• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Title Page
 Foreword
 Table of Contents
 How you begin
 What you will teach
 How you will teach
 Appendix
 Bibliography






Title: Homemaking handbook for village workers in many countries
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE PAGE TEXT
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00055256/00001
 Material Information
Title: Homemaking handbook for village workers in many countries
Physical Description: 237 p. : ill. ; 26 cm.
Language: English
Creator: United States -- Extension Service
United States -- Agency for International Development
Publisher: American Home Economics Association
Place of Publication: Washington D.C
Publication Date: 1981
 Subjects
Subject: Housewives   ( lcsh )
Home economics -- Handbooks, manuals, etc   ( lcsh )
Home economics extension work   ( lcsh )
Genre: non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Statement of Responsibility: Extension Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, in cooperation with Agency for International Development.
General Note: "September 1981."
Funding: Electronic resources created as part of a prototype UF Institutional Repository and Faculty Papers project by the University of Florida.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00055256
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 09565038

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Title Page
        Page i
        Page ii
    Foreword
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Table of Contents
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
    How you begin
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Village women help build nations
            Page 11
            Page 12
        You are a village worker
            Page 13
        Beginning your work
            Page 14
            Your first visits to the village
                Page 14
                Page 15
            It takes time
                Page 16
            Record your observations
                Page 16
            Working with people to bring about change
                Page 16
                Page 17
                Page 18
                Page 19
                Page 20
            Sample home garden observation form
                Page 21
        You need support
            Page 22
            At the national level
                Page 22
            At the provincial level
                Page 23
            At the village level
                Page 23
            People who are willing to help
                Page 23
                Page 24
        Working with other agencies and organizations
            Page 25
            Agricultural agencies
                Page 25
            Agricultural credit programs
                Page 26
            Cooperatives
                Page 26
            Research agencies
                Page 27
            Public Health
                Page 27
            The institute of nutrition
                Page 27
            Community of development and social welfare
                Page 27
            Literacy programs
                Page 28
            International organizations
                Page 28
            Religious and voluntary agencies
                Page 28
    What you will teach
        Page 29
        Food and nutrition
            Page 30
            Page 31
            The story of Samuel and Mary
                Page 32
            You government is concerned
                Page 33
                Page 34
            What is nutrition?
                Page 35
            How food is used by the body
                Page 35
                Page 36
            What kinds of food do we need for good nutrition?
                Page 37
            Foods that help to build the body
                Page 37
                Page 38
            Foods that provide much energy
                Page 39
                Page 40
            Foods that keep the body working properly and help it resist disease
                Page 41
            Foods that vary
                Page 42
            Food needs for adults
                Page 43
            Special food needs of pregnant and nursing women
                Page 43
            Food needs for infants
                Page 44
            Brest milk
                Page 44
                Bottle feeding
                    Page 44
                Starting other foods
                    Page 44
                    Page 45
                    Page 46
                    Page 47
                Preparing and handling foods for the baby
                    Page 48
                Weaning
                    Page 49
            Food needs from weaning to 6 years
                Page 49
                Page 50
            Food needs of school age children
                Page 51
                The school carrying lunch
                    Page 51
                Carrying food to school
                    Page 52
            Food needs during adolescence
                Page 53
            Food needs of sick people
                Page 53
            Food needs habits and their influence in nutrition
                Page 53
            Food needs during adolescence
                Page 53
            Learn the facts
                Page 54
            Handling food
                Page 55
            Principles of food preparation
                Page 55
                Page 56
            Teaching food and nutrition
                Page 57
                Preparing foods for children
                    Page 57
                    Page 58
                    Page 59
                    Page 60
                Plan and prepare three meals for one day
                    Page 61
                Serving the meals
                    Page 61
                Other suggestions for teaching nutrition
                    Page 62
        Growing food at home
            Page 63
            Your agriculturist can help you
                Page 64
                Page 65
            Talk the situation over with the people
                Page 66
            Home gardens
                Page 66
                Planning and getting ready
                    Page 67
                    Page 68
                Getting garden tools ready
                    Page 69
                Preparing the garden site
                    Page 69
                    Page 70
                Planting the seeds
                    Page 71
                    Page 72
                Transplanting
                    Page 73
                Caring for the garden
                    Page 73
                    Page 74
                Harvesting
                    Page 75
                School gardens
                    Page 75
                Teaching gardening
                    Page 75
            The family poultry flock
                Page 76
                Getting started
                    Page 76
                Hatching and brooding with hens
                    Page 77
                Feeding
                    Page 77
                Housing
                    Page 78
                    Page 79
                Rats and mice
                    Page 80
                Disease and parasites
                    Page 80
                Eggs
                    Page 81
                    Page 82
                Suggested method demonstrations
                    Page 83
            Milk goats
                Page 84
            Feeds and feeding
                Page 84
                Milking
                    Page 85
                Rabbits
                    Page 86
                    Page 87
                Feeds and feeding
                    Page 88
                Management and equipment
                    Page 88
                    Page 89
                Rabbit meat and its use
                    Page 90
        Food storage and preservation
            Page 91
            Taking care of food in the home
                Page 91
            Keeping foods for a long time
                Page 92
            Storing grains, pulses, and nuts
                Page 93
            Preserving and storing fruits and vegetables
                Page 94
            Field storage
                Page 94
                A cool, dark place
                    Page 95
                Drying
                    Page 95
                    Page 96
                Canning
                    Page 97
                Bottling fruit juices
                    Page 97
                    Page 98
                Bottling tomato juice or tomato puree
                    Page 99
                Salting or brining vegetables
                    Page 99
                    Page 100
                    Page 101
                    Page 102
        Child care
            Page 103
            Getting ready for the new baby
                Page 103
                Page 104
                Prepare a good home for the baby
                    Page 105
                Clothes for the baby
                    Page 105
                Diapers
                    Page 105
                Bedding
                    Page 106
            Plan for delivery
                Page 106
                Page 107
                Midwives
                    Page 108
                After the baby arrives
                    Page 109
            Feeding
                Page 109
                Bathing the baby
                    Page 109
                Sleep
                    Page 109
                Health care
                    Page 109
            As a child grows
                Page 110
                How a baby grows and develops
                    Page 110
                    Page 111
            The second year
                Page 112
            The years before school
                Page 112
                Page 113
                Prevent accidents
                    Page 114
                Children must play
                    Page 114
            When children go to school
                Page 115
                Sleep
                    Page 116
                Clothes
                    Page 116
                Keeping children well
                    Page 116
                Make a good home life for children
                    Page 116
            Activities and visual aids
                Page 116
                Page 117
                Page 118
        Health
            Page 119
            Health is a national problem
                Page 119
            Health is your job
                Page 119
            Safe drinking water
                Page 119
            Disposal of wastes
                Page 120
                Page 121
            Household pests
                Page 122
            Personal cleanliness
                Page 122
                Page 123
            Immunization
                Page 124
                Page 125
                Page 126
            Family planning
                Page 127
                Page 128
            First aid
                Page 129
                Page 130
                Artificial respiration
                    Page 131
            Sickness in the home
                Page 132
            Teaching health care
                Page 132
                Page 133
                Page 134
        Housing and home improvement
            Page 135
            Better housing concerns many
                Page 135
            Where to start
                Page 135
            Many different kinds of repairs and improvements
                Page 136
                The foundation
                    Page 136
                The roof and walls
                    Page 136
                    Page 137
                Windows and doors
                    Page 138
                Steps
                    Page 138
                Floors
                    Page 138
                Keeping animals out of and from under the house
                    Page 138
                Improving the kitchen
                    Page 138
                    Page 139
            The cooking stove
                Page 140
                Page 141
                The smokeless stove
                    Page 142
                Ovens
                    Page 142
                A fireless cooker
                    Page 142
            Work surfaces
                Page 143
            Storing equipment
                Page 144
                Page 145
            Storing food
                Page 146
            Dishwashing area
                Page 147
            The eating area
                Page 148
            The sleeping area
                Page 148
                Beds
                    Page 148
                Mattresses
                    Page 149
                Baby's bed
                    Page 149
                Ventilation
                    Page 149
                Partitions
                    Page 149
                Storage for clothing and bedding
                    Page 149
            Bathing facilities
                Page 150
            The living area
                Page 151
                Page 152
            Building materials
                Page 153
            How to make an earth floor hard
                Page 153
            Oil can ovens
                Page 154
                Page 155
            How to make a cement sink
                Page 156
                Page 157
            How to make wall partitions
                Page 158
            An improvised shower
                Page 159
        Housekeeping and home management
            Page 160
            Why a clean house is important
                Page 160
            Keeping the house and surroundings clean
                Page 161
            How to have a well-kept house
                Page 162
                The walls
                    Page 162
                The floors
                    Page 162
                The windows
                    Page 162
                The bedrooms
                    Page 162
                Storage places for clothes and bedding
                    Page 163
                Bath facilities
                    Page 163
                The living room
                    Page 163
                The kitchen
                    Page 164
                Dishwashing
                    Page 164
                Washing clothes
                    Page 164
                    Page 165
                Ironing
                    Page 166
                Disposing of wastes and controlling household pests
                    Page 166
            Management in the home
                Page 166
                Plan and organize housework
                    Page 167
                Arrange equipment and work space
                    Page 167
                    Page 168
                Use good body positions
                    Page 169
                Have work surfaces and shelves the right height
                    Page 169
                Keep from getting too tired
                    Page 170
                Use money wisely
                    Page 170
                    Page 171
        Clothing
            Page 172
            Why people dress as they do
                Page 172
            Before you begin a clothing program
                Page 172
            How are your own sewing skills?
                Page 173
            Some problems in home sewing
                Page 173
            Making new garments
                Page 174
                Selecing suitable materials
                    Page 174
                Begin with something easy
                    Page 175
                Panties for a small girl
                    Page 176
                Little girl's dress
                    Page 177
                Boy's pants
                    Page 178
                Women's underwear
                    Page 179
                Aprons
                    Page 180
            Care of the sewing machine
                Page 180
            Teaching other topics along with sewing
                Page 181
                Page 182
                Page 183
                Page 184
    How you will teach
        Page 185
        Page 186
        Planning and developing a village program
            Page 187
            Steps in planning a program
                Page 187
            Kinds of programs
                Page 188
                Page 189
                Page 190
            Sample plans of action
                Page 191
                Page 192
                Page 193
        Local leaders are important
            Page 194
            Who are leaders
                Page 194
            Why leaders are important
                Page 194
            Kinds of local leaders
                Page 195
            How to find informal or natural leaders
                Page 195
            How leaders are selected for specific jobs
                Page 196
            What kinds of help can leaders give?
                Page 196
            Leaders grow
                Page 197
            Training leaders
                Page 198
                Page 199
            Recognizing and thanking leaders
                Page 200
            Your own leadership qualities
                Page 200
            Leader's guide for demonstration meeting
                Page 201
                Page 202
        Teaching methods
            Page 203
            The steps in teaching
                Page 203
            Individual teaching methods
                Page 204
                Home and farm visits
                    Page 204
                    Page 205
                    Page 206
                Casual village visits
                    Page 207
                Office calls
                    Page 207
                Result demonstrations
                    Page 208
            Group teaching methods
                Page 209
                Method demonstrations
                    Page 209
                    Page 210
                    Page 211
                Tours
                    Page 212
                Meetings
                    Page 213
                Women's clubs
                    Page 214
                Songs
                    Page 215
                Drama
                    Page 215
                Role playing
                    Page 215
                Puppet plays
                    Page 215
                    Page 216
            Mass teaching methods
                Page 217
                Leaflets
                    Page 217
                Circular letters
                    Page 217
                Newspaper
                    Page 217
                Wall newspaper and bulletin boards
                    Page 217
                Radio
                    Page 218
                Television
                    Page 218
                Fairs, exhibitions and festivals
                    Page 219
            Campaigns
                Page 219
            Community centers
                Page 220
                Page 221
                Page 222
        Teaching aids
            Page 223
            Real objects
                Page 223
            Samples and specimens
                Page 223
            Models
                Page 223
            Photographs
                Page 223
            Blackboards
                Page 223
            Flannelgraphs
                Page 223
                Page 224
                Page 225
                Page 226
            Flashcards
                Page 227
            Flip charts
                Page 227
            Films
                Page 227
            Filmstrips and slides
                Page 228
            Exhibits
                Page 228
            Posters
                Page 228
                Page 229
            Demonstration animals
                Page 230
            Museums
                Page 230
    Appendix
        Page 231
        Page 232
        Conversion tables
            Page 233
            Page 234
    Bibliography
        Page 235
        Page 236
        Page 237
Full Text













For Village Workers -
in Many Countries


'A








































For Village Workers
in Many Countries


























Reproduced from an original publication prepared by the
Extension Service, United States Department of Agriculture
in cooperation with the Agency for International Development,
U.S. Department of State by the

AMERICAN HOME ECONOMICS ASSOCIATION
International Family Planning Project-AID/DSPE-G-0010

Washington, D.C. September 1981




























ii


1.5m 10/81 BW








Foreword
This handbook is a guide for the village level worker. It
can also serve as a teaching aid and text to teachers of village
level workers.
It is intended for use by personnel in home economics extension,
community development, home economics classroom teaching, health
education, and other programs involving home and family life.
The material in this handbook was obtained from many countries
around the world, and many people contributed to it from their
personal knowledge and experience.
We especially acknowledge the assistance of Sue Taylor Murry
in compiling the contributions of authorities in several fields. Par-
ticular appreciation is due Jeannette Dean, Assistant State Home
Economics Leader, Illinois Extension Service; and Margaret Power,
Nutritionist.
Appreciation is also expressed to staff members of the Food and
Agriculture Organization of the United Nations; the U.S. Depart-
ment of Health, Education, and Welfare; the Agricultural Research
Service and the Extension Service of the U.S. Department of Agri-
culture; the Agency for International Development; and other ex-
pert consultants.
Material was also adapted from the published works of the
following authorities: Dr. Mary E. Keister, Research Associate in
the Institute of Child and Family Development of the University
of North Carolina at Greensboro, formerly Home Economics Officer,
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome;
Elsa Haglund, formerly Home Economist with the Food and Agri-
culture Organization of the United Nations; Dr. Derrick B. Jelliffe,
Director, Caribbean Food and Nutrition Institute, University of the
West Indies, Jamaica; and Dr. Michael Latham, Professor of Inter-
national Nutrition, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, formerly
Medical officer 1/c, Nutrition Unit, Ministry of Health, Dar-es-
Salaam, Tanzania.
The Homemaking Handbook is a companion volume to Homemak-
ing Around the World, which has been neither revised nor replaced.
The principal purpose for printing Homemaking Around the World
in 1958 was to help start home economics extension programs. It
has been reprinted and is still available. However, the village level
worker needs a publication such as this Homemaking Handbook
for additional information on both home economics subject matter
and methods of working with rural families.
This Handbook was produced by the Extension Service in
cooperation with the Office of Agriculture and Fisheries, Technical
Assistance Bureau, Agency for International Development. Most
of the photographs were taken in the field by AID, FAO, and
UNICEF staff.

Helen A. Strow
Extension Specialist, International
Extension Service
U.S. Department of Agriculture






Contents

Page
SECTION I-HOW YOU BEGIN
Village Women Help Build Nations -------------------- 11
You Are a Village Worker ------------------------- 13
Beginning Your Work _--- ___--- --- 14
Your First Visits to the Village ---- ---------- 14
It Takes Time ----------------------------------- 16
Record Your Observations-------------------- 16
Working With People to Bring About Change -------- 16
Sample Home Garden Observation Form ---------- 21
You Need Support --------------------------------- 22
At the National Level ----- ---------22
At the Provincial Level ---------------------------- 23
At the Village Level -------------- 23
People Who Are Willing to Help ---- ---- 23
Working With Other Agencies and Organizations ------ 25
Agricultural Agencies ---- --------- 25
Agricultural Credit Programs --____ -- 26
Cooperatives ------------------------------- 26
The Ministry of Education ----- ------ -- 26
Research Agencies -------------------------------- 27
Public Health ----------------- 27
The Institute of Nutrition----------------- 27
Community Development and Social Welfare -- 27
Literacy Programs ---------------- 28
International Organizations ---------------------- 28
Religious and Voluntary Agencies ---------- 28
SECTION II-WHAT YOU WILL TEACH
Food and Nutrition --__-------------------------- 30
The Story of Samuel and Mary ---- ---------- 32
Your Government Is Concerned -------------------- 33
What is Nutrition? ------------------------------ 35
How Food Is Used by the Body ------------------- 35
What Kinds of Food Do We Need for Good Nutrition? 37
Foods That Help to Build the Body ----- 37
Foods That Provide Much Energy -------- 39
Foods That Keep the Body Working Properly and
Help It Resist Disease ---------_-- 41
Food Needs Vary -------------------------------- 42
Food Needs for Adults ----------------- 43
Special Food Needs of Pregnant and Nursing Women 43
Food Needs for Infants ------------------------- 44
Breast Milk ----------------- ---------- 44
Bottle Feeding ------------------------------ 44
Starting Other Foods ---- ------- -- 44
Preparing and Handling Foods for the Baby -. 48
W meaning -... -______ .. ___.. --------. ---- 49






Page
Food Needs From Weaning to 6 Years -------------- 49
Food Needs of School Age Children ---------------- 51
The School Lunch _____-- -------------- 51
Carrying Food to School ----------------------- 52
Food Needs During Adolescence ---- --------- 53
Food Needs of Sick People -- ----------- 53
Food Habits and Their Influence in Nutrition ----53
Developing Good Eating Patterns __ _------ 53
Learn the Facts -___--------------- 54
Handling Food __------------------------------ 55
Principles of Food Preparation -------------------- 55
Teaching Food and Nutrition _---_ --------------- 57
Preparing-Foods for Children -------- 57
Serving the Meals _------------------------- 61
Other Suggestions for Teaching Nutrition 62
Growing Food at Home __________- ------- -- 63
Your Agriculturist Can Help You----------------- 64
Talk the Situation Over With the People ----- 66
Home Gardens _----------------_---------- 66
Planning and Getting Ready ------------ 67
Getting Garden Tools Ready -------- 69
Preparing the Garden Site ----- --------- 69
Planting the Seeds ----------------------- -- 71
Transplanting __- ------------ --- 73
Caring for the Garden ------------ 73
Harvesting _----------------- 75
School Gardens _------_---------------------- 75
Teaching Gardening --------------------- 75
The Family Poultry Flock ----------- 76
Getting Started----------------------- 76
Hatching and Brooding With Hens-------- 77
Feeding ------------------------ ---------- 77
Housing _-_-_-_----------------------------- 78
Rats and Mice __------------------------------ 80
Disease and Parasites ----------------------- 80
Eggs ------------------------------- 81
Suggested Method Demonstrations ----------- 83
Milk Goats --------------------------------- 84
Feeding and Housing ------------------------ 84
Milking -------------------------------- 85
Rabbits ---------------------------------- ------ 86
Feeds and Feeding -------------------------- 88
Management and Equipment __--------------- 88
Rabbit Meat and Its Use -------------------- 90
Food Storage and Preservation ---------------------- 91
Taking Care of Food in the Home ---------------- 91
Keeping Foods for a Long Time ------------------- 92
Storing Grains, Pulses, and Nuts ----------------- 93
Preserving and Storing Fruits and Vegetables -- 94






