• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Abstract
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Foreword
 Preface
 Acknowledgement
 Acronyms
 Wheat and wheat breeding
 Development of high-yielding wheat...
 Wheat varieties and area
 Summary of area estimates
 Appendix A: Early Chinese wheat...
 Appendix B: Semidwarf wheat varieties...
 Appendix C: Notation and conversion...
 Back Cover






Title: Development and spread of high-yielding wheat varieties in developing countries
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE PAGE TEXT
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00055259/00001
 Material Information
Title: Development and spread of high-yielding wheat varieties in developing countries
Alternate Title: High-yielding wheat varieties in developing countries
Physical Description: xi, 99 p. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Dalrymple, Dana G.
Publisher: Bureau for Science and Technology, Agency for International Development
Place of Publication: Washington D.C
Publication Date: 1986
 Subjects
Subject: Wheat -- Varieties -- Developing countries   ( lcsh )
Wheat -- Varieties   ( lcsh )
Genre: federal government publication   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Includes bibliographies.
Statement of Responsibility: Dana G. Dalrymple.
Funding: Electronic resources created as part of a prototype UF Institutional Repository and Faculty Papers project by the University of Florida.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00055259
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 14083380
lccn - 86071247

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Abstract
        Abstract
    Title Page
        Page i
        Page ii
    Table of Contents
        Page iii
        Page iv
    Foreword
        Page v
        Page vi
    Preface
        Page vii
        Page viii
    Acknowledgement
        Page ix
        Page x
    Acronyms
        Page xi
    Wheat and wheat breeding
        Page 1
        Background and focus of report
            Page 1
        Definitions and sources of data
            Page 2
            Varietal definitions
                Page 2
            Date sources
                Page 3
        Some basic biological characteristics
            Page 3
            Classification of wheat
                Page 3
            Growing season
                Page 4
            HYWVs and water control
                Page 4
        The nature of high yield
            Page 4
        Methods of varietal improvement
            Page 5
            Varietal introduction
                Page 5
            Selection
                Page 6
            Hybridization
                Page 6
            Hybrids
                Page 6
            Induced mutations
                Page 7
            Other techniques
                Page 7
        References and notes
            Page 8
            Page 9
            Page 10
    Development of high-yielding wheat varieties
        Page 11
        An early HYWV
            Page 11
        Japanese-American roots
            Page 11
            Page 12
        Italian varieties
            Page 13
        Mexiacan varieties
            Page 13
            Page 14
            Page 15
            Page 16
            Page 17
            Page 18
        Sources of dwarfism
            Page 19
            Page 20
            Page 21
        References and notes
            Page 22
            Page 23
            Page 24
            Page 25
            Page 26
    Wheat varieties and area
        Page 27
        Asia
            Page 28
            Bangladesh
                Page 28
                Page 29
            Burma
                Page 30
            China
                Page 30
                Page 31
                Page 32
                Page 33
            India
                Page 34
                Page 35
                Page 36
                Page 37
            Republic of Korea
                Page 38
            Nepal
                Page 38
                Page 39
            Pakistan
                Page 40
        Near East
            Page 41
            Afghanistan
                Page 42
            Algeria
                Page 43
            Cyprus
                Page 44
            Egypt
                Page 44
            Iran
                Page 45
            Iraq
                Page 46
            Jordan
                Page 47
            Lebanon
                Page 47
            Libya
                Page 47
            Morocco
                Page 48
            Oman
                Page 49
            Saudi Arabia
                Page 49
            Syria
                Page 49
            Tunisia
                Page 50
                Page 51
            Turkey
                Page 52
                Page 53
                Page 54
                Page 55
            Yemen Arab Republic
                Page 56
            People's Democratic Repbulic of Yemen
                Page 56
        Africa
            Page 56
            Ethiopia
                Page 56
                Page 57
            Kenya
                Page 58
            Nigeria
                Page 58
            Sudan
                Page 59
            Tanzania
                Page 60
            Zambia
                Page 60
            Zimbabwe
                Page 60
        Latin America
            Page 61
            Argentina
                Page 62
                Page 63
                Page 64
            Bolivia
                Page 65
            Brazil
                Page 65
                Page 66
            Chile
                Page 67
            Colombia
                Page 68
            Ecuador
                Page 68
            Guatemala
                Page 68
            Mexico
                Page 69
            Paraguay
                Page 69
            Peru
                Page 70
            Uruguay
                Page 70
        References and notes
            Page 70
            Page 71
            Page 72
            Page 73
            Page 74
            Page 75
            Page 76
            Page 77
            Page 78
            Page 79
            Page 80
    Summary of area estimates
        Page 81
        Some notes of caution
            Page 81
            Data limitations
                Page 81
        HYWV area
            Page 82
            Southern and eastern Asia
                Page 82
            Near East(Western Asia and North Africa)
                Page 83
            Africa (except North Africa)
                Page 84
            Latin America
                Page 84
            Total HYWV area
                Page 85
        HYWV and HYRV proportions
            Page 86
            Regional totals
                Page 86
            Time series data
                Page 87
        Future rates of adoption
            Page 87
        References and notes
            Page 88
            Page 89
            Page 90
    Appendix A: Early Chinese wheat varieties in American collections
        Page 91
        References and notes
            Page 92
            Page 93
            Page 94
    Appendix B: Semidwarf wheat varieties in the United States
        Page 95
        Background
            Page 95
        Varieties released
            Page 96
        Area planted
            Page 96
        References and notes
            Page 96
            Page 97
            Page 98
    Appendix C: Notation and conversion factors
        Page 99
        Plant breeding notation
            Page 99
        Conversion factors
            Page 99
    Back Cover
        Back Cover
Full Text

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ABSTRACT


The use of high-yielding varieties of wheat (HYWVs) has expanded
sharply in developing countries in recent years. This report reviews the
development of these varieties and provides information on the extent
of their adoption. Where data are available, adoption is measured in
terms of area planted at the national level. Major emphasis is placed on
short, fertilizer-responsive varieties, which are generally semidwarfs.
They have usually been bred at one of the international agricultural
research centers-or are an offspring of a center line or a variety-and
have been further developed in national breeding programs.
Adoption data cover the period from the middle 1960s, when the
HYWVs were introduced, through the early to mid-1980s. As of the
1982-83 crop year, the total HYWV area in the noncommunist devel-
oping countries is estimated at 41.8 million ha, which represented about
60.9% of the total wheat area. (When China was added, the total
HYWV area increased to about 50.7 million ha, but the proportion
dropped to 51.9% of the total wheat area.) The largest portion of the
noncommunist area was found in Asia (60.8%), followed by Latin
America (19.9%), the Near East (18.2%), and Africa (1.2%). Over the
period from the mid-1960s, the HYWV area in southern Asia rose
steadily. The rate of increase in the future is expected to slow because
of supply-and-demand factors.


Key Words

Wheat, wheat breeding, wheat varieties, high-yielding wheat vari-
eties, agricultural statistics, green revolution, international agricultural
research, international agricultural research centers, developing coun-
tries




6 /'-


Development and Spread of
High-Yielding Wheat Varieties
in Developing Countries







Dana G. Dalrymple












Bureau for Science and Technology
Agency for International Development
Washington, D.C.
'l' 1986












PUBLICATION HISTORY


The first edition of this report was issued in November 1969 under
the title Imports and Plantings of High-Yielding Varieties of Wheat and
Rice in the Less Developed Nations. Further editions with this title were
issued in January 1971 (second edition) and February 1972 (third edi-
tion). The first three words of the title were changed to Development
and Spread in the fourth edition issued in July 1974. The fifth edition
was issued in August 1976 and the sixth in September 1978. All were
prepared by Dana G. Dalrymple and published by the U.S. Department
of Agriculture in cooperation with the U.S. Agency for International
Development.



THE AUTHOR

Dana G. Dalrymple is an agricultural economist specializing in
international agricultural research and technology. He is with the
Technical Assistance Division of the Office of International Coopera-
tion and Development, U. S. Department of Agriculture, on detail to
the Office of Agriculture, Bureau for Science and Technology, U.S.
Agency for International Development. There he serves as research
adviser on the CGIAR Staff. Dr. Dalrymple received B.S. and M.S.
degrees from Cornell University and a Ph.D. from Michigan State Uni-
versity.



DISCLAIMER

The views expressed in this bulletin are those of the author and are
not necessarily those of the U.S. Agency for International Develop-
ment. Mention of commercial firms and/or their products does not
constitute or imply endorsement.






Library of Congress Catalog Card Number: 86-71247



Publication development services provided by
METROTEC, Inc.
Washington, D.C.
















Contents


Foreword v
Preface vii
Acknowledgments ix
Acronyms xi

1. Wheat and Wheat Breeding 1
Background and Focus of Report 1
Definitions and Sources of Data 2
Varietal definitions 2 Data sources 3
Some Basic Biological Characteristics 3
Classification of wheat 3 Growing season 4
HYWVs and water control 4
The Nature of High Yield 4
Methods of Varietal Improvement 5
Varietal introduction 5 Selection 6
Hybridization 6 Hybrids 6 Induced mutations 7
Other techniques 7
References and Notes 8

2. Development of High-Yielding Wheat Varieties 11
An Early HYWV 11
Japanese-American Roots 11
Italian Varieties 13
Mexican Varieties 13
Sources of Dwarfism 19
References and Notes 22

3. Wheat Varieties and Area 27
Asia 28
Bangladesh 28 Burma 30 China 30 India 34
Republic of Korea 38 Nepal 38 Pakistan 40
Near East 41
Afghanistan 42 Algeria 43 Cyprus 44 Egypt 44
Iran 45 Iraq 46 Jordan 47 Lebanon 47 Libya 47
Morocco 48 Oman 49 Saudi Arabia 49 Syria 49











Tunisia 50 Turkey 52 Yemen Arab Republic 56
People's Democratic Republic of Yemen 56
Africa 56
Ethiopia 56 Kenya 58 Nigeria 58 Sudan 59
Tanzania 60 Zambia 60 Zimbabwe 60
Latin America 61
Argentina 62 Bolivia 65 Brazil 65 Chile 67
Colombia 68 Ecuador 68 Guatemala 68 Mexico 69
Paraguay 69 Peru 70 Uruguay 70
References and Notes 70

4. Summary of Area Estimates 81
Some Notes of Caution 81
Data Limitations 81
HYWV Area 82
Southern and Eastern Asia 82 Near East (Western Asia and
North Africa) 83 Africa (except North Africa) 84
Latin America 84 Total HYWV area 85
HYWV and HYRV Proportions 86
Regional totals 86 Time series data 87
Future Rates of Adoption 87
References and Notes 88

Appendix A: Early Chinese Wheat
Varieties in American Collections 91
References and Notes 92

Appendix B: Semidwarf Wheat Varieties in the United States 95
Background 95
Varieties Released 96
Area Planted 96
References and Notes 96

Appendix C: Notation and Conversion Factors 99
Plant Breeding Notation 99
Conversion Factors 99
















Foreword


The most significant technological accomplishment of this century in international
agriculture is the development of high-yielding cereal crop varieties. These fertilizer-
responsive food crops, with a high degree of resistance to insect pests and diseases, have
provided on-farm yields far in excess of those obtainable from traditional varieties. They
have given rise to the green revolution, which has helped many nations increase their
food production in the face of substantial increases in human population. Increased
production means higher returns to many farmers and lower food costs to consumers.
The U.S. Agency for International Development (AID) has long been involved in
crop improvement activities in developing countries. Since the early 1950s AID has
supported the development and strengthening of national research programs in which
considerable research has been done on varietal improvement. Since 1969 the Agency
has also provided about 25% of the funding for international agricultural research
centers sponsored by the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research.
Much of the research leading to the development of new crop varieties has been carried
out at these centers. The national and international centers cooperate in the varietal
development process, and the result is usually a joint product.
This publication documents the development and adoption of new wheat varieties. A
comparable report on rice is being published simultaneously.
The research reported in this document represents, we think, a highly efficient and
effective way to assist the needy in developing countries and to stimulate their economic
development. AID is proud to have played a role in the process.


Nyle C. Brady
Senior Assistant Administrator for Science
and Technology
U.S. Agency for International Development
















Preface


This report is, to borrow a biological term, somewhat of an induced mutant. It is the
offspring of a series of earlier reports, the last of which was published in September 1978,
but it differs from them in several ways. The most obvious change is that whereas wheat
and rice were formerly covered in the same report, they are now the subject of separate,
although nearly concurrent, publications. A less obvious change is that the reports are
now published wholly by the Agency for International Development (AID) rather than
in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Agriculture.
In addition to including a vast amount of new information, other changes have been
made-
The report has been almost entirely rewritten, with the principal exception of the
first parts of chapters 1 and 2, which have been revised. Two new appendices have been
added.
There has been a change in style in the country chapter (chapter 3). Formerly
many of the country entries consisted only of tables; these have now been cast in narra-
tive form and contain a broader array of information. Tables are included when statisti-
cal information was available; they now indicate the proportion of total area covered by
high-yielding wheat varieties.
The footnotes have been moved to the ends of chapters and have been thinned out
for the pre-1977 period. Also, some long-standing but now dated appendices have been
dropped.
The high-yielding wheat varieties are no longer listed, along with their genealogies,
in a summary table. There are now simply too many to list. Considerable information of
this type is, however, provided in chapter 2 and in the country sections in chapter 3.
While the varietal developments and releases can fairly readily be captured and
reported, statistics on their use at the farm level generally remain somewhat elusive.
Those that exist are, except for a few Asian countries, outside the main statistical stream;
they are in the byways and must be tracked down. This detective process takes time and
is not always successful. Coverage is often uneven.
Despite careful preparation and extensive review, this report undoubtedly contains
some errors and inconsistencies. These are particularly likely to be found in the spelling,
specification, or spacing of variety names and lines in individual nations. In some cases,
what might seem like inconsistencies may be due to variation in transliteration and usage
between countries. In other cases, particularly those involving genetics, scientific opinion
occasionally varies. Nevertheless, I am responsible for any errors or inconsistencies and
would be grateful to learn of them.
The updating of this report has been in part an AID contribution to a broader study
of the impact of the international agricultural research centers that has been sponsored
by the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research. The area data from
this report have been used as a basis for further statistical calculations presented in the
reports of that study. In turn, some information provided in country studies prepared
for the impact study has proved useful for this report.










Most of the research and writing of this report was done in 1984 and early 1985.
Some information, however, was updated through late 1985.
This project provided a welcome, though demanding, addition to my usual activities.
I am pleased to have had the opportunity to return to a subject that has the fortunate
combination of being of great interest to me and of considerable importance for the
developing world.


Dana G. Dalrymple
















Acknowledgments


This edition was made possible only through the support of numerous individuals
and organizations. Those who provided assistance on specific points are generally men-
tioned in the footnotes and references of the chapters that follow. Those who were of
more general assistance are noted here.
First, it should be said that this report would not have been prepared had it not been
for Dr. Nyle C. Brady, senior assistant administrator for science and technology, U.S.
Agency for International Development (AID). Dr. Brady provided the stimulus to
update the report, directed the allocation of resources to do so, and followed the project
with keen interest.
Four other individuals also made vital contributions:
Robert Bertram, my associate at AID, contributed directly through his knowledge
of plant breeding and indirectly by carrying an increased workload while I was involved
with this project.
Daniel Timms of the International Economics Division, Economic Research Ser-
vice (ERS), U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) diligently searched through USDA
files and reports for statistical information.
Walter Rockwood of AID served as editor. Suzanne M. Parent of METROTEC,
INC., carefully guided the manuscript through the publication process.
Among the many scientists who provided valuable assistance and advice, I would par-
ticularly like to acknowledge the contributions of:
Dr. Byrd C. Curtis, director, Wheat Program, International Maize and Wheat
Improvement Center (CIMMYT);
Dr. Arthur Klatt, associate director, Wheat Program, CIMMYT; and
Dr. L.W. Briggle, research agronomist, Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Agricul-
tural Research Service, USDA.
Several groups of individuals were of considerable help in obtaining data on specific
nations:
Country desk officers of the International Economics Division, ERS/USDA,
Washington, D.C.; and
AID food and agricultural officers and USDA agricultural attaches in developing
countries.
Also of assistance were three fellow agricultural economists: Dr. Donald Winkel-
mann of CIMMYT and Drs. Jock Anderson and Carl Pray of the Consultative Group on
International Agricultural Research Impact Study.
In addition, support came from other quarters. The International Agricultural
Development Service (IADS) kindly provided a much-needed quiet haven for writing of
the first draft. John Hyslop of the Office of International Cooperation and Develop-
ment at the USDA arranged Chinese translations. Kim Harmon and Dolores SeGuine
of AID typed much of the final draft.
I should not close without mentioning several other vital groups who will not be
mentioned by name in this report. These are the many scientists and technicians who










carried out the varietal improvement work and who gathered the basic statistical data
summarized here. The accomplishments reported in this bulletin are but the tip of a
pyramid of activity by others. My role has been that of observer and reporter.














Acronyms


U.S. ORGANIZATIONS

AID, USAID U.S. Agency for International Development
ARS Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of
Agriculture
ERS Economic Research Service, U.S. Department of Agri-
culture
FAS Foreign Agricultural Service, U.S. Department of
Agriculture
USDA U.S. Department of Agriculture



INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS
AND CENTERS

CAAS Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences
CGIAR Consultative Group on International Agricultural
Research (Washington, D.C.)
CIMMYT International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center
(Mexico)
FAO Food and Agriculture Organization of the United
Nations
ICARDA International Center for Agricultural Research in the
Dry Areas (Syria)
IRRI International Rice Research Institute (Philippines)




















1. WHEAT AND WHEAT BREEDING



I trust that the day will come when humanity will take as great an interest in the
creation of superior forms of life as it has taken in past years in the perfection
of superior forms of machinery. In the long run, superior life forms may
prove to have a greater profit for mankind than machinery.
-Henry A. Wallace, 19361


The planting of high-yielding wheat varieties
(HYWVs) has expanded sharply in developing
countries (DCs) since the mid-1960s. The new
wheat varieties, along with critical inputs such as
fertilizer and irrigation, provide the basis for what
is popularly called the green revolution.


BACKGROUND AND FOCUS
OF THE REPORT

Although the green revolution is a relatively
new phenomenon in DCs, HYWVs are not new.
Many wheat varieties have, over time, been clas-
sified as high yielding compared to their prede-
cessors. The distinguishing characteristic of the
modern HYWVs is their relatively short stem.
They also are generally early maturing and have
several other complementary plant features.2
Dwarf and semidwarf wheat varieties have
been grown for more than a century. The dwarf-
ing characteristic, however, became important
with the advent and use of chemical fertilizer,
which produced higher yields for plants that could
respond to its application and not lodge (fall
over). This was particularly true for intensively
farmed areas where the water supply was not a
limiting factor. Hence, it is not surprising to find


that short varieties have been grown in Japan for
a long time.3
The use of chemical fertilizer on domestic
food crops in DCs, however, began largely in the
1950s and 1960s. The HYWVs began to make
their appearance in DCs in the 1960s. The use of
HYWVs and chemical fertilizer was stimulated by
a food crisis in southern Asia in the mid-1960s.
The ancestry of most of the HYWVs can be
traced to varieties developed in Mexico by
Norman Borlaug and associates (subsequently
grouped at the International Maize and Wheat
Improvement Center [CIMMYT]). The origin
and interrelationships of the current HYWVs are
outlined in chapter 2. Chapter 3 provides esti-
mates of the areas of HYWVs harvested in indi-
vidual countries by crop years between 1965-66
and 1982-83. Preliminary estimates for 1983-84
also are included when available. While the main
emphasis is on noncommunist nations, some
information is included for the People's Republic
of China.
No attempt is made to go beyond area data
and to estimate increased overall wheat yields and
production,4 and no effort is made to discuss the
economic and social effects of the HYWVs within
the context of the green revolution. Rather, the




















1. WHEAT AND WHEAT BREEDING



I trust that the day will come when humanity will take as great an interest in the
creation of superior forms of life as it has taken in past years in the perfection
of superior forms of machinery. In the long run, superior life forms may
prove to have a greater profit for mankind than machinery.
-Henry A. Wallace, 19361


The planting of high-yielding wheat varieties
(HYWVs) has expanded sharply in developing
countries (DCs) since the mid-1960s. The new
wheat varieties, along with critical inputs such as
fertilizer and irrigation, provide the basis for what
is popularly called the green revolution.


BACKGROUND AND FOCUS
OF THE REPORT

Although the green revolution is a relatively
new phenomenon in DCs, HYWVs are not new.
Many wheat varieties have, over time, been clas-
sified as high yielding compared to their prede-
cessors. The distinguishing characteristic of the
modern HYWVs is their relatively short stem.
They also are generally early maturing and have
several other complementary plant features.2
Dwarf and semidwarf wheat varieties have
been grown for more than a century. The dwarf-
ing characteristic, however, became important
with the advent and use of chemical fertilizer,
which produced higher yields for plants that could
respond to its application and not lodge (fall
over). This was particularly true for intensively
farmed areas where the water supply was not a
limiting factor. Hence, it is not surprising to find


that short varieties have been grown in Japan for
a long time.3
The use of chemical fertilizer on domestic
food crops in DCs, however, began largely in the
1950s and 1960s. The HYWVs began to make
their appearance in DCs in the 1960s. The use of
HYWVs and chemical fertilizer was stimulated by
a food crisis in southern Asia in the mid-1960s.
The ancestry of most of the HYWVs can be
traced to varieties developed in Mexico by
Norman Borlaug and associates (subsequently
grouped at the International Maize and Wheat
Improvement Center [CIMMYT]). The origin
and interrelationships of the current HYWVs are
outlined in chapter 2. Chapter 3 provides esti-
mates of the areas of HYWVs harvested in indi-
vidual countries by crop years between 1965-66
and 1982-83. Preliminary estimates for 1983-84
also are included when available. While the main
emphasis is on noncommunist nations, some
information is included for the People's Republic
of China.
No attempt is made to go beyond area data
and to estimate increased overall wheat yields and
production,4 and no effort is made to discuss the
economic and social effects of the HYWVs within
the context of the green revolution. Rather, the







HIGH-YIELDING WHEAT VARIETIES


purpose is to provide a historical and statistical
base for policy analysis and other research.


DEFINITIONS AND
SOURCES OF DATA

The identification of HYWVs and the deter-
mination of the area planted with them is a com-
plex process. The general characteristics,
problems, and sources of data are outlined here;
more specific details are provided in the refer-
ences and notes for chapter 3.

Varietal Definitions
This report emphasizes the wheat varieties
developed by CIMMYT and the offspring of
those or similar varieties developed in national
research programs. Virtually all of these varieties
are semidwarfs, although some might be consid-
ered intermediate in height and are potentially
high yielding.5 Their yield capacity, however, is
seldom fully realized on farms because of a host
of physical, biological, and management factors.
Thus, "high yielding" refers to yield potential, not
always to actual output.



Proportion of total area
(%)


This definition of HYWVs does not include
all improved wheat varieties. Improved varieties
of conventional height, produced as a result of
breeding or selection, have been grown in many
DCs for decades. (In India, for example, system-
atic research on wheat began in 1905. ) The early
wheat varieties released in the Mexican program
were of conventional height. Some traditional
and improved varieties may be as high yielding as
some semidwarfs under certain conditions.
In most countries, a progression of varieties in
three stages might involve: I, traditional varieties;
II, improved varieties of normal height; and III,
HYWVs of shorter height-principally semidwarf
and intermediate varieties (figure 1.1). A few of
the early varieties introduced or distributed by
CIMMYT might have fallen into stage II, but
nearly all are now in stage III. Each stage may, in
turn, be composed of successive waves of new
varieties; few individual varieties have a very long
life. Within stage III we would find a gradual
replacement of imported CIMMYT varieties with
crosses of genetic materials from agricultural cen-
ters with local varieties.
In most cases, the varietal sequence will follow
the order indicated, but one stage will not com-


Time


Figure 1.1. Generalized sequence for the adoption of modern wheat varieties in
developing nations.







HIGH-YIELDING WHEAT VARIETIES


purpose is to provide a historical and statistical
base for policy analysis and other research.


DEFINITIONS AND
SOURCES OF DATA

The identification of HYWVs and the deter-
mination of the area planted with them is a com-
plex process. The general characteristics,
problems, and sources of data are outlined here;
more specific details are provided in the refer-
ences and notes for chapter 3.

Varietal Definitions
This report emphasizes the wheat varieties
developed by CIMMYT and the offspring of
those or similar varieties developed in national
research programs. Virtually all of these varieties
are semidwarfs, although some might be consid-
ered intermediate in height and are potentially
high yielding.5 Their yield capacity, however, is
seldom fully realized on farms because of a host
of physical, biological, and management factors.
Thus, "high yielding" refers to yield potential, not
always to actual output.



Proportion of total area
(%)


This definition of HYWVs does not include
all improved wheat varieties. Improved varieties
of conventional height, produced as a result of
breeding or selection, have been grown in many
DCs for decades. (In India, for example, system-
atic research on wheat began in 1905. ) The early
wheat varieties released in the Mexican program
were of conventional height. Some traditional
and improved varieties may be as high yielding as
some semidwarfs under certain conditions.
In most countries, a progression of varieties in
three stages might involve: I, traditional varieties;
II, improved varieties of normal height; and III,
HYWVs of shorter height-principally semidwarf
and intermediate varieties (figure 1.1). A few of
the early varieties introduced or distributed by
CIMMYT might have fallen into stage II, but
nearly all are now in stage III. Each stage may, in
turn, be composed of successive waves of new
varieties; few individual varieties have a very long
life. Within stage III we would find a gradual
replacement of imported CIMMYT varieties with
crosses of genetic materials from agricultural cen-
ters with local varieties.
In most cases, the varietal sequence will follow
the order indicated, but one stage will not com-


Time


Figure 1.1. Generalized sequence for the adoption of modern wheat varieties in
developing nations.







WHEAT AND WHEAT BREEDING


pletely replace the previous stage or stages. In
some instances, however, farmers may have
skipped stage II by moving directly from stage I to
stage III. In other instances, bad experiences with
newer varieties will cause farmers to temporarily
move back a stage or two. The actual situation in
an individual country may, of course, vary consid-
erably.7
I have tried to limit the data reported here to
the semidwarf and intermediate HYWVs of stage
III, but that has not always been possible.
National data are not always broken down by spe-
cific variety, so it is sometimes necessary to use
whatever definition of HYWVs is used by the
national reporting system. This process has
undoubtedly included some improved (non-high-
yielding) varieties, and the degree to which
improved varieties are included may have
changed over time.8
A more subtle definitional problem arises
from the time span covered. Aside from the his-
torical background in the next chapter, I concen-
trate on the adoption of varieties introduced by
CIMMYT since the mid-1960s. HYWVs intro-
duced and widely adopted before that time are
not specifically covered in the statistics (but may
have been included in some cases).
While most of the HYWVs reported here
were developed by CIMMYT or are related in
some way to such varieties, this is not always the
case. The clearest examples are some short and
semidwarf varieties of wheat that were developed
in Italy early this century and are still planted in
the Mediterranean region and used as parents
there and elsewhere.
Some HYWVs have been developed by
national programs from local varieties or
mutants; they are not always semidwarfs, but they
may be relatively short and high yielding com-
pared to traditional varieties. Although
CIMMYT is a major source of HYWVs, it is not
the only one. Some countries other than those
listed may be testing HYWVs and may even have
moved into limited commercial production.

Data Sources
Data on area of HYWVs planted and on seed
imports generally come from different sources.
Most are unpublished. They usually apply to the
July to June crop year.9 In some cases, the
sources do not indicate whether the area data are


for planted or harvested area. Most, however,
refer to area planted.
Area information is largely based on reports
submitted by the Agency for International Devel-
opment (AID) country missions or agricultural
attaches at U.S. embassies. Such reports are usu-
ally obtained from official reports or estimates by
the countries themselves. National systems for
collecting this information are not, in many cases,
highly advanced, and it is not possible to deter-
mine its accuracy. In some instances the HYWV
area may be over- or underestimated.10 For oth-
ers it is simply not available. The area data,
therefore, should be regarded as only approxi-
mate.
The HYWV seed figures are relatively accu-
rate but incomplete except for unusually large
shipments from Mexico and India.


SOME BASIC BIOLOGICAL
CHARACTERISTICS

The basic biological characteristic of the
HYWVs discussed in this report is their semi-
dwarf growth habit. However, other biological
characteristics also are important. Those features
are related in part to their botanical classification;
there are several different major species and types
of wheat.

Classification of Wheat
In terms of botanical classification, wheat
belongs to the genus Triticum and is composed of
three species of commercial importance: com-
mon or bread wheats (Triticum aestivum L.); club
wheats (Triticum compactum Host); and durum
wheats (Titicum durum Desf.). Bread wheats
were first extensively grown in northern Europe;
club wheats in southern Europe; and durum
wheats in the Mediterranean countries, in south-
ern and eastern Russia, and in Asia Minor.
Each wheat species has distinct characteristics
that make it suitable for special uses: the com-
mon wheats are used for bread; the club wheats,
which are soft, are used for pastry; and the durum
wheats, which are hard, are used for pasta prod-
ucts such as macaroni and spaghetti. Nearly all of
the HYWVs reported here are bread wheats.
The high-yielding durum varieties, however, are
gaining importance in the Mediterranean coun-







WHEAT AND WHEAT BREEDING


pletely replace the previous stage or stages. In
some instances, however, farmers may have
skipped stage II by moving directly from stage I to
stage III. In other instances, bad experiences with
newer varieties will cause farmers to temporarily
move back a stage or two. The actual situation in
an individual country may, of course, vary consid-
erably.7
I have tried to limit the data reported here to
the semidwarf and intermediate HYWVs of stage
III, but that has not always been possible.
National data are not always broken down by spe-
cific variety, so it is sometimes necessary to use
whatever definition of HYWVs is used by the
national reporting system. This process has
undoubtedly included some improved (non-high-
yielding) varieties, and the degree to which
improved varieties are included may have
changed over time.8
A more subtle definitional problem arises
from the time span covered. Aside from the his-
torical background in the next chapter, I concen-
trate on the adoption of varieties introduced by
CIMMYT since the mid-1960s. HYWVs intro-
duced and widely adopted before that time are
not specifically covered in the statistics (but may
have been included in some cases).
While most of the HYWVs reported here
were developed by CIMMYT or are related in
some way to such varieties, this is not always the
case. The clearest examples are some short and
semidwarf varieties of wheat that were developed
in Italy early this century and are still planted in
the Mediterranean region and used as parents
there and elsewhere.
Some HYWVs have been developed by
national programs from local varieties or
mutants; they are not always semidwarfs, but they
may be relatively short and high yielding com-
pared to traditional varieties. Although
CIMMYT is a major source of HYWVs, it is not
the only one. Some countries other than those
listed may be testing HYWVs and may even have
moved into limited commercial production.

Data Sources
Data on area of HYWVs planted and on seed
imports generally come from different sources.
Most are unpublished. They usually apply to the
July to June crop year.9 In some cases, the
sources do not indicate whether the area data are


for planted or harvested area. Most, however,
refer to area planted.
Area information is largely based on reports
submitted by the Agency for International Devel-
opment (AID) country missions or agricultural
attaches at U.S. embassies. Such reports are usu-
ally obtained from official reports or estimates by
the countries themselves. National systems for
collecting this information are not, in many cases,
highly advanced, and it is not possible to deter-
mine its accuracy. In some instances the HYWV
area may be over- or underestimated.10 For oth-
ers it is simply not available. The area data,
therefore, should be regarded as only approxi-
mate.
The HYWV seed figures are relatively accu-
rate but incomplete except for unusually large
shipments from Mexico and India.


SOME BASIC BIOLOGICAL
CHARACTERISTICS

The basic biological characteristic of the
HYWVs discussed in this report is their semi-
dwarf growth habit. However, other biological
characteristics also are important. Those features
are related in part to their botanical classification;
there are several different major species and types
of wheat.

Classification of Wheat
In terms of botanical classification, wheat
belongs to the genus Triticum and is composed of
three species of commercial importance: com-
mon or bread wheats (Triticum aestivum L.); club
wheats (Triticum compactum Host); and durum
wheats (Titicum durum Desf.). Bread wheats
were first extensively grown in northern Europe;
club wheats in southern Europe; and durum
wheats in the Mediterranean countries, in south-
ern and eastern Russia, and in Asia Minor.
Each wheat species has distinct characteristics
that make it suitable for special uses: the com-
mon wheats are used for bread; the club wheats,
which are soft, are used for pastry; and the durum
wheats, which are hard, are used for pasta prod-
ucts such as macaroni and spaghetti. Nearly all of
the HYWVs reported here are bread wheats.
The high-yielding durum varieties, however, are
gaining importance in the Mediterranean coun-







WHEAT AND WHEAT BREEDING


pletely replace the previous stage or stages. In
some instances, however, farmers may have
skipped stage II by moving directly from stage I to
stage III. In other instances, bad experiences with
newer varieties will cause farmers to temporarily
move back a stage or two. The actual situation in
an individual country may, of course, vary consid-
erably.7
I have tried to limit the data reported here to
the semidwarf and intermediate HYWVs of stage
III, but that has not always been possible.
National data are not always broken down by spe-
cific variety, so it is sometimes necessary to use
whatever definition of HYWVs is used by the
national reporting system. This process has
undoubtedly included some improved (non-high-
yielding) varieties, and the degree to which
improved varieties are included may have
changed over time.8
A more subtle definitional problem arises
from the time span covered. Aside from the his-
torical background in the next chapter, I concen-
trate on the adoption of varieties introduced by
CIMMYT since the mid-1960s. HYWVs intro-
duced and widely adopted before that time are
not specifically covered in the statistics (but may
have been included in some cases).
While most of the HYWVs reported here
were developed by CIMMYT or are related in
some way to such varieties, this is not always the
case. The clearest examples are some short and
semidwarf varieties of wheat that were developed
in Italy early this century and are still planted in
the Mediterranean region and used as parents
there and elsewhere.
Some HYWVs have been developed by
national programs from local varieties or
mutants; they are not always semidwarfs, but they
may be relatively short and high yielding com-
pared to traditional varieties. Although
CIMMYT is a major source of HYWVs, it is not
the only one. Some countries other than those
listed may be testing HYWVs and may even have
moved into limited commercial production.

Data Sources
Data on area of HYWVs planted and on seed
imports generally come from different sources.
Most are unpublished. They usually apply to the
July to June crop year.9 In some cases, the
sources do not indicate whether the area data are


for planted or harvested area. Most, however,
refer to area planted.
Area information is largely based on reports
submitted by the Agency for International Devel-
opment (AID) country missions or agricultural
attaches at U.S. embassies. Such reports are usu-
ally obtained from official reports or estimates by
the countries themselves. National systems for
collecting this information are not, in many cases,
highly advanced, and it is not possible to deter-
mine its accuracy. In some instances the HYWV
area may be over- or underestimated.10 For oth-
ers it is simply not available. The area data,
therefore, should be regarded as only approxi-
mate.
The HYWV seed figures are relatively accu-
rate but incomplete except for unusually large
shipments from Mexico and India.


SOME BASIC BIOLOGICAL
CHARACTERISTICS

The basic biological characteristic of the
HYWVs discussed in this report is their semi-
dwarf growth habit. However, other biological
characteristics also are important. Those features
are related in part to their botanical classification;
there are several different major species and types
of wheat.

Classification of Wheat
In terms of botanical classification, wheat
belongs to the genus Triticum and is composed of
three species of commercial importance: com-
mon or bread wheats (Triticum aestivum L.); club
wheats (Triticum compactum Host); and durum
wheats (Titicum durum Desf.). Bread wheats
were first extensively grown in northern Europe;
club wheats in southern Europe; and durum
wheats in the Mediterranean countries, in south-
ern and eastern Russia, and in Asia Minor.
Each wheat species has distinct characteristics
that make it suitable for special uses: the com-
mon wheats are used for bread; the club wheats,
which are soft, are used for pastry; and the durum
wheats, which are hard, are used for pasta prod-
ucts such as macaroni and spaghetti. Nearly all of
the HYWVs reported here are bread wheats.
The high-yielding durum varieties, however, are
gaining importance in the Mediterranean coun-







HIGH-YIELDING WHEAT VARIETIES


tries. Club wheats are presently of minor interna-
tional importance.

Growing Season
Wheat is basically a crop of the temperate and
semitropical climatic zones. Its normal range can,
however, be extended slightly by breeding and
cultural practices.
Wheat is principally of two types, winter and
spring. (A third type, facultative, falls between the
two in cold tolerance but is of minor importance,
except in China.) Botanically, the Mexican vari-
eties are spring wheats (i.e., planted in the spring
and harvested in late summer). Where winters
are mild, spring wheats may, like winter wheats,
be planted in the fall and harvested in the spring.
This practice is enhanced by the photoperiod-
insensitive nature of the Mexican wheats. The
winter cultivation of spring wheats is generally
practiced in the DCs in warm regions.11 In some
regions where there is a heavy summer monsoon,
planting of Mexican varieties may be largely lim-
ited to the winter season. Virtually all of the data
reported here are for spring wheats, though some
data for winter wheats are included for a few
Near East countries.
For several years CIMMYT has had a cooper-
ative research program with Oregon State
University aimed at transferal of some of the
desirable characteristics of winter wheat to spring
wheat and vice versa. The results to date are
promising.12 CIMMYT is also expanding its
research on winter wheats in Mexico and Turkey.

