• TABLE OF CONTENTS
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 Title Page
 Preface
 Table of Contents
 Summary
 Introduction
 Description of location and soils...
 General agricultural characteristics...
 Resource use on farms surveyed
 Tables 1-9






Group Title: Technical bulletin / Colorado Agricultural Experiment Station 78
Title: Agricultural characteristics and fertilizer practices in the Cache La Poudre-South Platte irrigation area of northeastern Colorado
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00055282/00001
 Material Information
Title: Agricultural characteristics and fertilizer practices in the Cache La Poudre-South Platte irrigation area of northeastern Colorado
Series Title: Technical bulletin Colorado Agricultural Experiment Station
Physical Description: 24 p. : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Davan, Clarence Floyd
Anderson, Raymond Lloyd, 1927-
Hartman, Loyal M.
Publisher: Colorado Agricultural Experiment Station, Colorado State University
Place of Publication: Fort Collins
Publication Date: [1964]
 Subjects
Subject: Irrigation -- Colorado   ( lcsh )
Fertilizers -- Colorado   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Statement of Responsibility: C.F. Davan, Jr., R.L. Anderson, and L.M. Hartman.
General Note: Cover title.
Funding: Technical bulletin (Colorado Agricultural Experiment Station)
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00055282
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 23751133

Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Title Page
    Preface
        Page 1
    Table of Contents
        Page 2
    Summary
        Page 3
    Introduction
        Page 4
    Description of location and soils in the area
        Page 5
    General agricultural characteristics of the areas, 1949-59
        Page 6
        Population and number and size of farms
            Page 6
        Distribution of farms by size and type
            Page 7
        Land use in area
            Page 8
        Fertilizer use in area
            Page 8
        Crop yields
            Page 9
            Page 10
    Resource use on farms surveyed
        Page 11
        Farm size and land use
            Page 11
        Water use on crops
            Page 12
        Fertilizer use on crops
            Page 13
        Fertilizer analyses, rates applied, and costs
            Page 14
            Page 15
            Page 16
    Tables 1-9
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
Full Text



Agricultural Characteristics

and Fertilizer Practices

in the
Cache La Poudre-South Platte
Irrigation Area of
Northeastern Colorado


Technical Bulletin 78


miles


Colorado Agricultural Experiment Station
Colorado State University
cooperating with the Farm Production Economics Division
and the Resource Development Economics Division
Economic Research Service, USDA









PREFACE


This bulletin is being published
primarily to report descriptive
data which were collected from
a survey of farms in the North-
ern Colorado Conservancy Dis-
trict Area. The original purpose
of the survey was to estimate the
on-farm adjustments which have
taken place in response to sup-
plemental water from the Colo-
rado-Big Thompson project. Sur-
vey data were collected on cur-
rent and past water and fertiliz-
er application rates and it was
thought to be worthwhile to pre-
sent these data in a separate re-
port, since they are of some in-
terest in themselves to agricul-
turists who are concerned with
cultural practices on irrigated
farms.
The population of the sample
of farms surveyed is restricted
to all farms having an allotment
of Colorado-Big Thompson water.
Therefore, the data reported in
the bulletin are not representa-


tive of the 4-county area com-
prising the Northern Colorado
Conservancy District Area. How-
ever, holders of Colorado-Big
Thompson water represent ap-
proximately 70 percent of the
irrigated farms so the data are
applicable to a large number of
farms.
The survey was conducted
under a cooperative project be-
tween the Department of Eco-
nomics, Colorado State Univer-
sity and the Economic Research
Service, USDA. Dr. George Pa-
v e I i s, Resource Development
Economic Division, Economic Re-
search Service, was very helpful
in designing the survey question-
naire. Acknowledgment is due
Frank Goode, research assistant,
who conducted the field inter-
views during the summer of
1962, and to Charles W. Nau-
heim, Economic Research Serv-
ice, who made many helpful sug-
gestions on the report.










CONTENTS


Summary ................................. ........ ....... ........ ............................................ 3

Introduction ......................................................................... ....................................... 4

Description of Location and Soils in the Area .................................................. 5

General Agricultural Characteristics of the Area 1949-59 .-............-----........... 6

Population and Number and Size of Farms ........................------............ 6

Distribution of Farms by Size and Type ............................................ 7

Land Use in Area .................................................................................... 8

Fertilizer Use' in Area ............................................................ .............. 8

Crop Yields ................................................................................................ 9

Resource Use on Farms Surveyed .................................................... .................... 11

Farm Size and Land Use ........................................................................ 11

W after Use on Crops ...................... ........ ........................................... 12

Fertilizer Use on Crops ... ...... .............................................................. 13

Fertilizer Analyses, Rates Applied, and Costs .................................. 14

Appendix ....................................... .............. .................................................-- -....... 17












Agricultural Characteristics and Fertilizer Practices

In the Cache La Poudre-South Platte Irrigation

Area of Northeastern Colorado

C. F. Davan, Jr., R. L. Anderson, and L. M. Hartman1

SUMMARY


This report considers current
and past characteristics of ir-
rigated farming in the Cache la
Poudre-South Platte irrigation
area. Considered are: (1) land
use and farm size, (2) irrigation
water use by crops, (3) fertiliz-
er use including the constituent
analysis, rate applied, and costs,
and (4) crop yields. The report
draws upon data from the U. S.
Census of Agriculture and from
a survey of 150 irrigated farms
in the area conducted during the
summer of 1962.
Irrigated crop acres per farm
increased 18 percent from 1951-
53 to 1959-61 mainly because
the number of irrigated farms
decreased and the size of the
remaining farms increased. There
was a shift from low water-using
crops such as small grains to
high water-using crops such as
corn and sugar beets. The num-
ber of irrigated farms decreased
by 1,179 farms from 1949 to


1959 in the area, while the av-
erage size of irrigated farm in-
creased from 296 to 419 acres.
Farm population decreased about
one-third in the area during the
same period. Yields of all prin-
cipal irrigated crops, except dry
beans, in the area show higher
yields in 1956-60 than in 1950-
54.
Data from the farms surveyed
indicate that water application
rates per irrigated acre in the
Cache la Poudre-South Platte ir-
rigation area more than doubled
from 1951-53 to 1959-61. This is
due to a series of above-average
water years and the addition of
Colorado-Big Thompson River
water. All major irrigated crops
received more water per acre in
the 1959-61 period as compared
with the 1951-53 period. An av-
erage of 2.0 acre-feet was applied
to irrigated crops in 1959-61 as
compared with 0.9 acre-foot per
acre in 1951-53.