Page
Field Storage ------------_--------.__------ 94
A Cool, Dark Place -----------------------__ 95
Drying -------------.--------._ -------.. 95
Canning ____-------------------.-..-- ----... 97
Bottling Fruit Juices -----------_-----------_ 97
Bottling Tomato Juice or Tomato Puree -- 99
Salting or Brining Vegetables --- -------- 99
Child Care ____-------- ---------.-------_--------_ 103
Getting Ready for the New Baby ---------------- 103
Prepare a Good Home for the Baby ----------- 105
Clothes for the Baby ---- ------------ 105
Diapers ---------_--- ------__ -------------_ 105
A Place for the Baby to Sleep ----------------- 106
Bedding ----------------------.------------. 106
Plan for Delivery -----------------_-_------. ---. 106
Midwives ----------------_----. -_--------- 108
After the Baby Arrives ----- ------------- 109
Feeding ----- ------------------ 109
Bathing the Baby -------------------- 109
Sleep ------------------------------------ 109
Health Care --------- -------------------__ 109
As a Child Grows ------ --------- --- 110
How a Baby Grows and Develops ----- 110
The Second Year ---------- ----------- 112
The Years Before School --------------- 112
Prevent Accidents -------------------------- 114
Children Must Play ------------------------ 114
When Children Go to School ------------------- 115
Sleep --------------------------------------116
Clothes ------------------------ 116
Keeping Children Well--------------------- 116
Make a Good Home Life for Children ---- 116
Activities and Visual Aids ----------------------- 116
Health ----------------------------------------- 119
Health Is a National Problem ---------------------- 119
Health Is Your Job ------------------------------ 119
Safe Drinking Water -------------------------- 119
Disposal of Wastes --------------------- 120
Household Pests -------------------------------- 122
Personal Cleanliness ----------_---------------- 122
Immunization _______----- 124
Family Planning -------------------------------- 127
First Aid -------------------------------------- 129
Artificial Respiration -_-------------------- 131
Sickness in the Home __--- __ ---------- 132
Teaching Health Care --------------------------- 132
Housing and Home Improvement------------------- 135
Better Housing Concerns Many ---------------- 135
Where to Start --------------------------------- 135






Page
Many Different Kinds of Repairs and Improvements 136
The Foundation -----------_------------- 136
The Roof and Walls -------------------------136
Windows and Doors ---------------------__ 138
Steps --------------.-----.------------------ 138
Floors 138
Floors -----------------------...--------------.......................138
Keeping Animals Out of and From Under the House 138
Improving the Kitchen ----- ---------- 138
The Cooking Stove __- ------------.-----------__ 140
The Smokeless Stove ------------------------- 142
Ovens _-------------_------- 142
A Fireless Cooker------------------------__- 142
Work Surfaces ------- --___--- ---- 143
Storing Equipment ------ -------------- 144
Storing Food ---------------_------------. ------- 146
Dishwashing Area -------------- 147
The Eating Area ------------------------------_ 148
The Sleeping Area ------------------------------ 148
Beds ------------------- 148
Mattresses -- -------------_ 149
Baby's Bed ---------------- 149
Ventilation ----------- ------ 149
Partitions ---------_______ 149
Storage for Clothing and Bedding ------------_ 149
Bathing Facilities ------------_ __- 150
The Living Area -------____-_ -----_- 151
Building Materials ----------------------------- 153
How to Make an Earth Floor Hard -------- 153
Oil Can Ovens -------_ ---- --------- 154
How to Make a Cement Sink ------____- 156
How to Make Wall Partitions ------------ 158
An Improvised Shower ----- -----_ -_ 159
Housekeeping and Home Management ---------------- 160
Why a Clean House Is Important --------- 160
Keeping the House and Surroundings Clean --- 161
How to Have a Well-Kept House ------------------ 162
The Walls -- --------------- 162
The Floors ----------------- 162
The Windows --------------- 162
The Bedrooms --- ----- ------------- 162
Storage Places for Clothes and Bedding -------_ 163
Bath Facilities ------------------------------ 163
The Living Room ----------- 163
The Kitchen ----- ------------------ 164
Dishwashing _--____------------ ----- 164
Washing Clothes ---------------------------- 164
Ironing ---------------------- 166
Disposing of Wastes and Controlling Household
Pests -------------------------------- -- 166

6







Management in the Home -------------
Plan and Organize Housework --------- _
Arrange Equipment and Work Space -----
Use Good Body Positions -----------
Have Work Surfaces and Shelves the Right Height
Keep From Getting Too Tired ---------- --
Use Money Wisely --------------
Clothing ----------------- ----
Why People Dress as They Do ---- -----__-
Before You Begin a Clothing Program -------
How Are Your Own Sewing Skills? ------
Some Problems in Home Sewing ----------
Making New Garments --------------
Selecting Suitable Materials ----------
Begin With Something Easy -------
Panties for a Small Girl --------------
Little Girl's Dress
Boy's Pants ----------------
Women's Underwear -------------
Aprons-------------------
Care of the Sewing Machine ------------
Teaching Other Topics Along With Sewing -----
SECTION III-HOW YOU WILL TEACH
Planning and Developing a Village Program -------
Steps in Planning a Program --------------
Kinds of Programs -
Sample Plans of Action --------------
Local Leaders Are Important ---- ------- ----_
Who Are Leaders?
Why Leaders Are Important -----------
Kinds of Local Leaders -------------------
How to Find Informal or Natural Leaders ------
How Leaders Are Selected for Specific Jobs -------
What Kinds of Help Can Leaders Give? -------
Leaders Grow -----------------
Training Leaders----------------
Recognizing and Thanking Leaders -----------
Your Own Leadership Qualities ------------------
Leader's Guide for Demonstration Meeting -----
Teaching Methods ------------------------------
The Steps in Teaching ---------------- -__--
Individual Teaching Methods -----------
Home and Farm Visits -- ----------
Casual Village Visits-- ----------_
Office Calls ------------------- -----__ --
Result Demonstrations
Letters --. -. --.
Group Teaching Methods --- --------
Method Demonstrations .... .
Tours ------------------ --- --. -


Page
166
167
167
169
169
170
170
172
172
172
173
173
174
174
175
176
177
178
179
180
180
181


187
187
188
191
194
194
194
195
195
196
196
197
198
200
200
201
203
203
204
204
207
207
208
209
209
209
212








Meetings -
Women's Clubs -----
Songs
Drama
Role Playing--------
Puppet Plays
Mass Teaching Methods
Leaflets
Circular Letters -
Newspapers --
Wall Newspapers and Bulletin Boards -----
Radio --_------ --- -- --_
Television
Fairs, Exhibitions, and Festivals ----- --
Campaigns --
Community Centers
Teaching Aids _-
Real Objects
Samples and Specimens
Models __---
Photographs --


Blackboards ---------
Flannelgraphs -__-_ --__
Flashcards _______---
Flip Charts _- _-_ ___- -
Films -----------
Filmstrips and Slides _-
Exhibits --_ _
Posters --
Demonstration Animals ---
Museums ___
Appendix --------
Conversion Tables --
Bibliography ---------_-


Page
213
214
215
215
215
215
217
217
217
217
217
218
218
219
219
220
223
223
223
223
223


--- ---- -- 223
-- 223
--- 227
227
227
228
228
228
-- -- 230
230
---- 231
-- 233
---- -- --- 235





HOMEMAKING
HANDBOOK
For Village Workers
in Many Countries




Section I-HOW YOU BEGIN











































t-1'
a. u


Village women perform many tasks that help build na-
tions.














I


Village Women Help Build Nations


"If you educate a man, you educate an indi-
vidual; if you educate a woman, you educate a
family." This old proverb is still true today. A
woman may not always attend a village meet-
ing with her husband, but her influence goes
with him. This influence can change a village.
Never before have social and economic
changes affecting the home and family been so
strong both in the smallest rural villages and
in large cities. To prepare families to meet
these changes, home economics programs are
becoming an integral part of development
plans in most countries. These include home eco-
nomics teaching in schools and informal exten-
sion and community development programs.
The homemaker's role in national develop-
ment is often overlooked. Improved agricultural
production is basic to both economic and social
development and here the wives of farmers
have great influence. In many countries,
women do much work on the farm. In some
countries, the all-important food crops are al-
most entirely the women's responsibility. Gar-
dens, livestock, and chickens are usually under
their care.
Women often market the farm crops and are
the traders in the family. It is often the
woman who is first willing to try improved
farming methods. Her interest and attitude,


plus her labor, help to determine what the
production will be on a farm.
In the past, a housewife learned her home-
making skills from her mother. Each generation
lived much like the preceding one. Now her job
is bigger. Changing times make improved liv-
ing conditions possible, and she wants better
living for her family. She thinks of plenty of
good food, improved housing, and better health
for her family, better care and education for
her children.
As families move from subsistence farming
to a cash economy, they increasingly become
consumers. As consumer goods become more
plentiful and varied, women must manage
money and make choices. They thus influence
the growth and expansion of industries dealing
with food, clothing, housing, furnishings,
household equipment, and other products used
in the home. With continued education, women
increasingly demand more and better consumer
goods.
Health, too, is an important factor in eco-
nomic development. The woman is responsible
for the health and well-being of her family.
She determines whether or not the family lives
in a clean house and practices sanitation.
Whether her babies live or die depends upon
the care she gives them. She plans and cooks
the food to help her children grow strong. And
she sees that they are taught to be honest and
respect other people.
Governments are beginning to recognize that
helping the family and the home helps the na-
tion. They recognize that good homes, happy
families, and educated children are basic to a
great nation. They are becoming aware that
village women are helping to build a firmer
base for their country's progress.
The material in this handbook is drawn
from many countries around the world. It ap-
plies to all countries that are developing pro-
grams to improve the homes, health, and fam-
ily life of rural people.




































New crop varieties that increase production may not be new IR-8 rice makes more and tastes as good as t
used by families unless the women accept them. This old, when cooked a new way.
Vietnamese home agent shows village women that the


YOU ARE A VILLAGE WORKER


Much of every nation's strength is in its
rural citizens. Yet in many countries, rural
people are still the greatest underdeveloped re-
source. Villages and the families who live in
them make up a large and important part of
your country too.
You are an important person. You work
with village people. You bring ideas, knowl-
edge, and encouragement. You help them learn
how to make their lives better. You are their
teacher and friend. In your hands lies much of
their future.
You are creating an image of home econom-
ics that takes it beyond simple homemaking


skills. You are helping to develop your cou
try's most valuable resource-people.
You have been chosen for this important j
because:
* You are dedicated to your work.
* You like, understand, and get along wi
village people.
* You make friends easily.
* You have a pleasing personality.
* You keep your promises.
* You are punctual.
* You are willing to work hard.
You will not be working alone. You are ps
of a team. The other members are those m







and women, top officials and other workers like
yourself, concerned with agriculture, health,
education, and better living for the rural peo-
ple of their country. All must work together.
They must be dedicated to helping rural peo-
ple.
The village people are on this team also.
Without their cooperation and friendship,
nothing can be accomplished. Change must
take place in the minds and hearts of the vil-
lage people themselves before it can be effec-
tive and lasting.
Things happen because somebody has an
idea. Maybe a village leader has the idea. Or it


may be a woman who finds a way to save time.
Sometimes it will be an idea that you have
"planted" in the minds of the people. Later
they may think it was their idea. This is what
you want them to think.
Your job is highly rewarding and carries
great responsibility and challenge. Your feet
may be weary at the end of each day, but you
see the results of your work in healthier, hap-
pier children, better houses, green gardens
along the roadside, sanitary wells, and village
women who become leaders. You come back to
your own house with gladness in you: heart.
The smile on your face shows the inner joy you
feel in helping other women.


BEGINNING YOUR WORK


"How is a home economics program started?
How do I begin my work and where?" Every-
one who starts a new program asks these
questions. This is natural.
Home economics programs have been suc-
cessfully started in remote villages as well as
in highly developed urban centers all over the
world. The rule of first learning to know the
people applies to starting a program in a vil-
lage or in a larger area. The people include
your co-workers and leaders as well as the peo-
ple of the village or area.

Your First Visits to the Village
When you have completed your training and
are ready for your first visit to the village
where you are to work, you will already have
some information and general ideas about the
village. Your supervisor or a co-worker will
most likely go with you and introduce you to
the village chief and other village leaders. Oth-
ers you will wish to meet are extension co-
workers, community development workers,
health personnel, religious leaders, school
teachers, and shopkeepers, etc. Explain your


A village chief in United Arab Republic welcomed the
home economics worker as soon as she arrived. He
brought his wife to greet her too.







and women, top officials and other workers like
yourself, concerned with agriculture, health,
education, and better living for the rural peo-
ple of their country. All must work together.
They must be dedicated to helping rural peo-
ple.
The village people are on this team also.
Without their cooperation and friendship,
nothing can be accomplished. Change must
take place in the minds and hearts of the vil-
lage people themselves before it can be effec-
tive and lasting.
Things happen because somebody has an
idea. Maybe a village leader has the idea. Or it


may be a woman who finds a way to save time.
Sometimes it will be an idea that you have
"planted" in the minds of the people. Later
they may think it was their idea. This is what
you want them to think.
Your job is highly rewarding and carries
great responsibility and challenge. Your feet
may be weary at the end of each day, but you
see the results of your work in healthier, hap-
pier children, better houses, green gardens
along the roadside, sanitary wells, and village
women who become leaders. You come back to
your own house with gladness in you: heart.
The smile on your face shows the inner joy you
feel in helping other women.


BEGINNING YOUR WORK


"How is a home economics program started?
How do I begin my work and where?" Every-
one who starts a new program asks these
questions. This is natural.
Home economics programs have been suc-
cessfully started in remote villages as well as
in highly developed urban centers all over the
world. The rule of first learning to know the
people applies to starting a program in a vil-
lage or in a larger area. The people include
your co-workers and leaders as well as the peo-
ple of the village or area.

Your First Visits to the Village
When you have completed your training and
are ready for your first visit to the village
where you are to work, you will already have
some information and general ideas about the
village. Your supervisor or a co-worker will
most likely go with you and introduce you to
the village chief and other village leaders. Oth-
ers you will wish to meet are extension co-
workers, community development workers,
health personnel, religious leaders, school
teachers, and shopkeepers, etc. Explain your


A village chief in United Arab Republic welcomed the
home economics worker as soon as she arrived. He
brought his wife to greet her too.








work so these leaders will understand what a
homemaking program is, why their village
needs one, and how it can help solve some basic
problems. Ask them about the village, its peo-
ple, and their problems. In time you will grad-
ually get answers to such questions as:
* How big is the village?
* How many families live there and how much
distance does the village cover?
What is the average size of families?
How many children attend the village school?
How much education do the adults have?
What crops and livestock are grown? Are
they sold or raised for home use? What is the
average family income? What part do the
women play in agriculture? For example, how
much work do they do in the fields and with
the animals? Do they help market the crops
and livestock? Are there small rural industries
and crafts in the area through which the village
people can add to their income? What are
they? How much time do women spend on dif-
ent chores such as getting water and fuel,
planting crops, etc. ?
What are the road conditions leading in and
out of the village? How do the village people
get to town? How do they get their farm prod-
ucts to market? Where do the people get their
water? What are major health problems?
What is the infant death rate?
What clubs or organizations are there in the
village? What social and educational programs
are being conducted by the government or by
private agencies? How much do the women
take part? What is the illiteracy rate among
women in your particular village? Most of the
world's illiterates are women. In some coun-
tries, 80 to 90 percent of all women cannot
read. What is the women's overall influence on
matters of general concern to the village?
What problems do the leaders see as the most
pressing and urgent for the village?
Showing keen interest in the people. of the
village and expressing your desire to work
with them and their leaders can help you to be
accepted in the village. You will learn much
about the people as you begin to know and
work with their leaders. (See chapter on
leaders, page 194.)
Generally, one of the official leaders will in-


troduce you to village women and, if you are
going to live in the village, help you find a
place to live. Learn all you can about the peo-
ple and the village before you start visiting the
families themselves. Then you will be able to
understand and appreciate their way of life.
"Before I go to a new village," says a young
woman from Turkey, "I get some general ideas
from the agricultural agent. For example, he
will tell me much about the people, the crops
they raise, and how interested they are in new
ideas.
"The first thing I do when I visit the village
is call on the village president. He takes me to
call on his wife or arranges for me to visit her.
I call on the teachers if there is a school and
on the nurse if they have one. I tell them who I
am, what my job is, and why I have come to
the village. Then I ask them many questions. I
ask the teacher about the children and their
parents and I ask the nurse about the health of
the people.
"I tell the president of the village that I
want to visit some families because I want
them to know me before I teach them. So then
I visit families and I meet them as friends.
They must love me and believe in me if I am to
teach them. If there are 100 families in the vil-
lage, I try to visit at least 15. I try to select
homes that are different. I talk with the
women about their own family needs and prob-
lems and I observe, too. I try to learn, for ex-
ample:
How many rooms are in most houses
How many are used for sleeping
How many people are in the family
Where the kitchens are located
How the cooking is done
What kind of fuel is used
If there is a toilet
Where it is located
What kind of furniture the family has
If they have chickens or animals
What foods they grow for their own use
What methods they use to preserve food
What their basic diet is
How often they eat
Where the family gets water
If the house has electricity







What they think are their chief health
problems
How many of their children have died and
at what age
It is important that I learn which of the
women in the village are leaders. Each night
when I go back to my office, I record what I
have observed."
A Greek village worker says that on her
visit to get acquainted, "After I have talked to
the mayor of the village, I walk to the village
well. I always find women there drawing water
and can chat with them while I help them
draw the water. This way I find out what is
happening in the village before I start on my
round of individual visits."
A new worker in a village in Laos stopped
by a woman weaving a beautiful piece of silk
on a crude loom. She asked the woman to show
her how she developed the pattern. Soon the
woman went inside her house and brought out
all her pieces of woven silk. As the village
worker expressed sincere admiration for the
woman's handiwork, a bond of mutual respect
was developing. As women come to know and
trust, you, they will begin to talk about their
problems and the things they feel they need.

It Takes Time
It takes time to get to know people. Remem-
ber, you are a stranger. They must get to know
you well. If you do not live in the village, you
may have to visit it many times before the vil-
lagers learn to trust you.
In some countries, the central government
may be in fairly close touch with its citizens
and effective in teaching new ideas and starting
social change. In others, people view govern-
ment as nothing but a policeman or tax-collect-
ing agency that gives little in return. As a re-
sult, they may be suspicious of government
programs, including the homemaking program.
Through your own dedication and faithful
work, you can help build confidence in govern-
ment programs where such confidence is lack-
ing.
In some villages, the people are not used to
having strangers, particularly women, coming
to work. They may not trust you. You will


have to answer many questions about yourself
such as, "Are you married? How many chil-
dren do you have?", etc. Be sure to answer
questions so they know you are the kind of per-
son they want to have working in their village
with them.
To work effectively with the people, you will
need to know how they think. You may find
customs and practices in the village where you
work very strange and different from those
where you grew up. There are many things you
will need to study and understand.
Learning how to interpret what you hear
and see is important. Many mistakes are made
by judging a situation too quickly. This is a
good time to be looking for good practices that
you can later use as examples.

Record Your Observations
Beginning with your first visits to a village,
use some kind of form to record your observa-
tions. Select a few things to observe at a time.
Do not try to learn everything at once.
Suppose you want to learn about the foods
people grow for themselves. Do they have a
garden? What vegetables are in it? What food
crops do they grow in the field? Make a simple
chart on which you can write down what you
learn at each home. A garden observation form
might be like the one at the end of this chap-
ter.
After you visit the family, see their garden,
and talk with them about their foods, fill in
your form. Do not fill it in while you are with
the family. Wait until you have left the vil-
lage. Filling in a form or writing things down
can make the family suspicious and more re-
luctant to give you information.

