• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Table of Contents
 Preface
 Introduction
 Historical background of Texas...
 Factors influencing agricultural...
 Land utilization and crop distribution...
 Livestock enterprises in Texas
 Delineation of type-of-farming...
 Description of type-of-farming...






Group Title: Bulletin / Texas Agricultural Experiment Station ;, no. 544
Title: A description of the agriculture and type-of-farming areas in Texas
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE PAGE TEXT
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00055281/00001
 Material Information
Title: A description of the agriculture and type-of-farming areas in Texas
Series Title: Bulletin Texas Agricultural Experiment Station
Physical Description: 91 p. : ill., maps ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Bonnen, C. A ( Clarence Alfred ), 1896-
Thibodeaux, B. H ( Ben Hur ), 1903-
Texas Agricultural Experiment Station
Publisher: Texas Agricultural Experiment Station
Place of Publication: College Station Tex
Publication Date: 1937
 Subjects
Subject: Agricultural resources -- Texas   ( lcsh )
Agriculture -- Texas   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: C.A. Bonnen and B.H. Thibodeaux.
General Note: Tx Doc no.: Z, TA245.7, B873, nos. 524-549.
General Note: Caption title.
Funding: Bulletin (Texas Agricultural Experiment Station) ;
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00055281
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 07679526

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Table of Contents
        Page 3
    Preface
        Page 4
    Introduction
        Page 5
        Page 6
    Historical background of Texas agriculture
        Page 7
        Page 8
    Factors influencing agricultural development of Texas
        Page 9
        Physical and biological factors
            Page 9
            Page 10
            Page 11
            Page 12
            Page 13
            Page 14
            Page 15
            Page 16
            Page 17
            Page 18
        Economic and social factors
            Page 19
            Page 20
            Page 21
            Page 22
            Page 23
            Page 24
            Page 25
            Page 26
            Page 27
            Page 28
            Page 29
            Page 30
            Page 31
            Page 32
    Land utilization and crop distribution in Texas
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
    Livestock enterprises in Texas
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
    Delineation of type-of-farming areas
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Feed-livestock relations by type-of-farming areas
            Page 70
            Page 71
            Page 72
            Page 73
    Description of type-of-farming areas
        Page 74
        Panhandle wheat area
            Page 74
        Canadian River grazing area
            Page 75
        High Plains cotton area
            Page 76
            Page 77
            Page 78
        Upper Rio Grande valley irrigated area
            Page 79
        Edwards Plateau grazing area
            Page 80
        Rio Grande plains area
            Page 80
            Page 81
        Lower Rio Grande valley area
            Page 82
        Corpus christi cotton area
            Page 83
        North-central grazing area
            Page 83
        Western cross timbers farming area
            Page 84
        Grand prairie area
            Page 85
        Black prairie area
            Page 86
            Page 87
        Northeast sandy lands area
            Page 88
        Piney woods lumbering area
            Page 89
        Post oak area
            Page 90
        Coast prairie area
            Page 91
Full Text

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AGRICULTURAL AND MECHANICAL COLLEGE OF TEXAS
T. O. WALTON, President


R82-537-20m

TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION

A. B. CONNER, DIRECTOR
COLLEGE STATION, BRAZOS COUNTY, TEXAS


BULLETIN NO. 544 JUNE, 1937




DIVISION OF FARM AND RANCH ECONOMICS



IN COOPERATION WITH THE DIVISION OF FARM MANAGEMENT
AND COSTS, BUREAU OF AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS,
U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE






A DESCRIPTION OF


THE AGRICULTURE AND TYPE-


OF-FARMING AREAS IN TEXAS
















TABLE OF CONTENTS


Page

Introduction --- --------------- -- ----- ----
7 ---------------- 7 -----------'---

Historical background of Texas agriculture---------------------- 7

Factors influencing agricultural development of Texas .--------- 9
Physical and biological factors ------------------ 9
Economic and social factors------------- 19

Land utilization and crop distribution in Texas---------------- 33

Livestock enterprises in Texas --- ----------- --------- 52

Delineation of type-of-farming areas--- ---------------- 62
Feed-livestock relations by type-of-farming areas ---------- 70

Description of type-of-farming areas--------------- ----74
Panhandle Wheat Area---- -------- ----- -- 74
Canadian River Grazing Area ------------- --- 75
High Plains Cotton Area ----------------------- 76
Low Rolling Plains Area------------- ------- 77
High Plains and Trans-Pecos Cattle Grazing Area---- 78
Upper Rio Grande Valley Irrigated Area --------- 79
Edwards Plateau Grazing Area ------ ---------------- 80
Rio Grande Plains Area--------------------- 80
Lower Rio Grande Valley Area --- ---------------------- 82
Corpus Christi Cotton Area --------------------- 83
North-Central Grazing Area -- -------------------------------- 83
Western Cross Timbers Farming Area ------------------ -- 84
Grand Prairie Area____ --------- ----------------- 85
Black Prairie Area ----.------------------------------------- 86
Northeast Sandy Lands Area.----.------- ------------ ---- 88
Piney Woods Lumbering Area----------------------89
Post Oak Area------------------- -- 90
Coast Prairie Area---------------------------------- 91

















Texas is primarily an agricultural State. Approximately 40 per cent of
the 5,824,715 people in the State lived on farms in 1930. Of the persons
10 years or older gainfully employed in the State, 38 per cent were engaged
in agriculture, while only 17 per cent were engaged in manufacturing
and mechanical industries, the second largest source of employment in
the State.
The 34,766,166 acres of crop land in Texas in 1929 comprised 21 per
cent of the total land area of 167,934,720 acres in the State and 28 per
cent of the 124,707,130 acres included in the 495,489 farms operated that
year. The remainder of the land in farms was used primarily for pasture.
The 43,227,590 acres in the State not reported in farms were in forest
lands, owned mostly by lumber interests and located principally in the
southeastern part of the State; in a limited amount of waste land and land
either not appropriated into farms or not reported to the census enumera-
tors; and in land in cities, roads, rivers, etc.
Cotton, the leading crop, made up 61 per cent of the cash income from
all crops during the 10-year period 1924-1933 and occupied approximately
55 per cent of the harvested crop land in 1929. Percentages of the crop
land occupied by other crops were corn 14, sorghums harvested for grain
and forage 13, wheat 10, oats 4, hay 2, while barley and vegetables har-
vested for sale each occupied approximately .6 per cent of the harvested
crop land.
Cattle, which are second to cotton as a source of cash farm income,
made up over half of all livestock kept on farms in 1930. Of the total
animal units (cow equivalents), cattle comprised 55 per cent, mules 12 per
cent, sheep 10 per cent, horses 9 per cent, and goats, hogs, and poultry
approximately 3 per cent each.
The distribution of these various crop and livestock enterprises over
the State and the proportions in which they are combined in each county
are shown by means of maps and charts.
On the basis of differences in such physical characteristics as soils, sur-
face, and climate, in the kinds and proportions of crops and livestock
grown, and in the prevailing production practices, the State has been di-
vided into 18 major type-of-farming areas, 11 of which are further
divided into 30 sub-areas. It is the purpose of this bulletin to call atten-
tion to these areas, and to present descriptive material relating to the
natural and economic factors contributing to their development so as to
provide those interested in the agriculture of Texas with a general knowl-
edge of the character of agricultural production in different parts of the
State.












A DESCRIPTION OF THE AGRICULTURE AND TYPE-OF-
FARMING AREAS IN TEXAS
C. A. BONNEN1 AND B. H. THIBODEAUX2
Texas Agricultural Experiment Station, Division of Farm and
Ranch Economics, and Bureau of Agricultural Economics, Divi-
sion of Farm Management and Costs, United States Department q a I
of Agriculture, Cooperating. P 6 !
Texas is primarily an agricultural State. The 1930 census indicates
that approximately 40 per cent of the 5,824,715 people in the State lived /1f0
on farms and that approximately 38 per cent of the persons 10 years of.b
age or older gainfully employed in the State were engaged in agriculture. 7
This compares with 17 per cent of the working population engaged in "
manufacturing and mechanical industries, the second largest source of
employment in the State. The estimated farm value of agricultural prod-. .TJ
ucts in 1929 amounted to $933,235,000.
The ricul fexass wie diversified, ranging from sub-tropical
fruits and a wide range of vegetables in the southern tip of the State to
specialized large-scale wheat production in the northwest, and from crop
farming uider humid conditions in the east to sub-humid farming and ex-
tensive livestock grazing in the west. This wide diversity in production is
directly related to the Idedif ensn ls, climate and surface in the
different parts of the State through the influence of these factors on crops
that can be grown and on the resulting kinds and numbers of livestock
kept. Closely associated with these physical conditions are the biological
considerations of insect pests and di eases. The choice of-lines of produc-
tion under ese environmental limitations is also influenced by those
numerous economic factors, including transportation facilities and charges,
labor, available capital or credit facilities, expenses of production and
prices received, etc., that determine the enterprises or combinations of
enterprises that may return the most profits. The individual producer's
aptitude and personal preferences also constitute a factor determining
within limits the choice of lines of production on individual farms, but for
an area as a whole this factor is not so important as are physical and
economic considerations, unless these considerations permit a wide latitude
in the enterprises that may profitably be kept. For example, physical
limitations reflected in relative costs and incomes prevent the profitable
production of citrus in Texas in sections other than in the southern part
of the State.
This process of ada ting ro auction to the natural environment and to
economic and soc ac s is a cntnuouonions at
a given ytimm may later be'pary or entirely offset. For example, the
development of drought-resistant varieties of crops or the adoption of
production methods that lower costs so much as to permit profitable pro-
duction despite low yields may result in the bringing into cultivation of
land formerly considered suitable only for grazing. Changes in the agri-
culture of an area or region may also result from changes in the relative
incomes from certain enterprises due to reductions in yields by insects and
diseases or to changes in relative prices received.
'Farm Management Specialist, Division of Farm and Ranch Economics, Texas
Agricultural Experiment Station.
2Senior Agricultural Economist, Division of Farm Management and Costs,
Bureau of Agricultural Economics, U. S. Department of Agriculture.










6 BULLETIN NO. 544, TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION

Furthermore, the agricultural areas are rare in which the utilization of
agricultural resources is such as not to result in serious production prob-
lems which sooner or later are reflected in economic and social losses.
In foi'mulating production programs to obtain the greatest immediate
benefit from farming operations, long-time considerations are often
obscured by the larger returns obtainable from exploitation. In other
cases, land of high potential productivity is idle or used for extensive pur-
poses when its highest economic use would be realized only if it were put
into crops. These conditions of maladjustment often can be corrected
only through the experience of producers themselves, or through careful
experimentation and observation.
This publication deals with the first phase of a comprehensive study of
agricultural adjustments in Texas, and is a revision of Texas Agricultural
Experiment Station Bulletin No. 427, Type-of-Farming Area in Texas.
There is presented herein a graphic picturization of Texas agriculture and
of some of the principal factors that have contributed to its development.
Written material is limited to the minimum to permit even a hasty exami-
nation to yield a broad understanding of the varied lines of agricultural
production in the State. There is presented first a brief historical sketch
of the development of Texas agriculture from 1836, when Texas became
independent of Mexican rule, to 1935. This is followed by a graphic
presentation and explanatory discussion of the major factors that influ-
enced the present development of Texas agriculture. This in turn provides
the background-for a series of charts showing the geographic distribution
of the various crop and livestock enterprises in the State and of certain
related developments such as earnings, tenancy, farm power, etc. Lastly,
the State is divided into so-called type-of-farming areas in which the farm
organizations and production methods are highly uniform, and a brief
description is given of each area.
This part of the study of agricultural adjustments in Texas is primarily
descriptive in nature and serves only incidentally to point out the reasons
for and the problems connected with the present utilization of land and
other agricultural resources. The latter considerations will be covered in
later phases of the study, now under way, in which the various type-of-
farming areas in the State will be studied with reference to the agricultural
resources in the area as a whole, the systems of farming followed, the
economic and other problems arising from the present production patterns,
and the adjustments needed to utilize most effectively the agricultural
resources so as to maintain or increase the well-being of farm families.
A large part of the information used in this publication is derived
chiefly from the reports of the United States Census of 1930. These data
are more representative of the agriculture of the State than the 1935
census data now available. The latter data pertain to 1 Ja4,4 year
llpreede ^o ht and consequent serious agnt.rsloca s.
The Agricultural Adjumstmient im l reduction programs of 1934
also affected the relative proportions that otherwise would have prevailed
as between various enterprises. In 1934, the harvested crop acreage in
the State was 17 per cent less than in 1929. The acreages in cotton and
wheat in 1934 were 34 and 12 per cent lower, respectively, than the
average acreages in these crops during the 5-year period 1928-1932.










DESCRIPTION OF AGRICULTURE AND TYPE-OF-FARMING AREAS 7

HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF TEXAS AGRICULTURE.

During the Spanish occupancy of Texas, lasting from Coronado's first
formal claim of the Texas territory for the Spanish crown in 1540 until
1821, the State was undeveloped agriculturally, except for the small
efforts made by the early religious missions. Only negligible progress
was made at colonization. The immediate returns yielded by the precious
metals found in Mexico and South America held more attraction for the
Spaniards than the uncertain gains of developing agriculture and com-
merce in the Indian-inhabited wilderness that lay to the north. The
sporadic efforts at colonization were not aggressively sponsored or aided
by the Spanish Government. Of the twenty-five presidios and missions
established by the Spaniards, only three remained at the time Anglo-
Americans began to arrive in the early part of the nineteenth century.
Although a few extensive titles to land had been granted by the Spanish
crown, these were not developed agriculturally.
With the overthrow of Spanish rule and the acquisition of Texas
by Mexico in 1821, colonization was given an impetus through the work of
impresarios, or promoters, who contracted with the Mexican Government
to bring in specified numbers of settlers in return for grants of land.
Largely through the efforts of these men, the population increased from
*an estimated 7,000 whites and civilized Indians in 1806 to 20,000 whites
in 1831, and 30,000 in 1836. Including the relatively small number of
titles issued under Spanish authority, 26,280,000 acres had been granted
for settlement by the close of 1835. At the time of the Texan declaration
of independence from Mexico in 1836, the settlers had attained a degree
of agricultural prosperity that gave promise of the large opportunities in
the still relatively undeveloped territory.
As an independent republic and later as a state, Texas resorted to her
vast land area as a source of revenue to meet her public debt and to
finance governmental functions. As distinguished from other states,
Texas retained the ownership of her public lands after she became one of
the United States in 1846. She was thus able to benefit both from the
initial disposal of land and, with its subsequent improvement, from the
taxes that it later provided. In 1850, approximately 67,000,000 acres
outside of the present state boundaries were sold to the United States for
$10,000,000, an amount sufficient to retire the State public debt and to
provide a surplus of $5,000,000 in the State Treasury. The present State
Capitol was constructed by a business syndicate in return for 3,000,000
acres of land in the 'northwestern part of the State. Although additional
direct land transfers for cash in the form of sales of land certificates or
scrip amounted to only 1,329,200 acres, large grants of state land were
made to individuals, impresarios, railroads, and other internal improve-
ment companies, and to educational and eleemosynary institutions. By
1910 the legislature had disposed of practically all of the public land in
Texas.

'References used include History of Texas, by John Henry Brown; A History
of Texas and Texans, by Frank W. Johnson; History of Texas and the North
Mexican States, by H. H. Bancroft; and Public Land System of Texas, by
Reuben McKitrick.









Table 1. Rural and urban population, railroad mileage, agricultural land use, value of farm land per acre, acreage
in specified crops, and numbers of various classes of livestock on farms and ranches by census periods,
Texas, 1860-1935. (U. S. Census data unless otherwise specified.)