I C. F. Davan, Jr., and R. L. Anderson, agricultural economists,- Farm Production
Economics Division and Resource Development Economics Division, respectively,
Economic Research Service, USDA, and L. M. Hartman, associate professor and
economist, department of economics and sociology, Colorado State University,
Fort Collins, Colo.









Eighty-nine percent of the ir-
rigation farmers surveyed in the
Cache la Poudre-South Platte ir-
rigation area fertilized t h e i r
crops during. 1959-61. This com-
pares with 41 percent for 1951-
53.
Fertilizer use is closely related
with the per-acre value of the
crop. High cash-return crops are
fertilized more heavily while low
cash-return crops are fertilized
less heavily; for example sugar
beets received most of the ferti-
lizer for both periods and pasture
received the least. More than


three-fourths of the fertilizer ap-
plied to irrigated crops in the
area during both periods was ap-
plied to sugar beets and corn.
Fertilizers with high propor-
tions of phosphate were used
during 1951-53. Fifty-eight per-
cent of the irrigated farms used
fertilizers containing 43 to 53
percent available P205. During
the 1959-61 period, irrigation
farmers used fertilizer mixtures
containing higher percentages of
nitrogen. The number of farmers
using fertilizer containing only
phosphate decreased 55 percent.


INTRODUCTION


Agriculture is a fast-changing
industry. Shifts are continually
occurring 'in numbers and sizes
of farms and in the production
practices on farms. This report
attempts to point out some of
'these changes during the 1950's
in one of the largest irrigated
areas of Colorado.
The irrigated area in Boulder,
Larimer, and Weld Counties in
northeastern Colorado is an im-
portant agricultural area of Col-
orado. It contains about 8 per-
cent of Colorado's land in farms,
about 20 percent of its irrigated
land, and 25 percent of its ir-
rigated crop 1 and harvested.
Nearly one-fourth of the Colo-
.rado irrigated farms are in this
area.


In terms of acres of irrigated
crops, 56 percent of the sugar
beets and dry beans, 42 percent
of the barley, 24 percent of the
alfalfa, and 25 percent of the
potatoes grown in the State are
produced in this area. In addition,
the area has a large number of
cattle-feeding operations. Over
one-third of the value of live-
stock including fed animals sold
in the State came from this area.
This report shows past and
current agricultural character-
istics of this three-county area
in terms of soils; the number,
size, and kinds of farms; the
land, water, and fertilizer use;
and the crop yields. These data
can serve as a benchmark for
comparing future use of agricul-









tural resources, especially water
and fertilizer in northeastern
Colorado.
The information presented
should be useful to agronomists,
irrigation officials, fertilizer deal-
ers, county agents, and others
concerned with technical prob-
lems of resource use in northern
Colorado.
The major characteristics are
taken from census data and other
sources. Current use of resources,


including water application rates,
crops grown, and fertilizer use
are taken from a survey of 150
irrigation farmers in the North,
ern Colorado Water Conservancy
District.2 Over 70 percent of the
farms in the Conservancy Dis-
trict hold allotments of Colorado-
Big Thompson water. Names of
farmers to be interviewed were
obtained from a stratified ran-
dom sample of these allotment
holders.


DESCRIPTION OF LOCATION AND SOILS IN THE AREA


The irrigated uplands and val-
leys of northeastern Colorado
are interspersed hardlands and
moderately sandy soils. The ma-
jor portion of the area comprises
parts of Boulder, Larimer, and
Weld Counties and contains ap-
proximately 563,000 irrigated
acres. The location of this area
is shown on the cover and is
designated in this study as the
Cache la Poudre-South Platte ir-
rigation area.
Elevation of the area ranges
from 4,500 to 5,280 feet above
sea level. Precipitation ranges
from 13 to 15 inches annually.
The physiography of the area
is nearly level to gently undulat-
ing with 1 to 3 percent slopes.
The undulating to gently rolling
uplands are dissected by the


Cache la Poudre and South Platte
River systems with adjacent flat
bottoms and terraces.
The soils are brown, deep to
moderately deep, and range from
sandy to moderately heavy in
texture. The deep soils are de-
veloped principally from loess or
mixed loess and outwash mate-
rials. The moderately deep soils
are mostly residual and developed
from sandstone, s h ale s, and
sandy shales. Small areas of
poorly drained and saline soils
are interspersed throughout on
both the uplands and bottom-
lands.
Wind and water erosion are
moderately active on the culti-
vated lands. Gully erosion in un-
protected irrigation ditches is a
major problem on the uplands.3


2 The survey was conducted during the summer of 1962.
3 Payne, E. M. and Romine, D. S. Land Resource Areas of Colorado. Colo. Agr.
Exp. Sta. GS Bul. 727, 55 pp., 1960.











Farming under irrigation is
the principal land use on the val-
ley terraces, bottomlands, and
for much of the uplands. Land
use on the uplands is an inter-
spersed pattern of irrigation and


dryland farming. The principal
crops produced under irrigation
in the area are alfalfa, corn, sug-
ar beets, dry beans, and small
grains.


GENERAL AGRICULTURAL CHARACTERISTICS
OF THE AREA, 1949-59


Population, Number, and
Size of Farms
During the last decade, total
population of the Cache la
Poudre-South Platte irrigation
area increased 25 percent or by
41,000 persons, while farm pop-
ulation decreased over 32 percent
or by 11,000 persons (table 1).
Farm population comprised 21.4
percent of the total population
foi the area in 1949. This fell to
11.5 percent in 1959.
The number of all farms in


the area decreased by 1,575 from
1949 to 1959 when the average
size increased to 500 acres, an
increase of 125 acres. There were
1,179 fewer irrigated farms in
1959 as compared to 1949, a de-
crease of 20 percent. The average
size of irrigated farms increased
from 296 acres in 1949 to 419
acres in 1959, an average in-
crease of 123 acres. The 419
acres is comprised of 122 acres
of irrigated land and 297 acres
of dryland.