Working With People to Bring About Change
As you learn about the people and the vil-
lage, you begin to see what changes the people
should make to have a better living. But what
changes do they wish to make? What are their
greatest problems? What problems do they rec-
ognize?
You may see children who do not have enough
food to eat, babies who are sick, houses that
are not clean, flies and mosquitoes everywhere,







What they think are their chief health
problems
How many of their children have died and
at what age
It is important that I learn which of the
women in the village are leaders. Each night
when I go back to my office, I record what I
have observed."
A Greek village worker says that on her
visit to get acquainted, "After I have talked to
the mayor of the village, I walk to the village
well. I always find women there drawing water
and can chat with them while I help them
draw the water. This way I find out what is
happening in the village before I start on my
round of individual visits."
A new worker in a village in Laos stopped
by a woman weaving a beautiful piece of silk
on a crude loom. She asked the woman to show
her how she developed the pattern. Soon the
woman went inside her house and brought out
all her pieces of woven silk. As the village
worker expressed sincere admiration for the
woman's handiwork, a bond of mutual respect
was developing. As women come to know and
trust, you, they will begin to talk about their
problems and the things they feel they need.

It Takes Time
It takes time to get to know people. Remem-
ber, you are a stranger. They must get to know
you well. If you do not live in the village, you
may have to visit it many times before the vil-
lagers learn to trust you.
In some countries, the central government
may be in fairly close touch with its citizens
and effective in teaching new ideas and starting
social change. In others, people view govern-
ment as nothing but a policeman or tax-collect-
ing agency that gives little in return. As a re-
sult, they may be suspicious of government
programs, including the homemaking program.
Through your own dedication and faithful
work, you can help build confidence in govern-
ment programs where such confidence is lack-
ing.
In some villages, the people are not used to
having strangers, particularly women, coming
to work. They may not trust you. You will


have to answer many questions about yourself
such as, "Are you married? How many chil-
dren do you have?", etc. Be sure to answer
questions so they know you are the kind of per-
son they want to have working in their village
with them.
To work effectively with the people, you will
need to know how they think. You may find
customs and practices in the village where you
work very strange and different from those
where you grew up. There are many things you
will need to study and understand.
Learning how to interpret what you hear
and see is important. Many mistakes are made
by judging a situation too quickly. This is a
good time to be looking for good practices that
you can later use as examples.

Record Your Observations
Beginning with your first visits to a village,
use some kind of form to record your observa-
tions. Select a few things to observe at a time.
Do not try to learn everything at once.
Suppose you want to learn about the foods
people grow for themselves. Do they have a
garden? What vegetables are in it? What food
crops do they grow in the field? Make a simple
chart on which you can write down what you
learn at each home. A garden observation form
might be like the one at the end of this chap-
ter.
After you visit the family, see their garden,
and talk with them about their foods, fill in
your form. Do not fill it in while you are with
the family. Wait until you have left the vil-
lage. Filling in a form or writing things down
can make the family suspicious and more re-
luctant to give you information.

Working With People to Bring About Change
As you learn about the people and the vil-
lage, you begin to see what changes the people
should make to have a better living. But what
changes do they wish to make? What are their
greatest problems? What problems do they rec-
ognize?
You may see children who do not have enough
food to eat, babies who are sick, houses that
are not clean, flies and mosquitoes everywhere,







What they think are their chief health
problems
How many of their children have died and
at what age
It is important that I learn which of the
women in the village are leaders. Each night
when I go back to my office, I record what I
have observed."
A Greek village worker says that on her
visit to get acquainted, "After I have talked to
the mayor of the village, I walk to the village
well. I always find women there drawing water
and can chat with them while I help them
draw the water. This way I find out what is
happening in the village before I start on my
round of individual visits."
A new worker in a village in Laos stopped
by a woman weaving a beautiful piece of silk
on a crude loom. She asked the woman to show
her how she developed the pattern. Soon the
woman went inside her house and brought out
all her pieces of woven silk. As the village
worker expressed sincere admiration for the
woman's handiwork, a bond of mutual respect
was developing. As women come to know and
trust, you, they will begin to talk about their
problems and the things they feel they need.

It Takes Time
It takes time to get to know people. Remem-
ber, you are a stranger. They must get to know
you well. If you do not live in the village, you
may have to visit it many times before the vil-
lagers learn to trust you.
In some countries, the central government
may be in fairly close touch with its citizens
and effective in teaching new ideas and starting
social change. In others, people view govern-
ment as nothing but a policeman or tax-collect-
ing agency that gives little in return. As a re-
sult, they may be suspicious of government
programs, including the homemaking program.
Through your own dedication and faithful
work, you can help build confidence in govern-
ment programs where such confidence is lack-
ing.
In some villages, the people are not used to
having strangers, particularly women, coming
to work. They may not trust you. You will


have to answer many questions about yourself
such as, "Are you married? How many chil-
dren do you have?", etc. Be sure to answer
questions so they know you are the kind of per-
son they want to have working in their village
with them.
To work effectively with the people, you will
need to know how they think. You may find
customs and practices in the village where you
work very strange and different from those
where you grew up. There are many things you
will need to study and understand.
Learning how to interpret what you hear
and see is important. Many mistakes are made
by judging a situation too quickly. This is a
good time to be looking for good practices that
you can later use as examples.

Record Your Observations
Beginning with your first visits to a village,
use some kind of form to record your observa-
tions. Select a few things to observe at a time.
Do not try to learn everything at once.
Suppose you want to learn about the foods
people grow for themselves. Do they have a
garden? What vegetables are in it? What food
crops do they grow in the field? Make a simple
chart on which you can write down what you
learn at each home. A garden observation form
might be like the one at the end of this chap-
ter.
After you visit the family, see their garden,
and talk with them about their foods, fill in
your form. Do not fill it in while you are with
the family. Wait until you have left the vil-
lage. Filling in a form or writing things down
can make the family suspicious and more re-
luctant to give you information.

Working With People to Bring About Change
As you learn about the people and the vil-
lage, you begin to see what changes the people
should make to have a better living. But what
changes do they wish to make? What are their
greatest problems? What problems do they rec-
ognize?
You may see children who do not have enough
food to eat, babies who are sick, houses that
are not clean, flies and mosquitoes everywhere,








women carrying water from the river because
the village has no well, and many other prob-
lems and things that need to be done. You want
to help the people solve such problems as these.
But they may not even recognize some of these
as problems because they have always lived
with them.
Part of your job as a village worker is to
help people recognize these bad conditions as
problems and create a desire to change. Often
when people seem not to care or want to im-
prove, it is not because they are lazy or shift-
less, but rather because of poor health, little or
no income, lack of hope, or lack of knowledge.
Your work is education outside of school.
Education is a change in attitudes, knowledge,
and skills. Children go to school because their
parents send them or because laws require
children to attend school. Out-of-school or in-
formal education is voluntary. People come
to meetings only when they want to come.
They learn only when they have a reason to
learn. They change only when they desire to
change. The way you work with people is


very important in making them want to
change.
Often it is more important to change the
way people think about what they do than to
change what they do. They must know why
certain things are problems. For example, they
should know that polluted water causes illness.
They need to know how to change the bad
conditions. For example, they will need to
know how to get a safe water supply for the
village, how to dig a well, how to install a
pump, etc. As they learn, their skills will im-
prove.
Here are some principles of working with
people to help them bring about change:
1. Find out why village people do things the
way they do and work within the culture of
the village.
It is important to observe and try to learn
why people do things the way they do before
suggesting changes. There may be good rea-

Once you have been accepted in the village, try to get
to know whole families as this village worker is doing
in United Arab Republic.


*.

r ,:.
.
r







sons behind them, or there may be supersti-
tions or traditions that make people resist
changes. You are better able to help people
change if you know why they don't want to.
The members of every society have certain
practices and beliefs which they consider the
most important and valuable things in life.
These values have been safeguarded and car-
ried through generations. They cannot be ig-
nored.
The values in one village may differ greatly
from those of another. For example, what
other people do or think is so very important
in some villages that a woman will hesitate to
make a change unless it is accepted by all. She
may say, "I like what you say, but the people
in the village are against this change and I
cannot go against the village." In other vil-
lages, individual initiative is important and a
person feels free to act on his own judgment.
The customs village people have followed for
many generations often direct what is done at
the time of marriage, birth, death, sickness,
and many other times. Find out what these are
so you will not offend the villagers accidentally
by doing the wrong thing.
Some of these customs make a heavy burden
for the family. For example, some families go
deeply in debt to pay for marriages. If you can
help them keep the debt as small as possible or
save a little money each year to be ready for it,
you will aid them greatly.
Religion, local beliefs, prejudices, and taboos
are generally very strong and greatly affect
what people do and their attitudes toward
changes. For example, many people have reli-
gious beliefs or taboos about eating meat. It is
hard to increase the amount of meat peo-
ple eat until you understand these beliefs.
There are usually many beliefs about health:
what causes sickness and what makes a
person well. Learn all you can about the
beliefs, prejudices, and taboos people hold
important before you try to change their hab-
its.
Learn religious customs in the village. Dis-
cuss your work with the local religious leaders
and gain their confidence. Their support is
very important. You will find they are inter-


ested in more than the spiritual needs of the
village. They would like to see people have bet-
ter homes and better health. They will under-
stand your job.

2. Respect village people and treat them as
equals.
Gain their confidence. Remember, natural in-
telligence is as plentiful among rural people as
among any other group. Education or lack of it
is no measure of ability.
Village people have as much practical good
sense and good judgment as other people. They
have many skills. They have practical experi-
ence. They have moral strength.. They have
much to teach you as well as to learn from you.
Listen to them. Be interested in what they
want to show you.
People will ask you many questions. You
cannot possibly know all the answers. Learn to
say, "I don't know, but I will find out and let
you know." Then be sure to do it. Village peo-
ple do not respect or trust a person who pre-
tends to know, but they are willing to wait for,
you to get the answer. When you make a prom-
ise, you must keep it. The people must trust
you to like you.
3. Start where the people are with problems
they recognize.
In certain isolated areas of Puerto Rico, it
has long been the custom to scatter a few vege-
table seeds about the area near the house. A
wise home economist trying to help these peo-
ple improve their diets did not start by sug-
gesting a well-fenced garden with neat rows of
vegetables. She showed them how to plant one
whole row of a yellow vegetable they liked so
they would have a good supply of this vegeta-
ble. She then made a small garden near the
house she lives in. Later, after they had all
seen her garden with seeds planted in rows,
she began to suggest they try her way of grow-
ing vegetables.
In visiting a village in Turkey one summer,
the home economics extension worker found
the villagers talking about how many of the
babies were sick. She offered to help the
women. Even though it was a time when the
women were all working in the fields, the mayor
of the village said he would bring them in to








attend a meeting if the worker would teach the
women how to keep the babies from getting
sick.
In another village the women wanted to
learn to read and write,'and the village worker
agreed to teach them. However, she also saw
the great need for improving diets and sanita-
tion. So, as she taught them to read and write,
she made sure that the first sentences they
learned were on cleanliness and nutritious
foods.
Women may ask you to teach them to knit or
embroider. You may think they should first
learn how to feed the family better, or be in-
terested in getting a well for the village. How-
ever, while they learn to knit, you can talk
about the things all women talk about when
they are together-what to cook for the eve-
ning meal, why the baby cries so much, the
price of rice in the market, the husband who
cannot do very much work because he tires
easily, the little boy who wants to go to school
but can't because there is no money to buy
clothes for him. You can also demonstrate im-
proved practices they need to learn, for exam-
ple, how to make a simple clothes closet. By
teaching them both what they want to learn
and what they need to learn, you can help
them see larger problems.
Learn all you can about each problem. Talk
to the people, visit in their homes, and discuss
things with their leaders to collect information
about the village and its problems. Some of the
things needed will take more money, materials,
and know-how than the people now have. Get
as much information and as many facts as you
can so you will be ready to help the people
when you and they start planning what to do.
Plan WITH the people and not FOR them.
lRemember, the village belongs to the people
and they must help decide what to do. Do not
talk about what you think are their most
pressing problems. Let then tell you what they
need and want. Begin with these.
Only when the people themselves help to
plan and carry out a program will they feel it
is theirs. Work with them so that whatever is
planned or done becomes a part of their think-
ing. As the ideas you plant in their minds


grow, people begin to think of them as their
own and want to do something about them.
People who study their own problems and
help to work out solutions are much more
likely to help carry out the program. Even in
the least developed communities, letting the
people share in planning and doing helps them
build confidence in themselves and be proud of
their own accomplishments. It helps to develop
leadership. When the people help at each step,
a program has a much better chance to suc-
ceed.
4. Help people see the need to change.
Village people have lived the way they do
for hundreds of years. They may not even rec-
ognize some of their problems as problems be-
cause they have always lived with them. They
often continue this way because no one has
shown them a better way.
Part of your job is to help them recognize
their problems and get them to want to solve
them.
For example, they may have always lived in
houses without windows, and they feel no need
for them. It may take time to persuade them
that they would be healthier if the sun could
enter their houses each day and the air circulate
at night as they sleep. It may take time to get
them to want windows enough to get them. A
well-planned group discussion is one of the
best ways to start people thinking about their
larger and more important problems.

5. Help people help themselves.
It is often easier to say "I'll do it for you",
but this does not help people gain confidence in
themselves. When the women in an Indian vil-
lage wanted their village worker to buy cloth
for them, she said, "Which one of you can go
to the bazaar with me? I will be glad to go
along and help you, but you must make the se-
lection." This took longer but it helped the
women learn and grow. Only by participating
can people practice their own skills and abili-
ties so they are able to make responsible deci-
sions.
In another village, the women had seen the
smokeless stove the village worker had in her
house and began to want one like it. She told
them what they would need to make it and







where to get the materials. Then she said, "I
will show you how to build the stove and help
you build the first one. Everyone can help build
it and then you will all know how to build your
own stoves."
People working together turn an idea into
action and achievement. The village leaders
know that they need a well, and you know it.
You know that a well costs a lot of money. The
people in the village must want a well so much
that they will work together to get it.

6. Find leaders in the village and help them
to be teachers too.
By finding and training leaders to teach their
neighbors what they have learned, you will give
many people a chance to learn in a short time.
Developing people is your main objective. Dis-
covering the people who will accept responsi-
bility and serve as leaders in the village pro-
gram is one of the best ways to help them
prepare for larger leadership roles. When you,
the people, and their leaders all decide exactly
what is needed or wanted, it becomes a goal to
work for. Be sure it is something they can
actually carry out so they will not be dis-
appointed.

7. Work with the whole family.
Often parents can be reached through the
children. Both boys and girls in the family
need to learn many of the same things their
mothers are taught. The husband is interested
in better living for his family. His understand-
ing and cooperation in the homemaking pro-
gram can mean much toward its success.
Families differ greatly in different societies.
In some villages, families are patriarchal. The
man is head of the household and makes the de-
cisions. Women may have little or no status
there. This may affect the respect for your
opinions and your work. In other societies,
families may be strongly matriarchal with the
mother or grandmother having more influence
than the men. The status of the family or indi-
viduals within the family may be based on


wealth, ownership of land, education, age, or
some other standard.
How do families live? This includes their
diets, housing, work, habits, family relation-
ships, and economic situation. Find out if any
special studies or surveys of family living con-
ditions have been made which you might add
to your own observations.
8. Use many different methods of teaching and
reaching people.
Research has shown that using nine or ten
different methods in carrying out a project
brings better results than using only one or two
methods.
One good way to inspire and teach is by ex-
ample. Many people will watch you and the
way you live. They will see and respect your
simple dress, your pride in your work, and
your willingness to help others. Your house is
the same type as theirs, but it is clean and at-
tractive. It teaches more than any words you
can say. If you store your food on shelves and
in containers, the women will be quick to see
and do the same thing. They will watch to see
what you eat and how you cook it.
Modern methods of communication now
reach even remote villages in many countries.
You may find people listening to radios. Some
agency may be using mobile units with loud-
speakers to get information to the people.
Besides these, however, every society has- an-
other system of communication. Women talk
together as they work in the field, do their
washing, or come to the well for water. Men
talk as they gather in coffee houses or market
places. Information is passed from person to
person at funerals, fairs, and religious festi-
vals. News may be posted on bulletin boards or
a village writer or storyteller may pass it
along. Learn how news and information is best
communicated in each village where you work.
Know the customs and purposes of social gath-
erings, how much families visit each other's
homes, and what the social groupings are in
the village.








Sample Home Garden Observation Form





Name of Family ___ Date Visited
Do they have a garden? YES_ NO
If so, where is it located? ___
About what size?
How is it watered?
Is compost used? YES__ NO_
Is commercial fertilizer used? YES__ NO___
Is garden well cultivated? YES_ NO__


Beans
Tomatoes
Spinach
Lettuce
Others


Carrots
Okra
Cabbage
Corn


Food crops for family use growing in field:

Cereal Grains
Rice
Wheat
Corn
Others _


Root crops
Yams
Cassava
Others


Vegetables growing:








YOU NEED SUPPORT-THE HOMEMAKING PROGRAM NEEDS SUPPORT


How many times have you said, "I need your
help. I need your support!" No matter what we
do or where we are, we need the help and sup-
port of those around us.
A homemaking program needs the support
of many different people. As a village worker,
what you are trying to do must be understood
both by those who provide the funds and by
every family with whom you work. It must also
be understood by religious, educational, and
business leaders.
You must constantly explain the need'for a
home economics program if it is to succeed in
improving the living conditions of the people.
Even where homemaking or home economics
programs have existed a long time, many peo-
ple still do not understand the scope of a pro-
gram dealing with the home and the family.
Some think homemaking, mothercraft, or
home economics programs involve only simple
skills in cooking, sewing, laundry, and house-
cleaning. Others think of them in terms of
frills and fancy work. You are the one who
must make the true meaning clear.
The home economics program needs to show
results people can see. Because many people do
not understand what home economics is or how
it helps families, try to get village women in-
terested in projects that show results. These
include growing a garden, improving the poul-
try flock, making a smokeless stove, or carry-
ing out a "healthy baby" campaign. Progress
like this catches attention and helps to con-
vince people of the value of your work. When
people can see and hear about actual changes
and improvement families are making, they
will recognize the special kind of assistance
home economics offers for bettering home liv-
ing and village life.


At the National Level
You need the enthusiastic and active support
of influential people. This means more than


just approval. Top government officials must
see the need for educating girls and women to
become better mothers and homemakers. They
must know about the program, be willing to
talk about it, and provide money for this pur-
pose.
When a national official takes part in a spe-
cial homemaking program out in a small vil-
lage, he not only does something for the people
in the village, but the experience does some-
thing for him! After participating, he is more
likely to give the program the kind of active
and enthusiastic support you need.

Korea Reports
An Achievement Day held in a village near
Seoul was a most successful effort in winning
national support for home economics work in
Korea.
Specialists from the national extension staff
had helped the local village worker teach sev-
eral families how to improve their kitchens.
This included building new stoves, getting a
safe water supply, adding dish storage, and
whitewashing walls. The recognition event was
well publicized. The Minister of Agriculture
and several members of the National Assembly
were invited and came. The Extension Director
and several home agents from each province
also attended so they could duplicate the event
in their own provinces the following year.
The program began with a showing of men's
and women's improved work clothes and chil-
dren's play clothes. After the usual courtesy
speeches, the officials toured homes where the
kitchen improvements had been made. The
small children of the village demonstrated the
games they had learned in their community
play school sponsored by the village home im-
provement club.
This was a most successful event. The Na-
tional Assembly voted to double the number of
home agents and provide two demonstration
villages in each district.