1860 1880 1900 1920 1930 1935
Item Unit (June 1) (June 1) (June 1) (Jan. 1) (April 1) (Jan. 1)

Total population .................... 1000 persons 604 1,592 3,049 4,663 5,825
Persons engaged in all occupations
(10 years and over) ............... 1000 persons 1051 522 1,033 1,719 2,207
Persons engaged in agriculture
(10 years and over)............... 1000 persons 621 359 642 788 842
Proportions of persons in all occupa-
tions engaged in agriculture
(10 years and over) ............... Per cent 591 69 62 46 38
Railroad mileage, exclusive of yard
track and sidings2 ................. 100 miles 3 32 99 160 169 1643
Total number of farms............... 1000 farms 43 174 352 436 495 501
Land in farms ...................... 1000 acres 25,344 36,292 125,807 114,021 124,707 137,597
Average size of farms ............... Acres 591 208 357 262 252 275
Proportion of total land area in farm
land ............................. Per cent 15 22 75 68 74 82
Improved farm land4................ 1000 acres 2,651 12,650 19,576 31,228 45,923 43,296
Proportion of total land area in im-
proved land ...................... Per cent 2 8 12 19 27 26
Land irrigated ...................... 1000 acres 5 5 50 586 785
Value of farms (includes land, fences,
and buildings) .................... 1000 dollars 88,101 170,469 691,774 3,700,173 3,597,407 2,573,705
Production of specified crops:
Cotton ......................... 1000 bales 3416 8056 2,5857 2,9727 3,7937 2,3067
Corn ............................ 1000 bushels 16,501 29,065 109,970 108,377 66,251 38,018
Wheat .......................... 1000 bushels 1,478 2,568 12,266 36,427 44,078 26,298
Rice (rough) ....................1000 bushels 1 2 259 5,306 5,159 5,498
Oats ............................ 1000 bushels 986 4,893 24,191 63,989 27,260 32,013
Grain sorghums .................. 1000 bushels 5 5 482 36,456 23,768 9,642
Numbers of specified classes of live-
stock on farms and ranges:
Horses and mules (all ages)........ 1000 head 3898, 9 9388, 9 1,793 1,847 1,809 1,576
Cattle ........................... 1000 head 3,5368, 9 4,8958 9,428 6,157 6,603 7,222
Sheep ........................... 1000 head 7538, 9 3,6528 1,889 2,573 7,021 7,027
Goats ........................... 1000 head 5 5 627 1,753 3,142 5
Swine ........................... 1000 head 1,3729 2,450 2,666 2,226 1,561 1,384
Chickens........................ 1000 head a 3,12810 13,56211 18,063 21,52611 5

1All ages.
2Data from 1860 through 1890 obtained from Texas Almanac, and for subsequent years from Railroad Commission of Texas.
3Preliminary, from Railroad Commission of Texas.
4Includes all land regularly tilled or mowed, land in pasture that has been cleared or tilled, land lying fallow, land in gardens, orchards, vineyards,
nurseries, and, except in 1930 and 1935, land occupied by farm buildings.
sNo reports.
'500-pound-bale equivalents.
7Running bales.
SExcludes spring colts, lambs, and calves.
9Excludes range horses and mules, cattle, sheep, and swine.
I Excludes spring hatchings.
I Includes fowls 3 months old and older.


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DESCRIPTION OF AGRICULTURE AND TYPE-OF-FARMING AREAS 9

Following the annexation of Texas by the United States and the final
settlement of the Mexican claims with the termination of the United
States-Mexican War in 1848, tremendous increases were made in popula-
tion numbers and in the concurrent development of natural resources in
the State. The first formal census enumeration, made in 1850, showed a
total population, excluding Indians, of 212,592. There were approxi-
mately 11,398,337 acres of land in farms, of which approximately 639,117
acres were improved. Between 1850 and 1860, the population of Texas
was nearly trebled, and the land in farms had increased to 25,344,000
acres, of which 2,651,000 acres were improved. This rapid development
was made possible by the construction of transportation facilities and by
the gradual settling of the Indian question.
The Civil War impoverished the State and disrupted its agriculture, but
following the reconstruction period the sharp upward trend in population,
production, and related factors was resumed. The nature and extent of
agricultural production and data on certain related factors such as popu-
lation and railroads are shown in Table 1.

FACTORS INFLUENCING THE AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
OF TEXAS
Physical and Biological Factors
Land and its attributes of soil, surface, and climate constitute the
physical factors that influence the kinds and amounts of agricultural pro-
duction. The operation of these factors is usually well understood because
of the easily discerned changes in vegetative covering or in the kinds of
crops that are associated with changes in the physical environment.
The climatic conditions of temperature and moisture determine the
range of crops that may successfully be grown. These conditions vary
widely within the State but their influence from one climatic zone to the
other is manifested only gradually. More sharp are the changes in kinds
of crops caused by differences in soil types and surface features. Although
a variety of crops may be grown under a given set of climatic conditions,
the specific localization of these crops will depend largely on soil and
surface differences. Certain soil types are better suited to cotton, for
example, than to other crops because of the relatively higher cotton
yields obtained. Other soils of relatively lower productiveness or on
slopes too steep for the successful production of cultivated crops may be
used primarily for grazing. This is well illustrated by the distinct change
from the intensively cropped land in the lower part of the fertile, gently
rolling Black Waxy Prairie to the grazing lands in the roughly surfaced
Edwards Plateau immediately to the west.
The biological factors of insect pests and diseases also affect the
character of agriculture and may cause changes in the crops grown and
livestock kept. Biological factors are usually more subject to control,
however, than the physical conditions discussed above. Unfortunately,
data are not available on the extent to which insects and diseases affect
agricultural production in the various parts of the State. Figures 1 to 9
pertain, therefore, to the physical factors that influence agricultural pro-
duction in Texas. A brief explanatory discussion is shown at the bottom
of each chart.










DESCRIPTION OF AGRICULTURE AND TYPE-OF-FARMING AREAS 9

Following the annexation of Texas by the United States and the final
settlement of the Mexican claims with the termination of the United
States-Mexican War in 1848, tremendous increases were made in popula-
tion numbers and in the concurrent development of natural resources in
the State. The first formal census enumeration, made in 1850, showed a
total population, excluding Indians, of 212,592. There were approxi-
mately 11,398,337 acres of land in farms, of which approximately 639,117
acres were improved. Between 1850 and 1860, the population of Texas
was nearly trebled, and the land in farms had increased to 25,344,000
acres, of which 2,651,000 acres were improved. This rapid development
was made possible by the construction of transportation facilities and by
the gradual settling of the Indian question.
The Civil War impoverished the State and disrupted its agriculture, but
following the reconstruction period the sharp upward trend in population,
production, and related factors was resumed. The nature and extent of
agricultural production and data on certain related factors such as popu-
lation and railroads are shown in Table 1.

FACTORS INFLUENCING THE AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
OF TEXAS
Physical and Biological Factors
Land and its attributes of soil, surface, and climate constitute the
physical factors that influence the kinds and amounts of agricultural pro-
duction. The operation of these factors is usually well understood because
of the easily discerned changes in vegetative covering or in the kinds of
crops that are associated with changes in the physical environment.
The climatic conditions of temperature and moisture determine the
range of crops that may successfully be grown. These conditions vary
widely within the State but their influence from one climatic zone to the
other is manifested only gradually. More sharp are the changes in kinds
of crops caused by differences in soil types and surface features. Although
a variety of crops may be grown under a given set of climatic conditions,
the specific localization of these crops will depend largely on soil and
surface differences. Certain soil types are better suited to cotton, for
example, than to other crops because of the relatively higher cotton
yields obtained. Other soils of relatively lower productiveness or on
slopes too steep for the successful production of cultivated crops may be
used primarily for grazing. This is well illustrated by the distinct change
from the intensively cropped land in the lower part of the fertile, gently
rolling Black Waxy Prairie to the grazing lands in the roughly surfaced
Edwards Plateau immediately to the west.
The biological factors of insect pests and diseases also affect the
character of agriculture and may cause changes in the crops grown and
livestock kept. Biological factors are usually more subject to control,
however, than the physical conditions discussed above. Unfortunately,
data are not available on the extent to which insects and diseases affect
agricultural production in the various parts of the State. Figures 1 to 9
pertain, therefore, to the physical factors that influence agricultural pro-
duction in Texas. A brief explanatory discussion is shown at the bottom
of each chart.
















10 BULLETIN NO. 544, TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION


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WIRST CIJMEAAA WO
WIN5TOT"ORST -NIMUO0 GROUP N
An~*CNDTAOIST -MMKOILD FILAILIES

STISHOMINGO- TESER.NALES OR.OU
ELJt B GA1 PLAW
=9 ICTORIA -COLAS -OILAT GZOUP

M L~ DUVAL VYIES GROU
MAVERICKIIL -ZAPATA OR4UP
BttNNLL*WA NUECES GROUP
LOMA)*LTA-POINT ISAEAEL GROUP
EWAILD3 PLATEAUV


Il VALEOAFW TNYLN UOP

9P ETO R~_


ROUJM( PLAINS
ASILENCUN -RosmV -fO"*

W EOItONX BROKEN LAND 0000
MILES -VERNON GR4OAA
HIGH PLAINS
PUt~ PLLMAN (- ftlClif IfL GLOUP

r AMARLLAOA NDY LOAM GROUP


ElTERP RIS E 0AND'S00001
VASIN-5 4 1OUNTfAINS
ROf RrH SONI LAND bttwsTm GotOUP
E ~REEVES -VE"ALEN G"UP l DYON
ALLUVAL SOLS

COMV69TIONAL SIGNS
00000 -1 MAIR AREA OF DEFP SANDS


Figure 1.-Texas, comprising approximately 167,934,720 acres, may be
subdivided into 12 natural geographic areas on the basis of differences in
surface features, related soil types, and native vegetation. These 12 areas
may be further subdivided into 39 sub-areas in which the principal
soil series are closely related. The types of soils in Texas range from dune
sands in parts of western and southwestern Texas to heavy clays in the cen-
tral and coastal prairies. Sharp differences in soils often result in wide
differences in cropping systems even when surface and climatic conditions are
similar. Note, for example, the soil differences and resulting sharp demarca-
tion of the wheat from the cotton areas in the High Plains. (Figures 1, 35,
and 39.)


,o S -uis. Lea,

-A-












DESCRIPTION OF AGRICULTURE AND TYPE-OF-FARMING AREAS 11


SOIL EROSION MAP OFTEXAS
Prepared bx W.T. CARTER
DIVISION OF SOIL SURVEY
Texas Agricultural Experiment Station
co-operating wifh *
Bureau of Cem/7sfirV/ and Soi/s
UNITED STATES DePARTIMNT OF AoGICULTURE -
SCALE OF MILES
o 7o iso aI o


-LEGEND -

SFLAT TO UNOULATIi Lil//e or no wo/er erosion
[ft ] O Uv.ouLarlAN ro Ve.ey GeNery ROL.LIN Sh-I sheel
erosion and o fee gui//es
GOeWTLY TO L5-rOotY ROLLINo w/," some sHee/ a/o/,es Ond
/// oreas consderab/e erosion ,/arge/, by y//yiny Tl l
S HILLY ,STCrPLY SLOPfG AND STRSNORGLY ROLLING -Severel/ eroded
and unsuited for cu/1vafi/on /ore/y by reason of eroded I' -" -
and denuded broken condition

I A7ooe7D-rC TO LIoGHT IND EWI SON S/0s,

I .#1 Sevn E WvNo ERos/oNV






Figure 2.-Soil erosion in Texas presents a problem of vast importance
because of the physical handicap it places upon agricultural production. As
indicated on the map, there are large areas in the State that are in serious
need of conservation practices that will halt the loss of top-soil now in
process of being washed or blown away. Another aspect of the soil conserva-
tion problem that is not generally recognized is the more effective utilization
of available moisture through the control of run-off water in areas of limited
rainfall.











12 BULLETIN NO. 544, TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION


ELEVATION


Figure 3.-Approximate location of lines of equal elevation in Texas. The
State slopes from the northwest to the southeast, ranging from more than
4,000 feet in elevation in the Panhandle Area to near sea level in the Gulf
Coast Area, in large parts of which drainage is a serious problem. Differences
in elevation are closely related to differences in the length of growing season.
(Figure 6.)












DESCRIPTION OF AGRICULTURE AND TYPE-OF-FARMING AREAS 13


Figure 4.-Average annual rainfall, in inches, and average monthly dis-
tribution of rainfall at selected stations in Texas. (U. S. Weather Bureau.)
The annual rainfall in Texas ranges from 50 inches in Orange and Jefferson
Counties in the easternmost section of Texas to less than 10 inches in the
extreme western part. Note the dotted line designating the approximate
western limit of dry farming. An example of the effect of rainfall on the
production of dry-farmed crops in Texas may be noted from the geographic
distribution of the acreages in corn and grain sorghums. Corn is the principal
feed-grain crop east of the 25-inch rainfall line but west of that line it is
relatively much less important than grain sorghums. (Figures 4, 36, and 37.)


porrep Live 0'Per~xi7?Qfos wrCrr4N L,,7,7
0)0' -5o7,-,"qr, c 0e Pq.MlIV4












14 BULLETIN NO. 544, TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION


Average -4154 Standard Deviation-7.22 Coefftof Variation-.17

50 Lc nq vi w 20.8
25 10-4

50 0
20 /a - 04

C5 ------ -- ---- -- -- -- -- -- -- ---- 208
75 -------- ---- 3/2

Average .40o Standard Deviation aqs Coeff of Variation-.29


75 216







Average 2696 Standard Deviation-783 Coeff of Variation-29
75 -------- ---- 201
26 | 1 "',7

25 I I i | 1 q .- i i 7_



50- I ---- /5.6







75 ---- ------ 2o
Average -26.96 Standard Deviation-534 Coeffof Variation-.26
75 920
s o At 6 vi





20



25 -- ---- ----- -- .sj
25- -I- l -1-- --- -i -i -- I 3

50 -- ---- /a.6
75 j2o








25 - --- --- -4--- - -- - 3A


Average -1. 41 Standard Deviation-e.82 Coeffof Variation -.37
75 A +5.9
50 06


25 mI -453



5o 1 9o.6


75 5.9






Average -14.29 41 Standard Deviation-5.47 Coeffof oVariation -.37
S- = I I I I I I I I 1 o1 1 /0-7

25 I.6
50 0/




Aveoge-14.29 Standard Deviation- Coefof Vation-j


,s, .......


/906 '07 8 09 70 71 72 "73 74 75


76 17


.1 11-- m i


'1,




0
I..
L&


v,
-U:
0
c


1 71
/0-7


26 29 20 2/ 22 23 24 JS 26 27 28 2 0


Ye a rs

Figure 5.-Yearly variations from average annual rainfall at selected sta-
tions in Texas, in inches and in percentages, for the period 1906-1930. (U. S.
Weather Bureau.) Standard deviation expresses the limits of variations, above
and below the average, within which approximately two-thirds of the years
at a single station will fall. The coefficient of variation furnishes, on the
other hand, a measure of variability as between stations. The variability
of annual rainfall and the probability of droughts become increasingly great
from east to west in Texas.


01
b


0





91


U,

U
U,


/0













DESCRIPTION OF AGRICULTURE AND TYPE-OF-FARMING AREAS


/90


220


,240


290


300


Figure 6.-Average length of growing season in Texas, measured by the
number of days between the last killing frost in spring and the first killing
frost in autumn. (U. S. Weather Bureau.) The length of growing season is
affected both by elevation, as pointed out in connection with Figure 3, and
by latitude. The average length of growing season in Texas ranges from
300 days and over in the vegetable-citrus area of southern Texas to 180 days
and less in the northwestern limits of the State. Relatively little cotton is
grown at present in territory with a growing season of less than 190 days.
(Figure 35.)


15














16 BULLETIN NO. 544, TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION


V




a)



0

a:
4-,


I)





4-)
a:


Figure 7.-Yearly variations from average length of growing season at
selected stations in Texas, in days and in percentages, for the period 1906-1930.
(U. S. Weather Bureau.) As in Figure 5, the standard deviation expresses
the limits of variation, above and below the average, within which approxi-
mately two-thirds of the years at a single station will fall. The coefficient
of variation furnishes, on the other hand, a measure of variability as between
stations.


Average 252 Standard Deviation- 16.49 Coeff of Variation- .07

75 175
so L on ovie/- ,awo
25L n 2
7-B --- -


25--------- 62.5
50 125.0
75 1875

Average 2 6 Standard Deviation 20.17 Coeff of Variation- .o8



251 i m i [ I 658
75 --- -- -o974

50 o I -" l [], I 6

25 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 65.8

50 A3I.a
75 19- 74

Average 3aa Standard Deviation- 2766 Coeff of Variation- .o

8rov nsill /6

50 1607

25 1 8&3
50--- /66.7
756 --I I I ---I -- ,- 250.0

Avera e 202 Standard Deviation 5.72 Coeff of Variation 08

Am ap'ill/
25- ----------------------- -J---4- fa



50 --oo.o
75 /500
7s- r 7 1-62

Average 2/9 Standard Deviation- a.76 Coeff of Variation- .0o

75 1-1629
so 8y i prin __ O
50 IO&

o .-.. _1 o --- I o
25 7 45 -- 64.3

75 12 /2.9

Average 224 Standard Deviation- 20.32 Coeff of Variation- o.0

75 I I6I.8I -1--6 .
5F rtF St ckton
50 112.2
25 ---- -- -------- 55.6
20 -- .--- --- -- 1/ o

50 I11 /12.2
75 ..-- -- - 166.8

/906 '07 'oa '09 O /o 1 '12 73 '4 'IS /6 17 '/ '19 '20 21 '22 '23 '24 '25 '26 '27 '28 '29 1930
Years


V
o-



0
2.




e
o
a)




.0
".
L-



c
ao



Q



3-
0












DESCRIPTION OF AGRICULTURE AND TYPE-OF-FARMING AREAS


April /5


April


Figure 8.-Average date of last killing frost in spring in Texas. (U. S.
Weather Bureau.) This figure together with Figure 9 serves to indicate the
approximate beginning and ending of the growing season in Texas. The
effects of spring temperatures on the time of planting a particular crop in
the different parts of the State are readily detectable by a casual observer.
Cotton harvesting in the Lower Rio Grande Valley is often under way in
late June and early July, when the crop in the High Plains Area is still in
the early stages of cultivation.


