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 Front Cover
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Goal and organization
 Administration
 Humid tropics: Indonesia
 Humid tropics: Peru and Brazil
 Semi-arid tropics program: Niger,...
 Acid Savannas program: Brazil
 Abbreviations
 Back Cover


PETE FLAG IFAS PALMM



TropSoils triennial technical report
CITATION SEARCH THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00055258/00001
 Material Information
Title: TropSoils triennial technical report
Portion of title: Triennial technical report
Physical Description: 1 v. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Soil Management Collaborative Research Support Program
Publisher: Management Entity Office for the Soil Management Collaborative Research Support Program
Place of Publication: Raleigh N.C
Creation Date: 1985
Publication Date: 1985
Frequency: triennial
regular
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Soil management -- Periodicals -- Tropics   ( lcsh )
Soil science -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Genre: serial   ( sobekcm )
 Notes
Dates or Sequential Designation: 1981/1984.
Funding: Electronic resources created as part of a prototype UF Institutional Repository and Faculty Papers project by the University of Florida.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 12545890
lccn - sn 90040075
System ID: UF00055258:00001
 Related Items
Preceded by: Agronomic-economic research on soils of the tropics
Succeeded by: TropSoils technical report

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Title Page
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Table of Contents
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
    Goal and organization
        Page 9
        Page 10
    Administration
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
    Humid tropics: Indonesia
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Organization
            Page 17
            Page 18
        Technical personnel
            Page 19
            Page 20
        Overview
            Page 21
            Page 22
            Page 23
            Page 24
            Page 25
            Page 26
            Page 27
            Page 28
            Page 29
            Page 30
        Detail soil survey of the site for land clearing research
            Page 31
            Page 32
        Soil spatial variability in newly cleared forest land
            Page 33
            Page 34
            Page 35
            Page 36
        Reclamation of unproductive, abandoned land
            Page 37
            Page 38
            Page 39
            Page 40
        Management of organic matter in Indonesia farming systems
            Page 41
            Page 42
            Page 43
            Page 44
        Potassium dynamics in cropping systems of weathered soils of West Sumatra, Indonesia
            Page 45
            Page 46
        Phosphorus rates and method of application
            Page 47
            Page 48
            Page 49
            Page 50
        Source and method of lime application
            Page 51
            Page 52
            Page 53
            Page 54
        Residual and maintenance rates for lime
            Page 55
            Page 56
            Page 57
            Page 58
        Pasture grass and legumes for the humid tropics
            Page 59
            Page 60
            Page 61
            Page 62
        Soybean variety evaluation
            Page 63
            Page 64
            Page 65
            Page 66
        Farmer and researcher designed and managed cropping systems
            Page 67
            Page 68
            Page 69
            Page 70
        Cooperator farmer interview series
            Page 71
            Page 72
            Page 73
            Page 74
        Nutrition/diet/income survey
            Page 75
            Page 76
            Page 77
            Page 78
        Time allocation study
            Page 79
            Page 80
            Page 81
            Page 82
    Humid tropics: Peru and Brazil
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Organization
            Page 85
            Page 86
        Technical personnel
            Page 87
            Page 88
        Overview
            Page 89
            Page 90
            Page 91
            Page 92
            Page 93
            Page 94
            Page 95
            Page 96
            Page 97
            Page 98
            Page 99
            Page 100
            Page 101
            Page 102
            Page 103
            Page 104
        Effect of land clearing methods on soil properties and crop performance
            Page 105
            Page 106
            Page 107
            Page 108
        Reclamation of bulldozed land
            Page 109
            Page 110
            Page 111
            Page 112
        Soil fertility dynamics after clearing a tropical rainforest
            Page 113
            Page 114
            Page 115
            Page 116
        Continuous cropping of annual crops
            Page 117
            Page 118
            Page 119
            Page 120
            Page 121
            Page 122
        Soil nutrient dynamics and fertility management for sustained crop production on Oxisols in the Brasilian Amazon
            Page 123
            Page 124
            Page 125
            Page 126
        Phosphorus fertilization alternatives for continuous cropping systems in Amazon Oxisols
            Page 127
            Page 128
        Potassium fertilization of Ultisols in Peru
            Page 129
            Page 130
            Page 131
            Page 132
        Potassium fertilization for annual cropping systems in Amazon Oxisols
            Page 133
            Page 134
        Minimum tillage and phosphorus, sulfur, calcium and magnesium interactions
            Page 135
            Page 136
            Page 137
            Page 138
        Field estimation of phosphorus retention by Andepts
            Page 139
            Page 140
        Chemical weed control in upland rice
            Page 141
            Page 142
        Weed population shifts under high input cropping systems
            Page 143
            Page 144
        Aluminum tolerance: Cultivar screening
            Page 145
            Page 146
            Page 147
            Page 148
        Integrated low input cropping system
            Page 149
            Page 150
            Page 151
            Page 152
        Minimum tillage X residue management X potassium rates with Al-tolerant cultivars
            Page 153
            Page 154
            Page 155
            Page 156
        Downward movement of calcium and magnesium in soils
            Page 157
            Page 158
        Managed kudzu fallow
            Page 159
            Page 160
            Page 161
            Page 162
        Weed control for low input systems
            Page 163
            Page 164
        Pasture germplasm adaptation to acid soils of the humid tropics with minimum inputs
            Page 165
            Page 166
            Page 167
            Page 168
        Grass-legume mixtures under grazing
            Page 169
            Page 170
            Page 171
            Page 172
        Fertilizer requirements for pasture establishment
            Page 173
            Page 174
        Nitrogen contribution of legumes in mixed pastures in the humid tropics
            Page 175
            Page 176
            Page 177
            Page 178
        Dynamics of potassium and nutrient cycling in pastures under grazing
            Page 179
            Page 180
        Effect of sulfur on quality and palatability of Desmodium Ovalifolium in association with Brachiaria Decumbens under grazing
            Page 181
            Page 182
        Forest and soil regeneration
            Page 183
            Page 184
            Alley cropping
                Page 185
                Page 186
                Page 187
                Page 188
            Improved fallow
                Page 189
                Page 190
        Nutritional requirements of peach palm (Guilielma gasipaes)
            Page 191
            Page 192
            Page 193
            Page 194
        Nutritional requirements of Gmelina arborea
            Page 195
            Page 196
        Guarana fertilization
            Page 197
            Page 198
        Intensive management of alluvial soils
            Page 199
            Page 200
            Page 201
            Page 202
            Page 203
            Page 204
            Page 205
            Page 206
        New areas: characterization, classification and interpretation of soils in southeastern Peru - Puerto Maldonado
            Page 207
            Page 208
        New areas: characterization, classification and interpretations of soils in northeastern Peru
            Page 209
            Page 210
        FCC refinement and testing
            Page 211
            Page 212
            Page 213
            Page 214
        Soil management research network for the humid tropics
            Page 215
            Page 216
            Page 217
            Page 218
            Page 219
            Page 220
            Page 221
            Page 222
    Semi-arid tropics program: Niger, Mali
        Page 223
        Page 224
        Organization
            Page 225
            Page 226
        Technical personnel
            Page 227
            Page 228
        Overview
            Page 229
            Page 230
            Page 231
            Page 232
            Page 233
            Page 234
            Page 235
            Page 236
            Page 237
            Page 238
            Page 239
            Page 240
            Page 241
            Page 242
            Page 243
            Page 244
            Page 245
            Page 246
        Statistical analysis of rainfall records
            Page 247
            Page 248
            Page 249
            Page 250
        Measurement of the physical characteristics of rainstorms
            Page 251
            Page 252
        Studies on soil detachment by raindrop impact and soil transport and deposition by overland flow
            Page 253
            Page 254
        Estimating percentage runoff from crusted forest soils
            Page 255
            Page 256
        Moisture retention properties of soils at the ICRISAT Sahelian research center
            Page 257
            Page 258
            Page 259
            Page 260
        Characterization and modification of the soil temperature regimes in Niger
            Page 261
            Page 262
            Page 263
            Page 264
        Water and energy balance of a Nigerien soil
            Page 265
            Page 266
            Page 267
            Page 268
        Soil physics laboratory
            Page 269
            Page 270
            Page 271
            Page 272
        Gamma and neutron moisture meter calibration
            Page 273
            Page 274
        Measurement and simulation of water use under dryland conditions
            Page 275
            Page 276
        Soil survey of the ICRISAT Sahelian center
            Page 277
            Page 278
            Page 279
            Page 280
        Soil-geomorphological relationships of the Dallol Bosso in Niger
            Page 281
            Page 282
            Page 283
            Page 284
        Role of amorphous and crystalline iron in the formation of surface crusts and ironstones of soil in West Africa and Texas
            Page 285
            Page 286
            Page 287
            Page 288
        Properties and genesis of vertisols and associated soils in the Maroua region of Northern Cameroon
            Page 289
            Page 290
            Page 291
            Page 292
        Soil classification and soil loss from steeplands in Haiti
            Page 293
            Page 294
            Page 295
            Page 296
        Spatial variability in Niger soils
            Page 297
            Page 298
            Page 299
            Page 300
        Spatial variability of soil properties
            Page 301
            Page 302
        Spatial variability in soil chemical and physical properties in relation to barren and adjacent forested soils
            Page 303
            Page 304
        Soil preparation techniques and the interaction of soil preparation and nitrogen and phosphorus fertility on sorghum yield
            Page 305
            Page 306
        Relationship between soil water utilization and soil plant nutrient status
            Page 307
            Page 308
            Page 309
            Page 310
        Evaluation of the effects of a neem shelterbelt/windbreak plantation on wind velocity, soil moisture content and yield of millet
            Page 311
            Page 312
            Page 313
        Influence of windbreaks on water evaporation from a bare soil
            Page 314
            Page 315
            Page 316
        Effect of low-input soil conservation practices on erosion losses, runoff and soil moisture status
            Page 317
            Page 318
        Evaluation of the effectiveness of a sandfighter
            Page 319
            Page 320
            Page 321
            Page 322
        Rejuvenation of crusted, barren, forest soils in Niger
            Page 323
            Page 324
            Page 325
            Page 326
    Acid Savannas program: Brazil
        Page 327
        Page 328
        Organization
            Page 329
            Page 330
        Technical personnel
            Page 331
            Page 332
        Overview
            Page 333
            Page 334
            Page 335
            Page 336
            Page 337
            Page 338
        Nitrogen availability from legume crop residues and green manures to the succeeding non-legume crop
            Page 339
            Page 340
            Page 341
        Laboratory mineralization studies as a soil test for nitrogen and their correlation with field results
            Page 342
            Page 343
            Page 344
        Fertilizer nitrogen movement in Cerrado soils
            Page 345
            Page 346
        Influence of soil texture and liming on phosphorus and zinc soil test levels and fertilizer management of Cerrado Oxisols
            Page 347
            Page 348
            Page 349
            Page 350
        Morphological evidences of a seasonally high water table in a red-yellow latosol and its identification on Lansat images
            Page 351
            Page 352
            Page 353
            Page 354
    Abbreviations
        Page 355
        Page 356
        Page 357
        Page 358
    Back Cover
        Back Cover
Full Text
)ETIR E. HILDEBRAND


TROPSOILS


1981-1984


V,


P
















TROPSOILS


TRIENNIAL TECHNICAL REPORT


1981-1984

Charles B. McCants, Editor

January, 1985













TropSoils is a collaborative research program whose goal is to develop improved soil
management technology for developing countries in the tropics.
Primary funding is provided by the U.S. Agency for International Development through
Grant DAN 1311-G-SS-1083-00. This action is in support of Title XII "Famine Preven-
tion and Freedom from Hunger" of the Foreign Assistance Act.
The formal collaborators are: Agency for International Development-USA; Center for
Soils Research-Indonesia; Cornell University-USA; Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa
Agropecuaria-Brazil; Institut National de Recherches Agronomiques du Niger-Niger; In-
stitute d'Economic Rural-Mali; Instituto Nactional de Investigacion y Promocion Agraria-
Peru; International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-arid Tropics-India; North
Carolina State University-USA; Texas A&M University-USA; University of Hawaii-USA.













TABLE OF CONTENTS


Goal and Organization 9

Administration 11

Humid Tropics Program **** Indonesia 15
Organization 17
Technical Personnel 19
Overview 21
Research Projects
Detail soil survey of the site for land clearing
research 31
Soil spatial variability in newly cleared forest land 33
Reclamation of unproductive, abandoned land 37
Management of organic matter in Indonesian farming
systems 41
Potassium dynamics in cropping systems of weathered
soils of West Sumatra, Indonesia 45
Phosphorus rates and method of application 47
Source and method of lime application 51
Residual and maintenance rates for lime 55
Pasture grass and legumes for the humid tropics 59
Soybean variety evaluation 63
Farmer and researcher designed and managed cropping
systems 67
Cooperator farmer interview series 71
Nutrition/diet/income survey 75
Time allocation study 79

Humid Tropics Program **** Peru **** Brazil 83
Organization 85
Technical Personnel 87
Overview 89











Research Projects
Stability of Fertilizer-Based Continuous Cropping
Systems
Effect of land clearing methods on soil properties
and crop performance 105
Reclamation of bulldozed land 109
Soil fertility dynamics after clearing a tropical
rainforest 113
Continuous cropping of annual crops 117
Soil nutrient dynamics and fertility management
for sustained crop production on Oxisols in
the Brasilian Amazon 123
Phosphorus fertilization alternatives for continuous
cropping systems in Amazon Oxisols 127
Potassium fertilization of Ultisols in Peru 129
Potassium fertilization for annual cropping systems
in Amazon Oxisols 133
Minimum tillage and phosphorus, sulfur, calcium
and magnesium interactions 135
Field estimation of phosphorus retention by Andepts 139
Chemical weed control in upland rice 141
Weed population shifts under high input cropping
systems 143
Low Input Crop Production Systems
Aluminum tolerance: cultivar screening 145
Integrated low input cropping system 149
Minimum tillage X residue management X potassium
rates with Al-tolerant cultivars 153
Downward movement of calcium and magnesium in soils 157
Managed kudzu fallow 159
Weed control for low input systems 163
Legume-Based Pasture Production Systems
Pasture germplasm adaptation to acid soils of the
humid tropics with minimum inputs 165
Grass-legume mixtures under grazing 169
Fertilizer requirements for pasture establishment 173












Nitrogen contribution of legumes in mixed pastures
in the humid tropics 175
Dynamics of potassium and nutrient cycling in pas-
tures under grazing 179
Effect of sulfur on quality and palatability of
Desmodium Ovalifolium in association with Brachiaria
Decumbens under grazing 181
Tree-Based Production Systems
Forest and soil regeneration 183
Alley cropping 185
Improved fallow 189
Nutritional requirements of peach palm (Guilielma
gasipaes) 191
Nutritional requirements of Gmelina arborea 195
Guarana fertilization 197
Intensive Management of Alluvial Soils 199
Soil Characterization
New areas: characterization, classification and
interpretation of soils in southeastern Peru -
Puerto Maldonado 207
New Areas: Characterization, classification and
interpretations of soils in northeastern Peru 209
FCC refinement and testing 211
Soil Management Research Network for the Humid Tropics 215