YOU NEED SUPPORT-THE HOMEMAKING PROGRAM NEEDS SUPPORT


How many times have you said, "I need your
help. I need your support!" No matter what we
do or where we are, we need the help and sup-
port of those around us.
A homemaking program needs the support
of many different people. As a village worker,
what you are trying to do must be understood
both by those who provide the funds and by
every family with whom you work. It must also
be understood by religious, educational, and
business leaders.
You must constantly explain the need'for a
home economics program if it is to succeed in
improving the living conditions of the people.
Even where homemaking or home economics
programs have existed a long time, many peo-
ple still do not understand the scope of a pro-
gram dealing with the home and the family.
Some think homemaking, mothercraft, or
home economics programs involve only simple
skills in cooking, sewing, laundry, and house-
cleaning. Others think of them in terms of
frills and fancy work. You are the one who
must make the true meaning clear.
The home economics program needs to show
results people can see. Because many people do
not understand what home economics is or how
it helps families, try to get village women in-
terested in projects that show results. These
include growing a garden, improving the poul-
try flock, making a smokeless stove, or carry-
ing out a "healthy baby" campaign. Progress
like this catches attention and helps to con-
vince people of the value of your work. When
people can see and hear about actual changes
and improvement families are making, they
will recognize the special kind of assistance
home economics offers for bettering home liv-
ing and village life.


At the National Level
You need the enthusiastic and active support
of influential people. This means more than


just approval. Top government officials must
see the need for educating girls and women to
become better mothers and homemakers. They
must know about the program, be willing to
talk about it, and provide money for this pur-
pose.
When a national official takes part in a spe-
cial homemaking program out in a small vil-
lage, he not only does something for the people
in the village, but the experience does some-
thing for him! After participating, he is more
likely to give the program the kind of active
and enthusiastic support you need.

Korea Reports
An Achievement Day held in a village near
Seoul was a most successful effort in winning
national support for home economics work in
Korea.
Specialists from the national extension staff
had helped the local village worker teach sev-
eral families how to improve their kitchens.
This included building new stoves, getting a
safe water supply, adding dish storage, and
whitewashing walls. The recognition event was
well publicized. The Minister of Agriculture
and several members of the National Assembly
were invited and came. The Extension Director
and several home agents from each province
also attended so they could duplicate the event
in their own provinces the following year.
The program began with a showing of men's
and women's improved work clothes and chil-
dren's play clothes. After the usual courtesy
speeches, the officials toured homes where the
kitchen improvements had been made. The
small children of the village demonstrated the
games they had learned in their community
play school sponsored by the village home im-
provement club.
This was a most successful event. The Na-
tional Assembly voted to double the number of
home agents and provide two demonstration
villages in each district.








From Kenya
After the Deputy Director of Agriculture
visited another country and observed their De-
partment of Agriculture's program for farm
women, he enthusiastically requested a home
economics adviser to help start and develop a
home economics program in Kenya.
In Kenya, the farm woman is also a farmer.
Women extension workers were accepted at
once because they were trained in agriculture
as well as home economics. They came into the
Ministry of Agriculture as dual-purpose field
workers. The addition of women was gradual
and they were readily accepted at the national,
provincial, and village levels.
An interesting and encouraging reaction is
the keen interest taken by the men. In 1965,
578 out of 3,000 home economics demonstra-
tions and classes conducted at the 12 farmer
training centers were for men.

At the Provincial Level
Provincial administrators and leaders are
closer to the people than leaders at the na-
tional level. Therefore, they often feel keener
interest in them and greater pride in their ac-
complishments. They may not control the
money, but the kind and amount of support
you get at the provincial level can mean the
difference between success and failure. Help
these leaders and officials know and under-
stand your program. Get them into the village

The agricultural chief (second from left) of Vietnam's
Bien Hoa Province teaches village workers how to
plant sorghum.


to see for themselves the results of your work.
Have them participate at meetings and home-
making events in your area.

At the Village Level
The village program needs to fit into the
government's goals for the country and for ag-
riculture. For example, if the national govern-
ment is trying to get all farm families to prod-
uce enough food to feed themselves, you can
help village people see this need and interest
them in producing food for their own use.
The people you work with must believe in
you and think of you as their friend. They must
feel you need them to help plan and carry out a
program for their benefit. You do. Without
their support you cannot carry out a program.
The headman or chief of a village must have
confidence in you. He must fully understand
what you do. In many places, the headman
feels great responsibility for the welfare of his
village. Convince him you are working with
him to reach his goals for the people.
There are other people of influence in the
village-the religious leader, the teacher, and
the natural leaders that others go to for help
or advice. It is important to win support from
all these people. They can and will help you in
many ways if they like you, believe in you, and
feel that you really want to help them. Give
them a chance!

People Who Are Willing to Help

One of the best ways to get support from
any person is to ask him or her to take some
responsibility or do something, even if it is
only a small deed. Involve leaders in collecting
facts and studying problems. Women in high
positions will often help analyze basic prob-
lems concerning the family and suggest possi-
ble solutions. At every level, you need people
who are willing to give their time and work to
help further the program.
Many influential people in towns and cities
are willing to support a rural homemaking
program. They can often bring such national
problems as rural sanitation, rural housing, in-
fant mortality, etc., to the attention of national








From Kenya
After the Deputy Director of Agriculture
visited another country and observed their De-
partment of Agriculture's program for farm
women, he enthusiastically requested a home
economics adviser to help start and develop a
home economics program in Kenya.
In Kenya, the farm woman is also a farmer.
Women extension workers were accepted at
once because they were trained in agriculture
as well as home economics. They came into the
Ministry of Agriculture as dual-purpose field
workers. The addition of women was gradual
and they were readily accepted at the national,
provincial, and village levels.
An interesting and encouraging reaction is
the keen interest taken by the men. In 1965,
578 out of 3,000 home economics demonstra-
tions and classes conducted at the 12 farmer
training centers were for men.

At the Provincial Level
Provincial administrators and leaders are
closer to the people than leaders at the na-
tional level. Therefore, they often feel keener
interest in them and greater pride in their ac-
complishments. They may not control the
money, but the kind and amount of support
you get at the provincial level can mean the
difference between success and failure. Help
these leaders and officials know and under-
stand your program. Get them into the village

The agricultural chief (second from left) of Vietnam's
Bien Hoa Province teaches village workers how to
plant sorghum.


to see for themselves the results of your work.
Have them participate at meetings and home-
making events in your area.

At the Village Level
The village program needs to fit into the
government's goals for the country and for ag-
riculture. For example, if the national govern-
ment is trying to get all farm families to prod-
uce enough food to feed themselves, you can
help village people see this need and interest
them in producing food for their own use.
The people you work with must believe in
you and think of you as their friend. They must
feel you need them to help plan and carry out a
program for their benefit. You do. Without
their support you cannot carry out a program.
The headman or chief of a village must have
confidence in you. He must fully understand
what you do. In many places, the headman
feels great responsibility for the welfare of his
village. Convince him you are working with
him to reach his goals for the people.
There are other people of influence in the
village-the religious leader, the teacher, and
the natural leaders that others go to for help
or advice. It is important to win support from
all these people. They can and will help you in
many ways if they like you, believe in you, and
feel that you really want to help them. Give
them a chance!

People Who Are Willing to Help

One of the best ways to get support from
any person is to ask him or her to take some
responsibility or do something, even if it is
only a small deed. Involve leaders in collecting
facts and studying problems. Women in high
positions will often help analyze basic prob-
lems concerning the family and suggest possi-
ble solutions. At every level, you need people
who are willing to give their time and work to
help further the program.
Many influential people in towns and cities
are willing to support a rural homemaking
program. They can often bring such national
problems as rural sanitation, rural housing, in-
fant mortality, etc., to the attention of national








From Kenya
After the Deputy Director of Agriculture
visited another country and observed their De-
partment of Agriculture's program for farm
women, he enthusiastically requested a home
economics adviser to help start and develop a
home economics program in Kenya.
In Kenya, the farm woman is also a farmer.
Women extension workers were accepted at
once because they were trained in agriculture
as well as home economics. They came into the
Ministry of Agriculture as dual-purpose field
workers. The addition of women was gradual
and they were readily accepted at the national,
provincial, and village levels.
An interesting and encouraging reaction is
the keen interest taken by the men. In 1965,
578 out of 3,000 home economics demonstra-
tions and classes conducted at the 12 farmer
training centers were for men.

At the Provincial Level
Provincial administrators and leaders are
closer to the people than leaders at the na-
tional level. Therefore, they often feel keener
interest in them and greater pride in their ac-
complishments. They may not control the
money, but the kind and amount of support
you get at the provincial level can mean the
difference between success and failure. Help
these leaders and officials know and under-
stand your program. Get them into the village

The agricultural chief (second from left) of Vietnam's
Bien Hoa Province teaches village workers how to
plant sorghum.


to see for themselves the results of your work.
Have them participate at meetings and home-
making events in your area.

At the Village Level
The village program needs to fit into the
government's goals for the country and for ag-
riculture. For example, if the national govern-
ment is trying to get all farm families to prod-
uce enough food to feed themselves, you can
help village people see this need and interest
them in producing food for their own use.
The people you work with must believe in
you and think of you as their friend. They must
feel you need them to help plan and carry out a
program for their benefit. You do. Without
their support you cannot carry out a program.
The headman or chief of a village must have
confidence in you. He must fully understand
what you do. In many places, the headman
feels great responsibility for the welfare of his
village. Convince him you are working with
him to reach his goals for the people.
There are other people of influence in the
village-the religious leader, the teacher, and
the natural leaders that others go to for help
or advice. It is important to win support from
all these people. They can and will help you in
many ways if they like you, believe in you, and
feel that you really want to help them. Give
them a chance!

People Who Are Willing to Help

One of the best ways to get support from
any person is to ask him or her to take some
responsibility or do something, even if it is
only a small deed. Involve leaders in collecting
facts and studying problems. Women in high
positions will often help analyze basic prob-
lems concerning the family and suggest possi-
ble solutions. At every level, you need people
who are willing to give their time and work to
help further the program.
Many influential people in towns and cities
are willing to support a rural homemaking
program. They can often bring such national
problems as rural sanitation, rural housing, in-
fant mortality, etc., to the attention of national
































1I6


VI,
~t /1,;


A village worker in Ghana got the village chiefs' sup-
port by showing them what she planned to teach the
women.







and provincial officials. They need to know
what is being done about such problems and
what they can do to interest government minis-
tries in them. Business men and women such as
bankers, merchants, and heads of organiza-
tions can help tremendously if you get them in-
terested.
Your Co-Workers
At whatever level you work, you need the
support of those who work with you. The mu-
tual support, mutual respect, and mutual as-
sistance that agricultural and home economics
extension workers give each other is one rea-
son for their success. Your co-workers can be


your strongest allies. Cultivate them!

Other Agencies and Organizations
Every country has government and private
agencies and organizations concerned with
rural welfare. The problems and opportunities
in rural areas are interwoven and inseparable.
Programs concerned with them often overlap.
If the groups trying to solve these problems
work together, sharing help and resources,
avoiding duplication, and lessening competi-
tion, the program of each can develop. The
support you win from other agencies and or-
ganizations strengthens your program. There
is more than enough for all to do.


WORKING WITH OTHER AGENCIES

AND ORGANIZATIONS


Programs dealing with the home and family
differ from country to country in the way they
are organized and operate. They are even given
different names such as home economics, home
science, homemaking, home craft, mothercraft,
etc. But they all are trying to improve home
and family life and develop people.
In many countries, the Ministry or Depart-
ment of Agriculture conducts a home econom-
ics program as a part of the Agricultural Ex-
tension Service. The Ministry of Education
generally includes home economics in its school
program and may also provide home economics
education for adults. In some countries, the
Ministry of Social Affairs conducts community
development programs. Part of this is work
with the family and home. Many home econom-
ics programs are also supported and carried
out by business organizations and other private
groups. Other agencies such as Public Health,
Literacy, Social Welfare, etc., are concerned
with certain phases of family welfare.
No matter which agency you may be work-


ing in, you should know about all such pro-
grams that are operating in your area and
work with them. Such cooperation can be of
mutual advantage. They can help you and you
can show them the special kind of assistance
home economics offers in helping families im-
prove their living conditions and develop into
more useful citizens.


Agricultural Agencies
Agricultural development is concerned not
only with increasing and improving the prod-
uction of crops and livestock, but also with de-
veloping rural families and improving rural
living conditions. Agriculture and rural home
economics are a joint program in many areas.
The problems of rural living are so closely tied
to agriculture that these two fields of education
are natural "partners." Often local men and
women extension workers have their offices to-
gether or near each other and work success-
fully as a team.







and provincial officials. They need to know
what is being done about such problems and
what they can do to interest government minis-
tries in them. Business men and women such as
bankers, merchants, and heads of organiza-
tions can help tremendously if you get them in-
terested.
Your Co-Workers
At whatever level you work, you need the
support of those who work with you. The mu-
tual support, mutual respect, and mutual as-
sistance that agricultural and home economics
extension workers give each other is one rea-
son for their success. Your co-workers can be


your strongest allies. Cultivate them!

Other Agencies and Organizations
Every country has government and private
agencies and organizations concerned with
rural welfare. The problems and opportunities
in rural areas are interwoven and inseparable.
Programs concerned with them often overlap.
If the groups trying to solve these problems
work together, sharing help and resources,
avoiding duplication, and lessening competi-
tion, the program of each can develop. The
support you win from other agencies and or-
ganizations strengthens your program. There
is more than enough for all to do.


WORKING WITH OTHER AGENCIES

AND ORGANIZATIONS


Programs dealing with the home and family
differ from country to country in the way they
are organized and operate. They are even given
different names such as home economics, home
science, homemaking, home craft, mothercraft,
etc. But they all are trying to improve home
and family life and develop people.
In many countries, the Ministry or Depart-
ment of Agriculture conducts a home econom-
ics program as a part of the Agricultural Ex-
tension Service. The Ministry of Education
generally includes home economics in its school
program and may also provide home economics
education for adults. In some countries, the
Ministry of Social Affairs conducts community
development programs. Part of this is work
with the family and home. Many home econom-
ics programs are also supported and carried
out by business organizations and other private
groups. Other agencies such as Public Health,
Literacy, Social Welfare, etc., are concerned
with certain phases of family welfare.
No matter which agency you may be work-


ing in, you should know about all such pro-
grams that are operating in your area and
work with them. Such cooperation can be of
mutual advantage. They can help you and you
can show them the special kind of assistance
home economics offers in helping families im-
prove their living conditions and develop into
more useful citizens.


Agricultural Agencies
Agricultural development is concerned not
only with increasing and improving the prod-
uction of crops and livestock, but also with de-
veloping rural families and improving rural
living conditions. Agriculture and rural home
economics are a joint program in many areas.
The problems of rural living are so closely tied
to agriculture that these two fields of education
are natural "partners." Often local men and
women extension workers have their offices to-
gether or near each other and work success-
fully as a team.








A constant exchange of knowledge, informa-
tion, and ideas between agricultural and home
economics workers can bring swifter progress
in both fields. The Ministry of Agriculture is
concerned with many phases of home living.
For instance, specialists in horticulture, poul-
try, dairying, etc., can render valuable assist-
ance to a home food program. Some ministries
have agricultural schools which are important
resources in home economics work.
In most countries, very few improved agri-
cultural measures are completely within either
the husband or wife's sphere of work. Most im-
provements recommended by both agricultural
and home economics workers require the full
acceptance of both husband and wife before
they can be adopted.
The homemaker's influence operates in many
of the agricultural programs introduced to vil-
lages. For example, land consolidation might,
at first, seem strictly to concern the men of the
village. They settle all the arrangements and
what is done would seem to rest solely with
them. But experience has proven otherwise.
Often farmers are opposed to consolidation.
But if the women are convinced of its benefits
to their families, they may very well get their
husbands to make this change.

Agricultural Credit Programs
One big need of many village families is fair
and reasonable credit. Many families are never
free of debt because interest rates are so high
they cannot hope to pay back the amount they
borrow. In some areas, many rural families are
almost the slaves of money lenders. You can
help them find the agencies that will lend
money to buy land, implements, animals, fertil-
izer, and seed at fair interest rates. In some
places, these credit agencies also lend money
for home improvements. In an agricultural
credit program, the homemaker must under-
stand the use of credit so she will cooperate in
repaying the loan.

Cooperatives
In some villages, the people will be very
much interested in cooperatives of various
kinds. Women are often active members of


cooperatives that sell homemade products such
as craft articles, fresh vegetables, flowers, and
home-baked or preserved foods. They may also
set up their own cooperatives. Agricultural
cooperatives in many places supply seed and
fertilizer. They might also provide the seeds
needed for a garden project or the supplies
needed in a home improvement program.
Learn about the cooperatives in your area
and how they function so that you can better
inform families and help them make the best
use of the advantages cooperatives offer.


The Ministry of Education
Most villages need more and better schools.
In some countries boys are sent to school, but
girls must stay home and work. Both need edu-
cation. Many families now are anxious to have
schools in their villages so all children can at-
tend. Work with parents and village officials
for better schools.
You should also work with village school
teachers. They know the children, their par-
ents, and the village leaders. The teacher can
help you with many projects by having the
children take part in them. The success of the
youth work part of your homemaking program
will depend in large measure upon the coopera-
tion you get from schools. School garden pro-
jects, for example, offer a fine basis of coopera-
tive effort.
Classroom teachers often seek your help in
teaching home economics subjects such as nu-
trition, child care, clothing, etc. Close working
relationships will benefit both of you. There
are many opportunities for such cooperation. It
is specially important to work with any home
economics teachers in schools in your area.
You should have a common understanding of
families' needs and the best ways to meet
them.
Working with universities and other educa-
tional institutions offering home economics is
equally important. You can tell these teachers
and trainers about family needs and problems,
and keep them aware of the type of training
needed by the young women who will be going
into extension and other homemaking pro-
grams in rural areas. You may help them set








A constant exchange of knowledge, informa-
tion, and ideas between agricultural and home
economics workers can bring swifter progress
in both fields. The Ministry of Agriculture is
concerned with many phases of home living.
For instance, specialists in horticulture, poul-
try, dairying, etc., can render valuable assist-
ance to a home food program. Some ministries
have agricultural schools which are important
resources in home economics work.
In most countries, very few improved agri-
cultural measures are completely within either
the husband or wife's sphere of work. Most im-
provements recommended by both agricultural
and home economics workers require the full
acceptance of both husband and wife before
they can be adopted.
The homemaker's influence operates in many
of the agricultural programs introduced to vil-
lages. For example, land consolidation might,
at first, seem strictly to concern the men of the
village. They settle all the arrangements and
what is done would seem to rest solely with
them. But experience has proven otherwise.
Often farmers are opposed to consolidation.
But if the women are convinced of its benefits
to their families, they may very well get their
husbands to make this change.

Agricultural Credit Programs
One big need of many village families is fair
and reasonable credit. Many families are never
free of debt because interest rates are so high
they cannot hope to pay back the amount they
borrow. In some areas, many rural families are
almost the slaves of money lenders. You can
help them find the agencies that will lend
money to buy land, implements, animals, fertil-
izer, and seed at fair interest rates. In some
places, these credit agencies also lend money
for home improvements. In an agricultural
credit program, the homemaker must under-
stand the use of credit so she will cooperate in
repaying the loan.