HYWVs and Water Control
There is a close general relationship between
the use of the HYWVs and water control.
HYWVs do not require more water than local
varieties in a physiological sense; in fact, because
of higher yields and shorter growing periods, they
may actually use less water per unit of product.
However, because the high-yield potential of the
varieties is achieved by applying inputs such as
fertilizer and pesticides, an added cost is involved.
When water control-both supply and
drainage-is inadequate or unreliable, the added
risk discourages the use of these and other inputs
and reduces the advantage of the varieties. Thus,
the attainment of the full potential of the
HYWVs without undue risk requires an assured
water supply.


Water requirements for wheat, however, differ
sharply from these for rice. Wheat requires much
less water per unit of land than rice-less than
one-third under some Indian conditions. Thus,
wheat is most often raised in drier climates and
rice in monsoonal areas. Similarly, wheat is more
often grown during the dry season and rice during
the wet season. In some instances, where growing
seasons permit, they are able to follow each other
in multiple-cropping rotations. This is increas-
ingly the case, for example, in Bangladesh.
Approximately two-thirds of the HYWVs
were, as of the mid-1970s, grown in irrigated
fields, principally in India and Pakistan.13 Some
important regions, however, such as North Africa
and the barani (rainfed) area of Pakistan receive
little, if any, irrigation.1 Even without irrigation,
yields of the HYWVs often are superior to local
varieties. Consequently, increased attention is
being given to developing drought-resistant wheat
varieties, such as in the CIMMYT/Oregon State
University wheat crossing program. Bread wheats
are more apt to be raised under irrigation than
are durum wheats.


THE NATURE OF HIGH YIELD

Because of the focus of this report on
HYWVs, it is appropriate to cover the underlying
nature of high yields.15 The first step is to define
yield. Traditionally, yield has been defined as
quantity of plant output per unit of land per crop.
This approach is satisfactory when only one crop
is grown per year, as in developed nations with
temperate climates. In the tropical developing
nations, however, multiple cropping-the produc-
tion of more than one crop per year-is often pos-
sible and usually practiced. In such a setting a
temporal dimension of yield must be included:
yield per unit of land per unit of time.16
As traditionally defined, yield increases can be
achieved in three main ways:
Step 1-improvements in the genetic yield
potential;
Step 2-better varietal adaption to envi-
ronmental factors; and
Step 3-improved agronomy.
The first two steps primarily involve plant
breeders and are complementary. The third step
can be of equal or greater importance as far as







HIGH-YIELDING WHEAT VARIETIES


tries. Club wheats are presently of minor interna-
tional importance.

Growing Season
Wheat is basically a crop of the temperate and
semitropical climatic zones. Its normal range can,
however, be extended slightly by breeding and
cultural practices.
Wheat is principally of two types, winter and
spring. (A third type, facultative, falls between the
two in cold tolerance but is of minor importance,
except in China.) Botanically, the Mexican vari-
eties are spring wheats (i.e., planted in the spring
and harvested in late summer). Where winters
are mild, spring wheats may, like winter wheats,
be planted in the fall and harvested in the spring.
This practice is enhanced by the photoperiod-
insensitive nature of the Mexican wheats. The
winter cultivation of spring wheats is generally
practiced in the DCs in warm regions.11 In some
regions where there is a heavy summer monsoon,
planting of Mexican varieties may be largely lim-
ited to the winter season. Virtually all of the data
reported here are for spring wheats, though some
data for winter wheats are included for a few
Near East countries.
For several years CIMMYT has had a cooper-
ative research program with Oregon State
University aimed at transferal of some of the
desirable characteristics of winter wheat to spring
wheat and vice versa. The results to date are
promising.12 CIMMYT is also expanding its
research on winter wheats in Mexico and Turkey.

HYWVs and Water Control
There is a close general relationship between
the use of the HYWVs and water control.
HYWVs do not require more water than local
varieties in a physiological sense; in fact, because
of higher yields and shorter growing periods, they
may actually use less water per unit of product.
However, because the high-yield potential of the
varieties is achieved by applying inputs such as
fertilizer and pesticides, an added cost is involved.
When water control-both supply and
drainage-is inadequate or unreliable, the added
risk discourages the use of these and other inputs
and reduces the advantage of the varieties. Thus,
the attainment of the full potential of the
HYWVs without undue risk requires an assured
water supply.


Water requirements for wheat, however, differ
sharply from these for rice. Wheat requires much
less water per unit of land than rice-less than
one-third under some Indian conditions. Thus,
wheat is most often raised in drier climates and
rice in monsoonal areas. Similarly, wheat is more
often grown during the dry season and rice during
the wet season. In some instances, where growing
seasons permit, they are able to follow each other
in multiple-cropping rotations. This is increas-
ingly the case, for example, in Bangladesh.
Approximately two-thirds of the HYWVs
were, as of the mid-1970s, grown in irrigated
fields, principally in India and Pakistan.13 Some
important regions, however, such as North Africa
and the barani (rainfed) area of Pakistan receive
little, if any, irrigation.1 Even without irrigation,
yields of the HYWVs often are superior to local
varieties. Consequently, increased attention is
being given to developing drought-resistant wheat
varieties, such as in the CIMMYT/Oregon State
University wheat crossing program. Bread wheats
are more apt to be raised under irrigation than
are durum wheats.


THE NATURE OF HIGH YIELD

Because of the focus of this report on
HYWVs, it is appropriate to cover the underlying
nature of high yields.15 The first step is to define
yield. Traditionally, yield has been defined as
quantity of plant output per unit of land per crop.
This approach is satisfactory when only one crop
is grown per year, as in developed nations with
temperate climates. In the tropical developing
nations, however, multiple cropping-the produc-
tion of more than one crop per year-is often pos-
sible and usually practiced. In such a setting a
temporal dimension of yield must be included:
yield per unit of land per unit of time.16
As traditionally defined, yield increases can be
achieved in three main ways:
Step 1-improvements in the genetic yield
potential;
Step 2-better varietal adaption to envi-
ronmental factors; and
Step 3-improved agronomy.
The first two steps primarily involve plant
breeders and are complementary. The third step
can be of equal or greater importance as far as







HIGH-YIELDING WHEAT VARIETIES


tries. Club wheats are presently of minor interna-
tional importance.

Growing Season
Wheat is basically a crop of the temperate and
semitropical climatic zones. Its normal range can,
however, be extended slightly by breeding and
cultural practices.
Wheat is principally of two types, winter and
spring. (A third type, facultative, falls between the
two in cold tolerance but is of minor importance,
except in China.) Botanically, the Mexican vari-
eties are spring wheats (i.e., planted in the spring
and harvested in late summer). Where winters
are mild, spring wheats may, like winter wheats,
be planted in the fall and harvested in the spring.
This practice is enhanced by the photoperiod-
insensitive nature of the Mexican wheats. The
winter cultivation of spring wheats is generally
practiced in the DCs in warm regions.11 In some
regions where there is a heavy summer monsoon,
planting of Mexican varieties may be largely lim-
ited to the winter season. Virtually all of the data
reported here are for spring wheats, though some
data for winter wheats are included for a few
Near East countries.
For several years CIMMYT has had a cooper-
ative research program with Oregon State
University aimed at transferal of some of the
desirable characteristics of winter wheat to spring
wheat and vice versa. The results to date are
promising.12 CIMMYT is also expanding its
research on winter wheats in Mexico and Turkey.

HYWVs and Water Control
There is a close general relationship between
the use of the HYWVs and water control.
HYWVs do not require more water than local
varieties in a physiological sense; in fact, because
of higher yields and shorter growing periods, they
may actually use less water per unit of product.
However, because the high-yield potential of the
varieties is achieved by applying inputs such as
fertilizer and pesticides, an added cost is involved.
When water control-both supply and
drainage-is inadequate or unreliable, the added
risk discourages the use of these and other inputs
and reduces the advantage of the varieties. Thus,
the attainment of the full potential of the
HYWVs without undue risk requires an assured
water supply.


Water requirements for wheat, however, differ
sharply from these for rice. Wheat requires much
less water per unit of land than rice-less than
one-third under some Indian conditions. Thus,
wheat is most often raised in drier climates and
rice in monsoonal areas. Similarly, wheat is more
often grown during the dry season and rice during
the wet season. In some instances, where growing
seasons permit, they are able to follow each other
in multiple-cropping rotations. This is increas-
ingly the case, for example, in Bangladesh.
Approximately two-thirds of the HYWVs
were, as of the mid-1970s, grown in irrigated
fields, principally in India and Pakistan.13 Some
important regions, however, such as North Africa
and the barani (rainfed) area of Pakistan receive
little, if any, irrigation.1 Even without irrigation,
yields of the HYWVs often are superior to local
varieties. Consequently, increased attention is
being given to developing drought-resistant wheat
varieties, such as in the CIMMYT/Oregon State
University wheat crossing program. Bread wheats
are more apt to be raised under irrigation than
are durum wheats.


THE NATURE OF HIGH YIELD

Because of the focus of this report on
HYWVs, it is appropriate to cover the underlying
nature of high yields.15 The first step is to define
yield. Traditionally, yield has been defined as
quantity of plant output per unit of land per crop.
This approach is satisfactory when only one crop
is grown per year, as in developed nations with
temperate climates. In the tropical developing
nations, however, multiple cropping-the produc-
tion of more than one crop per year-is often pos-
sible and usually practiced. In such a setting a
temporal dimension of yield must be included:
yield per unit of land per unit of time.16
As traditionally defined, yield increases can be
achieved in three main ways:
Step 1-improvements in the genetic yield
potential;
Step 2-better varietal adaption to envi-
ronmental factors; and
Step 3-improved agronomy.
The first two steps primarily involve plant
breeders and are complementary. The third step
can be of equal or greater importance as far as







WHEAT AND WHEAT BREEDING


yields are concerned but includes a somewhat
different group of scientists.
Step 1 involves increasing the pure yield
potential of the plant at the upper level of its pro-
duction possibilities. This is the yield level
reached when the normal factors of produc-
tion-nutrients, water, insects, diseases, weeds,
lodging, and other stresses-are effectively con-
trolled. Yield increases of this nature have been
obtained. They have generally resulted from the
semidwarf or short stature of the plants because
less of the plant's biomass is represented by stems
and more is represented by harvested organs or
grain. The reductions in straw weight are
matched, more or less, on a one to one basis, by
gains in grain yield, which increases the harvest
index. Other physiological characteristics, such as
rate of photosynthetic activities, may or may not
be significantly different.
Step 2 includes a number of factors that lessen
at least some of the normal constraints on pro-
ductivity. Four particularly important factors are:
resistance to lodging, suitable growth duration,
greater resistance to insects and diseases, and
greater tolerance of environmental stress. Hap-
pily, the shorter stem of the HYWV, which con-
tributes to a higher harvest index, also contributes
greater resistance to lodging. Growth duration
suitable for the location is essential for high yield
and double cropping. Most breeding programs
have also given considerable attention to incorpo-
rating sturdier stems and natural resistance to
insects and diseases. Increasing attention is being
given to similarly incorporating greater tolerance
for adverse environmental conditions-saline soil
for example-but this research is not advanced in
terms of its yield effects.
Step 3 includes a wide range of agronomic
practices such as increased and more effective use
of water, fertilizer, insecticides, and herbicides;
closer spacing; and more effective and timely
management. Once again, shorter plants are less
likely to lodge at higher levels of nitrogen fertil-
ization. On the other hand, they are less tolerant
of competition from weeds. Generally a package
of improved agronomic practices is recommended
with use of the varieties.
If the definition of "yield" is broadened to
take the time dimension into account, another
factor becomes important. Typically, the HYWVs
discussed in this report are photoperiod insensi-


tive and tend to mature more rapidly than tradi-
tional varieties. The first (vegetative) stage of
plant growth is shortened, a characteristic that
can be of value in several ways. It may enable the
crop to fit in a short growth season and avoid
natural calamities (drought or storms) that occur
at the end of a traditional growing season. Pho-
toperiod insensitivity may have even more pro-
nounced effects on cropping patterns. Reducing
the time required for one crop increases the time
available for others, which means that multiple
cropping becomes possible. It also may mean that
additional flexibility is introduced in terms of the
type or scheduling of other crops. The influence
of early maturity on increasing cropping intensity
and overall production is generally not given the
attention that it deserves in analysis of yield
effects.
Semidwarf wheats are usually higher tillering
than other wheats. (They produce additional
stems.) Other qualities, such as increased resis-
tance to insects and diseases, usually are incorpo-
rated and complement other yield factors. In
some cases, production factors other than simple
grain yield may be of significance. Straw yield is
important in some DCs, and farmers may be
interested in varieties of intermediate rather than
semidwarf height. High yield is important, but it
is not everything. Trade-offs may be involved.


METHODS OF VARIETAL
IMPROVEMENT

HYWVs sometimes occur naturally but are
most often the result of a carefully planned activ-
ity of a plant breeder. Natural crosses or muta-
tions provided the genetic variation that laid the
basis for much of the early and current improve-
ment in varieties. These natural sources of varia-
tion can now be augmented by induced sources of
variation.17

Varietal Introduction
Varietal introduction is usually the first phase
in varietal improvement. Varieties that have
proved themselves elsewhere, generally in other
nations, are simply imported. Sometimes they
can be used directly, but more often they have to
be adopted through selection and breeding to
meet local conditions. They may also be used as
parents in developing new varieties.







WHEAT AND WHEAT BREEDING


yields are concerned but includes a somewhat
different group of scientists.
Step 1 involves increasing the pure yield
potential of the plant at the upper level of its pro-
duction possibilities. This is the yield level
reached when the normal factors of produc-
tion-nutrients, water, insects, diseases, weeds,
lodging, and other stresses-are effectively con-
trolled. Yield increases of this nature have been
obtained. They have generally resulted from the
semidwarf or short stature of the plants because
less of the plant's biomass is represented by stems
and more is represented by harvested organs or
grain. The reductions in straw weight are
matched, more or less, on a one to one basis, by
gains in grain yield, which increases the harvest
index. Other physiological characteristics, such as
rate of photosynthetic activities, may or may not
be significantly different.
Step 2 includes a number of factors that lessen
at least some of the normal constraints on pro-
ductivity. Four particularly important factors are:
resistance to lodging, suitable growth duration,
greater resistance to insects and diseases, and
greater tolerance of environmental stress. Hap-
pily, the shorter stem of the HYWV, which con-
tributes to a higher harvest index, also contributes
greater resistance to lodging. Growth duration
suitable for the location is essential for high yield
and double cropping. Most breeding programs
have also given considerable attention to incorpo-
rating sturdier stems and natural resistance to
insects and diseases. Increasing attention is being
given to similarly incorporating greater tolerance
for adverse environmental conditions-saline soil
for example-but this research is not advanced in
terms of its yield effects.
Step 3 includes a wide range of agronomic
practices such as increased and more effective use
of water, fertilizer, insecticides, and herbicides;
closer spacing; and more effective and timely
management. Once again, shorter plants are less
likely to lodge at higher levels of nitrogen fertil-
ization. On the other hand, they are less tolerant
of competition from weeds. Generally a package
of improved agronomic practices is recommended
with use of the varieties.
If the definition of "yield" is broadened to
take the time dimension into account, another
factor becomes important. Typically, the HYWVs
discussed in this report are photoperiod insensi-


tive and tend to mature more rapidly than tradi-
tional varieties. The first (vegetative) stage of
plant growth is shortened, a characteristic that
can be of value in several ways. It may enable the
crop to fit in a short growth season and avoid
natural calamities (drought or storms) that occur
at the end of a traditional growing season. Pho-
toperiod insensitivity may have even more pro-
nounced effects on cropping patterns. Reducing
the time required for one crop increases the time
available for others, which means that multiple
cropping becomes possible. It also may mean that
additional flexibility is introduced in terms of the
type or scheduling of other crops. The influence
of early maturity on increasing cropping intensity
and overall production is generally not given the
attention that it deserves in analysis of yield
effects.
Semidwarf wheats are usually higher tillering
than other wheats. (They produce additional
stems.) Other qualities, such as increased resis-
tance to insects and diseases, usually are incorpo-
rated and complement other yield factors. In
some cases, production factors other than simple
grain yield may be of significance. Straw yield is
important in some DCs, and farmers may be
interested in varieties of intermediate rather than
semidwarf height. High yield is important, but it
is not everything. Trade-offs may be involved.


METHODS OF VARIETAL
IMPROVEMENT

HYWVs sometimes occur naturally but are
most often the result of a carefully planned activ-
ity of a plant breeder. Natural crosses or muta-
tions provided the genetic variation that laid the
basis for much of the early and current improve-
ment in varieties. These natural sources of varia-
tion can now be augmented by induced sources of
variation.17

Varietal Introduction
Varietal introduction is usually the first phase
in varietal improvement. Varieties that have
proved themselves elsewhere, generally in other
nations, are simply imported. Sometimes they
can be used directly, but more often they have to
be adopted through selection and breeding to
meet local conditions. They may also be used as
parents in developing new varieties.







HIGH-YIELDING WHEAT VARIETIES


Selection
Selection is an age-old technique for varietal
improvement and consists, in its simplest form, of
selecting the most promising plants, where there
is natural variation, in a field. These variants may
represent natural mutations, outcrossing, and
mixtures. Farmers have improved their crops by
selection for centuries. Plant breeders make
selections from pure or single lines, but more
often they select from the offspring of intended
crosses.

Hybridization
Hybridization involves planned crosses and
subsequent selection of desired plants from the
offspring. Crossing of this type began for wheat
in the United States in the late 1800s. The pur-
pose is to combine the most desirable character-


istics of two or more varieties. A cross of two
different pure-line varieties will produce offspring
with a great deal of variability in the early (F2 or
F3) generations. Breeders carry the crossing
through at least the sixth generation to stabilize
the process and to produce true-breeding off-
spring. This process produces pure-line improved
varieties rather than pure hybrids (which can only
be the F1 generation).

Hybrids

Hybrids are the first (F1) generation of the
cross and traditionally display hybrid vigor or het-
erosis. Two major challenges are involved in cap-
turing this vigor for farm use. The first is to get a
reasonably stable F1 generation. This requires,
among other things, genetically pure par-
ents-which is not difficult with a self-pollinated


Figure 1.2. CIMMYT wheat-crossing nursery showing diversity of plant types (source: CIMMYT).







HIGH-YIELDING WHEAT VARIETIES


Selection
Selection is an age-old technique for varietal
improvement and consists, in its simplest form, of
selecting the most promising plants, where there
is natural variation, in a field. These variants may
represent natural mutations, outcrossing, and
mixtures. Farmers have improved their crops by
selection for centuries. Plant breeders make
selections from pure or single lines, but more
often they select from the offspring of intended
crosses.

Hybridization
Hybridization involves planned crosses and
subsequent selection of desired plants from the
offspring. Crossing of this type began for wheat
in the United States in the late 1800s. The pur-
pose is to combine the most desirable character-


istics of two or more varieties. A cross of two
different pure-line varieties will produce offspring
with a great deal of variability in the early (F2 or
F3) generations. Breeders carry the crossing
through at least the sixth generation to stabilize
the process and to produce true-breeding off-
spring. This process produces pure-line improved
varieties rather than pure hybrids (which can only
be the F1 generation).

Hybrids

Hybrids are the first (F1) generation of the
cross and traditionally display hybrid vigor or het-
erosis. Two major challenges are involved in cap-
turing this vigor for farm use. The first is to get a
reasonably stable F1 generation. This requires,
among other things, genetically pure par-
ents-which is not difficult with a self-pollinated


Figure 1.2. CIMMYT wheat-crossing nursery showing diversity of plant types (source: CIMMYT).







HIGH-YIELDING WHEAT VARIETIES


Selection
Selection is an age-old technique for varietal
improvement and consists, in its simplest form, of
selecting the most promising plants, where there
is natural variation, in a field. These variants may
represent natural mutations, outcrossing, and
mixtures. Farmers have improved their crops by
selection for centuries. Plant breeders make
selections from pure or single lines, but more
often they select from the offspring of intended
crosses.

Hybridization
Hybridization involves planned crosses and
subsequent selection of desired plants from the
offspring. Crossing of this type began for wheat
in the United States in the late 1800s. The pur-
pose is to combine the most desirable character-


istics of two or more varieties. A cross of two
different pure-line varieties will produce offspring
with a great deal of variability in the early (F2 or
F3) generations. Breeders carry the crossing
through at least the sixth generation to stabilize
the process and to produce true-breeding off-
spring. This process produces pure-line improved
varieties rather than pure hybrids (which can only
be the F1 generation).

Hybrids

Hybrids are the first (F1) generation of the
cross and traditionally display hybrid vigor or het-
erosis. Two major challenges are involved in cap-
turing this vigor for farm use. The first is to get a
reasonably stable F1 generation. This requires,
among other things, genetically pure par-
ents-which is not difficult with a self-pollinated


Figure 1.2. CIMMYT wheat-crossing nursery showing diversity of plant types (source: CIMMYT).







WHEAT AND WHEAT BREEDING


crop such as wheat. The second challenge is to
develop an economical way of making the crosses
in mass-which is difficult with a self-pollinated
crop. Elimination of the internal source of pollen
to prevent self-fertilization can be done manually
at the laboratory level by removing the anthers
(pollen sac), but this system is completely unsat-
isfactory if commercial quantities of seed are to
be produced.
Thus, for a long time hybrid wheat seed
seemed a practical impossibility. In the 1950s,
however, the discovery of cytoplasmic male steril-
ity (CMS) and a fertility restorer complex in
wheat provided a new opportunity for wheat
breeders. The CMS process, in its simplest form,
involves a male-sterile (or female) flower that is
crossed with (pollinated by) any line desirable as a
male parent but that also possesses a gene or
genes for restoration of fertility.
For every hybrid developed, three separate
and distinct lines must be established:
the male parent must be converted to
restore fertility to all F1 (hybrid) plants grown in
farmer's fields;
the female parent must have the proper
cytoplasm and must be devoid of fertility
restoring genes; and
there must be a normal, fertile counterpart
of the female parent (with normal cytoplasm) to
use in production of additional seed of the male-
sterile (female) parent-thus, the label
maintainerr line."
This process is complicated and expensive. It
is, nevertheless, the basis for emerging private
hybrid seed wheat businesses in the United States
and Argentina.18
An important new development in wheat
breeding involves the use of chemically induced
male sterility. Plants are sprayed with a chemical
to induce male sterility at the proper growth stage
ensuring cross-pollination. This is much simpler
and less expensive than the CMS process. Wheat
varieties developed in this way are marketed in
the United States, and the process may become
widely adopted.
Although semidwarf varieties are commonly
used in breeding hybrids, the offspring are not
always semidwarfs unless both parents are semi-
dwarfs. The F generation tends toward the
height of the taller parent. Thus, some hybrids


could face a lodging problem unless straw
strength is incorporated in other ways.
There are a number of unsettled questions
concerning the relative economic advantage of
hybrids. A key one concerns yields. There is
some difference of opinion among plant breeders
as to whether heterosis (an increased growth
capacity due to crossbreeding) is a particularly
significant advantage in self-pollinated crops.
Theoretically, the same yield characteristics can
be obtained through genetic accumulation.
Because hybrid seed costs more and must be pur-
chased every year (seed of conventional varieties,
if kept clear and viable, can be used year after
year by the farmer), hybrid yields must be corre-
spondingly higher. In the case of wheat it is not
yet clear that hybrid yields are sufficiently greater
than those of the best regular varieties to more
than cover the additional costs. If chemically
induced sterility makes it possible to reduce
hybrid wheat seed costs, their economic potential
will clearly be enhanced. Even so, the use of
hybrids in many developing nations will be greatly
hampered by the lack of well-developed seed pro-
duction and distribution systems.
CIMMYT had a hybrid wheat research pro-
gram through the 1960s but then dropped it.

Induced Mutations
Throughout history, virtually all of the basic
genetic variability in plants has come about
through natural processes. Beginning in the
1950s scientists induced mutations in wheat and
rice varieties through the use of radiation or
chemicals.19 These mutations were fruitful in
bringing about shorter plant height. Some short-
statured mutants of wheat are grown in both
developed and developing nations-though not
yet over wide areas.20

Other Techniques
Related wheat breeding techniques currently
under study include anther culture (particularly
used for rice in China) and wide crosses involving
wild relatives or distantly related species. Anther
culture offers a way of speeding up and increasing
the efficiency of the breeding process. Wide
crosses are a means to broaden the genetic base.
CIMMYT has made particular use of wide
crosses in its experimental work.21







WHEAT AND WHEAT BREEDING


crop such as wheat. The second challenge is to
develop an economical way of making the crosses
in mass-which is difficult with a self-pollinated
crop. Elimination of the internal source of pollen
to prevent self-fertilization can be done manually
at the laboratory level by removing the anthers
(pollen sac), but this system is completely unsat-
isfactory if commercial quantities of seed are to
be produced.
Thus, for a long time hybrid wheat seed
seemed a practical impossibility. In the 1950s,
however, the discovery of cytoplasmic male steril-
ity (CMS) and a fertility restorer complex in
wheat provided a new opportunity for wheat
breeders. The CMS process, in its simplest form,
involves a male-sterile (or female) flower that is
crossed with (pollinated by) any line desirable as a
male parent but that also possesses a gene or
genes for restoration of fertility.
For every hybrid developed, three separate
and distinct lines must be established:
the male parent must be converted to
restore fertility to all F1 (hybrid) plants grown in
farmer's fields;
the female parent must have the proper
cytoplasm and must be devoid of fertility
restoring genes; and
there must be a normal, fertile counterpart
of the female parent (with normal cytoplasm) to
use in production of additional seed of the male-
sterile (female) parent-thus, the label
maintainerr line."
This process is complicated and expensive. It
is, nevertheless, the basis for emerging private
hybrid seed wheat businesses in the United States
and Argentina.18
An important new development in wheat
breeding involves the use of chemically induced
male sterility. Plants are sprayed with a chemical
to induce male sterility at the proper growth stage
ensuring cross-pollination. This is much simpler
and less expensive than the CMS process. Wheat
varieties developed in this way are marketed in
the United States, and the process may become
widely adopted.
Although semidwarf varieties are commonly
used in breeding hybrids, the offspring are not
always semidwarfs unless both parents are semi-
dwarfs. The F generation tends toward the
height of the taller parent. Thus, some hybrids


could face a lodging problem unless straw
strength is incorporated in other ways.
There are a number of unsettled questions
concerning the relative economic advantage of
hybrids. A key one concerns yields. There is
some difference of opinion among plant breeders
as to whether heterosis (an increased growth
capacity due to crossbreeding) is a particularly
significant advantage in self-pollinated crops.
Theoretically, the same yield characteristics can
be obtained through genetic accumulation.
Because hybrid seed costs more and must be pur-
chased every year (seed of conventional varieties,
if kept clear and viable, can be used year after
year by the farmer), hybrid yields must be corre-
spondingly higher. In the case of wheat it is not
yet clear that hybrid yields are sufficiently greater
than those of the best regular varieties to more
than cover the additional costs. If chemically
induced sterility makes it possible to reduce
hybrid wheat seed costs, their economic potential
will clearly be enhanced. Even so, the use of
hybrids in many developing nations will be greatly
hampered by the lack of well-developed seed pro-
duction and distribution systems.
CIMMYT had a hybrid wheat research pro-
gram through the 1960s but then dropped it.

Induced Mutations
Throughout history, virtually all of the basic
genetic variability in plants has come about
through natural processes. Beginning in the
1950s scientists induced mutations in wheat and
rice varieties through the use of radiation or
chemicals.19 These mutations were fruitful in
bringing about shorter plant height. Some short-
statured mutants of wheat are grown in both
developed and developing nations-though not
yet over wide areas.20

Other Techniques
Related wheat breeding techniques currently
under study include anther culture (particularly
used for rice in China) and wide crosses involving
wild relatives or distantly related species. Anther
culture offers a way of speeding up and increasing
the efficiency of the breeding process. Wide
crosses are a means to broaden the genetic base.
CIMMYT has made particular use of wide
crosses in its experimental work.21







HIGH-YIELDING WHEAT VARIETIES


Clearly there are now a number of ways to
develop higher yielding varieties. Further


improvements in approach and technique will
undoubtedly broaden the horizon further.


REFERENCES AND NOTES


1U.S. Department of Agriculture, Yearbook of
Agriculture, 1936 (Washington, D.C.: the Depart-
ment, 1936), p. 120.
2See D.S. Athwal, "Semidwarf Rice and
Wheat in Global Food Needs," Quarterly Review
of Biology 46(1) (1971):24-26.
3In Japan increasing application of commer-
cial fertilizer (fishmeal or soybean cakes) in the
late 1800s and chemical fertilizer in the early
1900s led to an early interest in the development
of varieties with shorter stems. Semidwarf wheat
varieties, as will be noted in chapter 2, already
existed in Japan at that time.
4Some of the factors involved in this process,
however, are outlined in D.G. Dalrymple,
"Evaluating the Impact of International Research
on Wheat and Rice Production in the Developing
Nations" in Resource Allocation and Productivity
in National and International Agricultural
Research, ed. T.M. Arndt, D.G. Dalrymple, and
V.W. Ruttan, (Minneapolis: University of
Minnesota Press, 1977), pp. 171-208; and "The
Adoption of High-Yielding Grain Varieties in
Developing Nations," Agricultural History 53(4)
(1979):704-726.
5Full dwarf varieties are not grown commer-
cially.
6A. Howard and G.L.C. Howard, The
Improvement of Indian Wheat, Bulletin No. 171
(Pusa, India: Agricultural Research Institute,
1927), pp. 1-16; and C.E. Pray, "Underinvestment
and the Demand for Agricultural Research: A
Case Study of the Punjab," Food Research Insti-
tute Studies 19(1) (1983):59.
7A particularly well-documented case is pro-
vided by Y. Kislev and M. Hoffman, "Research
and Productivity of Wheat in Israel," Journal of
Development Studies 14(2) (1978):169.
8It has been reported, for example, that up to
the 1968-69 season in India improved local vari-
eties were included in the HYWV category.
Thereafter, the definition was more strict. V.S.
Vyas, India's High-Yielding Varieties Programme in


Wheat, 1966-67 to 1971-72 (Mexico City: Interna-
tional Maize and Wheat Improvement Center,
1975), pp. 5, 7.
9This designation is not as clear-cut as it may
seem, especially when crop seasons cut across the
July-to-June time period. The harvesting period
follows the planting dates by several months, cre-
ating further difficulties.
10In the previous edition of this report, exam-
ples were given of over- and underreporting of
rice in one district of India and in Bangladesh in
the mid-1970s. (D.G. Dalrymple, Development
and Spread of High-Yielding Varieties of Wheat and
Rice in the Less Developed Nations, Foreign Agri-
cultural Economics Report No. 95, [Washington,
D.C.: U.S. Department of Agriculture, 1978], pp.
130-131.) No similar examples have been found
for wheat.
11In Turkey it is possible to plant Mexican
varieties during the winter in the southern coastal
areas, but it is necessary to use winter wheat vari-
eties in the cold, dry Anatolian Plateau.
12Background on this program is provided in
K.R. Kern, "Probing the Gene Pools; Spring x
Winter Crosses in Bread Wheat," CIMMYT
Today, No. 12 (1980), 11 pp. More recent details
are provided in CIMMYT annual reports. Dur-
ing the 1950s and 1960s many of the wheat vari-
eties released in Argentina were from crosses of
spring and winter wheats.
13Letter from D. Winkelmann, economist,
CIMMYT, February 1974.
14See, for example, M.J. Purvis, "The New
Varieties Under Dryland Conditions: Mexican
Wheats in Tunisia," American Journal of Agricul-
tural Economics 56(1) (1973):54-57; and R.I.
Rochin, "A Micro-Economic Analysis of Small-
holder Response to High-Yielding Varieties of
Wheat in West Pakistan" (Ph.D. dissertation,
Michigan State University, 1971).
15This section is largely based on recent writ-
ing by Lloyd Evans, individually and in coopera-







WHEAT AND WHEAT BREEDING


tion with others. His two most useful general
articles are: "The Natural History of Crop Yield,"
American Scientist 68(4) (1980):388-397; and
"Raising the Yield Potential: By Selection or
Design?" in Genetic Engineering of Plants, ed. T.
Kosuge, C.P. Meredith, and A. Hallaender (New
York: Plenum Publishing, 1983), pp. 371-389.
More specific research on wheat was reported in
R.B. Austin, J. Bingham, R.D. Blackwell, L.T.
Evans, M.A. Ford, C.L. Morgan, and M. Taylor,
"Genetic Improvements in Winter Wheat Yields
Since 1900 and Associated Physiological
Changes," Journal of Agricultural Science 94
(1980):675-689. Also see H. Hanson, N.E.
Borlaug, and R.G. Anderson, Wheat in the Third
World (Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press, 1982), pp.
20-22; and B.C. Curtis, "Potential for a Yield
Increase in Wheat," in National Association of
Wheat Growers Foundation, Proceedings of the
National Wheat Research Conference
(Washington, D.C.: the Association, 1983), pp.
12-19.
16If two crops are grown in sequence each
year, the yield of each individual crop may be less
than the yield if only one crop were grown, but
the combined yield of the crops is usually higher
than the yield of a single crop. However, since
the second crop may not be of the same type,
weight or volume may be an inadequate meas-
urement of output. Value of production may be a
more relevant measure.
17This section draws heavily on conversations
with L.W. Briggle of the Agricultural Research


Service, USDA, Beltsville, Md. Particularly useful
references are: L.W. Briggle, "Heterosis in
Wheat-A Review," Crop Science 3(5) (1963):407-
412; R. Rodriquez, M.A. Quinones, N.E. Borlaug,
and I. Narvaes, Hybrid Wheats: Their Development
and Food Potential, CIMMYT Research Bulletin
No. 3 (Mexico City: International Maize and
Wheat Improvement Center, 1967), 37 pp.; B.C.
Curtis and D.R. Johnston, "Hybrid Wheat," Sci-
entific American 220(5) (1969):21-29; and S.S.
Virmani and I.B. Edwards, "Hybrid Rice and
Wheat," Advances in Agronomy 36 (1983):145-
214.
18For information on the latter program, see
N. Machado, "Hybrid Wheat Program of Cargill
in Argentina" in Cereal Breeding and Production
Symposium, Marcos Juarez, Argentina, November
7-12, 1983, Special Report 718 (Corvallis: Oregon
State University, 1984), pp. 331-333.
Some work of this nature was done much
earlier.
20For further details, see C.F. Konzak, Muta-
tions and Mutation Breeding, Wheat Monograph
(Madison, Wisc.: American Society of Agronomy,
in press), table 1.
21Curtis notes "The focus of this kind of wide
cross work is not the improvement of genetic
yield potential per se, but rather increased yield
through better resistance to diseases and greater
tolerance to environmental extremes" (Curtis, op.
cit. [see footnote 15], p. 16).














































Historical Note: Dr. Norman Borlaug of CIMMYT talks to Dr. Dilbagh Athwal of Punjab Agricultural University at the first CIMMYT
board meeting in September 1966. Dr. Borlaug won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1970 for his work on wheat improvement. Dr. Athwal was
one of the first Indian wheat breeders to work with the Mexcian semidwarfs (source: The Rockefeller Foundation).



















2. DEVELOPMENT OF HIGH-YIELDING
WHEAT VARIETIES



plant breeding, using germplasm from any source in the world, cuts across
national boundaries and develops products useful in the end to all men and nations.
-Gove Hambidge and E.N. Bressman, 19361


The origin and development of the wheat vari-
eties reported here are considerably more compli-
cated than their simple classification as HYWVs
might suggest. Moreover, through history many
HYWVs have been developed and used. The
wheat varieties discussed here are the descend-
ants of Japanese, American, and Italian breeding
programs.

AN EARLY HYWV

The earliest known HYWV was reported on
June 30, 1794, when the American Mercury of
Hartford, Connecticut, published "An Account of
a New Species of Wheat." The new variety was a
hard winter wheat that, compared to the prevail-
ing varieties, matured 15 to 20 days earlier, pro-
vided a heavier yield, and produced a third less
straw due to its short stem. It also was resistant
to disease (particularly with respect to rust), and
because of its earlier maturity, it escaped the
worst damage of the Hessian fly. The variety was
known as "Forward Wheat" and came from Car-
oline County, Virginia, where it had been selected
7 years earlier. Seed was offered for sale in
Connecticut in September 1795. By 1798-1800 it
was generally grown in eastern Virginia and
Maryland and was presumably adopted in the
commercial wheat-growing areas of western New


England.2 Other such modern varieties may well
have emerged unrecorded over time.