17













18 BULLETIN NO. 544, TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION


Ocf. O -


, Dec. I
Dec./5


Dec. I


Figure 9.-Average date of first killing frost in fall in Texas. (U. S.
Weather Bureau.) The northern limits of the successful production of some
crops in Texas are established by the average date of the first killing frost in
fall. In the northwestern limits of cotton production in Texas, for example,
an occasional early frost before cotton is matured results in the production
of low-grade "bollie" cotton.










DESCRIPTION OF AGRICULTURE AND TYPE-OF-FARMING AREAS 19

Economic and Social Factors

The influence of economic forces in determining the choice of farm
enterprises is usually not so apparent as that exerted by physical factors,
but it is evident none the less. As agriculture became increasingly com-
mercialized in Texad the economic considerations of relative costs and
returns became primary factors influencing the choice of farm enterprises
within the range established by the physical factors discussed in the pre-
ceding section. Market demands expressed in.terms of price took preced-
ence over home needs, and the production of commercial farm products
within each area tended to become specialized in one enterprise or a
combination of enterprises that yielded the greatest profit as compared
with other enterprises adapted to the area.
The economic considerations of costs and returns are closely interrelated
with the physical factors of soils, climate, and surface in determining the
commercial enterprises in the State and in its component areas. The
relative profitableness of various adapted enterprises in an area is deter-
mined by the relative yields or production obtained; by the relative
amounts of land, labor, and materials needed to produce a given unit of
products; and by the relative costs incurred and prices received for the
products.
'At given prices in central markets, the prices that farmers pay for cost
items and the prices they receive for products sold depend on the distance
from market, because of differences in the transportation and handling
charges involved. As the distance from market increases, prices received
for farm products decrease, whereas prices paid for market items used in
production are increased. Because of the lower value per unit of product
produced, wages also decrease with increased distance from urban centers,
unless the use of extensive production methods yields a production per
worker that offsets the lower price per unit of product. These conditions
also result in lower land values as distance from market increases. All of
these things point towards the practice of an extensive type of agriculture,
yielding products of high value in relation to weight, at the outer limits
of market areas. As the market is approached, there is a shift toward
more intensive types of agriculture yielding bulkier or more perishable
commodities with relatively high carrying charges. This factor of
economic location is affected, of course, by changes in transportation
methods and costs. Improvements in transportation facilities that result
in a more economical movement of perishables or bulky products from
distant points decrease the relative advantage of location near markets
and permit the introduction or expansion of such commodities in areas in
which physical or natural conditions are more favorable to their produc-
tion. This is well illustrated by the expansion of the truck crop industry
in the lower Rio Grande Valley and.other parts of South Texas following
the improvement of transportation facilities and the use of refrigerated
cars.
Over a period of time, changes in the relative profits from different
products may induce changes in the proportions or kinds of enterprises in
an area. These changes in relative profits may be caused by one or more
of a number of factors that may affect yields, prices paid and received, and











20 BULLETIN NO. 544, TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION

production methods. The operation of these factors is well illustrated in
the development of the large-scale cotton areas in western Texas. A wide-
spread shift from cattle grazing to cotton farming occurred following the
relatively low cattle prices and high cotton prices of the early 1920's.
This shift was made possible and was sustained by the development of
drought-resistant crops and by the use of large-scale, low-cost produc-
tion methods.

Despite the tendency towards specialization induced by the joint opera-
tion of physical and economic factors, there is no extensive area in Texas
in which the most profitable farm enterprise is the only one. It is usually
found desirable to include other farm-use enterprises of a complementary
nature, despite relatively low returns, in order to utilize labor and equip-
ment when these are not being used on the main enterprise, or to provide
a rotation for soil maintenance or improvement. In other cases, secondary
commercial enterprises may be included in the farm organization to pro-
vide an income to supplement that obtained from the major enterprise.
Lastly, the agricultural development of Texas and the choice of enter-
prises on individual farms in the State is affected by the human factor of
the farm people themselves and by the economic and social forces and
institutions associated with them. Personal preferences and aptitudes
are important, within limits, in causing variations in the choice of farm
enterprises. Custom and tradition likewise are important. Tenancy in
some cases is both a cause and an effect of the type of farming followed.
Relatively high real estate values and taxes, mortgage indebtedness, and
associated factors may necessitate the following of a type of farming that
may be too exploitative in nature to safeguard the continued productivity
of the land.
Figures 10 to 25, inclusive, portray some,of the important economic
and social factors that have operated in conjunction with physical and
biological conditions to shape Texas agriculture into its present pattern.
It was not possible, however, to assemble all the data needed to furnish
a complete explanation of the factors affecting the geographic distribution
of agricultural enterprises in the State. For example, no data are avail-
able at present as to the average farm prices of cost items and of sales
products in the different parts of the State. This and other discrepancies
can be corrected, at least in part, only by means of detailed studies in
each type-of-farming area.












DESCRIPTION OF AGRICULTURE AND TYPE-OF-FARMING AREAS 21


THOUSANDS OF PEReso/vs

/ tO fo20
S20 to 50
/ 50 fo /00
S/oo / to oo
S2 00 to300


7o7-Al- POPbpell /ON
5, 824, 71S


Figure 10.-Geographic distribution of population In Texas, 1930. (U. S.
Census.) Agriculture is the leading industry in Texas in terms both of
the number of people engaged in it and of the gross value of products. Of a
total population of 5,824,715 persons in 1930, 2,342,553, or 40 per cent, were
classed as farm population. Of a total of 2,207,118 persons 10 years old and
older engaged in gainful occupations, 842,001, or 38 per cent, were engaged
in agriculture. Note the close relationship between the distribution of popula-
tion on this map and the distribution of crop land shown in Figure 26.












22 BULLETIN NO. 544, TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION


State Average- 60.9 Per Cent
Figure 11.-Percentage of all farms oper-
ated by all classes of tenants, by counties,
Texas, 1929. (U. S. Census.)


I I 0-11.9% V.il ^^
l] /5-2t.9 7,



45- 59.9 7
60 ^ olOwner Stafe Aver-age-332PerCent

Figure 12.-Percentage of all farm land
operated by all classes of tenants, by coun-
ties, Texas, 1929. (U. S. Census.)


Figures 11, 12, 13, and 14. Farm Tenantry in Texas. In 1929, tenants
operated 61 per cent of all the farms but only 33 per cent of the total farm
land in Texas. (Figures 11 and 12.) This is explained by the high percentage
of tenancy in intensively cropped areas in which farm units are small. A
somewhat parallel situation exists in respect to the proportions of different
classes of tenants and the amount of land operated by each class. Of the
total number of tenants in the State in 1929, 6 per cent were cash tenants,
35 per cent were croppers, and 59 per cent were classed as other tenants,
mostly "third-and-fourth" share tenants. On the basis of acreage of farm
area operated by all tenants, however, 29 per cent was operated by cash
tenants, 16 per cent was operated by croppers, and 55 per cent was operated
by other tenants, mostly "third-and-fourth" tenants. (Figures 13 and 14.)
The relatively small number of cash tenants in the State are found princi-
pally in the extensive livestock-grazing areas, in which a large acreage is
operated per person. (Figure 20.) Croppers, on the other hand, are found
largely in the eastern cotton-producing areas in which the acreage per
worker is relatively small. Other tenants occupy an intermediate position
between these two in respect to acreage operated per person and are found
largely in the large-scale cotton areas in the western part of the State as
well as in the eastern cotton sections. Owner-operation is most common in
the ranching areas; in the large-scale cotton, rice, and wheat areas in which
the acreage and production per person are relatively large; and in the
specialized truck and fruit areas in which a high degree of skill in opera-
tion is required.
A share cropper (or "half-hand") in the cotton areas in Texas usually
furnishes all of the labor and one-half of the expenses for fertilizer, poison,











DESCRIPTION OF AGRICULTURE AND TYPE-OF-FARMING AREAS 23


.. --





SLEGEND- LEGEND 9






SB o, 5; < State Average-5 4Per Cent % ocer State Averege-27 ZPer Cent

Figure 13.-Percentage of all farm land Figure 14.-Percentage of all farm land
operated by croppers, by counties, Texas, operated by tenants other than croppers, by
1929. (U. S. Census.) counties, Texas, 1929. (U. S. Census.)






and ginning in return for one-half of the crops he produces. A crop-share
tenant in these areas usually receives two-thirds of the feed crops and three-
fourths of the cotton lint and seed produced by him, and furnishes the labor,
workstock and equipment, seed, and three-fourths of the operating expenses
such as fertilizer, poison, and ginning. In the wheat areas, the prevailing
practice is for the tenant to receive two-thirds of the wheat and other crops
produced and to furnish the labor, workstock and equipment, seed, and
materials used in crop production. Share croppers approximate wage hands
and are usually closely directed and supervised, whereas share tenants, par-
ticularly in the western part of the State, approximate more nearly the
status of independent operators. However, there are wide variations.
The proportion of farms and of farm land operated by share tenants and
croppers is highest in the better farming areas in which cotton production
predominates. In the Black Waxy Prairie, one of the areas most intensively
cropped to cotton and one in which relatively high yields are obtained, the
percentage of tenancy in 17 of the 24 counties in the area ranges from 70 to
80 per cent. This high percentage of tenancy in the better farming areas is
related to the productivity of the land and to the system of farming fol-
lowed. Land that is so productive of income as to yield a surplus over oper-
ating and living expenses permits the accumulation by the thriftier and more
successful farmers of additional land, or presents desirable opportunities for
investment. The planting of an intensive crop such as cotton may necessitate
the hiring of labor. Whether this labor be employed on a share or on a cash-
wage basis is determined in part by sociological factors such as custom,
tradition, and type of people hired, but more largely by economic considera-
tions bearing on the mutual interests of employer and employee.












24 BULLETIN NO. 544, TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION


LEGEND -
- Pavelen A// Types
--- Surfaced- Grove/,ec. -All We/he,
proved Lora Road ,
Sor- h Roods
... Condi,'onol Desgnolion (1ol fanon,
SCALE .f MiLES


HIGHWAY SYSTEM -
OF

TEXAS
Adopted from Offcol Mop Pwvporfd by
-TEXAS STATE HIGHWAY COMMISSION -
MARCH 1936

OKLAHOMA


ARKANSAS
> Teuorkono


NEW Mexico


Figure 15.-Texas has an extensive highway system that is under constant
improvement. Many "country roads" that connect farms with markets exist
in addition to the State and Federal highways shown in the map. Of the
total number of 495,489 farms in Texas in 1930, 5 per cent were located
on hard-surfaced roads, 13 per cent on gravel or sand-clay roads, 41 per
cent on improved dirt roads, and 41 per cent on unimproved dirt and other
roads. The construction of improved roads and the development of rapid
transportation facilities have been important factors influencing the kinds
and amounts of agricultural production in the various areas in Texas.


..


\













DESCRIPTION OF AGRICULTURE AND TYPE-OF-FARMING AREAS 25


36a


s+*


LEGEND
SINOLLT. ACK
TWO OD MODE. TRACKS -
NARDOW GAUG. ------------
UNDE. CO5DTRUCTIO ---- -U -

SCAL-E.
25 0 01 SO 75 100l 1S 150 t 1
(IM MILE5


RAILROAD MAP
OF

T E XA 5
ADAPTib FROM MAP PREPAR-ED
UNDER T-LE DID-ECTION OF
C4IEF OF ENGIMEER5, U.S. ARMY
15SUE OF OCTOBER, 1935


Christ/


Figure 16.-The first railroad in Texas was built in 1851-1854 and ex-
tended from Harrisburg west to Stafford, a distance of 20 miles. In 1934, a
total of 16,398 miles of railroad, exclusive of sidings and yard track, was
reported to the Railroad Commission of Texas. The construction of rail-
roads into the interior of Texas facilitated rapid settlement beyond the
limited reaches of inland water transportation and brought the vast agri-
cultural resources of the State into contact with the markets of the United
States and of the world.













26 BULLETIN NO. 544, TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION


LEGENo
1 /5D- .5 D.OLL.,S \ ,-..'-l
--70- /5.-'?? Akm1-Ak-S -

.515- 9'F O.l S
60 71? ? Dowi.5
i 75 DOLLARS A Eo9 OeR
STrATE A VERAOE- $29. 00


/5 7

Figure 17.--Value of farm products (sold,
traded, or used by operator's family) per acre
of farm land, by counties, Texas, 1929. (U. S.
Census.) The total value of all products pro-
duced per acre of farm land is directly re-
lated both to the utilization and to the total
productivity of the land. The counties with
the lowest average value of products per
acre of farm land in 1929 were in the exten-
sive livestock grazing areas in the western
part of the State and in the Gulf Coast Area.
The differences in the average per-acre re-
turns obtained in these counties was largely
a reflection of differences in the carrying
capacities of the native pastures, and in the
proportions of the land area in crops. (Fig-
ures 57 and 26.) The highest average per-
acre values of farm products were in the
intensively cropped areas such as the Black
Waxy Prairie, the Corpus Christi Area, and
the irrigated sections, in which yields, pro-
duction, and values are relatively high.


Figure 18.-Value per acre of farm land
and buildings, by counties, Texas, 1930.
(U. S. Census.) In general, the value of farm
land is determined by its earnings. Note the
close association of average land values per
acre shown in this chart with the average
returns obtained per acre of farm land shown
in Figure 17. In much of the extensive
ranching area in which the returns from farm
products averaged less than $3 per acre, the
value of farm land and buildings averaged
less than $15 per acre. On the other hand,
in many counties in the better farming
areas in which the total value of farm
products averaged $15 or more per acre, the
value of farm land and buildings averaged
$75 or more per acre.












DESCRIPTION OF AGRICULTURE AND TYPE-OF-FARMING AREAS 27


LEGEND -"<
Do//ars
300 -69.99
700 -/099.99
// 1100-1899.99
/1oo -9zo 99.99
27oo 4699.99
i "700 wnd Over


SSate Average- $90. 00


LEGEND -
Acres
S- 99.99
J /00 199;-/99
200 -99.99
5I O -999 99
/000 -/1999.99
l ZOO0 on.7 Over


Figure 19.-Value of all farm products
(sold, traded, or used by operator's family)
per person 10 years old and older gainfully
employed in agriculture, by counties, Texas,
1929. (U. S. Census.) A situation almost en-
tirely the reverse of that shown in Figure 17
appears when farm earnings are expressed on
a per-worker instead of a per-acre basis.
Whereas it was shown that the highest per-
acre returns from farm products are ob-
tained in the eastern part and in the irrigated
sections of Texas, the returns per agricul-
tural worker in the western dry-farming and
grazing areas generally are the highest in
the State. The lower -returns obtained per
acre of farm land in most of the western
dry-farming and livestock-grazing areas of
the State are more than offset by the larger
number of acres operated per worker. (Fig-
ure 20.)


Figure 20.-Number of acres of crop and
pasture land operated per person 10 years
old and older gainfully employed in agricul-
ture, by counties, Texas, 1929. (U. S. Census.)
As stated in the discussion of Figure 19, the
low average returns per acre of farm land
in the livestock-grazing and western dry-
farming areas are so offset by the large acre-
age operated per person as to result in a
higher average income per worker in these
areas than in the eastern crop-farming areas
of the State. The striking differences in the
acreages of farm land operated per person
in the eastern and western parts of the
State are shown in the above figure. With
the exception of the Gulf Coast Area. in which
livestock grazing and rice production pre-
dominate, less than 100 acres of farm land
are operated per worker in the eastern part
of the State. The extreme contrast to this
is in the exetensive-grazing areas in the west-
ern part of the State, in which more than
2,000 acres, ranging up to more than 10,000
acres, are operated by one person with sea-
sonal help. Intermediate to this are the
farm units in the sub-humid areas of the
State in which large-scale farming is prac-
ticed. The causes of these differences in the
acreages of farm land operated per person
and the resulting effect on average sizes of
farms in the various parts of the State are
explained in the discussion of Figure 21.


State Average- /45 Acres













28 BULLETIN NO. 544, TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION


Tr/ 7- -

F 1- ,-















Figure 21.-Geographic distribution of all farms, and of farms according
to size measured in acres. Texas, 1930. (U. S. Census.) On the basis of the
Census Bureau policy of classifying the land operated by each tenant and
cropper ("half-hand") family as a separate farm, Texas is predominantly a
smali-farm State. Approximately 59 per cent of all the farms in the State
in 1930 were less than 100 acres in size, 29 per cent ranged from 100 to 259
acres, and 12 per cent were more than 259 acres in size. Livestock ranches
are included in these data. The relative frequency of different-sized farms
in the various parts of the State is determined by the general type of land
utilization and of farming followed (i.e., forestry, extensive livestock grazing,
crop production, etc.) and by the number of acres that the average farm
worker or farm family finds it possible and economical to operate under
the production conditions in each area. (Figure 19.) The farms in the eastern
part of the State are predominantly small because of the large amount of
labor required to produce an acre of cotton, the principal crop grown. (Sec-
tion (2) above.) This in turn is caused by the abundant weed growth
resulting from the heavy rainfall and, in part, by the physical difficulties of
using large-scale machinery. These conditions become less pronounced in
the central and western parts of the State, in which intermediate-sized farms
of 100-259 acres predominate. (Section (3) above.) Large farms are most
numerous in the western part of the State in which the low rainfall and
consequent small weed growth necessitate very little hand labor in cultiva-
tion, and in which the level surface and easily tilled soil of much of the
crop land permits the fullest use of large-scale machinery. (Section (4)
above.) The largest operating units are in the extensive-livestock-grazing
areas, in which individual ranches often comprise thousands of acres.