Table 1.-Population, number, and size of farms in the Cache la Poudre-South
Platte irrigation area, Colorado, 1949 and 1959 1
Total for area 2
Item Unit
1949 1959

Population
Total No. 159,000 200,000
Farm No. 34,000 23,000
Farm as percent of total Pet. 21.4 11.5
All farms No. 7,479 5,904
Size of all farms (average) Acres 375 500'
Irrigated farms No. 5,800 4,621
Size of irrigated farms (average) Acres 296 419
Irrigated acres/irrigated farm Acres 95 122

1 Source: U. S. Census reports.
"The Cache la Poudre-South Platte area is comprised of Boulder,
Larimer, and Weld Counties. Refer to appendix table 1 for comparison on an in-
tercounty basis for 1949 and 1959.











Farming under irrigation is
the principal land use on the val-
ley terraces, bottomlands, and
for much of the uplands. Land
use on the uplands is an inter-
spersed pattern of irrigation and


dryland farming. The principal
crops produced under irrigation
in the area are alfalfa, corn, sug-
ar beets, dry beans, and small
grains.


GENERAL AGRICULTURAL CHARACTERISTICS
OF THE AREA, 1949-59


Population, Number, and
Size of Farms
During the last decade, total
population of the Cache la
Poudre-South Platte irrigation
area increased 25 percent or by
41,000 persons, while farm pop-
ulation decreased over 32 percent
or by 11,000 persons (table 1).
Farm population comprised 21.4
percent of the total population
foi the area in 1949. This fell to
11.5 percent in 1959.
The number of all farms in


the area decreased by 1,575 from
1949 to 1959 when the average
size increased to 500 acres, an
increase of 125 acres. There were
1,179 fewer irrigated farms in
1959 as compared to 1949, a de-
crease of 20 percent. The average
size of irrigated farms increased
from 296 acres in 1949 to 419
acres in 1959, an average in-
crease of 123 acres. The 419
acres is comprised of 122 acres
of irrigated land and 297 acres
of dryland.


Table 1.-Population, number, and size of farms in the Cache la Poudre-South
Platte irrigation area, Colorado, 1949 and 1959 1
Total for area 2
Item Unit
1949 1959

Population
Total No. 159,000 200,000
Farm No. 34,000 23,000
Farm as percent of total Pet. 21.4 11.5
All farms No. 7,479 5,904
Size of all farms (average) Acres 375 500'
Irrigated farms No. 5,800 4,621
Size of irrigated farms (average) Acres 296 419
Irrigated acres/irrigated farm Acres 95 122

1 Source: U. S. Census reports.
"The Cache la Poudre-South Platte area is comprised of Boulder,
Larimer, and Weld Counties. Refer to appendix table 1 for comparison on an in-
tercounty basis for 1949 and 1959.









Distribution of Farms by
Size and Type

In the Cache la Poudre-South
Platte irrigation area the number
of irrigated farms containing
fewer than 100 acres decreased,
and the number with 100 acres
or more increased from 1954 to
1959 (figure 1). In 1959 there
were 1,000 fewer irrigated farms
with less than 100 acres of land
than in 1954 and about 700 more
of the larger farms. More than
one-third of the 100- to 199-acre
irrigated farms in the State are
in the Cache la Poudre-South


Platte irrigation area. Seventy
percent of these farms are in
Weld County.
Most of the farms in the Cache
la Poudre-South Platte irrigation
area are classified by the census
as commercial farms. In 1959
there were 1,223 fewer commer-
cial farms in the area than in
1949 (table 2). The change in
number by type of farm was as
follows: General f a r m s, 784
fewer; field crop farms, 376
fewer; poultry farms, 181 fewer;
fruit and nut farms, 64 fewer;
livestock farms, 115 more; and
dairy farms, 67 more. Two-thirds


Figure 1.-Distribution of irrigated farms by size of farm in the Cache la
Poudre-South Platte irrigation area, Colorado, 1954 and 1959.1

Size
of Percentage of farms2-
farm
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40
Acres
1-49

50-99 -- I

100-199

200-499

500-999 L =3 1954
l 1959
1,000+ -


1 Source: UL. S. Census reports. Area is comprised of Boulder, Larimer, and Weld
Counties. Refer to appendix table 2 for trends on an intercounty basis. Comparative
data for 1949 is not available.
2Total number of irrigated farms for the area: 1949 5,800; 1954 4,742; and
1959 4,449.










Table 2.-Distribution of farms by type of farm in the Cache la Poudre-South
Platte irrigation area, Colorado, 1949 and 1959 1
Total for area 3
Type of farm 2
1949 1959
Number Percent Number Percent
Livestock 1,736 28 1,851 37
Field crop 1,898 31 1,522 30
Dairy 776 13 843 17
General 1,434 23 650 13
Poultry 288 4 107 2
Fruit and nut 74 1 10 1
Total 6,206 100 4,983 100

1 Source: U. S. Census reports.
2 Miscellaneous, other, and unclassified farms omitted.
2 Area is comprised of Boulder, Larimer, and Weld Counties. Refer to
appendix table 3 for comparison of trends on each county in 1949 and 1959.


of the farms were classified as
livestock and field crop farms by
the census in 1959. General
farms made the largest drop in
numbers. In 1959, the area con-
tained 39 percent of the total
dairy farms in the State.
Land Use in Area
One-fourth of the irrigated
cropland harvested in the State
was in the Cache la Poudre-South
Platte irrigation area in 1959.
Now, the area generally harvests
more irrigated cropland acreage
in relation to the total irrigation
acreage than the other irrigated
areas of the State.
The acreage of land irrigated
in the Cache la Poudre-South
Platte irrigation area has
changed little since the introduc-
tion of Colorado River water in
the mid-fifties (table 3).
There has been a trend to-
ward more acreage of high wa-
ter-using crops in the area. The
acreage of irrigated corn in-
creased greatly: 56,000 acres in


1949 to 120,000 acres in 1959.
Sugar beets made a significant
increase from 63,000 to 80,000
acres. In 1959, alfalfa, corn, and
sugar beets accounted for about
two-thirds of the irrigated crop-
land use in the area. Irrigated
barley decreased from 106,000
acres in 1949 to 63,000 acres in
1959. Irrigated acreage of winter
wheat, dry beans, and potatoes
decreased very little from 1949
to 1959.
Fertilizer Use in Area
In the Cache la Poudre-South
Platte irrigation area, the use
of commercially produced plant
nutrients increased 42 percent
from 1954 to 1959. The plant
nutrient content of most fertiliz-
er has increased considerably, al-
though the tonnages of materials
used have not increased consist-
ently. Ninety-seven percent of all
primary nutrients used in Colo-
rado was applied to irrigated
land in 1959, compared with 95
percent in 1954.4 In 1959, ap-