Semi-Arid Tropics Program **** Niger **** Mali 223
Organization 225
Technical Personnel 227
Overview 229
Research Projects
Characterization of Soil-Water-Atmosphere-Plant System
Precipitation
Statistical analysis of rainfall records 247
Measurement of the physical characteristics of
rainstorms 251












Studies on soil detachment by raindrop impact
and soil transport and deposition by overland
flow 253
Estimating percentage runoff from crusted forest
soils 255
Water and Energy Balance
Moisture retention properties of soils at the
ICRISAT Sahelian Research Center 257
Characterization and modification of the soil
temperature regimes in Niger 261
Water and energy balance of a Nigerien soil 265
Soil physics laboratory 269
Gamma and neutron moisture meter calibration 273
Measurement and simulation of water use under
dryland conditions 275
Soil Physical, Chemical and Mineralogical Properties
Soil survey of the ICRISAT Sahelian Center 277
Soil-geomorphological relationships fo the Dallol-
Bosso in Niger 281
Role of amorphous and crystalline iron in the
formation of surface crusts and ironstones of
soil in West Africa and Texas 285
Properties and genesis of Vertisols and associated
soils in the Maroua region of northern Cameroon 289
Soil classification and soil loss from steeplands
in Haiti 293
Soil Microvariability
Spatial variability in Niger soils 297
Spatial variability of soil properties 301
Spatial variability in soil chemical and physical
properties in relation to barren and adjacent
forested soils 303
Plant Nutrient-Soil Water Interactions
Soil preparation techniques and the interaction
of soil preparation and nitrogen and phosphorus
fertility on sorghum yield 305
Relationship between soil water utilization and
soil plant nutrient status 307












Modification of the Soil-Water-Atmosphere-Plant System
Microclimate
Evaluation of the effects of a neem shelterbelt/
windbreak plantation on wind velocity, soil mois-
ture content and yield of millet 311
Influence of windbreaks on water evaporation from
a bare soil 314
Soil Properties
Effect of low-input soil conservation practices
on erosion losses, runoff and soil moisture status 317
Evaluation of the effectiveness of a sandfighter 319
Rejuvenation of crusted, barren, forest soils
in Niger 323

Acid Savannas Program **** Brazil 327
Organization 329
Technical Personnel 331
Overview 333
Research Projects
Nitrogen availability from legume crop residues and
green manures to the succeeding non-legume crop 339
Laboratory mineralization studies as a soil test for
nitrogen and their correlation with field results 342
Fertilizer nitrogen movement in Cerrado soils 345
Influence of soil texture and liming on phosphorus
and zinc soil test levels and fertilizer management
of Cerrado Oxisols 347
Morphological evidences of a seasonally high water
table in a red-yellow Latosol and its identification
on Lansat images 351

Abbreviations 355






Goal and Organization


GOAL AND ORGANIZATION


The need to increase world food production for the present and fore-
seeable future is an accepted fact if famine is to be prevented, hunger
alleviated and minimum dietary needs met. The actions necessary to meet
this challenge are clear: increase production on existing fields and
bring new lands into the system. For either approach to be successful,
limitations to be plant growth caused by soil constraints must be mini-
mized. The goal of TropSoils is to address this issue. Formally
defined, it is to develop and adapt improved soil management technology
which is agronomically, ecologically and economically sound for deve-
loping countries in the tropics.
TropSoils is an acronym for the Soil Management Collaborative
Research Support Program. It is one of several programs developed to
implement Title XII, "Famine Prevention and Freedom from Hunger" of the
U.S. Foreign Assistance Act. This legislation sets forth the framework
for a collaborative research program involving: (1) U.S. Agency for
International Development, (2) U.S. universities, (3) international agri-
cultural research centers and (4) developing country institutions.
Within TropSoils, adherence to the principle of collaboration has been a
requirement and maximizing the collaborative effort from all the par-
ticipants a major goal. Identifiable inputs by all components have been
substantial and have had a major impact on the structure, operations and
accomplishments of the program.
The TropSoils approach is to focus segments of its program on speci-
fic agroecological zones, with primary and secondary research sites
within each zone. The zones are: the humid tropics with primary sites
in Peru and Indonesia and a secondary site in Brazil, the semi-arid tro-
pics.with a primary site in Niger and a secondary site in Mali, the acid
savannas with the primary site in Brazil and the steeplands, which
currently is inactive. This approach evolved from the two-year planning
process which proceeded its implementations.






Goat and Organization


The leadership for detailed program development and for project exe-
cution is provided by four U.S. universities. Their identification and
the agroecological zone of activity follow:
Cornell University acid savannas
University of Hawaii humid tropics (Indonesia)
North Carolina State University humid tropics (Peru, Brazil,
Indonesia)
Texas A&M University semi-arid tropics
TropSoils was officially initiated in September, 1981. The dates at
which individual programs became fully operable varied considerably due
to the time required to complete the necessary administrative actions
with collaborating institutions. The humid tropics program in Peru uti-
lized an existing activity and thus was the earliest to become fully
operational. The approximate time at which the different programs came
on-stream are:
Humid Tropics (Peru): September, 1981
Semi-Arid Tropics (Niger): February, 1983
Acid Savannas (Brazil): June, 1983
Humid Tropics (Indonesia): June, 1983
The fact that TropSoils is a new program which involves collabora-
tive research on complex problems, operates primarily in the field and
under difficult situations in developing areas and has been functional
for a maximum of three years at one site and less than eighteen months at
the others, has necessarily limited its technical output to-date.
Nevertheless, a broad base of well-conceived and scientifically-sound
projects have been designed and initiated. Many of them already are
having an impact on local actions.
The purpose of this report is to describe the individual TropSoils
research projects that are active and to provide a rationale for their
place in the program and their current status. Inclusion of data inten-
tionally is omitted because it was not necessary for the purpose of the
report and such citations would be premature for most of the projects.






Administration


ADMINISTRATION


Administrative philosophy and procedures for TropSoils reflect the
collaborative nature of the program. Thus, it involves identifiable and
significant inputs by all participants.
The Agency for International Development has delegated overall
program and fiscal responsibility for performance to the Management
Entity, an administrative unit prescribed in the organization of all
collaborative research support programs. It receives guidance and
recommendations on policy issues from a Board of Directors and on tech-
nical matters from the Technical Committee. The Board of Directors is
composed of an administrative official from each participating univer-
sity and collaborating country institution. The university represen-
tatives compose an Executive committee of the Board. The Technical
Committee is formed from the Program Coordinators from each university.
Research projects are developed by Program Coordinators in colla-
boration with campus and field-based faculty and in consultation with
research and administrative personnel from the collaborating country
institution. Advice and concurrence is requested from the respective
USAID office to insure that the objectives are consistent with its goals
and priorities.
Program reviews are conducted periodically by an External
Evaluation Panel composed of persons with international agricultural
development experience and with no affiliation with any of the par-
ticipating institutions. Its reports are used by the Management Entity,
the Board and the Technical Committee in assessing needs for adjustments
or revisions in objectives and approaches.
The following persons have had a major involvement in the admini-
stration of TropSoils:






Administration


Management Entity Office

Charles B. McCants, Director NCSU
Kim S. Stevens, Administrative Assistant NCSU
Neil Caudle, Editor NCSU

Board of Directors

Morris Bloodworth, Chairman (until 10/83) TAMU
Ada Demb, Chairman (after 10/83) UH
Wenceslau J. Goedert (after 7/84) EMBRAPA
Mamadou Ouattara INRAN
Robert H. Miller NCSU
D. Muljadi (until 1/84) CSR
Edwin B. Oyer CU
Victor Palma INIPA
E. C. A. Runge (after 10/83) TAMU
M. Sudjadi (after 1/84) CSR
Elmar Wagner (until 7/84) EMBRAPA

Technical Committee

Frank G. Calhoun, Chairman TAMU
Douglas J. Lathwell CU
John J. Nicholaides NCSU
Pedro A. Sanchez NCSU
Goro Uehara UH

External Evaluation Panel

John Coulter, Chairman World Bank
Peter Hilderbrand UF
Marlowe Thorne U1






Administration


Agency for International Development


John Malcolm, Program Manager
David Bathrick
Allen R. Hurdus
Adolfo Jurado
Howard Lusk (after 1/83)
S. K. Reddy
Samuel Taylor (until 12/82)
Wilbur Thomas (until 7/83)
Frederick Vigil (after 7/83)


AID/S&T
USAID/Lima
USAID/Jakarta
USAID/Lima
USAID/Brasilia
USAID/Bamako
USAID/Brasilia
USAID/Niamey
USAID/Niamey











HUMID TROPICS

INDONESIA






Humid Tropics Program **** Indonesia


HUMID TROPICS PROGRAM **** INDONESIA

ORGANIZATION



Lead Institution

University of Hawaii

Support Institution

North Carolina State University

Collaborating Institution

Center for Soils Research

Linkage Institutions

Bogor Agricultural Institute
Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical
International Board of Soil Research and Management
International Fertilizer Development Center
International Rice Research Institute
Sukarami Research Institute for Food Crops

Research Site

Sitiung, West Sumatra, Indonesia

Principal Investigators

Lead Institution

Goro Uehara

Support Institution

John J. Nicholaides, III






Humid Tropics Program **** Peru **** Indonesia


Representatives on Board of Directors

Lead Institution

Ada Demb

Collaborating Institution

M. Sudjadi





































|






Humid Tropics Program **** Indonesia


HUMID TROPICS PROGRAM **** INDONESIA

TECHNICAL PERSONNEL


Name, Degree

Goro Uehara, Ph.D.
John J. Nicholaides, Ph.D.
Cahyono, B.S.
D. Keith Cassel, Ph.D.
Carol J. Colfer, Ph.D.
Carl Evensen, M.S.*
Robert L. Fox, Ph.D.
Dan W. Gill, M.S.*
Ronald F. Guyton, Ph.D.
Heryadi, B.S.
Eugene J. Kamprath, Ph.D.
A. Karim Makarim, M.S.*
Harold McArthur, Ph.D.
E. Santoso, B.S.
D. Santoso, M.S.
A. Sofyan, B.S.
Subagio, M.S.*
S. Sukmana, Ph.D.
Sutji, B.S.
John R. Thompson, Ph.D.
B. Tori, B.S.
Gordon Y. Tsuji, Ph.D.
Michael K. Wade, Ph.D.
Russell S. Yost, Ph.D.


TropSoils Responsibility

Soil Physicsi/
Soil Fertility-2
Soil Conservation
Soil Physics
Anthropology
Soil Science
Soil Fertility
Soil Fertility
Agronomy
Soil Fertility
Soil Fertility
Soil Physics
Anthropology
Biochemist
Soil Fertility3/
Soil Fertility

Soil Classification
Soil Physics3/
Meteorologist
Agronomy
Soil Fertility
Soil Physics4/
Soil Management
Soil Fertility


Affiliation

UH
NCSU
CSR
NCSU
UH
UH
UH
NCSU
UH
CSR
NCSU
NCSU
UH
CSR
CSR
CSR
CSR
CSR
CSR
UH
CSR
UH
NCSU
UH


- Also, Principal Investigator, Lead Institution.
2-Also, Principal Investigator, Support Institution.
/-Also, Principal Investigator, Collaborating Institution.
- Also, Project Manager.
*Enrolled in a graduate program leading to next highest academic degree.






Humid Tropics Program **** Indonesia


HUMID TROPICS PROGRAM **** INDONESIA

AN OVERVIEW-



The Scope of Work for this activity as set forth in the grant which
established the Soil Management CRSP includes the following:
A. Characterize the soil of experimental sites.
B. Test promising methods of land clearing and select one or more
appropriate for existing conditions.
C. Monitor the effects of clearing methods on soil physical pro-
perties and identify or devise means for correcting undesirable
effects.
D. Determine the amounts of fertilizer and lime needed to produce
satisfactory crops and to sustain yields at levels profitable
for the farmers.
E. Evaluate the potential of grass/legume pasture mixtures in the
farming system.
F. Apply and assess the efficacy of soil conservation measures to
typical areas.
G. Find management systems which minimize energy needs to the
extent possible given local limitations on land, manpower and
markets.
H. Assess the likes, dislikes, needs and resources of farmers of
the area to guide research along lines likely to be beneficial
because of the adoption of results.
I. Disseminate the results of the research to other areas in the
humid tropics.



Prepared by Goro Uehara, Principal Investigator.






Humid Tropics Program **** Indonesia


The principal goal of the program is to uncover principles which
will enable resource-poor farmers to adopt soil management practices
that will increase family income and farm productivity and at the same
time preserve land quality. The research strategy is designed to insure
that social, cultural, economic and environmental factors that enhance
adoption of a soil management innovation are made an integral part of
the research plan. To achieve its goal, the project conducts a major
portion of the soil management research with farmers and in farmer
fields.

The Setting:

A 100,000 hectare transmigration site in Sitiung, West Sumatra,
Indonesia, serves as the project's research area. Six thousand trans-
migrant families and 1500 indigenous families live in the area. Large
cultural and language differences between the Javanese and Sudanese
transmigrants and between the transmigrants and indigenous groups pre-
sent unparalleled opportunities to study the responses of different eth-
nic groups to soil management innovations.
The soils of the region range in quality from moderately fertile
Inceptisols on river terraces to highly leached and impoverished Oxisols
and Ultisols of the dissected peneplain. Mean annual rainfall is 2800 mm
and mean annual air temperature is 260C. The tropical rain forest is
gradually giving way to rubber plantations and subsistence farming by
new settlers.
The first large group of transmigrants settled in Sitiung in 1976.
A modest home, 1.25 hectares of recently cleared land and a year's
supply of food, fuel, other living essentials, seed and fertilizer
awaited each family upon its arrival. Since then, five additional areas
in Sitiung have been settled. Bulldozer crews continue to clear more
land to accommodate new settlers from the densely populated Islands of
Java and Bali. The productive land on the river terraces has long been
settled and the newest transmigrants are being placed on the less
desirable lands of the dissected peneplain.
The damaging effect of land clearing by bulldozers is a serious
problem on the fragile and infertile soils of the peneplain. In response






Humid Tropics Program **** Indonesia


to rising costs and negative effects of mechanical land clearing, the
government currently is leaving the bulk of land clearing to the far-
mers. The farmers from Java and Bali, however, have no experience in
land clearing and regard felling and burning of large trees as
dangerous. Even after the land is cleared, the Javanese and Sundanese
farmers, accustomed to tilling the soil with a hoe, encounter a root mat
too thick for this tool. The indigenous farmer, on the other hand,
employs a no-till farming practice and places seeds in holes formed with
a pointed stick. The immigrant farmers soon discover that the knowledge
and experience that worked so well on the rich volcanic soils of Java
and Bali do not necessarily apply in Sitiung. For this reason, they are
enthusiastic participants of the TropSoils project.