DESCRIPTION OF AGRICULTURE AND TYPE-OF-FARMING AREAS 29


STrAE TOTAL 45,63/,303
IDOT = 50, 000


Figure 22.-Farm expenditures for fertilizer in Texas, 1929. (U. S. Oensus.)
Fertilizer is not used in significant quantities in Texas except in the eastern
part of the State in which the average annual rainfall exceeds 38 to 40
inches, and in which the soils are of low natural fertility but respond well
to fertilizer treatment. Fertilizer is not used in the remainder of the State
either because of the natural fertility of the soil or because of the lack of
response to fertilization. Limited amounts of fertilizer are used in the irri-
gated truck-crop areas.












30 BULLETIN NO. 544, TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION


, STr TOTAL-A65, 6609/2
/Dor = SO, 000


Figure 23.-Cash expenditures for farm labor in Texas, 1929. (U. S.
Census.) Labor constitutes the largest cash item in the farmer's operating
expenses in Texas. This cash expense would be increased tremendously, of
course, if the housing facilities provided the laborers and the shares of farm
products received by tenants and croppers for their labor were converted
into cash equivalents. The areas with the largest cash expenditures for labor
in Texas are the intensive cotton-producing areas and the irrigated areas.
In both these groups of areas, the seasonal labor requirements of the crops
grown are such that large amounts of labor additional to the regular farm
force are needed periodically. In the major cotton areas, notably the Black
Waxy Prairie, the Corpus Christi Area, and the High Plains and Rolling
Plains Areas, one man usually grows a larger cotton acreage than he can
harvest alone, and large amounts of labor, largely Negro and Mexican, are
hired for this operation.












DESCRIPTION OF AGRICULTURE AND TYPE-OF-FARMING AREAS 31


STATE TOTAL 37604,065
/Dor = 50, 000


Figure 24.-Farm expenditures for feed in Texas, 1929. (U. S. Census.)
The heaviest farm expenses for feed in Texas are in the areas adjacent to the
larger cities. These purchases are made largely by specialized dairy, poultry,
and truck farmers who dispose of their products locally and, to a lesser
extent, by commercial feeders of livestock for slaughter. Other feed pur-
chases are distributed rather generally throughout the State, with some
tendency toward a concentration in the areas in which cash crops such as
wheat, cotton, and truck crops occupy a major proportion of the cultivated
land. It should be borne in mind that the data on farm feed expenses charted
above pertain to feed purchased from neighboring farmers in the State as
well as to feed purchased from out-of-State sources.










32 BULLETIN NO. 544, TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION


STA7T-oT7AL 37346 77,Acroes
I/OrT = 5'"0 72 Acro.s


Figure 25.--Tractors on farms in Texas, 1930. (U. S. Census.) The
largest concentrations of farm tractors in Texas are in areas in which the
surface is open and level or only gently rolling, and in which the crops
generally grown are produced with little hand work or with the use of
seasonal labor readily available during periods when hand labor is needed
for such operations as hoeing and harvesting. These conditions are met
entirely or in part in six extensive areas in Texas: the irrigated lower
Rio Grande Valley; the Corpus Christi Area (Nueces,- San Patricio, and parts
of Jim Wells and Kleberg Counties); the Gulf Coast Area northeast of
San Patricio County; the specialized wheat area in the northern High Plains
Area; the cotton-grain sorghum areas in the southern High Plains and in the
Rolling Plains; and the Black Waxy Prairie. For representative groups of
counties in each of these areas, the number of tractors per 10,000 acres in
crop land in 1929 were 66, 33, 23, 21, 9, and 8, respectively.
The number of tractors per unit of crop land is not entirely representative
of the relative importance of tractor use in different areas, because of the
differences in the acreage handled per machine or per horse in the different
parts of the State. When the rough measure of one tractor being equal to
six horses is used as the basis for estimating the proportion of the farm
power furnished by tractors, the relative order of the areas as given above
is changed. On this basis, the specialized wheat area in the northern High
Plains ranked first, with an estimated 51 per cent of its crop land operated
with tractors in 1929. The other areas and the estimated proportion of their
crop land worked with tractors in 1929 were the irrigated lower Rio Grande
Valley, 39 per cent; the Corpus Christi Area, 36 per cent; the Gulf Coast Area,
15 per cent; the southern High Plains and Rolling Plains cotton-grain sorghum
areas, 14 per cent; and the Black Waxy Prairie Area, 9 per cent. Some of
the considerations affecting the use of tractor power and large field machinery
in the various parts of the State are discussed in connection with the
description of individual areas beginning on page 74.
Although horses and mules are by far the most important source of
motive power on farms in Texas, these data indicate the large use that is
being made of tractors in areas in which physical and other conditions favor
their adoption. Information obtained from studies and observations Indi-
cates a sharp increase in tractors, particularly in 1935, following the curtailed
feed supplies and relatively high feed prices caused by the widespread
drought in 1934.










DESCRIPTION OF AGRICULTURE AND TYPE-OF-FARMING AREAS 33

LAND UTILIZATION AND CROP DISTRIBUTION IN TEXAS

The 34,766,166 acres of crop land in Texas in 1929 comprised 21 per
cent of the total land area of 167,934,720 acres in the State and 28 per
cent of the 124,707,130 acres included in the 495,489 farms operated that
year. The remainder of the land in farms was used primarily for pasture.
The 43,227,590 acres in the State not in farms were in forest land owned
mostly by lumber interests and located principally in the southeastern part
of the State; in a limited amount of waste land and land either not reported
to census enumerators or not privately appropriated into farms; and in
land in cities, roads, rivers, etc.

The use of land is determined by the pressure of economic and human
forces and by the physical nature of the land itself. The geographic
aspects in Texas of certain of the major elements in these two groups
of factors are presented and discussed in the two preceding sections. As
already noted, economic, social, and biological factors change rapidly and
differ in their effect on the use made of land at one period as compared
with another. In Texas, the net result of the operation of these factors
has been chiefly in the direction of shifting the agricultural use of land
from extensive livestock grazing to crop production and of clearing wood-
land for cultivation.

The charts in this section pertain to the general subdivisions of the
land area of Texas into crop land, woodland, and pasture in 1929, and to
the geographic distribution of the acreages in the major crops grown that
year. Figures 26, 27, and 28 illustrate the distribution of the total crop
land, the relative values of the principal crops in 1929, and the long-time
trend in the number of acres in the principal crops. Figures 29 and 30
serve to indicate the areas in which future increases in crop acreage are
most likely to occur. Figures 31 and 32 pertain to the total pasture land
and to the kinds of native grasses and other vegetation found in different
parts of the State. The extent of various dominant types of tree covering
is shown in Figure 33, and the location and extent of irrigated areas in
Figure 14. Figures 35 to 43, inclusive, portray the distribution of the
principal crops grown in the State.












34 BULLETIN NO. 544, TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION


STATE TOTAL 34 766,/66 AcRES
/DOT =5000 ACRES


Figure 26.-Acreage of crop land in Texas, 1929. (U. S. Census.) The
largest concentrations of crop acreage are in the areas in which land adapted
to intensive crop production could be put into and maintained in cultivation
at the least cost, i. e., with little or no clearing, drainage, or irrigation.
Note the large concentrations of crop acreage, for example, in the Black Waxy
Prairies, the Corpus Christi Area, the more level areas in the Rolling Plains,
and the parts of the High Plains north and south of the Canadian River.
Many parts of these areas were plowed without any preliminary work of
clearing. In 1929, these areas contained approximately 54 per cent of the
total crop acreage in the State. A considerable addition could be made to
the crop land in the State through the drainage of wet lands and the utiliza-
tion of tillable pastures, as discussed in connection with Figures 29 and 30.
There are available no basic estimates of the amount of additional land that
could be put into crop production through irrigation.
With the exception of relatively small irrigated sections, a vast area
in the semi-arid and arid southwestern part of the State is devoted almost
exclusively to grazing. The dotted line in Figure 4 indicates the present
approximate western limit of systematic dry farming. Extensive grazing
areas are also found in the Edwards Plateau, in the Rio Grande Plains in
the southern part of the State, on the rougher phases of the land lying east
of the High Plains to the Black Waxy Prairie, and in the Canadian River
bottoms. The greater proportion of the land in these areas is so rough and
broken as to make impossible the economical production of crops at present.
Considerable grazing is also done on the Gulf Coast prairies in areas in which
crop production usually is not possible without drainage.











DESCRIPTION OF AGRICULTURE AND TYPE-OF-FARMING AREAS 35


ACREAGE FARM VALUE
Millions of Acres CR OP Mill//ions of Dollars
15 0 5 0__0o 200 300
Cof on, Lin tandeed Se ed
Corn
Grain Sorgum
Wheat I
S Oats
S All Hay
S Barley
Vegetables -for sale
Peanuts
Rice I


O/ncome from sa/es plus estimate of value of products used on farms


Figure 27.-Harvested acreages and farm values of the principal crops in
Texas, 1929. (Data on vegetables for sale from U. S. Census of 1930; all other
daTa from Bureau of Agricultural Economics.) Cotton is by far the leading
crop in Texas, in terms both of the acreage occupied and of the returns
obtained. In 1929, cotton occupied approximately 55 per cent of the harvested
crop land in the State. The combined acreages of the next four most
important crops that year-corn, grain sorghum, wheat, and oats-amounted
to 71 per cent of the acreage in cotton, whereas the combined farm values
of these four crops amounted to only 41 per cent of the value of cotton and
cottonseed. During the 10-year period 1924-1933, the cash income from
cotton and cottonseed in Texas amounted to 61 per cent of the cash returns
from all crops and 247 per cent of the cash returns from livestock. (For
relative numbers and farm values of livestock, see Figure 44.) During the
10-year period 1921-1930, an average of 32 per cent of the United States
cotton crop was produced in Texas.













36 BULLETIN NO. 544, TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION


18
17




14









8 I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I[ |



7


"-%a2-- 5-%'-W
# - .--, --_- y--_--, ....- -< ......

.. .. . .. ... ... ... ... .. .. -. . ,.-


/866 '68 70 72 74 76 78 '80 82 '4 86 '88 0 92 3 '96 98 1900 02 'O 04 6 '08 70 12 74 0 I8 O 22 2 216 0280 JO 32 w9
Yeoar5


Figure 28.-Acres in cotton, corn, grain sorghums, wheat, oats, and barley
and rye in Texas, 1866-1935. (Bureau of Agricultural Economics, U. S.
Department of Agriculture.) The area in the leading cash and cultivated
feed crops in Texas increased from 1,291,000 acres in 1866 to 30,746,000 acres
in 1931, an average increase of 453,154 acres annually. This rapid increase
in crop acreage was closely associated with the extension of transportation
facilities into the interior of the State. (See Table 1.) Cotton acreage
increased much more rapidly than the acreage in other crops. The acreages in
cotton and corn increased approximately at the same rate until 1887, with
the acreage in corn slightly more than that in cotton. With increased
specialization in cotton production, particularly in the Black Waxy Prairie,
and with the expansion of production into the western and southern parts
of the State, the acreage in cotton soon outstripped that in other crops.
In 1926, the peak cotton year, the acreage in cotton was 62 per cent higher
than the combined acreages in the other crops shown in the chart. After
1930 and 1931, the acreages in cotton and wheat decreased abruptly under the
pressure of low prices and as a result of the adjustment programs of the
Agricultural Adjustment Administration. On the other hand, increases
occurred in the acreages in corn, grain sorghums, and other crops used
primarily for feed and food.
Note the rapid increase in grain sorghum acreage since 1919, the first
year for which annual data are available. Grain sorghums are the chief
feed crop in the western and southern parts of the State in which the
average annual rainfall is less than 25 inches. (See Figure 37.)


'9


u~-

0



0


o.











DESCRIPTION OF AGRICULTURE AND TYPE-OF-FARMING AREAS


STATE TOTAL 6,Q22,OOAcARs
/Dor =/O, 00OAcs


Figure 29.-Wet lands in Texas that are cultivable if drained, 1919.
Although recent estimates on this are not available, there were approxi-
mately 6,823,000 acres of drainable wet land in Texas in 1919. Some of this
land has been brought into cultivation since 1919, but the bulk of it still
constitutes potential crop acreage that may be farmed when demand condi-
tions justify. Practically all of this wet land is in the river valleys and
Gulf Coast prairies of eastern Texas. (Based upon data prepared by
F. J. Marschner, Bureau of Agricultural Economics, and L. A. Jones, Bureau
of Public Roads, U. S. Department of Agriculture.)


37












38 BULLETIN NO. 544, TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION


STATE TTOTA-L //,156,355 ACRES
/Dor =5000 ARErs


Figure 30.-Plowable pasture in Texas, 1929. (U. S. Census.) Approxi-
mately 11,156,000 acres of land in Texas farms in 1929 could have been
plowed and used for crops without clearing, drainage, or irrigation. The
areas with the largest acreages of such land are the wheat and cotton areas
in the High Plains section of western Texas, the ranching-cotton-rice area
in the Gulf Coast section, and a ranching-farming area in the north-central
part of the State. Prior to the reduction program of the Agricultural Adjust-
ment Administration, the trend in crop acreage in these areas was definitely
upward, particularly in the High Plains section. Relatively high prices for
farm products will probably cause this upward trend to be resumed at an
accelerated rate.












DESCRIPTION OF AGRICULTURE AND TYPE-OF-FARMING AREAS 39


STATr TOrAL 86,942,437AcRES
/DOT = /0, 000 AcRES


Figure 31.-Total pasture land in Texas, 1929. (U. S. Census.) Approxi-
mately 70 per cent of the total area in farms in Texas in 1929 was used
for pasture. Of the area in pasture, approximately 13 per cent was classed
as land that could be plowed without clearing, draining, or irrigating
(Figure 30); 17 per cent as woodland pasture; and 70 per cent as other pasture.
In 1929, the total area in pasture exceeded the total area in crop land by
150 per cent. This chart and Figure 26, together with Figure 46, serve to
distinguish the predominantly farming areas from the areas in which live-
stock grazing is the leading enterprise. The distribution of cattle, sheep,
and goats is not in direct proportion to the distribution of pasture acreage,
of course, because of the wide differences in the kinds and character of native
vegetation and the resulting wide differences in the carrying capacities of
pastures in the different parts of the State. (Figures 32 and 57.)











40 BULLETIN NO. 544, TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION


LEGcNO -
I Marsh / sd/fgr/ases se lr.
STif berd ares. P/ne wii .lh/
soe /7ard/woaa, 7osf/y oks. a .,
ff ,z-&owk i re/mabreuaors w/Ah'-
mury 5mal//lrolri/s. ^ I r
IOPrairie. Coaro e rses. is
YPra/ie. Coarse bu'ch 7s.
ZPra1 irie. B/7ch grasses soe
shorl -grsses; s/oe/ """ og so,, r/o s
mfres5 sprues in sou/hern lor Tl











~e'SAr/seio s. L .uiye &) / s^
.. r





Coa"fe Ancc grasse so~/ js
yramo erases; mesyc/Ye fr/ee shrvs; some oaak.


S7'mered ma,//Y, 5oepralr7es included. Oah5s;
m esPl//e trees i sfou/heri /ert
2T ch-gruss siorf-yrss p/a/nons wi/h
scff/erec/ eswi/e frees s"hrus
X7 Sorf-grass p/a/7s.
3 Ar'-/lanad Veefaf/on.. T7hin rowf/ of rass.
2FV loderaoe yrass cover.


Figure 32.--The native vegetation in Texas. (Adapted from Texas Agri-
cultural Experiment Station Bulletin No. 431, The Soils of Texas, by W. T.
Carter.) Differences in native vegetation in the various parts of the State
are closely associated with differences in soils and climate, as may be noted
from a comparison of this map with Figures 1, 4, and 6. The type and charac-
ter of growth of native vegetation influences the carrying capacity of native
pastures (Figure 57) and also the cost and rapidity with which additional
land may be brought into cultivation. The areas most rapidly developed
for crop production in Texas have been those in which little or no clearing
was necessary.











DESCRIPTION OF AGRICULTURE AND TYPE-OF-FARMING AREAS


LEGEND
FOREST REGIONS oF TEXAS 1
SSHORTLEA P.NE -TEXAS FOREST SERVICE-

l LOBLOLLY PINE 0 CO GE STATION, TSXA
POST OAK X -'.......
o ASTERN CR,05s TMBES ER FOREST TYPE MAP-
g CEDAR BRAKES KAHM RK__
O WESTERN CROSS TIMBERS OKLAHOMA ARKANSAS
PINION PINE, MOUNTAIN OAKS
AND CEDAR.S .. I"".. l. i
[ @ PONDEROSA PINE LIMBER PINE
a j NON- TIMBERED
STATE & NATIONAL FORESTS -L-I .'
NATIONAL FOREST PURCHASE AREA i""lL.r"l'iMl (
0 STATEFOREST l .