& Davan, C. F., Jr., Schmehl, W. R., and Stewart, W. G., Fertilizer Use and Trends
for Principal Crops in Colorado. Colo. Agr. Exp. Sta., cooperating with Economic
Research Service USDA, GS Bul. 771, p. 21, 1962.
-8-










Table 2.-Distribution of farms by type of farm in the Cache la Poudre-South
Platte irrigation area, Colorado, 1949 and 1959 1
Total for area 3
Type of farm 2
1949 1959
Number Percent Number Percent
Livestock 1,736 28 1,851 37
Field crop 1,898 31 1,522 30
Dairy 776 13 843 17
General 1,434 23 650 13
Poultry 288 4 107 2
Fruit and nut 74 1 10 1
Total 6,206 100 4,983 100

1 Source: U. S. Census reports.
2 Miscellaneous, other, and unclassified farms omitted.
2 Area is comprised of Boulder, Larimer, and Weld Counties. Refer to
appendix table 3 for comparison of trends on each county in 1949 and 1959.


of the farms were classified as
livestock and field crop farms by
the census in 1959. General
farms made the largest drop in
numbers. In 1959, the area con-
tained 39 percent of the total
dairy farms in the State.
Land Use in Area
One-fourth of the irrigated
cropland harvested in the State
was in the Cache la Poudre-South
Platte irrigation area in 1959.
Now, the area generally harvests
more irrigated cropland acreage
in relation to the total irrigation
acreage than the other irrigated
areas of the State.
The acreage of land irrigated
in the Cache la Poudre-South
Platte irrigation area has
changed little since the introduc-
tion of Colorado River water in
the mid-fifties (table 3).
There has been a trend to-
ward more acreage of high wa-
ter-using crops in the area. The
acreage of irrigated corn in-
creased greatly: 56,000 acres in


1949 to 120,000 acres in 1959.
Sugar beets made a significant
increase from 63,000 to 80,000
acres. In 1959, alfalfa, corn, and
sugar beets accounted for about
two-thirds of the irrigated crop-
land use in the area. Irrigated
barley decreased from 106,000
acres in 1949 to 63,000 acres in
1959. Irrigated acreage of winter
wheat, dry beans, and potatoes
decreased very little from 1949
to 1959.
Fertilizer Use in Area
In the Cache la Poudre-South
Platte irrigation area, the use
of commercially produced plant
nutrients increased 42 percent
from 1954 to 1959. The plant
nutrient content of most fertiliz-
er has increased considerably, al-
though the tonnages of materials
used have not increased consist-
ently. Ninety-seven percent of all
primary nutrients used in Colo-
rado was applied to irrigated
land in 1959, compared with 95
percent in 1954.4 In 1959, ap-


& Davan, C. F., Jr., Schmehl, W. R., and Stewart, W. G., Fertilizer Use and Trends
for Principal Crops in Colorado. Colo. Agr. Exp. Sta., cooperating with Economic
Research Service USDA, GS Bul. 771, p. 21, 1962.
-8-










Table 3.-Land use in the Cache la Poudre-South Platte irrigation area,
Colorado 1949 and 1959 1
Total for area 2
Item
1949 1959
1,000 acres
Land use
Land in farms 3,195 3,216
Cropland (harvested) 913 836
Land irrigated (census year) 554 563
Irrigated cropland (harvested) 515 523
Percent, land irrigated 8 17.3 17.5
Selected Irrigated crops *
Alfalfa 125 130
Corn 56 120
Sugar beets 63 80
Barley 106 63
Beans (dry) 52 43
Oats 14 16
Potatoes 14 13
Wheat (winter) 13 11

1 Source: U. S. Census reports.
2 Area is comprised of Boulder, Larimer, and Weld Counties. Refer
to appendix table 4 for comparison of trends on an intercounty basis for 1949 and
1959.
3 Total irrigated land as a percentage of all land in farms.
Harvested acres. Spring wheat, rye, sorghum, other hay crops, and
other vegetable crops omitted. Not all irrigated crops are included.


proximately 29 percent of the
dry and 36 percent of the liquid
fertilizer applied in the State
was applied in this area. In 1959,
acres fertilized in the area in-
creased 50 percent over 1954
(table 4). Total fertilizer used on
each major crop in the area in-
creased except for potatoes and
other pasture.
Corn and sugar beet acreage
received approximately 72 per-
cent of the total fertilizer used
in the area during 1959. Corn
received the biggest increase in
fertilizer: 3,762 tons more were
used in 1959 than 1954. Appli-
cation of fertilizer on sugar beets
increased by 2,762 tons in 1959
over application in 1954. About
one-half of the fertilizer applied
to sugar beets in the State dur-
ing the 1959 crop year was ap-
plied in the Cache la Poudre-
South Platte irrigation area.


Crop Yields

All principal irrigated crops,
except dry beans, in the Cache
la Poudre-South Platte irrigation
area show higher yields in 1956-
60 than in 1950-54 (table 5).
This increased production is un-
doubtedly a function of many
variables, some of which are
climate, moisture, increased rate
of irrigation water per acre,
fertilizer rates, and other techno-
logical advances during the late
1950's. However, year to year,
or period to period, changes in
yields contain a random element
due to climate and other exoge-
nous and endogenous factors.
Therefore, it would be hazardous
to interpret changes between the
two periods of the report with-
out some measure of this random
element. Census data for 1959
on irrigated crop yields for the













Table 4.-Fertilizer used in the Cache la Poudre-South Platte irrigation area,
Colorado, 1954 and 1959 1

Total for area 5
Item. Unit
1954 1959

Kind:
Dry tons 15,469 17,923
Liquid 2 tons .......... 4,108
Acres fertilized: 1,000 138 207
Amount used on: a
Sugar beets tons 6,117 8,879
Corn tons 3,190 6,952
Hay and cropland pasture tons 1,369 1,662
Potatoes a tons 1,893 1,502
Other crops tons 2,503 2,895
Other pasture tons 218 141


appendix
:and 1959.