Cooperatives
In some villages, the people will be very
much interested in cooperatives of various
kinds. Women are often active members of


cooperatives that sell homemade products such
as craft articles, fresh vegetables, flowers, and
home-baked or preserved foods. They may also
set up their own cooperatives. Agricultural
cooperatives in many places supply seed and
fertilizer. They might also provide the seeds
needed for a garden project or the supplies
needed in a home improvement program.
Learn about the cooperatives in your area
and how they function so that you can better
inform families and help them make the best
use of the advantages cooperatives offer.


The Ministry of Education
Most villages need more and better schools.
In some countries boys are sent to school, but
girls must stay home and work. Both need edu-
cation. Many families now are anxious to have
schools in their villages so all children can at-
tend. Work with parents and village officials
for better schools.
You should also work with village school
teachers. They know the children, their par-
ents, and the village leaders. The teacher can
help you with many projects by having the
children take part in them. The success of the
youth work part of your homemaking program
will depend in large measure upon the coopera-
tion you get from schools. School garden pro-
jects, for example, offer a fine basis of coopera-
tive effort.
Classroom teachers often seek your help in
teaching home economics subjects such as nu-
trition, child care, clothing, etc. Close working
relationships will benefit both of you. There
are many opportunities for such cooperation. It
is specially important to work with any home
economics teachers in schools in your area.
You should have a common understanding of
families' needs and the best ways to meet
them.
Working with universities and other educa-
tional institutions offering home economics is
equally important. You can tell these teachers
and trainers about family needs and problems,
and keep them aware of the type of training
needed by the young women who will be going
into extension and other homemaking pro-
grams in rural areas. You may help them set







up inservice training program where you and
other working home economists can go for re-
fresher training.
Here's a good example. Officials of agricul-
ture and education in the Western Province of
Kenya cooperatively planned a week's training
in home economics extension for school teach-
ers at the Bukura farmer training center. The
course was planned and conducted by the two
home extension workers. It was intended to
help teachers strengthen their teaching of nu-
trition, cookery, child care, and the production
of food for home use. Special emphasis was
placed on nutrition and vegetable planting in
connection with the school garden program. In
addition, these four training sessions served to
strengthen the cooperative ties between the
agricultural and educational programs in the
province.

Research Agencies
The need for home economics research is
gaining recognition as homemaking programs
develop. Countries are recognizing that, with-
out research, it is difficult to have a sound
homemaking program based on facts.
In some countries, surveys have been under-
taken on family living problems. Some coun-
tries have nutrition institutes carrying out im-
portant research. In others, agricultural insti-
tutes study certain problems affecting family
living. Some college and university home eco-
nomics departments have begun research activ-
ities. Much basic research is helpful to any
country regardless of where it is done-such
as information on pasteurization, food preser-
vation methods, simple health practices, hous-
ing, dietary patterns, etc.
In addition to using research information in
your work, you may also be able to tell re-
searchers about practical problems in your
area that need answers. Rural home econo-
mists are in a position to know the most press-
ing needs of rural families and how practical
research can help meet these needs.

Public Health
A major part of rural homemaking work
has health implications. The activities of


public health doctors, nurses, sanitarians, and
other health workers all touch home and fam-
ily life. Extension and community development
workers, homemaking teachers, and public
health workers are finding new ways to work
together.
Often, you may begin your work in a village
by visiting the nurse to talk over family health
problems, or by attending health clinics to talk
with the mothers there. Nurses receive much
help by attending special training given to
home economics workers, particularly in the
field of nutrition. You benefit by attending
health classes in baby care, first aid, or home
care of the sick.
In some areas, the rural sanitarian promotes
the building of approved latrines or water sup-
plies and the home economist provides much of
the educational follow-up needed to make the
program successful. Close coordination with all
public health work in rural areas is of great
importance in your homemaking programs.

The Institute of Nutrition
Many countries have an institute of nutri-
tion. Because poor nutrition is often one of a
country's major problems, governments prov-
ide these special facilities with well-trained
personnel to conduct nutrition research, give
training, and develop educational materials for
nutritionists, dietitians, home economists, and
others whose program includes nutrition. If
there is a nutrition institute in your country,
you should know about its work and find out
how you can use its resources to do a better
job in your own nutrition work with families.

Community Development and Social Welfare
In some countries, community development
projects are administered by the Ministry of
Social Affairs or Public Welfare, and home-
making education is carried on through this
ministry. Even if homemaking programs are
not a direct part of this ministry, it still has
many resources that can help you. Generally
these ministries have specialists in community
or group organization, case work techniques,
and other fields who can help train local home
economics workers.







up inservice training program where you and
other working home economists can go for re-
fresher training.
Here's a good example. Officials of agricul-
ture and education in the Western Province of
Kenya cooperatively planned a week's training
in home economics extension for school teach-
ers at the Bukura farmer training center. The
course was planned and conducted by the two
home extension workers. It was intended to
help teachers strengthen their teaching of nu-
trition, cookery, child care, and the production
of food for home use. Special emphasis was
placed on nutrition and vegetable planting in
connection with the school garden program. In
addition, these four training sessions served to
strengthen the cooperative ties between the
agricultural and educational programs in the
province.

Research Agencies
The need for home economics research is
gaining recognition as homemaking programs
develop. Countries are recognizing that, with-
out research, it is difficult to have a sound
homemaking program based on facts.
In some countries, surveys have been under-
taken on family living problems. Some coun-
tries have nutrition institutes carrying out im-
portant research. In others, agricultural insti-
tutes study certain problems affecting family
living. Some college and university home eco-
nomics departments have begun research activ-
ities. Much basic research is helpful to any
country regardless of where it is done-such
as information on pasteurization, food preser-
vation methods, simple health practices, hous-
ing, dietary patterns, etc.
In addition to using research information in
your work, you may also be able to tell re-
searchers about practical problems in your
area that need answers. Rural home econo-
mists are in a position to know the most press-
ing needs of rural families and how practical
research can help meet these needs.

Public Health
A major part of rural homemaking work
has health implications. The activities of


public health doctors, nurses, sanitarians, and
other health workers all touch home and fam-
ily life. Extension and community development
workers, homemaking teachers, and public
health workers are finding new ways to work
together.
Often, you may begin your work in a village
by visiting the nurse to talk over family health
problems, or by attending health clinics to talk
with the mothers there. Nurses receive much
help by attending special training given to
home economics workers, particularly in the
field of nutrition. You benefit by attending
health classes in baby care, first aid, or home
care of the sick.
In some areas, the rural sanitarian promotes
the building of approved latrines or water sup-
plies and the home economist provides much of
the educational follow-up needed to make the
program successful. Close coordination with all
public health work in rural areas is of great
importance in your homemaking programs.

The Institute of Nutrition
Many countries have an institute of nutri-
tion. Because poor nutrition is often one of a
country's major problems, governments prov-
ide these special facilities with well-trained
personnel to conduct nutrition research, give
training, and develop educational materials for
nutritionists, dietitians, home economists, and
others whose program includes nutrition. If
there is a nutrition institute in your country,
you should know about its work and find out
how you can use its resources to do a better
job in your own nutrition work with families.

Community Development and Social Welfare
In some countries, community development
projects are administered by the Ministry of
Social Affairs or Public Welfare, and home-
making education is carried on through this
ministry. Even if homemaking programs are
not a direct part of this ministry, it still has
many resources that can help you. Generally
these ministries have specialists in community
or group organization, case work techniques,
and other fields who can help train local home
economics workers.







up inservice training program where you and
other working home economists can go for re-
fresher training.
Here's a good example. Officials of agricul-
ture and education in the Western Province of
Kenya cooperatively planned a week's training
in home economics extension for school teach-
ers at the Bukura farmer training center. The
course was planned and conducted by the two
home extension workers. It was intended to
help teachers strengthen their teaching of nu-
trition, cookery, child care, and the production
of food for home use. Special emphasis was
placed on nutrition and vegetable planting in
connection with the school garden program. In
addition, these four training sessions served to
strengthen the cooperative ties between the
agricultural and educational programs in the
province.

Research Agencies
The need for home economics research is
gaining recognition as homemaking programs
develop. Countries are recognizing that, with-
out research, it is difficult to have a sound
homemaking program based on facts.
In some countries, surveys have been under-
taken on family living problems. Some coun-
tries have nutrition institutes carrying out im-
portant research. In others, agricultural insti-
tutes study certain problems affecting family
living. Some college and university home eco-
nomics departments have begun research activ-
ities. Much basic research is helpful to any
country regardless of where it is done-such
as information on pasteurization, food preser-
vation methods, simple health practices, hous-
ing, dietary patterns, etc.
In addition to using research information in
your work, you may also be able to tell re-
searchers about practical problems in your
area that need answers. Rural home econo-
mists are in a position to know the most press-
ing needs of rural families and how practical
research can help meet these needs.

Public Health
A major part of rural homemaking work
has health implications. The activities of


public health doctors, nurses, sanitarians, and
other health workers all touch home and fam-
ily life. Extension and community development
workers, homemaking teachers, and public
health workers are finding new ways to work
together.
Often, you may begin your work in a village
by visiting the nurse to talk over family health
problems, or by attending health clinics to talk
with the mothers there. Nurses receive much
help by attending special training given to
home economics workers, particularly in the
field of nutrition. You benefit by attending
health classes in baby care, first aid, or home
care of the sick.
In some areas, the rural sanitarian promotes
the building of approved latrines or water sup-
plies and the home economist provides much of
the educational follow-up needed to make the
program successful. Close coordination with all
public health work in rural areas is of great
importance in your homemaking programs.

The Institute of Nutrition
Many countries have an institute of nutri-
tion. Because poor nutrition is often one of a
country's major problems, governments prov-
ide these special facilities with well-trained
personnel to conduct nutrition research, give
training, and develop educational materials for
nutritionists, dietitians, home economists, and
others whose program includes nutrition. If
there is a nutrition institute in your country,
you should know about its work and find out
how you can use its resources to do a better
job in your own nutrition work with families.

Community Development and Social Welfare
In some countries, community development
projects are administered by the Ministry of
Social Affairs or Public Welfare, and home-
making education is carried on through this
ministry. Even if homemaking programs are
not a direct part of this ministry, it still has
many resources that can help you. Generally
these ministries have specialists in community
or group organization, case work techniques,
and other fields who can help train local home
economics workers.







up inservice training program where you and
other working home economists can go for re-
fresher training.
Here's a good example. Officials of agricul-
ture and education in the Western Province of
Kenya cooperatively planned a week's training
in home economics extension for school teach-
ers at the Bukura farmer training center. The
course was planned and conducted by the two
home extension workers. It was intended to
help teachers strengthen their teaching of nu-
trition, cookery, child care, and the production
of food for home use. Special emphasis was
placed on nutrition and vegetable planting in
connection with the school garden program. In
addition, these four training sessions served to
strengthen the cooperative ties between the
agricultural and educational programs in the
province.

Research Agencies
The need for home economics research is
gaining recognition as homemaking programs
develop. Countries are recognizing that, with-
out research, it is difficult to have a sound
homemaking program based on facts.
In some countries, surveys have been under-
taken on family living problems. Some coun-
tries have nutrition institutes carrying out im-
portant research. In others, agricultural insti-
tutes study certain problems affecting family
living. Some college and university home eco-
nomics departments have begun research activ-
ities. Much basic research is helpful to any
country regardless of where it is done-such
as information on pasteurization, food preser-
vation methods, simple health practices, hous-
ing, dietary patterns, etc.
In addition to using research information in
your work, you may also be able to tell re-
searchers about practical problems in your
area that need answers. Rural home econo-
mists are in a position to know the most press-
ing needs of rural families and how practical
research can help meet these needs.

Public Health
A major part of rural homemaking work
has health implications. The activities of


public health doctors, nurses, sanitarians, and
other health workers all touch home and fam-
ily life. Extension and community development
workers, homemaking teachers, and public
health workers are finding new ways to work
together.
Often, you may begin your work in a village
by visiting the nurse to talk over family health
problems, or by attending health clinics to talk
with the mothers there. Nurses receive much
help by attending special training given to
home economics workers, particularly in the
field of nutrition. You benefit by attending
health classes in baby care, first aid, or home
care of the sick.
In some areas, the rural sanitarian promotes
the building of approved latrines or water sup-
plies and the home economist provides much of
the educational follow-up needed to make the
program successful. Close coordination with all
public health work in rural areas is of great
importance in your homemaking programs.

The Institute of Nutrition
Many countries have an institute of nutri-
tion. Because poor nutrition is often one of a
country's major problems, governments prov-
ide these special facilities with well-trained
personnel to conduct nutrition research, give
training, and develop educational materials for
nutritionists, dietitians, home economists, and
others whose program includes nutrition. If
there is a nutrition institute in your country,
you should know about its work and find out
how you can use its resources to do a better
job in your own nutrition work with families.

Community Development and Social Welfare
In some countries, community development
projects are administered by the Ministry of
Social Affairs or Public Welfare, and home-
making education is carried on through this
ministry. Even if homemaking programs are
not a direct part of this ministry, it still has
many resources that can help you. Generally
these ministries have specialists in community
or group organization, case work techniques,
and other fields who can help train local home
economics workers.







Often home economists and social workers
deal with the same families. They need to work
very closely together for the good of the people
and their programs.

Literacy Programs
Literacy classes provide a good opportunity
for you to know the people better and influence
their progress toward improved living. As
adults learn to read, they can also learn to be
better farmers and better homemakers. If their
reading material deals with everyday prob-
lems and contains information on simple im-
proved practices for the farm and home, adults
are likely to be more interested. This can help
them learn faster and understand better. You
may have the chance to help prepare reading
material on homemaking and to teach the class
on occasion.

International Organizations
Many important international agencies have
programs closely related to the home and the
family. You will want to know about these
agencies and learn the services they offer in
your particular area. They have much material
and helpful information because they operate
in many different countries and have broad ex-
perience to draw upon.
The Food and Agriculture Organization of
the United Nations has very active and excel-


lent nutrition and home economics programs,
as well as agricultural programs.
UNICEF is largely concerned with work
with children and mothers. It carries on educa-
tional work and provides medicines, foods, and
other important things.
The World Health Organization is con-
cerned with national and regional problems of
health. Trained staff in many countries help
governments conduct research and carry out
effective health measures.
Foundations such as the Ford Foundation
and the Rockefeller Foundation, conduct
health programs. In some countries, founda-
tions support home economics programs in col-
leges and schools and, in addition, employ
home economists to lead adult homemaking
programs.


Religious and Voluntary Agencies
Find out which of these have programs in
your area. They are excellent resources for cer-
tain kinds of help you may need in your work.
Agencies and organizations concerned with the
family can contribute greatly to improving vil-
lage life. If you and these workers know each
other well and work together, the people you
serve will benefit. In this way, you can help the
people in the village make the best use of all
resources available to them.














The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United
Nations is trying to develop an improved hybrid of
Japanese and Indian rice varieties in the research pro-
ject in Cuttak, India. Success will result in greatly im-
proved crop yields and improved nutrition for the peo-
ple.







Often home economists and social workers
deal with the same families. They need to work
very closely together for the good of the people
and their programs.

Literacy Programs
Literacy classes provide a good opportunity
for you to know the people better and influence
their progress toward improved living. As
adults learn to read, they can also learn to be
better farmers and better homemakers. If their
reading material deals with everyday prob-
lems and contains information on simple im-
proved practices for the farm and home, adults
are likely to be more interested. This can help
them learn faster and understand better. You
may have the chance to help prepare reading
material on homemaking and to teach the class
on occasion.

International Organizations
Many important international agencies have
programs closely related to the home and the
family. You will want to know about these
agencies and learn the services they offer in
your particular area. They have much material
and helpful information because they operate
in many different countries and have broad ex-
perience to draw upon.
The Food and Agriculture Organization of
the United Nations has very active and excel-


lent nutrition and home economics programs,
as well as agricultural programs.
UNICEF is largely concerned with work
with children and mothers. It carries on educa-
tional work and provides medicines, foods, and
other important things.
The World Health Organization is con-
cerned with national and regional problems of
health. Trained staff in many countries help
governments conduct research and carry out
effective health measures.
Foundations such as the Ford Foundation
and the Rockefeller Foundation, conduct
health programs. In some countries, founda-
tions support home economics programs in col-
leges and schools and, in addition, employ
home economists to lead adult homemaking
programs.


Religious and Voluntary Agencies
Find out which of these have programs in
your area. They are excellent resources for cer-
tain kinds of help you may need in your work.
Agencies and organizations concerned with the
family can contribute greatly to improving vil-
lage life. If you and these workers know each
other well and work together, the people you
serve will benefit. In this way, you can help the
people in the village make the best use of all
resources available to them.














The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United
Nations is trying to develop an improved hybrid of
Japanese and Indian rice varieties in the research pro-
ject in Cuttak, India. Success will result in greatly im-
proved crop yields and improved nutrition for the peo-
ple.







Often home economists and social workers
deal with the same families. They need to work
very closely together for the good of the people
and their programs.

Literacy Programs
Literacy classes provide a good opportunity
for you to know the people better and influence
their progress toward improved living. As
adults learn to read, they can also learn to be
better farmers and better homemakers. If their
reading material deals with everyday prob-
lems and contains information on simple im-
proved practices for the farm and home, adults
are likely to be more interested. This can help
them learn faster and understand better. You
may have the chance to help prepare reading
material on homemaking and to teach the class
on occasion.

International Organizations
Many important international agencies have
programs closely related to the home and the
family. You will want to know about these
agencies and learn the services they offer in
your particular area. They have much material
and helpful information because they operate
in many different countries and have broad ex-
perience to draw upon.
The Food and Agriculture Organization of
the United Nations has very active and excel-


lent nutrition and home economics programs,
as well as agricultural programs.
UNICEF is largely concerned with work
with children and mothers. It carries on educa-
tional work and provides medicines, foods, and
other important things.
The World Health Organization is con-
cerned with national and regional problems of
health. Trained staff in many countries help
governments conduct research and carry out
effective health measures.
Foundations such as the Ford Foundation
and the Rockefeller Foundation, conduct
health programs. In some countries, founda-
tions support home economics programs in col-
leges and schools and, in addition, employ
home economists to lead adult homemaking
programs.


Religious and Voluntary Agencies
Find out which of these have programs in
your area. They are excellent resources for cer-
tain kinds of help you may need in your work.
Agencies and organizations concerned with the
family can contribute greatly to improving vil-
lage life. If you and these workers know each
other well and work together, the people you
serve will benefit. In this way, you can help the
people in the village make the best use of all
resources available to them.














The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United
Nations is trying to develop an improved hybrid of
Japanese and Indian rice varieties in the research pro-
ject in Cuttak, India. Success will result in greatly im-
proved crop yields and improved nutrition for the peo-
ple.








Section II-WHAT YOU WILL TEACH





















Before you can begin to help solve nutrition problems, foods they eat. In a meeting such as this in Costa Rica,
you must learn about the people, their beliefs, and the the women can talk about their food problems.


FOOD AND NUTRITION


No one likes to be hungry. Food not only
keeps us from being hungry, it helps us to
grow, feel well, and be happy. But many people
are hungry, unhappy, and sick because they do
not have enough or the right kinds of food.
Often they do not know this.
Ask yourself what connection there is be-
tween the health problems of the village people,
the food they eat, and their food habits and
customs. On page 31 are several health prob-
lems which may have something to do with
food and nutrition. You can use them to start
discussion about problems in your area.
Before you attempt to improve the nutrition
of the village people, you must be able to rec-
ognize food and nutrition problems in your
area.
Here are additional questions to help you
learn more about food problems and eating
practices:
What foods do the people mostly live on?
What is their basic diet? Could it be better?
What vegetables, grains, and root crops
do they grow for home use?
Do they produce any meat, milk, or eggs
for the family to eat? If so, how much?