I ......... 4









CC-













Figure 33.-The pine forests of eastern Texas are the most valuable
timber resource in the State and furnish a basis for commercial lumbering
operations as well as for a substantial portion of the farm income of that
section. The forest types west of the pine area include post oak, cedar, and
other areas of lesser importance. The forest region ends in the approximate
zone in which the average annual rainfall ranges from 25 to 30 inches.
(Figure 4.) It is estimated that the forest areas of Texas comprise approxi-
mately 9,422,000 acres.












42 BULLETIN NO. 544, TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION


Figure 34.-Irrigated areas in Texas, 1929. (U. S. Census.) Aside from
the irrigated rice area in the Gulf Coast section of southeastern Texas, the
production of irrigated crops is largely confined to the sub-humid and arid
parts of the State in which moisture deficiency is a problem. Approximately
798,917 acres of land were irrigated in Texas in 1929, with an estimated value
of harvested products of $33,220,965. Listed in order of importance according
to acreage harvested, the principal crops grown under irrigation in Texas in
1929 were cotton; rice; vegetables harvested for sale, principally cabbage,
spinach, tomatoes, and dry onions; orchard crops, principally citrus; corn;
hay crops, principally alfalfa; and sorghums for grain and forage.












DESCRIPTION OF AGRICULTURE AND TYPE-OF-FARMING AREAS 43


STA7T TorAL /6,8/3,568 AcREs
/Dor =5000 ACRES


Figure 35.-Cotton acreage harvested in Texas, 1929. (U. S. Census.)
Cotton production in Texas does not extend at present beyond the approxi-
mate limits of territory with a growing season of 190 days or more and,
except under irrigation, with an annual rainfall of approximately 18 inches
or more. (See Figure 6 for length-of-growing-season zones and Figure 4
for rainfall zones.) Within these limits, cotton acreage is distributed over
the State roughly on the same basis as is crop land. (Figure 26.) The areas
of heaviest concentration of cotton acreage are on the fertile soils of the
Black Waxy Prairie and Corpus Christi Areas, and in the High Plains and
Rolling Plains in which low-cost production methods are practiced. (Areas
14a, 14b, 14c, 10, 3, 4a, and 4c in Figure 55.)












44 BULLETIN NO. 544, TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION


STATE ThT7AL 4,250, 717AcRes.
lOT =- 5000 Atews


Figure 36.-Total corn acreage in Texas, 1929. (U. S. Census.) The
4,251,000 acres in corn in Texas in 1929 comprised approximately 14 per cent
of the harvested crop land in the State. Corn requires plenty of moisture for
satisfactory production. The bulk of the corn acreage in Texas is found in
territory with an average annual rainfall of 25 inches or more. (Figure 4.)











DESCRIPTION OF AGRICULTURE AND TYPE-OF-FARMING AREAS 45


STATE TTAL /, 700,7/3 ACRES
/Dor = 5000 AcRE$


Figure 37.-Sorghums harvested for grain in Texas, 1929. (U. S. Census.)
Grain sorghums are efficient users of moisture and constitute the main
source of farm-produced feed grains in the farming areas in Texas in which
the average annual rainfall is less than 25 inches. The 1,701,000 acres in
sorghum harvested for grain in Texas in 1929 comprised approximately
6 per cent of the harvested crop land in the State.











46 BULLETIN NO. 544, TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION


STArr TOTAL. 2,168,715 ACRES
I DorT =000 A RES


Figure 38.-Sorghums harvested for silage, hay, or fodder in Texas, 1929.
(U. S. Census.) The sorghums are the principal forage crop in Texas. They
are substituted for hay crops on the great majority of farms from the Black
Prairie west. Sorghums harvested for silage, hay, or fodder occupied 2,169,000
acres or approximately 7 per cent of the harvested crop land in the State in
1929.











DESCRIPTION OF AGRICULTURE AND TYPE-OF-FARMING AREAS 47


STATE TOTAL 600,769 ACRES
/ Dor = 5000 AcR'ES


Figure 39.-Acreage in hay crops in Texas, 1929. (U. S. Census.) The
acreage in hay crops in Texas is relatively small. The principal hay produc-
tion areas in the State are in the Gulf Coast Area between Houston and
Victoria and in north-central Texas. The principal hay crops harvested in the
State in 1929 were, in order of extent of area, tame grasses, wild grasses,
annual legumes, small grains, and alfalfa.











48 BULLETIN NO. 544, TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION


STATE TOTAL 2,969,5// ACRES
/Dtor 5000 Acese


Figure 40.-Acreage in wheat threshed in Texas, 1929. (U. S. 'Census.)
Wheat is the fourth most important crop in Texas in terms of acreage occu-
pied and the third most important in terms of farm value. (Figure 27.) The
2,969,511 acres and 44,077,764 bushels harvested in the State in 1929 consti-
tuted approximately 5 and 6 per cent, respectively, of the United States totals.
Wheat, associated with grain sorghums for feed, is the dominant commercial
farm enterprise on the heavy, dark-colored soils in the northern part of the
High Plains. (Figure 1.) Cotton, also associated with grain sorghums for
feed, supplants wheat as the leading commercial farm enterprise on the
sandier, reddish soils in the southern part of the High Plains and the Rolling
Plains to the east, in which the length of growing season exceeds 190 days.
(Figure 35.) Some wheat and other small grains are produced on heavier
soils as far east as the eastern edge of the Black Waxy Prairie, with the
southern limit of wheat production approximately at the line of 240 days
or less in the growing season. (Figure 6.)











DESCRIPTION OF AGRICULTURE AND TYPE-OF-FARMING AREAS


7STAT T7oTAL /,O /40 AcaRe
/DOT 5000 AlcRs


Figure 41.-Acreage in oats harvested in Texas, 1929. (U. S. Census.)
Oats are the fifth most important crop in Texas in terms of acreage occupied
and of farm value. (Figure 27.) In general, the production of oats and
wheat is located in the same general territory, i. e., on the heavy soils in the
northern part of the High Plains and on the heavier soils of north-central
and central Texas as far east as the eastern edge of the Black Waxy Prairie.
(Figure 1.) However, in northwestern Texas, the acreage in oats is relatively
small compared with the wheat acreage; whereas the reverse holds true in
the north-central and central part of the State. In the former area, wheat
and grain sorghums are grown in preference to oats because of the greater
returns from these crops under the low rainfall conditions that prevail.
In north-central and central Texas, on the other hand, the heavier rainfall
and longer growing season result in increased wheat-rust damage, and oats
are of greater relative importance than wheat. A large proportion of the
oats in north-central and central Texas is grown on the shallower, less
fertile soils on which cotton yields are low compared with those on the
deeper, more fertile soils in the area. The present southern limit of oat
production in Texas is the zone in which the length of growing season is
approximately 250 to 260 days. (Figure 6.)


49











50 BULLETIN NO. 544, TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION


T--














,. .... ... ----- ... ..







STArTE TrAL 191,490 AcetEs 2
/DOT=I00OAc0es L


Figure 42.-Acreage in vegetables harvested for sale, Texas, 1929. (U. S.
Census.) The value of vegetables harvested for sale in Texas in 1929 amounted
to $14,125,151, or an average of almost $74.00 per acre. Listed in order of
importance according to acreage occupied, the leading vegetable crops in the
State in 1929 were watermelons, tomatoes, dry onions, cabbage, and spinach.
There are six important commercial vegetable areas in the State: The
mixed vegetable area in the lower Rio Grande Valley, mostly irrigated; the
dry onion-spinach area in the Winter Gardens area in Zavalla, Dimmit, and
Webb Counties, mostly irrigated; the watermelon-green corn area south of
San Antonio, largely in Wilson, Atascosa, and Bexar Counties; the dry onion-
cabbage area around Corpus Christi; the tomato and watermelon area
in northeastern Texas; and the watermelon area in north-central Texas.
Other areas of less importance are scattered throughout the eastern, humid
part of the State, particularly near cities or large towns in which ready
local markets for fresh vegetables are available.










DESCRIPTION OF AGRICULTURE AND TYPE-OF-FARMING AREAS 51


..... .....i... ... I ......










S- -u r L H_..7'L i.-_ -::"
J- _J. ..-- A




TOTAL BARLEY ACREAGE /93,862 L
7bTAt. R/CE ACzREAGE /05,6/6
/DOT =5 000AceeS I









Figure 43.-Barley and rice acreage harvested in Texas, 1929. (U. S.
Census.) Barley in Texas is found in the same general areas as are wheat
and oats, i. e., on the relatively heavy soils of northwestern, north-central,
and central Texas. (Figures 40, 41, and 1.) The area in barley is relatively
unimportant compared with the acreages in wheat and oats.
During the 5-year period 1928-1932, approximately 21 per cent of the rice
crop in the United States was produced in Texas. Rice production in Texas
is confined to productive land in the level Gulf Coast section in which imper-
vious subsoils and the ready availability of abundant water resources permit
economical irrigation.











52 BULLETIN NO. 544, TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION

LIVESTOCK ENTERPRISES IN TEXAS
Commercial feeding of livestock is not widely practiced in Texas; hence
the kinds and numbers of animals raised in different parts of the State
are closely related to the types and quantities of feed resulting from the
local utilization of land described in the preceding section. Thus, beef
cattle are the most important agricultural product in the extensive areas
in the western part of the State in which physical conditions generally
favor the grazing of livestock over the production of cultivated crops.
The number of cattle grazed per unit of land is also closely related to the
productivity of the land measured in terms of pasturage. In certain of
these grazing areas, notably the Edwards Plateau in the southwestern
part of the State, the presence of browse shrubs in addition to grass has
resulted in various grazing combinations of cattle, sheep, and goats for
most effective utilization of the range vegetation.
Likewise, in the areas in which land is used primarily for the produc-
tion of cultivated crops, the numbers of various classes of livestock kept
are closely associated with the kinds and quantities of crops produced. In
the Black Waxy Prairie Area, for example, cotton production is relatively
more profitable than other crops generally grown and consequently
occupies a high proportion of the farm land. In this area, relatively little
land is available for the production of feed in excess of the needs of
livestock kept for farm and home needs. In the rice areas of the Gulf
Coast, on the other hand, many farmers keep herds of cattle to graze the
idle land resulting from the common practice of letting land lie idle for a
year or more following a year in rice production. The general relation
between the kinds of feed produced and the various kinds of livestock kept
in different parts of the State is portrayed graphically in Figure 58.
Figure 44 in this section illustrates graphically the numbers and relative
importance of the major classes of farm livestock in Texas; Figure 45,
the trends in livestock numbers; and Figures 46 to 53, inclusive, the
geographic distribution in 1930 of each class of livestock.


NUMBER OFANIMAL UNITS CLASS FARM VALUE
Million Millions of Dollars
S 4 3 2 I OF LIVESTOCK 50 /0oo I5 oo 250

1 Cattle
Mules and ColIs
-- Sheep and Lombs
SHorses and Co/lf
S Sw/ne
Goats and/ lids
S Chickens

Figure 44.-Number of animal units and value of principal classes of
livestock in Texas, 1930. (U. S. Census.) Expressed in terms of animal
units as a common denominator, there were 33 per cent more cattle in Texas
in 1930 than all the other classes of livestock combined. Normally, approxi-
mately 11 per cent of the cattle in the United States are in Texas. Cotton
and cattle are the leading crop and livestock enterprises in the State. (See
Figure 27 for relative acreages and values of crops.) In order of relative
numbers, cattle were followed in importance by mules, sheep, horses, hogs,
goats, and chickens. (In the conversions, an animal unit was considered
equivalent to a mature horse or mule, two yearling colts, or four colts under
one year; one cow, two yearlings, or four calves; seven sheep, nine yearling
ewes, or 13 lambs; 12 goats and kids; four sows, five other hogs, or eight
pigs; and 100 chickens.)












DESCRIPTION OF AGRICULTURE AND TYPE-OF-FARMING AREAS 53


Figure 45.-Numbers of principal classes of livestock in Texas, 1860-1935.
(U. S. Census, 1860-1900; Bureau of Agricultural Economics, 1905-1935.) The
number of livestock in Texas tends to vary widely from one period to another.
With the exception of sheep, the long-time trend in number of livestock was
upward with the general agricultural development of the State. In the case
of sheep, the upward trend in number was halted and a sharp reduction
occurred following the low wool prices of the 1890's. Between 1890 and 1910,
the important sheep industry in the Rio Grande Plains in southern Texas
practically disappeared. The sharp increase in sheep that occurred after 1919
was chiefly in the Edwards Plateau in the southwestern part of the State.
Over shorter periods of time, variations or cycles occurred about the
long-time trends in livestock numbers. These cycles varied in length for
different classes of livestock according to the length of time required to
mature and breed different species of animals, and occurred largely as a
result of changes in the relative incomes from different adapted lines of
agricultural production.
As a result of displacement by tractors, the number of horses and mules
in the State has decreased steadily since 1926. (See Figure 25.) The sharp
decline in numbers of cattle, sheep, and hogs in 1934 resulted largely from
the drought emergency purchases of cattle and sheep by the government and
from the hog adjustment program of the Agricultural Adjustment Admin-
istration.












54 BULLETIN NO. 544, TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION


SrATETOTALr 6,/?7,494 ANIARL UNvirs
/Dor t=2000 ANV/MA C//Irrs


Figure 46.-Animal units of cattle, sheep, and goats in Texas, April 1,
1930. (U. S. Census.) Expressed in terms of animal units as a common
denominator, cattle comprised 82 per cent of the total stock of cattle, sheep,
and goats in Texas. Sheep comprised 14 per cent and goats 4 per cent. The
areas of densest concentration of cattle, sheep, and goats in the State are
the Edwards Plateau immediately to the southwest of the central part of the
State; the Gulf Coast Area; the grazing area in north-central Texas; a broken,
somewhat narrow belt extending in a southerly direction from the eastern
part of the Panhandle to the Edwards Plateau; and a relatively small area
centering on the Davis Mountains in the extreme southwestern part of the
State. These areas of relatively heavy livestock concentration are designated
in Figure 55 as Areas 7 (a, b, c), 18 (a, b, c), 11, 4b, and 5b, respectively. Note
these principal concentrations of produce livestock (as distinguished from
workstock) in relation to the amount of pasture available (Figure 31) and
to the carrying capacity of these pastures (Figure 57). (For definition of
animal unit and conversion factors used, see the discussion of Figure 44,
page 52.)












DESCRIPTION OF AGRICULTURE AND TYPE-OF-FARMING AREAS 55


SrATE. = 7o7AL. i17942259 HEAD
/DoT7 = /000 A&A O


Figure 47.-Cows and heifers two years old and over kept mainly for beef
production in Texas, April 1, 1930. (U. S. Census.) Cows and heifers kept
mainly for beef constituted approximately 62 per cent of the total number of
cows and heifers in Texas in 1930, and are the most important livestock enter-
prise in the State. (Figure 44.) The production of beef cattle in Texas is
predominantly a grazing enterprise, as only a small amount of feeding nor-
mally is done. Although found generally over the State, the areas of densest
concentration of beef cattle are the five areas, described in the discussion of
Figure 46, in which the present system of land utilization and the conditions
of water and pasture resources are relatively favorable for beef production.











56 BULLETIN NO. 544, TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION


STAT TOTrAL /, 076,287 HEAD
IDoT = /000 H/EA D


Figure 48.-Cows and heifers two years old and over kept mainly for milk
production in Texas, April 1, 1930. (U. S. Census.) Cows and heifers kept
for milk constituted only 38 per cent of the total number of cows and heifers
in Texas and, in contrast with the distribution of beef cattle, are found
primarily in the farming areas, with centers of relatively dense concentration
near the larger cities such as Dallas, Fort Worth, San Antonio, and Houston.












DESCRIPTION OF AGRICULTURE AND TYPE-OF-FARMING AREAS 57


STArET 7TA-L 7 OZI, 334-HEA
/Dor=5000 H//E


Figure 49.-Sheep and lambs in Texas, April 1, 1930. (U. S. Census.)




Figures 49 and 50.-Sheep and goats in Texas. Texas is the most impor-
tant wool-producing state and usually furnishes approximately 13 per cent
of the United States wool crop. Following cattle, sheep are the second most
important class of produce livestock in the State. (Figure 44.) Although
found in significant numbers on farms in the central and western farming
areas in the State, sheep in Texas are raised primarily as a grazing enter-
prise conducted under extensive range conditions in a large area centered
on the Edwards Plateau Grazing Area. The high altitude and dry climate
associated with a rough, broken topography and an abundant growth of
short grass, palatable weeds, and browse shrubs explain the concentration of
sheep and goats in this area, and their association with cattle on the range
for most effective utilization of the grazing resources. Relatively few sheep
and goats are found in the Central Basin centered in Mason and Llano












58 BULLETIN NO. 544, TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION


STATE TOTAL 2,956,564 H1AD
/DoT = 5000 HEAO


Figure 50.-Angora goats and kids in Texas, April 1, 1930. (U. S. Census.)