JAPANESE-AMERICAN ROOTS

Japan has a long history in the development of
short wheat. In 1873 Horace Capron, the former
U.S. Commissioner of Agriculture who headed an
agricultural advisory group on a visit to Japan,
wrote, "The Japanese farmers have brought the
art of dwarfing to perfection." He noted that the
wheat stalk seldom grew higher than 2 ft (60 cm)
and often not more than 20 in (50 cm). The head
was short but heavy. The Japanese claimed that
the straw had been so shortened that no matter
how much manure is used the stem will not grow
longer. Capron noted that "on the richest soils
and with the heaviest yields, the wheat stalks
never fall down and lodge."3
Short Japanese wheat varieties were intro-
duced in France in mid-1867 when La Soci&te
d'Acclimatation of Paris received seed of a pro-
ductive early maturing wheat (Ble Precoce), listed
as Haya Moughi, from a Dr. Mourier in Yoko-
hama. The plant proved to have short straw.4 In
following years other seeds were imported and
numerous reports of trials of Ble Pr6coce
appeared in the bulletin of the Society. In 1880 it
was listed in the book Les Meilleurs Blis. The



















2. DEVELOPMENT OF HIGH-YIELDING
WHEAT VARIETIES



plant breeding, using germplasm from any source in the world, cuts across
national boundaries and develops products useful in the end to all men and nations.
-Gove Hambidge and E.N. Bressman, 19361


The origin and development of the wheat vari-
eties reported here are considerably more compli-
cated than their simple classification as HYWVs
might suggest. Moreover, through history many
HYWVs have been developed and used. The
wheat varieties discussed here are the descend-
ants of Japanese, American, and Italian breeding
programs.

AN EARLY HYWV

The earliest known HYWV was reported on
June 30, 1794, when the American Mercury of
Hartford, Connecticut, published "An Account of
a New Species of Wheat." The new variety was a
hard winter wheat that, compared to the prevail-
ing varieties, matured 15 to 20 days earlier, pro-
vided a heavier yield, and produced a third less
straw due to its short stem. It also was resistant
to disease (particularly with respect to rust), and
because of its earlier maturity, it escaped the
worst damage of the Hessian fly. The variety was
known as "Forward Wheat" and came from Car-
oline County, Virginia, where it had been selected
7 years earlier. Seed was offered for sale in
Connecticut in September 1795. By 1798-1800 it
was generally grown in eastern Virginia and
Maryland and was presumably adopted in the
commercial wheat-growing areas of western New


England.2 Other such modern varieties may well
have emerged unrecorded over time.

JAPANESE-AMERICAN ROOTS

Japan has a long history in the development of
short wheat. In 1873 Horace Capron, the former
U.S. Commissioner of Agriculture who headed an
agricultural advisory group on a visit to Japan,
wrote, "The Japanese farmers have brought the
art of dwarfing to perfection." He noted that the
wheat stalk seldom grew higher than 2 ft (60 cm)
and often not more than 20 in (50 cm). The head
was short but heavy. The Japanese claimed that
the straw had been so shortened that no matter
how much manure is used the stem will not grow
longer. Capron noted that "on the richest soils
and with the heaviest yields, the wheat stalks
never fall down and lodge."3
Short Japanese wheat varieties were intro-
duced in France in mid-1867 when La Soci&te
d'Acclimatation of Paris received seed of a pro-
ductive early maturing wheat (Ble Precoce), listed
as Haya Moughi, from a Dr. Mourier in Yoko-
hama. The plant proved to have short straw.4 In
following years other seeds were imported and
numerous reports of trials of Ble Pr6coce
appeared in the bulletin of the Society. In 1880 it
was listed in the book Les Meilleurs Blis. The



















2. DEVELOPMENT OF HIGH-YIELDING
WHEAT VARIETIES



plant breeding, using germplasm from any source in the world, cuts across
national boundaries and develops products useful in the end to all men and nations.
-Gove Hambidge and E.N. Bressman, 19361


The origin and development of the wheat vari-
eties reported here are considerably more compli-
cated than their simple classification as HYWVs
might suggest. Moreover, through history many
HYWVs have been developed and used. The
wheat varieties discussed here are the descend-
ants of Japanese, American, and Italian breeding
programs.

AN EARLY HYWV

The earliest known HYWV was reported on
June 30, 1794, when the American Mercury of
Hartford, Connecticut, published "An Account of
a New Species of Wheat." The new variety was a
hard winter wheat that, compared to the prevail-
ing varieties, matured 15 to 20 days earlier, pro-
vided a heavier yield, and produced a third less
straw due to its short stem. It also was resistant
to disease (particularly with respect to rust), and
because of its earlier maturity, it escaped the
worst damage of the Hessian fly. The variety was
known as "Forward Wheat" and came from Car-
oline County, Virginia, where it had been selected
7 years earlier. Seed was offered for sale in
Connecticut in September 1795. By 1798-1800 it
was generally grown in eastern Virginia and
Maryland and was presumably adopted in the
commercial wheat-growing areas of western New


England.2 Other such modern varieties may well
have emerged unrecorded over time.

JAPANESE-AMERICAN ROOTS

Japan has a long history in the development of
short wheat. In 1873 Horace Capron, the former
U.S. Commissioner of Agriculture who headed an
agricultural advisory group on a visit to Japan,
wrote, "The Japanese farmers have brought the
art of dwarfing to perfection." He noted that the
wheat stalk seldom grew higher than 2 ft (60 cm)
and often not more than 20 in (50 cm). The head
was short but heavy. The Japanese claimed that
the straw had been so shortened that no matter
how much manure is used the stem will not grow
longer. Capron noted that "on the richest soils
and with the heaviest yields, the wheat stalks
never fall down and lodge."3
Short Japanese wheat varieties were intro-
duced in France in mid-1867 when La Soci&te
d'Acclimatation of Paris received seed of a pro-
ductive early maturing wheat (Ble Precoce), listed
as Haya Moughi, from a Dr. Mourier in Yoko-
hama. The plant proved to have short straw.4 In
following years other seeds were imported and
numerous reports of trials of Ble Pr6coce
appeared in the bulletin of the Society. In 1880 it
was listed in the book Les Meilleurs Blis. The








HIGH-YIELDING WHEAT VARIETIES


straw was very short, erect, and stiff; and the plant
flowered 2 to 3 weeks ahead of all the other
spring wheats. The entry, however, noted that the
variety was more of curiosity interest than of true
agricultural merit.5 BlI Pr&coce du Japon was sold
commercially from 1882 to 1904 as a spring
wheat. It was used for experimental breeding
work from 1930 to 1955, but it does not appear
that it was involved in the parentage of any
significant commercial varieties.
Two Japanese semidwarf varieties-
Akakomugi and Daruma-did, however, turn out
to be of immense consequence in subsequent
international breeding programs.
Akakomugi means "red wheat" in Japanese.
It was often used as a parent in crops because of
its dwarfness and early maturity. It was mainly
raised in southern Japan but is no longer grown
commercially. Akakomugi played an important
role in the breeding of Italian semidwarf varieties
early in the 20th century and is discussed in the
section on Italian varieties.7
Daruma, which may have come from Korea,
became one of the recommended wheat varieties
in the Tokyo and Kangawa Prefectures around
1900.8 A white variant of Daruma was known as
Shiro-Daruma and a red variant as Aka-Daruma.9
In 1917 Shiro-Daruma (or perhaps Daruma) was
crossed with an American variety called Glassy
Fultz at the Central Agricultural Experiment Sta-
tion (Nishigahara, Tokyo) to produce Fultz-
Daruma.10 The date and location of the cross of
Aka-Daruma with Glassy Fultz are not clear.
(Glassy Fultz was a selection of the American
variety Fultz imported by the Japanese Govern-
ment in 1887.11)2
The Fultz-Daruma progeny were then used to
make two other critical crosses with two related
American varieties: (1) Fultz-Daruma with
Turkey Red 13; and (2) (Aka-Daruma x Glassy
Fultz) with Kanred. (Kanred was selected from
Crimean, which is a strain of Turkey.) This pro-
cess is depicted in figure 2.1.
The first cross was made at the Ehime Pre-
fectural Agricultural Experiment Station in 1925.
Seed from the initial cross was planted at the
Konosu Experiment at the farm of the National
Agricultural Station in 1926. Seed was subse-
quently sent to the Iwate Prefectural Agricultural
Experiment Station. A semidwarf selection,
Tohoku No. 34, developed from the seventh gen-


Japan (
Shiro (white)-Daruma

x Glassy Fultz (1917)
x Glassy Fultz (1917)


Japan


Aka (red)-Daruma


x Glassy Fultz


Fultz Daruma (Aka Daruma x Glassy Fultz)

x Turkey Red (1925)x Kanred
x Turkey Red (1925) -x Kanred


I
Tohoku No. 34
Norin 10 (1935)
United
States
x Brevor (1949)

Norin 10 x Brevor
Norin 10 x Brevor'


Korea
Suweon 85 (1932)
I
x Suweon 13



Suweon 92 (1934) Suweon 90 (1934)

x Shiroboro (1936)


Seu Seun 27 (1936)

Figure 2.1. Genealogy of Norin 10, Suweon 92,
and Seu Seun 27 semidwarf wheat varieties.
Kanred was selected from Crimean, which is a
strain of Turkey. Source: Information provided
by T. Gotoh of Japan and Chang Hwan Cho of
South Korea.



eration in 1932, was particularly promising. Fol-
lowing further testing, it was named Norin 10 and
registered and released in October 1935. The
stem of Norin 10 was particularly short-52-54
cm. Norin 10 was, in turn, used in breeding pro-
grams in Japan, the United States, and Mexico.
Shiro-Daruma also was used at the Iwate station
to breed Norin 1 in 1929 and Norin 6 in 1932.
The second cross was made at the Rikuu
Branch Station (Omagari, Akita Prefecture) in
Japan. The F3 seeds were sent to Korea where
Suweon 85 was developed; it was released in
1932. Suweon 85 was then crossed with Suweon
13 to produce Suweon 92 and Suweon 90, which







DEVELOPMENT OF HYWVs


were released to farmers in 1934. Suweon 90 was
crossed with Shiroboro (from Japan) at the Seu
Seun Branch Experimental Station in 1936 to
produce Seu Seun 27, which was not released but
was used for breeding.
Although Norin 10 was to become the major
source of dwarfism in the world, Seu Seun 27 also
has been extensively used in the United States.
Suweon 92 had more limited use. In Japan Norin
10 was never grown widely. It was often used as a
source of semidwarfism in crosses, but no supe-
rior varieties were obtained.


ITALIAN VARIETIES

In 1911 seed from some of the short-straw,
early maturing Japanese wheat varieties was
acquired by Ingegnoli, an Italian flower seed pro-
ducer. He provided the wheat seed for Nazareno
Strampelli at the Royal Wheat Growing Experi-
mental Station at Rieti. Strampelli started using
the Japanese varieties in his breeding programs in
1912.14
Strampelli was interested in developing wheat
plants that would be both early maturing and
resistant to lodging. Early maturity was desired
for an increased resistance to blast-or stretta
(wilting under hot wind stress)-and rusts. Resis-
tance to lodging, obtained through shorter and
thicker stems, was desired so fertilizer applica-
tions could be increased. These goals (aside from
stretta resistance) were similar to those of later
breeding programs and were largely accom-
plished.
Of the several Japanese varieties used by
Strampelli, Akakomugi appeared to be the most
important. In 1913 it was crossed with Wil-
helmina Tarwe x Rieti (a cross involving Dutch
and Italian varieties originally made in 1906),
producing two lines: m. 67 and 21 ar. The former
was a parent of Villa Glori (1918) and other well-
known varieties. The latter was a parent of,
among others, Ardito (1916) and Mentana
(1918).16
Ardito was the first variety to attain wide use.
It had short straw (70-80 cm) and early maturity.
By 1926 it accounted for nearly all of the 500,000
ha planted with early maturing varieties in Italy.17
Ardito also was grown in other areas of the world
and became one of the progenitors of improved


Argentine varieties and of the Russian winter
variety Bezostaya.18
Mentana, the second major variety, differed
from Ardito in that it had earlier maturity and a
longer stem (90-100 cm). Mentana attained
international popularity due to its resistance to
yellow rusts. Its genetic traits were bred into
Frontana (Brazil) and Kentana (Mexico). Men-
tana also was one of the three varieties that had a
key role in the Mexican wheat breeding program
in the 1940s.19
As a result of a wheat campaign in Italy, an
estimated 1,261,000 ha of early-maturing wheats
were grown by 1932. This represented 25.4% of
the total wheat area in Italy. The typical vari-
eties raised during the 1930s (such as Mentana)
were taller than those used in the 1920s (such as
Ardito). Subsequent breeding efforts placed
increased emphasis on breeding a shorter stem,
and the height of most varieties ranged from 65
to 85 cm. Some varieties had stems less than 40
cm.21
Italian varieties are grown in several DCs in
the Mediterranean region, particularly Morocco,
Algeria, and Turkey. Italian and Japanese vari-
eties were used in early breeding work in
Tunisia.22 Italian varieties also are used widely in
southeastern Europe and in China.
The Italian varieties are generally early
maturing and have relatively short stems, but
their plant type differs from the Mexican wheats.
In some varieties the straw is stiff and brittle with
a completely upright head, in contrast to the
more flexible Mexican-type straw.


MEXICAN VARIETIES
In 1946 S. C. Salmon, a U.S. Department of
Agriculture (USDA) scientist acting as agricul-
tural advisor to the U.S. Army in Japan, noticed
Norin 10 growing at the Morioka Branch
Research Station in northern Honshu. Salmon
brought 16 varieties of this plant type to the
United States. They were grown in a detention
nursery for a year and then made available to
breeders.
Although Norin 10 was not satisfactory for
direct use in the United States, it was useful for
breeding.23 Orville A. Vogel, a USDA scientist
stationed at Washington State University, was the







DEVELOPMENT OF HYWVs


were released to farmers in 1934. Suweon 90 was
crossed with Shiroboro (from Japan) at the Seu
Seun Branch Experimental Station in 1936 to
produce Seu Seun 27, which was not released but
was used for breeding.
Although Norin 10 was to become the major
source of dwarfism in the world, Seu Seun 27 also
has been extensively used in the United States.
Suweon 92 had more limited use. In Japan Norin
10 was never grown widely. It was often used as a
source of semidwarfism in crosses, but no supe-
rior varieties were obtained.


ITALIAN VARIETIES

In 1911 seed from some of the short-straw,
early maturing Japanese wheat varieties was
acquired by Ingegnoli, an Italian flower seed pro-
ducer. He provided the wheat seed for Nazareno
Strampelli at the Royal Wheat Growing Experi-
mental Station at Rieti. Strampelli started using
the Japanese varieties in his breeding programs in
1912.14
Strampelli was interested in developing wheat
plants that would be both early maturing and
resistant to lodging. Early maturity was desired
for an increased resistance to blast-or stretta
(wilting under hot wind stress)-and rusts. Resis-
tance to lodging, obtained through shorter and
thicker stems, was desired so fertilizer applica-
tions could be increased. These goals (aside from
stretta resistance) were similar to those of later
breeding programs and were largely accom-
plished.
Of the several Japanese varieties used by
Strampelli, Akakomugi appeared to be the most
important. In 1913 it was crossed with Wil-
helmina Tarwe x Rieti (a cross involving Dutch
and Italian varieties originally made in 1906),
producing two lines: m. 67 and 21 ar. The former
was a parent of Villa Glori (1918) and other well-
known varieties. The latter was a parent of,
among others, Ardito (1916) and Mentana
(1918).16
Ardito was the first variety to attain wide use.
It had short straw (70-80 cm) and early maturity.
By 1926 it accounted for nearly all of the 500,000
ha planted with early maturing varieties in Italy.17
Ardito also was grown in other areas of the world
and became one of the progenitors of improved


Argentine varieties and of the Russian winter
variety Bezostaya.18
Mentana, the second major variety, differed
from Ardito in that it had earlier maturity and a
longer stem (90-100 cm). Mentana attained
international popularity due to its resistance to
yellow rusts. Its genetic traits were bred into
Frontana (Brazil) and Kentana (Mexico). Men-
tana also was one of the three varieties that had a
key role in the Mexican wheat breeding program
in the 1940s.19
As a result of a wheat campaign in Italy, an
estimated 1,261,000 ha of early-maturing wheats
were grown by 1932. This represented 25.4% of
the total wheat area in Italy. The typical vari-
eties raised during the 1930s (such as Mentana)
were taller than those used in the 1920s (such as
Ardito). Subsequent breeding efforts placed
increased emphasis on breeding a shorter stem,
and the height of most varieties ranged from 65
to 85 cm. Some varieties had stems less than 40
cm.21
Italian varieties are grown in several DCs in
the Mediterranean region, particularly Morocco,
Algeria, and Turkey. Italian and Japanese vari-
eties were used in early breeding work in
Tunisia.22 Italian varieties also are used widely in
southeastern Europe and in China.
The Italian varieties are generally early
maturing and have relatively short stems, but
their plant type differs from the Mexican wheats.
In some varieties the straw is stiff and brittle with
a completely upright head, in contrast to the
more flexible Mexican-type straw.


MEXICAN VARIETIES
In 1946 S. C. Salmon, a U.S. Department of
Agriculture (USDA) scientist acting as agricul-
tural advisor to the U.S. Army in Japan, noticed
Norin 10 growing at the Morioka Branch
Research Station in northern Honshu. Salmon
brought 16 varieties of this plant type to the
United States. They were grown in a detention
nursery for a year and then made available to
breeders.
Although Norin 10 was not satisfactory for
direct use in the United States, it was useful for
breeding.23 Orville A. Vogel, a USDA scientist
stationed at Washington State University, was the







HIGH-YIELDING WHEAT VARIETIES


.x Frontana x Yaktana 54 x Yaktana 54 x Yaqui 50 x Mayo 54
x Kenya 58- x Yaqui 54 x Lerma 52 x Yaqui 54
Newthatcha 1 x Lerma Rojo

I ILERMA
PENJAMO 62 PITIC 62 SONORA 64 LERMA MAYO 64
ROJO 64
sib. I
sib x Chris
x Gabo 55 sib.b x TPPc x TPPC
| x Nainari 60
SIETE CERROSd CIANO TOBARI JARAL INIA 66
67 66 66 NORESTE 66
NORTENO 67
Figure 2.2. Genealogy of early semidwarf CIMMYT wheat varieties. Presentation of some of the more
complex crosses is simplified for graphic purposes. aFrontana x Kenya-Newthatch was bred in Min-
nesota. bFrom Minnesota. CTezanos Pintos Precos (TTP) is from Argentina. dAlso known as cross 8156.


first to recognize its worth and to use it in a
breeding program in 1949. Crossing Norin 10
with American varieties involved some problems,
but a number of semidwarf lines eventually were
developed. A cross of Norin and Brevor was to
become particularly important.24
In the interim, word about the short-strawed
germ plasm. had reached Norman Borlaug in
Mexico.2 Wheats in his breeding program had
reached a yield plateau because of lodging under
high levels of nitrogen fertilization. In his words:
We had recognized the barriers in our
search for a usable form of dwarfness to
overcome this problem until the discovery
of the so-called Norin dwarfs. In 1953 we
received a few seeds of several F, selec-
tions from the cross Norin 10 x Brevor
from Dr. Orville Vogel. Our first attempts
to incorporate the Norin 10 x Brevor
dwarfness into Mexican wheats in 1954
were unsuccessful. A second
attempt in 1955 was successful and imme-
diately it became evident that a new type
of wheat was forthcoming with higher yield
potential.26


The introduction of the Norin 10 genes led to
the development of a number of improved Mexi-
can semidwarf bread wheat varieties: Pitic 62,
Penjamo 62, Sonora 63, Sonora 64, Mayo 64,
Lerma Rojo 64, Inia 66, Tobari 66, Ciano 67,
Norteno 67, and Siete Cerros.27 In addition a
semidwarf durum, Oviachic 64, was developed.
(The number after each varietal name indicates
the year of introduction.) The genetic origins of
these early semidwarf varieties are depicted in
figure 2.2.2
International diffusion of Mexican varieties
was rapid at the experimental level. The first
Mexican wheats arrived in India in 1962 via the
international rust nursery system. They caught
the eye of M. S. Swaminathan of the Indian Agri-
cultural Research Institute (IARI). In March
and April of 1963 and at the request of IARI,
Borlaug toured wheat areas in India. Upon his
return to Mexico he dispatched 100 kg of each of
four varieties (Sonora 63, Sonora 64, Lerma
Rojo, and Mayo) and small samples of 613 other
selections. The material was grown and studied
at seven locations during the 1963-64 season as
part of the All-India Coordinated Wheat Trials.














































Figure 2.3. The CIANO experiment station of the National Institute of Agricultural Research in Ciudad Obregon, Sonora, Mexico. CIMMYT
conducts its winter season research at this station where most of the Mexican semidwarfs were originally crossed. (Background on this station is
provided in "Patronato of Sonora," CIMMYT Today, No. 16 [1985].)








HIGH-YIELDING WHEAT VARIETIES


In 1965 Lerma Rojo and Sonora 64 were released
for general cultivation. Subsequently, the Gov-
ernment of India purchased 250 t of Mexican
seed for planting during the 1965-66 season and
18,000 t for the 1966-67 season.29
In the spring of 1962 Borlaug gave some of
the improved seeds to two trainees from Pakistan.
The seeds subsequently were planted at the Agri-
cultural Research Institute near Lyallpur.
Borlaug visited Lyallpur in the spring of 1963 on
the way back from India and upon his return to
Mexico sent 205 kg of experimental seed.
Borlaug visited Pakistan in the spring of 1964 and
secured governmental support for the new vari-
eties. Pakistan purchased 350 t of Mexican seed
for planting during the 1965-66 season and 42,000
t for the 1967-68 season.30
The Mexican varieties proved remarkably well
adapted to India and Pakistan. The reasons for
this were explained by Rao:
They had been bred in Mexico with alter-
nate generations in different climatic and
daylength regimens, primarily to produce two
generations per year. A valuable additional effect
of this system was to establish a good degree of
insensitivity to photoperiod.
Selection for disease resistance also had
been practiced, and the stocks introduced showed
a remarkable level of resistance to Indian dis-
eases.
A further important feature of the original
stocks was their diversity. They had not been
bred to pure-line standards, and there remained
in them a reservoir of genetic potential that
Indian wheat breeders were quick to exploit.31
The Mexican varieties and lines quickly spread
to other developing nations. A full listing of the
semidwarf bread wheat varieties named in various
countries, together with the cross and pedigree of
each, has recently been issued by CIMMYT in its
publication by R. Villareal and S. Rajaram,
Semidwarf Bread Wheats: Names; Parentage;
Pedigrees; Origin, 1984. The report also includes a
summary of cultivars with common origins and
lists all the varieties that trace their origin to a
common cross. Cross 8156 was the best-known
early example (table 2.1), but there have been
many others.
The development of new varieties in Mexico
by CIMMYT is conducted in cooperation with


Table 2.1. Names used for cross 8156 in 1975
Name Country
Red-seeded selection


Super X
Siete Cerros Rojo
PV-18
PV-18A
V-18
Indus 66
Mexipak Red

MR 548
NP 323
CB 90
PM 17


Mexico
Mexico
India, Pakistan
India
India
Pakistan
Saudi Arabia,
Lebanon
India
India
India
India


White-seeded selection


8156 Blanco
Siete Cerros 66
Siete Cerros
7 Cerros 66
V-17
S-227
Sona 227
HD 1593
HD 1592
Kalyansona
Kalyansona 227
Kalyan 227
Mexipak
Mexipak White
Mexipak-65

Mexipak-69
Mexi-Pack
Sidi Misri 1
Laketch
Mivhor 1177
Hazera 1177
Bakhtar


Mexico
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico
India
India
India
India
India
India
India
India
Pakistan, Iraq, Syria
Lebanon
Egypt, Lebanon,
Pakistan
Pakistan
Iraq
Libya
Ethiopia
Israel
Israel
Afghanistan


Sources: "Worldwide Use of CIMMYT Bread
Wheat Germ Plasm," in International Maize and
Wheat Improvement Center, CIMMYT Review,
1975 (Mexico City: the Center, 1975), p. 98. For
similar, but less extensive, information on other
crosses, see R. Villareal, and S. Rajaram, Semi-
dwarf Bread Wheats: Names, Parentage, Pedigrees,
Origin (Mexico City: International Maize and
Wheat Improvement Center, 1984), pp. 29-31.







DEVELOPMENT OF HYWVs


the National Institute of Agricultural Research
(INIA), and varieties are released by the Mexican
government. The wheat varieties-both bread
and durum-that have been released in Mexico in
recent years are listed in tables 2.2 and 2.3 along
with information on plant height and yield poten-
tial. Many of these varieties are mentioned again
in chapter 3. Four more bread wheat varieties are
under consideration for release in 1985.
Many of the varieties released by the Mexican
government are, of course, used in other nations,


but CIMMYT does not view the development of
finished varieties as its main purpose: rather it
provides improved lines to national programs,
which in turn tailor them to the local environ-
ment.
Details of CIMMYT's wheat breeding pro-
gram are reported in its annual publications
Research Highlights and Report on Wheat
Improvement, and no attempt is made to summa-
rize them here. One development, however,
should be noted-the development of spring x


Figure 2.4. Experimental plot of Veery wheat, a spring x winter cross (source: CIMMYT).


j-,







HIGH-YIELDING WHEAT VARIETIES


Table 2.2. Selected bread wheat varieties released in Mexico from 1950 to 1985

Mexican Plant Yield
release Variety height potential Grain
(yr) name (cm) (kg/ha) color

1950 Yaqui 50 115 3500 Red
1960 Nainari 60 110 4000 Red
1962 Pitic 62 105 5870 Red
1962 Penjamo 62 100 5870 Red
1964 Sonora 64 85 5580 Red
1964 Lerma Rojo 64 100 6000 Red
1966 INIA 66 100 7000 Red
1966 Siete Cerros 66 100 7000 Amber
1970 Yecora 70 75 7000 Amber
1971 Cajeme 71 75 7000 Red
1971 Tanori 71 90 7000 Red
1973 Jupateco 73 95 7500 Red
1973 Torim 73 75 7000 Amber
1975 Cocoraque 75 90 7000 Red
1975 Salamanca 75 90 7000 Red
1975 Zaragoza 75 90 7500 Red
1976 Nacozari 76 90 7500 Amber
1976 Pavon 76 100 7000 Amber
1977 Pima 77 90 7000 Amber
1977 Hermosillo 77 85 7500 Red
1977 Jauhara 77 90 7500 Red
1979 CIANO 79 90 7500 Red
1979 Imuris 79 90 7500 Amber
1979 Tesia 79 90 7500 Red
1981 Glennson 81 90 8000c Red
1981 Genaro 81 90 8000c Red
1981 Ures 81 90 8000c Red
1981 Tonichi 81 90 7500 White
1981 Sonoita 81 75 7500 White
1982 SERI 82 85 8000 White
1985 Opata 85 90 7500 Red

aVarieties were bred by CIMMYT and the National Institute of Agricultural Research in Mexico
(INIA) or a predecessor organization.
bMeasured at experiment stations in Mexico. Varieties were irrigated under conditions of high soil
fertility and were essentially disease free.
cYields of varieties released between 1976 and 1982 have had a range of 7500-8600 kg/ha in different
seasons and trials.
Sources: International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center, CIMMYT Review, 1982 (Mexico City:
the Center, 1982), p. 65; and personal communication with B.C. Curtis and A. Klatt, Wheat Program,
CIMMYT, September 1984 and December 1985.







DEVELOPMENT OF HYWVs


winter bread wheat crosses. The purpose of this
research is to transfer certain desirable charac-
teristics of each type to the other. The research is
in cooperation with Oregon State University.
(Oregon's participation has been sponsored by
the Agency for International Development.)
CIMMYT has focused on the transfer of cer-
tain winter wheat characteristics to spring wheats.
Several outstanding lines have been developed:
Veery "S," Bobwhite "S," and Alondra "S."
Veery lines are being selected and used in a num-
ber of national wheat breeding programs, and
they are generally considered to be outstanding;
Alondra is showing excellent adaptation to acidic
soils, and Bobwhite is showing excellent resis-
tance to Septoria tritici.32
Most of the wheats discussed to this point
have been bread wheats. However, considerable
research by CIMMYT and cooperating agencies
has incorporated the Norin 10 dwarfing charac-
teristics (as well as other features) into improved
durum varieties. This work began in Mexico in
the 1950s, and in 1965 the first semidwarf durum
(Oviachic) was released. Other releases are noted
in table 2.3. Although the Mexican bread wheats
were initially substituted for durum wheats in
some regions in the Near East, this situation is
being reversed with the introduction of improved
durum varieties. There is thought to be substan-
tial potential for further yield improvement in
durums.33


SOURCES OF DWARFISM

The key physiological characteristic of
HYWVs is their short stature. This has increased
their harvest index and reduced lodging. Many
other plant characteristics play a role in deter-
mining yield, but to date, height has clearly been a
decisive one.34
Short stature can be caused by the influence
of several genes (polygenes) or by a major gene or
genes. It is not always possible to tell which influ-
ence is at work simply by observing a plant. In
the case of semidwarf wheat, however, the short-
ness of essentially all of the varieties can be traced
to one or more major recessive genes.
A number of semidwarfing genes have been
identified or suggested for classification. The
presently known list of reduced height (Rht)
genes and their major characteristics is outlined
in table 2.4. Of the 18 genes, 7 occur naturally
and 11 were modified by induced mutation. Only
four of the natural genes have provided the
semidwarf source for virtually all of the semidwarf
varieties in commercial use in the world: Rhtl,
Rht2, Rht8, and Rht9. Some of the remaining
genes are of limited commercial use; others are
more of scientific interest.
As noted in table 2.4, Rhtl and Rht2 come
from Norin 10 and in turn are derived from
Daruma. These genes have been known for some
time and have been rather thoroughly studied.


Table 2.3. Selected durum wheat varieties released in Mexico from 1960 to 1979

Mexican Plant Yield
release Variety height potential
(yr) name (cm) (kg/ha)

1960 Tehuacan 60 155 3,340
1965 Oviachic 65 80 4,350
1967 Chapala 67 90 5,680
1969 Jori C 69 85 6,330
1971 Cocorit 71 85 6,290
1975 Mexicali 75 90 7,160
1979 Yavaros 95 7,180
1984 Altar 84c 95 8,200

aVarieties were bred by CIMMYT and INIA or a predecessor organization.
bMeasured at Ciano Experiment Station under good agronomic conditions and practices.
CKnown as Gallareta S prior to release.
Sources: Letter from B.C. Curtis, CIMMYT, September 1984; and personal communication with A.
Klatt, CIMMYT, May 1985.










Table 2.4. Reduced height semidwarff) genes in wheat
Reduced Chromosome Variet GA Dominance Use in
height gene locationa origin responsec of gened breeding Comments
Numbered genes
Rhtl 4Af Norin 10 (Daruma) I Partially dominant Widest A
Rht2 4D s) Norin 10 (Daruma) I Partially dominant Widest
Rht3 4A'g Tom Thumb I Semidominant Doubtful B
Rht4 Unknown Burt (m) S Recessive Doubtful C
Rht5 Unknown Marfed M1 (m) S Semidominant Doubtful
Rht6 Unknown Burt (Brevor) S Recessive Probably wide D
Rht7 2Ah Bersee (m) S Recessive Doubtful E
Rht8 2Dh Sava (Akakomugi) S Recessive Moderate F
Rht9' 7B(s). Mara (Akakomugi) S Recessive Moderate G
RhtlO 4D(s)] Ai-bian 1 I Semidominantk Uncertain H
Unnumbered genes
Karlik I Unknown Bezostaya (m) S Recessive Some
Karcag 522M7K Unknown Karcag 522 (m) S Strongly dominant Uncertain
Magnif41MI Unknown Magnif 41 (m) S Partially dominant Uncertain
Castelporzianom Unknown Cappelli (m) S Semidominant Some I
Duroxm Unknown K6800707 (m) S Partially dominant Promise/some J
Edmore M1m Unknown Edmore (m) S Partially dominant Promise
Chris MI Unknown Chris (m) S Recessive Uncertain
Ankinga MI Unknown Ankinga (m) S Partially dominant Promise

Comments:
A. Also used as a source of dwarfism in durum and triticale varieties.
B. Source of extreme dwarfism. No commercial use, but may be useful in triticale, hybrid wheat, or as a means of controlling sprouting damage.
(Gale)
C. Also carries Rht6 derived from Brevor. No commercial use as yet. Coleoptile length not reduced.
D. A "minor" gene carried in all Burt materials; it has comparably smaller effect than Rhtl or Rht2.
E. Has a negative effect on yields and probably little or no potential for breeding.
F. Produces greater height reduction than Rhtl or Rht2. (Gale)









G. Probably transferred to Italian durum varieties Jucci, Montanari, and Ringo from bread wheat varieties Fortani or Acciaio.
H. Produces more severe dwarfism than Rht3 according to Gale; Konzak rates dwarfing effect comparable to Rht3.
I. Most significant derivative is Grandur; was also used to develop Attila, Augusto, Miradur, and Tito.
J. Released as a variety in the United States (Idaho) in the early 1980s and in France in 1980 (as Cargi Durox).

a(s)=located on short arm of chromosome.
b(m)=induced mutant; some sources of other varieties noted in parentheses.
CI=GA3 (Gibberellic acid 3) insensitive; S=GA3 sensitive.
dTerminology used by Konzak. Approximately equivalent terminology used by Gale is: Partially dominant (K)=incompletely recessive (G);
semidominant (K)=partially dominant (G).
eAs judged by Konzak. Doubtful=little use unless modified by additional genes; some=recent use for several varieties; promise=good potential;
uncertain=promise, but still under investigation-modification seems possible. Rating for Durox suggested by Gale.
fHomoeologous to 4D(s). (Gale)
gAllelic with Rhtl. (Gale) rn
hUnmapped.
i"Rht9 has still not been demonstrated to be a single gene; its effect is seen only on 7B(s) from Mara" (personal communication with 0
Gale).
JA reduced height gene is also found on chromosome 2A (W. Yucheng, X. Xiuzhuang, T. Guoshun, and W. Qiuying, ["Monosomic analysis of
0 plant height in wheat, Ai ban No. 1] [Chinese with English summary], Acta Agronomica Sinica 8[3] [1982]:198.
kClassified by Gale as dominant.
1Konzak has proposed that the genes listed below be called Rhtll to Rhtl6, respectively, but no action has been taken.
mDurum.
Source: C.F. Konzak, Mutations and Mutation Breeding, Wheat Monograph (Madison, Wisc.: American Society of Agronomy, in press), table 3;
letters from C.F. Konzak, May and June 1984; M.D. Gale and S. Youssefian, "Dwarfing Genes in Wheat" in Progress in Plant Breeding, ed. G.E.
Russell, vol. I (London: Butterworths, 1985), pp. 1-35, especially pp. 7-17; and letters from M.D. Gale, March and November 1984.







HIGH-YIELDING WHEAT VARIETIES


They are found in virtually all of the semidwarfs
grown in DCs (including some varieties in China)
and in many of the developed nations (including
the United States).
The other two major genes, Rht8 and Rht9,
are found, respectively, in the varieties Sava
(Yugoslavia) and Mara (Italy), which are derived
from Akakomugi, as noted earlier. Akakomugi is
found in the ancestry of many Italian varieties
and in the pedigree of numerous varieties grown
elsewhere in the Mediterranean area, southern
and eastern Europe, and China. Although
Akakomugi and some of its offspring have long
been recognized as dwarfing sources, it was not
known until recently that its dwarfing genes are
different from those in Norin 10.
Rhtl and Rht2 appear, when found in bread
wheat, individually and in combination. Norin 10
contains both genes, as do some other varieties:
in Mexico (CIMMYT), Cajeme 71, Saric,
Torim 73, Vicam, and Yecora;
in India, HD 1949 and UP 301;
in Africa, Gwebi, Limpope, and Ngezi; and
elsewhere, D 6301 (USA), UC2 (Chile),
Norin 2 (Japan), Courtot (France), and Barkaee
(Israel).
Generally, however, only one or the other gene is
found (and, in the case of durum, only Rhtl35).
Varieties grown in Mexico that have both
Rhtl and Rht2 seem to be shorter than other
varieties that have just one or the other. The
average height of three (Cajeme 71, Torim 73,
and Yecora 70) was reported as 75 cm, compared
to average heights of 85 to 105 cm for varieties
with a single Rht gene. One rather peculiar vari-
ety is Oleson's Dwarf, which is thought to contain
Rhtl and Rht2 plus a third as-yet unidentified
gene (possibly Rht8 or Rht9).36
The other naturally occurring genes are Rht3,
Rht6, and RhtlO. Rht3, known for some time, has


traditionally been found in Tom Thumb (Tom
Pouce);37 it also occurs in Minister Dwarf.
Because of its rather strong dwarfing effect, and
apparent links to some undesirable traits, Rht3
has not been widely used, but it is listed as a par-
ent of the Mexican varieties Tordo and Topo and
of the breeding line D 6899. RhtlO is a relatively
recent designation and is found in the Chinese
variety Ai-bian 1; its potential use in breeding
programs is uncertain. An extremely short vari-
ety was obtained by an American wheat scientist
in central China in 1981; it was reported to have
come from Tibet and is known as Tibetan Dwarf.
Its genetic source of dwarfism is unknown.39
A number of induced mutations have been
produced (see column 3 of table 2.4) that show
varying degrees of promise. While the prospects
of finding additional natural sources of semi-
dwarfism are probably slim, induced mutations
are a promising source. Some semidwarf wheat
varieties have already been produced from
induced mutations in developing nations, but it is
not clear if they have different dwarfing genes.40
One point that should be kept in mind is that
semidwarfism is not always an unmixed blessing.
Individual genes may carry multiple effects
(pleiotropy), some of which may be favorable with
respect to yield and some of which may be unfa-
vorable in terms of quantity or quality of overall
yield. Rhtl and Rht2 seem to have a positive
effect on yields even in the absence of lodging but
may have a negative effect on protein. Rht3,
Rht4, and Rht7 are more apt to carry unfavorable
effects.
It would be beneficial to broaden the genetic
basis of semidwarfism. The present heavy reli-
ance on just a few genes, while not critical, is not
desirable. Other sources are known but not yet
widely used. Additional sources need to be dis-
covered or developed through induced mutations.