1 Source: U. S. Census. Data not available for 1949.
2 Not reported as liquid for 1954.
3 Minor crops not included.
1954 census included vegetables and fruits.
5 Area is comprised of Boulder, Larimer, and Weld Counties. Refer to
table 5 .for comparison of fertilizer use trends in each county in 1954


Table 5.--Yields of irrigated crops in the Cache la Poudre-South Platte
irrigation area, Colorado, 1950-54 and 1956-60 1

5-year average per
Crop it harvested acre 2
Crop Unit
1950-54 1956-60 Change

Sugar beets a tons 16.6 17.6 + 1.0
Corn bu. 54.9 71.4 + 16.5
Beans (dry) lbs. 1,767.0 1,707.0 60.0
Barley bu. 37.3 45.3 + 8.0
Wheat (winter) bu. 25.3 34.0 + 8.7
Potatoes cwt. 210.0 215.0 + 5.0
Alfalfa hay a tons 2.7 2.8 + .1

S 1Data acquired from the Colorado Agricultural Statistics Office, Colo-
rado Department of Agriculture cooperating with the U. S. Department of Agricul-
ture-SRS, 330 Custom House, Denver 2, Colo. Based on irrigated crop yields of
Boulder, Larimer, and Weld Counties. Refer to appendix table 6 for yields for each
county.
2Weighted average according to acreages harvested per farm.
SNot estimated separately for irrigated and nonirrigated. Approxi-
mately 90 percent of the alfalfa acreage and 99 percent of the sugar beet acreage
(1950-54) in the State was irrigated. 1956-60 sugar beet yields are only for irri-
gated acreages harvested.









area of this survey indicate that
the magnitude of the random
element has been between 10 and
15 percent. Thus, one could safe-
ly conclude that any change
greater than this is due to
changes in water, fertilizer, crop
variety, and other technological
advances. Clearly, corn, barley,
and wheat have increased yields
greater than would be expected
from random variation. Sugar
beets, potatoes, and alfalfa hay
show some increase but not great
enough to conclude that it is due
to improved practices or varie-
ties.
Alfalfa hay yields have not


increased m a i n 1 y because of
three principal causes (1) low
level of available soil phosphorus,
(2) poor irrigation practices, and
(3) the failure to use adapted
varieties. Because of low eco-
nomic returns from alfalfa as a
cash crop, seedings are often
made on a field of lower fertility
and also on fields more difficult
to irrigate. In addition, during
the rush season for irrigation,
alfalfa is often neglected for
other crops of higher cash value.
With good management practices
alfalfa yield per acre in the State
could probably be increased as
much as 50 percent.5


RESOURCE USE ON FARMS SURVEYED


Farm Size and Land Use
The farms surveyed averaged
182 acres of cropland per farm
(160 irrigated acres and 22 dry-
land acres) in 1959-61 (table 6).
Row crops and alfalfa are the
most important crops grown on
these farms. About 82 percent
of the farms grew corn, 67 per-
cent grew sugar beets, and about
half raised dry beans. Alfalfa
was grown on 95 percent of the
farms.
Acreages of major irrigated
crops on survey farms in the
Cache la Poudre-South Platte ir-
rigation area are also shown in
table 6. Alfalfa, corn, and sugar
beets occupy the largest acreages


on the farms raising these crops
followed by barley, beans, wheat,
and potatoes. In terms of land
area devoted to these crops, al-
falfa and corn each occupy slight-
ly more than one-fourth of the
irrigated area. Sugar beets and
barley occupy about 16 percent
each. Other crops are of minor
importance in land area occupied
but are important on the farms
growing them. Alfalfa, corn, and
sugar beets utilize over two-
thirds of the total irrigated
cropland on the survey farms.
This is very close to the acreages
reported in the 1959 Census of
Agriculture for this area.


5 Schmehl, W. R., an, and Rom S. D. Materials and Methods of. Application of
Phosphate for Alfalfa in Colorado. Colo. Agr. Exp. Sta. Tech. Bul. No. 74, 1963. :









area of this survey indicate that
the magnitude of the random
element has been between 10 and
15 percent. Thus, one could safe-
ly conclude that any change
greater than this is due to
changes in water, fertilizer, crop
variety, and other technological
advances. Clearly, corn, barley,
and wheat have increased yields
greater than would be expected
from random variation. Sugar
beets, potatoes, and alfalfa hay
show some increase but not great
enough to conclude that it is due
to improved practices or varie-
ties.
Alfalfa hay yields have not


increased m a i n 1 y because of
three principal causes (1) low
level of available soil phosphorus,
(2) poor irrigation practices, and
(3) the failure to use adapted
varieties. Because of low eco-
nomic returns from alfalfa as a
cash crop, seedings are often
made on a field of lower fertility
and also on fields more difficult
to irrigate. In addition, during
the rush season for irrigation,
alfalfa is often neglected for
other crops of higher cash value.
With good management practices
alfalfa yield per acre in the State
could probably be increased as
much as 50 percent.5


RESOURCE USE ON FARMS SURVEYED


Farm Size and Land Use
The farms surveyed averaged
182 acres of cropland per farm
(160 irrigated acres and 22 dry-
land acres) in 1959-61 (table 6).
Row crops and alfalfa are the
most important crops grown on
these farms. About 82 percent
of the farms grew corn, 67 per-
cent grew sugar beets, and about
half raised dry beans. Alfalfa
was grown on 95 percent of the
farms.
Acreages of major irrigated
crops on survey farms in the
Cache la Poudre-South Platte ir-
rigation area are also shown in
table 6. Alfalfa, corn, and sugar
beets occupy the largest acreages


on the farms raising these crops
followed by barley, beans, wheat,
and potatoes. In terms of land
area devoted to these crops, al-
falfa and corn each occupy slight-
ly more than one-fourth of the
irrigated area. Sugar beets and
barley occupy about 16 percent
each. Other crops are of minor
importance in land area occupied
but are important on the farms
growing them. Alfalfa, corn, and
sugar beets utilize over two-
thirds of the total irrigated
cropland on the survey farms.
This is very close to the acreages
reported in the 1959 Census of
Agriculture for this area.