Counties, in which the smoother topography and relative scarcity of shrub-
bery provide better grazing for cattle than for sheep and goats. The densest
concentration of sheep is in a belt extending in a southwesterly direction
from McCulloch County to the Mexican border, in which belt the surface and
vegetation are intermediate between the rough, stony, thickly shrubbed
area to the southeast where the goats predominate, and the comparatively
smooth, thinly shrubbed area to the northwest where beef cattle are rela-
tively more important.
In 1920, Texas furnished approximately 81 per cent of the total mohair
produced in the United States. In terms of numbers of animal units, goats
are the fourth most important class of produce livestock in Texas, being pre-
ceded in order of importance by cattle, sheep, and swine. Relatively few
sheep and practically no Angora goats are found in farming areas.












DESCRIPTION OF AGRICULTURE AND TYPE-OF-FARMING AREAS 59


STATE T7OAL 5/,56/46//HAD
/DorT 5000 /EAD


Figure 51.-Hogs and pigs in Texas, April 1, 1930. (U. S. Census.) Hogs
are a relatively minor commercial enterprise in Texas. Although distributed
widely throughout the farming areas, particularly where corn is grown, hogs
are raised chiefly for home consumption and as a minor sideline to the pro-
duction of cash crops. The purchase of one or two "meat hogs" from a local
breeder in the spring for slaughter and home consumption in the fall and
winter is a common practice in most of the farming areas. The densest con-
centration of hogs in Texas is in the Piney Woods Lumbering Area in the
southeastern part of the State where the hog enterprise is conducted largely
on the basis of mast range.












60 BULLETIN NO. 544, TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION


SrATr 7TrAL 2,525,6/6 HeAD
/Dor = 25,000 HEAD


Figure 52.-Chickens over three months old in Texas. April 1, 1930.
(U. S. Census.) Chickens are primarily a farm enterprise in Texas, as may
be noted from the close relationship between their distribution and the dis-
tribution of farm population and crop land in the State. (Figures 10 and 26.)
Specialized poultry production is relatively unimportant in Texas. The farm
flocks averaged 53 head per farm in 1930 and, as in the case of hogs, are
maintained primarily for home consumption, with some sales of surplus
production. Chickens were reported on 82 per cent of all farms in the State
in 1930. Poultry and hogs kept for home consumption are often fed largely
with farm products that would otherwise be wasted.












DESCRIPTION OF AGRICULTURE AND TYPE-OF-FARMING AREAS 61


STATE 7or/itAL ,602,/4 HEAD
/DO7- = /,000 HeAD


Figure 53.-Horses and mules of all ages on farms in Texas, April 1, 1930.
(U. S. Census.) Horses and mules are next to cattle as the most important
class of livestock in Texas. Of the total of 1,802,148 head of horses and mules
in the State, 1,040,106 head, or 58 per cent, were mules.
Workstock constitute the chief source of farm motive power; hence their
distribution over the State corresponds roughly to the distribution of crop
land as shown in Figure 26. The relation is not exact, of course, because of
differences in the number of crop acres operated per head of workstock, and
in the extent to which farm animal power is supplemented with tractors in
various parts of the State. The lowest proportion of workstock to crop acre-
age is in the northwestern wheat area in which a large acreage is operated
per horse or per tractor unit, and in which a larger proportion of the crop
land is operated with tractors than with horses.
Attention has been directed in Figure 45 to the decreasing number of
horses and mules in Texas since 1926. Information obtained in several areas
in the State indicates that the workstock generally is of an advanced age
and that inadequate provision for farm replacements is being made. For the
State as a whole, census data as of January 1, 1930, reveal that only 2 per
cent of the horses and mules on farms were less than one year old. An increas-
ingly large number of farmers are looking to tractors as replacements for
their workstock, particularly in the large-scale farming sections in the
western and southern parts of the State. (Figure 25.)










62 BULLETIN NO. 544, TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION

DELINEATION OF TYPE-OF-FARMING AREAS

The preceding sections have dealt with the factors affecting agricultural
production in Texas and with the influence of these factors on the geo-
graphic location of crop and livestock enterprises in the State. The charts
picturing the geographic distribution of individual enterprises constitute
the first phase in the description of Texas agriculture. The next phase,
considered in this section, has to do with the combinations in which crop
and livestock enterprises are conducted in different parts of the State,
and the extent of the areas in which uniformity exists in the types of
farming followed. It was noted from the enterprise charts that certain
enterprises were concentrated in certain areas. In all the significant farm-
ing areas, furthermore, a number of enterprises were maintained, reflecting
the combinations on individual farms caused by the physical, economic,
and other factors influencing agricultural production. Where these causal
factors tend to be fairly uniform in their application in an area, the
resulting combinations of adapted enterprises and the production practices
in that area also tend to be uniform. It is thus possible upon this basis to
subdivide the State into so-called type-of-farming areas in each of which
a high degree of similarity exists in the farm enterprises maintained, in
their proportionate combinations on the bulk of the farms, and in the pro-
duction practices used.

The location of the approximate boundaries of the type-of-farming areas
in the State was based upon a number of considerations. The counties
were first grouped upon the basis of their similarity in respect to kinds
and relative amounts of enterprises. (Figure 54.) This gave a first
approximation of the type-of-farming areas. Because of the wide varia-
tions in physical conditions and hence in the agriculture in some counties,
groupings based on smaller units would give a more accurate representa-
tion, of course, if the data were available. It was necessary, therefore,
to ascertain the variations in physical and other causal factors and the
resulting differences in types of farming within counties. These studies,
supplemented by field observations, furnished the basis for the type-of-
farming delineations shown in Figure 55. There are shown 18 type-of-
farming areas in the State, of which 11 are subdivided into 30 sub-areas
because of differences within these areas sufficiently significant to indicate
a break in the type of farming. The designations of the major areas are
shown opposite the map.

In some cases, the boundary lines between type-of-farming areas are
well defined because of sharp breaks in surface or soil conditions. In most
cases, however, the boundary lines are largely transition zones in which
mixtures of types of farming representative of the adjacent areas may be
found, or in which one type may be alternated with the other in response
to price conditions, thus causing changes from time to time in the location
of boundary lines of contiguous areas. Likewise, widespread changes in
the agriculture of an area may be caused by factors such as changes in
population, the development of new varieties of plants and of production
methods that lower costs, insect pests, diseases, and others.










DESCRIPTION OF AGRICULTURE AND TYPE-OF-FARMING AREAS 63

Considerable variation also exists, of course, in the farming systems
followed within'the same type-of-farming area at a given time. Since
farms differ in size and also in the kinds and relative amounts of different
enterprises, the determination of type-of-farming areas is based largely
on the predominant or most common system of agriculture found in the
area. Detailed consideration of the factors influencing the choice of the
predominant system of farming in each area and of the variations from
that system is deferred to the second, or analytical, phase of the study.
The remainder of this part of the general study will be occupied with a
discussion of the feed-livestock relations by type-of-farming areas, and
with a brief description of each type-of-farming area shown in Figure 55.












64 BULLETIN NO. 544, TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION


Figure 54.-See legend, page 67.







DESCRIPTION OF AGRICULTURE AND TYPE-OF-FARMING AREAS 65

FAPC PERCENT CROPLA4D IlN NUMBED1 LIVESTOCK PEL
AREA 1000 ACRES FARMLAND


Figure 54, Continued-See legend, page 07.









66 BULLETIN NO. 544, TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION

c PERCENT NUMBER LIVESTOCK PER.
o FA M PERCENT CRODLAMD \IN 1000 ACiES FALMLAKD
u A .EA
E C IN coP- T H Fo1 l FLK BEEF 5 Q 0 CW\rCK-
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Figure 54, Continued-See legend, page 67.


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DESCRIPTION OF AGRICULTURE AND TYPE-OF-FARMING AREAS 67


C PE ~CENNUMBOC P
A o FARMT PERCENT CROPLAND IN M LIVTC PE
- U AREA ._1000 ACES FARMLAND
N IN c C v0H ME5
NT O H HE VEoi MLK BEEF 0 K % CNICK-
LANP D T & A U
Y LAND y ICO COw/S s AT EN5

POLK. I I [ I l I I







WOBERTSO. i [I [ M
AkLI50K I [ m I I I 5.
inYLeRO I r 1 I C I


FHARIDT e different l e, a
OADISOM I I I I I [
J7CEO R I IM I I R











nMAi T O cou n ties grouped
1ARAS I I










Bc cRAte i o i F 5 i ich


FWAM ERII [ I I I
JUFMT IOMM I
uAE.STPO I I I i









various classes of livestock per 1,000 acres of farm land, by counties grouped
into type-of-farming areas, Texas, 1929. (U. S. Census.) The grouping of
counties on the basis of their general similarity in respect to kinds and rela-
tive amounts of enterprises gives a first approximation of the type-of-farming
areas. Because of differences in their agriculture, however, parts of certain
counties are not in the areas in which the counties are grouped. A more
accurate subdivision of the State is shown in Figure 54, In which the bounda-
ries between type-of-farming areas are drawn without regard to county lines.
For statistical purposes, a county with two or more different types of
agriculture is included in the type-of-farming area in which the greater part
of its land area lies. A more accurate statistical description of type-of-
farming areas would be possible if agricultural data were available by
precincts.
MAAG- ] ]I ]
"--L-I I ]





Figur 54-Prcnae ffr n n ifretue, n umeso
v~Oariouscasso ietc e ,0 ce ffr ad cute rue
intSotye-o-amn raTa,12.(.S esu. h ruigo
coniso h ai fthi eea iiaiyi rsett id n ea
tieAmounso nepiesgvsafrtaprxmto fth yeo-am
a ~rea.Bcueo ifrne nterarclue oeeprso eti












68 BULLETIN NO. 544, TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION


Figure 55.-Type-of-farming areas in Texas. In a summary description
of the agriculture of Texas, the State may be subdivided into 18 type-of-
farming areas in each of which the operation of natural and economic factors
has resulted in a high degree of similarity in the farm enterprises maintained,
in their proportionate combination on the bulk of the farms, and in the pro-
duction practices used. Eleven of the major type-of-farming areas are further
subdivided into 30 sub-areas because of differences within these areas suffi-
ciently significant to indicate a break in the general type of farming. The
designations of the areas and sub-areas are shown on the opposite page, and
a brief description of the agriculture in each is given in the text, beginning
on page 74.
Because of the wide differences in natural and economic situations, and
hence in the types of agricultural production and problems in different parts
of Texas, it is a well-recognized fact that recommendations as to farm and
production adjustments are not uniformly applicable on a State-wide basis.
The delineation of the State into type-of-farming areas indicates the limits
within which specific research results may have application.












DESCRIPTION OF AGRICULTURE AND TYPE-OF-FARMING AREAS 69

TYPE-OF-FARMING AREAS IN TEXAS
AREA:
1. Panhandle Wheat Area.
la. Sandy soils; grain sorghums, corn, beef cattle.
lb. Large-scale specialized wheat production; dark, heavy soils; smooth land.
Ic. Similar to (b) except more grain sorghums, cotton, and livestock; less
specialized.
2. Canadian River Grazing Area-beef cattle; rough, broken lands of the
Canadian River basin.
3. High Plains Cotton Area-cotton and grain sorghums; cattle grazing in
the less developed parts of the area; smooth, level plains; light, sandy
soils; large-scale methods.
4. Low Rolling Plains-mixed types; cotton and grain sorghums; cattle
ranching; rolling topography; wide variations in soil types; numerous
grazing and farming areas alternating.
4a. Farming predominates; extensive grazing areas.
4b. Grazing predominates.
4c. Farming predominates.
5. High Plains and Trans-Pecos Cattle Grazing Area.
5a. High Plains. Dry, level plains; sandy soils; little farming; large ranches.
5b. Trans-Pecos. Dry and mountainous; small amount of irrigated farming;
large ranches.
6. Upper Rio Grande Valley Irrigated Area-cotton and alfalfa.
7. Edwards Plateau Grazing Area-cattle, sheep, and goats; shallow, stony
soils; rough, broken topography; live-oak and shin-oak brush.
7a. Large ranches; practically no farming.
7b. Small ranches; some farming.
7c. Central Basin. Mostly cattle grazing; some farming.
8. Rio Grande Plains Area-mixed types; cattle grazing; some cotton;
vegetable growing, largely under irrigation.
8a. Cattle grazing; vegetables.
8b. Corn, small grain, cotton; some grazing.
8c. Cotton, corn, vegetables;.some grazing.
8d. Cotton, vegetables, and grazing.
9. Lower Rio Grande Valley Area-Winter vegetables, citrus, and cotton;
some grazing.
9a. Dry farming; cotton, vegetables, and grazing.
9b. Irrigation farming; citrus, vegetables, and cotton.
10. Corpus Christi Cotton Area-cotton and vegetables; dark, rich soils; level
topography; large-scale methods.
11. North-Central Grazing Area-cattle grazing; small amount of farming,
similar in nature to that in surrounding areas.
12. Western Cross Timbers Farming Area-cotton, grain sorghums, corn, pea-
nuts, and watermelons; sandy soils.
13. Grand Prairie Area-cotton, small grains, and corn; ranching; dark soils
varying greatly in depth; rolling topography.
13a. Cotton, wheat, oats, corn; some ranching.
13b. Cotton, oats, wheat, corn; ranching.
13c. Ranching-cattle, sheep, and goats; cotton, small grains.
14. Black Prairie Area-cotton, corn, and small grains; deep, black, fertile
soils; level to rolling topography.
14a. Cotton, corn, and small grains.
14b. Cotton and corn.
14c. Cotton, corn, and livestock.
15. Northeast Sandy Lands Area-cotton, corn, vegetables, and fruits; sandy
soils; rolling topography; small farms, small irregular-shaped fields,
small tools.
15a. Pine-covered.
15b. Oak-covered.
16. Piney Woods Lumbering Area-lumber, cotton, corn, range cattle, and
hogs; self-sufficing farming.
17. Post-Oak Area-cotton, corn, truck crops, and beef cattle; sandy soils;
farming mostly on interior prairies and bottom lands.
18. Coast Prairie Area-mixed types-cotton and corn; rice; fruits and vege-
tables; cattle grazing; widely varying soils; level topography and poor
drainage.
18a. Cattle ranching.
18b. Cotton, cattle ranching, and rice.
18c. Rice, cattle ranching, and cotton.











70 BULLETIN NO. 544, TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION

Feed-Livestock Relations By Type-of-Farming Areas

There is shown in Figure 56 a graphic description, for each type-of-
farming area, of the proportion of total farm land in various leading crops,
including pastures. This composite picture serves to indicate the relative
importance in different areas of the principal crops for which distribution
charts are shown in the preceding section, and the variations in land
utilization that exist from one area to the other. The predominant type
of agriculture in each area may be readily noted from the manner in which
the land is utilized. Thus, Areas 2, 5, 7, 8, and 11 are used primarily
for the extensive grazing of livestock, as indicated by the range of 82 to 98
per cent of the total farm land in pasture. In Areas 1, 3, 6, 9, 10, 13, 14,
15, 16, and 17, on the other hand, from 40 to 65 per cent of the farm land
is used for crop production. Intermediate between these two groups are
Areas 4, 12, and 18, in which approximately two-thirds of the farm land
is used for grazing, but in which extensive field-crop areas are also found.
Figures 31 and 32 served to describe the distribution of pasture land
and the types of native vegetation in different parts of the State. Supple-
menting the information in these two charts, Figure 57 shows the carry-
ing capacity of pastures by type-of-farming areas. The pasture feed
available and the kinds of feed produced in connection with the cropping
systems pictured in Figure 56 have a direct influence on the kinds of
livestock kept in the various type-of-farming areas, as may be noted from
Figure 58. In the areas used predominantly for grazing, indicated in
Figure 56 and discussed in the preceding paragraph, the utilization of land
for pasture yields roughages that may be converted into salable products
only through grazing livestock such as cattle, sheep, and goats. In the
areas in which large amounts of land are used for the production of field
crops, relatively more concentrates are produced than in the predomi-
nantly ranching areas, and the numbers of workstock, hogs, and poultry
are relatively high compared with the number of cattle kept.