REFERENCES AND NOTES


1G. Hambidge and E.N. Bressman, "Better
Plants and Animals-Foreword and Summary" in
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Yearbook of
Agriculture, 1936 (Washington, D.C.: the Depart-
ment, 1936), p. 132.


2Based on C.M. Destler, "Forward Wheat for
New England: The Correspondence of John
Taylor of Caroline with Jeremiah Wadsworth, in
1795," Agricultural History 42 (1968):201-205; and
"The Gentleman Farmer and the New Agricul-







DEVELOPMENT OF HYWVs


ture: Jeremiah Wadsworth," Agricultural History
46 (1972):145-147. Also noted in E.L. Jones,
"Creative Disruptions in American Agriculture,
1620-1820," Agricultural History 48 (1974):523-
524.
3H. Capron, "Agriculture in Japan" in Report
of the Commissioner of Agriculture for the Year
1873 (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of
Agriculture, 1874), p. 369.
4"S6ance du 5 Juillet 1867," Bulletin de la
Societe d'Acclimatation (Paris: the Society, 1867),
pp. 453, 702-703, 784. Subsequently, a Mr. Ramel
claimed that he first drew attention to early
Japanese wheat in 1862 and attempted to intro-
duce it, but apparently he was unable to obtain
seed samples (Bulletin de la Sociedt
d'Acclimatation [1869], p. 168).
5H. Vilmorin, "Ble Pr6coce du Japon" in Les
Meilleurs Blis (Paris: Vilmorin-Andrieux, 1880),
pp. 120-121. Vilmorin-Andrieux was one of the
leading seed firms of France. The varieties also
were noted in another Vilmorin-Andrieux publi-
cation, Catalogue Mithodique et Synonymique des
Froments (Paris: Vilmorin-Andrieux, 1889), pp.
18, 36, 39.
6Letter from P. Martin, Union des Coopera-
tives Agricoles des Cre6ales (UCOPAC),
Verneuil I'Etang, France, March 1976.
(UCOPAC acquired the cereals branch of the
Vilmorin-Andrieux firm.) Martin noted that,
while the variety was short by the standards of the
late 1800s, it would no longer be considered so.
He provided samples of the seed to the Agricul-
tural Research Service (ARS), USDA, in 1976
(Plant Investigation [PI]-409010).
7This section is based on a letter from T.
Gotoh, wheat breeder, Tohoku National Agricul-
tural Experiment Station, Morioka, Japan, Octo-
ber 1975. See S. Takeda, Mugisaku Shinsetsu
[New Technique of Wheat Cultivation] (1929).
8A Korean wheat researcher has suggested
that Daruma was selected from a Korean variety
known as Anzunbaengimil ("crippled wheat" in
Korean) or Nanjangmil, which was distributed
throughout Korea during the period from 1500 to
1941. Anzunbaengimil reportedly exhibited great
variations in plant height; it was presumably a
mixture of individuals carrying different combina-
tions of semidwarf genes. It may have been dis-
seminated to Japan during the period of the
Japanese invasion about 1592. C.H. Cho, B.H.


Hong, M.W. Park, J.W. Shim, and B.K. Kim,
"Origin, Dissemination, and Utilization of Wheat
Semidwarf Genes in Korea" (Korean, with
English summary), Korean Journal of Breeding
12(1) (1980):1-12; and "Origin, Dissemination,
and Utilization of Wheat Semidwarf Genes in
Korea," Annual Wheat Newsletter 27 (1981):67.
Also, Daruma was 1 of 1,000 wheats studied by
the USDA from 1895 to 1897 and 1 of 245 briefly
listed by Carleton; he noted, "The earliest ripen-
ing wheats are often dwarfed and come princi-
pally from India, Australia, and Japan" (M.A.
Carleton, The Basis for Improvement of American
Wheats, Bulletin No. 24 [Washington, D.C.: U.S.
Department of Agriculture, Division of Vegetable
Physiology and Pathology, 1900], pp. 46, 47, 62-
63.)
9It is not certain whether white and red
(brown) strains existed before 1910 but were not
distinguished in the terminology or whether some
sort of pure-line selection was made. Systemic
pure-line selections of Shiro-Daruma and Aka-
Daruma were made in the 1920s, and the varieties
were in use through the 1930s (letter from T.
Gotoh, February 1978).
1The official records simply list Daruma; the
use of Shiro-Daruma is suggested by Inazuka (see
footnote 12), p. 25; and Matsumoto (see footnote
12), p. 23.
"Fultz was first selected in Kansas in 1862. It
was imported by the Japanese Government in
1887. For details, see J.A. Clark, J.H. Martin, and
C.R. Ball, Classification of American Wheat Vari-
eties, Bulletin No. 1074 (Washington, D.C.: U.S.
Department of Agriculture, 1922), pp. 83-85.
12This section is largely based on letters from
T. Gotoh, October 1975, November 1975, and
February 1978; and C.H. Cho, Wheat and Barley
Research Institute, Office of Rural Development,
Suweon, Korea, March 1978, August 1979, and
September 1979. Other references used were: T.
Matsumoto, "Norin 10, a Dwarf Winter Wheat
Variety," Japan Agricultural Research Quarterly
3(4) (1968):22-26; G. Inazuka, "Norin 10, A
Japanese Semi-Dwarf Wheat Variety," Technical
Report No. 82, Wheat Information Service,
Kyoto University, Japan, 1971, pp. 25-30; and L.P.
Reitz and S.C. Salmon, "Origin, History, and Use
of Norin 10 Wheat," Crop Science 18(6)
(1968):686.







HIGH-YIELDING WHEAT VARIETIES


13Turkey Red, better known as Turkey, was
introduced in Kansas in 1874 by a group of Rus-
sian Mennonites; it later became the leading
American variety. For details, see J.A. Clark et
al., op. cit. (see footnote 11), pp. 144-147; and K.S.
Quisenberry and L.P. Reitz, "Turkey Wheat: The
Cornerstone of an Empire," Agricultural History
48 (1974):98-114.
14In 1922 Strampelli moved to the National
Institute of Genetics as Related to the Cultiva-
tion of Cereals in Rome. Biographical material
on Strampelli is provided in Nazareno Strampelli
(Rome: Societi Ploesana Produttori Sementi,
Ramo Editoriale Degli Agricoltori, 1966), 44 pp.
15N. Strampelli, Early Ripening Wheats and the
Advance of Italian Wheat Production (Rome:
Tipografia Failli, 1933), pp. 5-7.
160rigini, Sviluppi, Lavori e Risultati (Rome:
Istituto Nazionale di Genetica per la Cerali-
coltura in Roma, 1932), pp. 91, 92, 99-101,
appendix. (Actual release dates for farm use were
4 or 5 years later than noted here.)
17N. Strampelli, op. cit. (see footnote 15), p.
11, maps, and tables.
18The full pedigree of Bezostaya 1 is provided
in United Nations, Food and Agriculture Organi-
zation, Cereal Improvement and Production (Near
East Project Information Bulletin, Vol. VIII, No.
2-3), 1971.
19N.E. Borlaug, "Wheat Breeding and Its
Impact on World Food Supply" in Proceedings of
the Third International Wheat Genetics Sympo-
sium, Canberra, 1968, ed. K.W. Finlay and K.W.
Shepherd (Canberra: Australian Academy of Sci-
ences, 1968), p. 5. The other two varieties were
Florence Aurore (Marroqui) and Gabo.
20Strampelli, op. cit. (see footnote 15).
21M. Bonvicini, "Indirizzi della Genetica
Agraria per la Resistenza All'allettamento in
Triticum Vulgare," Caryologia (Supplemento Atti
del IX Congr6sso Internazionale di Genetica)
(1954), pp. 738-743.
22F. Boeuf, "Le B16 en Tunisie," Annales du
Service Botanique et Agronomique VIII (1932):96-
110.
23Norin 10, when grown in the United States
and Mexico, proved to be daylight sensitive and
very susceptible to rusts and produced shriveled
or shrunken grain.
4Reitz and Salmon, op. cit. (see footnote 12),
pp. 686-687; L.P. Reitz, "Short Wheats Stand


Tall" in U.S. Department of Agriculture, 1968
Yearbook of Agriculture (Washington, D.C.: the
Department, 1968), pp. 236-237; and L.P. Reitz,
"New Wheats and Social Progress," Science 169
(1970):952-955. Brevor was developed from a
cross between Brevon (Turkey/Florence//Forty-
fold/Federation) and an unnamed cross of
Brevon's parents and Oro. It was developed
cooperatively by the USDA and the Washington
Agricultural Experiment Station, Pullman, Wash.
The original cross was made in 1938, and the vari-
ety was released in the fall of 1949. See L.W.
Briggle and L.P. Reitz, Classification of Triticum
Species and of Wheat Varieties Grown in the United
States, Technical Bulletin No. 1278 (Washington,
D.C.: U.S. Department of Agriculture, 1963), p.
64.
25The Rockefeller Grain Program in Mexico
began in 1943. It was conducted in cooperation
with the Office of Special Studies of the Mexican
Ministry of Agriculture. In 1959 Borlaug became
director of the International Wheat Improvement
Project supported by Rockefeller. The program
was merged with a comparable corn program in
October 1963 to form the International Center
for Corn and Wheat Improvement. Work spon-
sored by the Mexican Government was shifted
from the Office of Special Studies to the Mexican
National Institute of Agriculture Research in
January 1961. (E.C. Stakman, R. Bradfield, and
P.C. Mangelsdorf, Campaigns Against Hunger
[Cambridge, Mass.: Belknap/Harvard University
Press, 1967], pp. 5, 12, 273.) For a more personal
history of Borlaug's work, see L. Bickel, Facing
Starvation: Norman Borlaug and the Fight Against
Hunger (New York: Reader's Digest Press, 1974),
376 pp. Also see E.J. Kahn, Jr., "The Staffs of
Life: II-Fiat Panis," The New Yorker, 17 Decem-
ber 1984, pp. 88-102.
26Borlaug, op. cit. (see footnote 19), p. 6.
Although the Italian variety Mentana was, as
noted in the previous section, used in early
breeding efforts, it had a long stem and was not in
the semidwarf category; it did, however, introduce
daylength insensitivity. For further discussion of
the use of Mentana, see footnote 28 and E.C.
Stakman et al., op. cit. (see footnote 25), pp. 84-
88. (Curiously, this book says very little about the
Norin 10 types.) For background on Borlaug's
introduction of the Norin 10 x Brevor crosses,
see Bickel, op. cit. (see footnote 25), pp. 198, 208,
209.







DEVELOPMENT OF HYWVs


27N.E. Borlaug, op. cit. (see footnote 19), pp.
6-7. Pitic was the first semidwarf variety to be
released. Borlaug notes that these varieties did
not have an effect on production until 1963.
2Mentana was one of the parents or grand-
parents of several of the varieties crossed with
Norin 10/Brevor: Fontana (from Brazil), Lerma
52, Lerma Rojo, and Yaktana 54. It also was a
parent of Gabo 60; Kentana 48, 51, and 52;
Lerma 50 and 51; and Nainari 60. Florence
Aurore, under the name Marroqui, was one of
the parents of Yaqui 50, as well as of Mayo 48
and Yaqui 48.
29L. Bickel, op. cit. (see footnote 25), pp. 243-
279; M.S. Swaminathan, Preface to Five Years of
Research on Dwarf Wheats (New Delhi: Indian
Agricultural Research Institute, 1968), pp. i, 3-5;
and C.P. Streeter, A Partnership to Improve Food
Production in India (New York: The Rockefeller
Foundation, 1970), p. 12. Also see V.S. Vyas,
India's High-Yielding Varieties Programme in
Wheat, 1966-67 to 1971-72 (Mexico City: Interna-
tional Maize and Wheat Improvement Center,
1975), pp. 1-9. According to Swaminathan India
became interested in fertilizer-responsive varieties
in 1957, and Tom Thumb and some Italian
semidwarfs were introduced for experimental use;
semidwarf winter wheats were introduced from
Washington State University in 1959
(Swaminathan, personal communication, October
1985).
30L. Bickel, op. cit., (see footnote 25), pp. 243-
279. Further statistics on seed purchases also are
provided in chapter 3. Also see J.E. Eckert,
"Farmer Response to High-Yielding Wheat in
Pakistan's Punjab" in Tradition and Dynamics in
Small-Farm Agriculture, ed R.B. Stevens (Ames,
Iowa: Iowa State University Press, 1977), pp. 149-
176.
31M.V. Rao, "Wheat" in Evolutionary Studies
in World Crops; Diversity and Change in the Indian
Subcontinent, ed. J. Hutchinson (Cambridge,
England: Cambridge University Press, 1974), p.
40.
32CIMMYT 1983 Research Highlights (Mexico
City: International Maize and Wheat Improve-
ment Center, 1983), pp. 16-17.
33Background is provided in S.A. Breth,
"Durum Wheat: New Age for an Old Crop,"
CIMMYT Today, No. 2 (1975):1-16.


34This complex genetic subject is covered only
briefly here. The preparation of this section has
benefited greatly from extensive correspondence
with C.F. Konzak, Department of Agronomy and
Soils, Washington State University, and M.D.
Gale, Plant Breeding Institute, Cambridge, Eng-
land. Both individuals kindly loaned me
manuscripts that were of great help: C.F.
Konzak, M.A. Davis, and P. Ruckerbauer, Genetic
Analysis, "Genetic Improvement and Evaluation
of Induced Semi-Dwarf Mutants-Bread Wheat"
(Pullman: Washington State University, 1984);
M.D. Gale and S. Youssefian, "Dwarfing Genes in
Wheat" in Progress in Plant Breeding, ed. G.E.
Russell, Vol. I (London: Butterworths, 1985), pp.
1-35. Several previous publications by Gale were
also helpful: M.D. Gale and G.A. Marshall, "A
Classification of the Norin 10 and Tom Thumb
Dwarfing Gene in Hexaploid Wheat Varieties" in
Indian Society of Genetics and Plant Breeding,
Proceedings of the Fifth International Wheat
Genetics Symposium, New Delhi, February 1978,
ed S. Ramanajam (New Delhi: the Society, 1979),
pp. 994-1001; M.D. Gale, C.N. Law, G.A.
Marshall, J.W. Snape, and A.J. Worland,
"Analysis and Evaluation of Semi-Dwarfing
Genes in Wheat Including a Major Height
Reducing Gene in the Variety 'Sava'" (Vienna,
Austria: International Atomic Energy Agency,
1982), 23 pp.; and M.D. Gale, "Dwarfing Genes,"
Annual Wheat Newsletter 29 (1983):89. Also see
H. Hanson, N.E. Borlaug, and R.G. Anderson,
Wheat in the Third World (Boulder, Colo.: West-
view Press, 1982), p. 32.
35The transfer of Norin 10 dwarfness to
durums was made as early as 1956 (M.D. Gale,
G.A. Marshall, R.S. Gregory, and J.S. Quick,
"Norin 10 Semi-Dwarfism in Tetraploid Wheat
and Associated Effects on Yield," Euphytica 30
(1981):347. Outside of the Rhtl and Rht2 group,
we have noted in table 2.4 that several unnum-
bered genes have been found in durums.
36Background on Oleson's Dwarf is provided
in D.G. Dalrymple, Development and Spread of
High-Yielding Varieties of Wheat and Rice in the
Less Developed Nations, Foreign Agricultural
Economic Report No. 95 (Washington, D.C.: U.S.
Department of Agriculture, 1978), p. 23.
Oleson's Dwarf has been used as a parent for sev-
eral varieties developed by private firms in the
United States, including some recent hybrids.
The germ plasm was obtained from CIMMYT.







HIGH-YIELDING WHEAT VARIETIES


37Considerable detail on the background of
Tom Thumb is provided in D.G. Dalrymple, op.
cit. (see footnote 36), p. 22.
38N. Izumi, S. Sawada, and T. Sasakuma,
"Genetic Analysis of Dwarfness in Triticum
Aestirm L. cv Ai-bian 1," Seiken Ziho 31
(1983):38-48. Ai-bian is variously reported to be
a mutant of either Ai-Kantsau (which has both
Suweon 86 and Villa Glori in its parentage) or
Abbondanza (C.T. Liu, University of Idaho, to
C.F. Konzak, Washington State University,
March 1985; and Q-S. Zhuang, "Acreage of Semi-
Dwarf Wheat Cultivars in China," forwarded by
Haldore Hanson of CIMMYT, August 1984).


39Letters from W. Kronstad, Department of
Crop Science, Oregon State University, Novem-
ber 1984; personal communication with W.
Kronstad, July 1985.
40See C.F. Konzak, Mutations and Mutation
Breeding, Wheat Monograph (Madison, Wisc.:
American Society of Agronomy, in press). Durox
has been released as a commercial variety in the
United States (Idaho) and France (as Cargi
Durox). For examples of varieties developed
from induced mutations in DCs, see: Mutation
Breeding Newsletter 18 (1981):14-15, 19 (1982):19,
and 25 (1985):17-20; and Mutation Breeding
Review 3 (1985):80-85 (a summary listing).




















3. WHEAT VARIETIES AND AREA



The purpose of the wheat breeder is not to produce a single, in all respects ideal,
variety, but a series of varieties, each of which is as nearly ideally adapted as
possible to the economic conditions of the particular wheat-growing section for
which it is designed. There will be work for the wheat breeder for years to come.
-Carl L. Alsberg, 19281


This chapter summarizes information on the
development and adoption of HYWVs in 42 DCs
in four major regions: Asia, the Near East,
Africa, and Latin America and the Caribbean.
The importance of wheat production and
HYWVs varies widely between nations. The
amount of coverage provided here at the country
level is not always proportional to the significance
of the HYWVs, but it is in part a function of the
availability of information.
A few basic facts on wheat production in DCs
may help set the stage. While wheat is usually
grown in temperate zones, it is also raised under
semitropical conditions-usually in upland areas
and/or during the cooler winter season. Most of
the wheat area in the developing world is found in
Asia. In 1983 about 63% of the total DC wheat
area was in southern and eastern Asia (including
China), 25% in the Near East, 11% in Latin
America, and 1% in Africa.2 For DCs as a whole,
roughly 59% of the area is planted with spring
habit bread wheat, 30% with winter habit bread
wheat (including facultative), and 11% with
durum wheat. About 34% of the total DC wheat
is grown in irrigated areas, 28% is grown where
there is adequate soil moisture, and 37% is grown
in semiarid areas where soil moisture may be
inadequate.3


A large number of HYWVs are grown in DCs.
Pedigrees have not been included for most of the
wheat varieties but are reported in some cases.
Details are, however, provided in the CIMMYT
publication by R. Villareal and S. Rajaram, Semi-
Dwarf Bread Wheats: Names; Parentage; Pedigrees;
Origin (1984). The parentage of many older vari-
eties mentioned in this chapter is provided by A.
C. Zeven and N. Ch. Zeven-Hissink in Genealo-
gies of 14,000 Wheat Varieties, CIMMYT
(1976). Information on more recent varieties and
on the breeding programs in many of the coun-
tries is presented in CIMMYT's annual CIMMYT
Report on Wheat Improvement (1973 to the
present).
International nurseries (testing programs)
operated by CIMMYT and the International
Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry
Areas (ICARDA) in cooperation with national
wheat improvement programs provide a vital
force in the distribution and testing of improved
varieties. In 1982 CIMMYT's nursery program
involved 280 cooperators in 100 countries. In
1982-1983 ICARDA's cereal program included
83 cooperators in 42 countries. Entries may come
from national programs as well as from the cen-
ters.4 Cooperators provide performance data to
CIMMYT and ICARDA, but they are free to use







HIGH-YIELDING WHEAT VARIETIES


nursery entries in any way that benefits their
national programs.
There is increasing interest in expanding the
production of HYWVs into (1) some of the
warmer areas of DCs presently growing wheat
and (2) the climatically favored areas and time
periods of some of the tropical nations, par-
ticularly in Southeast Asia and Africa. Varieties
with improved heat tolerance are especially
needed.


ASIA

Most of the Asian wheat area is concentrated
in two nations: China and India. In 1983 China
had about 30% of the total DC wheat area, and
India had about 24%.6
The characteristics of production differ some-
what between southern and eastern Asia. This is
shown in estimates reported by CIMMYT in
1981.7 In terms of type of wheat, in southern
Asia 95% of the area was planted with spring
bread wheat and 5% was planted with durum; in
eastern Asia 40% was planted with spring bread
wheat, 60% with winter bread wheat, and less
than 1% with durum wheat. Moisture environ-
ments also differ. In southern Asia 73% of the
area was irrigated, 4% had adequate soil moisture
(rainfed), and 23% had semiarid soils. In eastern
Asia 25% was irrigated, 39% had adequate soil
moisture, and 37% was semiarid.
HYWVs found early and intensive use in
southern Asia, particularly in India, Pakistan, and
Nepal. More recently HYWVs have been
increasingly grown in Bangladesh. They are
raised widely in China but have followed a some-
what different development path than in southern
Asia. Some HYWVs have also been grown in
South Korea, and seed has been shipped to Mon-
golia and Vietnam. (Japan, the home of the basic
dwarfing material, is a developed nation and is
not included here.)
Southeast Asia is an area of potential growth
for HYWVs. Although it is a tropical region,
there is an opportunity to raise wheat after rice
during the dry, cool winter season, as in
Bangladesh. Prospects for expanded wheat pro-
duction are being examined in Thailand, Burma,
the Philippines, Indonesia, and Sri Lanka.
CIMMYT has research underway on wheat for
more favored tropical areas; they initiated a south


and southeast regional program in 1980 with
headquarters in Bangkok. A number of technical
and economic problems exist, but there are rea-
sonable prospects for progress.8

Bangladesh
Wheat was a minor crop in Bangladesh until
the mid-1970s when increased emphasis on food
production stimulated interest in HYWVs.
Research on HYWVs was initiated in 1965 after
small quantities of the seed of two Mexican vari-
eties, Sonora 64 and Penjamo 62, were received
from Pakistan. Preliminary trials were planted
during the 1965-66 and 1966-67 cropping seasons,
and research intensified with the implementation
of the Accelerated Wheat Research Project in
1970. The expanded Wheat Research Program
was launched in 1975 with research taken up by
the newly established Bangladesh Agricultural
Research Institute. Close cooperation was main-
tained with CIMMYT.9
The expanded program was divided into two
categories. A short-term program was aimed at
meeting the immediate needs of the country and
largely involved testing and selecting imported
HYWVs. A long-term program involved identi-
fying selections from advanced breeding lines
from CIMMYT and elsewhere and then initiating
a systematic crossing program (started in 1978).
The emphasis of the long-term program was to
develop varieties that are suitable for the various
cropping systems of the country and that are
resistant to leaf rust and Helminthosporium spot
blotch.
Because most of the expansion in wheat area
was expected to occur in essentially rainfed areas
with short growing seasons, emphasis was put on
selecting varieties suitable for those areas. Sona-
lika (from India) and Inia 66 were selected in
1973. For cultivation in irrigated areas with a
longer growing season, Tanori 71 and Jupateco 73
were selected in 1975 and Norteno 67 was
selected in 1977. Altogether, from 1968 to 1979,
eight HYWVs were released for cultivation in
different areas of Bangladesh.
Substantial quantities of HYWV seed have
been imported. Yearly levels were as follows (in
tons): 1972-73, 50; 1973-74, 1,000; 1974-75, 320;
1975-76, 4,075; 1976-77, 500; 1977-78, 2,971;
1978-79, 2,968; 1979-80, 11,475; 1980-81, 33,510;
1981-82, 7,006; 1982-83, 5,689; and 1983-84,







HIGH-YIELDING WHEAT VARIETIES


nursery entries in any way that benefits their
national programs.
There is increasing interest in expanding the
production of HYWVs into (1) some of the
warmer areas of DCs presently growing wheat
and (2) the climatically favored areas and time
periods of some of the tropical nations, par-
ticularly in Southeast Asia and Africa. Varieties
with improved heat tolerance are especially
needed.


ASIA

Most of the Asian wheat area is concentrated
in two nations: China and India. In 1983 China
had about 30% of the total DC wheat area, and
India had about 24%.6
The characteristics of production differ some-
what between southern and eastern Asia. This is
shown in estimates reported by CIMMYT in
1981.7 In terms of type of wheat, in southern
Asia 95% of the area was planted with spring
bread wheat and 5% was planted with durum; in
eastern Asia 40% was planted with spring bread
wheat, 60% with winter bread wheat, and less
than 1% with durum wheat. Moisture environ-
ments also differ. In southern Asia 73% of the
area was irrigated, 4% had adequate soil moisture
(rainfed), and 23% had semiarid soils. In eastern
Asia 25% was irrigated, 39% had adequate soil
moisture, and 37% was semiarid.
HYWVs found early and intensive use in
southern Asia, particularly in India, Pakistan, and
Nepal. More recently HYWVs have been
increasingly grown in Bangladesh. They are
raised widely in China but have followed a some-
what different development path than in southern
Asia. Some HYWVs have also been grown in
South Korea, and seed has been shipped to Mon-
golia and Vietnam. (Japan, the home of the basic
dwarfing material, is a developed nation and is
not included here.)
Southeast Asia is an area of potential growth
for HYWVs. Although it is a tropical region,
there is an opportunity to raise wheat after rice
during the dry, cool winter season, as in
Bangladesh. Prospects for expanded wheat pro-
duction are being examined in Thailand, Burma,
the Philippines, Indonesia, and Sri Lanka.
CIMMYT has research underway on wheat for
more favored tropical areas; they initiated a south


and southeast regional program in 1980 with
headquarters in Bangkok. A number of technical
and economic problems exist, but there are rea-
sonable prospects for progress.8

Bangladesh
Wheat was a minor crop in Bangladesh until
the mid-1970s when increased emphasis on food
production stimulated interest in HYWVs.
Research on HYWVs was initiated in 1965 after
small quantities of the seed of two Mexican vari-
eties, Sonora 64 and Penjamo 62, were received
from Pakistan. Preliminary trials were planted
during the 1965-66 and 1966-67 cropping seasons,
and research intensified with the implementation
of the Accelerated Wheat Research Project in
1970. The expanded Wheat Research Program
was launched in 1975 with research taken up by
the newly established Bangladesh Agricultural
Research Institute. Close cooperation was main-
tained with CIMMYT.9
The expanded program was divided into two
categories. A short-term program was aimed at
meeting the immediate needs of the country and
largely involved testing and selecting imported
HYWVs. A long-term program involved identi-
fying selections from advanced breeding lines
from CIMMYT and elsewhere and then initiating
a systematic crossing program (started in 1978).
The emphasis of the long-term program was to
develop varieties that are suitable for the various
cropping systems of the country and that are
resistant to leaf rust and Helminthosporium spot
blotch.
Because most of the expansion in wheat area
was expected to occur in essentially rainfed areas
with short growing seasons, emphasis was put on
selecting varieties suitable for those areas. Sona-
lika (from India) and Inia 66 were selected in
1973. For cultivation in irrigated areas with a
longer growing season, Tanori 71 and Jupateco 73
were selected in 1975 and Norteno 67 was
selected in 1977. Altogether, from 1968 to 1979,
eight HYWVs were released for cultivation in
different areas of Bangladesh.
Substantial quantities of HYWV seed have
been imported. Yearly levels were as follows (in
tons): 1972-73, 50; 1973-74, 1,000; 1974-75, 320;
1975-76, 4,075; 1976-77, 500; 1977-78, 2,971;
1978-79, 2,968; 1979-80, 11,475; 1980-81, 33,510;
1981-82, 7,006; 1982-83, 5,689; and 1983-84,















































Figure 3.1. Dr. Sufi M. Ahmed, head of the wheat center at the Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute, and a local farmer examine a
field of Sonalika wheat growing next to rice (right) during the winter season.







HIGH-YIELDING WHEAT VARIETIES


2,449. The varieties were principally Sonalika and
Kalyansona from India and Tanori 71 from Mex-
ico.10
In the long-term research program, selection
from advanced breeding lines identified the first
variety (Balaka) for release in 1979. Four more
HYWVs were released in 1983: Akbar, Anada,
Barkat, and Kanchan. (The first three originated
as CIMMYT lines; the fourth originated in
India.) All are semidwarfs. Balaka lodges at
higher levels of nitrogen fertilizer, but this is not
true of the others. Akbar and Kanchan are con-
sidered particularly promising.
New wheat varieties are needed. Despite the
various introductions, most of the wheat area is

Table 3.1. Area of high-yielding wheat varieties
in Bangladesh from 1967-68 to 1982-83

Proportion
Crop HYWV area of total
year (ha) area (%)

1967-68 1,200 1.6
1968-69 8,500 7.2
1969-70 9,300 7.7
1970-71 13,400 10.6
1971-72 15,000 12.5
1972-73 21,400 17.9
1973-74 17,400 14.5
1974-75 32,800 26.0
1975-76 87,800 58.6
1976-77 116,100 76.5
1977-78 157,400 83.5
1978-79 235,900 89.1
1979-80 410,400 94.8
1980-81 571,400 96.6
1981-82 516,400 96.7
1982-83 498,200 95.9

Sources: 1967-68 to 1971-72: D.G.
Dalrymple, Development and Spread of High-
Yielding Varieties of Wheat and Rice in the Less
Developed Nations, FAER No. 95 (Washington,
D.C.: U.S. Department of Agriculture, September
1978), p. 37; 1972-73 to 1981-82: Bangladesh
Bureau of Statistics, Monthly Statistical Bulletin of
Bangladesh (Dhaka: the Bureau, March 1983), p.
31; and 1982-83: Idem, Monthly Statistical Bulletin
of Bangladesh (Dhaka: the Bureau, July 1984), p.
43.


still planted with Sonalika. In 1984 it was esti-
mated that Sonalika represented 70% of the total
wheat area. The remaining 30% was divided as
follows: India 66, 10%; Tanori 71, 8%; Jupateco
73, 5%; Pavon 76, 4%; Balaka, 2%; and other,
1%.11 The basic problem with Sonalika is its sus-
ceptibility to leaf rust.
The overall area planted with HYWVs in
Bangladesh expanded sharply through the 1980-
81 season and then declined slightly (table 3.1).
Expansion of area was particularly rapid after
1974-75. The proportion of the total wheat area
planted with HYWVs increased steadily to about
96% in 1980-81 and then leveled off. (Unofficial
estimates, however, suggest that the area occu-
pied by local varieties in 1984 did not exceed 1%.)
The average yield of the HYWVs increased
through 1977-78 and then dropped off slightly.
The HYWV yields are about twice those of the
local varieties.
While the HYWVs have largely replaced tra-
ditional varieties, they also were responsible for
the substantial growth in the overall wheat area.
With the expansion in both area and yield, pro-
duction increased roughly 10-fold between 1973-
74 and 1980-81. Wheat has become a significant
crop in Bangladesh.

Burma
Burma had about 134,000 ha of wheat in both
1983 and 1984. Most of the area is planted with
Monya White (IP-4) from India, which is not an
HYWV. HYWVs have been introduced for
testing, and those with promise include Ciano 79,
Genaro 81, and SERI 82. A substantial potential
is foreseen for HYWVs. Some may have moved
into farm use.12

China
Although somewhat overshadowed by its rice
production in the popular view, China is a major
producer of wheat. It is, in fact, the largest wheat
producer among the DCs. Since 1950 China has
experienced both growth in the area planted with
wheat and extraordinary gains in yields-four and
a half times higher in 1984 than in 1950. As a
result, wheat production in China has increased
nearly sixfold since 1950.13
Wheat is produced over a wide range of envi-
ronments in China, but production practices are







HIGH-YIELDING WHEAT VARIETIES


2,449. The varieties were principally Sonalika and
Kalyansona from India and Tanori 71 from Mex-
ico.10
In the long-term research program, selection
from advanced breeding lines identified the first
variety (Balaka) for release in 1979. Four more
HYWVs were released in 1983: Akbar, Anada,
Barkat, and Kanchan. (The first three originated
as CIMMYT lines; the fourth originated in
India.) All are semidwarfs. Balaka lodges at
higher levels of nitrogen fertilizer, but this is not
true of the others. Akbar and Kanchan are con-
sidered particularly promising.
New wheat varieties are needed. Despite the
various introductions, most of the wheat area is

Table 3.1. Area of high-yielding wheat varieties
in Bangladesh from 1967-68 to 1982-83

Proportion
Crop HYWV area of total
year (ha) area (%)

1967-68 1,200 1.6
1968-69 8,500 7.2
1969-70 9,300 7.7
1970-71 13,400 10.6
1971-72 15,000 12.5
1972-73 21,400 17.9
1973-74 17,400 14.5
1974-75 32,800 26.0
1975-76 87,800 58.6
1976-77 116,100 76.5
1977-78 157,400 83.5
1978-79 235,900 89.1
1979-80 410,400 94.8
1980-81 571,400 96.6
1981-82 516,400 96.7
1982-83 498,200 95.9

Sources: 1967-68 to 1971-72: D.G.
Dalrymple, Development and Spread of High-
Yielding Varieties of Wheat and Rice in the Less
Developed Nations, FAER No. 95 (Washington,
D.C.: U.S. Department of Agriculture, September
1978), p. 37; 1972-73 to 1981-82: Bangladesh
Bureau of Statistics, Monthly Statistical Bulletin of
Bangladesh (Dhaka: the Bureau, March 1983), p.
31; and 1982-83: Idem, Monthly Statistical Bulletin
of Bangladesh (Dhaka: the Bureau, July 1984), p.
43.


still planted with Sonalika. In 1984 it was esti-
mated that Sonalika represented 70% of the total
wheat area. The remaining 30% was divided as
follows: India 66, 10%; Tanori 71, 8%; Jupateco
73, 5%; Pavon 76, 4%; Balaka, 2%; and other,
1%.11 The basic problem with Sonalika is its sus-
ceptibility to leaf rust.
The overall area planted with HYWVs in
Bangladesh expanded sharply through the 1980-
81 season and then declined slightly (table 3.1).
Expansion of area was particularly rapid after
1974-75. The proportion of the total wheat area
planted with HYWVs increased steadily to about
96% in 1980-81 and then leveled off. (Unofficial
estimates, however, suggest that the area occu-
pied by local varieties in 1984 did not exceed 1%.)
The average yield of the HYWVs increased
through 1977-78 and then dropped off slightly.
The HYWV yields are about twice those of the
local varieties.
While the HYWVs have largely replaced tra-
ditional varieties, they also were responsible for
the substantial growth in the overall wheat area.
With the expansion in both area and yield, pro-
duction increased roughly 10-fold between 1973-
74 and 1980-81. Wheat has become a significant
crop in Bangladesh.