Developing a Collaborative Project:

Transmigration is a major economic and development goal of the
Indonesian government. Sitiung is typical of many transmigration sites
in Kalimantan, Sulawesi and Sumatra. It is the intention of the govern-
ment to transfer soil management and farming systems principles disco-
vered in Sitiung to other transmigration sites in the country.
Similarly, TropSoils is also interested in uncovering principles that
will enable it to respond to requests for technical assistance for mana-
gement of tropical soils worldwide.
Sitiung was selected as the research site after detailed discus-
sions between Indonesian agencies and representatives of TropSoils. The
site is a representative microcosm of virtually everything that is
possible in the humid tropics. To exploit Sitiung's unique biophysical
and social setting, the Indonesian government has invested heavily in
the program. In addition to the administrative leadership and support
from CSR in Bogor, it has committed 15 scientists and technicians to the
projects. The senior Indonesian scientist holds a Ph.D. degree; he is
assisted by four Bachelor of Science and ten high school level tech-
nicians.
In addition to the research and support staff, the Indonesian
government has provided equipment, office facilities and living quarters
for its staff. The costs of seeds, fertilizer and chemicals are shared






Humid Tropics Program **** Indonesia


among the collaborating units. The installation, monitoring and har-
vesting of all TropSoils' experiments are done by Indonesian tech-
nicians. An operating budget of $88,000 was allocated to the TropSoils
project by the Indonesian government in 1983-84 fiscal year. A similar
amount has been budgeted for the current fiscal year.
For its component, the U.S. institution provides three on-site
senior scientists to the project--an agronomist who also serves as team
leader, a social scientist who deals with the farming systems component,
a soil scientist--and two graduate students. The project is also
assisted by university-based scientists from the U.S. institutions who
share research responsibilities with scientists in the field.
The major research sites have been characterized for soil proper-
ties and are continuously monitored for climate. The thorough, ongoing
soil and climate inventory of the Sitiung area will be valuable in
efforts to transfer the technology to other regions of the humid tro-
pics.
Although research is currently conducted on farmers' fields, the
Indonesian government has reserved 220 hectares of forested land for
development into a permanent research station. It is located on the
peneplain and represents the full topographic range of the region.
About a third of the area is relatively flat and the remainder varies in
steepness. It offers a range of landscapes for conducting land clearing
experiments, which will be a primary initial emphasis.
The Indonesian government has structured its project efforts so
that a fully-staffed research station will be operating in Sitiung when
the contribution of AID and the U.S. institution comes to an end.

Team Building:

To prepare the U.S. scientists for work in Indonesia and to ensure
that the group functions as a cohesive unit, a team building and
language training course was conducted in Honolulu between November 7
and December 3, 1982. The group met together daily over a six-week
period with approximately half of the time spent in language study.
The team building included an introduction to the concepts and
methods of farming systems research, seminar sessions with people from a






Humid Tropics Program **** Indonesia


variety of subjects on campus who were involved in complementary
research and introduction to conditions in Indonesia and the research
site. The team also took a Myers-Briggs personality test which was
designed to make explicit some of the differences in approach team mem-
bers might expect from each other and the particular strengths that each
team member brought to the group.
Since the farming systems approach requires continuing collabora-
tion and communication, it was essential that participants overcome the
kinds of disciplinary barriers that often interfere with team efforts.
The team building period served to acquaint the team members with each
other and to set a stage that has facilitated continuing collaboration--
both between disciplines and across cultural boundaries.
A trip to Yurimaguas, Peru, was made by the U.S. team members to
acquaint them with the valuable and closely related work underway there.
This trip also contributed to the team building process, as team members
coped together with the challenges of remote areas. Yurimaguas provided
a concrete situation in which team members first became alerted to each
other's interests and areas of expertise.
The value of the team building has been verified on site in
Sitiung. The necessity to prepare housing for themselves, participate in
a soil survey and adjust to the new conditions simultaneous constituted
a real test of team cohesian. The staff functioned effectively during
that critical period and has continued to do so.

Training:

Although Indonesia has quality soil scientists, it lacks the quan-
tity needed to meet the country's development needs. The Center for Soil
Research has stated its desire to use the TropSoils project to identify
potential candidates for advanced training. The objective is to select
from the large staff posted in Sitiung, young people who demonstrate
leadership qualities and interest in science. The intent is to select
high school graduates for entry into Bachelor of Science program,
holders of B.S. degrees for M.S. programs and individuals with M.S.
degrees for Ph.D. programs.
As part of this program, the Center for Soil Research is sending
two of its staff for Ph.D. training. Mr. D. Santoso, the site coor-






Humid Tropics Program **** Indonesia


dinator and lead Indonesian scientist for the TropSoils project will be
matriculating in an Australian University, and Mr. M. Subagio will be
going to North Carolina State University. Mr. Santoso will be replaced
by Dr. Soleh Sukmana who holds a Ph.D. degree in soil physics.
The number of Indonesian students qualified to enter U.S. institu-
tions is low because most lack proficiency in English. To overcome this
problem, the project has hired a teacher who serves as tutor for the
expatriate children and language instructor for the Indonesian tech-
nicians. Daily contact with the U.S. project staff adds to the language
learning process for the Indonesians.

Research Strategy:

Early in the project, Indonesian and U.S. scientists and admin-
istrators agreed on a research plan for TropSoils activities in Sitiung.
The plan is summarized as a flow chart in Figure 1.
It calls for an initial attention to survey and characterization of
soil resources and farming systems in the Sitiung area. That effort is
to be followed by testing of improved, alternative soil and crop manage-
ment systems on farmer fields.
Owing to serious soil erosion in parts of Sitiung and the need to
prevent worsening of the situation, the plan also called for soil mana-
gement research to reclaim the abandoned, eroded lands.
Since the method of land clearing has a decided effect on land
quality, the plan also called for a major effort in identifying suitable
land clearing methods that could be successfully transferred to other
parts of the humid tropics. Work in this area includes the selection,
survey and characterization of 220 hectare land clearing experimental
site which the Center for Soil Research intends to use as a permanent
research station.

Factors Affecting Progress of the Program:

During the planning process for the Soil Management CRSP, a visit
to Indonesia was made by personnel from the Planning Entity and AID/W to
discuss with Indonesia administrators and scientists information needs
and level of interest in a collaborative research program. The response







TROPSOILS

INDONESIA

Objective
Develop Soil/Management Systems
Appropriate to the Humid Tropics


Characterization of Soil, Present Farming Systems, and Land
Clearing Practices


Action Baseline Survey

Initial Best Estimate

I


Action Restoration _____
Experimental Research


Alternative
Soil/Crop Management
Systems and Land
Clearing Practices


Uncleared Areas


Action Prevention
Experimental Research


Action Farmer
Collaboration and Assessment

Outcome

Improved Farming Systems
(Economically, Environmentally and Socially Workable)


Figure 1. Flow chart of activities for the Indonesia TropSoils Project.


SCleared Areas


40 ----w






Humid Tropics Program **** Indonesia


on both issues was positive and enthusiastic. A "Letter of Intention"
was signed in February, 1980, by representatives of the Soils Research
Institute, the Central Research Institute of Agriculture and Bogor
University expressing concurrence with proposed research activities,
work location and institutional coordination.
The subgrant from the Management Entity to the University of Hawaii
and North Carolina State University to actually implement the program
was executed in January, 1982. In March, 1982, representatives from the
two institutions and the Management Entity visited Indonesia to discuss
formalization of the program and develop the appropriate legal docu-
ments. There was anticipation that all necessary approvals would be
obtained by August, 1982, and, thus, recruiting of personnel and other
plans were initiated by both universities. Difficulties occurred in
obtaining the required actions. Considerable uncertainty on timing
occurred and resulted in a number of go-stop actions on personnel
posting. Final approval was obtained in June, 1983; senior scientists
arrived in the country within a few weeks thereafter.
In spite of these developments, with the exception of a six-month
period between January and June, 1983, most of the time was used in
effective start-up activities.
Major constraints to on-site activities can be linked to isolation
of the project area. Isolation results in real and perceived constraints
in security, communication, housing, power supply and health.
Security. Concern for the security and safety of team members was
a major factor in Indonesian administration's reluctance to permit the
team to enter Sitiung prior to formal approval of the Agreement. The
concern for security exists to this day, and team members are required
to sign in at the District Attorney's office when they leave and return
to the area. The District Attorney's office would be in serious trouble
with the Central Government if the whereabouts of a team member, injured
outside the Sitiung area, were not known to the Office. The security
problem is perceived differently by the team members and the district
officials. The team feels secure in the village and fields, but the
officials are fearful that team members will be harmed by unfriendly
people from outside.






Humid Tropics Program **** Indonesia


Housing. Since original housing reserved for team members was
located in Sumani, 2.5 hours from the research area, the team arranged
to rent and upgrade homes owned by local settlers. The resulting
savings in time and fuel more than compensates for the inconvenience of
locating adequate housing.
Communication. There is no direct telecommunication link with the
team. The only telephone in Sitiung is located a few kilometers from
the team's residences. Cables are received at the post office in
Sitiung. A battery operated radio communication system is being deve-
loped to link team members with each other and to Padang and Bogor. In
cooperation with the IADS group in Sukarami, direct telephone, cables
and telex linkages have been established to a one person office in
Padang. Messages received in Padang are either called or mailed into
Sitiung by the office staff.
Power Supply. There is no municipal electricity or water supply.
Except for the kerosene refrigerators and gas stoves, household appli-
ances and lighting are provided by diesel generators. The type of equip-
ment purchased by the project to support a soil characterization
laboratory is constrained by lack of steady and reliable power supply.
Health. Two members have been afflicted with unknown ailments. One
member of the University-based staff who visited Sitiung in March, 1984,
was suspected of having contracted Dengue fever. Although proper pre-
caution can be maintained at home, it is difficult for team members to
reject food and drink offered by cooperating farmers. One team member
has been ill for over six months and returned to Hawaii for medical
help. The doctors suspected a virus and recommended a long rest, but the
patient returned to Sitiung after only a short stay.
Although isolation and the constraints that go with it appear for-
midable, team members treat them as minor inconveniences and continue
their work with remarkable enthusiasm. They recognize the reality of
working in a developing country is to deal with these kinds of
constraints. The connection between soil management and quality of life
is not lost because the constraints that affect project activities are
the same constraints that face everyone in Sitiung.






Humid Tropics Program **** Indonesia


DETAIL SOIL SURVEY OF THE SITE FOR LAND CLEARING RESEARCH



Leadership Personnel:

Harijogjo, CSR
Bambang Mahmudi, CSR
Yayat Hidayat, CSR
Anggana, CSR

Date Research Initiated:

May, 1984

Rationale for Investigation:

220 hectare, forested site has been selected to serve as a per-
manent research station. Instead of simply clearing the land, the land
clearing effort will become part of a study to assess land clearing
methods (see project on land clearing). A detailed soil and plant inven-
tory of the site will enable the land clearing project to locate
suitable research plots and to plan a long term research strategy for
the site.

Objective:

To prepare a detailed soil map (1:5,000) of the TropSoils land
clearing research site.

Experimental Approach:

This research is conducted in the Sitiung transmigration area of
West Sumatra, Indonesia. Transects through the site will be prepared and
soil and vegetation type recorded. Soil samples will analyzed in Bogor
and the field and laboratory data will be used to classify the soil
according to the Indonesian system of soil classification and Soil
taxonomy. A large scale map (1:5000) will be prepared.






Humid Tropics Program **** Indonesia


State of Progress:

A preliminary report has been reported.

Constraints of Progress:

See Overview

Applicability of Results to TropSoils Goal:

Detailed characterization of the land clearing site is necessary to
render the research results useful elsewhere in the humid tropics. This
site will be one of three "benchmark" land clearing sites planned under
a cooperative effort with IBSTRAM.

Training Component:


Soil survey and classification is a continuing
the TropSoils project. Its main training will be in
of Soil Taxonomy as a common international language
technology transfer.


training aspect of
the use and adoption
for soil management






Humid Tropics Program **** Indonesia


SOIL SPATIAL VARIABILITY IN NEWLY CLEARED FOREST LAND


Leadership Personnel:

Bruce Trangmar, UH
Goro Uehara, UH
Djoko Santoso, CSR

Date Research Initiated:

July, 1982

Rationale for Investigation:

A typical farm in the transmigration area varies in productivity
from bare spots to green strips. The bare spots are sterile subsoil
exposed by the bulldozer and the green strips correspond to the ash
lines of burnt trees. This type of variability is a problem for the
farmer and researcher. In farmers' fields, the bare spots are the first
to erode. Bare spots produce nothing and, therefore, are neglected.
Erosion feeds on neglect, and the land is eventually abandoned.
If a farmer applies lime and fertilizers uniformly over a field,
too little is applied to the bare spot and an overdose is given to the
green strips. But because the Sitiung farmers spread farm chemicals by
hand, they are in a position to vary the application rate according to
need. The farmer must learn or be taught to recognize various forms of
variability that causes inefficient use of scarce resource.
The researcher needs variability but wants a field with minimum
natural variability so that the effect of the treatment variable will be
clearly expressed. In Sitiung the range of natural soil variability is
almost always as large as the imposed treatment range. The aluminum
saturation of the surface layer of a freshly cleared and burnt forest
ranges from 0 to 90%. This is the same range a researcher would impose






Humid Tropics Program **** Indonesia


in a liming experiment to assess the effect of aluminum toxicity on crop
performance.
Fortunately, a new technique for dealing with soil variability is
now available to soil scientists. This technique, called geostatistics,
enables soil scientists to estimate the value of a soil property at
unsampled locations from an analysis of neighboring samples.

Objectives:

A. To assess soil variability in a small field and measure its
influence on crop performance.
B. To identify the soil, chemical and physical properties most
responsible for yield variability.
C. To test the occurrence of structure in the variance of soil,
chemical and physical properties by means of geostatistical
methods.
D. To establish the relationship between soil spatial varia-
bility and spatial variability in crop performance.

Experimental Approach:

This research is conducted in the Sitiung transmigration area of
West Sumatra, Indonesia. The theory of regionalized variables has been
developed by mining engineers to extract the maximum amount of infor-
mation from a minimum amount of sampling data. The sample data are used
to generate a semi-variogram which shows the existence or non-existence
of spatial relationships among neighboring samples. If such rela-
tionships exist, the information in the semivariogram can be used to
estimate values of soil properties in unsampled locations. This addi-
tional information can be used to prepare more accurate soil maps so
that problem areas can be more precisely pinpointed.
The theory of regionalized variables will be applied to two sets of
data. The first set consists of 88 soil profiles analyzed by the Center
for Soil Research. The samples were collected from the 100,000 hectare
transmigration site. The second set of data was collected from a plot in






Humid Tropics Program **** Indonesia


a farmer's field by the TropSoils team. The samples were analyzed by the
soil characterization laboratory of the Center for Soil Research in
Bogor.