5 Schmehl, W. R., an, and Rom S. D. Materials and Methods of. Application of
Phosphate for Alfalfa in Colorado. Colo. Agr. Exp. Sta. Tech. Bul. No. 74, 1963. :










Table 6.-Land use and crop acreages on the average farm surveyed, Cache
la Poudre-South Platte irrigation area, Colorado, 1959-611

Average farm Average Percentage
Percentage acreage of survey
Item crop is of on farms farms
Size irrigated reporting reporting
land the crop the crop

Acres Percent Acres Percent
Land in farm
Cropland irrigated ............. 160
Alfalfa .. ........................... 27.0 44 95
Corn ... .......................25.5 48 82
Sugar beets ........................ 16.6 38 67
Barley ............. ................ 16.1 29 85
Beans, dry .......................... 10.5 30 53
W heat .......................................... 2.5 35 11
Potatoes ... .......... ...... 0.9 35 3
Pasture ................- .. -- 0.9 47 3
Cropland dry ............. .......... 22


t Data from 1962 survey of
Poudre-South Platte irrigation area.
Water Use on Crops
Farmers interviewed w e r e
asked how much water they ac-
tually used on various crops. Wa-
ter application varies on crops
due to the requirements of the
crop, soil type, amount of water
available, and management prac-
tices of the operator.
Water application rates per
irrigated acre increased signifi-
cantly on the farms surveyed
from the 1951-53 period to the
1959-61 period as shown in table
7. Farmers in the area generally
had a better supply of irrigation
water during the 1959-61 period
because of more favorable water
years and the addition of Colo-
rado-Big Thompson water to the
area. New irrigation wells also
contributed to the increased wa-
ter supply. With more water
available it would be expected
that farmers would apply more
water per acre.


150 Irrigation farmers In the Cache la

The average water application
rate per acre applied to crops on
the survey farms more than
doubled from 1951-53 to the
1959-61 period going from 0.9
acre-foot per acre in 1951-53 to
an average of 2.0 acre-feet per
acre in 1959-61. The 2 acre-feet
per acre compares to 2.16 acre-
feet per acre of available water
on 375 farms sold in this area
between 1954 and 1959.6 The
average increase from 1951-53 to
1959-61 for all crops was 1.1
acre-feet per acre. All major ir-
rigated crops of the farms sur-
veyed received more water per
acre in the 1959-61 period than
in the 1951-53 period. Pasture
and wheat on the survey farms
received no significant amount
of irrigation water during the
1951-53 period; however, during
the 1959-61 period, pasture and
wheat received 2.5 acre-feet and
1.0 acre-foot, respectively.


SHartman, L. M. and Anderson, R. L., Estimating the Value of Irrigation Water.
Colo. Agr. Exp. Sta., cooperating with Economic Research Service-USDA, Tech.
Bul. 81.










Table 7.-Water used on irrigated crops, 150 survey farms, in the Cache la
Poudre-South Platte irrigation area, Colorado, 1951-53 and 1959-
611
Water rates per irrigated acre
Irrigated
Crop Increase over
1951-53 1059-61 1951-53

..................... acre feet....................
Sugar beets 1.7+ .34 2.2+.1 0.5
Corn 1.6+ .3 1.8+.1 0.2
Beans 0.6+ .1 1.7+.1 1.1
Barley 0.5+ .2 1.5+.1 1.0
W heat .............. 1.0+.1 1.0
Potatoes 1.0+ .3 2.7+.3 1.7
Alfalfa 0.7+ .2 2.6+.2 1.9
Pasture .............. 2.5+.8 2.5

Average 0.9+ .2 2.0+.1 1.1

1 Farms were surveyed in 1962.
2 Weighted average according to acreage irrigated per farm.
3 Weighted average according to acreage irrigated per crop.
+ .3 is the range in acre-feet of water applied.


Fertilizer Use on Crops
Eighty-nine percent of the
farmers surveyed in the Cache
la Poudre-South Platte irrigation
area applied commercial fertilizer
on their crops during 1959-61.
This compares with only 41 per-
cent in 1951-53. Fertilizer use
on irrigated crops on the survey
farms in 1959-61 increased about
6 times over the fertilizer used
during the 1951-53 period. Sur-
vey farmers that fertilized, used
annually 4.1 tons per farm dur-
ing the 1959-61 period. This com-
pares to an average of 4.3 tons
per farm using fertilizer esti-
mated by Davan, et al., in 1960.7
One would expect a positive
correlation between use of com-


mercial fertilizer and irrigation
water since experimental results
and experience indicate fertilizer
and water are complementary
inputs. Farmers are aware of the
increase in crop yields from in-
creased f e r tili z e r application
when adequate quantities of wa-
ter are applied. This is no doubt
of major consequence in explain-
ing the heavier applications of
fertilizer reported in the survey.
Fertilizer used per irrigated
crop is closely correlated with the
per-acre value of the crop. High-
est percentages of fertilizer used
are associated with high cash-
return crops, and the lowest per-
centages with the 1 o w cash-
return crops. For example, sugar


7 Op. cit., page 6, figure 4.










beets received most of the ferti-
lizer for both periods and pasture
received the least (table 8).
Sixty-five percent of all ferti-
lizer applied to irrigated crops
during 1951-53 on farms sur-
veyed was applied to sugar beets.
All kinds of irrigated crops re-
ceived s om e fertilizer during
1959-61, whereas in the 1951-53
period wheat and pasture were
not fertilized. More than three-
fourths of the fertilizer applied
to irrigated crops during both
periods w a s applied to sugar
beets and corn. Total fertilizer
applied to sugar beets per year
during 1959-61 was about 6 times
greater than for the 1951-53
period. Corn increased in both
total pounds and percentages.

Fertilizer Analyses, Rates
Applied, and Costs
Legumes and root crops re-
ceived most of the fertilizer dur-
ing the 1951-53 period in the


Cache la Poudre-South Platte ir-
rigation area and since these
crops are heavy users of phos-
phate, the primary fertilizer used
by irrigation farmers contained
high portions of available P20O.
Fifty-eight percent of the irri-
gated farms surveyed used ferti-
lizer containing 43 to 53 percent
available P205 during the early
1950's (table 9). Thirty-eight
percent of the fertilizer used in
1951-53 contained only P205.
In the 1959-61 period the irri-
gation farmers used more ferti-
lizer mixtures containing higher
percentages of nitrogen. Use of
fertilizer mixtures containing 20
percent or more nitrogen in-
creased 51 percent from 1951-53
to 1959-61. During the same pe-
riod the use of fertilizer contain-
ing only available P20s decreased
55 percent. Over one-fourth of
the farmers interviewed used
ammonium nitrate, containing
33 percent nitrogen, during 1959-


Table 8.-Distribution of fertilizer use on irrigated crops, 150 survey farms,
in the Cache la Poudre-South Platte irrigation area, Colorado,
1951-53 and 1959-611

Fertilizer used 2
Irrigated crop
1951-53 1959-61

Percent
Sugar beets 65.2 43.9
Corn 17.3 33.7
Beans 0.2 3.5
Barley 9.4 5.2
Wheat ---..... 1.5
Potatoes 1.7 1.1
Alfalfa 6.2 9.6
Pasture -...- 1.5
Total 100.0 100.0

x Farms were surveyed in 1962.
2 Percentage of the total fertilizer applied to each crop on farms
studied.










