

e. Mr. A. Aggour (Ph.D.): Crosses were made to study the
inheritance of the hypersensitive reaction versus the
tolerant reaction to common blight. An experiment was also
conducted to compare different inoculation methods on leaves
and pods of beans using different strains of the pathogen.

2. Pathology

a. Common blight: Bacteriophage typing (eleven phages) of
Xanthomonas campestris pv. phaseoli strains (collected on
trips to DR), has shown that forty-eight isolates could be
separated into at least nine types. This means that the
common blight strains in the DR are not homogenous and,
since the distribution of types was random, strains are not
restricted to one location. Further tests by bacteriocin




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typing are expected to provide more insight into the
heterogeneity of the strains. No information is currently
available with respect to comparisons with strains from
other countries; these experiments are in progress. Thus,
plant breeding efforts and tests in the different locations
in the DR are representative for exposure to the different
strains of the common blight pathogen. Isolations from
plants at Arroyo Loro yielded strains that appeared to be
Pseudomonas sp. Laboratory toxin studies and greenhouse
pathogenicity tests revealed that these isolates were not
likely P. syringae, P. s. pv. phaseolicola, nor P. s. pv.
tabaci. These isolates were pathogenic on Dark Red Kidney
and Pompadour Checa pods but produced almost no symptoms in
leaves.

b. Rust: Single pustule cultures of field collections from
diverse geographic locations in the DR were inoculated to
P. vulgaris differential cultivars as delineated at the
Puerto Rico Bean Rust Conference (Bean Improvement
Cooperative Report 26:iv-vi). Eight new races were found
in collections from 1982 and 1983 in addition to three races
previously reported in the US. Pompadour exhibited necrotic
lesions or small pustules (500um) to all of the races.
Early Galatin, Mexico 309, 51051 and Compuesto Negro
Chimaltenango were also moderately or highly resistant when
inoculated with DR rust cultures. A number of CIAT lines
(international bean rust nursery) showed a resistance
reaction in DR field locations. Although common sources of
resistance were found, DR rust cultures differed from the
US cultures.

3. Breeding and genetics

a. Recombinants for resistance to common blight and rust, as
well as Pompadour seed type were found in greenhouse-grown
F2 and F3 populations derived from the cross Pompadour
Checa x GN Tara. The F4 progeny were again challenged by
the two pathogens, and selections were made for resistance
to both pathogens. F5 progeny were grown for increase in
a non-disease field nursery in Nebraska. One pod was saved
from each plant in each family to test for bean common
mosaic virus (BCMV) resistance. Seed of each family was
then bulked and will be forwarded to the DR for field
testing.

b. The inheritance and association of reaction to rust (two NE
strains) and common blight (one NE strain) were studied in
the F2 generations derived from the following crosses:
Pinto Colorado 12689 (susceptible to blight, resistant to
rust) x NE Pinto EP-1 (resistant to blight, susceptible to
rust) and Pinto CO 12699 x GN WM2-81-10 (resistant to rust
and common blight). A good fit to a 15:1 ratio of resistant
to susceptible plants for rust isolate NP95 was obtained in
the first cross while a good fit to a 3:1 ratio of resistant




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to susceptible plants was obtained with isolate NP872e.
This indicated that the NP95 isolate possessed two different
dominant genes for virulence while NP872e had only one
dominant gene for virulence. All F2 plants of the second
cross were resistant, indicating that both parents possessed
the same genes for resistance. No association between the
reaction to both pathogens was observed and Pinto recombi-
nants with resistance to both pathogens were selected and
advanced to F4 for field testing for common blight
resistance. Selections possessing favorable maturity and
agronomic traits along with high common blight resistance
were made for future field trials.

c. Fifteen advanced Nebraska GN and Pinto breeding lines and
twenty-seven varieties/lines were evaluated in the field for
reaction to a mixture of two virulent NE common blight
isolates in a replicated trial at Scottsbluff. A good
separation of resistant and susceptible lines was achieved.
The same lines were grown in a replicated test in a nearby
white mold nursery. NE lines GN-83-11 and GN-83-6 exhibited
good levels of resistance to both pathogens and one is being
considered for release in Nebraska. An early maturing,
upright, small, white breeding line, CSW-5, performed well
based on avoidance to white mold, tolerance to common
blight, resistance to BCMV, resistance to the North Platte
Valley (NE) strains of rust, good yield and seed quality.
This line will be released in 1985. IAPAR BAC 6 (Brazil)
had the highest resistance to common blight but was not
adapted to Nebraska because of late maturity. Forty-eight
GN and Pinto NE breeding lines, along with two check
varieties, were evaluated in a replicated trial for
resistance to white mold and under natural infection of
common blight. A number of lines appear promising for
further testing as candidates for release based on
resistance to white mold, rust, common blight and BCMV.