State of Progress:

The results show that natural soil variability can be exploited to
answer key agronomic questions. Examples are available to illustrate the
variability of aluminum saturation in an experimental plot and its
corresponding effect on the rice crop. The data show that rice yields
were significantly higher on burn sites than on exposed subsoil. A more
detailed analysis shows that difference in organic matter, phosphorus
and nitrogen accounted for less of the yield increase than differences
in aluminum saturation, calcium, magnesium, potassium or zinc. Thus,
geostatistics enabled project scientists not only to map spatial
variability of soil properties to extract from the data set agronomic
information that relates soil productivity to soil properties.
The same technique has been employed to map agronomically important
soil properties for the entire 100,000 hectares research area. The spa-
tial variability of the amount of lime needed to correct aluminum toxi-
city in the Sitiung area illustrates how geostatistics can be used to
identify soil constraints.

Constraints to Progress:

See Overview

Applicability of Results to TropSoils Goal:

Soil variability which cannot be accounted for by traditional soil
survey methods can be dealt with by application of the theory of
regionalized variables. This type of soil variability occurs in every
agroecological zone and can be accommodated by existing computer soft-
ware. These software are available in a dissertation that has been
distributed to all SM-CRSP projects.






Humid Tropics Program **** Indonesia


Training Component:

Use of these techniques requires access to mainframe computers. It
is the intent of this project to train an Indonesian graduate student in
this technique when he arrives in Hawaii. Two Master of Science can-
didates from Indonesia have been proposed for matriculation in the
University of Hawaii.






Humid Tropics Program **** Indonesia


RECLAMATION OF UNPRODUCTIVE, ABANDONED LAND


Leadership Personnel:

Karim McKarim, NCSU
D. Keith Cassel, NCSU
John J. Nicholaides, III, NCSU

Date Research Initiated:

September, 1983

Rationale for Investigation:

Many transmigration areas in Indonesia have been hastily planned and
administered. The consequence is degraded landscapes that cannot pro-
duce sufficient food crops. Sometimes even cassava will not grow.
These areas were improperly cleared and improperly protected. Thus,
topsoil and organic matter have been pushed and/or eroded away. A major
challenge facing the government agencies is how to reclaim these barren
lands. This research is an initial step in identifying what must be
done, both chemically and physically to rectify the situation. This
process, of course, is partially site and soil specific, but what will
work in one area will give clues to what may work in others.

Objectives:

A. To identify soil management practices that will improve chemical and
physical properties of degraded soil.
B. To study the effect of lime and fertilizer on crop performance at
low and high critical levels for lime and nutrients.
C. To study the effect of various tillage methods on soil physical pro-
perties and crop yields.
D. To study the effect of green manures on crop yields and soil chemi-
cal and physical properties.






Humid Tropics Program **** Indonesia


Experimental Approach:

The research is conducted in the Sitiung transmigration area of West
Sumatra, Indonesia. A two pronged approach was developed to reclaim the
damaged soils by modifying both chemical and physical properties. To
alleviate suspected compaction and infiltration problems, the following
treatments were installed: (1) hoeing to 15 cm, (2) hoeing plus
applying mulch to the soil surface, (3) hoeing with incorporation of
organic matter, (4) turning the soil by spading fork to 30 cm depth, (5)
spading in alternate 40 cm strips to the 30 cm depth and (6) rototilling
to 15 cm. Three subplot treatments of the following soil fertility
levels were included on each main plot: FO, no lime and fertilizer; Fl,
application of lime, N, P, K, Mg, S, Cu and Zn at rates of 1500, 120,
40, 72, 70, 93, 1 and 4.5 kg/ha, respectively; and F2, the application
of the above nutrients at rates of 6840, 150, 572, 144, 140, 187, 2 and
6 kg/ha, respectively.
The experiment is a randomized complete block design with a split-
plot arrangement of treatments with four replications. The study site
will be continuously cropped for two years. Soil physical and chemical
properties will be monitored periodically throughout the study.
State of Progress:

The first two crops (rice and soybeans) of the first cycle have been
harvested. The rice crop responded dramatically to lime and fer-
tilizers. The unamended soil was nearly barren. Application of low
rates of lime and fertilizers resulted in moderate yields. The high
rates increased yields on the average by 17%. Green manuring,
incorporated 12.5 T/ha of fresh calapagonium sp, showed a very
substantial increase in rice yields at all three levels of fertility
compared with the nonmanured plots. Low rates of lime and fertilizers
with green manure produced considerably more than high rates without
green manure. There was little difference among tillage methods, except
for the strip tillage which was not as effective as the others.
The soybean crop, which is much more sensitive to low P and high Al
responded quite differently than the rice. Again, no amendments meant






Humid Tropics Program **** Indonesia


no yield, and even the low rates produced rather poorly. The high
rates, however, yielded very well, on the order of three times the low
rates. With this crop the green manure was not reapplied and there was
no residual effect on the bean yield. Deep spading produced a marked
positive effect on yields at low rates, but gave a negative effect at
high rates of lime and fertilizers.
Deep spading had the most favorable effect on compaction, bulk den-
sity and water infiltration. Organic matter additions generally
improved the soil physical condition compared to simple hoeing but not
as dramatically as the deep tillage.
Soil chemical analysis of the fertility main plots after the first
crop of rice showed that the low rates of lime and fertilizer increased
bases and P, while reducing Al to about 50 per cent of ECEC. The high
rates completely eliminated exchangeable Al and brought available P to a
very high level. The dramatic soybean response reflects this favorable
nutrient status.

Constraints to Progress:

Equipment for measuring soil physical properties is needed but is
currently unavailable in Sitiung.

Applicability of Results to TropSoils Goal:

The Center for Soil Research, as the national soil institute of the
Ministry of Agriculture, will be (and is) called upon to recommend prac-
tices that will prevent soil degradation and reclaim land that is
eroded. This research provides information that will assist it in deve-
loping a strategy for soil conservation and reclamation. This project
also helps the U.S. institutions by providing information on the basic
principles involved in what amounts to "rebuilding" a soil. We see
firsthand the soil forming processes at work in a dynamic and dramatic
situation, unlike perhaps any field condition that can be found in the
U.S.






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Training Component:

Karim Makarim is an Indonesian who is a candidate for the Ph.D.
degree at NCSU. This research will be used, in part, for his doctoral
thesis. He is gaining valuable research training and will return to
Indonesia.






Humid Tropics Program **** Indonesia


MANAGEMENT OF ORGANIC MATTER IN INDONESIAN FARMING SYSTEMS





Leadership Personnel:

Carl Evensen, UH
Russell Yost, UH
John Thompson, UH

Date Research Initiated:

October 1984

Rationale for Investigation:

Organic matter is an important soil component, especially in highly
leached and weathered tropical soils. Soil organic matter is associated
with increased cation exchange capacity, improved soil structure, and is
a major source of many plant nutrients. The soils in much of the
Sitiung area developed under rain forests which, as a rule, maintain a
tight nutrient cycle between litter decay, root uptake, and plant
growth. The clearing of rain forests breaks this cycle and often leads
to soil degradation through increased organic matter decomposition,
leaching of nutrients, soil compaction, and erosion.
Sustainable, low-input farming systems in Sitiung Indonesia must
provide for maintenance of soil organic matter. This project is
designed to compare farming system technologies in terms of inputs and
persistence of organic matter and their feasibility and attractiveness
to subsistence level farmers. An assumption to be tested is that a per-
manent soil cover of vegetation or mulch will best protect the soil and
create a stable equilibrium between organic matter and decomposition.
Hedges of legume trees cut frequently to provide mulch and legume cover
crops providing vegetative soil cover will be assessed in intercropping
with food crops.






Humid Tropics Program **** Indonesia


Objectives:

A. To evaluate the importance of soil organic matter in agri-
cultural production in Indonesia, determine its role in
nutrient cycling and effect on physical and biological pro-
cesses in the soil.
B. To identify optimum farming systems for the management of
organic materials.
C. To identify the major groups of soil organisms involved in
organic matter decomposition in Sitiung and to study the
effects of management factors on their numbers and activities.

Experimental Approach:

The field investigations will be conducted in the Sitiung area of
West Sumatra, Indonesia. The research will consist of two major phases.
The first phase will involve tree and cover crop species selection,
determination of lime and fertilizer requirements, and observation of
interactions between food crops and organic matter producing plants. In
the second phase, promising tree or cover crop, fertilizers, and food
crop combinations will be tested in farmer managed trials to determine
farmer acceptance. Since this research will be conducted as part of a
farming systems project, the trials will be open to adaptation as the
research needs and farmer situation in Sitiung are understood better.

State of Progress:

Project just initiated.

Constraints:

See Overview.

Applicability of Results to TropSoils Goal:

Organic matter is expected to be an important soil component in
other transmigration sites with highly leached and weathered soils.
Findings from these studies in Sitiung should contribute to better mana-
gement of soil organic matter in similar sites. Of particular interest






Humid Tropics Program **** Indonesia


will be the identification of useful tree and cover crop species and
determination of their interactions with intercropped food crops.

Training Component:

Management of organic matter will be part of the farming system and
will be incorporated in training aspects of farming systems research.
The data arising from this project will also be used in training for
nutrient dynamics and nitrogen transformation in crop modeling.






Humid Tropics Program **** Indonesia


POTASSIUM DYNAMICS IN CROPPING SYSTEMS OF WEATHERED SOILS

OF WEST SUMATRA, INDONESIA


Leadership Personnel:

Dan Gill, NCSU
Eugene J. Kamprath, NCSU
John J. Nicholaides, III, NCSU
Mike K. Wade, NCSU

Date Research Initiated:

June, 1984

Rationale for Investigation:

The soils in Central Sumatra are quite acidic with aluminum satura-
tions of 80 to 90 percent and have very low levels of potassium and
other bases. Sustained crop growth on these soils will require addi-
tions of fertilizer potassium. The relatively high rainfall in the area
enhances the potential for leaching losses of potassium. Such losses
can be reduced to some extent by neutralization of aluminum which
increases the accessibility of exchange sites for potassium. Relatively
little information is available on the potassium requirements for
sustained.production of cropping systems in Sumatra.

Objectives:

A. To determine the effect of K rates at three levels of base satura-
tion on the yield and uptake of K and basic cations of upland crops
in the Sitiung area of West Sumatra.
B. To determine the effect of different levels of base saturation on
the retention and movement of K applied at various rates.

Experimental Approach:

The research will be conducted in the Sitiung transmigration area of
West Sumatra.






Humid Tropics Program **** Indonesia


Two cropping systems will be used: (1) corn, soybeans and mung
beans and (2) rice, peanuts and cowpeas. Lime rates will be equivalent
to 500 kg CaCO3/ha and rates that will give 50 and 0 percent aluminum
saturation. The rates of K applied, as KC1, to each crop will be 0, 20,
40, 80, 120 and 240 kg K/ha.
Plant leaf samples will be taken at flowering to determine the K,
Ca, Mg and N concentration. Total plant content of these nutrients in
the harvested grain and yield of grain will be determined at maturity.
Soil samples will be taken at 15 cm intervals to a depth of 60 cm after
each crop to determine the movement of K and the basic cations.
Laboratory studies will be done on the quantity-intensity relationships
of K in these soils.

State of Progress:

The plot area is being prepared and lime treatments are now being
applied. The first crops will be planted in September, 1984.

Constraints to Progress:

The lack of equipment for conducting field experiments such as
drying facilities, plant choppers and small hand operated tractors could
hinder the quantity and quality of research.

Applicability of Results to TropSoils Goal:

Potassium availability and reserves in the weathered soils of the
humid tropics are generally very low. Addition of fertilizer K is the
only means for supplying the needed K. These studies will provide
needed information as to the amounts of K required and the soil K levels
that will result from given rates of fertilizer K.
The results of this study will be important for developing a soil
management program which provides for the efficient use of K fertilizers
in highly weathered soils.

Training Component:

Mr. Gill is a candidate for the Ph.D. degree at North Carolina State
University and is interested in pursuing a career in international agri-
cultural research. This research will be used for his doctoral thesis.






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PHOSPHORUS RATES AND METHOD OF APPLICATION


Leadership Personnel:

Mike K. Wade, NCSU
Djoko Santoso, CSR

Date Research Initiated:

January, 1984

Rationale for Investigation:

Current transmigration policy is to supply triple superphosphate
(TSP) at the rate of 100 kg/ha twice per year, irrespective of soil
type, soil analysis, or crop grown. Most soils in the Sitiung area are
extremely deficient in available P and doses of 100 kg TSP (20 kg P) per
ha are not likely to be adequate. The need for crop response and soil
test correlation data is great for all areas of Indonesia, especially
for upland crops. This research will aid in the development of a soil
test correlation data bank that can assist scientists and policy makers
in making scientifically-based decisions for P fertilizer rates and
distribution.
It has been observed that farmers generally have poor P fertilizer
management practices regarding method and timing of application. The
current recommendation is that P fertilizer be banded, a very labor
intensive operation that farmers are reluctant to follow. A more labor
efficient application method that can achieve equal or better crop pro-
duction is surely needed; especially for these farmers who do all field
operations with a few simple hand tools.

Objectives:

A. To determine optimum rates of TSP fertilizer on a newly cleared
clay loam Ultisol
B. To determine cost:benefit ratio of various methods of applying TSP
fertilizer
C. To study long-term effects of various P management schemes






Humid Tropics Program **** Indonesia


D. To determine critical P soil test values for rice, peanut and cowpea

Experimental Approach:

The research is conducted in the Sitiung transmigration area of West
Sumatra.
On-farm, researcher-managed, low input trials are used. Three
replications, of the following treatments were applied.
No P
20 kg P/ha broadcast and incorporated
o 40 kg P/ha broadcast and incorporated
o 80 kg P/ha broadcast and incorporated
20 kg P/ha banded
40 kg P/ha banded
80 kg P/ha banded
20 kg P/ha placed in dibble hole 5 cm to the side of the seed
hole
20 kg P/ha placed in hole with seed
20 kg P/ha banded inbetween every other row
80 kg P/ha broadcast and incorporated plus 2T lime, 50 kg K and
100 kg MgSO4.2H20 per ha
The source of P was triple superphosphate
It is hypothesized that if Al tolerant crops are grown (prior to
treatment the soil had 40% Al saturation), then P would be the major
nutrient limitation. Therefore for this low input approach only P fer-
tilizer has been applied, except for one 11 which was given lime and all
macronutrients to test the hypothesis that available P indeed is the
primary limiting soil factor for crop production.

State of Progress:

There was a marked response to P, as yields increased from about
zero to nearly a ton/ha at the highest rate. There were no significant
yield differences between the banded and broadcast treatments. Three
additional methods of applying the fertilizer were tested at the 20 kg
rate. Again there was no significant difference among the methods.
Yield levels were low, even with high inputs. The response curve
did not reach plateau yields, indicating P may still be limiting. In






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addition, the variety (locally obtained from new transmigrant farmers)
did not appear to be well suited to this region. At flowering and early
pod set stages, the.crop suffered from both leaf and wilt diseases.
The current crop is mungbean. Because peanut did not show a plateau
yield, all P treatments were reapplied prior to planting. Unlike
peanut, this crop is exhibiting considerable within-plot variability.
From other experiments we now know that mungbean is quite Al sensitive,
and it is suspected that soil acidity is responsible for the variabi-
lity.
Soil test levels of P increased with P rates. The relationship
indicates little initial P fixation and that predication of available P
should not be difficult.