Burma
Burma had about 134,000 ha of wheat in both
1983 and 1984. Most of the area is planted with
Monya White (IP-4) from India, which is not an
HYWV. HYWVs have been introduced for
testing, and those with promise include Ciano 79,
Genaro 81, and SERI 82. A substantial potential
is foreseen for HYWVs. Some may have moved
into farm use.12

China
Although somewhat overshadowed by its rice
production in the popular view, China is a major
producer of wheat. It is, in fact, the largest wheat
producer among the DCs. Since 1950 China has
experienced both growth in the area planted with
wheat and extraordinary gains in yields-four and
a half times higher in 1984 than in 1950. As a
result, wheat production in China has increased
nearly sixfold since 1950.13
Wheat is produced over a wide range of envi-
ronments in China, but production practices are







VARIETIES AND AREA


Figure 3.2. Wheat-breeding nurseries of the Institute of Crop Breeding and Cultivation, CAAS,
Beijing (source: Q-S. Zhuang, CAAS).


generally intensive; 58% of the wheat is spring
habit wheat, 18% is winter habit wheat, and 24%
is facultative wheat. (Facultative types and, in
milder areas, some spring wheats are fall sown.)
About 80% of the area is double cropped, and as
a result there is an emphasis on early maturing
varieties. Perhaps 50% of the area is irrigated.
The use of fertilizer is heavy by DC standards.14

Introduction of Mexican Varieties
The Mexican wheats were well known in
China at an early date. The first experimental
seeds were introduced from Pakistan sometime in
1968 or 1969. Several years of small-scale testing
followed in the early 1970s, using seeds from Aus-
tralia and Pakistan. In 1973 the Chinese Embassy
in Mexico sent two staff members to CIMMYT to
discuss research work and collect publications.
During the early 1970s, China imported large
quantities of Mexican wheat seed: 1972, 2 t; 1973,
5,034 t; and 1974, 14,701 t. The shipments


included the following types: Potam, 61.6%;
Tanori, 24,7%; Saric, 7.0%; Inia, 3.5%; and Jori,
3.5%. The CIMMYT seeds were purchased
mainly for direct planting in the southern
provinces, where they were planted in the fall, and
in the northeastern provinces, where they were
planted in the spring. In the subtropical areas of
southern China, wheat was increasingly sown
after the late rice crop in the fall. Direct seeding
of the Mexican varieties rose to a peak area of
about 800,000 ha in the early 1970s, but then it
declined sharply.15
The attempt to introduce Mexican varieties
directly caused several difficulties. The most seri-
ous problem in the southern regions was sprout-
ing of the grain in the field when rains occurred
during high temperatures before harvest. The
Chinese also found the varieties to be susceptible
to several diseases-such as scab, Helminthospo-
rium, and stripe rust-that are present in China
but not prevalent in Mexico. They were also later








HIGH-YIELDING WHEAT VARIETIES


Figure 3.3. A short-statured wheat variety, Dongxie No. 3, being grown in a demonstration field near
Beijing (source: Q-S. Zhuang, CAAS).


maturing than indigenous varieties and less toler-
ant of drought. As fall sown varieties they lacked
tolerance for cold in the northern areas.
To remedy these defects the Chinese crossed
their spring or winter wheats with Mexican spring
wheats. The use of Mexican varieties in breeding
programs fitted into a broader program of utiliza-
tion of foreign varieties, about which little has
been known until recently.16
Breeding Programs
China has used foreign varieties in wheat
breeding for a long time.7 In an article pub-
lished in 1984, Yue Dahua, Chinese agricultural
scientist, stated:
In the past few decades, more than
11,000 foreign wheat cultivars were intro-
duced from 80 countries. Some semidwarf
to short-statured varieties from Australia,
Chile, Italy, Mexico, USA and USSR pos-
sessing rust resistant characteristics were
found suitable for use as breeding parents,
and a few excellent introductions were


recommended directly to the production
units without further selection.
A review of a recent Chinese book on wheat
varieties19 suggests that extensive use was made
of Italian varieties descended from Mentana, par-
ticularly Funo and Abbondanza. Orofen, a
descendent of Mentana developed in Chile (and
released in 1958), was also commonly used.
Although descended from Akakomugi, Mentana
is not quite a semidwarf in terms of height and
Abbondanza (introduced in 1956) is considered
semitall in China. Other Italian varieties used
included: Ardito, which is shorter; Mara, which is
a semidwarf (Rht9); and a line identified as St
2422/462. Some early Chinese wheats, such as
Fan 6, Mianyang 11, White Gao38, and Xiaoyan
6, are classified as semidwarfs.
The Chinese book indicates that the breeding
of semidwarfs began in 1957 with the crossing of
Suweon 86, a sister of Suweon 85 and a relative of
Norin 10 (see figure 2.1),20 with Xinong 6028 to
produce Xiannong 39. Xiannong 39 was not
released because of some plant deficiencies but







VARIETIES AND AREA


was used extensively in breeding programs. Off-
spring include: Aiganzao; the relatively well-
known Aifeng series 1, 2, 3, and 4 (80 cm);21 and
Jimai 7. Related varieties include Anxuan 5,
Bainong 3217, Baiquan 40 and 41, Ping 39,
Qixuan 2, and Zhengzhou 761.
The Chinese have made extensive use of one
native source of dwarfism variously known as
Huisian, Huixian Red, or Huixianhong. Huixian
Red has been widely crossed with the Italian vari-
eties noted above, particularly Abbondanza, to
produce a number of semidwarfs including:
Taishan 4 (85 cm), 5 (80 cm), and 6 (90
cm);
Baiquan 5 (90 cm), 22 (92 cm), 25 (80 cm),
568 (92 cm), and 6502 (100 cm);
Friendship 2 (87 cm); Luoyanj 3; Ning 7317
(80-90 cm); Youbao; Menxian 4; and Zixuan 2.
The origins of Huixian Red are a bit uncer-
tain. It has recently been described as a "local
variety originated from north Henan province,
but it is different in many characteristics. and
somewhat similar with Norin 14 from Japan."22
An earlier report stated that it has been
"cultivated for a long period as a local variety of
winter wheat in Hui County, Sinxi (Sinxian) Pre-
fecture, Henan Province. It is probably
introduced from Japan." The similarity with
Norin 14 was also noted.23 (The original cross
for Norin 14 was made in Japan in 1924, and the
variety was released in 1935; it has the same
parentage as Norin 10 but is taller.24) CIMMYT
obtained seed of Huixian Red in 1977, and tests
showed it to contain one of the two Norin 10
semidwarf genes (Rhtl or Rht2).25
Another more recent domestic source of
dwarfism is Aibian-1 (Ai Bian No. 1). As noted
in table 2.4, Aibian-1 has a different semidwarf
gene (RhtlO) than Norin 10. Aibian-1 has been
reported to be a mutant of either Aiganzao
(which has both Suweon 86 and Villa Glori in its
parentage) or Abbondanza.26
As noted in chapter 2, an Oregon State Uni-
versity scientist obtained a promising source of
dwarfism in central China in 1981. It was
reported to have come from Tibet. The variety is
extremely short, very early maturing, and tillers
profusely. It ispresently under study in Oregon
and elsewhere.27
The Chinese have used Mexican (CIMMYT)
varieties in their breeding 'programs. Reported


progeny from the crosses of the Mexican varieties
with Chinese varieties include:
southwestern China region of winter wheat:
Fan 13 (and sister line 2114); Yunmai wheat 32;
southern China region of winter wheat:
Longxi 35, Longxi 37, Fuhongke (Fu Red Chaff)
13, Fuhongke 19, and Guimai 1; and
northern China region of winter wheat:
Jinghong 8, Jinghong 9, Jinchun 3, Jinchun 4,
Yanbei 8, and Yuanchun 7112 (spring varieties).
Mexipak, possibly a general name for cross
8156, was a parent of the varieties developed in
China's southwestern winter wheat and northern
spring wheat regions; Potam S70 was a parent of
two of the varieties released in southern China.
(An unidentified Mexican variety was a parent of
Guimai.) In nearly every case the other parent
was a Chinese variety. The principal exceptions
were Yunmai 32 (in which the other parent was
an Italian variety) and Jinghong 8 and 9 (in which
the other parent was a cross of an Italian and an
Indian variety).
The approximate dates of development and
heights of the Chinese HYWVs, when reported,
are: Fan 13 (1973), 85-100 cm; Yunmai 32
(1976), 80-100 cm; Longxi 35 and 37 (1977), 90
cm; Fuhongke 13 (1977), 85-90 cm; Fuhongke 19
(1977), 90-100 cm; Guimai 1 (1975), 90-100 cm;
Jinghong 8 and 9 (1969) and Jinchun 3, 72 cm;
and Yuanchun 7112 (1969), 70 cm.
In addition to these varieties, a short-statured
variety released in southern China, Yuemai 1
(1975), 90 cm, had Santa Elena, an Australian
variety, as a parent. Xuzhou 2962, derived from
Yecora F70, was also released in eastern China
(northern Jiangsu Province).
At least four semidwarf varieties were devel-
oped in China by induced mutations: Luten 1
(1968); Yuannong 61 (1971), 90 cm; Yuan Chun
7112 (1974), 70 cm; and Ningmai 3 (1976). Luten
1 was grown on more than 100,000 ha. Ningmai 3
was grown on about 140,000 ha in Jiangsu
Province in 1981.28
Doubtlessly, there are other semidwarf vari-
eties in use in China. Most of the varieties
released since the 1970s have been semidwarfs.
Some that gained commercial importance are
Nonda 139, 93 cm; Beijing 10, 100 cm; Taishan 1,
95 cm; Fan 6, 80 cm; Mianyang 11, 78 cm; Ning-
mai 3, 100 cm; Yangmai 3, 100 cm; and Zhemai 2,
85 cm.







HIGH-YIELDING WHEAT VARIETIES


According to Q. Zhuang, the chief wheat
breeder of the Chinese Academy of Agricultural
Sciences (CAAS), the following semidwarf vari-
eties were most widely grown in 1984: Bainong
3217, Mianyang 11, Jinan 13, Taishan 1 (100 cm),
Xiaoyan 6, Kefeng 2 (spring sown), Zhengzhou
761, Jimai 7, Jingfeng 1, and Taishan 5. (The first
three are the most widely grown.) Two hybrid
varieties, Jimai 3 and Yangmai 3, are reported as
extensively grown, but they may not be semi-
dwarfs.29
Area Planted With HYWVs
The size of the area in China planted with
HYWVs is uncertain. Official statistical estimates
are scarce at the national level.
A key variable is the definition of "HYWV."
One definition would limit HYWVs to those
varieties with a height of less than 90-100 cm.
Incomplete estimates of the total area of HYWVs
by this definition are provided for 1980 to 1984 in
table 3.2. Although the data for the periods
1980-82 and 1983-84 are not directly comparable,
the area has clearly expanded significantly. By
1984 the HYWVs represented at least one-third
of the total wheat area.



Table 3.2. Incomplete estimates of area planted with
1984


To circumvent the incomplete nature of the
data, an alternative system was utilized for 1984.
Q. Zhuang of CAAS estimated the proportion of
the area planted with HYWVs of 100 cm or less
in each of the wheat zones in the country. These
estimates were then weighted using scattered
estimates of the overall wheat area (figure 3.4) to
produce a national total of 16.5 million ha, or
56% of China's total wheat area in 1984.
If a height limit of 105 cm is used and the
same procedure involving the wheat zones is fol-
lowed, an upper range figure of about 21.5 million
ha, or 73% of the total area in 1984 would be
obtained. These taller varieties generally have a
yield potential of 5 t/ha.30
By any of these standards, the HYWVs are
clearly of major significance in China.

India
Systematic research with wheat began in India
in 1905 at the Indian Agricultural Research Insti-
tute at Pusa.31 A long period of varietal
improvement followed, but the number of
person-years devoted to wheat research was
small-1 in 1906, 2-3 in 1915-20, and 4-6 in 1935.



high-yielding wheat varieties in China from 1980 to


Area (ha)a Proportion of
total wheat
Year Fall sownb Spring sown Total area (%)C

Under 90 cm
1980 2,863,000 93,000 2,956,000 10.1
1981 3,111,000 141,000 3,252,000 11.4
1982 4,739,000 387,000 5,126,000 18.3
Under 100 cm
1983 8,364,000 556,000 8,920,000 30.7
1984 9,362,000 666,000 10,028,000 34.2

aExcludes varieties with less than 6,670 ha (less than 66,700 ha of winter wheat in 1980 and 1981 and
13,330 ha of spring wheat in 1981).
blncludes winter and facultative types and, in mild southern climates, some spring wheats.
CBased on USDA estimates of total wheat area.
Source: Letters from Q-S. Zhuang, Institute of Crop Breeding and Cultivation, CAAS, Beijing, and
H. Hanson, CIMMYT, August 1984, October, November, and December 1985.







VARIETIES AND AREA


9 10.51
(40)


24


Figure 3.4. Wheat-producing zones in China: estimated proportion of national wheat area (in brackets)
and proportion of wheat area in zone planted with HYWVs under 100 cm (in parentheses) in 1984.
Source: Basic map from CIMMYT; zone 1 slightly modified by Bruce Stone of the International Food
Policy Research Institute. HYWV percentage estimate from Q-S. Zhuang, CAAS, Beijing, October 1985.


Several new varieties were developed and
released. The area growing improved wheat vari-
eties expanded as follows: 1920-21, 820,500 ha
(8.9% of total); 1928-1929, 1,724,700 ha (15.3%
of total); and 1937-38, 3,105,900 ha (25.8% of
total).32
The HYWVs were first introduced into India
in 1962 through the international rust nursery
system, sponsored by the USDA. When the
nursery was grown at Delhi, Indian wheat scien-
tists spotted the Mexican semidwarfs Pitic 62 and
Penjamo 62 and concluded that their strong short
stems and good rust resistance might enable them
to break the yield ceiling then found in India.
The Mexican varieties were subsequently
tested on three Indian research stations in 1962-


63 and performed well. Norman Borlaug was
invited to India in 1963 and arranged to supply
100 kg of each of four short-statured wheat vari-
eties from Mexico and small samples of about 600
advanced lines. In trials harvested in the spring
of 1964, two Mexican semidwarfs, Sonora 64 and
Lerma Rojo 64, outyielded all Indian check (or
control) varieties by 30%.
By 1964 the Indian government had commit-
ted itself to a dynamic national wheat production
program built around the new semidwarfs. A
large-scale demonstration of the semidwarfs was
organized in 1965, which was made possible by
seed multiplied in India and by a shipment of 250
t of Sonora 64 and Lerma Rojo 64 (200 t and 50
t, respectively). In 1966 India imported 18,000 t







HIGH-YIELDING WHEAT VARIETIES


of seed from Mexico (mostly Lerma Rojo 64, the
remainder Sonora 64), a record-breaking quantity
at the time.
India did not long rely on imported varieties.
Indian scientists identified two Mexican advanced
breeding lines that performed better than the
imported varieties, and by careful selection they
developed the varieties Kalyansona and Sonalika.
Kalyansona, a selection from line S. 227, was
derived from the Mexican cross 8156 (as are Siete
Cerros and Super X) but had better resistance to
leaf rust. Sonalika was derived from line S. 308,
which was not released to Mexican farmers
because it was susceptible to Mexican races of leaf
rust. Both varieties were released in 1967 and


quickly gained wide popularity in India and else-
where in southern Asia. Thereafter, as part of the
All-India Coordinated Wheat Improvement Pro-
ject, India developed a large-scale breeding pro-
gram, and a large number of improved varieties
were used throughout the country.33
Despite the availability of many HYWVs, first
Kalyansona and then Sonalika have been domi-
nant varieties. Various CIMMYT reports over
the years have noted:
Kalyansona represents about 48% of
HYWV area and Sonalika represents 22%
(1973);
Sonalika and Kalyansona, in that order, are
the leading varieties (1977 and 1978); and


Table 3.3. Leading semidwarf wheat varieties by zone in India in 1984

Irrigated land
Zone Timely sown Late sown Rainfed land

Northern Hills Sonalika (MP) Sonalika (MP) Sonalika (P)
Northern Plains WL 711 (VP) Sonalika (MP) IWP 72 (P)
HD 2009 (P)
North Western Plain WH 147 (VP) Sonalika (MP) Kalyansona (P)
HD 2009 (P)
North Eastern Plains Sonalika (MP) Sonalika (MP)
and Far Eastern UP 262 (P) HP 1209 (P)
K 7410 UP 115 (P)
HP 1102 (P)
Central and Sonalika (MP) Sonalika (MP) Mukta (P)
South Eastern Lok-1 (P) Lok-1 (P) Ag-30-1 (P)
WH 147 (P) JU 12 (P)
Peninsular NI 5439 (MP) Sonalika (MP) NI 5439 (MP)
HD 2189 (VP) N 59
Southern Hillsa Neelgiri (MP)
HW 517 (P)

Key: MP=most popular; VP=very popular; P=popular
Note: All leading varieties in the irrigated areas were semidwarfs. In the rainfed zone, the MP and VP
varieties were usually tall varieties. List does not include varieties classified as "getting popular" or
"recently released."
aAll land planted with wheat has restricted irrigation.
Source: Personal communication with J.P. Tandon, All-India Coordinated Wheat Improvement Pro-
ject, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi, December 1984.







VARIETIES AND AREA


Sonalika is the most widely grown variety
(1981).34
A review of wheat varieties at the 22nd All-
India Wheat Research Workers Workshop in
1983 confirmed the dominance of Sonalika, fol-
lowed by Kalyansona.35 Sonalika was dominant
in the important wheat states of Uttar Pradesh
(60%-75%) and Bihar (75%-90%) and was widely
grown elsewhere. A crude compilation of these
data suggests that Sonalika might have occupied
about 40% of India's total HYWV area. Data on
seed production for 1980-81 suggest a higher fig-
ure, 53%, followed by Kalyansona with 17%.
More recent information reveals the leading vari-
eties by zones (table 3.3) in 1984. Sonalika was
the "most important" variety in most of the irri-
gated zones, while Kalyansona was of relatively
minor importance.
It is risky to have one variety dominate over
wide areas. In the case of Sonalika, this problem
is heightened by the fact that it is susceptible to a
new race of leaf rust and must be replaced. Sona-
lika has remained popular because:
it is the earliest maturing variety available;
it is high yielding (yields in the range of 1.4-
1.8 t/ha); and
it has amber grain color.
The first factor is important in multiple-cropping
rotations in which wheat is sown after rice is har-
vested in October and November. By the time
land preparation has been completed, the sowing
date for wheat is later than would be optimum for
medium-term varieties.36
Other wheat varieties that were of some
commercial importance in India in 1983 were:
WH 147 (grown in Haryana and Madhya
Pradesh), Arjun, WL 711 (popular in Punjab),
WL 1562 (Punjab), HD 2009 (Haryana), HD
2189 and NI 5439 (Manharashtra), Lok-1, J24,
UP 115, UP 262, and UP 368 (Uttar Pradesh).37
Additional varieties listed in table 3.3 for the irri-
gated areas include: HP 1102, HP 1209, K 7410,
Neelgiri, and WH 147. New varieties are released
regularly.38
The overall area planted with HYWVs
increased, on the whole, significantly and steadily
from 1965-66 to 1983-84 (table 3.4). The per-
centage of wheat area planted with HYWVs
declined only once (in 1979-80) and by 1981-82
had reached 75%. In 1982-83 India accounted


for 43.2% of the total HYWV area in DCs
(excluding communist Asia).
The geographic distribution of the overall
HYWV area in 1983-84, according to preliminary
data, was: Uttar Pradesh, 35.0%; Punjab, 16.4%;
Bihar, 10.5%; Madhya Pradesh. 8.2%; Haryana,
8.1%; Rajasthan, 6.7%; Maharashtra, 4.7%;
Gujarat, 2.9%; and other, 7.5%. The proportion


Table 3.4. Area of high-yielding
in India from 1965-66 to 1983-84


wheat varieties


Proportion
Crop HYWV area of total
year (ha) area (%)

1965-66 3,000
1966-67 541,000 4.2
1967-68 2,942,000 19.6
1968-69 4,793,000 30.0
1969-70 4,910,000 29.5
1970-71 6,480,000 35.5
1971-72 7,861,000 41.1
1972-73 10,177,000 52.3
1973-74 11,027,000 59.3
1974-75 11,194,000 62.2
1975-76 13,458,000 65.8
1976-77 14,522,000 69.4
1977-78 15,803,000 73.7
1978-79 15,899,000 70.2
1979-80 15,027,000 67.8
1980-81 16,100,000 72.3
1981-82 16,750,000 75.6
1982-83 18,070,000a 78.1
1983-84 18,550,000b 76.0

Key: --=negligible.
aAnother source suggests a total of 17,847,000
ha (Fertilizer Association of India, Fertilizer
Statistics, 1983-84 [New Delhi: the Association,
1984], pp. II-100).
bAnticipated achievement.
Sources: 1964-65 to 1979-80: International
Economics Division, Economic Research Service,
USDA (from Fertilizer Statistics). 1980-81:
Economic Survey, 1983-84, (New Delhi:
Government of India, 1984), p. 92. 1982-83 and
1983-84: Ministry of Agriculture, Annual Report,
1983-84 (New Delhi: the Ministry, 1984), p. 81.







HIGH-YIELDING WHEAT VARIETIES


of wheat area within each of the above states
planted with HYWVs in 1983-84 varied substan-
tially, ranging from highs of about 100% in Bihar
and 97% in Punjab to lows of 42% in Madhya
Pradesh and 58% in Rajasthan.39
Despite the extreme importance of the
HYWVs in India, little general information about
them is available. They seem to have blended
into the agricultural landscape.

Republic of Korea
Korea has been a relatively small producer of
wheat (roughly 26,000 ha in 1983), but it intends
to increase production to reduce wheat imports.
The Wheat and Barley Research Institute was
established in 1977. The Mexican varieties have
not proved to be well suited to the Korean cli-
mate and growing conditions.
Korea, however, has a good genetic base for
wheat. A number of Korean semidwarf varieties
trace their ancestry to the Daruma varieties of
Japan. Two of the better-known varieties devel-
oped in the 1930s are Suweon 92 and Seu Seun
27 (see figure 2.1).
Several short-statured semidwarff) varieties
were released in the mid-1970s: Chokwang
(previously known as Suweon 189), 1975; Suweon
215 and 216, 1977; and Milyang 5. Norin 72 is
one of the parents of Chokwang and Milyang 5;
Strampelli is one of the parents of Suweon 215
and 216. Seed of Chokwang and the Suweon
varieties was multiplied for release in 1977.40
Chokwang and Strampelli/69D-3607 were in turn
parents of Geurumil, which was released in
1979.41
Advanced lines with semidwarf stature in tests
in the 1980s included the Suweon varieties 221,
222, 223, 224, 234, 235, and 236. Height ranged
from 75 to 88 cm, compared to 90 cm for Chok-
wang. CIMMYT varieties are included in the
ancestry of Suweon 221 (76 cm) and Suweon 224
(80 cm). Strampelli was one of the parents of
Suweon 235 and 236.42
In total, it appears that essentially all of the
limited wheat area in South Korea (26,000 ha in
1983) is sown with HYWVs.

Nepal
The wheat area in Nepal has expanded sharply
since the mid-1960s. Most of the wheat growing


area is rainfed, and the growing season in the
Tarai (the southern plain where much of the area
growth has occurred) is fairly short. As a result
yields are not high.
The first Mexican variety to be grown in Nepal
appears to have been Lerma 52, one of the par-
ents of Lerma Rojo 64 but not a semidwarf.
Lerma 52 represented all the limited HYWV area
in 1965-66, 91.4% of the area in 1966-67, and
31.6% in 1967-68. Substantial quantities of


Table 3.5. Area of high-yielding wheat varieties
in Nepal from 1965-66 to 1983-84

Proportion
Crop HYWV area of total
year (ha)a area (%)

1965-66 4,400 3.7
1966-67 11,300 9.0
1967-68 27,700 14.4
1968-69 54,300 26.1
1969-70 76,400 33.8
1970-71 98,300 43.1
1971-72 115,900 48.5
1972-73 170,200 65.7
1973-74 206,900 75.5
1974-75 246,800 84.8
1975-76 233,600 71.0
1976-77 254,000 73.0
1977-78 286,900 78.4
1978-79 304,000 85.4
1979-80 314,500 85.7
1980-81 327,300 83.5
1981-82 340,000b 85.0b
1982-83 405,700 84.0
1983-84c 435,600 92.1

aImproved varieties.
bUnofficial area based on estimate of propor-
tion of total area planted with improved varieties
provided by Nepalese official. The official figure
was 100%, which seems likely to be in error.
cPreliminary estimate.
Source: Letters from C.T. Hash, Agricultural
Development Office, USAID, Kathmandu,
February and September 1984. Data from De-
partment of Food and Agriculture Marketing
Services, Nepal.







HIGH-YIELDING WHEAT VARIETIES


of wheat area within each of the above states
planted with HYWVs in 1983-84 varied substan-
tially, ranging from highs of about 100% in Bihar
and 97% in Punjab to lows of 42% in Madhya
Pradesh and 58% in Rajasthan.39
Despite the extreme importance of the
HYWVs in India, little general information about
them is available. They seem to have blended
into the agricultural landscape.

Republic of Korea
Korea has been a relatively small producer of
wheat (roughly 26,000 ha in 1983), but it intends
to increase production to reduce wheat imports.
The Wheat and Barley Research Institute was
established in 1977. The Mexican varieties have
not proved to be well suited to the Korean cli-
mate and growing conditions.
Korea, however, has a good genetic base for
wheat. A number of Korean semidwarf varieties
trace their ancestry to the Daruma varieties of
Japan. Two of the better-known varieties devel-
oped in the 1930s are Suweon 92 and Seu Seun
27 (see figure 2.1).
Several short-statured semidwarff) varieties
were released in the mid-1970s: Chokwang
(previously known as Suweon 189), 1975; Suweon
215 and 216, 1977; and Milyang 5. Norin 72 is
one of the parents of Chokwang and Milyang 5;
Strampelli is one of the parents of Suweon 215
and 216. Seed of Chokwang and the Suweon
varieties was multiplied for release in 1977.40
Chokwang and Strampelli/69D-3607 were in turn
parents of Geurumil, which was released in
1979.41
Advanced lines with semidwarf stature in tests
in the 1980s included the Suweon varieties 221,
222, 223, 224, 234, 235, and 236. Height ranged
from 75 to 88 cm, compared to 90 cm for Chok-
wang. CIMMYT varieties are included in the
ancestry of Suweon 221 (76 cm) and Suweon 224
(80 cm). Strampelli was one of the parents of
Suweon 235 and 236.42
In total, it appears that essentially all of the
limited wheat area in South Korea (26,000 ha in
1983) is sown with HYWVs.

Nepal
The wheat area in Nepal has expanded sharply
since the mid-1960s. Most of the wheat growing


area is rainfed, and the growing season in the
Tarai (the southern plain where much of the area
growth has occurred) is fairly short. As a result
yields are not high.
The first Mexican variety to be grown in Nepal
appears to have been Lerma 52, one of the par-
ents of Lerma Rojo 64 but not a semidwarf.
Lerma 52 represented all the limited HYWV area
in 1965-66, 91.4% of the area in 1966-67, and
31.6% in 1967-68. Substantial quantities of


Table 3.5. Area of high-yielding wheat varieties
in Nepal from 1965-66 to 1983-84

Proportion
Crop HYWV area of total
year (ha)a area (%)

1965-66 4,400 3.7
1966-67 11,300 9.0
1967-68 27,700 14.4
1968-69 54,300 26.1
1969-70 76,400 33.8
1970-71 98,300 43.1
1971-72 115,900 48.5
1972-73 170,200 65.7
1973-74 206,900 75.5
1974-75 246,800 84.8
1975-76 233,600 71.0
1976-77 254,000 73.0
1977-78 286,900 78.4
1978-79 304,000 85.4
1979-80 314,500 85.7
1980-81 327,300 83.5
1981-82 340,000b 85.0b
1982-83 405,700 84.0
1983-84c 435,600 92.1

aImproved varieties.
bUnofficial area based on estimate of propor-
tion of total area planted with improved varieties
provided by Nepalese official. The official figure
was 100%, which seems likely to be in error.
cPreliminary estimate.
Source: Letters from C.T. Hash, Agricultural
Development Office, USAID, Kathmandu,
February and September 1984. Data from De-
partment of Food and Agriculture Marketing
Services, Nepal.







VARIETIES AND AREA


Table 3.6. High-yielding wheat variety seed imported by Pakistan

Quantity
Year (t) Source Comment

1965 350 Mexico 250 t Penjamo 62 and 100 t Lerma Rojo 64
1966 50 Mexico Mostly Mexipak White (Siete Cerros); some
Mexipak Red (Indus 66)
1967 42,000 Mexico 40,000 t Mexipak Red (Indus 66); 2,000 t
Mexipak 65 (Siete Cerros)
1975 17,000 Mexico 9,600 t Yecora; 6,600 t Nuri; and 800 t other
1978 5,270 India 3,300 t Sonalika; 1,200 t WL-711; and 770 t
HD-2009
10,500 Mexico Pavon-76

Sources: 1965-67; D.G. Dalrymple, Development and Spread of High-Yielding Varieties of Wheat and
Rice in the Less Developed Nations, FAER No. 95 (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Agriculture,
September 1978), pp. 15, 40. 1975 and 1978: letter from P. Amir, research fellow, Pakistan Agricultural
Research Council, Islamabad, January 1984.


Lerma Rojo 64 were imported for the 1966-67
season (38 t) and the 1967-68 season (450 t).
Thereafter, most wheat seed imports were
from India: 160 t of S-331 (Choti Lerma) in
1968-69, 1971-72, and 1972-73; 1,776 t of S-227
(Kalyansona) from 1969-70 to 1972-73; 1,315 t of
RR-21 (Sonalika) in 1971-72 and 1972-73; and 30
t of UP-301 in 1972-73. Slightly more than 0.5 t
of Chenab 70 was imported from Pakistan (1970-
71).43
Sonalika (RR-21), as in India, was popular. In
1976 CIMMYT reported that it occupied 95% of
the HYWV area.4 A 1981 CIMMYT report
states that Sonalika predominated for the same
reason as in India: its short growing season fitted
the rice-wheat rotation.45 In a tabulation pre-
pared by the Nepalese Department of Agriculture
in March 1983, it was the only variety listed as
"very important." Lerma 52 (1960) was listed as
"important," and Lerma Rojo 64 (1967), NL-30
(1975), and HD-1980 (1975) were in the third
category, "less important." The fourth category,
"grown only occasionally or not at all," contained
Pitic 62 (1967), S-331 (1969), S-227 (1969), and
NL 30 (1975). Lumbini (1981) and UP-262
(1981) were listed as "yet to be popularized."
Recent releases include Tribeni (1982), Sid-


dhartha (1982), Vinyak (or Binayak, 1983), and
Vaskar (1983).46
The area planted with improved varieties grew
fairly steadily through 1974-75, followed by a drop
in 1975-76, and then a gradual increase in area
through 1982-83 (table 3.5). The preliminary
estimates for 1983-84 show further increases,
although those may prove to be temporary due to
a decline in wheat prices. Some of the improved
wheat grown in Nepal (such as Lerma 52) may
not qualify as a HYWV; hence, the actual
HYWV area may be less than shown in table 3.6.
It is unclear how much the HYWVs are con-
tributing to increased wheat production in Nepal
because they are largely grown in rainfed fields
with little or no fertilizer and in one large area
(the Tarai) where the growing season is relatively
short. The HYWVs, however, are evidently as
good as any and do have other positive qualities
bred into them.
As in India, a replacement will be needed for
Sonalika because of the leaf rust problem. The
National Wheat Development Program recom-
mended NL-30 and HD 1982 for the Rarai in the
mid-1970s, but neither variety has become popu-
lar.








HIGH-YIELDING WHEAT VARIETIES


Table 3.7. Wheat varieties released in Pakistan from 1966 to 1982-83

Variety Datea Variety Datea

Introduction
Mexipak 1966c Arz 1976
Sonalika/Blue Silverd 1969 HD-2009 1978c
Yecora-70 1974c WL-711 1978c
Nuri-70 1975 Pavon F76 1978e

Pakistani/CIMMYT varieties
Khushal-69 1969c ZA-77 1979e
Barani-70 1970c Bahawalpur-79 1979-80
Chenab 70 1970C Indus-79 1979-80
Pak-70 1970 Khyberr 79 1979-80
SA-42 1972 Zamindar 80 1979-80
Lyallpur 73 1973 Zarghoon-79 1979-80
Pari-73 1973 Pak-81 (Veery "S") 1981-82
Pothowar 1973c Punjab-81 1981-82
Sandal 1973 Barani-83 1982-83
Tarnab-73 1973c Faisalabad-83 (AARI-83) 1982-83
SA-75 1975c Kohnoor-83 (Punjab-83) 1982-83
LU-26 1976e Sarhad-82 (Bobwhite) 1982-83
Punjab-76 1976C

aYear of release is approximate; different sources may vary by a year.
bDoes not include all early introductions.
CWithdrawn; no longer recommended generally because of susceptability to leaf and/or stripe (yellow)
rust.
dSonalika is known in Pakistan as Blue Silver.
eRecommended only for zones free of stripe (yellow) rust.
Sources: J.G. Nagy, "The Pakistan Agricultural Development Model: An Economic Evaluation of
Agricultural Research and Extension Expenditures" (Ph.D. dissertation, University of Minnesota, 1984),
Table C-10;- CIMMYT Report on Wheat Improvement, annual; Annual Wheat Newsletter, 27 (June
1981):70, 28 (June 1982):70, 30 (June 1984):86; and letters from P. Amir, Research Fellow, Pakistan
Agricultural Research Council, Islamabad, March 1984 and P.R. Hobbs, wheat agronomist, CIMMYT,
Islamabad, November 1984.


Pakistan

Wheat research in the region that is now Pak-
istan started at Punjab Agricultural College in
Lyallpur in the early 1900s. The first selections
released were 8-A and 9-D (both 1911). The first
crosses were C-217, C-228, C-250, C-518, and C-
591 (1930s). The area planted with improved
varieties in the Punjab (which is now divided
between Pakistan and India) increased gradually
but significantly through the early 1940s when it


represented 75% of the total wheat area. During
the 1950s, varietal releases included C-271, C-273,
H-68, and Dirk (from Australia).47
The CIMMYT/Mexican varieties were first
introduced in 1962 by some Pakistani trainees
returning from CIMMYT. The seeds they carried
were subsequently planted at the Agricultural
Research Institute near Lyallpur (now Fasial-
abad). Norman Borlaug visited Lyallpur in the
spring of 1963 and upon his return to Mexico sent
205 kg of experimental seed to Pakistan. He







VARIETIES AND AREA


visited Pakistan again in the spring of 1964 and
secured governmental and Ford Foundation sup-
port for an All-Pakistan Wheat Research and
Production Program.48 Substantial quantities of
HYWV seed were purchased from Mexico during
the next 3 years (table 3.6).
A breeding program was initiated, and a large
number of varieties have been released (table
3.7). Even so, massive imports of six varieties of
seeds were necessary in 1975 and again in 1978
when rust disease was severe (table 3.7). Some of
the varieties developed in Pakistan subsequently
developed susceptibility to disease, particularly
rust, and have been withdrawn from the officially
recommended list. However, other rust-
susceptible varieties-particularly Yecora, Pavon,
and Mexipak-continue to be grown by farmers
who are their own source of seed. This could cre-
ate a serious problem if a rust epidemic should
occur.
There are no published estimates of the rela-
tive importance of the various HYWVs at any
given point in time. One source suggests that
during the 1969-70 season, 81% of the HYWV
area was planted with Mexipak, 12.5% with Indus
66, 4% with Norteno, and 1% with Inia 66.49 A
survey of wheat varieties by province during the
late 1981-82 crop year revealed that Yecora
occupied 53% of the total wheat area in Punjab,
and Pavon represented 60%-65% of the total
wheat area in Sind.50 Both varieties were still
heavily used in 1984.51
The proportion of total HYWV area repre-
sented by introduced varieties is estimated to
have increased as follows: 1973-74, 0%; 1974-75,
3.1%; 1975-76, 12.1%; 1976-77, 16.7%; 1977-78,
20.3%; 1978-79, 39.5%; 1979-80, 56.8%; and
1980-81, 72.9%.52 The original calculations did
not place Mexipak in the introduction category,
so the increase in this category is probably not
nearly as great as it seems. However, it is sur-
prising to find such a large proportion of the
HYWV area still occupied by introductions. A
large number of locally developed high-yielding
varieties were released in the early 1980s, and
these will probably bring the introduction figure
down over time.
The overall area planted with HYWVs in
Pakistan increased steadily from 1965-66 to 1982-
83, aside from a slight pause in the early 1970s
(table 3.8). The proportion of total area occupied
by the HYWVs increased correspondingly and by


1982-83 reached 86.1%. The HYWV area figure
is close to 100% in the irrigated and high rainfall
areas. One HYWV, Lyallpur 73, is also exten-
sively grown in areas where there is climatic stress
and salinity.53 As of 1982-83 the HYWV area
was largely concentrated in Punjab, which had
74% of the total, followed by: Sind, 15.2%;
NWFP, 8.8%; and Baluchinstan, 2.0%.54



Table 3.8. Area of high-yielding wheat varieties
in Pakistan from 1965-66 to 1982-83

Proportion
Crop HYWV area of total
year (ha) area (%)

1965-66 4,900
1966-67 101,280 0.2
1967-68 957,100 16.0
1968-69 2,387,700 38.8
1969-70 2,681,500 43.0
1970-71 3,128,300 52.3
1971-72 3,286,200 56.7
1972-73 3,375,700 56.5
1973-74 3,475,200 56.9
1974-75 3,722,800 64.0
1975-76 4,015,600 65.7
1976-77 4,599,300 72.0
1977-78 4,684,500 73.7
1978-79 5,095,700 76.2
1979-80 5,587,100 80.7
1980-81 5,732,500 82.1
1981-82 6,172,000 85.5
1982-83 6,367,200 86.1

Key: --=negligible.
Sources: 1965-66 to 1971-72: D.G.
Dalrymple, Development and Spread of High-
Yielding Varieties of Wheat and Rice in the Less
Developed Nations, FAER No. 95 (Washington,
D.C.: U.S. Department of Agriculture, 1978), p.
40; and 1972-73 to 1982-83: Ministry of Food,
Agriculture, and Cooperatives, Agricultural
Statistics of Pakistan, 1983 (Islamabad: the Min-
istry, Government of Pakistan, 1984), pp. 11-13.