B. Dominican Republic

1. A new, white-seeded, rust-resistant dry bean variety, Arroyo
Loro No. 1, developed by the University of Puerto Rico/MayagUez
Institute of Tropical Agriculture as 2W-33-2 and tested in
Bean/Cowpea CRSP trials in the DR for two-and-a-half years, was
released.

2. Mean seed yields and yield stability estimates were calculated
for seventeen bean lines/varieties grown in eighteen CRSP trials
in the DR during 1981-82 and for lines/varieties in ten trials
for 1982-83. Regression techniques were used to analyze
genotype x environment interactions. Indeterminate genotypes
produced greater than average seed yields, had an average or
greater than average response to more fertile environments and
showed minimum deviations from regression in comparison with the
determinate mottled seed class. This indicated that the
development of indeterminate mottled beans could contribute to
increased and more stable yield in this seed class.





-80-


3. The types and numbers of replicated trials, containing from
seven to thirty-two entries, that were grown in the DR
(September 1983-June 1984) were as follows: nine adaptation,
six red pinto production, seven black production, two bacterial
blight, two rust, one economic control of rust and one BYAN.
Five lines expressed high resistance to rust, while the standard
variety Venzuela 44 was very susceptible to rust. BAC-93 (CIAT)
and 8241-409 had the highest degree of resistance to common
blight under natural infection in the adaptation nursery
(Santiago). The lines mentioned above will be useful as
resistant germplasm in the breeding program. ICA-Pijao had an
extremely high number of root nodules at San Juan de la Maguana,
indicating high potential for N2 fixation. Two black-seeded
breeding lines, BAT-240 (CIAT) and MITA 2B-5-1 (University of
Puerto Rico [UPR]), performed well based on high yield and rust
resistance and look promising for release. Moderate resistance
to bean golden mosaic virus was detected in CIAT bean lines
DOR-303, BAT-1412 and BAT-1404. Canario 101 exhibited tolerance
to BGMV. None of the red-seeded breeding lines had as good a
seed color, pattern, shape and size as Pompadour Checa. A
number of them, however, combined multiple disease resistance
along with good agronomic traits.

4. Breeding program (DR): A number of good determinate and
indeterminate selections showing resistance to rust and common
blight along with good Pompadour seed type were made in field-
and greenhouse-grown F3, F4 and F5 progeny derived from
the crosses Pompadour Checa with AL-16 (CIAT) and BAC-6
(Brazil). New crosses were made in the screenhouse between
Pompadour Checa x NE Pinto EP-1 (resistant to common blight)
and Venzuela 44 x L-226-10 (resistant to common blight).

VI. RESEARCH OUTPUTS DURING FY 84

A. Available for Immediate Use

1. Seed of the new, white-seeded, rust-resistant, dry bean variety
Arroyo Loro No. 1 is now available.

2. New germplasm resistance to rust and common blight and
information on the inheritance of resistance to the pathogens
are being used in the breeding programs in the DR and US.

B. Available for Use Within One to Two Years

1. Prospects are good for the release of two new rust-resistant
black-seeded lines and for a possible release of a Pompadour
type combining resistance to rust and common blight.

2. Basic information on the heterogeneity of the rust and common
blight pathogens, on epiphytic bacterial population character-
istics and bacterial seed transmission among genotypes and on
the genetic control of the reactions to both pathogens will
facilitate the breeding program.





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VII. TRAINING OUTPUTS

A. Degree Training


Surname Sex


US Citizens:
Finke
Fujimoto

DR Citizens:
Santana
Ramirez
Jimenez

Others:
Aggour


University Department


Date
Degree
Degree Received


Horticulture M.S.
Plant Path. M.S.


Horticulture
Horticulture
Horticulture


M UNE


B. Non-Degree Training

Surname Sex Affiliation


M.S.
M.S.
M.S.


Horticulture Ph.D.