Constraints to Progress:

This experiment requires rapid turnaround on soil and plant analyses
to better predict or evaluate the rates of lime and fertilizer should be
used on subsequent crops. Growing three crops a year with virtually no
break puts great and constant demand on laboratory facilities. We have
a small functional lab (approx. 20 samples per day of pH, bases and P)
for soils. This must be upgraded if it is going to meet the local
demand. Also equipment for doing plant samples is very much needed.
The peanut crop was strongly affected by an apparent poor choice in
variety selection. There is a serious shortage of developed or improved
varieties of all the upland crops. Sometimes seed is even difficult to
find in Bogor. It appears that the best solution to this problem is for
us to have our own seed storage facilities. High oil content seeds such
as soybeans and peanuts will maintain good viability in ambient con-
ditions for only 2-3 months.
The peanuts did not nodulate. We had no inoculant at planting time
for peanuts. Only soybean inoculant is regularly produced in-country.
No other seed or forage legume inoculant is available.

Applicability of Results to TropSoils Goal:

This research can help build a nationwide P soil test correlation
data bank for making site-specific P fertilizer recommendations.






Humid Tropics Program **** Indonesia


Current national production programs usually call for a blanket P rate
for all growers, ignoring soil test levels and soil type. Such a prac-
tice is inefficient as some soils need little or no P fertilizer, while
others need large doses. Accurate methods to predict optimum rates of P
will encourage farmers to use fertilizers and to use them effectively.
More labor efficient methods of P application are needed for these
non-mechanized farmers. The experiment showed that the currently
recommended banding method required 275 person-hours/ha of labor, while
broadcasting took only 40. Nearly all Javanese farmers hoe their land
between crops anyway, so incorporation is not additional labor. Even if
no tillage is done, the method of adding fertilizer in the seed hole
only required 80 person-hours/ha and was equally effective as banding in
improving yields (at the 20 kg P/ha rate).

Training Component:

This project is helping to train CSR personnel involved in methods
of determining fertilizer rates. Pre-treatment lab incubation studies,
post-harvest soil analyses and correlation with treatment and crop yield
exhibit the process involved in choosing and evaluating P fertilizer
rates. The foundation for soil test correlation is being laid.
General use of the laboratory in P determination and incubations is
training the technicians in useful techniques that can be expanded and
carried-on in future years.






Humid Tropics Program **** Indonesia


SOURCE AND METHOD OF LIME APPLICATION


Leadership Personnel:

Mike K. Wade, NCSU
Agus Sophian, CSR

Date Research Initiated:

September, 1983

Rationale for Investigation:

The Indonesian government has made a new commitment to developing
their "palawija" crops, i.e., food crops other than paddy rice. To pro-
vide information for this objective, a large scale liming program was
initiated in 1983. At present the most common, if not the only,
available source of lime in many areas is burned lime. It has certain
advantages as liming material: (1) It can be produced as a home
industry with little or no capital investment (an earthen or dug kiln
and firewood), (2) it is very reactive and therefore relatively low
doses are adequate to reduce toxic level of Al and (3) it is an
established industry in many places (although its end-use has not been
for agricultural purposes). Its main disadvantage may be in its short
residual effect. The other possible or likely source of lime is ground
limestone, either calcitic or dolomitic. The advantages of ground lime
are: (1) it has a longer residual effect and (2) it ultimately may be
cheaper if produced on a large scale. Its principle disadvantage is
that it takes a fairly significant capital investment to purchase the
grinding equipment. Also, quality control may be more difficult as just
about any rock can be ground and not visually distinguished from lime.
Only two carbonaceous materials can be heated and subsequently slaked by
hydrolysis.
Farmers use a variety of means to till their soil, and due to the
differing reactivity of these lime materials, it would be beneficial to
know if one or some methods were superior to others in bringing about






Humid Tropics Program **** Indonesia


incorporation and subsequent reaction of lime in the soil.

Objectives:

A. To compare burned lime and ground limestone for effectiveness in
neutralizing soil acidity and improving crop production
B. To compare the residual effect of the two liming materials
C. To study the effect of tillage on effectiveness of lime
D. To study the effect of tillage on crop growth and soil physical
parameters

Experimental Approach:

On-farm, researcher-managed trials are used in the Sitiung
transmigration area of West Sumatra.
The treatments are:
A. Lime Source
1. none
2. burned lime
3. ground limestone

B. Application method
1. surface broadcast no till
2. hoe incorporation 15 cm
3. cattle drawn plow 15 cm
4. rototiller 15 cm
5. deep spading 30 cm
The burned lime was applied at 1.2 x exch. Al (1.33 t/ha), while the
limestone, due to low solubility, was applied at 1.5 x exch. Al (2.25
t/ha). For the deep spading treatment the lime was applied at 2x the
above rates as incorporation was to 2x the depth of the other treat-
ments. In the no-till plots, 1/3 the lime rate was applied before
planting of each crop. Three crops were grown during the season (rice,
peanuts and mungbeans) and thus the same annual amount of lime was used.

State of Progress:

Rice did not respond to lime or tillage treatments. Initial soil
reaction was pH = 4.8 with 55% Al saturation. Upland rice is expected
in most cases, to tolerate such levels of acidity.
Peanuts are not as tolerant to soil acidity as rice but this crop
too showed little response to lime or tillage. Although there were no






Humid Tropics Program **** Indonesia


significant differences (P > .05) the limed plots generally gave higher
yields than the no-lime treatment. The deep tillage (spading) treatment
tended to give higher yields but again, no significant differences among
tillage treatments were obtained. Yield level of all plots was quite
low. The rice straw from the previous crop was used to mulch the
peanuts. However, rainfall during the 85 day growing period of the
peanuts was almost 1000 mm. The combination of high rainfall, mulch,
and drainage from higher areas kept the soil almost constantly
saturated. The peanuts did not grow well, looking stunted and yellow
from apparent lack of oxygen throughout the growing cycle. This may
well have suppressed a lime response. The deep tillage treatment may
have permitted better drainage and explains the somewhat higher yields
under this treatment.
The final crop of the 1983/84 season was mungbeans. This crop is
very sensitive to Al toxicity and showed a strong response to lime.
Harvest is currently under way, so no data is available. However, most
no lime plots are bare or at best have very stunted and low- or non-
producing plants. Visually the no-till treatments are the poorest and
the deep tillage are the best. Subsequent soil chemical and physical
property measurements should help explain why these responses occurred.
Soil samples are being taken at 0-5, 5-10, 10-15 and 15-30 cm depth
every 6 months. The pending analyses will allow monitoring of lime
reaction and distribution of source by tillage.

Constraints to Progress:

The primary constraint of this experiment is laboratory facilities.
The sampling with depth produces 180 samples per crop. Although this is
not so many by itself, coupled with the other experiments a backlog of
samples are developing. On-site facilities are capable of analyzing a
maximum of 20 samples per day, when there are no chemical or personnel
shortages. Frequent interruptions due to other responsibilities prevent
the technician from doing more than about 50-60 samples per week. Also
lack of plant sample preparation and analysis creates a serious problem
in having available plant tissue analysis data in-hand.






Humid Tropics Program **** Indonesia


Applicability of Results to TropSoils Goal:

This research is aimed at testing the effectiveness of the two most
common sources of lime in Indonesia. It will also test the importance
of tillage or method of incorporation on lime reaction. Soil analysis
will show the distribution and movement of lime within the soil as
affected by source and tillage. Liming agricultural land is a relati-
vely new practice in Indonesia. This study should provide information
for deciding on the kind of lime processing that should be developed.
The general characteristics of both types are known, but field data are
needed to quantify the relative reactivity and residual effect of the
two sources. Burned lime may not be an economically feasible source in
the U.S. or other developed countries, but can be rendered potentially
competitive in Indonesia as a home or small-scale industry. This has
obvious benefits for a country with high unemployment, and low invest-
ment funds.

Training Component:

This experiment provides the opportunity for the personnel to gain
both field and lab experience with these two major sources of lime. It
also allows them to experience and consider alternative tillage opera-
tions, which is a very important question for the farmers. This is in
opposition to conventional research station experience where tillage is
usually done by hand or wheel tractor.






Humid Tropics Program **** Indonesia


RESIDUAL AND MAINTENANCE RATES FOR LIME


Leadership Personnel:

Mike K. Wade, NCSU
Eugene J. Kamprath, NCSU
Djoko Santoso, CSR

Date Research Initiated:

September, 1983

Rationale for Investigation:

Soils in the Sitiung area, as well as many in the outer islands of
Indonesia in general, are quite acid. Most of these unamended soils
have pH values less than 4.5 and exchangeable acidity greater than 2.5
meq/100 ml soil, with a resulting base saturation greater than 60% (many
reach 80-90%). To successfully grow such food crops as peanuts,
soybeans, mungbeans, and corn, liming is necessary. Even acid tolerant
crops such as cassava and upland rice might be expected to respond to
lime on the more acid soils. Although much is understood about the
science of liming soils for agricultural purposes, on-site verification
of rates and establishing critical soil test acidity levels for the
major crops is desirable. Beyond determining critical levels and ini-
tial rates for a given soil and crop, it is necessary to study the resi-
dual effect of applied lime under the local rainfall and soil conditions
to determine how much and how often lime will have to be reapplied in
order to maintain a desired level of base saturation.

Objectives:

A. To determine the critical level of soil acidity parameters) for
optimum production of upland rice, soybeans, and mungbeans
B. To determine a method of predicting lime rates necessary to achieve
a specified level of soil acidity
C. To determine the annual lime application rate required to maintain a






Humid Tropics Program **** Indonesia


specified level of soil acidity
D. To monitor the residual effect of various rates of one-time lime
applications on a rotation of annual food crops

Experimental Approach:

The general procedure involves on-farm, researcher-managed studies
in the Sitiung transmigration area of West Sumatra. It is designed for
a minimum duration of three years.
The experiment is 2-factor factorial with 4 replications. The
treatments are:
Lime rates
1. u T/ha
2. 1/ T/ha (3/8 x exch Al)
3. 1 T/ha (3/4 x exch Al)
4. 2 T/ha (112 x exch Al)
5. 4 T/ha (3 x exch Al)

Lime maintenance
1. Residual only
2. Annual application to maintain first crop levels of Al
saturation.
The source of lime was burned limestone.
All plots receive a blanket application of N, P, K, Mg and S at
rates estimated to eliminate deficiencies.

State of Progress:

Upland rice, the first crop grown, showed little yield increase due
to lime. Unlimed plots averaged 1.6 T/ha while all limed plots yielded
2.0 T/ha. However, this difference was not statistically significant at
5% level of probability and there was poor correlation between yield and
soil acidity parameters such as percent aluminum saturation, pH or Ca +
Mg. This is not surprising, as upland rice is known to tolerate acid
soils. The unlimed plots had an average pH of 4.6, with acid saturation
of 66%.
Soybeans, the second crop, showed a marked response to lime, as it is
much more sensitive to acid soil.
Mungbeans, the third crop, has been grown and recently harvested.
Although this crop responded sharply to lime, it grew poorly and yields






Humid Tropics Program **** Indonesia


are low even at high rates of lime. Marginal rainfall and leaf disease
seemed to be contributing factors.
The residual effect of the lime treatment when burned lime is the
form applied appears to be relatively short. Seven months after its
application there was a decrease in the available soil Ca and Mg and an
increase in the exchangeable Al and Al saturation. The residual effect
of calcitic and dolomitic lime will probably be longer because of more
coarse materials being present compared with the powdered form of the
burned lime. Thus, in areas of high rainfall and potential for leaching
of Ca and Mg ions, the limestone should probably contain some coarser
fractions in addition to some fine particles to provide a longer resi-
dual effect.
The soil analysis for the final crop in the rotation, mungbeans, are
pending. Based on those analyses, estimates will be made for main-
tenance doses to re-achieve first crop acidity levels in the designated
maintenance plots. Then the second year's rotation will begin with a
comparison of the lime response on residual vs. maintained rates. The
rotation will be the same as the first year, i.e. rice, soybeans, mung-
beans.

Constraints to Progress:

In addition to the need for improved soil analytical facilities and
the creation of plant analytical facilities, more and better information
on crop protection is needed. Disease in the rice and insects in the
soybeans caused reduced yields. Low yields were achieved in mungbean
without any clear cut problem being positively identified.
As with varieties, crop protection for upland crops is under the
jurisdiction of the Food Crops Research Institute. But it is, as is our
collaborating CSR, relatively new in working in these upland, acid and
infertile soils of the humid tropics. Much progress has been made in
the central producing areas of Java, but materials and methods used
there don't necessarily work here. We have good contact and rapport
with the West Sumateran Food Crops people from Sukarami, but do not have
tried and proven management practices yet developed.






Humid Tropics Program **** Indonesia


Applicability of Results to TropSoils Goal:

This experiment is providing information to begin building a data-
base for correlating soil acidity parameters with crop growth.
Eventually, we hope to define critical values for the major crops of the
area so that more precise recommendations for correcting soil acidity
can be passed on to government agencies.
The red-yellow podzolics (Ultisols and Oxisols) are prevalent on
many transmigration sites throughout Indonesia. It is expected that
these results, i.e. critical values and lime rate predictions, can be
extended to other areas of similar soils. Once sufficient data are
collected, CSR can develop a lime recommendation scheme for growers
through national commodity production programs. Our results can be com-
pared with findings from other acid soil regions to establish or confirm
acid soil/lime/crop management principles.

Training Component:

The researchers involved in the experiment can learn about the dyna-
mics of lime application; its effect on soil parameters and its reaction
and movement in the soil. Once again the importance of simple lab pro-
cedures in quantifying and predicting lime requirements are being
learned by the researchers and technicians involved. Also, this serves
as another example of how to define and establish crop yield and soil
test correlations as well as critical levels. As a service to their
farmers and government agencies, this is probably one of the most
lacking aspects of CSR's work. If the value of such information can be
seen, then expansion and development of a nationwide program can begin.






Humid Tropics Program **** Indonesia


PASTURE GRASS AND LEGUMES FOR THE HUMID TROPICS



Leadership Personnel

John Thompson, UH
D. S. Gunawan, CSR

Date Research Initiated:

January, 1984

Rationale for Investigation:

Ground cover is a logical and sound way to protect cleared land,
reclaim eroded soil, provide feed for livestock and serve as green
manure for the resource-poor farmers of Sitiung and the humid tropics.
Pasture grass and legume species that perform well and serve multiple
uses can become permanent and inexpensive components of the farming
system. This project is designed to match the environmental requirements
of pasture grass and legumes to (1) the environmental characteristics of
the land and (2) the resource characteristics and preference of the
farmer.

Objectives:

A. To evaluate germplasm in a range of environments representative
of the humid tropics.
B. To identify suitable cover crops for eroded lands.

Experimental Approach:

This research is conducted in the Sitiung transmigration area of
West Sumatra, Indonesia. CIAT has a collection of pasture grass and
legume germplasm ready for testing. These cultivars will be tested in
Sitiung under minimum input situations. Cultivars will be selected for
vigor, growth rate, pest resistance, palatability, productivity and sur-
vivability.