DESCRIPTION OF AGRICULTURE AND TYPE-OF-FARMING AREAS 71


Figure 56.-Percentage of farm land in various crops, by type-of-farming
areas, Texas, 1929. (U. S. Census.) This figure furnishes a general descrip-
tion of the land utilization in each of the major type-of-farming areas in
Texas, and serves to summarize the information given on a county basis in
Figure 54. On the basis of the classification of the land in livestock ranches
as farm land, as reported by the Census, approximately 70 per cent of the
124,707,130 acres in farm land in Texas in 1929 was used for pasture. Cotton
ranked second in terms of area occupied, with 13 per cent of the farm land
devoted to its production. The combined acreage in corn, wheat, oats, grain
sorghums, hay, vegetables for sale, and rice comprised 11 per cent of the
farm land. Note, however, the wide variation in land use as between the
different type-of-farming areas. In Area 6, irrigated and intensively farmed,
approximately 95 per cent of the farm land was in field crops in 1929. In
Area 5, immediately to the east, approximately 98 per cent of the farm land
was utilized for extensive livestock grazing. Various gradations as between
these two extremes of land use exist in the other areas, and in the kinds
and relative acreages of crops grown.












72 BULLETIN NO. 544, TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION


la area number
23 ocres of native
pasture to maintain
one cow


Figure 57.-Carrying capacity of native pastures, by type-of-tarming
areas, Texas. Carrying capacity as used in this chart refers to the average
number of acres of native pasture required to support a mature cow or its
equivalent for one year, without supplemental feeding. The wide variations
in carrying capacities of native pastures in the various type-of-farming
areas are results of differences in the types and feed yields of native pasture
vegetation, which in turn are influenced by differences in soils, surface, and
climate. The types of native vegetation in different parts of the State are
shown in Figure 32.
The data upon which this chart is based were prepared by the livestock
committee functioning in connection with the regional agricultural adjustment
study conducted at the Texas A. and M. College in 1935.












DESCRIPTION OF AGRICULTURE AND TYPE-OF-FARMING AREAS 73


Figure 58.-Proportions of total feed production in ronuhages and In
concentrates, and proportions of total livestock in various classes, by type-
of-farming areas, Texas, 1929. In general, the utilization of farm land and
the type of feed produced affect directly the kinds of livestock kept. For
example, in Area 5, in which the utilization of approximately 98 per cent
of the farm land in pasture yields feeds that are largely roughages not
susceptible of being harvested, the grazing of cattle is predominantly the
leading enterprise. In Area 7, in which approximately 93 per cent of the
farm land is in pasture, livestock production is also the predominant enter-
prise, but sheep and goats are relatively more important than cattle because
of the type of vegetative covering. (Figure 32.) In Area 14, in which the
farm land is utilized primarily for the production of field crops, principally
cotton, workstock are the principal class of livestock. In the areas in which
the production of field crops is important, relatively more concentrates are
produced and more hogs and poultry are kept than in the predominantly
grazing areas.
The data upon which this chart is based were prepared by the livestock
committee of the regional adjustment study conducted at the Texas A. & M.
College in 1935. The total amount of feed in each type-of-farming area was
computed on the basis of the utilization of land in 1929, described in other
parts of this publication, and of long-time average yields of crops and carry-
ing capacities of different types of pasture. The total amounts of various
feeds in each type-of-farming area were then converted into total digestible
nutrients as a basis for estimating the proportions in roughages and concen-
trates. Livestock numbers were converted into animal unit equivalents, as
described in the discussion of Figure 44, In order to determine the relative
proportions of the various classes of livestock in each area.










74 BULLETIN NO. 544, TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION


DESCRIPTION OF TYPE-OF-FARMING AREAS

Panhandle Wheat Area (Area 1)

The Panhandle Wheat Area is characterized by a high degree of spe-
cialization in the production of hard winter wheat. On many farms in the
area, crops other than wheat, such as grain sorghums, oats, and barley, are
planted only when wheat fails or when the moisture supply in the fall is
insufficient for seeding. Farms in this area are more completely motorized
and mechanized than in any other section of the State. The most modern
large-scale tillage machinery is used and all harvesting of wheat is by
combine. Land not in cultivation is used mainly for beef cattle production.

The displacement of ranching by large-scale wheat farming in this area
is a development that has taken place at a rapid rate since about 1920.
This change was made possible by the development of the small combine
and wheatland or one-way plows together with the improvement of farm
tractors. The physical features of the area, including a low average annual
rainfall of approximately 20 inches, uniformly heavy, fertile soils, and
level topography, permit the maximum utilization of these machines.


Figure 59.-All wheat harvesting is done by combine in the Panhandle
Wheat Area. Low-cost production and harvesting methods have made pos-
sible the rapid expansion of wheat acreage in this area.










74 BULLETIN NO. 544, TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION


DESCRIPTION OF TYPE-OF-FARMING AREAS

Panhandle Wheat Area (Area 1)

The Panhandle Wheat Area is characterized by a high degree of spe-
cialization in the production of hard winter wheat. On many farms in the
area, crops other than wheat, such as grain sorghums, oats, and barley, are
planted only when wheat fails or when the moisture supply in the fall is
insufficient for seeding. Farms in this area are more completely motorized
and mechanized than in any other section of the State. The most modern
large-scale tillage machinery is used and all harvesting of wheat is by
combine. Land not in cultivation is used mainly for beef cattle production.

The displacement of ranching by large-scale wheat farming in this area
is a development that has taken place at a rapid rate since about 1920.
This change was made possible by the development of the small combine
and wheatland or one-way plows together with the improvement of farm
tractors. The physical features of the area, including a low average annual
rainfall of approximately 20 inches, uniformly heavy, fertile soils, and
level topography, permit the maximum utilization of these machines.


Figure 59.-All wheat harvesting is done by combine in the Panhandle
Wheat Area. Low-cost production and harvesting methods have made pos-
sible the rapid expansion of wheat acreage in this area.










DESCRIPTION OF AGRICULTURE AND TYPE-OF-FARMING AREAS 75

This area is divided into two parts by the Canadian River breaks. The
portion of the area lying to the north of the river is divided into two sub-
areas. The one designated as la is an area of sandy soils that are not
well adapted to wheat production. The chief crops grown are grain
sorghums and corn. Much of this sub-area is still devoted to ranching.
Sub-area lb is the most highly specialized wheat-producing section of the
State. It is in this portion of the area that large-scale methods are used
to maximum advantage. Sub-area Ic, lying south of the Canadian River,
is similar to Sub-area lb in that the dominant soil types are clay loams,
and wheat production on a large scale is the principal enterprise. It differs
from Sub-area lb to the extent that lower altitudes, longer growing sea-
sons, and somewhat lighter soils permit a wider selection of crops. There
is an overlapping of cotton and wheat production in the southern part and
more or less general farming is done throughout this portion of the area.



Canadian River Grazing Area (Area 2)

The rough broken lands along the Canadian River can be used only for
grazing, and beef production is the only important enterprise in the area.


Figure 60.--Cattle ranching is the only important enterprise in the rolling
and broken Canadian River Grazing Area.

Ranches are of two main types or a combination of the two: those that
maintain a breeding herd and produce calves, and those that depend on
steer herds to utilize the range. The cropping systems on the limited areas
of cultivated land are similar to those in Area 1.











76 BULLETIN NO. 544, TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION

High Plains Cotton Area (Area 3)

This area includes the southern portion of the High Plains in which fine
sandy loam soils predominate and in which the rainfall averages about 20
inches annually. Cotton is grown on about one-half of the crop land,
while the grain sorghums, a small amount of corn, and sudan grass for
pasture and seed account for the remainder. Livestock production is of
secondary importance, except in the less developed portions of the area in
which cattle ranching still prevails. On most farms there are from one
to five milk cows and 50 to 100 chickens, while a brood sow or two may be
kept on an occasional farm.
As in Area 1, the crop alternatives in this area are limited to drought-
resistant crops. However, the sandy soils and longer growing season
favor cotton production over wheat production. The physical features
of the area are also conducive to large-scale methods of production. The
light rainfall makes weed control a minor problem, while the smooth sur-
face of the land permits the use of multi-row planting and cultivating
machinery. The great majority of farmers use two-row equipment,
although in recent years the number of three- and four-row machines has
greatly increased. The majority of farm families operate from 160 to 320
acres of land, of which from 80 to 85 per cent will be in cultivation, and
produce an average of not less than 25 to 30 bales of cotton per year. In
addition, a surplus of either feed or livestock products or both may also
be produced. A large proportion of the cotton harvesting is done with
hired labor.


Figure 61.-Level topography, fertile soil, and climatic conditions favorable
to weed control make possible the use of large-scale methods in the produc-
tion of cotton and feed crops in the High Plains Cotton Area.











DESCRIPTION OF AGRICULTURE AND TYPE-OF-FARMING AREAS 77

Low Rolling Plains Area (Area 4)

Wide variations in soils and topography have resulted in mixed types of
farming in this area. On the more level areas of sandy loam soils, cotton
and grain sorghums are practically the only crops grown, and the organi-
zation of farms is similar to that in Area 3, while on the heavier soils or
so-called "tight land", an important amount of small grain, primarily
wheat and oats, is produced. Although large blocks of good, smooth, fer-
tile land are still used for cattle grazing, ranching operations tend to be
concentrated in the areas of rolling, broken land. While the entire area
is characterized by alternating areas of farming and ranching, the por-
tions of the area in which farming predominates are indicated in Figure
o.I


Figure 62.-Rolling, broken areas used only for cattle grazing alternate
with farming areas in the Rolling Plains. (Photograph supplied by SMS
Ranch, Stamford, Texas.)


Figure 63.--The smooth, fertile lands of the Rolling Plains produce large
yields of cotton and feed crops when climatic conditions are favorable.










78 BULLETIN NO. 544, TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION

55 as 4a and 4c. Sub-area 4b represents the more rolling and broken
lands on which grazing predominates. As compared with Area 3, the
annual rainfall averages slightly more, the growing season is longer, and
the average size of farms is somewhat smaller. A greater proportion of
the cultivated land of this area is planted to cotton than is the case in
Area 3; consequently less feed is grown for sale and fewer livestock and
livestock products are produced.

High Plains and Trans-Pecos Cattle Grazing Area (Area 5)

Sub-area 5a comprises the more arid and southernmost portions of the
High Plains. Cattle ranching on an extensive scale is the only important
enterprise. A little farming similar to that in Area 3 is found along the
northeastern boundary. The soils vary from light sands to heavy clay
loams. The land surface is smooth to gently rolling. The average annual
rainfall is approximately 15 inches. The rainfall becomes rapidly less
and the hazards of farming correspondingly greater from the northeastern
to the southwestern portion of the sub-area.

The greater portion of the State lying west of the Pecos River is included
in Sub-area 5b. Beef cattle production is the only important enterprise.
This sub-area has the lowest average annual rainfall of any large section
of the State. The topography varies from comparatively level plains and


Figure 64.-Cattle around a watering place in the High Plains Graz-
ing Area.

basins to mountains with some peaks rising over 8,000 feet. Most of the
area averages well over 4,000 feet in altitude. The soils are mostly
shallow and stony or gravelly, except in some of the basins. This com-
bination of light rainfall, rugged topography, and thin soils has resulted










DESCRIPTION OF AGRICULTURE AND TYPE-OF-FARMING AREAS


Figure 65.-A ranch headquarters in the Davis Mountain section of the
Trans-Pecos Cattle Grazing Area.

in a light covering of vegetation, a low carrying capacity of ranges, and
consequently a most extensive type of ranching. The average size of
ranch is approximately 20,000 acres, or over 30 sections. Some of the
larger ranches contain 100 or more sections. Such farming as is done is
confined to small areas of fertile lands that can be irrigated from the
limited supplies of water from springs and streams. Cotton and alfalfa
are the main crops produced in such areas.

Upper Rio Grande Valley Irrigated Area (Area 6)

This area comprises a narrow strip of alluvial soils extending about 70
miles along the Rio Grande River above and below El Paso. All crops are
irrigated. Cotton normally occupies more than 75 per cent of the crop
land while alfalfa, the crop next in importance, occupies 15 per cent.
Some fruit and truck crops are grown, and feed crops such as corn and
grain sorghums are produced in limited quantities. Dairy products and
poultry products are produced in excess of farm needs to meet the demand
for such products in the nearby towns and cities.

The great distance from large consuming centers or central markets
has had an important influence on the character of farming in this area.
Because of 'high transportation costs, only products having high values
per unit of weight are produced in excess of local needs. For example,
the acreage of alfalfa has varied but little during the whole period of rapid
expansion of agriculture that has taken place since 1918. On the other
hand, the increase in the cotton acreage has paralleled the increase in the
cultivated area. Because of its bulk or low value per unit of weight, hay
production is limited to the amount that can be sold within a compara-


79










80 BULLETIN NO. 544, TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION

tively short radius of the place of production, whereas cotton can be sent
to the central markets at a cost representing a comparatively small per-
centage of its value.

Edwards Plateau Grazing Area (Area 7)

The Edwards Plateau and Central Basin comprised in this area
include approximately 25,000,000 acres of land, much of which has a
rough, broken topography and shallow, stony, clay-loam soils. A wide
range of vegetation comprising grasses and various types of brush permits
a diversified system of grazing involving cattle, sheep, and Angora goats.
A high percentage of the sheep and goats in the State are concentrated in
this area.
Differences in the proportions of cattle, sheep, and goats grazed in dif-
ferent parts of the area are determined to a large extent by variations in
the type of. range. Thus, on the rougher, more broken, and brush-covered
range, the number of goats tends to be large as compared with the num-
bers of sheep and cattle. On the smooth, open grass lands, cattle occupy
a large place in the system, while 'the number of goats is small as com-
pared with the number of cattle, and sheep may or may not constitute an
important enterprise. On the intermediate types of range, all three types
of livestock are found in important numbers, with sheep predominating.

Rio Grande Plains Area (Area 8)

Cattle ranching is the principal enterprise in the Rio Grande Plains.
Climatic conditions throughout most of the area are such that crop pro-
duction is hazardous except under irrigation.

The area is subdivided into four parts. Sub-area 8a is devoted in
large measure to grazing. Practically the only exceptions are small scat-
tered blocks of irrigated lands in which spinach, onions, and other truck
crops are grown. Most of the irrigated lands are alluvial soils along the
Nueces and Rio Grande Rivers, and smooth uplands of the Duval-Webb
series. Sub-areas 8b, c, and d are distinguished from 8a primarily on the
basis of the amount of farming done as compared with ranching, and from
each other on the basis of the kinds and proportions of crops grown. Sub-
area 8b is a small area of gravelly clay-loam soils that are gently rolling
to hilly in topography. On the smoother lands, corn, grain sorghums, small
grains, and a little cotton are produced. In Sub-area 8c the prevailing
soil types are fine sandy loams. The topography is rolling. Corn, grain
sorghums, cotton, watermelons, and truck crops are the main crops grown.
Although dry-land farming predominates in this portion of the area, there
are many irrigated farms.

In Sub-area 8d, the soil types vary from sandy loams to heavy clays.
The topography is sharply rolling. Cultivation is limited to the small
areas of smooth lands scattered throughout the sub-area, many of which
consist of alluvial soils adjacent to streams. Cotton, corn, and grain
sorghums are the main crops on the heavier soils in the central and










80 BULLETIN NO. 544, TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION

tively short radius of the place of production, whereas cotton can be sent
to the central markets at a cost representing a comparatively small per-
centage of its value.

Edwards Plateau Grazing Area (Area 7)

The Edwards Plateau and Central Basin comprised in this area
include approximately 25,000,000 acres of land, much of which has a
rough, broken topography and shallow, stony, clay-loam soils. A wide
range of vegetation comprising grasses and various types of brush permits
a diversified system of grazing involving cattle, sheep, and Angora goats.
A high percentage of the sheep and goats in the State are concentrated in
this area.
Differences in the proportions of cattle, sheep, and goats grazed in dif-
ferent parts of the area are determined to a large extent by variations in
the type of. range. Thus, on the rougher, more broken, and brush-covered
range, the number of goats tends to be large as compared with the num-
bers of sheep and cattle. On the smooth, open grass lands, cattle occupy
a large place in the system, while 'the number of goats is small as com-
pared with the number of cattle, and sheep may or may not constitute an
important enterprise. On the intermediate types of range, all three types
of livestock are found in important numbers, with sheep predominating.

Rio Grande Plains Area (Area 8)

Cattle ranching is the principal enterprise in the Rio Grande Plains.
Climatic conditions throughout most of the area are such that crop pro-
duction is hazardous except under irrigation.

The area is subdivided into four parts. Sub-area 8a is devoted in
large measure to grazing. Practically the only exceptions are small scat-
tered blocks of irrigated lands in which spinach, onions, and other truck
crops are grown. Most of the irrigated lands are alluvial soils along the
Nueces and Rio Grande Rivers, and smooth uplands of the Duval-Webb
series. Sub-areas 8b, c, and d are distinguished from 8a primarily on the
basis of the amount of farming done as compared with ranching, and from
each other on the basis of the kinds and proportions of crops grown. Sub-
area 8b is a small area of gravelly clay-loam soils that are gently rolling
to hilly in topography. On the smoother lands, corn, grain sorghums, small
grains, and a little cotton are produced. In Sub-area 8c the prevailing
soil types are fine sandy loams. The topography is rolling. Corn, grain
sorghums, cotton, watermelons, and truck crops are the main crops grown.
Although dry-land farming predominates in this portion of the area, there
are many irrigated farms.