61. Anhydrous ammonia, 82 per-
cent nitrogen, was used in the
area during this period. However
the survey did not reflect its use.
Much of the nitrogen fertilizer
was applied to small grains and
pastures.
Fertilizers containing both ni-
trogen and available P205 were
applied to sugar beets, corn, bar-
ley, and potatoes in the area dur-
ing 1951-53 (table 10). Wheat
and pasture, on the farms sur-
veyed, received no fertilizer dur-
ing this period. During the 1959-
61 period, the average analysis
of fertilizer applied to irrigated
crops increased in both nitrogen
and available P20O as compared
with 1951-53.
Quantities of nitrogen, as giv-
en in table 10, applied per irri-
gated acre have increased for all
principal crops except beans and
barley from 1951-53 to 1959-61.
Phosphate applications also in-
creased for all irrigated crops.
Application of zero K20 was re-


ported by survey farmers for ir-
rigated crops in this area. No ap-
plication of K20 indicates the
high potassium-supplying power
of the soils in the area.
This increase in the use of
primary plant nutrients has been
due partly to the extension pro-
gram and farmer education on
fertility in the Cache la Poudre-
South Platte irrigation area.
Many fertilizer dealers hold fer-
tility education programs for the
farmers. Government programs
have an indirect influence on in-
creasing the use of plant nutri-
ents. Reduced acreage of some
crops, because of government
programs, have induced many
farmers to concentrate on ob-
taining higher yields on less acre-
age; one way to accomplish this
is with increased application of
fertilizer.
When the use of one resource,
such as water, is increased, the
marginal productivity of other
resources, such as fertilizer, is


Table 9.-Analyses of fertilizers used on irrigated crops, 150 survey farms,
in the Cache la Poudre-South Platte irrigation area, Colorado, 1951-
53 and 1959-611
Fertilizer Farms using each analysis
analysis
1951 1959-61
N-P2O0-KO0 Percent
0-43-0 7.0 2.4
0-45-0 23.0 17.6
0-46-0 8.0 4.5
16-48-0 2.1
21-53-0 4.6 11.9
33- 0-0 19.5 26.0
33-45-5 6.9 14.0
33-46-0 8.0 6.6
Misc. mixtures 2 23.0 14.9

Total 100.0 100.0

1 Farms were surveyed in 1962.
2 Miscellaneous mixtures consisted of (1) 25-41-0; (2) 25-50-0; (3)
16-22-0; (4) 25-38-0; and (5) 18-36-0.











increased. Increasing the use of
water probably increases the
marginal productivity of ferti-
lizer more than other resources.
This might not be the case the
first year of irrigation, but it
becomes increasingly important
as the years go on.


The per-pound price of nitro-
gen, phosphate, and potash in
the area dropped from 1949 to
1959, table 11. Nitrogen made
the biggest drop, 3.7 cents per
pound, while phosphate and pot-
ash dropped 1.8 and 0.6 cents,
respectively.


Table 10.-Rate of primary plant nutrients applied per acre of irrigated crop,
150 survey farms, in the Cache la Poudre-South Platte irrigation
area, Colorado, 1951-53 and 1959-611
Rate of application of nutrients per
Irrigated crops fertilized acre 2
1951-53 1959-61

Pounds
N-POs.-K.O N-P2Os-KO2
Sugar beets 23-56-0 50-93-0
Corn 29-14-0 54-33-0
Beans 33- 0-0 28-31-0
Barley 29-32-0 27-73-0
Wheat (winter) ..... 31-52-0
Potatoes 61-30-0 77-130-0
Alfalfa 0-44-0 16-66-0
Pasture ............ 48-67-0

1 Farms were surveyed in 1962.
2 Rates of application of primary plant nutrients per acre are weighted
according to the fertilized crop acreage per farm per crop.



Table 11.-Cost per pound of primary plant nutrients to farmers in the Cache
la Poudre-South Platte irrigation area, Colorado, 1949, 1954, and
1959 1

Plant Year
nutrient 1949 1954 1959
...................... Cents .......................
Nitrogen 15.2+.892 13.7+.60 11.5+.49
Available P.Os 10.2+.61 9.1+.40 8.4+.31
Potash 6.5+.25 6.0+.23 5.9+.28

1 Estimated from survey of fertilizer dealers in the Cache la Poudre-
South Platte irrigation area.
2 +.89 is the range in cents per pound paid for primary plant nutrient,
in this case nitrogen.









Appendix Table 1.-Population, number, and size of farms in
and 1959 1


Boulder, Larimer, and Weld Counties, Colorado, 1949


Item


Population

Total

Farm

Farm as percent of total 2



All farms

Average size

Irrigated farms

Average size

Irrigated acres per farm


Units


1,000 persons

1,000 persons

Percent



No.

Acres

No.

Acres

Acres


1949


Boulder Larlmer Weld


67.5

20.3

30.1



4,418

494

3,361

262

109


1959


Boulder Larimer Weld


72.3

14.2

19.6



3,730

579

2,836

356

134


1 Source: U. S. Census reports.
2 Percentage of total population for the county.


-1













Appendix Table 2.-Distribution of irrigated farms by size
1949, 1954, and 1959 1


1949


Acres
1 to 49
50 to 99
100 to 199
200 to 499 2

500 to 999
1,000+


of farm in Boulder, Larimer, and Weld Counties, Colorado,


1959


Boulder Larimer Weld Boulder Larimer Weld Boulder Larinier Weld


Percent
44
29
21
5
1
0


19
36
36
8.7
0.2
0.1


31 10


32
25
28
14
0.9
0.1


All farms 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100


Total
irrigated 1,047 1,392 3,361 614 1,116 3,012 638 1,008 2,803
farms (no.)


x Source: U. S. Census report.
2 Reported as 200 acres and over for 1949.