Humid Tropics Program **** Indonesia


State of Progress:

These experiments were previously arranged through contacts with
CSR and CIAT personnel. Jose Toledo, Coordinator of the forage and
pasture project for CIAT, provided seedstocks of several species of
grasses and legumes.
James Spain, pasture agronomist from CIAT, has observed the growth
and was much impressed with the performance of several of the species
being evaluated. His wife, who is a microbiologist, collected several
samples for classification of mycorrhizae. This adds to the information
on mycorrhizae in the Sitiung area which Russell Yost and his graduate
students in Hawaii are compiling.
About two months ago the team also had the opportunity to discuss
the native legumes of Sumatra with Ranier Schultz-Kraft who is the
legume germplasm collector for CIAT. Schultz-Kraft was much impressed
with the broad range of forage legumes in Sumatra and promised to return
for a detailed collection and classification of local legumes. The team
will be working closely with him and may utilize some of these species
in the legume evaluation in Sitiung.
One grass and four legume species show promise as cover crops to
reclaim eroded land and at the same time serve as animal feed.
The grass species which performs very well is Brachiaria dietyon-
cura. The legumes are:

* Aeschinamene histrix This is a very vigorous legume with quick
recovery. It should be compatible with a vigorous grass such as
Brachiaria.
* Centrosema maerocorpem; C. Pubescence and C. sp. Both appear to
be well-adapted and vigorous.
* Pueroria phaseolides In spite of some insect problems, this
species now appears to be well-established.
* Desmodium ovalifolium This legume was slow to establish but it
now appears to be well-established. Some of the Stylosanthes and
Zornia species also appear to be well-adapted to the Sitiung
area.






Humid Tropics Program **** Indonesia


Constraints to Progress:

See Overview

Applicability of Results to TropSoils Goal:

Carol Colfer has discovered from her time allocation studies that
Sitiung families require considerable time to cut forage from roadside
and abandoned fields for their farm animals. The quality of the feed is
very poor and the CIAT collection has the potential to significantly
reduce the time needed to harvest forage and measurably improve quality
of the harvested feed.
This work also has relevance to the small ruminant CRSP which is
active in the country. It is highly likely that future tests of CIAT's
pasture grass and legume collection will uncover many more high perfor-
mance species that will serve as ground cover to protect soil from ero-
sion, green manure, forage for farm animals and a land reclamation cover
crop.

Training Component:

Pasture grasses and legumes serve as training elements in erosion
control, green manuring, biological nitrogen fixation, ecology of
mycorrhizae, animal feeding, land reclamation and ground cover for
rubber plantings. The varietal testing also serves to illustrate
genotype-environment interactions and the principles of matching crop
requirements to land characteristics. The multiple uses of grasses and
legumes in the farming system provide the basis for systems thinking in
soil management research.






Humid Tropics Program **** Indonesia


SOYBEAN VARIETY EVALUATION


Leadership Personnel:

Mike K. Wade, NCSU
Heryadi, CSR
Martono, CSR

Date Research Initiated:

February, 1984

Rationale for Investigation:

Soybean is one of the major food crops in Indonesia. Any research,
soils or otherwise, will be affected by variety used. Improved soybean
varieties suitable for the low elevation humid tropics are relatively
scarce. Soybean varieties are notorious for site specificity and few
data are available from trials under soil and climate conditions similar
to those in Sitiung. It is deemed quite beneficial to use tested
varieties in our soil management trials. To lose an experiment due to
poor yields or erratic response because of an unknown or poorly chosen
variety is very costly in both human and financial resources. It is
perhaps ultimately more beneficial to actually screen varieties and
lines for Al and/or low P tolerance. However, this initial trail is
needed to help select good genetic stock for use in research.

Objective:

Test available soybean varieties in the Sitiung area under high
input technology.

Experimental approach:

Preliminary screening of common soybean varieties in a thrice
replicated trial on an Oxisol was conducted in the Sitiung transmigra-
tion area of West Sumatra. It was limed to 1.5 times the exchangeable
Al (3.25 T/ha) and received 40 kg P and 100 kg K/ha. Seed was inocu-






Humid Tropics Program **** Indonesia


lated with rhizobium received from NIFTAL.

State of Progress:

Six varieties were tested. Wilis, obtained from the old Benchmark
project, produced very well. It grew very well vegetatively, matured
in 90 days, and had large seeds. A line (B-3038) from Food Crops in
Bogor grew well also, even taller than Wilis, but the seed was very
small and yields were lower than Wilis. Orba, the most common improved
variety in Indonesia, did poorly.
The Wilis variety was subsequently tried at another location that
previously had been limed and fertilized and planted to Orba. Orba
growth had been poor and yield was less than 500 kg/ha. Early vegeta-
tive growth of the Wilis, with no additional lime or fertilizer, was
markedly superior to what Orba had been (height at 30 days was 28 cm for
Orba and 45 cm for Willis).
The variety trial is completed, but will be repeated as more
varieties are collected from whatever sources for testing in Sitiung.

Constraints to Progress:

Availability of good quality varieties is quite limited even on a
research level. Contacts with other Indonesian agencies and projects
need to be improved. Better yet would be contacts with international
sources, such as INTOSOY, AVRDC, etc., to help introduce and test more
germplasm in Indonesia.

Applicability of Results to TropSoils Goal:

Varieties that perform well in Sitiung would be possible candidates
for other analogous areas of Indonesia, as well as humid tropical areas
of South America and Africa. Initial screening here can help select
varieties suitable for testing in other tolerance-type trials such as
soil infertility, insects, diseases and water stress which can be an
effective means of increasing production. Also using tried and proven
varieties in our management trials can help insure good yields, which,
in turn, improves the credibility of our research results.






Humid Tropics Program **** Indonesia


Training Component:

Conducting variety trials is a relatively simple matter but has two
important functions. One, it teaches those involved how to analyze a
crop. The close observations usually made in variety trials, e.g. date
of flowering, days to harvest, rate of growth, fruiting characteristics,
forces the researchers to observe a crop closely at all its development
stages. This provides a useful background for later evaluating the per-
formance of the crop in other type trials, such as a fertility trial.
Second, variety trials usually exhibit the large differences that may
occur among varieties. It illustrates the importance of knowing and
choosing good varieties for our research, and it shows how the variety
chosen can seriously affect or influence the results and conclusions of
a given experiment.






Humid Tropics Program **** Indonesia


FARMER AND RESEARCHER DESIGNED AND MANAGED CROPPING SYSTEMS


Leadership Personnel:

Mike K. Wade, NCSU
Carol J. P. Colfer, UH
Djoko Santoso, CSR

Date Research Initiated:

October, 1983

Rationale for Investigation:

Part of the philosophy of the TropSoils/Indonesia program is uti-
lization of the FSR approach, which infers close involvement of both
agricultural and social scientists with each other and with farmers.
When working in our own culture, especially those with a farm
background, there is usually an inherent understanding of the farm
culture. However in a foreign setting, that situation does not
necessarily exist. In a strict agricultural research sense it does not
matter, as we can conduct experimentation on the research station that
deals with soil management problems. But such an approach can have
shortcomings. Since the ultimate recipient of our agricultural research
is the local farmer, it seems that in order to develop effective and
acceptable technology for him, we must gain an understanding of his
situation, economically, agriculturally, culturally, and his thinking,
goals, conflicts, government influence, etc. Such information can then
help the agricultural research develop in a way that will hopefully help
optimize our work toward development of effective and acceptable tech-
nology.
This research project then is not aimed so much at answering scien-
tific questions, but is done to enhance interaction with the new
transmigrants. A few treatments have been selected to test various
input packages that might be used by the transmigration program. These
are done on farmers' fields and managed by the farmers to see how well






Humid Tropics Program **** Indonesia


the packages perform under "real world" conditions. We have a good idea
of what to expect of these on a station with researcher management but
now we test them by the user.
Last, but not least, the interaction of the farmers and researchers
allows the researchers to learn from the farmer as well as vice-versa.
His years of experience have been a good teacher in how to manage his
land, and we should be able to learn from it.

Objectives:

A. To compare fertiizer packages, including rock phosphate or lime
against the current government supplied package of urea and triple
superphosphate (TSP)
B. To enhance interaction with local farmers so as to better understand
a) their problems and b) their goals
C. To learn and get ideas from the farmers, drawing on their knowledge
and experience to help generate more appropriate research

Experimental Approach:

On-farm, farmer-managed trials are conducted with 19 participating
farmers, in the Sitiung transmigration area of West Sumatra. There is
one replication per farmer; the plot size is 10 x 20 m2. The initial
plan is for a one year study, with the intention of making use of
established contacts and rapport with these farmers that can be used to
test positive results from component trials in years to come. Four
packages tested are:
1. no inputs
2. government supplied fertilizer, i.e., 100 kg urea + 100 kg TSP/ha
3. 800 kg rock phosphate/ha + government supplied fertilizer
4. 2.5 T lime + 100 kg urea + 200 kg TSP/ha.

State of Progress:

An intercropping pattern was used consisting of rice with relay
planted cassava. After the rice harvest, peanuts and chili peppers were
planted between the cassava. To date only the rice harvest is complete.
Tillage decisions were left to the farmer for the no-fertilizer and






Humid Tropics Program **** Indonesia


government packages. The rock phosphate and lime plots were to be hoed
after broadcasting the rock and lime. TSP was banded in all cases.
Three farmers were selected not to hoe the rock and lime.
Although tillage was not a factor in the four treatments, it turned
out to be a very critical management decision. There was no increase in
production by fertilizers when the land was hoed. However if not hoed,
the lime treatment was considerably better than the other packages. In
the non-limed treatments, hoeing gave an approximate 50% yield increase.
The area for this trial was all newly cleared land, i.e., first
planting. Hoeing was very difficult due to the thick mass of roots from
the previous forest. But, apparently, incorporating the forest litter
(there was no general burn) had a fertilizing effect that was even
greater than the urea and TSP and rock phosphate. Most of the Javanese
farmers thought it best to hoe, as they traditionally do in Java.
However, the root barrier deterred some of them. Also, the local
(Minang) transmigrants traditionally slash and burn for upland rice
cultivation and they advocated not hoeing. They did not think it was
detrimental, merely a waste of time. However the situation here was
somewhat different from the usual slash and burn. This forest had been
felled in the rainy season and not burned. The farmers arrived and
cleared the felled trees several months later during the following dry
season. By then there was little dry leaf litter or twigs suitable to
fire a generalized burn. Thus they had to hand cut and pile the limbs
and logs.
Currently peanut and cassava harvests are being completed. Pepper
failed mostly due to disease and infertility. Plans are being made to
amend and continue the treatments. Next year's cropping pattern will be
a simple rotation of rice and soybeans or peanuts.

Constraints to Progress:

Because of the nature of the FSR, with farmers managing the plots,
the work is not particularly demanding. We only do annual soil analysis
and measure only crop yields so facility demand is also minimal. The
main constraint is having time to observe the plots and interact with
farmers in their fields or homes. No fixed schedule is used and so this






Humid Tropics Program **** Indonesia


is done at our convenience when not involved in other research activi-
ties.

Applicability of Results to TropSoils Goal:

This research offers package suitability and management implications
for farmers arriving at newly cleared sites. It also gives the
researchers the opportunity to monitor soils and farmers from their time
of arrival. Information gained can be used for making recommendations
and designing research in other new areas.

Training Component:

Farmers newly arriving at transmigration sites are often working in
a vacuum. They have just been moved from an area with very different
soils and climate. They, like the researchers, are in a new and dif-
ferent situation. They are very open, and searching for new information
and technology. By working closely with such farmers, the researchers
can find more appropriate and useable technologies that can be of imme-
diate use to other new transmigrants in neighboring or similar areas.
By the close association with them, the researchers also gain insight
into the goals, problems, and thinking of transmigrants. This interac-
tion in turn should help guide the component research so as to provide
more culturally and economically acceptable technology.






Humid Tropics Program **** Indonesia


COOPERATOR FARMER INTERVIEW SERIES


Leadership Personnel:

Carol Colfer, UH
Barbara Chapman, EPC
Veronica Kasmini, CSR
Bartholomeus Wied Apriadji, IPBNP
Liek Irianti, IPBNP

Date Research Initiated:

November, 1983

Rationale for Investigation:

The principle of matching the requirement of a soil management
innovation to the cultural and resource characteristics of the farmer
entails knowledge of the requirement of the innovation and the charac-
teristics of the user of the innovation. This interview series is
designed to understand the cultural and resource characteristics of the
farmer so that soil management innovations can be tailored to match the
needs and absorptive capacity of the farmer.

Objectives:

A. To monitor characteristics of the farming families with whom
the team is working.
B. To compare their lives with those of a randomly selected
group of "control" farming families.

Experimental Approach:

This research is conducted in the Sitiung transmigration area of
West Sumatra, Indonesia. The approach involves development of rapport
with 40 families, and periodic interaction with them over time. Effort
was made to develop a sense of trust and understanding of team goals,
and thereby increase the likelihood of getting accurate responses to






Humid Tropics Program **** Indonesia


queries. The families that were surveyed by the nutritionists included
those involved in this interview series.
The following represent kinds of questions that have been incor-
porated into the interview series: Since the people appeared to be quite
interested in fruit trees, questions on the kinds, numbers and locations
of fruit trees were included. In this way the existence of a variety of
fruit trees already planted in people's houselots was verified, as well
as the people's interest in these crops. This information is then shared
with soil scientists.
The team wanted a sense of whether the people in the community were
experienced in agriculture so a question on land holdings and previous
agricultural experience was included. About half of the farmers inter-
viewed had been landless in Java, but virtually all had agricultural
experience as laborers.
At another point the team wanted to get an idea of how much money
the people had brought with them. The purpose of this question was to
ascertain whether they had funds to buy agricultural inputs. The whole
series was designed to monitor and provide ongoing information as the
team decided what would be useful.

State of Progress:

The most relevant benefit of this particular interview series was
to provide the team with timely, focused information that relates to
ongoing agricultural experimentation in the community. In the future the
team expects to use this method to ascertain the profitability of the
soil management innovations recommended to and adopted by the farmers.

Constraints to Progress:

See Overview

Applicability of Results to TropSoils Goal:

The applicability of this interview series derives more from the
process of determining what questions need to be answered than from the
specific questions deemed important by this particular team in this par-
ticular location. It is hoped that soil scientists working in this team






Humid Tropics Program **** Indonesia


will leave the project understanding that information from farmers is
relevant and is also accessible by relatively straight-forward proce-
dures. If these persons do not try to gain this information themselves
in the future, at least they will understand that it is important and
seek help from social scientists.

Training Component:

The primary training impact of this series to date has been
periodic input from Colfer into decisions about agricultural experimen-
tation.