Training Location Duration


US Citizens:
None

DR Citizens:
Saladin
Arnaud-
Santana
Oviedo

Rodriguez
Ramfrez
Morales

Pe na


F SEA


MSTAT Wkshp.

MSTAT Wkshp.
Bean Breed-
ing Wkshp.
Same
Same
Bean Disease
Resistance
Same


MSU

MSU

CIAT
CIAT
CIAT

CIAT
CIAT


One week

One week

Two months
One month
Two months

Two months
Two months


Others:
None


Mr. J. Jimenez is currently enrolled in an intensive English course
at UNE, Omaha and will begin his M.S. program in plant breeding at
UNE, Lincoln in mid-1985. In addition to the non-degree training
listed above, a workshop on bean breeding, anatomy, growth and
development, disease and insect problems was conducted in San
Crist6bal, DR for DR technicians. CIAT personnel and Dr. J. R.
Steadman participated in the workshop, which was organized by Dr.
C. Paniagua.

VIII. BASELINE DATA

A baseline data survey was conducted and published in 1983. In general,
the most important production problems were due to biotic (deficiency
or excess water) and abiotic stresses (insects, diseases). The survey


CRSP
Support


Partial
Partial


Total
Total
Total


None




-82-


indicated that 54 percent of farms were one to two tareas in size and
only 4 percent of farms were 101 to 300 tareas.

IX. WOMEN IN DEVELOPMENT

A. United States: Dr. Anne Vidaver, Head, Department of Plant
Pathology and President-Elect of the American Phytopathological
Society, is a co-investigator. Ms. Luann Finke is completing her
M.S. degree and worked on a thesis project of direct benefit to the
DR. Ms. Debbie Fujimoto, M.S. student in plant pathology, began a
project on variation in the common bacterial blight pathogen (.50
FTE). Dr. Carol Ishimaru (post-doctoral) will work with Dr. A.
Vidaver on bacterial blight.

B. Dominican Republic: Ing. Alfonsina Sinchez and Lic. Estela Pena
(both plant pathologists funded by CRSP-NE) and Mercedes Rodriguez
(agronomist) are professionals working at the Arroyo Loro experiment
station. Lic. Estela Pena participated in a two-month training
program at CIAT, while Ing. Alfonsina Sanchez presented a paper at
the Programa Cooperativo Centroambricano para el Mejoramiento de
Cultivos Alimenticios (PCCMCA) meeting in Nicaragua and wrote the
report summarizing the baseline data survey. Ms. Graciela Godoy
(M.S., Auburn), DR/UPR Bean/Cowpea CRSP project, is a crop
protection specialist at CESDA, San Crist6bal.

X. INSTITUTIONAL RESOURCES CONTRIBUTED TO THE PROJECT

A. United States

1. Personnel

Dr. D. P. Coyne, plant breeder, 25 percent, $13,310
Dr. J. R. Steadman, fungal pathologist, 25 percent, $9,295
Dr. A. K. Vidaver, investigator, 15 percent, $6,889
Ms. C. Campbell, research technician, 30 percent, $5,244
Mr. L. Einemann, research technician, 20 percent, $2,614
Mr. W. Haskins, research technician, 12 percent, $2,344
Dr. D. T. Lindgren, associate professor, 10 percent, $3,419

2. Student training: Ms. Deborah Fujimoto, $3,872

3. Facilities: Research laboratories, 250 square feet; offices,
100 square feet; greenhouses, 5,148 square feet; experiment
fields, North Platte, 1 acre; Scottsbluff, 3 acres; UNE,
Lincoln, 1/4 acre.

B. Dominican Republic

1. Personnel

Ing. Milton Morales, breeder, 74 percent, $6,840
Ing. Bienvenido Montillo, agronomist-seed production, 76 percent,
$800
Ing. Maritza Rosario, agronomist, 78 percent, $8,400
Ing. Miguel Herrera, agronomist, 100 percent, $4,800
Pablo Maleno Reyes, technical assistant, 73 percent, $2,400




-83-


2. Facilities: Research labs 500 square feet; screenhouses 500
square feet; offices 100 square feet; field plot 8 acres.

XI. PROFESSIONAL AND ORGANIZATIONAL LINKAGES

A. New Linkages: None.

B. On-Going Linkages

1. United States: Dr. J. R. Stavely, USDA, Beltsville, Maryland;
Dr. Howard Schwartz, Department of Plant Pathology, Colorado
State University; and Dr. M. Pastor-Corrales, CIAT, are
cooperating informally on sources of rust resistance, strains
of rust and disease overwintering. (The latter also on common
blight). Dr. F. A. Bliss, Department of Plant Pathology,
University of Wisconsin, provides information on screening lines
for improved N2 fixation.