NEAR EAST

The Near East, which for this report includes
western Asia and North Africa, accounted for







HIGH-YIELDING WHEAT VARIETIES


about 25.4% of the total DC wheat area in 1983.
The most important countries (and their percent-
age proportion of DC area) in 1983 were: Turkey
(8.9), Iran (5.6), Afghanistan (2.7), Morocco
(2.0), Algeria (1.3), Syria (1.2), Iraq (1.2), and
Tunisia (1.1). All these countries were among the
top 12 DCs in terms of wheat-growing area.
Yields, however, have been relatively low, espe-
cially in Algeria and Morocco.55
The region is geographically diverse. Of the
total wheat area in the region, 14% is irrigated,
34% has adequate rainfed soil moisture, and 51%
has semiarid soil conditions. In western Asia,
HYWVs are mostly grown in irrigated fields
(often partial or limited) or in areas with fairly
high rainfall. HYWVs are irrigated in Egypt, but
in the remainder of North Africa and Turkey they
are usually grown under rainfed conditions.
Spring bread wheat represents about 29% of the
area, winter bread wheat about 40%, and durum
wheat about 31%.56 The latter two types are
more important in this region than elsewhere in
the developing world (except for China in the
case of winter wheat).57
Semidwarf wheat was introduced to the Near
East in 1963 when a former student of Borlaug
grew the new Mexican varieties at an experiment
station north of Cairo. Egyptian use of the vari-
eties was limited until the early 1970s,58 but the
semidwarfs were adopted at an early date in a
number of other countries in the region. The
HYWVs were not limited to spring bread wheats
but included winter bread wheats and durums.
The high-yielding winter wheats are not of
CIMMYT or Mexican origin and are often not
semidwarfs. Therefore, it is sometimes difficult to
draw a line between improved local varieties and
HYWVs unless yield data are available.
Several regional wheat improvement programs
have developed. The first was a project of the
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United
Nations and the United Nations Development
Program on wheat and barley, established in
1962, which expanded into a program on field
food crops. The second was the Arid Lands
Agricultural Development Program (ALAD),
sponsored by the Ford Foundation, which did
some wheat research and testing in Lebanon.
The ALAD work was absorbed by the Interna-
tional Center for Agricultural Research in the
Dry Areas (ICARDA). Presently, wheat research


at ICARDA is carried out in cooperation with
CIMMYT.59 The Arab Center for the Studies of
the Arab Zones and Dry Lands in Syria also does
wheat research.
There is a distinct lack of official statistics on
HYWV use in much of the region. Reasonably
complete data are available for a few countries,
but major gaps in data exist for many others. Lit-
tle information of any type is available for some
countries.
Israel, a developed country and not a point of
focus in this report, has had experience with
HYWVs and is briefly covered in a footnote.60


Afghanistan

Afghanistan was making extensive use of
HYWVs through the late 1970s, but nothing is
known of developments since then. Both spring
and winter wheats are grown, and seed imports
have been of both types (table 3.9).
The estimated area planted with HYWVs
increased gradually through 1976-77. Annual fig-
ures were as follows (in hectares): 1966-67, 1,800;
1967-68, 22,000; 1968-69, 122,000; 1969-70,
146,000; 1970-71, 232,000; 1971-72, 255,000;
1972-73, 450,000; 1973-74, 475,000; 1974-75,
522,000; 1975-76, 522,000; and 1976-77, 770,000.
These estimates probably were high because
the definition of improved varieties may have
included nonHYWVs. Also a 1977 CIMMYT
report indicated that the area under improved
varieties dropped during 1967-77, in contrast to
the increase noted above. A 1978 CIMMYT
report lists the area planted with improved vari-
eties as 433,000 ha.
In 1975-76 the leading varieties included
Mexipak, Bakhtar (Baktar), Bezostaya, and
Kavkaz. From 1967 to 1976 Mexipak and
Bakhtar were the leading spring varieties and
Kavkaz was the leading winter variety followed by
Bezostaya. The 1977 CIMMYT report indicates
that Bezostaya and Kavkaz were largely replaced
by local winter varieties because of problems of
grain color, lack of awns, unpalatable straw, and
susceptibility to stripe rust. In 1978 the varieties
were reported to have become susceptible to dis-
eases and poor in seed quality and purity. A
number of promising new lines were identified.61
Presumably, some HYWVs are still grown.







VARIETIES AND AREA


Table 3.9. High-yielding wheat variety seed imported by Afghanistan from 1965-66 to 1975-76

Quantity
Year (t) Variety Source Comments

1965-66 50 Lerma Rojo 64A Mexico
1966-67 250 Lerma Rojo 64A Mexico
170 Lerma Rojo 64A Pakistan
1971-72 6,000 Mexipak Pakistan 2,000 t certified; 4,000 t uncertified
1972-73 2,000 Bezostaya
1973-74 500 Kavkaz An offspring of Bezostaya
1975-76 10 CY 1975 India

Source: D.G. Dalrymple, Development and Spread of High-Yielding Varieties of Wheat and Rice in the
Less Developed Nations, FAER No. 95 (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Agriculture, 1978), p. 45.


Algeria
The current status of HYWVs in Algeria is
somewhat uncertain. CIMMYT has been associ-
ated with an Algerian wheat improvement pro-
gram for a long time but has not published
reports on developments since 1980. Efforts to
obtain recent information from Algeria and other
sources failed, but CIMMYT provided one key
set of estimates for 1983.
Algeria imported substantial quantities of


HYWV seed, principally from Mexico, at intervals
from 1969-70 to 1977-78. Recorded quantities
are (in tons): 1969-70, 1,500; 1970-71, 17,200;
1972-73, 15,468; and 1977-78, 3,800 (Siete Cer-
ros).62 Estimates of area planted are available for
a few years in the early 1970s and are summarized
in table 3.10.
In 1978 five HYWVs with Mexican ancestry
were released: Beni Slimane 76 (Arz), Cheliff 78
(Pavon "S"), Ghriss 75 (Anza), Setif 76


Table 3.10. Area of high-yielding wheat varieties in Algeria from 1969-70 to 1976-77

Crop Area
year (ha) Varieties planted

1969-70 5,100
1970-71 140,000 98.6% Mexican varieties (Inia 66, Siete Cerros, and Tobari); 1.4%
Italian varieties
1971-72 320,000 Inia 66, Siete Cerros, Tobari, and Strampelli
1972-73 600,000 80% bread wheats: 56% Siete Cerros, 20% Inia, and 4% Tobari;
20% durum wheat: all Jori C69
1974-75 670,400a Leading bread variety: Siete Cerros; leading durum variety: Cocorit
1976-77 300,000a Bread wheats: 90% Siete Cerros, 8% Strampelli, and 2% other
(Anza, Tobari, and Inia); durum wheats: Cocorit, Inrat 69, Capeti,
and Montpellierb

aIndirect estimate.
bJori did not prove to be adaptable. Breakdown data for durum varieties are not available.
Source: D.G. Dalrymple, Development and Spread of High-Yielding Varieties of Wheat and Rice in the
Less Developed Nations, FAER No. 95 (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Agriculture, 1978), p. 46.








HIGH-YIELDING WHEAT VARIETIES


(Syrimex), and Tessalah (Mexicano 1481).63 As
of 1980 the main bread wheat varieties included
Anza, Siete Cerros, and Strampelli (along with
Mahon Demais). The principal durum varieties
did not include any HYWVs. (Capeiti, Inrat 69,
and Cocorit 71 were grown only in a limited
area.)64
Unpublished estimates provided by CIMMYT
for 1983 suggest that Algeria had a HYWV area
of 400,000 ha. Bread varieties accounted for
about 275,000 ha, broken down as follows: Siete
Cerros, 150,000 ha; Strampelli, 75,000 ha; and
Anza, 50,000 ha. The durum varieties (Capeti,
Inrat 69, and Cocori 71) accounted for the
remaining 125,000 ha. The HYWVs have repre-
sented about 20% of Algeria's average total
wheat area in recent years. While the HYWV
area has not increased much, if at all, since the
early 1970s, increased research efforts are under-
way.

Cyprus
Cyprus, although a small country and a small
wheat producer, has had a vigorous program of
varietal improvement for bread and durum
wheats. In the case of bread wheats, Mexican
HYWVs have been extensively grown. As of
1973 about 14,000 ha were planted with Mexican-
type varieties, principally Pitic 62. As of 1977, all
of the bread wheat area was planted with varieties
of Mexican origin. A 1978 varietal breakdown of
a bread wheat area of 10,940 ha in Cyprus was:
Hazera 2152, 40%; Hazera 18, 40%; and Pitic 62,
20%.66
Of the 16,350 ha planted with durum wheat in
1978, about 20% was devoted to Capeiti 8
(Capelli x Eiti), 15% to Aronas (a sister line of
Cocorit 71), and the remaining 65% was planted
with the traditional varieties Tripolitico and
Kyperounda. Capeiti 8 is of Italian origin and was
released in 1973. Aronas was selected from a
large number of lines introduced from CIMMYT
and was released in 1977; it was about 25 cm
shorter than Kyperounda. Another durum vari-
ety, Mesaoria, which was also selected from a
CIMMYT cross, was released in 1982; it was 7 cm
shorter than Aronas. Recently, a further durum
variety, Karpasia, was selected from a CIMMYT
line and as of 1984 was being multiplied; it
outyields Mesaoria and Aronas by 8%-10%.67
While these varieties were under develop-
ment, other factors sharply influenced the setting


for wheat production. First, the overall area
planted with wheat was sharply reduced because
of the Turkish invasion, the elimination of fallow,
and a decision to favor the production of barley
instead of wheat in rainfed areas. Second, it was
decided to use the limited wheat area for the
production of durums rather than bread wheats
because bread wheats can be readily imported at
lower prices than durum wheats. This shift was
accomplished by 1980.
Thus, as of the 1983-84 season only 5,000 ha
were sown with wheat, and all of this was planted
with durum wheat. The variety distribution was
Aronas, 60%; Mesaoria, 30%; and others, 10%.68

Egypt
Wheat is a major crop in Egypt and is the
leading winter cereal. Wheat yields were steady
from 1960 to 1970, increased in the early 1970s,
and then leveled off through 1981. Giza 155 and
157, tall varieties, were released in 1968 and 1972,
respectively. Giza 155 quickly became the domi-
nant variety in the 1970s and between 1970 and
1979 accounted for about 81% of the total wheat
area. It began to decline in importance in 1980.69
Two semidwarf HYWVs, Mexipak and
Chenab, were released to farmers in the early
1970s-Mexipak in 1970, and Chenab in 1972 or
1973. The area sown with both expanded sharply
to a peak in 1974 and then dropped through the
rest of the decade. Annual area estimates were as
follows (in hectares): 1970, 40; 1971, 160; 1972,
1,860; 1973, 2,820; 1974, 213,000; 1975, 78,600;
1976, 74,300; 1977, 125,620; 1978, 121,000; 1979,
45,800; and 1980, 1,250.
The reasons given for the drop in 1975 differ.
They include (a) a change in the government
policies, which required that a higher proportion
of the Mexican varieties be sold to the govern-
ment than of the traditional varieties, and (b) leaf
rust, shattering, grain color, and baking and
milling qualities. (The latter were considered par-
ticular problems of Mexipak and were expected to
be rectified with the wider use of Chenab 70.)70
Another account indicates that while the yields of
Mexipak (and Chenab 70) were much higher
(32%-40% higher) than the national average in
1971, 1972, and 1973, they dropped substantially
in 1974 when they were only 12% above the
national average. A recent analysis of the period
stated: "This limited yield increase was much less








HIGH-YIELDING WHEAT VARIETIES


(Syrimex), and Tessalah (Mexicano 1481).63 As
of 1980 the main bread wheat varieties included
Anza, Siete Cerros, and Strampelli (along with
Mahon Demais). The principal durum varieties
did not include any HYWVs. (Capeiti, Inrat 69,
and Cocorit 71 were grown only in a limited
area.)64
Unpublished estimates provided by CIMMYT
for 1983 suggest that Algeria had a HYWV area
of 400,000 ha. Bread varieties accounted for
about 275,000 ha, broken down as follows: Siete
Cerros, 150,000 ha; Strampelli, 75,000 ha; and
Anza, 50,000 ha. The durum varieties (Capeti,
Inrat 69, and Cocori 71) accounted for the
remaining 125,000 ha. The HYWVs have repre-
sented about 20% of Algeria's average total
wheat area in recent years. While the HYWV
area has not increased much, if at all, since the
early 1970s, increased research efforts are under-
way.

Cyprus
Cyprus, although a small country and a small
wheat producer, has had a vigorous program of
varietal improvement for bread and durum
wheats. In the case of bread wheats, Mexican
HYWVs have been extensively grown. As of
1973 about 14,000 ha were planted with Mexican-
type varieties, principally Pitic 62. As of 1977, all
of the bread wheat area was planted with varieties
of Mexican origin. A 1978 varietal breakdown of
a bread wheat area of 10,940 ha in Cyprus was:
Hazera 2152, 40%; Hazera 18, 40%; and Pitic 62,
20%.66
Of the 16,350 ha planted with durum wheat in
1978, about 20% was devoted to Capeiti 8
(Capelli x Eiti), 15% to Aronas (a sister line of
Cocorit 71), and the remaining 65% was planted
with the traditional varieties Tripolitico and
Kyperounda. Capeiti 8 is of Italian origin and was
released in 1973. Aronas was selected from a
large number of lines introduced from CIMMYT
and was released in 1977; it was about 25 cm
shorter than Kyperounda. Another durum vari-
ety, Mesaoria, which was also selected from a
CIMMYT cross, was released in 1982; it was 7 cm
shorter than Aronas. Recently, a further durum
variety, Karpasia, was selected from a CIMMYT
line and as of 1984 was being multiplied; it
outyields Mesaoria and Aronas by 8%-10%.67
While these varieties were under develop-
ment, other factors sharply influenced the setting


for wheat production. First, the overall area
planted with wheat was sharply reduced because
of the Turkish invasion, the elimination of fallow,
and a decision to favor the production of barley
instead of wheat in rainfed areas. Second, it was
decided to use the limited wheat area for the
production of durums rather than bread wheats
because bread wheats can be readily imported at
lower prices than durum wheats. This shift was
accomplished by 1980.
Thus, as of the 1983-84 season only 5,000 ha
were sown with wheat, and all of this was planted
with durum wheat. The variety distribution was
Aronas, 60%; Mesaoria, 30%; and others, 10%.68

Egypt
Wheat is a major crop in Egypt and is the
leading winter cereal. Wheat yields were steady
from 1960 to 1970, increased in the early 1970s,
and then leveled off through 1981. Giza 155 and
157, tall varieties, were released in 1968 and 1972,
respectively. Giza 155 quickly became the domi-
nant variety in the 1970s and between 1970 and
1979 accounted for about 81% of the total wheat
area. It began to decline in importance in 1980.69
Two semidwarf HYWVs, Mexipak and
Chenab, were released to farmers in the early
1970s-Mexipak in 1970, and Chenab in 1972 or
1973. The area sown with both expanded sharply
to a peak in 1974 and then dropped through the
rest of the decade. Annual area estimates were as
follows (in hectares): 1970, 40; 1971, 160; 1972,
1,860; 1973, 2,820; 1974, 213,000; 1975, 78,600;
1976, 74,300; 1977, 125,620; 1978, 121,000; 1979,
45,800; and 1980, 1,250.
The reasons given for the drop in 1975 differ.
They include (a) a change in the government
policies, which required that a higher proportion
of the Mexican varieties be sold to the govern-
ment than of the traditional varieties, and (b) leaf
rust, shattering, grain color, and baking and
milling qualities. (The latter were considered par-
ticular problems of Mexipak and were expected to
be rectified with the wider use of Chenab 70.)70
Another account indicates that while the yields of
Mexipak (and Chenab 70) were much higher
(32%-40% higher) than the national average in
1971, 1972, and 1973, they dropped substantially
in 1974 when they were only 12% above the
national average. A recent analysis of the period
stated: "This limited yield increase was much less







VARIETIES AND AREA


than needed to compensate farmers for the
increase in fertilizers and irrigation and the care
in harvesting required for Mexican varieties."71
Also the varieties produced less straw, which is
highly valued as a forage in the summer.
Other changes occurred in 1977 and 1978.
Mexipak was dropped as a recommended variety
in 1977 due to shattering and disease problems;
Chenab was dropped in 1978 due to leaf rust dif-
ficulties. During this period about 500 t of the
durum variety Mexicali 75 (Stork) were imported,
renamed Sohag I and recommended for middle
and upper Egypt.7
Meanwhile, Egyptian wheat breeders were
developing improved semidwarf varieties. In 1976
four new varieties were released. Two were selec-
tions from Mexican lines: Sakha 3 (= Potam "S")
and Sakha 8 (= Bluebird "S"). Two were crosses
between Egyptian and Mexican varieties:
Giza 157: Giza 155 (Pi624 LR642 x Tzpp -
Knott2), and
Giza 158: Giza 156 x Siete Cerros.
These varieties showed good resistance to leaf
rusts and shattering. They were also reportedly
free of the disadvantages of the earlier Mexican
varieties with respect to color of grain and flour
and the quality of straw as animal feed. Giza 157
and Sakha 8 were recommended for the delta
region (Giza 157 was also recommended for
Middle Egypt); Giza 158 was recommended for
Upper Egypt.4
Two further semidwarf varieties, Sakha 61 and
Sakha 69 (both Inia RL4220 x 7C/Yr"S"), were
developed in 1979 and later released. They were


followed by Giza 160 (Chenab 70 x Giza 155).
The area planted with each semidwarf (with
the exception of Giza 158, which has not been
commercially adopted) from 1978 to 1983 is
shown in table 3.11. The proportion of the total
wheat area planted with these varieties, including
the area for Mexipak and Chenab, changed as
follows: 1978, 21.1%; 1979, 11.6%; 1980, 35.7%;
1981, 43.9%; 1982, 52.7%; and 1983, 55.2%.
Less detailed estimates for more recent years
show that the HYWV area has dropped back to
about the 1981 level: 260,100 ha in 1984 and
257,900 ha in 1985. Giza 157 remained the lead-
ing variety in both years, followed by Sakha 61 in
1984 and Sakha 69 in 1985.75
A related point of a policy nature is that the
Egyptian government support price for wheat has
been set at a higher level for the semidwarf vari-
eties than for the local varieties. During the
1980-82 period the HYWV prices averaged about
8.6% higher than for other wheat varieties.76
Inputs are subsidized and extensive subsidies exist
on bread.
AID has supported the Egyptian Major Cereal
Improvement Project, which includes wheat
research; an extensive varietal development pro-
gram is underway for wheat.



Iran
In 1976 wheat was grown on about 2.1 million
ha of irrigated land and on about 1.34 million ha
of rainfed land. About 84% of the total area was


Table 3.11. Area of high-yielding wheat varieties in Egypt from 1978 to 1983
Area (ha) Total area
Year Giza 157 Sakha 8 Sakha 61 Sakha 69 Stork (ha)

1978 3,100 -- -- 3,100
1979 18,900 3,400 -- -- 22,300
1980 134,400 41,200 -- -- 175,600
1981 193,600 60,100 1,700 -- 2,500 257,900
1982 230,600 58,000 13,400 400 1,700 304,100
1983 200,800 53,800 47,100 3,300 1,200 306,200

Key: --=negligible.
Source: 1978-1981: A-M.M. Basheer, Wheat Economics in Egypt, Publication No. 40 (Cairo: Egyptian
Major Cereals Improvement Project, May 1982), pp. 10-11, 41-42; 1982-1983: letter from S.A. Bowers,
USAID, Cairo, July 1984.







HIGH-YIELDING WHEAT VARIETIES


used for winter wheat and 16% for spring
wheat.77
Iran was an early adopter of the Mexican vari-
eties. During the 1968-69 crop year it imported
1,500 t of Penjamo from Turkey; during the 1969-
70 crop year 1,500 t was imported through a
transshipment of Inia 66 from Denmark. Esti-
mated areas planted with the Mexican varieties
under the Wheat Impact Program were (in
hectares): 1968-69, 10,000; 1969-70, 37,000;
1970-71, 63,000; 1971-72, 125,000; and 1972-73,
138,000. In 1975-76 the area was 140,000 ha.78
During the 1968-76 period Iran had a wheat
breeding program involving crosses between
Mexican varieties and local or other varieties. As
of 1976 the principal varieties in use were (year of
introduction if known in parentheses):
spring wheats: Inia 66 (1968), Arvand
(1973), Moghan I (1973), Moghan II (1976),
Bayat (1976), Khazar I (1973);
irrigated winter wheats: Omid, Roshan,
Bezostaya (1969), Adl (1977), Karaj I (1973), and
Karaj II (1973); and
rainfed winter wheats: Azar and Rashed.79

With the exception of Inia and Bezostaya, the
introductions represent reselections of CIMMYT
material (e.g., Moghan 1 and 2 and Khazar I) or
local crosses using some CIMMYT materials
(e.g., Karaj 1 and Arvand).80 They are considered
HYWVs. Omid, Roshan, Azar, and Rashed are
improved local varieties.

Little is known of the wheat developments
since 1977, but a recent letter from Iran provided
some insight.81 Of the early introductions, Inia is
still a successful variety in the Caspian Coast area
and Bezostaya is still grown in northeastern Iran.
The overall varietal breakdown for the irrigated
area (circa 1983) is shown in table 3.12.

The varieties marked with question marks
under the type classification in table 3.12 are of
unknown origin. They may be releases made
since 1977. Chenab, a Mexican variety not previ-
ously known in Iran, was included with 2% of the
area. Bezostaya did not appear in this classifica-
tion.


Altogether, the known HYWVs of Mexican
origin accounted for about 829,000 ha or 35.9%
of Iran's total irrigated area. Thus, HYWVs evi-
dently continue to be widely used in Iran.



Iraq


Iraq was an early adopter of the Mexican vari-
eties. Developments in wheat are well recorded
through the late 1970s, but nothing is known of
any changes in the 1980s.
Imports of HYWV seed started modestly and
built to an astounding level in 1 year. Initially, 5 t
of Mexipak were imported during the 1965-66
season. In September 1968, 800 t of Mexipak
were imported from West Pakistan. In 1971
imports of Mexican seed jumped sharply to
70,000 t. This increase was in response to a
drought-induced crop failure. Of the total, 60,000
t were shipped from Mexico and included about
25,000 t of Mexipak, 20,000 t of Inia 66, and
15,000 t of Jori 69. Algeria provided 10,000 t of
Inia.
The area planted with HYWVs, which fol-
lowed the quantity of seed imports, changed as
follows (in hectares): 1967-68, 6,400; 1968-69,
41,700; 1969-70, 195,200; 1970-71, 125,000; 1971-
72, 950,000; 1972-73, 595,000; 1973-74, 700,000;
and 1974-75, 750,000. The enormous increase in
HYWV area in 1971-72 was possible given the
quantity of seed available.82
From 1967-68 to 1970-71, the HYWV area
was entirely planted with Mexipak. In 1970-71
and 1971-72, the HYWV area was composed of
Mexipak, Jori 69 (in irrigated areas), and Inia 66
(in rainfed areas). A similar pattern was found in
1974-75. In 1977 Cocorit 71 was mentioned
along with Abu-Ghraib 1 (a bread wheat devel-
oped in Iran but about which nothing else is
known). Abu-Ghraib 3, a bread wheat variety of
Mexican extraction (and a sister of Marcos Juarez
INTA and Soltane), was released in 1978. As of
the late 1970s the HYWVs occupied most of the
irrigated (92%) and high-rainfall (75%) wheat
areas in Iraq.83







VARIETIES AND AREA


Table 3.12. Area of principal wheat varieties in irrigated zone of Iran, circa 1983.

Proportion
Area of total
Variety (type) (ha) area (%)

Omid (W) 807,000 34.9
Roshan (W) 357,000 15.4
Inia (S), Khazer (S), and Naz (S?)a 270,000 11.7
Arvand (S)a 234,000 10.1
Bayat (S), Darab (S?)a 148,000 6.4
Azadi (?) 98,000 4.2
Adl (W)a 50,000 2.2
Chenab (S)a 50,000 2.2
Moghan 1, 2 (S)a 45,000 1.9
Tabasi (?) 33,000 1.4
Alborz, Kaveh (?) 31,000 1.3
Karaj 2 (W)a 20,000 0.9
Karaj 1 (W)a 12,000 0.5
Other 158,000 6.8
Total 2,313,000b 100.0

Key: W = winter; S = spring; ? = unknown.
aHYWVs of CIMMYT or Mexican extraction.
bEstimated by the USDA to be 5.5 million ha.
Source: Letter from MA. Vahabian, Seed and Plant Improvement Institute, Ministry of Agriculture
and Rural Development, Karadj, Iran, April 1984.


Nothing is known of HYWV developments in
the 1980s. If the HYWVs continued to represent
the same proportion of the total area (about
50%) as they did in the mid-1970s, they would
now cover nearly 600,000 ha.

Jordan

The wheat area in Jordan is relatively small,
and the HYWVs have played a modest role. As
of the late 1970s Cocorit 71, Jori 69, and Stork
were considered promising wheat varieties and
were being multiplied. Wheat statistics did not
differentiate between improved Jordanian and
Mexican varieties, but the total area of improved
varieties was small-about 7,000 ha in 1974-75,
10,000 ha in 1975-76, and 12,000 ha in 1976-77.
As of the 1983-84 season the principal wheat
varieties being multiplied were Der Alla No. 2,
Hurani, and F.8. It is estimated that these vari-
eties were planted on 20,000 ha.84


Lebanon
The HYWV area in Lebanon in the 1970s was
modest. It rose gradually from 50 ha in 1967-68
to a total of about 20,000 ha in 1972-73, which
held as an average through 1976-77. (It was
slightly lower in 1974-75 and slightly higher in
1976-77.)
The HYWV area in 1968-69 and 1969-70 was
entirely planted with Mexipak. In 1976-77 Mexi-
pak remained the principal variety; Jori was
planted on 3,000 to 4,000 ha. A 1979 report
stated that Mexipak represented 60%-80% of the
bread wheat area and that Jori occupied 40% of
the durum wheat area. No more recent informa-
tion has been found.85

Libya
Most of the wheat area in Libya, estimated by
the USDA to be 325,000 ha in 1983 and 1984, is
rainfed and is in a coastal strip along the Mediter-







VARIETIES AND AREA


Table 3.12. Area of principal wheat varieties in irrigated zone of Iran, circa 1983.

Proportion
Area of total
Variety (type) (ha) area (%)

Omid (W) 807,000 34.9
Roshan (W) 357,000 15.4
Inia (S), Khazer (S), and Naz (S?)a 270,000 11.7
Arvand (S)a 234,000 10.1
Bayat (S), Darab (S?)a 148,000 6.4
Azadi (?) 98,000 4.2
Adl (W)a 50,000 2.2
Chenab (S)a 50,000 2.2
Moghan 1, 2 (S)a 45,000 1.9
Tabasi (?) 33,000 1.4
Alborz, Kaveh (?) 31,000 1.3
Karaj 2 (W)a 20,000 0.9
Karaj 1 (W)a 12,000 0.5
Other 158,000 6.8
Total 2,313,000b 100.0

Key: W = winter; S = spring; ? = unknown.
aHYWVs of CIMMYT or Mexican extraction.
bEstimated by the USDA to be 5.5 million ha.
Source: Letter from MA. Vahabian, Seed and Plant Improvement Institute, Ministry of Agriculture
and Rural Development, Karadj, Iran, April 1984.


Nothing is known of HYWV developments in
the 1980s. If the HYWVs continued to represent
the same proportion of the total area (about
50%) as they did in the mid-1970s, they would
now cover nearly 600,000 ha.

Jordan

The wheat area in Jordan is relatively small,
and the HYWVs have played a modest role. As
of the late 1970s Cocorit 71, Jori 69, and Stork
were considered promising wheat varieties and
were being multiplied. Wheat statistics did not
differentiate between improved Jordanian and
Mexican varieties, but the total area of improved
varieties was small-about 7,000 ha in 1974-75,
10,000 ha in 1975-76, and 12,000 ha in 1976-77.
As of the 1983-84 season the principal wheat
varieties being multiplied were Der Alla No. 2,
Hurani, and F.8. It is estimated that these vari-
eties were planted on 20,000 ha.84


Lebanon
The HYWV area in Lebanon in the 1970s was
modest. It rose gradually from 50 ha in 1967-68
to a total of about 20,000 ha in 1972-73, which
held as an average through 1976-77. (It was
slightly lower in 1974-75 and slightly higher in
1976-77.)
The HYWV area in 1968-69 and 1969-70 was
entirely planted with Mexipak. In 1976-77 Mexi-
pak remained the principal variety; Jori was
planted on 3,000 to 4,000 ha. A 1979 report
stated that Mexipak represented 60%-80% of the
bread wheat area and that Jori occupied 40% of
the durum wheat area. No more recent informa-
tion has been found.85

Libya
Most of the wheat area in Libya, estimated by
the USDA to be 325,000 ha in 1983 and 1984, is
rainfed and is in a coastal strip along the Mediter-







VARIETIES AND AREA


Table 3.12. Area of principal wheat varieties in irrigated zone of Iran, circa 1983.

Proportion
Area of total
Variety (type) (ha) area (%)

Omid (W) 807,000 34.9
Roshan (W) 357,000 15.4
Inia (S), Khazer (S), and Naz (S?)a 270,000 11.7
Arvand (S)a 234,000 10.1
Bayat (S), Darab (S?)a 148,000 6.4
Azadi (?) 98,000 4.2
Adl (W)a 50,000 2.2
Chenab (S)a 50,000 2.2
Moghan 1, 2 (S)a 45,000 1.9
Tabasi (?) 33,000 1.4
Alborz, Kaveh (?) 31,000 1.3
Karaj 2 (W)a 20,000 0.9
Karaj 1 (W)a 12,000 0.5
Other 158,000 6.8
Total 2,313,000b 100.0

Key: W = winter; S = spring; ? = unknown.
aHYWVs of CIMMYT or Mexican extraction.
bEstimated by the USDA to be 5.5 million ha.
Source: Letter from MA. Vahabian, Seed and Plant Improvement Institute, Ministry of Agriculture
and Rural Development, Karadj, Iran, April 1984.


Nothing is known of HYWV developments in
the 1980s. If the HYWVs continued to represent
the same proportion of the total area (about
50%) as they did in the mid-1970s, they would
now cover nearly 600,000 ha.

Jordan

The wheat area in Jordan is relatively small,
and the HYWVs have played a modest role. As
of the late 1970s Cocorit 71, Jori 69, and Stork
were considered promising wheat varieties and
were being multiplied. Wheat statistics did not
differentiate between improved Jordanian and
Mexican varieties, but the total area of improved
varieties was small-about 7,000 ha in 1974-75,
10,000 ha in 1975-76, and 12,000 ha in 1976-77.
As of the 1983-84 season the principal wheat
varieties being multiplied were Der Alla No. 2,
Hurani, and F.8. It is estimated that these vari-
eties were planted on 20,000 ha.84


Lebanon
The HYWV area in Lebanon in the 1970s was
modest. It rose gradually from 50 ha in 1967-68
to a total of about 20,000 ha in 1972-73, which
held as an average through 1976-77. (It was
slightly lower in 1974-75 and slightly higher in
1976-77.)
The HYWV area in 1968-69 and 1969-70 was
entirely planted with Mexipak. In 1976-77 Mexi-
pak remained the principal variety; Jori was
planted on 3,000 to 4,000 ha. A 1979 report
stated that Mexipak represented 60%-80% of the
bread wheat area and that Jori occupied 40% of
the durum wheat area. No more recent informa-
tion has been found.85

Libya
Most of the wheat area in Libya, estimated by
the USDA to be 325,000 ha in 1983 and 1984, is
rainfed and is in a coastal strip along the Mediter-







HIGH-YIELDING WHEAT VARIETIES


ranean Sea and in two nearby regions-the Jefara
Plains and the Jebels (low mountains). Desert
irrigation projects constitute a fourth region.
HYWVs and improved varieties are grown to a
variable extent in each of the four regions.
Coastal strip.-Some of the coastal wheat
area is irrigated. Experimental yields of up to 5-6
t/ha have been achieved with new varieties such
as Mekhtar (Nainari x 81562). The area actually
planted with such varieties is not known.
Jefara Plains.-The most widely grown vari-
ety is Gamenya from Australia (Kenya 117A/2*
Gabo//Mentana/6* Gabo). Gamenya is clearly an
improved variety, but it is not certain whether it
should be classified an HYWV.
Jebels.-Mexicali, a durum HYWV, is esti-
mated to cover about 90% of the cereal area of
about 100,000 ha. However, Mexicali seed has
been intermingled with other varieties, and in
1983 it was estimated to be at least a 50% mix-
ture. The average yield of Mexicali was about 1.2
t/ha on farms and 4 t/ha on experiment stations.
Some advanced lines have outyielded Mexicali by
20% in experimental plots.
Desert irrigation projects.-Between 40,000
and 50,000 ha of wheat are raised in three desert
projects. Presumably, all of the area is planted
with HYWVs. The average yield in one project
(Sebha) rose from 1 t/ha in 1977 to 5 t/ha in 1980.
The highest durum wheat and bread wheat pro-
ducing lines in experiments in 1980 produced
yields of 8.34 t/ha (Snipe "S") and 7.43 t/ha,
respectively.
It is not possible to develop a precise overall
HYWV estimate for Libya on the basis of avail-
able data. The HYWV area is probably between
125,000 and 150,000 ha. A CIMMYT team,
which visited Libya in March and April 1983 and
provided the information above, concluded that
the further introduction of new varieties with
increased yield potential would undoubtedly have
a substantial effect on national yields. Fertilizer
use at present, however, is limited.86

Morocco
Morocco has had a long involvement with
HYWVs, which started in 1967-68 with an import
of 1 t of Siete Cerros. In 1968-69 Morocco
imported 500 t of Mexican varieties composed of
250 t of Siete Cerros, 100 t of Inia 66, 100 t of
Tobari 66, 25 t of Penjamo, and 25 t of Norteno.
Trials of CIMMYT varieties and lines were


planted at the National Agricultural Research
Station in Rabat and at provincial research sta-
tions.
The area planted with HYWVs for the 6 years
for which estimates are available was (in
hectares): 1967-68, 200; 1968-69, 4,900; 1969-70,
46,500; 1970-71, 90,000; 1971-72, 206,000; and
1972-73, 294,000. The varietal composition of
this area underwent some changes over time.
While Siete Cerros and Tobari were each fairly
important in 1969-70, BT 908 from Mexico (New-
thatch/Marroqui//Kenya C9906/Mentana) was
even more important. The area of Siete Cerros
and Tobari dropped sharply in 1970-71 as a result
of their susceptibility to a Septoria leaf blotch
epidemic during the 1968-69 season. BT 908
became the dominant variety in 1970-71 (95% of
the area) and held this position for the next 2
years.87
Only fragments of information are available
for the subsequent period. In 1974-75 the varietal
breakdown of certified seed production was:
Nasma, 40%; BT 908, 33%; Siete Cerros, 20%;
and 2306, 7%. In 1976 a CIMMYT report men-
tioned that Cocorit 71 and Jori 69 were among
the durums grown. In 1980 the main bread
wheats reported were Nasma, Siete Cerros,
Potam, Tegyey 32, and Pynite. All but Pynite are
HYWVs. Tegyey 9 and 11 were approved for
release in 1981. Among the durums the only
HYWVs appeared to be Cocorit 71 and Jori 69.
In 1981 a sizable quantity of Inrat 69 was
imported from Tunisia because of a drought in
Morocco. Two recent releases are ASCAD 65
(Stork "S"), a durum wheat, and Jouda (Kal x
Bb), a bread wheat.88
A team from ICARDA, visiting Morocco in
May 1982 reported that durum wheat was grown
on about 75% of the wheat area and bread wheat
on about 25% of the area. The durum varieties
and their area were as reported for 1980. In the
case of bread wheat, the team noted that Nasma
was grown on or about 70% of the area and that
Potam, Siete Cerros, and Pynite occupied the
remaining 30%. Another report indicates that
the importance of Cocorit 71 has increased in
recent years.89
The origin of several of the Moroccan vari-
eties may be of interest. Tegyey 9, 11, and 32 are
all derived from a cross between Siete Cerros and
an advanced line of Mara Zerameck. Nasma
(149) was developed by the Direction de la
Recherche Agronomique in Rabat from a cross







VARIETIES AND AREA


of Dwarf Breadwheat 69 (from Montpellier) and
Florence Aurore.90
In total, virtually all of the bread wheat area
and a small but probably expanding portion of the
durum wheat area appears to be planted with
HYWVs. If it is assumed that in 1983 about 95%
of the bread wheat area and 10% of the durum
wheat area was planted with HYWVs and that
bread wheat represented 25% of the total area
and durum wheat 75%, it can be calculated that
about 30% of the overall area was planted with
HYWVs. Thus, the HYWV area might have
been nearly 600,000 ha.