Can they produce enough for their family
needs? What do they need to produce
more?
What foods do they buy?
How do agricultural practices in the area
affect their diets?
What are some of the foods that people
believe are harmful, unclean, or sacred?
What symptoms of poor nutrition have you
observed among children in the village?
Among adults?
How long do mothers nurse their babies?
At what age are weaning foods given to
the baby?
What foods besides breast milk are given
to the infant when he is 8 months old?
How many young children, when they are
no longer breast fed, die each year?
Do the people know that some of their
health problems may come from not having
enough of the right kinds of food?
One of your most important jobs is to help
people understand that what they eat affects
their health. You will also teach them what
they can do to have better food, better health,
and therefore, a better life.








Talk About


1. An infant is sickly and cries a lot because
he is hungry, and the mother thinks she
does not have enough breast milk.



2. After weaning, the child loses weight, has
diarrhea, and gets a "pot belly".



It is important for you to teach mothers that
by the time a child is 8 months old he needs
solid foods as well as milk. The solid foods that
are given to the child should include eggs,

3. After a child starts to school, he does poorly
in his studies and does not want to play
because he is always tired.




Children need to eat often. They need three
good meals every day. In between these three
meals they may want extra food. At these

4. People lack the energy to work hard and
they tire easily. They are often cross and
irritable. You often see people with rough,
dull skin and sores that heal slowly.


5. People run out of their own home-produced
food before the next harvest.


* What mothers eat during their pregnancy
and also while they are breast feeding the
baby.
What foods Desides breast milk he was given
before he was weaned.

What foods he is fed now.
How foods are prepared for babies and young
children.
What sanitation practices are used.
meat, cereals, vegetables, and fruits. These are
the foods that will help the child grow strong
and happy. It is important for the nursing
mother to eat these foods too.

Whether the child is fed in the morning
before he starts off to school.
Whether he has a midday meal or must wait
to eat until he gets home after school.
Whether he is perhaps too tired to make the
effort.
times a mother should give them fruits or veg-
etables to eat instead of sweets.


* The kinds of staple foods the people eat.
Are they starchy plants only or do they also
use cereal grains?
* How much meat, fish, eggs, milk, cheese, and
pulses they eat.
* How often are vegetables and fruits eaten.
* How much water is used in cooking, then
thrown away.
* Whether foods are stored a long time and
in such a way that they do not keep well.
* Do they have variety in their diet?

* What foods they grow for their own family
use.
* Whether they plan to grow their food needs
for the entire year.
* How they store their food.
* How much is destroyed by rats and insects
and by rotting.
* Whether they grow and store enough to last
if they didn't lose any of it.




























The Story of Samuel and Mary


Samuel and Mary lived in a village many
miles from the city. They had 8 acres of
ground. Two of these were not cleared. The
land was quite fertile. They grew maize, cas-
sava, and a few beans. During the rainy season,
they collected greens. They had a banana tree
and a coconut tree. They kept a few chickens
which scratched the earth around the house
for their food. Mary sometimes fed them bits
of leftover food and the coconut leavings.
Life was easy. The crops grew and they
usually had enough food. Sometimes, near the
very beginning of a growing season, they would
run out of maize. Then Samuel would sell the
beans so they could buy maize to last until the
harvest. They always had cassava because it
was so easy to grow and store.
Samuel and Mary had two children. Peter
was 8 years old. Rosa was 3. Peter went to
a school 2 miles away. He walked both ways
every day. Sometimes he was sick. Then he
stayed home.
One day the teacher asked Samuel and Mary
to come to a meeting at the school so they could
talk about the health of their children and how
they were getting along in school. She also
asked Miss Ramero, the village Extension
worker, to come and help with the meeting.
The day of the meeting, Samuel and Mary
walked to the school with Rosa and Peter. They


found other parents there, too. Many of hem
were neighbors and friends.
The teacher talked about how the children
were doing in school. She said many of hem
seemed too tired to do good work. It was hard
for them to learn because they sometimes fell
asleep and they did not seem to want to think
about their school work. Many were often ab-
sent because they were sick and got behind
in their work.
Miss Ramero then explained that children
need not be sick so often. They should be lively
and interested in all that goes on about them.
They should not tire so easily, and fall asleep.
Miss Ramero thought many of these children
were not healthy. They were not growing and
learning as much as they would if they were
healthy. This could be because they were not
getting the kind of food they needed for good
health. This was a surprise to Samuel and Mary.
They thought some children, like Peter, were
naturally sleepy much of the time and often
sick. They thought he would grow out (f it.
The parents talked about their younger
children too. Rosa was irritable and crid a
lot. She often had stomach upsets and sores
on her legs which took a long time to heal.
Was she as healthy as she should be? 'hen
they talked about how many babies in the
village died each year and how many had sto-
machs that were too big. Mary said she herself
felt tired much of the time and that she had
lost two babies. She asked what could be done.
She wanted her children to grow well and be
healthy and strong. Samuel said he did not like
to spend money on school fees if his son was
not learning. He suggested having another
meeting.
Peter's teacher said she would arrange for
the local health officer and the village Exten-
sion worker to come to another parents' rieet-
ing the following Saturday to talk more about
the children's health.
This story shows how parents were helped
to become aware of some of the food and
health problems of their children. There are
probably similar problems in the area in which
you work. These problems could be directly, re-
lated to the food that is produced and used
there.








Your Government Is Concerned


Your government, like many others around
the world. has plans for national growth and
development. Governments are greatly con-
cerned about food and nutrition because they
know that underfed people cannot do the work
necessary to develop a country. Poorly fed peo-
ple are often sick. Then they require govern-
ment help, instead of supporting themselves
and adding to the country's economic growth.
Good food does not cure or prevent all dis-
eases, but all of us need good food for good
health, both physical and mental.
A serious food situation exists in the world
today. Many countries already have more peo-
ple than they can feed, and populations are
growing. In some countries, distribution is a
problem. By the year 2000 A.D., there will be
twice as many people in the world as there are
now. Unless more food is grown, distributed,
and wisely used there will be more and more
hunger and even starvation.
The problem is not only a lack of food but a
lack of knowledge about nutrition. This means
food in the amount and of the kind needed to
develop a strong healthy body, keep it well,
and provide energy for work and play. Your
responsibility is to bring food and nutrition
knowledge to village people so they can im-
prove their own situation. The problem will be
solved in the home and on the farm. In today's
world, probably no field of knowledge has more
to contribute to the betterment of life than
food and nutrition.
A village food and nutrition program should
teach:
what foods the body needs and why
the special food needs of various family
members
home production, preservation, and stor-
age of a year-round supply of good food
how to buy what cannot be produced
how to prepare foods so the quality is not
wasted.
This chapter includes basic principles of
good nutrition and how to teach them. It will
deal mostly with what every mother should
know about feeding her children.


Find out what your country is doing about
its food and nutrition situation. By knowing
what various agencies and ministries are
trying to accomplish, you can apply their spe-
cific recommendations to the information in
this chapter.
Ask the Agriculture Department or Minis-
try:
1. What the long range plans for agricul-
tural development are in your country.
2. What plans the ministry has to improve
the food and nutrition resources of your
country.
3. What food crops are recommended in
your area, what cash crops.
4. What animals and poultry could be grown
for home use.
5. If the ministry has a list of publications
you could get to help you learn about
food production, including gardens,
crops, and livestock.
Ask the Ministry of Health, the Nutrition
Institute, or University Department of Home
Economics:
1. If nutritional surveys are being carried
out in your country. If so, have any been
completed ?
2. What recommendations they can give you
on improving the nutritional health of
people in your area.
3 If they have health education material
which would help you teach about nutri-
tion.
Your local agricultural or health worker
may also be able to answer some questions.
You will find many sources to help you work
on food and nutrition. You will also want to
learn about the many organizations that help
countries improve their food and nutrition sit-
uation. These include United Nations organiza-
tions such as the Food and Agriculture Organi-
zation (FAO), the World Health Organization
(WHO), and the United Nations Children's
Fund (UNICEF), Freedom from Hunger,
Food for Peace, and the Agency for Interna-
tional Development (AID).































When lack of' rood or aura aollc l causAst Inalnatilutritiofl,
evevyom* suftfrs. But children rulrer most.








What is Nutrition?

Nutrition is the food you eat and how your
body uses it. Good food practices lead to good
nutrition. When people do not have enough
food, they are called oudernourished. When
they do not have the right kind of food, they
are called lmalnorishcd.
Food is the material out of which our bodies
are built. We eat food to live, to grow. to stay
healthy, and to get energy for work and play.
Food gives us a sense of security. Even our at-
titude toward life is influenced by the food we
eat.
For good nutfrition the body needs more tha"
a full stomach. It needs different kinds of food
for building and full growth and repair, for
protection against disease, and for energy.
Without a good variety of foods, the body will
not work properly. A person will become tired
and sick. He may even die.

How Food Is Used by the Body
The food you eat goes to the stomach, then
to the small intestine. Digestion of some food
begins in the mouth, so it is important to chew
food well. Digestion means food is broken
down to a form the body can take into the
blood through the walls of the small intestine.
The blood then takes it to all parts of the body.
There it is used in three ways:
1. To build and repair the body.
2. To keep the body functioning properly and
help it resist disease.
3. To provide warmth, energy, and strength
for work and play.
The part of the food the body cannot use is
passed off as waste.
To help teach the difference between good
nutrition and poor nutrition, continue with the
story of Samuel and Mary. You will recall Pe-
ter's teacher asked the village health officer and
Extension worker to come to another parents'
meeting.
When the parents were all together, the
teacher said, "Last week, we talked about the
problem some of the children have in school
because they are tired and often sick. They are
not growing or learning as much as they


should. They do not seem healthy. Today, Mr.
Omoko, the local health officer, is here to ex-
plain how a healthy child should look and act.
Perhaps if we know what we could expect of
our children, we will know more about our
problem."
Mr. Omoko talked for some time about the
way a child grows from birth to adulthood.
Much of what he said is in the section on child
care in this book.
Then he said, "I understand that your chil-
dren are not learning as well as the teacher
feels they could. You are wondering if this
could be because of poor health.
"Children of school age should keep growing.
Their hones should be straight and strong.
They should have a good record of attending
school. They should not often be absent due
to sickness. Healthy children are bright-eyed,
alert, and interested in learning. They should
not tire easily, either from games or from
studying. Their hair should be shiny, their skin
clear and smooth, their muscles firm. They
should have a glowing, handsome appearance.
If they get cut or burned, these wounds should
heal quickly and smoothly."
Samuel thought about the broken leg Peter
had last year, about how long it took to heal.
Even now. Peter's left leg did not seem as
strong as his right leg. He said, "But why
aren't our children as healthy as they should
be?"
Mr. Omoko replied that a healthy body need-
ed proper materials to grow right and stay
healthy. These materials are the food we eat.
He continued, "It is not possible to build a
strong healthy body without enough of the
right kinds of food any more than it is possible
to build a strong house without good materials."
Look at these two houses:




A. -- ^ -^








What is Nutrition?

Nutrition is the food you eat and how your
body uses it. Good food practices lead to good
nutrition. When people do not have enough
food, they are called oudernourished. When
they do not have the right kind of food, they
are called lmalnorishcd.
Food is the material out of which our bodies
are built. We eat food to live, to grow. to stay
healthy, and to get energy for work and play.
Food gives us a sense of security. Even our at-
titude toward life is influenced by the food we
eat.
For good nutfrition the body needs more tha"
a full stomach. It needs different kinds of food
for building and full growth and repair, for
protection against disease, and for energy.
Without a good variety of foods, the body will
not work properly. A person will become tired
and sick. He may even die.

How Food Is Used by the Body
The food you eat goes to the stomach, then
to the small intestine. Digestion of some food
begins in the mouth, so it is important to chew
food well. Digestion means food is broken
down to a form the body can take into the
blood through the walls of the small intestine.
The blood then takes it to all parts of the body.
There it is used in three ways:
1. To build and repair the body.
2. To keep the body functioning properly and
help it resist disease.
3. To provide warmth, energy, and strength
for work and play.
The part of the food the body cannot use is
passed off as waste.
To help teach the difference between good
nutrition and poor nutrition, continue with the
story of Samuel and Mary. You will recall Pe-
ter's teacher asked the village health officer and
Extension worker to come to another parents'
meeting.
When the parents were all together, the
teacher said, "Last week, we talked about the
problem some of the children have in school
because they are tired and often sick. They are
not growing or learning as much as they


should. They do not seem healthy. Today, Mr.
Omoko, the local health officer, is here to ex-
plain how a healthy child should look and act.
Perhaps if we know what we could expect of
our children, we will know more about our
problem."
Mr. Omoko talked for some time about the
way a child grows from birth to adulthood.
Much of what he said is in the section on child
care in this book.
Then he said, "I understand that your chil-
dren are not learning as well as the teacher
feels they could. You are wondering if this
could be because of poor health.
"Children of school age should keep growing.
Their hones should be straight and strong.
They should have a good record of attending
school. They should not often be absent due
to sickness. Healthy children are bright-eyed,
alert, and interested in learning. They should
not tire easily, either from games or from
studying. Their hair should be shiny, their skin
clear and smooth, their muscles firm. They
should have a glowing, handsome appearance.
If they get cut or burned, these wounds should
heal quickly and smoothly."
Samuel thought about the broken leg Peter
had last year, about how long it took to heal.
Even now. Peter's left leg did not seem as
strong as his right leg. He said, "But why
aren't our children as healthy as they should
be?"
Mr. Omoko replied that a healthy body need-
ed proper materials to grow right and stay
healthy. These materials are the food we eat.
He continued, "It is not possible to build a
strong healthy body without enough of the
right kinds of food any more than it is possible
to build a strong house without good materials."
Look at these two houses:




A. -- ^ -^








One house is made of good materials. It has
a strong frame to support it. It has a tight roof
to protect it against rain. It has a good heating
system with fuel to keep it warm and cook
meals.
The other house is made of poor materials.
The frame is weak and in poor condition. The
roof leaks. There is no way to heat it. It has
not been kept in good repair. The floor has holes
in it.
It is the same with animals. Look at these
chickens:















A healthy animal needs proper food to build
it strong, protect it against disease, and give
energy for its activities.
The thin chicken is from the same brood as
the healthy one, but it did not have a good
diet. It has not grown. Its feathers are poor.
It is sick and has no energy.
So it is with people.


A healthy child needs proper food to biild a
strong body and keep it running well. He needs
food to provide energy for work and play.
One child has not had proper food to build a
healthy body. She is unhappy and does poor
work in school. (Add other symptoms you no-
tice among your villagers.)
A healthy adult needs proper food to keep his
body in good repair. He needs food to help
protect him against disease. He needs food to
provide energy for work. (Add other signs of
good nutrition.)






























One of these women has not had proper food.
She is thin and looks older than she should.
She is sick, tired, and irritable. (Add other
symptoms of poor nutrition common in your
area.)
"Long before a person shows severe signs of
poor nutrition, he may feel tired or depressed.
His skin may be dry and rough. His hair may
be dull and lifeless. Children may have fre-
quent colds or a constant runny nose, or be
seriously sick with common childhood diseases.
A person may feel cross and nervous and lose








interest in things around him. He may bruise
easily or break bones often. His cuts may
take a long time to heal. These are all signs
that he may not he getting all the good food
he needs to be healthy and vigorous."
"But what do you mean? We usually have
enough to keep us from being hungry and it
is good food," protested another father.
Miss Ramero, the village Extension worker,
said. "You are quite right. It is good food. It
tastes good; we enjoy it. But is it good enough
to build strong bodies and help us feel well?
Perhaps something is missing. Perhaps we need
to talk about what is meant by 'good food'.
Then we can learn if your children are getting
what they need to build and keep healthy
bodies."
Miss Ramero offered to meet with the par-
ents to talk more about what is good food and
their children's need for it. The parents were
eager to learn if this could be the reason their
children were sick and not doing well in school.
They agreed to meet each Saturday until they
found out.
Miss Ramero asked who would find a meet-
ing room and have it ready for each meeting.
Samuel volunteered to do this. She also asked
who would go around the village and get more
parents to come. Mary offered to go.
What the parents learned in these meetings
is given in this chapter.
They learned much about "good food" and
how important it is. They spent many weeks
talking with the health officer, the village Ex-
tension worker, and the teacher about these
things.


What Kinds of Food Do We Need for
Good Nutrition?

Our bodies need many materials which are
called iontricnt. for full growth and health.
Each has a specific use in the body and all are
in the food we eat.
Most foods contain more than one nutrient.
But no single food contains all the nutrients in
the amounts we need. That takes many kinds
and combinations of foods.
Some kinds of food help build and repair the
body. Some keep the parts of the body working


well and help it resist disease. Some foods fur-
nish more energy than others. Because of these
differences, we can group foods together ac-
cording to what they do. This makes it easier
to learn about them.
The names and functions of the nutrients are
technical. They may confuse village people.
You do not have to talk about nutrients or use
technical terms in your work with families.
However, the brief outline given here will help
YIo, to better understand the principles of food
and nutrition.


Foods That Help to Build the Body
The body cannot build firm flesh, good red
blood, and strong muscles unless it gets enough
good building foods. These are called proteins.
Proteins are found in milk, eggs, meat, fish,
nuts, seeds, and legumes such as pulses or
grams. They are also present in smaller
amounts in whole grain cereals and to a still
lesser degree in some vegetables and fruits.
In your work with families, remember to use
the names of the foods. Talk about milk, eggs,
and meat without calling them "proteins".
Both children and adults need building
foods. Even after a person stops growing at
about 20 years of age, building foods help keep
his body in good repair. Animal foods furnish
the most complete building and repair mate-
rials for the body. Families should try to have
some animal food each day. This is especially
important for children and pregnant or nurs-
ing mothers.
The shortage of protein foods is one of the
greatest problems in many countries. Children
may have serious diseases if they do not get
enough protein and also enough food. Two of








interest in things around him. He may bruise
easily or break bones often. His cuts may
take a long time to heal. These are all signs
that he may not he getting all the good food
he needs to be healthy and vigorous."
"But what do you mean? We usually have
enough to keep us from being hungry and it
is good food," protested another father.
Miss Ramero, the village Extension worker,
said. "You are quite right. It is good food. It
tastes good; we enjoy it. But is it good enough
to build strong bodies and help us feel well?
Perhaps something is missing. Perhaps we need
to talk about what is meant by 'good food'.
Then we can learn if your children are getting
what they need to build and keep healthy
bodies."
Miss Ramero offered to meet with the par-
ents to talk more about what is good food and
their children's need for it. The parents were
eager to learn if this could be the reason their
children were sick and not doing well in school.
They agreed to meet each Saturday until they
found out.
Miss Ramero asked who would find a meet-
ing room and have it ready for each meeting.
Samuel volunteered to do this. She also asked
who would go around the village and get more
parents to come. Mary offered to go.
What the parents learned in these meetings
is given in this chapter.
They learned much about "good food" and
how important it is. They spent many weeks
talking with the health officer, the village Ex-
tension worker, and the teacher about these
things.


What Kinds of Food Do We Need for
Good Nutrition?