Humid Tropics Program **** Indonesia


NUTRITION/DIET/INCOME SURVEY


Leadership Personnel:

Carol Colfer, UH
Barbara Chapman, EPC
Liek Irianti, IPBNP
Bartholomeus Wied Apriadji, IPBNP

Date Research Initiated:

April, 1984

Rationale for Investigation:

A purpose of this study is to compare the nutritional status and
income levels of the people now with what is obtained at the conclusion
of the TropSoils project. In the interim, the team hopes to compare
various survey questions in this location and in the urban context of
Bogor. It may be possible to make comparisons with other countries which
participated in the Street Foods Project. Chapman is quite interested in
comparing the findings in Sumatra with those of her previous research in
Central Java several years ago. The analysis will provide the team with
a means of assessing the appropriateness of proposed new crops for
experiments over time. Entry of these data into a computerized data base
management system will improve their usefulness.

Objectives:

Establish a baseline for nutritional status, dietary patterns and
income levels in the area of field research investigations.

Experimental Approach:

This research is conducted in the Sitiung transmigration area of
West Sumatra, Indonesia. The dietary patterns were of particular
interest since the team hoped to select food crops for use in management
experiments which would be usable by transmigrants in their subsistence
efforts and would supplement nutritional deficiencies. Data were also






Humid Tropics Program **** Indonesia


collected on the agricultural production of families. The team wanted a
reading on the relative wealth of Sitiung I compared to II (irrigation
and no irrigation, respectively); and Sitiung V which, in contrast to I
and II, is newly settled.
The approach was to utilize experienced researchers combined with
knowledge of local conditions to construct a survey instrument that
would provide the information desired. People were interviewed in their
homes, usually in their language. Each of the 80 families was inter-
viewed twice, on consecutive days, so that actual food consumption data
would be as accurate as practical and relying as little as possible on
memory. Income data were obtained to include agricultural production
that was consumed and not sold, using market prices that were obtained
at the time of the interviews.

State of Progress:
The results showed Sitiung I and II to be grouped together, income-
wise, at the top and bottom of the ladder. Sitiung V was generally in
the middle, from an income standpoint. Incomes range from approximately
$8.00 to $200.00 per month. Nutritional status was marginally adequate.
The lack of variety in the diets was suggested as a possible contributor
to their nutritional deficiencies. Virtually no meat was consumed by the
people in any of the locations. The nutritionists warned the team of a
danger in focusing on high value crops, the reason being that the people
will sell them rather than consume them to improve their nutritional
status. They also suggested that the team introduce some of the variety
of seeds for edible plants available in Java.

Contraints to Progress:

See Overview

Applicability of Results to SM-CRSP Goal:

The applicability of these findings should be reasonably great for
other transmigration sites. The findings from Sitiung V, where the
people had only recently stopped receiving their government subsidy,
should be of relevance for assessing the adequacy of the subsidy. The






Humid Tropics Program **** Indonesia


description of the subsistence adjustment that has been made by the
longer term residents can also be of use to the team in suggesting agro-
nomic improvements that are consistent with existing patterns.
Training Component:
Training activities were limited to the informal interaction that
occurred between team members and the visiting researchers. Some team
personnel were alerted to nutritional inadequacies and possible agri-
cultural solutions; but the regular seminars that had been planned could
not be arranged due to Colfer's illness.






Humid Tropics Program **** Indonesia


TIME ALLOCATION STUDY

Leadership Personnel:

Carol Colfer, UH
Atin Kurdiana, CSR
Edi Santoso, CSR
Veronica Kasmina, CSR

Date Research Initiated:

September, 1983

Rationale for Investigation:

Many promising soil management innovations and practices are not
adopted by farmers because the effort required to implement the innova-
tion conflicts with the work habits and schedule of the farmer. Farmers
generally invest their greatest effort on activities which are critical
to their survival and quality of life. Time allocation studies of farmer
activities are efficient ways to identify priority soil management
research that corresponds to farmer needs.

Objectives:

A. To ascertain the current division of farm labor, by sex and
age.
B. To determine how people were choosing to use their labor.
C. To determine important seasonal variation in activities.
D. To maintain ongoing communication between researchers and
farming families.
Experimental Approach:
This research is conducted in the Sitiung transmigration area of
West Sumatra, Indonesia. The approach was somewhat different from many
time allocation studies in that people were not asked to remember how
much time they devoted to some preselected tasks. Rather a randomized
schedule was drawn up at the beginning of the study for the entire year.
Visits were then made to the scheduled households, and the activities of






Humid Tropics Program **** Indonesia


all members of the household were noted. Four households were visited
each day.

State of Progress:

The data are currently being entered into the computer to form a
data base from which specific soil-management-related questions can be
asked related to people's usual activities. The large number of obser-
vations and their random nature permit reasonably accurately generaliza-
tions to the general populace. The fact that two very different
transmigration sites were used, one representing a long-established one
and the other a newly-settled site, allow the team to ascertain impor-
tant differences based on length of residence. These data will also pro-
vide a measure of the changes that occur over the course of the
research.
The team has already had cause to question the frequency with which
people must search for grass for their cattle and goats, the division of
agricultural labor between the sexes, the incidence of off-farm
employment, monthly variation in productive activities of adults, among
others. When the data are fully entered into the computer system, they
will be much more accessible to team members.

Constraints to Progress:

Refer to Overview

Applicability of Results to TropSoils Goal:

The applicability of these findings will depend on the similarities
between this location and others to which one might wish to generalize.
However, the process is an easy one to replicate, and other researchers
all over the world are conducting time allocation studies (using this
method as well as others). There is considerable probability that
transmigrants of similar ethnic groups in other tropical rainforest
locations will have similar options for spending their time.
Besides the benefit of allowing the team to answer specific,
research-related questions about the population with which they are
working, this time-allocation study contributes to a growing body of






Humid Tropics Program **** Indonesia


information about how people spend their time. In recent years, there
has been an increasing recognition that unpaid work has been underesti-
mated and undervalued. This particularly affects poor people and women,
and researchers have begun to develop a body of information on how
people spend their time when they are not being paid. The TropSoils
studies can contribute to this body of knowledge.

Training Component:

The training of CSR personnel in this kind of study can contribute
to a more people-oriented research agenda for the future, as well as
teaching soil scientists one of the techniques for maintaining awareness
of community concerns and interests. A number of CSR personnel have been
involved in data collection for this study. This provides a mechanism
by which they regularly interact with farmers, becoming attuned to their
concerns, constraints and goals. This in turn effects their decisions
about the kinds of experimentation that are likely to yield agricultural
technology that can be used by farmers.











HUMID TROPICS

PERU AND BRAZIL






Humid Tropics Program **** Peru **** Brazil


HUMID TROPICS PROGRAM **** PERU **** BRAZIL

ORGANIZATION




Lead Institution

North Carolina State University

Collaborating Institutions

Institute Nacional de InvestigaciOn Agropecuaria
Unidade de Execucao de Pesquisa de Ambito Estadual de Manaus

Linkage Institutions

Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical
Centro Internacional de la Papa
Corporacion de Desarrollo de Loreto
Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuaria
International Council for Research in Agroforestry
International Fertilizer Development Center
International Institute for Tropical Agriculture
Institute Interamericano de Coorperacion para la Agricultura
Institute de Investigaciones de La Amazonia Peruana
Institute Veterinario de InvestigaciOn del Tropico y Altura
Potash and Phosphate Institute
Proyecto Especial Alto Huallaga
Proyecto Especial Madre de Dois
Proyecto Especial Pichis Palcazu
Red de InvestigaciOn Agroecologica para la Amazonta
Rockefeller Foundation
Universidad Nacional Agraria la Molina
Universidad Nacional de la Amazonia Peruana






Humid Tropics Program **** Peru **** Brazil


Universidad Nacional de la Selva Tingo Marta
Research Sites
Primary:
Yurimaguas Agricultural Experiment Station, Yurimaguas Peru
Secondary:
Unidade de Execucao de Pesquisa de Ambito Estadual de Manaus,
Manaus, Brazil
La Esperanza Experiment Station, Pichis Valley, Peru
IVITA Principal Tropical Station, Pucallpa, Peru
Tulumayo Experiment Station, Tingo Marta, Peru
Puerto Maldonado Experiment Station, Madre de Dios, Peru

Principal Investigators

Pedro A. Sanchez
John J. Nicholaides, III
Representatives on Board of Directors

Lead Institution

Robert H. Miller

Collaborating Institution

Victor Palma






Humid Tropics Program **** Peru **** Brazil


HUMID TROPICS PROGRAM **** PERU **** BRAZIL

TECHNICAL PERSONNEL


Name, Degree

Pedro A. Sanchez, Ph.D.
John J. Nicholaides, Ph.D.
*
Julio C. Alegre, M.S.
*
Miguel A. Ara, M.S.
-Luis Arevalo, M.S.
Miguel A. Ayarza, M.S.
Andres Aznaran, B.S.
Dale E. Bandy, Ph.D.
Joaquim B. Bastos, M.S.
Jose R. Benites, Ph.D.
Stanley W. Buol, Ph.D.
Eber Cardenas, B.S.
Rafael Chumbimune, M.S.
D. Keith Cassel, Ph.D.
Jose Carlos Correa, M.S.
Charles B. Davey, Ph.D.
Jose R. Davelouis, M.S.
Dennis del Castillo, Ph.D.
Rolando Dextre, Ing. Agri.
*
Helmut Elsenbeer, M.S.
Martha Gallo, Ing. Agr.
Expedito U. Galvao, M.S.
*
Marco Gavez, Ing. Agr.
Mwenja P. Gichuru, M.S.
Robert E. Hoag, M.S.
Hemilce Ivazeta, Ing. Agr.


TropSoils Responsibility

Soil Management-/
Soil Fertility-1
Soil Physics
Soil Management
Soil Chemistry
Soil Management
Agric. Engineering
Soil Management
Soil Management
Soil Management
Pedology
Pastures
Soil Fertility
Soil Physics
Soil Management
Forest Soils
Soil Management
Soil Management
Soil Management
Soil Physics
Soil Fertility
Crop Science
Agronomy
Soil Fertility
Pedology
Pastures


Affiliation

NCSU
NCSU
NCSU
NCSU
INIPA
NCSU
INIPA
NCSU
EMBRAPA
NCSU
NCSU
UNAS
INIPA
NCSU
EMBRAPA
NCSU
UNA
NCSU
INIPA
NCSU
INIPA
EMBRAPA
INIPA
NCSU
NCSU
INIPA






Humid Tropics Program **** Peru **** Brazil


Lisa B. Katz, M.S.
Jonathan LOpez, Ing. Agr.
Robert E. McCollum, Ph.D.
Jane Mt. Pleasant, M.S.
Ruben Mesla, Ing. Agr.
George C. Naderman, Ph.D.
Laurie R. Newman, B.S.
Marco A. Nurena, Ing. Agr.
Cheryl A. Palm, M.S.*
Jorge R. Perez, Ing. For.
Beto Pichanasi, Ing. For.
Melvyn Piha, M.S.
Antonio Polo, Ing. Agr.
Carlos Pomareda, Ph.D.
Martti Poutannen, B.S.
Jamie Powell, B.S.
Alfredo Rachumi, Ing. Agr.
Kenneth Reategui, M.S.
Olga Rios, M.S.
Alcibldades Sanchez, Ing. Agr.
Rodolfo Schaus, Ing. Agr.
Paul C. Smithson, M.S.
Thomas J. Smyth, Ph.D.
Lawrence T. Szott, M.S.
Johannes Van Diepen, M.S.
Jorge Vela, Ing. Agr.
Manuel Villavicencio, Ph.D.
Adelo Vivanco, Ing. Agr.


Soil Fertility
Agronomy
Soil Fertility
Weed Control
Extension
Soil Management
Pedology
Extension
Soil s-Agroforestry
Agroforestry
Agroforestry
Soil Fertility
Agronomy
Economics
Agroforestry
Soil Chemistry
Agronomy
Pastures
Soil Chemistry
Perennial Crops
Soil Management
Soil Chemistry
Soil Fertility
Agroforestry
Soil Management
Pastures
Soil Management2
Soil Fertility


/Also, Principal Investigator.
/Also, Director YAES.
* Enrolled in a graduate program leading to next highest academic
degree.


NCSU
INIPA
NCSU
NCSU
INIPA
NCSU
NCSU
INIPA
NCSU
NCSU
INIPA
NCSU
INIPA
INIPA
IDSF
NCSU
INIPA
NCSU
UNP
PEPP
NCSU
NCSU
NCSU
NCSU
NCSU
INIPA
INIPA
INIPA






Humid Tropics Program **** Peru **** Brazil


HUMID TROPICS PROGRAM **** PERU **** BRAZIL

AN OVERVIEW!


This program is rooted in the experiences, results and infrastruc-
ture developed during the preceding 12 years of collaborative soils
research in Peru and other countries in Latin America. A recognition of
the relationships, organization and operational procedures which evolved
from these activities is important to an understanding of this TropSoils
Since 1971 The Tropical Soils Program at NCSU has operated as the
international component of the Soil Science Department for teaching,
research and extension. Although it has its own office and laboratory
facilities, its activities are woven through the fabric of the
Department, with participation of faculty members who carry both
domestic and international responsibilities. Of the 41 present faculty
members in the Department, 20 have had significant involvement in the
Tropical Soils Program. Approximately 38 percent of the M.S. and Ph.D.
degrees awarded by the Soil Science Department from 1973-1981 are based
on thesis research related to tropical soils. Many of these graduates
occupy key leadership positions in soil science around the world.
Field research started in 1972 with the establishment of coopera-
tive experiments at primary sites in the humid tropics (Yurimaguas,
Peru), acid savannas (Brasilia, Brazil) and the volcanic highlands of
Central America (Turrialba, Costa Rica). Cooperative relationships were



/Prepared by Pedro A. Sanchez and John J. Nicholaides, III,
Principal Investigators.






Humid Tropics Program **** Peru **** Brazil


developed and formal agreements were signed with the predecessor agen-
cies of INIPA in Peru, EMBRAPA in Brazil and CATIE in Costa Rica. The
Central American program produced the first multiple cropping research
focus in this region and led to the farming systems program of CATIE.
Work in the Cerrado of Brazil, conducted jointly with Cornell
University, developed basic soil management technology for savanna
Oxisols and was instrumental in establishing the research program at
EMBRAPA's Cerrado Research Center.
The humid tropical component of the program has operated for 12
uninterrupted years in spite of funding shortages and political
upheavals. A strong commitment by the Peruvian research institutions,
the Office of Agriculture of AID/Washington and NCSU, permitted an
opportunity for continuous direct involvement of NCSU at one key loca-
tion, Yurimaguas, Peru. Core funding for the program has been provided
by AID through Contract AID/csd 2806 "Agronomic-economic research on
tropical soils" from 1970 to 1975, by Contract AID/ta-C-1236 "Discovery
of new management systems for tropical soils" from 1976-1981, and from
the Soil Management CRSP since 1981.
As NCSU's Tropical Soils Program became better known, several
institutions requested assistance in various ways. A change in govern-
ment priorities in Peru towards development of the Selva prompted
USAID/Lima and various Peruvian institutions to request our involvement
in country programs involving research, extension and training in tropi-
cal soil management. The question of whether the Yurimaguas technology
is applicable to the drier humid tropics in Brazil prompted a coopera-
tive project in Manaus jointly funded by the Rockefeller Foundation, the
Potash-Phosphate Institute and EMBRAPA. The emergence of REDINAA carried
a request to develop an Amazon-wide soils project. A similar develop-
ment for IBSRAM led to involvement in designing a worldwide acid tropi-
cal soils network.