2. Dominican Republic: The CRSP program continues to be
incorporated in the National Bean Program (institutionalization
of project). Drs. S. Temple and G. Galvez, CIAT, actively
cooperate in providing lines with multiple disease resistance
for testing in planning and in evaluation.

XII. FY 85 PROPOSED PLAN OF WORK

A. Research Objectives and Strategy

1. United States

a. Pathology

(1) Continue typing of common blight strains with
bacteriophages and begin typing strains with
bacteriocins.

(2) Initiate bacterial epiphytic and survival experiments
(DR and NE).

(3) Continue to evaluate rust pathogen variability, sources
of resistance to rust and monitor survival of rust in
Nebraska/Colorado.

(4) Investigate small pustule and/or slow rusting reaction
with regard to infection mechanisms and stability of
resistance.

b. Genetics and breeding

(1) Continue genetic studies on inheritance and the
relationship of the hypersensitive and tolerant
reactions of beans to the common blight pathogen.

(2) Initiate a study to determine if different inoculation
methods result in different inheritance patterns to
the common blight pathogen.





-84-


(3) Continue studies on the inheritance of rust resistance
in the Pompadour Checa bean type and the relationship
of the Pompadour genes with genes from other sources
of resistance.

2. Dominican Republic

a. Release one or two rust-resistant, black-seeded lines.

b. Evaluate the agronomic performance of rust and common
blight-resistant Pompadour lines.

c. Plant at different locations and seasons the following bean
nurseries (CIAT) to detect useful lines for the DR breeding
program and/or useful lines for possible release as
varieties; common blight, bean golden mosaic, international
bean yield and adaptation, international bean rust, web
blight.

d. Expand the crossing phase of the bean program when Ing. E.
Arnaud-Santana and Ing. W. Ramirez return to the DR in
early 1985.

e. Repeat surveys to study the variation of the rust and
bacterial pathogens in the DR.

f. Make a seed collection trip into remote areas to collect
Pompadour-type germplasm for use in breeding.

B. Training Objectives and Strategy

1. United States: Complete M.S. programs of Ms. Luann Finke (US),
Ing. E. Arnaud-Santana (DR), Ing. W. Ramirez (DR) and Ms. D.
Fujimoto. Continue with Ph.D. program of Mr. A. Aggour.
Complete intensive English course (six to nine months) of Mr.
Juan Jimenez (DR) at UNE, Omaha and then enroll him in graduate
school at UNE, Lincoln to pursue an M.S. program. Ms. Mildred
Zapata, UPR, will enroll in graduate school at UNE, Lincoln in
June 1985 and conduct research in plant pathology. Drs. D. P.
Coyne, J. R. Steadman and A. K. Vidaver will continue to take
the intermediate course in conversational Spanish.

2. Dominican Republic: Ings. E. Arnaud-Santana and W. Ramirez will
return from UNE, Lincoln to San Juan de la Maguana, DR, in early
1985. Further CIAT training of DR technicians and professionals
will take place in 1985.

XIII. LIST OF ARTICLES AND PRESENTATIONS ON PROJECT RESEARCH DURING FY 84

Adams, M. W., D. P. Coyne, J. H. C. Davis, C. A. Francis and P. H.
Graham. In press. The Common Bean. In R. L. Summerfield (ed.)
Grain Legume Crops. London, UK: Longman.





-85-


Beaver, J. S., C. V. Paniagua, D. P. Coyne and G. F. Freytag. 1984.
Yield Stability of Dry Bean Genotypes in the Dominican Republic.
Submitted to Crop Science. (Available from D. Coyne, Department of
Horticulture, University of Nebraska.)

Beaver, J. S., C. V. Paniagua, J. R. Steadman and R. Echavez-Badel.
1984. Reaction of Dry Bean Genotypes to Natural Infection of Foliar
Diseases in the Dominican Republic. Submitted to Journal of
Agriculture, University of Puerto Rico. (Available from D. Coyne,
Department of Horticulture, University of Nebraska.)

Business Farmer (Scottsbluff, NE). 1984. Foreign Bean Research Plays
Part in Local Industry. May 1984, p. 4.