Oman
Semidwarf wheat varieties were first imported
from Pakistan and India in 1970. Mexipak was
found to be suitable for some areas, and in 1973
seed was distributed to farmers on a limited scale.
During 1977-78, 40 t of Kalyansona was imported
from India and distributed. Two other Indian
varieties were "awaiting release" in early 1978:
Safed Lerma and HD 1999. As of 1985 essen-
tially all of the limited wheat area (placed at
about 1,000 ha in 1980 by FAO) was reportedly
planted with HYWVs.91

Saudi Arabia
Work on variety testing in Saudi Arabia
started in 1965, and a wheat improvement pro-
gram was initiated in 1971-72. Seed imports have
long played an important role. The first import
was a gift of 2 t, principally Mexipak 65, from
Pakistan in 1969-70. In 1970 the Ford Founda-
tion donated 0.8 t of Super X, which provided the
initial basis for the wheat improvement program.
In 1974-75, 680 t of Super X was imported from
Egypt (500 t for the 1974-75 crop and 180 t for
the 1975-76 crop). Further imports were 500 t in
1975-76 and 1,150 t in 1976-77.
The area planted with HYWVs during the
1970s was (in hectares): 1972-73, 140; 1973-74,
2,000; 1974-75, 10,000; 1975-76, 12,000; and 1976-
77, 13,500. The HYWVs increased from about
19% of the total wheat area in 1974-75 to 23% in
1976-77.92
In the early 1980s the overall wheat area
began to expand rapidly, rising from 67,000 ha in
1980 to 288,000 ha in 1983 and 495,000 ha in
1984. Seed imports also increased, climbing from
an estimate of 9,000 t in 1981-82 to 40,000 t in


1982-83 and 100,000 t in 1983-84. As of early
1984 only four varieties were approved for
import: Yecora Rojo, Van Ern, Westbred, and
Probred. About 95% of those seeds imported
were Yecora Rojo, which in turn is estimated to
represent more than 98% of the total wheat area.
Westbred and Probred are semidwarfs sold by
American seed firms. All recent wheat seed
imports have been from the United States.93

Syria
Syria has made extensive use of HYWVs since
the early 1970s, and HYWVs are now a signifi-
cant portion of the total wheat area.94 An initial
import of 5,160 t of seed was made in 1970-71
(origin not indicated). The varietal composition
was: Siete Cerros, 1,870 t; Inia, 1,150 t; Pitic, 770
t; Lerma Rojo 64, 740 t; Mexipak 65, 540 t; and
Penjamo 62, 90 t. During 1972-73, 50 t of Jori 69
were imported.
Those imports do not, however, seem to have
been Syria's first exposure to Mexican varieties.
In 1969 Syria released Syrimex, a selection from a
CIMMYT line. Gezira 17, a high-yielding durum
variety that was a natural mutant selected from a
field of an Italian variety called Alexi, was
approved as a new variety in 1972 (although seed
was not distributed until 1977).
A CIMMYT report for 1977 indicated that
70%-80% of Syria's wheat area was planted with
durums and 20%-30% with bread wheats. (By
the early 1980s the respective proportions seemed
to be closer to 70% and 30%.) In the case of
durums, Jori 69, Gezira 17, and Cocorit 71 were
listed only as among the "other varieties." In the
case of bread wheat, however, Mexipak was the
dominant variety, followed by Syrimex (Syrmex).
Data on HYWV seed production in Syria
from 1982 to 1984 indicate the following varietal
composition: Mexipak, 56.8%; Jori 69c, 16.7%;
Siete Cerros, 14.1%; and Gezira 17, 12.4%. The
two bread wheats accounted for nearly 71% and
the two durums for 29%. The continuing impor-
tance of the original introductions is surprising.
Seed production of Syrimex ceased in 1969.
Some new varieties were recently introduced.
In October 1983, the Syrian Variety Release
Committee approved Sham 1, a durum wheat,
and Sham 2, a bread wheat. Both were selected
from CIMMYT advanced breeding lines grown at
ICARDA and were tested by the Agricultural
Research Center of the Ministry of Agriculture.







VARIETIES AND AREA


of Dwarf Breadwheat 69 (from Montpellier) and
Florence Aurore.90
In total, virtually all of the bread wheat area
and a small but probably expanding portion of the
durum wheat area appears to be planted with
HYWVs. If it is assumed that in 1983 about 95%
of the bread wheat area and 10% of the durum
wheat area was planted with HYWVs and that
bread wheat represented 25% of the total area
and durum wheat 75%, it can be calculated that
about 30% of the overall area was planted with
HYWVs. Thus, the HYWV area might have
been nearly 600,000 ha.

Oman
Semidwarf wheat varieties were first imported
from Pakistan and India in 1970. Mexipak was
found to be suitable for some areas, and in 1973
seed was distributed to farmers on a limited scale.
During 1977-78, 40 t of Kalyansona was imported
from India and distributed. Two other Indian
varieties were "awaiting release" in early 1978:
Safed Lerma and HD 1999. As of 1985 essen-
tially all of the limited wheat area (placed at
about 1,000 ha in 1980 by FAO) was reportedly
planted with HYWVs.91

Saudi Arabia
Work on variety testing in Saudi Arabia
started in 1965, and a wheat improvement pro-
gram was initiated in 1971-72. Seed imports have
long played an important role. The first import
was a gift of 2 t, principally Mexipak 65, from
Pakistan in 1969-70. In 1970 the Ford Founda-
tion donated 0.8 t of Super X, which provided the
initial basis for the wheat improvement program.
In 1974-75, 680 t of Super X was imported from
Egypt (500 t for the 1974-75 crop and 180 t for
the 1975-76 crop). Further imports were 500 t in
1975-76 and 1,150 t in 1976-77.
The area planted with HYWVs during the
1970s was (in hectares): 1972-73, 140; 1973-74,
2,000; 1974-75, 10,000; 1975-76, 12,000; and 1976-
77, 13,500. The HYWVs increased from about
19% of the total wheat area in 1974-75 to 23% in
1976-77.92
In the early 1980s the overall wheat area
began to expand rapidly, rising from 67,000 ha in
1980 to 288,000 ha in 1983 and 495,000 ha in
1984. Seed imports also increased, climbing from
an estimate of 9,000 t in 1981-82 to 40,000 t in


1982-83 and 100,000 t in 1983-84. As of early
1984 only four varieties were approved for
import: Yecora Rojo, Van Ern, Westbred, and
Probred. About 95% of those seeds imported
were Yecora Rojo, which in turn is estimated to
represent more than 98% of the total wheat area.
Westbred and Probred are semidwarfs sold by
American seed firms. All recent wheat seed
imports have been from the United States.93

Syria
Syria has made extensive use of HYWVs since
the early 1970s, and HYWVs are now a signifi-
cant portion of the total wheat area.94 An initial
import of 5,160 t of seed was made in 1970-71
(origin not indicated). The varietal composition
was: Siete Cerros, 1,870 t; Inia, 1,150 t; Pitic, 770
t; Lerma Rojo 64, 740 t; Mexipak 65, 540 t; and
Penjamo 62, 90 t. During 1972-73, 50 t of Jori 69
were imported.
Those imports do not, however, seem to have
been Syria's first exposure to Mexican varieties.
In 1969 Syria released Syrimex, a selection from a
CIMMYT line. Gezira 17, a high-yielding durum
variety that was a natural mutant selected from a
field of an Italian variety called Alexi, was
approved as a new variety in 1972 (although seed
was not distributed until 1977).
A CIMMYT report for 1977 indicated that
70%-80% of Syria's wheat area was planted with
durums and 20%-30% with bread wheats. (By
the early 1980s the respective proportions seemed
to be closer to 70% and 30%.) In the case of
durums, Jori 69, Gezira 17, and Cocorit 71 were
listed only as among the "other varieties." In the
case of bread wheat, however, Mexipak was the
dominant variety, followed by Syrimex (Syrmex).
Data on HYWV seed production in Syria
from 1982 to 1984 indicate the following varietal
composition: Mexipak, 56.8%; Jori 69c, 16.7%;
Siete Cerros, 14.1%; and Gezira 17, 12.4%. The
two bread wheats accounted for nearly 71% and
the two durums for 29%. The continuing impor-
tance of the original introductions is surprising.
Seed production of Syrimex ceased in 1969.
Some new varieties were recently introduced.
In October 1983, the Syrian Variety Release
Committee approved Sham 1, a durum wheat,
and Sham 2, a bread wheat. Both were selected
from CIMMYT advanced breeding lines grown at
ICARDA and were tested by the Agricultural
Research Center of the Ministry of Agriculture.







VARIETIES AND AREA


of Dwarf Breadwheat 69 (from Montpellier) and
Florence Aurore.90
In total, virtually all of the bread wheat area
and a small but probably expanding portion of the
durum wheat area appears to be planted with
HYWVs. If it is assumed that in 1983 about 95%
of the bread wheat area and 10% of the durum
wheat area was planted with HYWVs and that
bread wheat represented 25% of the total area
and durum wheat 75%, it can be calculated that
about 30% of the overall area was planted with
HYWVs. Thus, the HYWV area might have
been nearly 600,000 ha.

Oman
Semidwarf wheat varieties were first imported
from Pakistan and India in 1970. Mexipak was
found to be suitable for some areas, and in 1973
seed was distributed to farmers on a limited scale.
During 1977-78, 40 t of Kalyansona was imported
from India and distributed. Two other Indian
varieties were "awaiting release" in early 1978:
Safed Lerma and HD 1999. As of 1985 essen-
tially all of the limited wheat area (placed at
about 1,000 ha in 1980 by FAO) was reportedly
planted with HYWVs.91

Saudi Arabia
Work on variety testing in Saudi Arabia
started in 1965, and a wheat improvement pro-
gram was initiated in 1971-72. Seed imports have
long played an important role. The first import
was a gift of 2 t, principally Mexipak 65, from
Pakistan in 1969-70. In 1970 the Ford Founda-
tion donated 0.8 t of Super X, which provided the
initial basis for the wheat improvement program.
In 1974-75, 680 t of Super X was imported from
Egypt (500 t for the 1974-75 crop and 180 t for
the 1975-76 crop). Further imports were 500 t in
1975-76 and 1,150 t in 1976-77.
The area planted with HYWVs during the
1970s was (in hectares): 1972-73, 140; 1973-74,
2,000; 1974-75, 10,000; 1975-76, 12,000; and 1976-
77, 13,500. The HYWVs increased from about
19% of the total wheat area in 1974-75 to 23% in
1976-77.92
In the early 1980s the overall wheat area
began to expand rapidly, rising from 67,000 ha in
1980 to 288,000 ha in 1983 and 495,000 ha in
1984. Seed imports also increased, climbing from
an estimate of 9,000 t in 1981-82 to 40,000 t in


1982-83 and 100,000 t in 1983-84. As of early
1984 only four varieties were approved for
import: Yecora Rojo, Van Ern, Westbred, and
Probred. About 95% of those seeds imported
were Yecora Rojo, which in turn is estimated to
represent more than 98% of the total wheat area.
Westbred and Probred are semidwarfs sold by
American seed firms. All recent wheat seed
imports have been from the United States.93

Syria
Syria has made extensive use of HYWVs since
the early 1970s, and HYWVs are now a signifi-
cant portion of the total wheat area.94 An initial
import of 5,160 t of seed was made in 1970-71
(origin not indicated). The varietal composition
was: Siete Cerros, 1,870 t; Inia, 1,150 t; Pitic, 770
t; Lerma Rojo 64, 740 t; Mexipak 65, 540 t; and
Penjamo 62, 90 t. During 1972-73, 50 t of Jori 69
were imported.
Those imports do not, however, seem to have
been Syria's first exposure to Mexican varieties.
In 1969 Syria released Syrimex, a selection from a
CIMMYT line. Gezira 17, a high-yielding durum
variety that was a natural mutant selected from a
field of an Italian variety called Alexi, was
approved as a new variety in 1972 (although seed
was not distributed until 1977).
A CIMMYT report for 1977 indicated that
70%-80% of Syria's wheat area was planted with
durums and 20%-30% with bread wheats. (By
the early 1980s the respective proportions seemed
to be closer to 70% and 30%.) In the case of
durums, Jori 69, Gezira 17, and Cocorit 71 were
listed only as among the "other varieties." In the
case of bread wheat, however, Mexipak was the
dominant variety, followed by Syrimex (Syrmex).
Data on HYWV seed production in Syria
from 1982 to 1984 indicate the following varietal
composition: Mexipak, 56.8%; Jori 69c, 16.7%;
Siete Cerros, 14.1%; and Gezira 17, 12.4%. The
two bread wheats accounted for nearly 71% and
the two durums for 29%. The continuing impor-
tance of the original introductions is surprising.
Seed production of Syrimex ceased in 1969.
Some new varieties were recently introduced.
In October 1983, the Syrian Variety Release
Committee approved Sham 1, a durum wheat,
and Sham 2, a bread wheat. Both were selected
from CIMMYT advanced breeding lines grown at
ICARDA and were tested by the Agricultural
Research Center of the Ministry of Agriculture.







HIGH-YIELDING WHEAT VARIETIES


Figure 3.5. Syrian farmers examine on-farm tests of wheat varieties conducted in cooperation with
ICARDA (source: ICARDA).


Sham 1 yields up to 18% more than Mexipak.
Both have high levels of resistance to disease,
mature 1 week earlier than other Syrian varieties,
and have other advantages. Other varieties
coming into use include the durum varieties
Crane-sib and Waha (both with Mexican origins)
and the bread wheat variety Golan (S311 x
Norteno; identified by ICARDA from a cross
made in India). The use of Gezira 17 has
declined because of a susceptibility to disease.
The area planted with HYWVs has increased
fairly quickly through 1978 and then more gradu-
ally (table 3.13). A drop in area in 1981 was
probably related to a decline in overall wheat area
that year. By 1983 HYWVs occupied about 50%
of the total area.
Syria's increase in HYWV production is tied
in with a change in cropping patterns from
cotton-fallow to cotton-wheat in irrigated areas
near the Euphrates and Khabour Rivers. In 1981
only 22.1% of the HYWV area was irrigated. Of


the total wheat area on irrigated land, 75% grew
HYWVs (down from 81% and 83% in the previ-
ous 2 years) and 25% grew local varieties. The
yields of the HYWVs were nearly twice those of
the local varieties (down slightly from an 8-year
average yield of 2.32 times that of the local vari-
eties). Of the total HYWV area 80.3% was in the
private sector and 19.7% was in the cooperative
sector. (The proportion grown in the private sec-
tor represented an increase from 58.4% in 1976.)


Tunisia
Wheat production in Tunisia is divided into
two principal zones: the North, where rainfall is
generally above 400 mm, and the central and
southern regions, where sporadic rainfall ranges
between 150 and 350 mm. During the period
1980-82 about 90% of Tunisia's wheat area was
planted with durum wheat and 10% with bread
wheat. The bread wheats are principally found in







VARIETIES AND AREA


Table 3.13. Area of high-yielding wheat varieties
in Syria from 1971 to 1983

Proportion
HYWV area of total
Year (ha) area (%)

1971 38,000 3.0
1972 75,000 5.5
1973 121,000 8.2
1974 225,000 14.6
1975 269,700 15.9
1976 340,800 21.4
1977 362,800 23.7
1978 518,500 33.3
1979 559,900 38.7
1980 641,600 44.3
1981 574,100 45.7
1982 601,600 49.2
1983 601,500 50.1

Sources: 1971-1973: D.G. Dalrymple, Devel-
opment and Spread of High-Yielding Varieties of
Wheat and Rice in the Less Developed Nations,
FAER No. 95 (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Depart-
ment of Agriculture, September 1978), p. 53;
1974-1981: I. Naji, "Introduction of High Yield-
ing Wheat Varieties in Syria" (Damascus:
International Center for Agricultural Research in
the Dry Areas, March 1984); 1982-83: I. Naji,
ICARDA (forwarded by J.P. Srivastava, August
1984).



the North.95
Tunisia has long been active in wheat varietal
improvement, and numerous improved varieties
have been grown for some time. Both AID and
CIMMYT have supported Tunisian breeding
programs.96 The first substantial area of Mexican
varieties was grown in 1968. Varieties released
from 1969 to 1981 are listed in table 3.14.
INRAT 69, the first variety to be released, was
developed from a cross of Kyperounda (an intro-
duction from Greece) and Mahmoudi (local).
Newer varieties have Mexican germ plasm in their
pedigree. The yield potentials of the newer vari-
eties are high compared to that of good tradi-
tional varieties. Although it may be difficult to
realize full yield potential in rainfed fields, the
yields of the HYWVs during the 1980-82 period
averaged nearly 2.5 times higher than the ordi-


nary varieties in the case of durum wheat and 2.0
times higher in the case of bread wheat. (The
HYWVs may have, of course, been grown under
more favorable conditions.)97
The area planted with HYWVs (as classified
in government statistical reporting) grew mod-
estly and somewhat unevenly from 1968 to 1979,
expanded sharply in 1980 and 1981, and leveled
off in 1982 and 1983 (table 3.15). The expansion
in percentage terms was aided by a decline in the
overall wheat area in the early 1980s. The
HYWVs are planted entirely in the northern
zone.
Initially, much of the HYWV area was planted



Table 3.14. High-yielding wheat varieties devel-
oped and released in Tunisia from 1969 to 1981

Maximum yield
Year of potential
Variety release (t/ha)a

Durum wheat
INRAT 69 1969 3.5
Amal 72 1972 3.5
Badri 1972 4.0
Maghrebi 1974 5.5
Ben Bachir 78b 1980 6.0
Karim 79d 19810 6.5
Bread wheat
Soltane 1972 4.5
Carthage 74 1974 6.0
Dougga 74 1974 6.0
Fath 1974 5.5
Salambo 80 1980 6.5
Tanit 80 1980 6.5


aCompared to 2.0
wheat) or 3.5 t/ha for
wheat).
bSister of Stork.
CDate of release
reports.
dSister of Bittern.


t/ha for D-117 (a durum
Florence Aurore (a bread


varies slightly in other


Source: W.F. Johnson, C.E. Ferguson, and
M. Fikry, Tunisia: The Wheat Development Pro-
gram, Project Evaluation Report No. 48,
(Washington, D.C.: U.S. Agency for International
Development, October 1983), table D-9.







HIGH-YIELDING WHEAT VARIETIES


Table 3.15. Area of high-yielding wheat varieties
in Tunisia from 1968 to 1983

Proportion
HYWV area of total
Year (ha) area (%)

1968 800
1969 12,000 1.6
1970 53,000 5.1
1971 102,000 10.7
1972 60,000 5.8
1973 149,200 13.1
1974 155,000 14.5
1975 225,700 21.2
1976 205,700 17.4
1977 228,400 21.9
1978 252,000 22.2
1979 249,000 22.0
1980 311,000 34.6
1981 352,000 38.5
1982 327,000 42.0
1983 344,000 36.0a

Key: --=negligible.
aThere was a decline in the HYWV percent-
age due to a sharp increase in the area planted
with ordinary varieties in the central and southern
regions.
Sources: 1968-1977: D.G. Dalrymple, Devel-
opment and Spread of High-Yielding Varieties of
Wheat and Rice in the Less Developed Nations,
FAER No. 95 (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Depart-
ment of Agriculture, September 1978), p. 54;
1978-1979: W.F. Johnson, C.E. Ferguson, and M.
Fikery, Tunisia: The Wheat Development Pro-
gram, Project Evaluation Report No. 48,
(Washington, D.C.: U.S. Agency for International
Development, October 1983), table D-11; 1980-
1982: U.S. Agricultural Attach6 Reports from
Tunis: TS-3010, May 25, 1983; JS-4010, April 20,
1984.


with bread wheat, but the balance swung in the
mid-1970s, and high-yielding durum varieties
became much more important. As of 1983 about
79% of the HYWV area was occupied by durum
wheat and 21% by bread wheat. Still, according
to official statistics, from 1980 to 1982 HYWVs
were planted on a higher proportion of the bread
wheat area (66.3%) than the durum wheat area
(35.7%).


The HYWV proportion for durums actually
may be more than 36%. In a set of varietal esti-
mates reported in 1979, varieties considered as
HYWVs in table 3.14 represented 97% of the
total durum wheat area.9 Estimates made by
CIMMYT staff members for 1983 suggested that
HYWVs represented about 82% of the total
durum wheat area.99 Perhaps one or more of the
varieties included in table 3.14 was not considered
a semidwarf in the preparation of the official
estimates.
On the other hand, the HYWV proportion
for bread wheats could be lower than 66%. As of
1983 the leading high-yielding bread wheat vari-
eties were (in decreasing order of importance):
Dougga, Tanit, Carthage, and Salambo. All are
semidwarfs. The varieties are estimated by
CIMMYT staff to have represented only about
40% of the bread wheat area. In this case, addi-
tional varieties are evidently included in the offi-
cial variety list or there has been a change in the
list over time.100
In any case, the HYWVs have come to
assume an important role in wheat production in
Tunisia.


Turkey
Wheat may be more important to the econ-
omy of Turkey than to the economy of any other
DC. There are three main wheat environments:
winter, transitional, and spring. The winter zone
accounts for about 75% of Turkey's wheat grow-
ing area and is located on the Anatolian Plateau
in the eastern part of the country. The transi-
tional zone rings the plateau and does not require
varieties with quite as much winter hardiness.
The spring wheat zone is largely in the coastal
regions. Despite the importance of wheat in
Turkey, relatively few official statistical data are
available.101

Varietal Introductions and Improvement
Four institutes for agricultural research were
established in the 1920s, just after Turkey
received its independence. From then until the
1960s, about 30 improved wheat varieties were
released.
A new period of varietal improvement was ini-
tiated in the 1960s with the arrival of the semi-
dwarf wheats. In 1965 a farmer in the coastal
spring wheat area obtained 40 kg of Sonora 64







VARIETIES AND AREA


and Lerma Rojo 64 seed from an AID technician
who had brought them from Mexico. The results
were so good that 100 farmers got together and
obtained government approval to import 60 t of
Sonora 64 seed from Mexico. The seed was
planted during the 1966-67 season.
Several other critical events also happened in
the 1960s. In 1966 a group of American agricul-
tural consultants, visiting Turkey at government
invitation, suggested both a study of the experi-
ence of the 100 farmers and large-scale imports of
seed. The government decided to import 22,000 t
of Mexican seed in 12 varieties for the 1967-68
season. In preparation two Oregon State Univer-
sity scientists were asked to visit Turkey in early
1967 to evaluate the fields planted with Sonora 64
and to develop a package of cultural practices for
farmers who would grow the imported wheats.
As a result 12 county agricultural extension
agents and farmers from Oregon and Washington
went to Turkey in the fall of 1967 to assist in a
large-scale educational campaign.
Thereafter, the HYWV area expanded
sharply. During the 1967-68 season some 60,000
farmers planted the Mexican wheats on 170,000
ha. Within 3 years the wheats were reportedly
planted on 1.1 million ha, well over half the spring
wheat area.
The Mexican varieties, however, were not
strongly resistant to the Turkish strains of two
fungal diseases (stripe rust and Septoria leaf
blotch) and were not suitable for the large winter
wheat area. Turkey, therefore, asked the Rocke-
feller Foundation to help design a program for
wheat improvement and training of scientists. An
agreement was signed in 1969; CIMMYT and
Oregon State University (which already had an
AID-sponsored team within the Anatolian
Plateau) also were involved. A wheat research
and training center was established, and 16 stu-
dents were sent to the United States for graduate
studies. The project continued through 1976 and
then began to shrink as Turkish capabilities
increased.
In the case of spring wheats, the project
involved selecting and testing crosses introduced
from CIMMYT and elsewhere as well as expand-
ing the domestic breeding program. The first step
led to the release of four improved varieties in the
mid-1970s: the bread wheats Cumhuriyet 75
(Ciguena S) and Sakarya (Chanate), and the
durums Dicle 74 (Cocorit 71) and Gediz 75
(LD375-TC2/Jori "S"). Improved varieties


released since then include:
Bread wheats.-Lachich (from Israel) and
Argelato (Mara/Orlandi), Libellula (Tevere/
Giuliani/San Pastore), and Oros all from Italy).
Ata 81 (Kavkaz/Cumhuriyet 75) and Gonen
(8156/Mara//Bb) were developed from crosses
and selections made in Turkey.
Durum wheat.-Gokgol 79 (which came as
an advance line from CIMMYT).
Most of the spring wheats incorporate semidwarf
germ plasm from CIMMYT or Italy.
In the case of winter wheats, much more than
breeding was involved. Agronomic practices
needed to be changed, and those received most of
the research attention. Two satisfactory varieties
were already available: Bezostaya, a well-known
Russian variety (200 t of which had been received
in the late 1960s), and Bolal 2973, a selection of a
cross (Cheyenne//Kenya/Montana) originally
made at the University of Nebraska. Bezostaya
was quickly adopted in Eastern Thrace and repre-
sented 75% of the wheat area in that region in
1972, but it expanded more slowly in the Anato-
lian Plateau. Bolal 2973 was released in 1974.
Other winter wheats released through 1984
include:
Bread wheats.-Kirac 66, Tosum 21, Tosum
22, Tosum 144, Etoile de Choisy, Porsuk 2800,
Lancer (from the United States), Hayama 79
(Scout 5/Agent), Gerek 79 (Men. sib x My 48-
4/14/Yayla 305), Kirkpinar 79 (63-112-66-2 x 7c),
Sadova 1, Vratza, and Dobrudja. (The last three
are from Bulgaria.)
Durum wheats.-Kunduru 1149 (local
selection, 1967), Cakmak 79 (Uveyik 162-61-130),
and Tunca 79 (Fata sel. 185-1 x 61-130 Leeds).
Three of the winter wheat varieties were devel-
oped from crosses made in Turkey: Gerek 79,
Cakmak 79, and Tunca 79. Some of the varieties
released have not become commercially impor-
tant, and some might be considered improved
rather than HYWVs.
Early Estimates of HYWVAdoption
Data on the adoption of HYWVs in Turkey
are scarce and not entirely consistent. Some fig-
ures on the adoption of Mexican varieties were
noted in earlier editions of this book. A 1967-68
figure of 170,000 ha seems satisfactory, but fig-
ures for later years differ. Estimates provided by
the U.S. agricultural attach suggest the following
increase in area of Mexican varieties (in hectares):
1968-69, 579,000; 1969-70, 623,000; 1970-71,








HIGH-YIELDING WHEAT VARIETIES


640,000; and 1971-72, 650,000. However, a survey
sponsored by CIMMYT of 1,250 wheat farms in
six regions of Turkey in the spring of 1973
resulted in an estimate of the Mexican HYWV
area in 1971-72 of 1.09 million ha, which is 60%
larger than the figure suggested by the attach.
In 1976-77 a rough estimate that about 26% of
the total wheat area was planted with a wide
range of HYWVs (Mexican, Italian, Russian, and
others) suggested a total area of 2.2 million ha.
The CIMMYT survey cited earlier showed
that in 1971-72 farmers planted high-yielding
spring wheat varieties on about 65% of the area
(ranging from a high of 95% in the Mediter-
ranean region to 40% in South Mamara and 35%
in the Aegean region). In the case of winter
wheats, Bezostaya was planted on 79% of the
area in Eastern Thrace but on only 11% of the
area in the Anatolian region (where Bolal
remained as the dominant variety).
One other piece of variety information per-
tains to HYWV seed production and distribution
in 1979 (table 3.16). Rankings of individual vari-
eties varied by category. Still, Penjamo (a
CIMMYT variety) ranked fourth in seed produc-
tion, which is surprising considering its disease
susceptibility. (It evidently ranked higher than
the other spring varieties in this respect.)

Recent Developments
No official data have been found for the


1980s. However, information provided by Turk-
ish and CIMMYT wheat specialists provide some
useful insight on wheat varieties in Turkey.102
New improved varieties currently recommended
are listed in table 3.17. All of the varieties have
already been noted.
A key question is whether these improved
varieties should be considered HYWVs. While
most, if not all, of the spring varieties probably
fall into the HYWV category, opinions may differ
with respect to the winter varieties. A wheat spe-
cialist with some experience in Turkey thought
the winter HYWVs might be limited to
Bezostaya, Porsuk, Gerek 79, Kirkpinar 79, Cak-
mak 79, and Tunca 79, with Bolal and Haymana
79 considered borderline cases. Wheat scientists
currently in Turkey indicate that Bolal, Gerek,
Kirat 66, and Haymana 79 can outyield
Bezostaya. Not mentioned in either HYWV list
are Lancer, Ankara 093/44, Sadova, Vratza, and
Dobrudja. Ankara 093/44 is being withdrawn as a
recommended variety in 1985. The last three are,
however, considered HYWVs. Thus, most of the
improved varieties seem to be in the HYWV cat-
egory.
Overall, wheat scientists in Turkey estimate
that about 50% of the country's total wheat area
in 1984 was planted with improved varieties. The
estimated regional distribution was: Eastern
Thrace, 100%; Marmara, 85%; Aegean, 85%;
Mediterranean, 70%; Black Sea, 30%; Transi-


Table 3.16. HYWV seed production and distribution in Turkey in 1979

Production Distribution
Variety Type (t) (t)

Dicle 74 S/D 21,155 9,231
Bezostaya W/B 16,208 10,835
Bolal 2973 W/B 16,150 5,297
Penjamo S/B 12,000 5,533
Kirac 66 W/B 7,271 4,209
Kunduru 1149 W/D 6,000 4,974
Orso S/B 4,272 3,221
Cumhuriyet 75 S/B 1,568 1,361
Others 3,27 2.479
Total 87,894 47,140

Key: S=spring, W=winter, B=bread wheat, D=durum wheat.
Source: Letter from A.R. Persi, agricultural attache, American Embassy, Ankara, March 1981. Data
provided by the Ministry of Agriculture, Government of Turkey.







VARIETIES AND AREA


Table 3.17. Improved wheat varieties recommended in Turkey in 1984

Wheat Date released Habit
type or introduced Spring Winter

Bread Before 1978 Cumhuriyet 75a Bezostayaa
Penjamo 62b Bolal 2973a
Libelluiac Lancerd
Orsoc Kirak 66
Argelatoc Ankara 093/44ab
Prosuk 2800
After 1978 Gonend Gerek 79d
Ata 81d Kirkpinar 79d
Lachichd Haymana 79d
Malabadd Sadova 1
Vratza
Dobrudja
Durum After 1974 Dicle 74a Kunduru 1149a
Gediz 75 Cakmak 79d
Gokgol 79 Tunca 79d

aMost widely grown.
bWill likely be removed from list of recommended varieties in 1985.
CFacultative variety.
dExpanding in use.
Sources: Personal communication with B.C. Curtis and A. Klatt, CIMMYT, February 1985 and letter
from B. Skovmand, CIMMYT, Ankara, April 1985.


tional, 30%; Central Plateau, 50%; Southeast,
30%; and East, 10%.
Moving from these percentages into actual
area presents several difficulties. One, which may
not be expected, is that estimates of the overall
wheat area differ. Turkish wheat scientists cite a
figure of 9.1 million ha for 1983-84; yet the
USDA estimate for 1984, and indeed the average
for the last 5 years, is 8.6 million ha. There is also
a question of whether the improved variety area
proportion of 50% should be discounted to some
degree to allow for non-HYWVs-and if so, how
much? If the USDA area estimate is used and it
is assumed that 80% of the improved variety area
(or 40% of the total) was planted with HYWVs,
the HYWV figure would be 3.44 million ha.
One way to check this calculation is to esti-
mate the HYWV area as a proportion of the
spring and winter wheat areas and then compute
the total area. The wheat specialists in Turkey
estimated that the spring wheat area occupied


25% of the total area and the winter wheats 75%.
Hence, with the USDA estimate of area and
assuming that 80% of the spring wheat area and
25% of the winter wheat area was planted with
HYWVs, the total area for HYWVs is 3.43 mil-
lion ha, nearly 40% of the total area.
The fact that the two HYWV figures are
nearly identical does not prove that they are right.
Different assumptions and definitions of HYWVs
would produce different results. For example,
one wheat scientist thinks that the HYWVs rep-
resent 90% or more of the spring wheat area.
Such a figure would produce a total HYWV area
of 3.66 million ha or 42.6% of the total. In any
case, the HYWVs represent a substantial increase
over the HYWV estimates cited earlier for 1976-
77.
To date the level of resources devoted to
wheat improvement in Turkey has been thought
to be modest, considering the importance of the
crop. A considerable yield potential remains to







HIGH-YIELDING WHEAT VARIETIES


be tapped, particularly in the winter wheat area in
the Anatolian Plateau. However, agronomic and
management practices may still be as much or
more of a limiting factor on the plateau as the
varieties grown.

Yemen Arab Republic
Yemen Arab Republic is a small wheat pro-
ducer with about 50,000 ha of wheat as of 1977.
Virtually all of the wheat was durum wheat. The
history of wheat improvement in Yemen Arab
Republic has been brief. It started in 1973 when
an FAO plant breeder was stationed in the coun-
try. In 1976 Sonalika was released for rainfed
area in the Yarim region, and it was later intro-
duced in other areas; it was expected to occupy
200 ha in 1978. Kalyansona was also introduced
but withdrawn because of disease problems. The
American variety Red River (a sister of Tobari
66) was recommended for one region under irri-
gation. As of late 1983 it was planned to extend
the research program to other areas of the coun-
try. The following varieties looked particularly
promising: Pavon "S", Sakha 78 (Egypt), Tanori,
and Blue Silver (Pakistan; another name for Son-
alika).103

People's Democratic
Republic of Yemen
Kalyansona and Sonalika were introduced and
released in 1973. As of 1978 about 40% of the
relatively small wheat area was planted with the
two HYWVs. Meanwhile, a search was underway
for varieties better suited to local growing condi-
tions. Following performance tests one line (S
311 x Norteno) was released as Ahgaf. Ahgaf is
a sister of Golan, was released in Syria, and is
partly of Indian origin. It is taller than its two
predecessors; this characteristic was desired in
order to increase straw yield. Ahgaf was grown
on 500 ha during the 1983-84 season and is
expected to replace Kalyansona and Sonalika.104


AFRICA

Wheat is an important crop in some of the
more temperate-climate nations of Africa. The
HYWVs have found a modest foothold in several
countries, principally in East Africa. Coverage in
this section is limited to seven countries:
Ethiopia, Kenya, Nigeria, Sudan, Tanzania, Zam-


bia, and Zimbabwe. The North African countries
are included in the section on the Near East. The
Republic of South Africa is discussed briefly in a
footnote.105 In addition, HYWVs are being
grown in several other African nations:
West Africa.-In Senegal HYWVs were
planted for the first time in 1973-74 on an
experimental basis. Small areas of HYWVs were
reported in Cameroon, Chad, Ghana, Mali, and
Upper Volta in 1975. Wheat is also grown in
Mauritania, Mozambique, and Niger.106
East and southern Africa.-HYWVs of vari-
ous types have been grown in Madagascar.
CIMMYT has been involved in research in
Burundi, Malawi, Rwanda, and Somalia. Wheat
is also grown in Botswana and Lesotho.1
African wheat environments are diverse. In
West Africa the growing season is short, and in
the dry season (mid-November to early March)
irrigation is usually needed. In East Africa wheat
is generally produced in rainfed fields at high ele-
vations; some exceptions are the lowlands of
Somalia, Zambia, Zimbabwe, and Botswana,
where irrigation is used. In West Africa and
some nations in East Africa heat-tolerant vari-
eties are needed.108
There is considerable interest in expanding
wheat production in many African nations, but
relatively few technical and scientific resources
are generally available for the needed research.
As noted in the introduction to this chapter,
CIMMYT is doing some research on wheat for
more favorable tropical areas.109

Ethiopia

Wheat production is of major importance in
Ethiopia, where all wheat is grown as a rainfed
crop. As of 1977-78 about 70% of the area was
planted with durum wheat and 30% with bread
wheat. Most of the bread wheat area grew
improved varieties, but the durum wheat area
grew almost entirely traditional varieties.110
Ethiopia began to use improved varieties of
bread wheat on a commercial level in 1968. Most
of the early improved bread varieties released

were developed in Kenya. The first varieties of
Mexican origin were released in 1974.111 The
first improved durums were released in 1976, and
the first bread wheats developed in Ethiopia were
released in 1980. Details are provided in table
3.18. Data are not available on the relative







HIGH-YIELDING WHEAT VARIETIES


be tapped, particularly in the winter wheat area in
the Anatolian Plateau. However, agronomic and
management practices may still be as much or
more of a limiting factor on the plateau as the
varieties grown.