........ ........... .... ... .. ... I ------------------------ -













Appendix Table 3.-Distribution of farms by type in Boulder, Larimer, and
Weld Counties, Colorado, 1949 and 1959 1

Type 1949 1959
of
farm 2 Boulder Larimer Weld Boulder Larimer Weld

Number

Livestock 239 486 1,011 268 477 1,106
Field crops 109 241 1,548 127 167 1,228
Dairy 255 173 348 162 190 491
General 156 238 1,040 43 107 500
Poultry 143 79 66 46 15 46
Fruit and nut 13 56 5 5 5 ........


Total 915 1,273 4,018 651 961 3,371

1 Source: U. S. Census report.
2 All farm types not included.













Appendix Table 4.-Land use in Boulder, Larimer, and Weld Counties, Colorado, 1949 and 1959 1


Item


Land use
All land in farms

All cropland (harvested)
Land irrigated (census year)

Irrigated cropland (harvested)

Percent, land irrigated


Selected irrigated crops 2
Sugar beets

Corn
Barley
Wheat (winter)

Oats
Alfalfa
Beans (dry)

Potatoes


Boulder Larimer




266 749

87 146
73 113

63 100
27.4 15.1


Weld


......... 1,000

2,181

630

367
353
16.8




51.8

35.2
68.0

8.0
6.7

81.0

51.1
13.5


Boulder Larimer


Weld


cres ................. .............................. .......

288 771 2,158

78 127 631
74 110 379

59 99 365

25.7 14.3 17.6


2.8
14.7

11.1
2.5
3.5
14.7

0.3


1Source: U. S. Census reports.
2 Harvested acres. Spring wheat, rye sorghum, other hay crops, and other vegetable crops omitted.











Appendix Table 5.-Fertilizer used in Boulder, Larimer, and Weld Counties, Colorado, 1954 and 1959 1



Total for the area
Itemn Unit
1949 1959

Boulder Larimer Weld Boulder Larimer Weld


Kind
Dry Tons (1,000) 1.1 2.9 11.6 2.0 3.1 12.9
Liquid 2 Tons (1,000) ............. ........ .3 .5 3.4


Acres fertilized Acres (1,000) 10.3 26.0 102.0 23.2 32.5 151.0


Amount used on: 3
Sugar beets Tons 198 835 5.084 378 1,155 7,346
Corn Tons 339 810 2,041 945 1,120 4,887
Hay and cropland pasture Tons 159 536 674 351 540 771
Potatoes Tons 115 50 1,728 ..... 34 1,468
Other crops Tons 223 565 1,715 518 653 1,724
Other pasture Tons 20 52 146 80 21 40


1Source: U. S. Census. Data for 1949 is not available.
2 Not reported as liquid for 1954.
3 Minor crops not included.













Appendix Table 6.-Yields of principal irrigated crops in
1956-60 1


Boulder, Larimer, and Weld Counties, Colorado, 1950-54 and


Crop





Sugar beets 2

Corn

Beans (dry)

Barley

Wheat (winter)

Potatoes

Alfalfa hay 2


Unit





Ton

Bu.

Lb.

Bu.

Bu.

Cwt.

Ton


Yield per harvested acre 2


1950-54


Boulder Larimer Weld


15.3

53.0

1,424.0

35.4

24.4




2.4


13.9

50.6

1,516.0

36.6

26.2

172.0

2.5


17.1

56.0

1,770.0

37.8

25.4

211.0

2.8


1850-60


Boulder Larimer Weld


17.5

63.8

1,584.0

45.8

35.0




2.5


16.5

69.2

1,588.0

48.4

34.8

200.0

2.8


17.7

72.4

1,717.0

44.0

33.2

215.0

2.9


1 Data acquired from the Colorado Agricultural Statistics Office, Colorado Department of Agriculture-SRS, 330 Custom
House, Denver 2, Colo.
2 Weighted average according to acreages harvested.
8Not estimated separately for irrigated and nonirrigated. Approximately 90 percent of the alfalfa and 99 percent
of the sugar beet acreage (1950-54) in the State was irrigated. Sugar beet yields for 1956-60 are only irrigated acreages harvested.













Appendix Table 7.-Principal nitrogen fertilizer materials and their nitrogen
content 1


Material


Nitrogen (N)
approximate content


Anhydrous ammonia
Urea
Ammonium nitrate
Ammonium sulfate-nitrate
Diammonium phosphate
Calcium cyanamid
Nitrogen solutions
Ammonium sulfate
Ammonium phosphate-sulfate
Potassium nitrate
Monoammonium phosphate

Organic products:
Activated sewage sludge
Animal tankage
Coffee grounds
Dried sheep manure
Cattle manure


Percent
82
42
33.5
26
21
21
37-45
20.5
16
13
11



5-6
5-10
2.1
1.4
1


I Major source of material: Lyon, T. L., Buckman, H. 0., and Brady,
N. C., The Nature and Properties of Soils. Sixth Edition. The Macmillan Company,
New York, N. Y., pp. 478, illus., 1960.






Appendix Table 8.-Principal phosphate fertilizer materials and their phos-
phate content I

Phosphate (PaOO)
Material approximate content


Percent
Calcium metaphosphate 62-63
Phosphoric acid 54
Diammonium phosphate 53
Monoammonium phosphate 48
Superphosphates 16-50
Ammonium phosphate 20
Ammonium phosphate-sulfate 16-39

Organic products:
Activated sewage sludge 2-4
Animal tankage 3-13
Coffee grounds 0.4
Dried sheep manure 0.9
Cattle manure 1


1 Major source of material: Lyon, T. L., Buckman, H. 0., and Brady,
N. C. The Nature and Properties of Soils, Sixth Edition. The Macmillan Company,
New York, N. Y., pp. 482, illus., 1960.














Appendix Table 9.-Principal potash fertilizer materials and their potash
contents 1

Potash (KZO)
Material approximate content

Percent

Potassium chloride (muriate of potash) 48-60
Potassium sulfate 48-50
Sulfate of potash-magnesia 25-30
Manure salts 20-30
Potassium nitrate 44
Kainit 12-16

Organic products:
Dried sheep manure 2
Cattle manure 1
Coffee grounds 0.4
Tobacco stems 4-9

x Major source of material: Lyon, T. L., Buckman, H. 0., and Brady,
N. C. The Nature and Properties of Soils. Sixth Edition. The Macmillan Company,
New York, N. Y., pp. 486, illus., 1960.




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