Finke, Luann M., D. P. Coyne, J. R. Steadman and A. K. Vidaver. 1984.
The Inheritance and Association of Resistance to Bean Rust (Uromyces
phaseoli) and Common Blight (Xanthomonas campestris pv. phaseoli)
in Dry Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Paper presented at the 81st
Annual Meeting, American Society of Horticultural Scientists helTd
in conjunction with the Canadien Society of Horticultural Science,
Vancouver, Canada, August 3-9, T994 (Abstract ft*ortScience, 1984,
p. 545).

High Plains Journal (NE). 1984. Dry Bean Research Provides Many
International Benefits. May 1984, p. 6B.

Journal-Star Agribusiness (Lincoln, NE). 1984. Research Project Could
Produce Rust-Resistant Bean Varieties. March 15, 1984, p. 9A.

Leyna, H. K., D. P. Coyne and M. L. Schuster. 1983. The Effect of
Inoculation Methods and Inoculum Concentrations on Reactions and
Genetics of Resistance to Isolates of Xanthomonas campestris pv.
phaseoli (Phaseolus vulgaris). Proceedings of the 1983 Biennial
Meeting of the Bean Improvement Cooperative and National Dry Bean
Council, Minneapolis, MN, November 7-10, 1983 (Abstract p. 14).

Paniagua, Cesar. 1984. Summary of Results of the CRSP Project in the
Dominican Republic, 1981-1983 (translation). Paper presented at the
30th Annual Meeting of the Programa Cooperativo Centroamdricano para
el Mejoramiento de Cultivos Alimenticios, Managua, Nicaragua, April
30-May 4, 1984.

Schuster, M. L., D. P. Coyne, T. Behre and H. Leyna. 1983. Sources
of Phaseolus Species Resistance and Leaf and Pod Differential
Reactions to Common Blight. HortScience 18:901-903.

Steadman, J. R., D. W. Hindman and D. P. Coyne. 1984. Reaction of Rust
Pathogen Isolates from the US and Dominican Republic on New Bean
Differential Lines. Annual Report of the Bean Improvement
Cooperative 27:225 (insert).




-86-


DOMINICAN REPUBLIC UNIVERSITY OF PUERTO RICO


Improvement of Bean Production in the Dominican Republic
Through Breeding for Multiple Disease Resistance


I. PROJECT ROSTER

A. US Lead Institution: University of Puerto Rico (UPR), MayagUez
Principal Investigator:* Dr. James S. Beaver, Department of
Agronomy, UPR
Co-Principal Investigator: Dr. George F. Freytag, Tropical
Agriculture Research Station
(TARS), US Department of
Agriculture-Agricultural Research
Station (USDA-ARS), MayagUez, PR
Investigators: Ms. Mildred Zapata-Serrano,
Department of Crop Protection, UPR
Mr. Rodrigo Echavez-Badel,
Department of Crop Protection, UPR
Research Assistant: Mr. Luis E. Rivera, Department of
Agronomy, UPR
Technicians: Mr. Hiram Ve'lez-Martinez,
Department of Crop Protection, UPR
Mr. Samuel Carcamo, Department of
Crop Protection, UPR
Controller: Mr. Jaime Hernandez-Vega, Finance
Officer, UPR
Secretaries: Ms. Hilda J. Carrero, Department of
Crop Protection, UPR
Ms. Marla Pagan, Department of Crop
Protection, UPR
Institutional Representative: Ing. Miguel Gonzalez-Roman,
Sub-Director, Agricultural
Experiment Station, UPR

B. Dominican Republic Counterpart Institution: Secretarfa de Estado
de Agriculture (SEA)
Principal Investigator:** Ing. Agr6n. Freddy Saladin Garcia,
Centro Sur de Desarrollo
Agropecuario (CESDA), SEA
Plant Pathologists: Ing. Miguel Martinez-Cruz, CESDA,
SEA
Ing. Graciela Godoy, CESDA, SEA
Technicians: Ing. Agron. Julio C. Nin, CESDA, SEA
Agr6n. Mercedes Rodriguez, CESDA,
SEA
Agr6n. Fernando Oviedo, CESDA, SEA
Controller: Lic. Francisco Morel Pimentel,
CESDA, SEA



*Dr. James Beaver replaced Dr. Julio Lopez-Rosa as PI in May 1984.
**Ing. Freddy Saladin replaced Dr. Cesar Paniagua as PI in July 1984.