Funding availability necessarily limited the extent to which a
favorable response could be given to such requests. Thus, a decision was
made to seek other sources of funds to supplement those provided by the
CRSP. Several donors responded positively, some granting funds directly






Humid Tropics Program **** Peru **** Brazil


to NCSU and others to our counterpart national institutions such as
INIPA. The "collaborative" word in the CRSP became a reality in terms of
funding. What formerly was a single donor-sponsored program, therefore,
became a multi-donor program. Because all funds are for programs that
support TROPSOILS objectives, funds from the Soil Management CRSP are
considered as "core," while those from other donors are considered as
"special projects." In addition to INIPA and EMBRAPA's core budget
contributions, the other donors supporting this program are USAID/Lima,
the Rockefeller Foundation, Potash-Phosphate Institute, Corporacion de
Desarrollo de Loreto, Proyecto Especial Pichis Palcazu, and the
International Development and Research Centre.

Stages of Program Development:

NCSU's Tropical Soils Program activities in the humid tropics have
gone through several stages characterized by technical focus, involve-
ment of collaborative institutions and funding. A summary of this deve-
lopment is shown in Table 1.
Stage 1: The establishment phase took approximately two years be-
tween contract awarding and the initiation of field experiments. Much
of the effort was geared towards reviewing the available literature and
extensive travel through the Latin American tropics to establish the
research priorities and a work plan. This effort culminated in a state-
of-the-art publication, "A Review of Soils Research in Tropical Latin
America," published in 1973 in English and Spanish.
Soil characterization to understand the properties and variability
of Amazon soils was also a major undertaking. The selection of the
Yurimaguas Station was a consequence of such studies. Time has proven
that it is indeed a site representative of the kinds of climatic, soil,
vegetation and socioeconomic constraints of the humid tropics. The
degree of expression of these constraints, however, varies widely within
the region. During this stage, the Fertility Capability Classification
(FCC) system emerged as a means for interpreting Soil Taxonomy data for
agronomic purposes.
Stage 2: The field phase started with the posting of NCSU staff at
Yurimaguas in July 1972 with work on mapping, land clearing and









Table 1. Stages of development of NCSU's Tropical Soils Program in the humid tropics.


I II III
Stage Establishment Continuous Cropping Management Options
and dates: 1970-71 1972-79 1980-85

Focus Establish program Text continuous cropping Develop different options for
hypothesis soil-landscape-infrastructure
situations


Main activities Priority development Soil characterization Stability of high input systems
Site selection Land clearing Low input technology
Agreements Fertility dynamics Legume-based pastures
Multiple cropping Agroforestry
Paddy rice for alluvial soils


Main Review of soils Feasibility of continuous Quantified long-term effects
accomplishments research in tropical cropping proved, with on soil properties
Latin nPerica proper land clearing, Developing promising options
Yurimaguas Station fertilization and liming for low input cropping, pastures
established and agroforestry
Paddy rice technology applied


Research output FCC concept Basic understanding of Long-term effects on soil
dynamics after clearing properties
rainforest attracts Managed fallow concept
international attention Components of different options
FCC gains wide acceptance


Extrapolation None San Ignacio, Bolivia Manaus, Sumatra
Around Yurimaguas INIPA Selva Program
REDINAA network development
IBSRAM network development










Table 1. (continued)


I II III
Stage Establ ishment Continuous Cropping Management Options
and dates: 1970-71 1972-79 1980-85


Training None Limited to NCSU graduate NCSU, UNA and European Univ.
students Short-term training of research
and extension workers


LDC None Virtually none until 1978 Major Peruvian involvement, also
participation Strong moral support, but Brazilian, Indonesian, USAID
no funds Missions, IARC's


Funding 100% AID-Washington 100% AID-Washington 70% AID-Washington
30% LDC, USAID Mission and Others






Humid Tropics Program **** Peru **** Brazil


continuous cropping. Efforts concentrated on testing the hypothesis
that continuous cultivation of annual food crops is possible in acid
infertile soils of the humid tropics. Nutrient dynamics were followed
and a series of experiments on fertilization, liming, multiple cropping,
structure regeneration, land clearing options were conducted. The FCC
system as a precursor of extrapolation efforts continued to be tested.
Modest extrapolation efforts began in 1978 at San Ignacio, Bolivia, and
on farms around Yurimaguas. This phase culminated with the finding that
after eight years, continuous cropping is indeed feasible in agronomic
terms provided the marketing infrastructure is present.
The main impact of this phase was the elimination of the myth that
these soils are not suitable for cropping, a finding that attracted
international attention because it provided a new outlook for world food
production. Land clearing research provided the basis for fundamental
changes in Brazil's land development approach in the Amazon.
Stage 3: The advent of the Soil Management CRSP and the change in
Peruvian government priorities towards the Selva cast the Program in a
very different light. Worldwide assessments recognized the importance
of research on marginal lands vis-a-vis the green revolution approach.
Ecological concerns about deforestation in rainforest areas brought
additional attention to soil management research.
It became clear that providing the continuous cropping hypothesis
with solid, long-term data was a necessary but not a sufficient con-
dition for the utilization of this technology. The program then began
to focus on several soil management options suitable for different soil,
landscape and infrastructure conditions. A model emerged which considers
low input approaches such as use of acid-tolerant germplasm and managed
fallows, legume-based pastures and agroforestry (Figure 1). Attention
began to be given to the fertile alluvial soils as an important com-
ponent. The Tropical Soils Program broadened its scope from one option
(fertilizer-based continuous cropping) to five.
Participation of Peruvian institutions, both in terms of funding
and personnel, mushroomed. Paddy rice research on alluvial soils began
with direct support from CORDELOR. INIPA and USAID/Lima assigned signi-






Humid Tropics Program **** Peru **** Brazil


ficant PL-480 funds to support both the physical plant and operations at
the Yurimaguas Station. The strengthening of INIPA under the Integral
REE Program financed by USAID/Lima, the World Bank and the Interamerican
Development Bank resulted in the development of a National Selva Program
with 197 research and extension professionals stationed throughout the
Selva of Peru. On-the-job training of 46 Peruvian professionals resulted
in an extrapolation program operated on-site and financed from sources
other than the CRSP. INIPA and USAID/Lima requested a major increase in
the training/extrapolation activities. Outside Peru, two major research
sites began to test the Yurimaguas technology on a systematic basis: at
EMBRAPA's Manaus Station and at Sitiung in West Sumatra, Indonesia. A
third site, the Pichis-Palcazu in Central Peru, started in 1984. In
addition to the National Selva Program, two additional networks are at
advanced stages of development, REDINAA for the Amazon and IBSRAM for
acid tropical soils on a worldwide basis. International testing and
adoption of the FCC system is in progress in Asia, Africa, Latin America
and the United States.

Current Status of the Tropsoils Work Plan:

The Work Plan presented in May 1982 to the TropSoils Technical
Committee was based on the CRSP grant documents, an AID-sponsored review
in October 1981 and an NCSU internal review in October 1982. The final
version dated 15 February 1983 constitutes our research commitment to
the CRSP for the five-year period. The Work Plan includes 72 experiments
organized into six projects.
The Work Plan defines the overall purpose of NCSU's Tropical Soils
Program as follows: "to develop and transfer, together with national
institutions and other TropSoils universities, improved soil management
technologies for productive and sustained farming systems in humid tro-
pics and acid savanna ecosystems on an agronomically, economically and
ecologically-sound basis."






Humid Tropics Program **** Peru **** Brazil


The Work Plan lists six specific objectives for 1982-1986. A short
discussion of the accomplishments and shortcomings at approximately the
midpoint of this period follows.

A. Determine the Long-Term Stability of Continuous Crop Production
Systems Based on Judicious Lime, Fertilizer and Management Inputs
for Soils of the Humid Tropics.

Data on crop performance and soil fertility dynamics during the
first eight years of the continuous cropping experiment were analyzed
during this period and published in articles in Science and the Soil
Science Society of America Journal in 1982 and 1983, respectively. The
agronomic and economic data plus a hypothesis on their ecological impli-
cations were included. This high input approach was recognized as being
limited to areas with ready accessibility to inputs and a good market
infrastructure. Examples of such conditions are found in the Alto
Huallaga region of Peru and in West Sumatra, Indonesia.
During the 1982 internal review, it was recognized that for such
continuous cultivation to be truly stable, it has to be mechanized to
provide a realistic management of crop residues, weed control and main-
tenance of physical properties. Deeper plowing resulted in higher
phosphorus requirements caused probably by mixing part of the sub-
soil with fertilized topsoil. Weed control is being studied for the
first time on a systematic basis.

B. Develop Soil Management Practices for Continuous Crop Production
Systems Based on Low Lime, Fertilizer and Tillage Inputs.

Concentration on low input technology was strongly recommended by
the 1981 AID Review of the previous program. A conceptual paper was
developed, together with CIAT, summarizing current information on low
input technology for acid soils and providing a conceptual basis for the
approach. The paper was published in Advances in Agronomy in 1981 and
the Spanish translation in 1983 by the Colombian Society of Soil
Science. The strategy is based on selection of acid-tolerant cultivars,
minimum tillage and fertilization, weed control and managed fallows. The
more immediate potential applicability of this approach to small farmers
in the humid tropics resulted in major efforts directed toward this
objective since the CRSP was initiated.






Humid Tropics Program **** Peru **** Brazil


Several key components have come to fruition in the past two years.
Upland rice and cowpea cultivars from IITA that combine high yields and
acceptable tolerance to pests and diseases with tolerance to high levels
of Al saturation have been identified and are now being widely tested
through our INIPA collaborators. We have failed, however, to obtain
similar results with corn, soybeans, peanuts or winged beans. Screening
continues and peanut work is now involving specific crosses made in
North Carolina which are tested in Peru. Work with minimum tillage,
residue management and their fertility interactions have yet to provide
clear evidence of the superiority of minimum or zero tillage, unlike
what has happened on Alfisols of IITA. The promotion of faster downward
movement of Ca and Mg is being tested. Fertility-weed control interac-
tions are now being studied. A farm level low input central experiment
has shown the feasibility of upland rice-cowpea rotations starting with
forest clearing with zero tillage, proper spacing and only small rates
of N and K have produced a total of 10.3 tons/ha of rice and 2.1 of
cowpeas during the first two years.
We suspect that the low input system, however, is unstable as far
as continuous cropping is concerned. It may last for more than two years
but then a decision will have to be made about the permanent role of the
field. Alternatives are high input cropping, managed fallow, grass-
legume pastures, or agroforestry. One way to maintain a "continuous" low
input system is to rotate one or two years of crops with one to three
years of legume fallow.

C. Develop Soil Management Practices for Different Landscape
Positions, Including Legume-Based Pastures, Agroforestry and
Flooded Rice on Alluvial Soils.

The pasture project has provided very positive results. Three years
of grazing trials using germplasm from CIAT have demonstrated the high
productivity and persistence of mixtures of acid-tolerant grasses and
legumes such as Andropogon gayanus-Stylosanthes guianensis and
Brachiaria decumbens-Desmodium ovalifolium, with annual liveweight gains
of 700 kg/ha with rotational grazing management and with minimal fer-
tilizer inputs. This provides a promising alternative for degraded






Humid Tropics Program **** Peru **** Brazil


pastures in the udic tropics with low animal productivity which
decreases and leads to overgrazing and subsequent soil erosion. Pasture
establishment problems have been alleviated by experience and better
seed sources. Regenerating degraded Panicum maximum pastures on farmer
fields was simply accomplished by broadcasting Bayovar rock phosphate.
The principal problem seems to be the low nutritional quality of
some grass:legume mixtures which is reflected in relatively low
liveweight gains per animal. Initial work in this direction has iden-
tified high tannin content as a constraint. Phytotron work in Raleigh is
testing the hypothesis that sulfur deficiency may be responsible. Plans
are underway to validate initial observations of incipient nutrient
recycling in well managed grass-legume pastures at Yurimaguas. The
question of whether to use legumes at all is to be studied in a nitrogen
transfer experiment.
Research on agroforestry continues to increase. After observational
trials on Gmelina arborea intercropping and peach palm (Guilielma
gasipaes)-legume interrows, work has centered on establishing the
nutrient response patterns of Gmelina and peach palm on a systematic
basis. The first, to our knowledge, fertilizer trial of peach palm in
acid soils shows a very strong N response and also to other nutrients.
Germplasm collection of this valuable species is taking place, as
Yurimaguas is one of its centers of origin. These studies have led to
the awarding of an IDRC grant through ICRAF for agroforestry research in
Yurimaguas.
Alley cropping work began in 1983 with the overall purpose of
finding species that can do in acid soils what Leucaena leucocephala
does in high base status soils. One trial with several promising species
is ongoing and germplasm collection from sources in the Amazon, Africa
and Southeast Asia continues.
The question on how fallows regenerate soil productivity is being
evaluated on a preliminary basis and more intensive research is now
being done in the library to develop hypotheses and future plans.
Flooded rice production on high base status alluvial soils has
been an unqualified success. Five crops of irrigated rice have been






Humid Tropics Program **** Peru **** Brazil


grown during two years with an average production of 16.5 tons/ha/yr.
Replacing transplanting with pre-germinated broadcasted seed depressed
yields by 20% but decreased labor input for crop establishment from 20
to 3 man-days/ha.

D. Extrapolate, Validate and Adapt Research Results to Other Humid
Tropical Areas, Including the Peru Selva Network, Manaus,
Indonesia and REDINAA Soils Network.

The request for assistance in the Selva of Peru resulted in con-
sideration on the adaptation of the Yurimaguas results to special pro-
ject areas. We expressed the need to validate the results first to make
sure that local adaptations could be incorporated. It became apparent
that research workers needed prior training to validate and transfer the
results in a sound manner. The frequent request for short-term (1-2
weeks) training made it necessary to make on-the-job training a formal
activity. During 1982 and 1983 a total of 58 professionals received on-
the-job training at Yurimaguas. The 51 Peruvians came from most areas of
the Selva and include researchers, extension specialists, farmers and
representatives of native communities. Other training activities
include graduate students from Argentina, Finland, Germany, the
Netherlands and the United Kingdom. Ten NCSU graduate students are in
different stages of conducting their theses research at Yurimaguas or in
adjacent areas.
Participants of the 1983 Tropical Soils Management Course designed
validation trials for their regions. As a result, a network of 29
cooperative trials were established throughout the Selva, on specific
soil management options the participants considered appropriate for
their localities (Figure 2). These trials are now coordinated through
INIPA's newly established National Selva Program. NCSU staff has
assisted INIPA in the development of two additional components of the
National Selva Program: the National Tropical Pastures Network and the
Agroforestry Project. Internationally recruited staff from CIAT and
ICRAF will participate in these projects.

In 1980 an agreement was reached between EMBRAPA, IICA and NCSU to
post an NCSU senior scientist at EMBRAPA's Manaus Station to test some