Our bodies need many materials which are
called iontricnt. for full growth and health.
Each has a specific use in the body and all are
in the food we eat.
Most foods contain more than one nutrient.
But no single food contains all the nutrients in
the amounts we need. That takes many kinds
and combinations of foods.
Some kinds of food help build and repair the
body. Some keep the parts of the body working


well and help it resist disease. Some foods fur-
nish more energy than others. Because of these
differences, we can group foods together ac-
cording to what they do. This makes it easier
to learn about them.
The names and functions of the nutrients are
technical. They may confuse village people.
You do not have to talk about nutrients or use
technical terms in your work with families.
However, the brief outline given here will help
YIo, to better understand the principles of food
and nutrition.


Foods That Help to Build the Body
The body cannot build firm flesh, good red
blood, and strong muscles unless it gets enough
good building foods. These are called proteins.
Proteins are found in milk, eggs, meat, fish,
nuts, seeds, and legumes such as pulses or
grams. They are also present in smaller
amounts in whole grain cereals and to a still
lesser degree in some vegetables and fruits.
In your work with families, remember to use
the names of the foods. Talk about milk, eggs,
and meat without calling them "proteins".
Both children and adults need building
foods. Even after a person stops growing at
about 20 years of age, building foods help keep
his body in good repair. Animal foods furnish
the most complete building and repair mate-
rials for the body. Families should try to have
some animal food each day. This is especially
important for children and pregnant or nurs-
ing mothers.
The shortage of protein foods is one of the
greatest problems in many countries. Children
may have serious diseases if they do not get
enough protein and also enough food. Two of








these diseases are called kwashiorkor and mar-
asmus. If children do not get enough of the
right kinds of protein, they may not be able to
learn as well as they should.
In some areas where there is a protein shor-
tage, high protein foods such as CSM (corn-
soya-milk) and Incaparina are being developed
to improve the diet for children. These are
generally meal or flour made from fish, leg-
umes, cereals, and other protein sources. Such
foods will greatly improve diets low in protein
and are particularly valuable as weaning foods
for the young child. Multi-purpose food is an-
other high protein product made from soy-
beans. Find out from your ministry if such
products are available in your country and how
they can be obtained and used.
Milk and milk products are important foods
for everybody at every age, but especially for
growing children. Cows and goats supply most
of the milk in the world, but milk from other
animals is used in some countries. In some
areas milk is not a customary food. And in
many countries where it is acceptable, it is not
easily available. If this is the case in your area,
find out if milk production is possible. If so, try
very hard to promote the production, care, and
use of milk.


This young Honduran boy is fortunate that he has milk
to help him grow a strong body. Most children enjoy
milk as much as he does if they have it.


Bring raw milk from any animal just to
boiling, then take it off the heat at once. This
makes it safe for drinking. Cool it as soon as
possible, and keep it cold. Do not add water to
milk. This only makes the milk weaker and
does not add more building value. Also, if the
water is not safe, it makes the milk unsafe.
Many people buy milk when they cannot
produce it. Milk is sold in many forms. Milk
direct from the animal is raw, whole milk.
When the cream is taken off, what is left is
called skimmed milk. Pasteurized milk has
been heated and does not need to be boiled at
home if it is kept covered in the dairy con-
tainer. It is safe to drink. Dried whole milk
powder is suitable for babies and children if it is
properly prepared with safe water or cooked
with other foods. Dried skimmed milk powder
is inexpensive and is a good source of protein,
but the whole milk powder is better, especially
for babies and children.
Evaporated milk has about half of the water
removed and is suitable for babies and chil-
dren. It contains fat as well as milk solids.
Condensed milk has some water taken out and
sugar added. It is not a good food for infants.
When you add the water to the condensed milk
so that the baby will drink it, the mixture does
not give the baby the building foods he needs.
The baby may get full and fat, but he will not
grow as strong as he should. Cheese should be
made from whole or skimmed milk. It may be
soft or hard. Curds are a soft cheese. Cheese is
a good building food.
It is difficult to plan a good diet for children
and adults without using some form of milk. In
areas where there is not enough milk, try to
get people to use more of other building foods
such as fish, meat, pulses, cereals and dark
green leafy vegetables. It is a good idea to add
powdered milk to many foods when preparing
them. It can be added to eggs, vegetables, rice,
cereals, sauces, and bread dough.
Meat can come from any animal, bird, or fish
normally eaten. These include cattle, goats,
sheep, camels, pigs, rabbits, chickens, ducks,
geese, turkeys, wild game, fish, and shell fish.
Reptiles, rodents or insects such as locusts,
bees, and grasshoppers are used for food in
some areas.








The lean part of meat is the building food,
not the fat or bone. All parts of the animal
normally eaten contain protein. This includes
the kidneys, liver, heart, brains, stomach,
lungs, and also animal blood, which is used for
food in some areas.
Because meat doesn't keep well in warm cli-
mates without refrigeration and because it is
expensive to buy, many people eat meat only
occasionally. For this reason, you should try to
get families to produce and use such animal
foods as milk, poultry, eggs, fish, and rabbits.
Then there will not be as much of a problem
storing and keeping the food as there is when
a large animal is slaughtered.
Eggs have the same building value as meat.
Chickens are our most common source of eggs,
but eggs from birds other than chickens, such
as turkeys, ducks, geese, and guineas, as well
as from fish and reptiles are all good building
foods. All these eggs should be well cooked.
Legumes, nuts, and seeds are plant foods
which contain proteins. Legumes may also be
called pulses or grams. They include many
kinds of dried beans such as soybeans, black
beans, kidney beans, and broad beans; dried
peas such as cowpeas, pigeon peas, and chick-
peas, and lentils. Learn the kinds of dried
beans and peas used in your area. The soybean
is especially good because it contains up to 40
percent protein. In many areas, the govern-
ment strongly encourages people to grow and
eat soybeans to improve their diets. Ground-
nuts or peanuts are also important legumes.
All edible nuts contain some protein. Know
those available in your area.
Seeds include: lotus seeds, ginkgo seeds,
pumpkin seeds, sesame seeds, sunflower seeds,
squash seeds, cashaw seeds, and calabash tree
seeds as well as many others. Seeds are often
used for their oil. "Press cakes", the part of
the seed left after the oil is pressed out, con-
tain protein. These "press cakes" are good food
for animals.
The coconut is not included in this list.
While the meat contains a little building mate-
rial, it is used mainly for the oil it contains.
The coconut "milk" is refreshing and tastes
good, but it is not a protein food and doesn't
help the body grow strong.


Teach people to cook legumes and seeds with
rice, wheat, corn, millet, or other cereal grains.
If they use these every day with even a small
amount of dry milk powder, fresh milk, or
other animal foods added, they can greatly im-
prove their diets.


Foods That Provide Much Energy
Foods that provide lots of energy are called
fats and carbohydrates. If people do not get
enough of these, other foods more valuable for
building and repair will be used for the energy
the body needs and their building value will be
wasted. When people eat too much of these
foods they become fat.
Carbohydrates are sugar and starch. These
are mainly found in cereals, starchy plants,
sugar, molasses, honey, etc. Many other foods
also contain some carbohydrate. In many coun-
tries, cereals and starchy plants make up the
greater part of the people's diet. They are
often referred to as "the staples in the diets of
the masses."
Cereals are grains such as maize, wheat,
rice, barley, oats, sorghum, and millet. They
are easy to grow and not expensive to buy.
The bran and germ of these grains also have
some building and protective values. The bran
covers the kernel, and the germ is the part
that sprouts and grows when planted. When
the bran and germ are left in, the cereal is a
better food. Yellow maize is more nutritious
than white maize. Rice has a hard outer crust
over the bran layer. This crust must be re-
moved.







In some countries, wheat flour, bread, maize
meal, and rice are enriched before they are
sold. This means that protective values have
been added. Ask your Ministry of Agriculture
or Nutrition Institute about enriching in your
country.
Whole grain rice and wheat are sometimes
steamed or boiled and then sundried. This
makes them easier to pound or grind. Pre-
pared in this way, rice is called parboiled and
wheat is called bulgur. Bulgur wheat keeps
better than plain wheat flour. Parboiled rice is
a much better food than the white polished
rice.
Many families prepare their own cereal
grains at home by pounding, grinding, or
cracking. They often wash or sift away the
bran and germ, leaving only the white starchy


When a woman pounds her own grain as this woman is
doing, she can make sure her family gets all the food
value that is in it. The bran and germ contain impor-
tant nutrients that should not be thrown away.


part of the grain which has much less building
and protective value. Where any bran or germ
is left in, the flour or meal is darker in color.
Some people do not like it as well. Try to teach
people to like and use the darker flour and
meal made from the whole grain. It is much
better for them. Try to get them not to wash
the grains or sift out the bran. Millet, barley,
rye, sorghum, and other grains are generally
used without removing the bran and germ, so
the problem of white or dark flour does not
arise.
Starchy roots, tubers and fruits include such
foods as plantains, breadfruit, cassava (man-
ioc), taro, white yam, yellow yam, sweetpotato,
and white potato. Most of these have very little
protein. When used as the main part of the
diet, these foods do not have enough protein
and may cause the diseases of poor diet. Often-
times, young children weaned from the breast
and fed mainly on cassava, taro or plantain,
develop kwashiorkor.
Starchy fruits and vegetables are easy to
grow and are generally found in abundance.
They are not expensive to buy and they are fill-
ing, but other building and protective foods
should always be a part of each person's daily
food. This is very important. Otherwise malnu-
trition results.
Sugars have only energy value. Too many
sweets can spoil a person's appetite for foods
with more food value. Sugar is digested
quickly. That is why a sweet drink, such as
sugary tea or coffee in the morning, seems to
"pick you up" and give you more energy. But
sugar is also used up quickly. You may soon
feel tired and hungry again. Too much sugar
or other sweets can help to bring about tooth
decay.
Fats come from animals, plants, and seeds.
They are more expensive and often less availa-
ble than cereals or starchy plants. Fats are im-
portant in the diet. They not only provide en-
ergy but also help the body use the protective
value of some foods, especially dark leafy
greens and deep yellow vegetables. They also
contain fatty acids the body needs.
Some fats like red palm oil, other plant oils,
butter, ghee, cream, and fish liver oil contain
protective value too. Other fats, like meat drip-







pings, fat meat, and lard have no protective or
building value in them. In some countries, mar-
garine made from vegetable oils may have
protective values added. It is then called forti-
fied margarine. Many people do not eat enough
fats because they are expensive. It is a good
idea to include some fats, especially those with
protective qualities, in each meal.


Foods That Keep the Body Working
Properly and Help It Resist Disease

Protective nutrients called minerals and vi-
tamins are important for growth, resistance
against disease, and proper body functioning.
There are many minerals and vitamins. Each
has a specific name and a specific job in the
body. Some are found in so many foods they
are not a nutritional problem. All fruits and
vegetables have minerals and vitamins. Some
contain more than others and therefore add
more to a balanced diet. A varied diet will
likely provide all that are needed, but the foods
must be prepared so that the vitamins are not
wasted. The following vitamins and minerals
need special attention to be sure foods with
them are included in the diet.
Iron is needed along with protein to build
blood. Lack of enough iron is a leading cause
of ill health in many parts of the world. Iron-
rich foods include eggs, green leafy vegetables,
many whole grain cereals, legumes, and meat.
The internal organs of animals such as liver,
heart, and kidneys are especially rich sources
of iron.
Calcium is necessary for building bones and
teeth. It is especially needed during growth.
Milk is one of the best sources of calcium. Cer-


tain green leafy vegetables and pulses are also
good sources of calcium. Calcium in the diet
can be increased by using limewater to prepare
food or using fish with edible bones. Red mil-
let, sesame seeds, and molasses also contain
some calcium.
Iodine in food is needed for the thyroid
gland in the front of the throat. When the per-
son does not get enough iodine, this gland
grows big and is called a goiter. In certain
areas where goiter is common, iodine is added
to salt. Fish from the sea and most vegetables
grown near the sea are sources of iodine. Io-
dine is present in the soil. The amount found in
vegetables and fruits depends on how much is
in the soil where they are grown. Where there
is enough iodine in the soil, there is generally
no problem of goiter. If a person has swelling
in the front of the lower throat, he should go
to a doctor.
Vitamin A is needed for growth, normal eye-
sight, and healthy skin and body surfaces. It is
found in some fats. Butter and cream are espe-
cially rich sources. This is one reason that
safe, whole milk rather than skim milk is rec-
ommended for growing children. Other fats
and oils may have vitamin A added to them.
A substance called carotene changes to vita-
min A in the body. Carotene is found in the
dark green leafy vegetables and deep yellow,
fruits and vegetables. Sometimes these are
grouped together and called the "Yellows and
Greens". Red palm oil is also a good source of
vitamin A.
Dark green leaves are better than light
green or white. Some of the more commonly
grown greens are: spinach, chard, kale, col-
lards, broccoli, mustard, amaranth, cassava
leaves, sweetpotato leaves, and beet and turnip
tops. It takes little ground and not much work
to keep a patch of greens growing around the
house. In most areas, they can be grown year
round. Many greens, good for eating, grow
wild. They have just as much food value as the
greens from the garden, and they vary the
diet. Trees and bushes with edible leaves such
as the drumstick tree are found in some areas.
All greens are best when freshly picked.
Some deep yellow fruits and vegetables are
mango, papaya, cantaloupe, carrots, yellow







yams, and winter squash. Find out which ones
grow in your area. Red palm oil is also a good
source of carotene.
It is important to use foods rich in vitamin
A or carotene at least once a day.
Vitamin C is needed for healthy gums, skin,
and body tissues. It is found in many fruits
and some vegetables. Citrus fruits such as or-
anges, tangerines, lemons, limes, and grape-
fruit are very good sources of vitamin C.
Other good sources of vitamin C are guavas,
strawberries, rambutan, tomatoes, papaya,
mangoes, pawpaw, cabbage, other leafy greens,
and white potatoes. A person who eats some of
these fruits and vegetables every day can be
reasonably sure of getting enotigh vitamin C.
Find out which ones grow or could be grown in
your area. Include the ones that grow wild.
Teach your people to include a good variety of
them in their diets.
The juice of any fruit has the same protec-
tive values as the fruit it comes from. The
same is true of vegetable juices. Teach your
people to use fresh fruit and fresh fruit juices.
Vitamin D is needed for the body to use cal-
cium. It is very important in the growth of
teeth and the bones of the body. Too little vita-
min D causes rickets.
Vitamin D is found in some foods like cod
liver or other fish liver oils. This is why they
are often given to children. This is a good
thing to do. People who get lots of sunlight all
year long are not likely to lack vitamin D. Sun-
light changes a substance in a person's skin
into vitamin D.
Thiamine, riboflavin, and niacin are mem-
bers of the vitamin B family. They help with
steady nerves, normal appetite, good digestion,
a good attitude (morale), and a healthy skin.
Most foods do not furnish very large amounts
of these vitamins. But using a variety of foods
each day will help assure getting enough of
them.
Other vitamins and minerals needed in
lesser amounts for proper functioning of the
body are also found in fruits and vegetables as
well as other foods. A balanced and varied diet
will likely provide all that are needed.


Food Needs Vary
All people need the same nutrients, but in
varying amounts throughout life. The amounts
are influenced by age, activity, size, sex, health,
and climate.
Age-For their size, children need more
food than adults. This is because they need
extra food to grow and develop, and also be-
cause healthy children are so active. From
weaning to 6 years old, children grow very
rapidly. They are not getting breast milk and
are too young to get food for themselves. They
need extra special care to see that they get
large amounts of building foods. During the
many years when boys and girls are growing
into men and women, many things are happen-
ing to their bodies. Some boys and girls grow
very fast. They need extra food. As people get
older, they stop growing and become less ac-
tive. They need less food.
Activity-The harder and longer a person
works or plays, the more energy food he needs.
A person who works in the field all day needs
more food than one who sits and talks.
Size-The larger a person, the more food he
needs unless he is too fat, or too thin. Then his
food needs are based on what he should weigh.
Sex-Because men are often bigger than
women, and because they often do heavier
work, they generally require a little more food
than women, especially energy foods. But a
small man who does very little physical work
will not need as much food as a larger woman
who works in the fields all day. Both men and
women need the same kinds of food.
Pregnant women and nursing mothers need
extra building and protective foods. Women
generally need more iron than men.
Climate-People in hot tropical countries
need somewhat less food than people in colder
climates. This is because the body needs more
energy food to keep warm in cold climates.
People are also less active in hot climates.
Therefore, they need less food than more ac-
tive people in cool climates.
State of Health-Sick people need food to
rebuild their bodies. In the acute (severe) state
of their illness, they may not be able to eat
much but water or sugar water. As soon as







possible though, give them a good diet to re-
build their bodies and help them get well.


Food Needs for Adults

All adults need building, protective, and en-
ergy foods. Your country may have a general
food plan that would be suitable for you to use.
Or you may need to get help in developing one
that fits the food habits and resources of the
people you work with.
The foods in the chart below, taken every day,
would be a satisfactory diet for the average
adult man of the Kenya coast.


Food group
Whole grain or lightly milled cereals, starchy
foods including roots
Legumes (pulses, grams)
Meat, fish, eggs
Dark green leafy vegetables
Other vegetables and fruit, especially those for
vitamin C
Fats, oils, fatty foods


In this plan, energy value comes largely
from the rice, coconut, and oil; building value
mainly from fish and beans plus some from
amaranth; and protective value from ama-
ranth and mango.
Regular use of milk, cheese, and curds is en-
couraged in some food plans because these
foods help build and keep bones strong. In
some places, these foods are not easily availa-
ble.
If the basic food is bananas, cassava, pota-
toes, or other starchy food, then larger
amounts of legumes, pulses, grams, meat, fish,
eggs, or milk are needed than when cereals are
the basic food.


Food


Rice, lightly milled
and parboiled
Beans
Fish
Amaranth
Mango


Coconut


Amount per day
18 ounces


ounces
ounces
ounces
ounces


2 ounces
1/ ounce


Special Food Needs of Pregnant and Nursing Women


A good diet for the mother helps her have a
healthy infant and stay healthy herself. If she
is poorly fed, she will be weak and have a
weak baby. Some of these babies may die be-
fore they are born or soon afterwards. Eating
properly means better health for the mother
and her children.
A pregnant or nursing woman needs extra
building materials to build a strong baby. If
the baby cannot get these from the food his
mother eats, then he will get them from his
mother's tissues and bones, In this way, her
body may become weakened.
Of great importance during this period are
milk, eggs, meat, fish, and legumes (pulses,
grams). Extra amounts of dark green leafy


vegetables and vegetables and fruits for vita-
mins A and C are needed for their protective
value. Cereals, fats, and oils may also need to
be increased, particularly during breast feed-
ing.
The mother may fear that the baby will
grow too big and she will get fat if she eats
well during pregnancy. Neither she nor the
baby will get too big if she eats the right
amounts of the right kinds of food. It is when
she eats too much starchy food, fats, and su-
gars that she or the baby may get too big. One
good way of knowing if she is getting too big,
too fast, is by going to a prenatal clinic where
her weight will be checked regularly. The doc-
tor will talk to her about her diet and weight
gain.







possible though, give them a good diet to re-
build their bodies and help them get well.


Food Needs for Adults

All adults need building, protective, and en-
ergy foods. Your country may have a general
food plan that would be suitable for you to use.
Or you may need to get help in developing one
that fits the food habits and resources of the
people you work with.
The foods in the chart below, taken every day,
would be a satisfactory diet for the average
adult man of the Kenya coast.