Yemen Arab Republic
Yemen Arab Republic is a small wheat pro-
ducer with about 50,000 ha of wheat as of 1977.
Virtually all of the wheat was durum wheat. The
history of wheat improvement in Yemen Arab
Republic has been brief. It started in 1973 when
an FAO plant breeder was stationed in the coun-
try. In 1976 Sonalika was released for rainfed
area in the Yarim region, and it was later intro-
duced in other areas; it was expected to occupy
200 ha in 1978. Kalyansona was also introduced
but withdrawn because of disease problems. The
American variety Red River (a sister of Tobari
66) was recommended for one region under irri-
gation. As of late 1983 it was planned to extend
the research program to other areas of the coun-
try. The following varieties looked particularly
promising: Pavon "S", Sakha 78 (Egypt), Tanori,
and Blue Silver (Pakistan; another name for Son-
alika).103

People's Democratic
Republic of Yemen
Kalyansona and Sonalika were introduced and
released in 1973. As of 1978 about 40% of the
relatively small wheat area was planted with the
two HYWVs. Meanwhile, a search was underway
for varieties better suited to local growing condi-
tions. Following performance tests one line (S
311 x Norteno) was released as Ahgaf. Ahgaf is
a sister of Golan, was released in Syria, and is
partly of Indian origin. It is taller than its two
predecessors; this characteristic was desired in
order to increase straw yield. Ahgaf was grown
on 500 ha during the 1983-84 season and is
expected to replace Kalyansona and Sonalika.104


AFRICA

Wheat is an important crop in some of the
more temperate-climate nations of Africa. The
HYWVs have found a modest foothold in several
countries, principally in East Africa. Coverage in
this section is limited to seven countries:
Ethiopia, Kenya, Nigeria, Sudan, Tanzania, Zam-


bia, and Zimbabwe. The North African countries
are included in the section on the Near East. The
Republic of South Africa is discussed briefly in a
footnote.105 In addition, HYWVs are being
grown in several other African nations:
West Africa.-In Senegal HYWVs were
planted for the first time in 1973-74 on an
experimental basis. Small areas of HYWVs were
reported in Cameroon, Chad, Ghana, Mali, and
Upper Volta in 1975. Wheat is also grown in
Mauritania, Mozambique, and Niger.106
East and southern Africa.-HYWVs of vari-
ous types have been grown in Madagascar.
CIMMYT has been involved in research in
Burundi, Malawi, Rwanda, and Somalia. Wheat
is also grown in Botswana and Lesotho.1
African wheat environments are diverse. In
West Africa the growing season is short, and in
the dry season (mid-November to early March)
irrigation is usually needed. In East Africa wheat
is generally produced in rainfed fields at high ele-
vations; some exceptions are the lowlands of
Somalia, Zambia, Zimbabwe, and Botswana,
where irrigation is used. In West Africa and
some nations in East Africa heat-tolerant vari-
eties are needed.108
There is considerable interest in expanding
wheat production in many African nations, but
relatively few technical and scientific resources
are generally available for the needed research.
As noted in the introduction to this chapter,
CIMMYT is doing some research on wheat for
more favorable tropical areas.109

Ethiopia

Wheat production is of major importance in
Ethiopia, where all wheat is grown as a rainfed
crop. As of 1977-78 about 70% of the area was
planted with durum wheat and 30% with bread
wheat. Most of the bread wheat area grew
improved varieties, but the durum wheat area
grew almost entirely traditional varieties.110
Ethiopia began to use improved varieties of
bread wheat on a commercial level in 1968. Most
of the early improved bread varieties released

were developed in Kenya. The first varieties of
Mexican origin were released in 1974.111 The
first improved durums were released in 1976, and
the first bread wheats developed in Ethiopia were
released in 1980. Details are provided in table
3.18. Data are not available on the relative







HIGH-YIELDING WHEAT VARIETIES


be tapped, particularly in the winter wheat area in
the Anatolian Plateau. However, agronomic and
management practices may still be as much or
more of a limiting factor on the plateau as the
varieties grown.

Yemen Arab Republic
Yemen Arab Republic is a small wheat pro-
ducer with about 50,000 ha of wheat as of 1977.
Virtually all of the wheat was durum wheat. The
history of wheat improvement in Yemen Arab
Republic has been brief. It started in 1973 when
an FAO plant breeder was stationed in the coun-
try. In 1976 Sonalika was released for rainfed
area in the Yarim region, and it was later intro-
duced in other areas; it was expected to occupy
200 ha in 1978. Kalyansona was also introduced
but withdrawn because of disease problems. The
American variety Red River (a sister of Tobari
66) was recommended for one region under irri-
gation. As of late 1983 it was planned to extend
the research program to other areas of the coun-
try. The following varieties looked particularly
promising: Pavon "S", Sakha 78 (Egypt), Tanori,
and Blue Silver (Pakistan; another name for Son-
alika).103

People's Democratic
Republic of Yemen
Kalyansona and Sonalika were introduced and
released in 1973. As of 1978 about 40% of the
relatively small wheat area was planted with the
two HYWVs. Meanwhile, a search was underway
for varieties better suited to local growing condi-
tions. Following performance tests one line (S
311 x Norteno) was released as Ahgaf. Ahgaf is
a sister of Golan, was released in Syria, and is
partly of Indian origin. It is taller than its two
predecessors; this characteristic was desired in
order to increase straw yield. Ahgaf was grown
on 500 ha during the 1983-84 season and is
expected to replace Kalyansona and Sonalika.104


AFRICA

Wheat is an important crop in some of the
more temperate-climate nations of Africa. The
HYWVs have found a modest foothold in several
countries, principally in East Africa. Coverage in
this section is limited to seven countries:
Ethiopia, Kenya, Nigeria, Sudan, Tanzania, Zam-


bia, and Zimbabwe. The North African countries
are included in the section on the Near East. The
Republic of South Africa is discussed briefly in a
footnote.105 In addition, HYWVs are being
grown in several other African nations:
West Africa.-In Senegal HYWVs were
planted for the first time in 1973-74 on an
experimental basis. Small areas of HYWVs were
reported in Cameroon, Chad, Ghana, Mali, and
Upper Volta in 1975. Wheat is also grown in
Mauritania, Mozambique, and Niger.106
East and southern Africa.-HYWVs of vari-
ous types have been grown in Madagascar.
CIMMYT has been involved in research in
Burundi, Malawi, Rwanda, and Somalia. Wheat
is also grown in Botswana and Lesotho.1
African wheat environments are diverse. In
West Africa the growing season is short, and in
the dry season (mid-November to early March)
irrigation is usually needed. In East Africa wheat
is generally produced in rainfed fields at high ele-
vations; some exceptions are the lowlands of
Somalia, Zambia, Zimbabwe, and Botswana,
where irrigation is used. In West Africa and
some nations in East Africa heat-tolerant vari-
eties are needed.108
There is considerable interest in expanding
wheat production in many African nations, but
relatively few technical and scientific resources
are generally available for the needed research.
As noted in the introduction to this chapter,
CIMMYT is doing some research on wheat for
more favorable tropical areas.109

Ethiopia

Wheat production is of major importance in
Ethiopia, where all wheat is grown as a rainfed
crop. As of 1977-78 about 70% of the area was
planted with durum wheat and 30% with bread
wheat. Most of the bread wheat area grew
improved varieties, but the durum wheat area
grew almost entirely traditional varieties.110
Ethiopia began to use improved varieties of
bread wheat on a commercial level in 1968. Most
of the early improved bread varieties released

were developed in Kenya. The first varieties of
Mexican origin were released in 1974.111 The
first improved durums were released in 1976, and
the first bread wheats developed in Ethiopia were
released in 1980. Details are provided in table
3.18. Data are not available on the relative







HIGH-YIELDING WHEAT VARIETIES


be tapped, particularly in the winter wheat area in
the Anatolian Plateau. However, agronomic and
management practices may still be as much or
more of a limiting factor on the plateau as the
varieties grown.

Yemen Arab Republic
Yemen Arab Republic is a small wheat pro-
ducer with about 50,000 ha of wheat as of 1977.
Virtually all of the wheat was durum wheat. The
history of wheat improvement in Yemen Arab
Republic has been brief. It started in 1973 when
an FAO plant breeder was stationed in the coun-
try. In 1976 Sonalika was released for rainfed
area in the Yarim region, and it was later intro-
duced in other areas; it was expected to occupy
200 ha in 1978. Kalyansona was also introduced
but withdrawn because of disease problems. The
American variety Red River (a sister of Tobari
66) was recommended for one region under irri-
gation. As of late 1983 it was planned to extend
the research program to other areas of the coun-
try. The following varieties looked particularly
promising: Pavon "S", Sakha 78 (Egypt), Tanori,
and Blue Silver (Pakistan; another name for Son-
alika).103

People's Democratic
Republic of Yemen
Kalyansona and Sonalika were introduced and
released in 1973. As of 1978 about 40% of the
relatively small wheat area was planted with the
two HYWVs. Meanwhile, a search was underway
for varieties better suited to local growing condi-
tions. Following performance tests one line (S
311 x Norteno) was released as Ahgaf. Ahgaf is
a sister of Golan, was released in Syria, and is
partly of Indian origin. It is taller than its two
predecessors; this characteristic was desired in
order to increase straw yield. Ahgaf was grown
on 500 ha during the 1983-84 season and is
expected to replace Kalyansona and Sonalika.104


AFRICA

Wheat is an important crop in some of the
more temperate-climate nations of Africa. The
HYWVs have found a modest foothold in several
countries, principally in East Africa. Coverage in
this section is limited to seven countries:
Ethiopia, Kenya, Nigeria, Sudan, Tanzania, Zam-


bia, and Zimbabwe. The North African countries
are included in the section on the Near East. The
Republic of South Africa is discussed briefly in a
footnote.105 In addition, HYWVs are being
grown in several other African nations:
West Africa.-In Senegal HYWVs were
planted for the first time in 1973-74 on an
experimental basis. Small areas of HYWVs were
reported in Cameroon, Chad, Ghana, Mali, and
Upper Volta in 1975. Wheat is also grown in
Mauritania, Mozambique, and Niger.106
East and southern Africa.-HYWVs of vari-
ous types have been grown in Madagascar.
CIMMYT has been involved in research in
Burundi, Malawi, Rwanda, and Somalia. Wheat
is also grown in Botswana and Lesotho.1
African wheat environments are diverse. In
West Africa the growing season is short, and in
the dry season (mid-November to early March)
irrigation is usually needed. In East Africa wheat
is generally produced in rainfed fields at high ele-
vations; some exceptions are the lowlands of
Somalia, Zambia, Zimbabwe, and Botswana,
where irrigation is used. In West Africa and
some nations in East Africa heat-tolerant vari-
eties are needed.108
There is considerable interest in expanding
wheat production in many African nations, but
relatively few technical and scientific resources
are generally available for the needed research.
As noted in the introduction to this chapter,
CIMMYT is doing some research on wheat for
more favorable tropical areas.109

Ethiopia

Wheat production is of major importance in
Ethiopia, where all wheat is grown as a rainfed
crop. As of 1977-78 about 70% of the area was
planted with durum wheat and 30% with bread
wheat. Most of the bread wheat area grew
improved varieties, but the durum wheat area
grew almost entirely traditional varieties.110
Ethiopia began to use improved varieties of
bread wheat on a commercial level in 1968. Most
of the early improved bread varieties released

were developed in Kenya. The first varieties of
Mexican origin were released in 1974.111 The
first improved durums were released in 1976, and
the first bread wheats developed in Ethiopia were
released in 1980. Details are provided in table
3.18. Data are not available on the relative







VARIETIES AND AREA


Table 3.18. Improved wheat varieties released in Ethiopia from 1973 to 1983

Variety Year Origin Commentsa

Bread wheat
Mamba 1973 Kenya Withdrawn; susceptible to stripe rust
Enkoy 1974 Kenya/Ethiopia Major variety
Romany BC 1974 Kenya/Mexico Widely grown; susceptible to stripe rust
Dereselgan 1974 Mexico Little grown; susceptible to stripe rust
Sonora 1975 Mexico Not in demand
CI14393 1977 Mexico Not in demand
K6290 Bulk 1977 Kenya Major variety
Genet 71 1977 Mexico Not in demand
K6295-4A 1980 Kenya Important variety
ET 13 A2 1980 Ethiopia Important variety
ET 12 D4 1980 Ethiopia Small demand
KKBB 1982 CIMMYT Not multiplied
Durum wheat
Gerardo Vz 1976 CIMMYT/Ethiopia Withdrawn; susceptible to leaf and stem
rust
Cocorit 1976 CIMMYT Not in demand
LD357/C8155 1979 United States Not in demand
Boohi 1982 CIMMYT Fair demand

aAs of 1983.
bCross K4500 in Kenya; not released because it did not meet bread-making standards. Released in
Tanzania as W3697 and in Zambia as Tai.
CAlso known as cross K6290; released as K. Nyati in Kenya (not recommended in 1984) and as
Malawi elsewhere. Other selections are used in Tanzania, North Zambia, and possibly Mozambique.
Sources: F. Pinto, "Wheat Situation in Ethiopia (1978-1984)" (Addis Ababa: Ethiopian Seed
Corporation, April 1984), Table 3; and International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center, CIMMYT
Report on Wheat Improvement, 1981 (Mexico City: the Center, 1984), p. 121.


heights of the varieties in Ethiopia or their
semidwarf status. Three new CIMMYT varieties
were to be released in 1984-85: Bobwhite 7, Sun-
bird 4, and Veery 17.
Following the revolution in 1974, wheat pro-
duction was organized in four main ways: peasant
associations (PAs), producer cooperatives, relief
and rehabilitation commissions, and state farms.
The PAs represented about 86.7% of the total
wheat area in 1982-83, while the other three
accounted for the remaining 13.3%. The PAs
grow mostly traditional varieties. The other three
groups use improved varieties only. Seed multi-
plication and distribution is handled by the Arsi
Rural Development Program, which has been in
operation since 1966, and the Ethiopian Seed


Corporation, which was established in July 1978
under the Ministry of State Farms.
The four major bread wheat regions and the
proportion of area reportedly sown with
improved varieties in 1983-84 were: Arsi, 98%;
Bale, 95%; Gondar, 50%; and Shoa, 23%. The
figures for the first three regions, however, are
thought to be high by some observers. (In the
case of Bale, they place the actual proportion at
30%).112 Regardless, the proportion of improved
varieties in other regions is virtually nil.
As of 1982-83 it was estimated that of the
total 706,000 ha of wheat grown in Ethiopia
about 250,000 ha (35.5%) were planted with
improved varieties released since 1974. Including
improved varieties released before that time








HIGH-YIELDING WHEAT VARIETIES


would raise the total to 384,000 ha or 54.4% of
the total. Nearly all of the area with improved
varieties in either case is presumed to be bread
wheat.


Kenya


In 1906 a prominent Kenyan wheat grower,
Lord Delamere, employed an English plant
breeder, G.W. Evans, to develop varieties resis-
tant to stem rust. Evans initially used varieties
from Italy (Rieti), Australia, Canada (Red Fife),
and Egypt. In 1920 a full-time plant breeder,
G.I.L. Burton, was employed by Kenya's colonial
government. Originally, Burton was stationed
near Nairobi, but he moved in 1927 to the main
research station at Njoro.113 Some of the vari-
eties developed by Burton at Njoro, such as
Kenya, Kenya Blanco, and Kenya Rojo, were used
in early Mexican work. Unfortunately Burton's
records were lost in a fire, and the parentage of
most of his varieties is unknown.114
Wheat is grown as a commercial crop in the
highlands of the Rift Valley Province and near
Mt. Kenya. Bread wheats are much preferred,
but some durum wheats are grown. Production is
entirely on rainfed land and over a wide range of
elevation. Some varieties are recommended for
all altitudes; others are recommended for a spe-
cific altitudinal range.
The wheat program at Njoro has produced a
vast number of improved varieties. In 1978
CIMMYT noted that 132 varieties had been
released since 1908, of which 25 were still being
commercially grown.115 In 1975 CIMMYT listed
seven varieties of Mexican extraction being grown
in Kenya; by late 1977 the number had increased
to 17.116 Others have followed.

The list of recommended Kenyan wheat vari-
eties for 1984 is provided in table 3.19. Of the 16
varieties, 13 appear to have Mexican parentage
(particularly Tobari 66), and they accounted for
83% of the 1983 wheat-growing area or nearly
96,000 ha. Three varieties with no Mexican
parentage accounted for the balance of 1983 area
or nearly 23,500 ha. The nine leading varieties in
terms of area show a wide range in height-from
77 to 102 cm-but all have good lodging resis-
tance. Yield does not seem to be correlated with
height.


Nigeria

Nigeria, a tropical nation, is not normally
thought of as a wheat-producing country. Yet
irrigated wheat has been grown for centuries
along the shores of Lake Chad during the cool,
dry season. Most of the area is, however, only
marginally suitable for wheat because the cool
period is too short. High temperatures during
periods of vegetative growth limit tillering and,
during heading (harvesting), cause a reduction in
yields.117
With the development of four irrigated areas
in northern Nigeria in 1959, interest in wheat
production and wheat research increased. Vari-
ety screening was initiated, and trials of Mexican
varieties began during the 1966-67 season. In
early 1971 two Mexican varieties were recom-
mended: Sonora 63 and (Lee x N10-B) GB-55)
GB-56. Siete Cerros was recommended for Kano
State in 1975. Inia 66 and Indus 66 were released
for the Chad Basin area. Super X and Anza were
also grown. As of 1984 the Institute for Agricul-
tural Research (Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria)
recommended five varieties for production: two
tall non-Mexican wheats, Tousson and Florence
Aurore,118 and three Mexican semidwarfs,
Sonora 53, Siete Cerros, and (Lee x N10-B) GB-
55) GB-56. Siete Cerros was the most popular of
the group and was grown in all of the wheat-
growing areas, especially in the Kano River pro-
ject.
The actual area planted with all varieties and
with the semidwarfs is uncertain. Estimates sug-
gest that the overall wheat area expanded from a
few hundred hectares in 1959-60 to 2,000 ha in
1967-68; an average of 3,700 ha from 1973-74 to
1975-76; 6,000 ha in the late 1970s; and 15,000 ha
in 1984. As of 1976 CIMMYT estimated that
80%-90% of the irrigated area was planted with
semidwarfs. A CIMMYT scientist places the
HYWV area in 1983 at about 10,000 ha. The
largest area was in the Lake Chad area, followed
by Kano.
The Nigerian HYWV area could increase.
Nigeria has embarked on a program to signifi-
cantly increase wheat production with plans to
put wheat into 50% of the irrigable land in the
northern Guinea and Sudan savanna areas of the
country (estimated to be 345,000 ha when fully
developed). There is, however, a wide range of
constraints on wheat production. Germ plasm is
needed with increased heat and drought toler-
ance.119
58








HIGH-YIELDING WHEAT VARIETIES


would raise the total to 384,000 ha or 54.4% of
the total. Nearly all of the area with improved
varieties in either case is presumed to be bread
wheat.


Kenya


In 1906 a prominent Kenyan wheat grower,
Lord Delamere, employed an English plant
breeder, G.W. Evans, to develop varieties resis-
tant to stem rust. Evans initially used varieties
from Italy (Rieti), Australia, Canada (Red Fife),
and Egypt. In 1920 a full-time plant breeder,
G.I.L. Burton, was employed by Kenya's colonial
government. Originally, Burton was stationed
near Nairobi, but he moved in 1927 to the main
research station at Njoro.113 Some of the vari-
eties developed by Burton at Njoro, such as
Kenya, Kenya Blanco, and Kenya Rojo, were used
in early Mexican work. Unfortunately Burton's
records were lost in a fire, and the parentage of
most of his varieties is unknown.114
Wheat is grown as a commercial crop in the
highlands of the Rift Valley Province and near
Mt. Kenya. Bread wheats are much preferred,
but some durum wheats are grown. Production is
entirely on rainfed land and over a wide range of
elevation. Some varieties are recommended for
all altitudes; others are recommended for a spe-
cific altitudinal range.
The wheat program at Njoro has produced a
vast number of improved varieties. In 1978
CIMMYT noted that 132 varieties had been
released since 1908, of which 25 were still being
commercially grown.115 In 1975 CIMMYT listed
seven varieties of Mexican extraction being grown
in Kenya; by late 1977 the number had increased
to 17.116 Others have followed.

The list of recommended Kenyan wheat vari-
eties for 1984 is provided in table 3.19. Of the 16
varieties, 13 appear to have Mexican parentage
(particularly Tobari 66), and they accounted for
83% of the 1983 wheat-growing area or nearly
96,000 ha. Three varieties with no Mexican
parentage accounted for the balance of 1983 area
or nearly 23,500 ha. The nine leading varieties in
terms of area show a wide range in height-from
77 to 102 cm-but all have good lodging resis-
tance. Yield does not seem to be correlated with
height.


Nigeria

Nigeria, a tropical nation, is not normally
thought of as a wheat-producing country. Yet
irrigated wheat has been grown for centuries
along the shores of Lake Chad during the cool,
dry season. Most of the area is, however, only
marginally suitable for wheat because the cool
period is too short. High temperatures during
periods of vegetative growth limit tillering and,
during heading (harvesting), cause a reduction in
yields.117
With the development of four irrigated areas
in northern Nigeria in 1959, interest in wheat
production and wheat research increased. Vari-
ety screening was initiated, and trials of Mexican
varieties began during the 1966-67 season. In
early 1971 two Mexican varieties were recom-
mended: Sonora 63 and (Lee x N10-B) GB-55)
GB-56. Siete Cerros was recommended for Kano
State in 1975. Inia 66 and Indus 66 were released
for the Chad Basin area. Super X and Anza were
also grown. As of 1984 the Institute for Agricul-
tural Research (Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria)
recommended five varieties for production: two
tall non-Mexican wheats, Tousson and Florence
Aurore,118 and three Mexican semidwarfs,
Sonora 53, Siete Cerros, and (Lee x N10-B) GB-
55) GB-56. Siete Cerros was the most popular of
the group and was grown in all of the wheat-
growing areas, especially in the Kano River pro-
ject.
The actual area planted with all varieties and
with the semidwarfs is uncertain. Estimates sug-
gest that the overall wheat area expanded from a
few hundred hectares in 1959-60 to 2,000 ha in
1967-68; an average of 3,700 ha from 1973-74 to
1975-76; 6,000 ha in the late 1970s; and 15,000 ha
in 1984. As of 1976 CIMMYT estimated that
80%-90% of the irrigated area was planted with
semidwarfs. A CIMMYT scientist places the
HYWV area in 1983 at about 10,000 ha. The
largest area was in the Lake Chad area, followed
by Kano.
The Nigerian HYWV area could increase.
Nigeria has embarked on a program to signifi-
cantly increase wheat production with plans to
put wheat into 50% of the irrigable land in the
northern Guinea and Sudan savanna areas of the
country (estimated to be 345,000 ha when fully
developed). There is, however, a wide range of
constraints on wheat production. Germ plasm is
needed with increased heat and drought toler-
ance.119
58







VARIETIES AND AREA


Table 3.19. Wheat varieties recommended for planting in Kenya in 1984
Yieldb
1983 area Year of Height Lodging (% of Notes/
Variety (ha) release (cm) resistance K. Tembo) pedigree

K. Fahari 21,610 1977 100 Good 117 A
K. Tembo 19,380 1975 84 Good 100 A
K. Nungu 17,860 1975 84 Good 96 B
K. Nyangumi 17,240 1979 79 Good 117 C
K. Paka 15,710 1975 77 Good 96 A
K. Paa 11,130 1980 100 Good 138 D
K. Kongoni 5,980 1981 87 Good 125 D
Bounty 1,800 Unknown 102 Good 96 E
K. Ngiri 1,100 1979 80 Good 92 A
K. Bongo 1,080 Unknown 98 Fair 79 C
K. Kulungu 890 1982 92 Good 104 B
K. Popo 530 1982 105 Good 104 A
K. Leopard 170 1966 102 Poor 100 C
K. Mamba -- Unknown Unknown Fair 96 C
K. Nyumbu 1982 115 Good 103 B
K. Zabadi -- 1979 99 Good 104 A
Total 114,480c

Key: --=negligible.
A. Contains Tobari 66 in parentage.
B. Contains Sonora 64 in parentage.
C. No evident CIMMYT germ plasm in pedigree (K. Nyangumi and K. Mamba contain African
Mayo).
D. CIMMYT/Mexican origin.
E. Introduction. Bounty 208 and 309, selections of Mexican extraction, were released in the United
States in 1971 and 1974, respectively, by Cargill; they are not related.
aVarieties previously released but not recommended for 1984 because of leaf and stem rust and lodg-
ing include: African Mayo (fair lodging resistance), K. Kibo, K. Koforu (1976; good lodging resistance),
K. Mbogo, K. Nyaka, and K. Nyati.
bYield determined at the wheat program at Njoro.
CDoes not represent the total area of all varieties.
Sources: Cols. 1-4; letters from F.T. Kanungi, USAID Mission, Nairobi, Kenya, April, May 1984.
Cols. 5-6; Planting Guide, Kenya Seed Company (provided by Harold Norton, Agricultural Attache,
American Embassy, May 1984).


Sudan

Improved wheat varieties, principally from
Egypt (such as Giza 155), have been grown exten-
sively in Sudan's irrigated wheat areas for a num-
ber of years. In 1971 a semidwarf variety known
as Mexicani, a selection from a Mexican cross,
was released.120 The estimated area planted with
Mexicani increased significantly during the 1970s:


2,400 ha in 1972-73; 50,000 ha in 1974-75; and
about 150,000 ha in 1976-77.
As of 1975-76 the area growing Mexicani rep-
resented about 36% of Sudan's total wheat-
growing area; the rest was planted with Giza 155,
a non-HYWV. During the 1976-77 season the
HYWV area represented about 50% of the total
wheat area and increased to about 60% in 1977-
78.121 Subsequently, Giza 155 continued to







HIGH-YIELDING WHEAT VARIETIES


decline in importance and was not grown in
Gezira (the principal wheat producing region)
after 1981-82.
New varieties with Mexican ancestry include
Condor, from Australia, which is similar to Mexi-
cani but with more attractive white grains, and
Antizana, from Ecuador. HD 2172 from India
has been released as Debeira.
As of 1983, Mexicani was grown on more than
90% of the total wheat area in Gezira. However,
the overall wheat area in Gezira dropped sharply
from 1978-79 (177,730 ha) to 1983-84 (106,480
ha). Thus, Mexicani represented a larger propor-
tion of a smaller total. An HYWV area of
approximately 100,000 ha has been assumed for
1982-83.
There are two principal reasons for the drop
in Sudan's wheat growing area: low government-
controlled prices for wheat and the low produc-
tivity of wheat compared to other crops. The
government recently took steps to raise the price
of wheat and to announce those prices prior to
the planting season. High temperatures during
the winter are a problem-and were particularly
so in 1983-84. Varieties with greater tolerance to
heat are needed.122

Tanzania
In 1971 Tanzania began a wheat improvement
program with Canadian assistance. The first vari-
eties were produced from selections obtained
from the Plant Breeding Institute in Njoro,
Kenya. In 1973 the Lyamungu Research Station
made 270 t of seed with Mexican parentage avail-
able to farmers: 180 t of W3503, later known as
Trophy, a tall variety, and 90 t of 3654, later
known as Kwecha.123
The recommended variety list in 1978
included, in addition to Trophy and Kwecho:
Tanzania (T.) Holi (K-6793-6), T. Kororo (4140),
T. Kosi (K6648-6), T. Kwecha (3654), T. Mamba
(3679), T. Mbuni (26-73), T. Nyati (3742), and T.
Tai (W-3697). The leading varieties that year
were Kororo, Mbuni, Nyata, and Trophy .
Kwecha, Kororo, and Kosi have semidwarfs in
their ancestry, but it is not clear if they are
semidwarfs.
Some of the Tanzanian varieties are also
grown elsewhere in Africa. Tai (W-3697) is
known as cross K4500 in Kenya (not released), as
Enkoy in Ethiopia, and as Tai in Zambia. Kosi is
known as K. Fahari in Kenya, where it was the


leading variety in 1983. Nyati is known as K6290
or K. Nyati in Kenya and Malawi.
On balance, it appears that nearly all of the
wheat area in Tanzania is planted with improved
varieties and HYWVs, but the proportion of the
area planted with the latter is not clear. The total
wheat area has recently averaged about 50,000 ha.


Zambia
Zambia has a small wheat area but a high
proportion of HYWVs. Semidwarfs used for
breeding or released in the mid-1970s include:
Mexipak (not released, 1975); Jupateco (1975);
Emu, a CIMMYT line selected in Zambia; and
Limpopo, Sonora, and Tanori (all 1977). Two
lines originating in Kenya were released in 1979:
6920-17 (Nyati) and W-3697 (Tai).124
As of 1984 most of these varieties were known
as older lines and had largely been withdrawn
because of disease problems and low yields. Two
new varieties, Loerie and Canary, were released
in late 1983. Both are selections from a screening
nursery from CIMMYT and are semidwarfs (96
cm and 97 cm, respectively) with good resistance
to lodging. They have yield potentials of 8 t/ha.
Loerie is a sister of Veery. A prospective Zam-
bian release, D1, is a reselection of Loerie.
With these improved varieties, Zambia has
the potential to rapidly expand its wheat area
beyond the current figure of only 3,000 ha.
Availability of irrigation water seems to be a prin-
cipal constraint. However, a new variety,
Whydah, was recently released for the northern
rainfed acid soil region. (It is a Brazilian line with
probable CIMMYT parentage.) This area is
thought to have considerable potential for wheat
production if suitable varieties can be found.

Zimbabwe
Essentially all of the wheat area in Zimbabwe
is planted with HYWVs. Moreover, all of the
HYWVs are semidwarfs. Average wheat yields
(5.15 t/ha from 1980 to 1983) in Zimbabwe are
among the highest in the world, and in 1983,
according to USDA estimates, were exceeded
only by a few western European nations.125
A number of HYWVs have been developed
and released in Zimbabwe over time, but the
semidwarf era seems to have started with the
release of Tokwe in 1967. A few of the others
that followed were later withdrawn because of







HIGH-YIELDING WHEAT VARIETIES


decline in importance and was not grown in
Gezira (the principal wheat producing region)
after 1981-82.
New varieties with Mexican ancestry include
Condor, from Australia, which is similar to Mexi-
cani but with more attractive white grains, and
Antizana, from Ecuador. HD 2172 from India
has been released as Debeira.
As of 1983, Mexicani was grown on more than
90% of the total wheat area in Gezira. However,
the overall wheat area in Gezira dropped sharply
from 1978-79 (177,730 ha) to 1983-84 (106,480
ha). Thus, Mexicani represented a larger propor-
tion of a smaller total. An HYWV area of
approximately 100,000 ha has been assumed for
1982-83.
There are two principal reasons for the drop
in Sudan's wheat growing area: low government-
controlled prices for wheat and the low produc-
tivity of wheat compared to other crops. The
government recently took steps to raise the price
of wheat and to announce those prices prior to
the planting season. High temperatures during
the winter are a problem-and were particularly
so in 1983-84. Varieties with greater tolerance to
heat are needed.122

Tanzania
In 1971 Tanzania began a wheat improvement
program with Canadian assistance. The first vari-
eties were produced from selections obtained
from the Plant Breeding Institute in Njoro,
Kenya. In 1973 the Lyamungu Research Station
made 270 t of seed with Mexican parentage avail-
able to farmers: 180 t of W3503, later known as
Trophy, a tall variety, and 90 t of 3654, later
known as Kwecha.123
The recommended variety list in 1978
included, in addition to Trophy and Kwecho:
Tanzania (T.) Holi (K-6793-6), T. Kororo (4140),
T. Kosi (K6648-6), T. Kwecha (3654), T. Mamba
(3679), T. Mbuni (26-73), T. Nyati (3742), and T.
Tai (W-3697). The leading varieties that year
were Kororo, Mbuni, Nyata, and Trophy .
Kwecha, Kororo, and Kosi have semidwarfs in
their ancestry, but it is not clear if they are
semidwarfs.
Some of the Tanzanian varieties are also
grown elsewhere in Africa. Tai (W-3697) is
known as cross K4500 in Kenya (not released), as
Enkoy in Ethiopia, and as Tai in Zambia. Kosi is
known as K. Fahari in Kenya, where it was the


leading variety in 1983. Nyati is known as K6290
or K. Nyati in Kenya and Malawi.
On balance, it appears that nearly all of the
wheat area in Tanzania is planted with improved
varieties and HYWVs, but the proportion of the
area planted with the latter is not clear. The total
wheat area has recently averaged about 50,000 ha.


Zambia
Zambia has a small wheat area but a high
proportion of HYWVs. Semidwarfs used for
breeding or released in the mid-1970s include:
Mexipak (not released, 1975); Jupateco (1975);
Emu, a CIMMYT line selected in Zambia; and
Limpopo, Sonora, and Tanori (all 1977). Two
lines originating in Kenya were released in 1979:
6920-17 (Nyati) and W-3697 (Tai).124
As of 1984 most of these varieties were known
as older lines and had largely been withdrawn
because of disease problems and low yields. Two
new varieties, Loerie and Canary, were released
in late 1983. Both are selections from a screening
nursery from CIMMYT and are semidwarfs (96
cm and 97 cm, respectively) with good resistance
to lodging. They have yield potentials of 8 t/ha.
Loerie is a sister of Veery. A prospective Zam-
bian release, D1, is a reselection of Loerie.
With these improved varieties, Zambia has
the potential to rapidly expand its wheat area
beyond the current figure of only 3,000 ha.
Availability of irrigation water seems to be a prin-
cipal constraint. However, a new variety,
Whydah, was recently released for the northern
rainfed acid soil region. (It is a Brazilian line with
probable CIMMYT parentage.) This area is
thought to have considerable potential for wheat
production if suitable varieties can be found.

Zimbabwe
Essentially all of the wheat area in Zimbabwe
is planted with HYWVs. Moreover, all of the
HYWVs are semidwarfs. Average wheat yields
(5.15 t/ha from 1980 to 1983) in Zimbabwe are
among the highest in the world, and in 1983,
according to USDA estimates, were exceeded
only by a few western European nations.125
A number of HYWVs have been developed
and released in Zimbabwe over time, but the
semidwarf era seems to have started with the
release of Tokwe in 1967. A few of the others
that followed were later withdrawn because of







HIGH-YIELDING WHEAT VARIETIES


decline in importance and was not grown in
Gezira (the principal wheat producing region)
after 1981-82.
New varieties with Mexican ancestry include
Condor, from Australia, which is similar to Mexi-
cani but with more attractive white grains, and
Antizana, from Ecuador. HD 2172 from India
has been released as Debeira.
As of 1983, Mexicani was grown on more than
90% of the total wheat area in Gezira. However,
the overall wheat area in Gezira dropped sharply
from 1978-79 (177,730 ha) to 1983-84 (106,480
ha). Thus, Mexicani represented a larger propor-
tion of a smaller total. An HYWV area of
approximately 100,000 ha has been assumed for
1982-83.
There are two principal reasons for the drop
in Sudan's wheat growing area: low government-
controlled prices for wheat and the low produc-
tivity of wheat compared to other crops. The
government recently took steps to raise the price
of wheat and to announce those prices prior to
the planting season. High temperatures during
the winter are a problem-and were particularly
so in 1983-84. Varieties with greater tolerance to
heat are needed.122

Tanzania
In 1971 Tanzania began a wheat improvement
program with Canadian assistance. The first vari-
eties were produced from selections obtained
from the Plant Breeding Institute in Njoro,
Kenya. In 1973 the Lyamungu Research Station
made 270 t of seed with Mexican parentage avail-
able to farmers: 180 t of W3503, later known as
Trophy, a tall variety, and 90 t of 3654, later
known as Kwecha.123
The recommended variety list in 1978
included, in addition to Trophy and Kwecho:
Tanzania (T.) Holi (K-6793-6), T. Kororo (4140),
T. Kosi (K6648-6), T. Kwecha (3654), T. Mamba
(3679), T. Mbuni (26-73), T. Nyati (3742), and T.
Tai (W-3697). The leading varieties that year
were Kororo, Mbuni, Nyata, and Trophy .
Kwecha, Kororo, and Kosi have semidwarfs in
their ancestry, but it is not clear if they are
semidwarfs.
Some of the Tanzanian varieties are also
grown elsewhere in Africa. Tai (W-3697) is
known as cross K4500 in Kenya (not released), as
Enkoy in Ethiopia, and as Tai in Zambia. Kosi is
known as K. Fahari in Kenya, where it was the


leading variety in 1983. Nyati is known as K6290
or K. Nyati in Kenya and Malawi.
On balance, it appears that nearly all of the
wheat area in Tanzania is planted with improved
varieties and HYWVs, but the proportion of the
area planted with the latter is not clear. The total
wheat area has recently averaged about 50,000 ha.


Zambia
Zambia has a small wheat area but a high
proportion of HYWVs. Semidwarfs used for
breeding or released in the mid-1970s include:
Mexipak (not released, 1975); Jupateco (1975);
Emu, a CIMMYT line selected in Zambia; and
Limpopo, Sonora, and Tanori (all 1977). Two
lines originating in Kenya were released in 1979:
6920-17 (Nyati) and W-3697 (Tai).124
As of 1984 most of these varieties were known
as older lines and had largely been withdrawn
because of disease problems and low yields. Two
new varieties, Loerie and Canary, were released
in late 1983. Both are selections from a screening
nursery from CIMMYT and are semidwarfs (96
cm and 97 cm, respectively) with good resistance
to lodging. They have yield potentials of 8 t/ha.
Loerie is a sister of Veery. A prospective Zam-
bian release, D1, is a reselection of Loerie.
With these improved varieties, Zambia has
the potential to rapidly expand its wheat area
beyond the current figure of only 3,000 ha.
Availability of irrigation water seems to be a prin-
cipal constraint. However, a new variety,
Whydah, was recently released for the northern
rainfed acid soil region. (It is a Brazilian line with
probable CIMMYT parentage.) This area is
thought to have considerable potential for wheat
production if suitable varieties can be found.

Zimbabwe
Essentially all of the wheat area in Zimbabwe
is planted with HYWVs. Moreover, all of the
HYWVs are semidwarfs. Average wheat yields
(5.15 t/ha from 1980 to 1983) in Zimbabwe are
among the highest in the world, and in 1983,
according to USDA estimates, were exceeded
only by a few western European nations.125
A number of HYWVs have been developed
and released in Zimbabwe over time, but the
semidwarf era seems to have started with the
release of Tokwe in 1967. A few of the others
that followed were later withdrawn because of




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