-87-


C. USAID Project Officer: Dr. Marion Ford, US Embassy, Santo
Domingo

II. PROJECT OBJECTIVES

A. Produce multiple disease resistant bean germplasm in order to reduce
losses due to diseases and increase yield stability of beans in the
Dominican Republic (DR).

B. Preserve or improve the agronomic characteristics, yield and quality
of bean varieties having the preferred seed type for the DR in order
to assure the efficient production of a crop that will meet the
acceptance and fulfill the nutritional requirements of the
population.

III. CHANGE IN FY 1984 OBJECTIVES: No changes in objectives were made.

IV. CONSTRAINTS TO ACHIEVEMENT OF OBJECTIVES

A. Puerto Rico

1. The lack of adequate transportation has limited travel to
research substations at Isabela, Limani and Fortuna.

2. A rust race virulent to the B-190 source of genetic resistance
appeared at the Isabela substation. Genotypes which have
previously shown resistance to rust in Puerto Rico are now
susceptible. New, more stable sources of genetic resistance to
rust will need to be identified and incorporated into the
breeding program.

B. Dominican Republic

1. Inflation and an unfavorable exchange rate for the dollar have
resulted in a considerable loss in purchasing power for the
project. Much more research could be realized if the project
could obtain the more favorable rate of 2.7 Dominican pesos per
US dollar.

2. The local plant breeding efforts will be limited until graduate
students currently studying at the Universities of Puerto Rico
and Nebraska return to the project in the DR.

3. An unreliable source of poor quality water is available for
irrigating the Arroyo Loro Experiment Station. A ditch needs
to be constructed to divert water from a nearby irrigation
canal.

V. PROGRESS TOWARD PROJECT OBJECTIVES

A. Puerto Rico

1. Germplasm from the US and CIAT was evaluated for adaptation and
disease resistance. Trials from CIAT included an international
bean rust nursery, a bacterial blight nursery, an international





-88-


flowering and adaptation nursery, an adaptation nursery con-
taining two hundred fifty promising lines for the Caribbean
islands and four preliminary yield trials. Germplasm from the
US was evaluated in a national rust nursery and two root rot
nurseries.

2. Crossing blocks were planted at the Isabela substation in
October and February. A series of crosses and backcrosses were
made between genotypes having the Zamorano seed class and
different sources of disease resistance.

3. A nursery containing F3 lines derived from crosses between
sources of rust and bacterial blight resistance was evaluated
at the Isabela substation for adaptation and rust resistance.
The most promising lines were selected and grown in an F4
nursery in order to evaluate the material for adaptation and
bacterial blight resistance.

4. Advanced line yield trials were conducted at the Isabela and
Fortuna substations. Genotypes 8241-372 yielded well and had
low levels of infection to rust and bacterial blight. These
lines have been sent to Honduras for further testing.

5. Single pustule isolates of a rust race virulent to the B-190
source of genetic resistance were obtained at the Isabela sub-
station. These isolates were sent to USDA-ARS plant
pathologist, Dr. J. R. Stavley, in order to study their
virulence when tested on a differential set of bean genotypes.

6. Field observations were made at the Fortuna and Isabela sub-
stations on plots located near sources of inoculum of rust in
order to study the nature of survival of rust during the hot and
humid summer months. Urediospores were germinated to estimate
survival of the pathogen.

7. Selected clones of Phaseolus coccineus with multiple virus
resistance, bean golden mosaic virus (BGMV), bean common mosaic
virus (BCMV), cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) and common blight
resistance were crossed and tested under greenhouse conditions
for virus symptom expression. Resistant and susceptible lines
were determined by systemic and latent infection for BCMV. The
resistance to BGMV appeared to be lost since no resistant
hybrids were observed in the greenhouse. Under field condi-
tions, however, viruses and common blight caused only low
levels of damage.

8. Phaseolus coccineus germplasm identified as a good source of
multiple virus resistance was used for breeding purposes in
order to attempt to transfer the resistance to P. vulgaris
lines. P. vulgaris was used as the female and P. coccineus was
used as the male parent. Twenty interspecific hybrids were
propagated by stem cuttings. Response to inoculation with a
necrotic BCMV isolate was studied in the F1 generation.
Approximately 50 percent of the F1 plants showed necrotic
symptoms and the other plants were resistant. Morphological
abnormalities on some interspecific hybrids were observed. In