In Sub-area 8d, the soil types vary from sandy loams to heavy clays.
The topography is sharply rolling. Cultivation is limited to the small
areas of smooth lands scattered throughout the sub-area, many of which
consist of alluvial soils adjacent to streams. Cotton, corn, and grain
sorghums are the main crops on the heavier soils in the central and















DESCRIPTION OF AGRICULTURE AND TYPE-OF-FARMING AREAS 81


.:
..
.. ~.
'" 7.~1~.t I -
~c~iS~iS :
~kt~~, ~i i '-
~L P
.;rC rl ~I~R
.~E I~d~;.;';..:e:~PI~f~4~;: r(.' 4.
L4~L r' ~cB~IJ L


Figure 66.-Cattle, sheep, and goats are grazed in combinations for the
best utilization of the range in the Edwards Plateau Grazing Area. Cattle
predominate on the smooth, open grasslands; sheep are more numerous on the
moderately rough, rolling lands; and goats are found in greatest numbers on
rough, broken, and brushy lands.


.^A I

fig .












82 BULLETIN NO. 544, TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION


Figure 67.-A view from a ranch headquarters in the northwestern part
of the Rio Grande Plains.


northern part of the sub-area. On the sandy soils in the southern part,
cotton is relatively less important while truck crops and dairying are
important enterprises.


Lower Rio Grande Valley Area (Area 9)


This area includes the smooth, fertile lands in Cameron, Hidalgo, and
Willacy Counties. The soils are highly productive and the long growing
season permits the production of a wide range of crops.

The area is divided into two parts: 9a, in which practically all the
farming is conducted under dry land methods; and 9b, in which irrigation
farming predominates. The soils in 9a are largely sandy loams which,
together with a level to gently rolling topography, make this portion of
the area well adapted to extensive methods of cotton and vegetable pro-
duction. Ranch lands are rapidly being cleared of brush and put into
cultivation. Cotton, corn, and grain sorghums are the principal crops
grown, although large acreages of onions, watermelons, and other
vegetables are also produced. Citrus production is of little consequence
in this part of the area.

The production of citrus fruits and winter vegetables characterizes the
agriculture of Sub-area 9b. The long growing season and the control of
moisture through irrigation permit intensive use of land. Land not in


allA~


'L
;+rL3k~r ')d
'' h
...~i
-..
..
"*
;?'..~E '~ig"~d~s~l~e~:;,;
,










DESCRIPTION OF AGRICULTURE AND TYPE-OF-FARMING AREAS 83


Figure 68.-Citrus production characterizes the agriculture of the Lower
Rio Grande Valley.

bearing citrus trees is frequently double-cropped through the planting of
cotton and feed crops after the harvesting of winter vegetables.

The soils in this portion of the area are mainly loams and clay loams
and the level topography is broken only by an occasional arroyo. These
arroyos provide natural drainage for the area.


Corpus Christi Cotton Area (Area 10)

In this area, which includes most of Nueces and San Patricio Counties,
and parts of Jim Wells and Kleberg Counties, multi-row planters and
tillage implements, particularly four-row, are used more extensively than
in any other section of the State. The extensive use of two-, three-, and
four-row equipment has been possible because of large areas of very
fertile, level land, and because of climatic conditions favorable to weed
control.

The shift from cattle ranching to large-scale cotton production in this
area occurred largely since 1910, and closely paralleled the improvements
in machinery used in producing cotton. Cotton usually occupies more
than 80 per cent of the crop land. The remainder is taken up by corn,
grain sorghums, and vegetables. In addition to being the most highly
specialized cotton-producing section in the State, the area is an important
and rapidly-expanding vegetable-growing center. Cabbage, onions, spin-
ach, and various other vegetables are produced, mainly under dry-land
conditions. Frequently, a crop of vegetables and a crop of cotton are
harvested from the same land during the same year.


North-Central Grazing Area (Area 11)

Cattle ranching is the main enterprise in this area. It is one of the
important beef-producing centers of the State. A large proportion of the
land in the area is either too rolling and broken or the soils are not well










DESCRIPTION OF AGRICULTURE AND TYPE-OF-FARMING AREAS 83


Figure 68.-Citrus production characterizes the agriculture of the Lower
Rio Grande Valley.

bearing citrus trees is frequently double-cropped through the planting of
cotton and feed crops after the harvesting of winter vegetables.

The soils in this portion of the area are mainly loams and clay loams
and the level topography is broken only by an occasional arroyo. These
arroyos provide natural drainage for the area.


Corpus Christi Cotton Area (Area 10)

In this area, which includes most of Nueces and San Patricio Counties,
and parts of Jim Wells and Kleberg Counties, multi-row planters and
tillage implements, particularly four-row, are used more extensively than
in any other section of the State. The extensive use of two-, three-, and
four-row equipment has been possible because of large areas of very
fertile, level land, and because of climatic conditions favorable to weed
control.

The shift from cattle ranching to large-scale cotton production in this
area occurred largely since 1910, and closely paralleled the improvements
in machinery used in producing cotton. Cotton usually occupies more
than 80 per cent of the crop land. The remainder is taken up by corn,
grain sorghums, and vegetables. In addition to being the most highly
specialized cotton-producing section in the State, the area is an important
and rapidly-expanding vegetable-growing center. Cabbage, onions, spin-
ach, and various other vegetables are produced, mainly under dry-land
conditions. Frequently, a crop of vegetables and a crop of cotton are
harvested from the same land during the same year.


North-Central Grazing Area (Area 11)

Cattle ranching is the main enterprise in this area. It is one of the
important beef-producing centers of the State. A large proportion of the
land in the area is either too rolling and broken or the soils are not well










84 BULLETIN NO. 544, TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION

adapted for crop production under the climatic conditions prevailing in the
area. Such farming as is done is similar to the farming in adjoining
areas and tends to be concentrated in small communities throughout the
area. These communities are usually located on small interior prairies

I


Figure 69.-Four-row implements are commonly used in the production of
cotton in the Corpus Christi Cotton Area.

and in the more fertile of the narrow valleys that traverse the area. Cot-
ton is the main crop and is grown in combinations with corn, grain sor-
ghums, and small grains. It is in this part of the State that corn and
grain sorghums overlap. Both are grown to a limited extent throughout
the area, although corn predominates in the eastern and grain sorghums
in the western part of the area.


The Western Cross Timbers Farming Area (Area 12)

In this area the soils are generally sandy and the topography for the
most part is gently rolling. Most of the land not in cultivation has a
moderately heavy covering of oak timber. More than 80 per cent of the
land area is in farms, but only approximately one-third of the farm land is
cultivated. Although cotton is the leading crop, it occupies, on the
average, only one-third of the cultivated area. The balance of the crop-
ping systems are made up of corn, grain sorghums, small grains, and hay
and other forage crops. Peaches, watermelons, and peanuts are important
crops in certain limited portions of the area.










DESCRIPTION OF AGRICULTURE AND TYPE-OF-FARMING AREAS


Livestock and livestock products are produced for home use and for
sale as the available pasture and feed crops permit. Cattle, dairy products,
poultry, and eggs are the principal products.

The character of farming in this area has been greatly changed since
1914. Previous to that time, cotton occupied about two-thirds of the
cultivated area and was the only important source of income. Since that
time, the annual production of cotton has averaged about one-third of the
production of the previous 15 years. People living in the area explain the
decrease in cotton production in terms of reduced yields due to heavy
insect damage. The failure of cotton yields caused farmers to turn to
other enterprises. On the more sandy soils, peanuts have replaced cotton
as the main cash crop. In the other .sections, watermelons and peaches
have been substituted for cotton. For the most part, however, the feed
crops listed above have taken the place of cotton. The change from
cotton to crops requiring less labor per acre has resulted in a gradual
increase in the size of farms and in the production of certain types of
livestock, particularly dairy cattle and poultry.

















Figure 70.-Small grains compete successfully with cotton in the cropping
systems on farms in the Grand Prairie.

Grand Prairie Area (Area 13)

Mixed types of farming characterize the agriculture of this area.
Ranching, cotton production, and small-grain production are the main
types. The distribution of these various types throughout the area are
conditioned by variations in soils and topography. The surface generally
is quite rolling and broken. The soils, mostly dark clays and clay loams,
vary from shallow stony soils, low in fertility, to deep, black, highly pro-
ductive soils. On the deeper and more productive soils the system of
farming followed is centered on cotton production and closely resembles
the agriculture of the Black Prairies immediately to the east. The shallow
soils that are in cultivation are reasonably fertile but drought. These
soils are used largely for the production of winter grains, for which they
seem to be better adapted than for cotton. Grain sorghums and corn are
grown as supplementary crops on both types of land. Wherever large


85










86 BULLETIN NO. 544, TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION


Figure 71.-A typical landscape in the southern part of the Grand
Prairie. The broken, stony, and brush-covered portions are grazed by cattle,
sheep, and goats.

bodies of the more shallow and broken lands are found, the main enter-
prise is ranching.

That portion of the area designated in Figure 55 as 13a and commonly
referred to as the Fort Worth Prairie is differentiated by the fact that
wheat and oats are of about equal importance in the cropping systems,
whereas in the other subdivisions of the area oats make up the greater
part of the small-grain acreage. There is also a higher proportion of
land in cultivation in this part of the area.

The chief difference between the remaining two sub-areas is the greater
importance of ranching in 13c as compared with 13b. In Sub-area 13c a
variety of grass and brush (or browse) is the basis for a system of ranch-
ing, involving cattle, sheep, and goats, that closely resembles the type of
ranching in the adjoining Edwards Plateau Grazing Area.


Black Prairie Area (Area 14)

The agriculture in this area is characterized by a high degree of spe-
cialization in cotton production. Cotton occupies approximately two-
thirds of the cultivated land and is the source of about 90 per cent of the
cash farm income. Corn ranks second to cotton in acreage and is grown
generally throughout the area, occupying 10 to 20 per cent of the
cultivated land. The rest of the cultivated area is devoted primarily to
small grains, hay, and other forage crops. Wheat is important only along











DESCRIPTION OF AGRICULTURE AND TYPE-OF-FARMING AREAS


Figure 72.-Cotton and corn are the main crops in the Black Prairie Area.

the western side of the area as far south as Dallas County. Oats are pro-
duced to a limited extent throughout the area, but are also grown more
extensively in the northwestern part of the area and are an important crop
as far south as Bell County. Livestock are of minor importance except
around the cities, where dairy products and poultry are produced on a
fairly large scale for local consumption.


Figure 73.-A typical harvesting scene in the State's principal cotton-
producing area, the Black Prairie. (Photograph furnished by the Texas
Agricultural Extension Service.)


87










88 BULLETIN NO. 544, TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION

The Black Prairie includes that large body of soil commonly known as
the Black Waxy Prairie, and the minor interior prairies sometimes referred
to as the upper coast prairie. The soils are mostly black and dark-brown
clays that are highly calcareous and of great natural fertility. Sub-area
14a includes the main body of these soils and is differentiated from the
rest of the area by reason of small-grain production that is practically non-
existent in Sub-areas 14b and 14c. Although the dominant soil types in
Sub-area 14c are similar to those in the rest of the area, they are inter-
mingled to a greater extent with sandy, oak-covered lands that are used
primarily for grazing. As a consequence, livestock production tends to be
relatively more important and feed crop production occupies a larger
place in the cropping system than in the area generally.

Northeast Sandy Lands Area (Area 15)

Farming in this area is characterized by small farms, small, irregular-
shaped fields, small, simple tools, and the use of comparatively large
amounts of commercial fertilizer as compared with other farming areas
in the State. It is further characterized by a basic cropping system of cot-
ton and corn that is supplemented in various parts of the area with a wide
variety of special crops, mainly vegetables. Other crops that are grown
rather generally throughout the area are cowpeas, sorghums, peanuts.


,. -- '< "; ; .. .. ,;",


Figure 74.-Small, irregular-shaped fields and the use of small imple-
ments characterize the farming in the Northeast Sandy Lands Area.










DESCRIPTION OF AGRICULTURE AND TYPE-OF-FARMING AREAS


sweet potatoes, and watermelons. It is a common practice to inter-plant
cowpeas in alternate rows with corn.

Livestock are kept primarily for home consumption on the great
majority of farms in the area.

Some fairly large bodies of commercial timber are still found in certain
parts of the area. There are also small amounts of timber on the majority
of farms. These provide fuel for the farm and supplemental income from
the sale of cross ties, poles, and fire wood.

The physical characteristics of the area are conducive to small-scale
operations. The soils are sandy, the surface is generally rolling, and
the rainfall averages between 40 and 45 inches. Timber covers most
of the land not in cultivation and persistently encroaches on the culti-
vated area.

The area is subdivided on the basis of characteristic timber growth and
related differences in soil types. Sub-area 15a represents the pine-covered
and Sub-area 15b the oak-covered portions of the area. Sub-area 15b is
less rolling and more open than Sub-area 15a. The rainfall is somewhat
less, the farms are somewhat larger, and fewer special crops are grown.
The basic cropping system of cotton and corn prevails in both sub-areas,
however, with cotton occupying approximately the same percentage of
the total cultivated area.

Piney Woods Lumbering Area (Area 16)

This area together with Sub-area 15a comprises the piney-woods sec-
tion of Texas. Loblolly and long-leaf pine are the main timber types in


Figure 75.-Lumber production, mainly pine, is the principal industry in
the Piney Woods Lumbering Area.


89










90 BULLETIN NO. 544, TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION

this area, whereas short-leaf pine is the prevailing type in Sub-area 15a.
This area is further distinguished from Area 15a by the fact that lumber-
ing is the major industry, with farming of only minor importance. Such
farming as is done is quite similar to that in Sub-area 15a, in that cotton
and corn occupy most of the crop land while annual legumes and vegetables
account for the balance of the cultivated area. Free range from large
areas of cut-over land forms the basis for the production of large numbers
of low-grade beef cattle and hogs. The entire area is tick-infested, making
it difficult to improve herds from outside sources.

Farms are somewhat smaller than in Sub-area 15a, but this is offset
by supplementary incomes from range livestock, from larger sales of
forest products, and from labor off the farms in nearby forests and saw
mills.

Post Oak Area (Area 17)

This area lies entirely within the post-oak portion of the East Texas
timber country. The soils are mostly sandy, with the surface gently roll-
ing and largely covered with a growth of oak timber. The annual rainfall
averages about 35 inches. Scattered throughout the area are small
interior prairies with fairly productive soils. Several rivers, including
the Brazos and Colorado, cross the area. The bottom lands along these
rivers are highly productive and are used very largely for cotton produc-
tion under the plantation system. A large proportion of the cultivated
land in this area is found in these prairies and river bottoms. Cotton,
which normally occupies about two-thirds, and corn, occupying about one-
fifth of the cultivated area, with a small acreage of hay and other forage
crops, make up the cropping systems on the great majority of farms in the
area. In Sub-area 17b, vegetable production featuring tomatoes and water-
melons is substituted for a part of the cotton acreage.

Almost three-fourths of the area is in pasture land that is used primarily
for cattle ranching. Livestock production on farms is largely for home
consumption.


Figure 76.-A large proportion of the land in the Post Oak Area is used
for grazing. (Photograph furnished by Texas Agricultural Extension Service.)










DESCRIPTION OF AGRICULTURE AND TYPE-OF-FARMING AREAS


Coast Prairie Area (Area 18)

This is a low-lying, practically flat area in which varying soil types
and conditions of drainage have resulted in mixed types of farming. The
soils can be roughly classed into three groups: dark clays and clay loams,
light-colored soils largely sandy in character, and the alluvial soils depos-
ited by the Brazos and Colorado Rivers and other smaller streams that
cross the area. Large portions of the area can be used for little other
than grazing, unless systematically drained.

The main types of farming are cattle ranching, to which approximately
71 per cent of the land area is devoted; cotton and corn production, con-
fined very largely to the better-drained dark-clay and alluvial soils; and
rice production. Dairying and the production of fruits and vegetables
are important enterprises in limited areas around the larger cities.

Rice production is largely confined to fertile lands with impervious sub-
soils that permit economical irrigation. Land on which rice is grown is
usually cultivated one year and then stands idle for a year or two. This
practice has led to a combination of beef cattle raising and rice farming,
with the cattle kept to utilize the rice lands during the years in which
they are not cultivated.

The area is subdivided on the basis of the distribution of these main
types of farming. In Sub-area 18a, cattle ranching is practiced to the ex-
clusion of all other types. In Sub-area 18b, all three types are found.
Most of the cotton produced in the coast prairie is grown in this portion
of the area. It is also the source of more than half of the rice produced in
the State. In addition, more than half of the land in this sub-area is
still devoted to cattle ranching. An exception to these main types of
farming is the production of early potatoes in parts of Colorado, Fort
Bend, and Wharton Counties. Cattle ranching and rice production are


Figure 77.-Rice is grown to the exclusion of all other cultivated crops
in parts of the Coast Prairie.

the principal forms of land use in Sub-area 18c. Cotton production is of
minor importance. Dairy products, fruits, and vegetables are produced in
important quantities around the cities of Houston, Galveston, and
Beaumont.


91




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