Food group
Whole grain or lightly milled cereals, starchy
foods including roots
Legumes (pulses, grams)
Meat, fish, eggs
Dark green leafy vegetables
Other vegetables and fruit, especially those for
vitamin C
Fats, oils, fatty foods


In this plan, energy value comes largely
from the rice, coconut, and oil; building value
mainly from fish and beans plus some from
amaranth; and protective value from ama-
ranth and mango.
Regular use of milk, cheese, and curds is en-
couraged in some food plans because these
foods help build and keep bones strong. In
some places, these foods are not easily availa-
ble.
If the basic food is bananas, cassava, pota-
toes, or other starchy food, then larger
amounts of legumes, pulses, grams, meat, fish,
eggs, or milk are needed than when cereals are
the basic food.


Food


Rice, lightly milled
and parboiled
Beans
Fish
Amaranth
Mango


Coconut


Amount per day
18 ounces


ounces
ounces
ounces
ounces


2 ounces
1/ ounce


Special Food Needs of Pregnant and Nursing Women


A good diet for the mother helps her have a
healthy infant and stay healthy herself. If she
is poorly fed, she will be weak and have a
weak baby. Some of these babies may die be-
fore they are born or soon afterwards. Eating
properly means better health for the mother
and her children.
A pregnant or nursing woman needs extra
building materials to build a strong baby. If
the baby cannot get these from the food his
mother eats, then he will get them from his
mother's tissues and bones, In this way, her
body may become weakened.
Of great importance during this period are
milk, eggs, meat, fish, and legumes (pulses,
grams). Extra amounts of dark green leafy


vegetables and vegetables and fruits for vita-
mins A and C are needed for their protective
value. Cereals, fats, and oils may also need to
be increased, particularly during breast feed-
ing.
The mother may fear that the baby will
grow too big and she will get fat if she eats
well during pregnancy. Neither she nor the
baby will get too big if she eats the right
amounts of the right kinds of food. It is when
she eats too much starchy food, fats, and su-
gars that she or the baby may get too big. One
good way of knowing if she is getting too big,
too fast, is by going to a prenatal clinic where
her weight will be checked regularly. The doc-
tor will talk to her about her diet and weight
gain.








4-6 MONTHS BABY


NEEDS


Ou'NW A COC N F-U 01L6 ORANGE
(OGI SAfA'jIj
iy (ooc



f U I7llhl 04ATO


The government of Nigeria considers breast feeding so
important that it has designed this special poster to en-
courage mothers to breastfeed their babies.


Food Needs for Infants
Breast Milk
Mother's milk is one of the best foods for the
baby. Talk to mothers about nursing the baby
for at least one year. In some areas where
there is not enough of the right kind of food, it
is a good idea for the mother to nurse her baby
for 2 years if it is possible. Breast-fed babies
usually grow well if the mother is eating well.
They are not sick as often as babies who can-
not be breast fed.
A good way to protect infants from severe
malnutrition that may leave life-long effects is
to give them breast milk. The mother who
breast feeds her baby until he is old enough to
be weaned gives him a good start in life.


Breast milk alone, if there is enough, will
supply a baby's food needs for the first 5 or 6
months of his life. Sometimes in hot weather, a
baby needs more water than he gets in breast
feeding. Be sure the water is boiled at least 10
minutes. It can be put in a clean covered con-
tainer to cool and be fed to the baby with a
spoon once or twice during the day. Babies who
do not get enough sunshine may also need some
fish liver oil to help make their bones strong.
Your health department can tell you how
mothers can get this oil and how they should
give it to their babies.
Breast milk is safe because there is no dan-
ger from germs as there may be if the baby is
fed from a bottle.
Breast milk contains a substance which pro-
tects the baby against infectious diseases dur-
ing his early months.
Breast feeding is valuable because the baby
is cuddled and feels warm and secure when he
is held. He feels loved and happy when he is
fed this way. It is the perfect beginning for a
happy, contented life.

Bottle Feeding
If for some reason the mother does not have
enough milk for the baby during his first 6
months, she may have to give him milk in an-
other way. In many countries, feeding cups are
available. These are easier to keep clean than
bottles and nipples. Therefore, they are safer
to use. If a mother must use a bottle, she must
be given proper instructions from a hospital or
health clinic on mixing the milk and caring for
the bottles. It is very important to keep all
cups and bottles very clean or the baby may
get sick.

Starting Other Foods
By the time a baby is 6 months old, he needs
more food than his mother's milk can give
him. About this time, he should be given other
soft foods such as grain cereals, eggs, vegeta-
bles and fruits to add to the mother's milk.

When a baby is several months old, he should be taught
to eat from a spoon as this Nigerian baby is. Then he
will learn to eat and enjoy other body-building foods so
he will not stop growing when he is weaned.








4-6 MONTHS BABY


NEEDS


Ou'NW A COC N F-U 01L6 ORANGE
(OGI SAfA'jIj
iy (ooc



f U I7llhl 04ATO


The government of Nigeria considers breast feeding so
important that it has designed this special poster to en-
courage mothers to breastfeed their babies.


Food Needs for Infants
Breast Milk
Mother's milk is one of the best foods for the
baby. Talk to mothers about nursing the baby
for at least one year. In some areas where
there is not enough of the right kind of food, it
is a good idea for the mother to nurse her baby
for 2 years if it is possible. Breast-fed babies
usually grow well if the mother is eating well.
They are not sick as often as babies who can-
not be breast fed.
A good way to protect infants from severe
malnutrition that may leave life-long effects is
to give them breast milk. The mother who
breast feeds her baby until he is old enough to
be weaned gives him a good start in life.


Breast milk alone, if there is enough, will
supply a baby's food needs for the first 5 or 6
months of his life. Sometimes in hot weather, a
baby needs more water than he gets in breast
feeding. Be sure the water is boiled at least 10
minutes. It can be put in a clean covered con-
tainer to cool and be fed to the baby with a
spoon once or twice during the day. Babies who
do not get enough sunshine may also need some
fish liver oil to help make their bones strong.
Your health department can tell you how
mothers can get this oil and how they should
give it to their babies.
Breast milk is safe because there is no dan-
ger from germs as there may be if the baby is
fed from a bottle.
Breast milk contains a substance which pro-
tects the baby against infectious diseases dur-
ing his early months.
Breast feeding is valuable because the baby
is cuddled and feels warm and secure when he
is held. He feels loved and happy when he is
fed this way. It is the perfect beginning for a
happy, contented life.

Bottle Feeding
If for some reason the mother does not have
enough milk for the baby during his first 6
months, she may have to give him milk in an-
other way. In many countries, feeding cups are
available. These are easier to keep clean than
bottles and nipples. Therefore, they are safer
to use. If a mother must use a bottle, she must
be given proper instructions from a hospital or
health clinic on mixing the milk and caring for
the bottles. It is very important to keep all
cups and bottles very clean or the baby may
get sick.

Starting Other Foods
By the time a baby is 6 months old, he needs
more food than his mother's milk can give
him. About this time, he should be given other
soft foods such as grain cereals, eggs, vegeta-
bles and fruits to add to the mother's milk.

When a baby is several months old, he should be taught
to eat from a spoon as this Nigerian baby is. Then he
will learn to eat and enjoy other body-building foods so
he will not stop growing when he is weaned.








4-6 MONTHS BABY


NEEDS


Ou'NW A COC N F-U 01L6 ORANGE
(OGI SAfA'jIj
iy (ooc



f U I7llhl 04ATO


The government of Nigeria considers breast feeding so
important that it has designed this special poster to en-
courage mothers to breastfeed their babies.


Food Needs for Infants
Breast Milk
Mother's milk is one of the best foods for the
baby. Talk to mothers about nursing the baby
for at least one year. In some areas where
there is not enough of the right kind of food, it
is a good idea for the mother to nurse her baby
for 2 years if it is possible. Breast-fed babies
usually grow well if the mother is eating well.
They are not sick as often as babies who can-
not be breast fed.
A good way to protect infants from severe
malnutrition that may leave life-long effects is
to give them breast milk. The mother who
breast feeds her baby until he is old enough to
be weaned gives him a good start in life.


Breast milk alone, if there is enough, will
supply a baby's food needs for the first 5 or 6
months of his life. Sometimes in hot weather, a
baby needs more water than he gets in breast
feeding. Be sure the water is boiled at least 10
minutes. It can be put in a clean covered con-
tainer to cool and be fed to the baby with a
spoon once or twice during the day. Babies who
do not get enough sunshine may also need some
fish liver oil to help make their bones strong.
Your health department can tell you how
mothers can get this oil and how they should
give it to their babies.
Breast milk is safe because there is no dan-
ger from germs as there may be if the baby is
fed from a bottle.
Breast milk contains a substance which pro-
tects the baby against infectious diseases dur-
ing his early months.
Breast feeding is valuable because the baby
is cuddled and feels warm and secure when he
is held. He feels loved and happy when he is
fed this way. It is the perfect beginning for a
happy, contented life.

Bottle Feeding
If for some reason the mother does not have
enough milk for the baby during his first 6
months, she may have to give him milk in an-
other way. In many countries, feeding cups are
available. These are easier to keep clean than
bottles and nipples. Therefore, they are safer
to use. If a mother must use a bottle, she must
be given proper instructions from a hospital or
health clinic on mixing the milk and caring for
the bottles. It is very important to keep all
cups and bottles very clean or the baby may
get sick.

Starting Other Foods
By the time a baby is 6 months old, he needs
more food than his mother's milk can give
him. About this time, he should be given other
soft foods such as grain cereals, eggs, vegeta-
bles and fruits to add to the mother's milk.

When a baby is several months old, he should be taught
to eat from a spoon as this Nigerian baby is. Then he
will learn to eat and enjoy other body-building foods so
he will not stop growing when he is weaned.








4-6 MONTHS BABY


NEEDS


Ou'NW A COC N F-U 01L6 ORANGE
(OGI SAfA'jIj
iy (ooc



f U I7llhl 04ATO


The government of Nigeria considers breast feeding so
important that it has designed this special poster to en-
courage mothers to breastfeed their babies.


Food Needs for Infants
Breast Milk
Mother's milk is one of the best foods for the
baby. Talk to mothers about nursing the baby
for at least one year. In some areas where
there is not enough of the right kind of food, it
is a good idea for the mother to nurse her baby
for 2 years if it is possible. Breast-fed babies
usually grow well if the mother is eating well.
They are not sick as often as babies who can-
not be breast fed.
A good way to protect infants from severe
malnutrition that may leave life-long effects is
to give them breast milk. The mother who
breast feeds her baby until he is old enough to
be weaned gives him a good start in life.


Breast milk alone, if there is enough, will
supply a baby's food needs for the first 5 or 6
months of his life. Sometimes in hot weather, a
baby needs more water than he gets in breast
feeding. Be sure the water is boiled at least 10
minutes. It can be put in a clean covered con-
tainer to cool and be fed to the baby with a
spoon once or twice during the day. Babies who
do not get enough sunshine may also need some
fish liver oil to help make their bones strong.
Your health department can tell you how
mothers can get this oil and how they should
give it to their babies.
Breast milk is safe because there is no dan-
ger from germs as there may be if the baby is
fed from a bottle.
Breast milk contains a substance which pro-
tects the baby against infectious diseases dur-
ing his early months.
Breast feeding is valuable because the baby
is cuddled and feels warm and secure when he
is held. He feels loved and happy when he is
fed this way. It is the perfect beginning for a
happy, contented life.

Bottle Feeding
If for some reason the mother does not have
enough milk for the baby during his first 6
months, she may have to give him milk in an-
other way. In many countries, feeding cups are
available. These are easier to keep clean than
bottles and nipples. Therefore, they are safer
to use. If a mother must use a bottle, she must
be given proper instructions from a hospital or
health clinic on mixing the milk and caring for
the bottles. It is very important to keep all
cups and bottles very clean or the baby may
get sick.

Starting Other Foods
By the time a baby is 6 months old, he needs
more food than his mother's milk can give
him. About this time, he should be given other
soft foods such as grain cereals, eggs, vegeta-
bles and fruits to add to the mother's milk.

When a baby is several months old, he should be taught
to eat from a spoon as this Nigerian baby is. Then he
will learn to eat and enjoy other body-building foods so
he will not stop growing when he is weaned.








These foods should be fed with a little spoon.
This is more sanitary and much better to use
than the mother's fingers. The time for start-
ing to give the baby the new foods depends on
how well the baby is growing and if the
mother has enough milk to satisfy him. If the
mother takes her baby to a doctor or clinic to
be checked, she will usually be told when to
start other foods. The baby should continue to
get his regular breast feedings as well as these
other foods.
Eating should be a happy time for the baby;
do not force a baby to eat. A baby will gener-
ally let his mother know when he gets hungry.
It takes time to teach a baby to take other
foods, and he has to be fed slowly. Give the
baby one new food at a time to let him get used
to the flavor and feel of the food. At first, just
give him a taste on the end of the spoon. Do
not be surprised if he spits it out or turns his


head away. It is a normal thing for babies to
do. He will soon learn, after a few tries, that
he likes most of the foods that you offer him.
If he continues to spit out a food after several
tastes, discontinue it for a while and try a dif-
ferent food.
It is important that he likes his food and is
happy when he eats. The first year it is better
to feed him before or after the rest of the fam-
ily has eaten. Then the mother can give him all
her attention and he will not be distracted by
the noise and movement when the family is
eating.
The following examples of daily feeding
plans may help you teach mothers how to add
different foods one at a time to their babies'
diets. Note that at least one building food, one
protective food, and one energy food is given at
every meal.


At about 6 months


Upon waking
Morning



Afternoon

Early evening


Breast feed
Porridge made with milk. (When baby becomes used to porridge,
start feeding papaya, orange or other fruit juice.)
Breast feed
Mashed banana with boiled milk
Breast feed
Porridge made with milk
Breast feed


Between 7 and 8 months


Upon waking
Morning


Afternoon


Early evening


Breast feed


Porridge made with milk and mashed hardboiled egg
Mashed papaya or fruit juice such as mango, orange, pawpaw
Breast feed
White or sweetpotato mashed with boiled milk
Ripe banana mashed with boiled milk
Breast feed
Porridge made with milk
Mashed vegetable
Breast feed








Between 8 and 9 months


Upon waking
Morning




Afternoon





Early evening


Plan I
Breast feed
Porridge with milk
Mashed papaya
Boiled milk from a cup
Breast feed
Porridge made with milk
Mashed banana with milk
Boiled milk from a cup
Breast feed


Mashed potato with boiled egg

Mashed vegetable
Boiled milk from a cup
Breast feed


Red Cross health educators use a flannelgraph to teach
mothers in Uganda the proper way to prepare a nutri-
tious diet for weaning babies.


Plan II
Breast feed
Porridge made with milk
Orange juice or other fruit juice
Boiled milk from a cup
Breast feed
Mashed sweetpotato
Mashed vegetable
Mashed and scraped cooked fish
Boiled milk from a cup
Breast feed
Porridge with milk and mashed
pulses
Mashed papaya
Boiled milk from a cup
Breast feed







You may wish to use a flannelgraph or dis-
play real foods to teach mothers what their ba-
bies should be eating in addition to breast milk
at (1) about 6 months old, (2) about 7 or 8
months, and (3) 1 year old.
As the baby gets older, he can start to eat
other building and protective foods. These in-
clude well-cooked and mashed pulses without
skins; hard-boiled eggs; well-cooked and
mashed liver or chicken; mashed vegetables
from the cooking pot; green leafy vegetables
cut very fine, cooked, and mashed; soup; and
fruits such as mango, guava, and pawpaw,
peeled and mashed fine with no seeds or hard
pieces. At about 1 year of age, the baby can eat
some foods from family meals. He can eat cer-
eal, for example, as it is cooked for his older
brothers and sisters. His food will still need to
be mashed or chopped very fine until he has
more teeth and can chew well.

Preparing and Handling Foods for the Baby
Foods given to the baby must be very clean.
The baby's dishes should be boiled and kept
separate from other dishes. It is very easy for
a baby to get diarrhea or stomach upset from
dirty food or dishes.
When a mother first starts to give her baby
other foods, she should sit him on her lap and
feed him from a sanitary spoon. The baby will
soon learn to eat from a spoon and drink from
a cup. Let the baby try to feed himself from a
small spoon or cup as soon as he seems to want
to. Most small children eat better when they
take at least part of their food by themselves.
The foods given to babies must be soft and
easily digested, so they will not cause the baby
stomach trouble. Animal milk, eggs, meat, fish,
pulses, and cereals are important foods for a
baby. They help him grow and develop. Re-
member, always boil raw animal milk.
A soft porridge or gruel made from a whole
grain cereal and milk is a good soft food to
start the baby on. A mother may feel that the
whiter the porridge, gruel, or pap she pre-
pares, the better food she is making for her
baby and the better mother her husband and
neighbors think she is. Explain that a darker
porridge has more food value than the white
pap or gruel. Show her how to prepare cereals


for porridge without washing the whole grains
after pounding them. This way she will not
pour off all the good building materials in the
water.
Think of suitable foods for babies that are
available in your area. Treat each family and
each infant individually, but always base the
diet on the many things you have learned
about the many kinds of food that children and
adults need to grow or to keep strong. Foods
cooked for the family may be given to the baby
if a small portion is taken out for him before
the strong spices are added. This food could
then be strained, mashed, or cut into small
pieces to make it easy for the baby to eat. It is
much easier for the mother to give the baby
the food from the family pot and it is much
better for the baby because he will eat many
different kinds of foods. When the baby eats
many kinds of foods, he will get the many
things that help him grow.


Nail
Holes


Homemade Sieve-Running food through a
sieve removes any lumps or hard pieces, and
makes it fine and soft. This is good for an in-
fant or sick child. Most families have a sieve.
If not, they can make one easily.
Use a 2-lb. tin can or one that is an easy size
to handle. Be sure the rim is smooth with no
sharp edges. Clean and wash the can thro-
roughly. Punch 20 to 30 holes in the bottom
with a medium size nail.








Weaning

Weaning means (1) getting the baby accus-
tomed to foods besides breast milk, and (2)
stopping breast feeding. Weaning extends from
the time the baby is solely breast fed until he
is eating a good mixed diet which entirely re-
places breast milk.
The length of time the mother continues to
breast feed her baby varies considerably. Many
doctors recommend breast feeding for one year
and even for 2 years if it is possible and
needed. This insures that the baby will get
vital building materials he needs. However,
after the first 5 or 6 months breast milk alone
will not provide the child with all it needs for
growth. Where no other milk is available, pro-
longed breast feeding is necessary for the
baby's growth and quite often for his survival.
However, the mother must eat a good diet with
enough building foods if she is to make milk
for 2 years.
You can prepare a baby for weaning by
starting with small amounts of boiled animal
milk from a cup. Animal milk is the best sub-
stitute for breast milk. Gradually increase the
amount until the baby is taking it at every
meal. Taking the baby off the breast com-
pletely must be done gradually. This usually
takes several weeks.
Normally, the baby should never be weaned
from the breast to a bottle. It is not necessary
and bottles and rubber teats are hard to clean.
Germs which can make the baby ill are found
in unclean bottles and rubber teats.
A wise procedure is to stop the midday
breast feeding first. After 2 or 3 weeks, stop
the second one during the morning, then later
the evening breast feeding. After 2 or 3 more
weeks, stop the early morning breast feeding.
Weaning gradually this way is not only good
for the baby, it is also much more comfortable
for the mother because her breasts do not get
so full and the amount of milk she makes is
gradually reduced.
Some mothers put a bitter powder on their
nipples or send the baby away to his grandpar-
ents when they want to stop nursing the baby.
This is very bad for the baby. He is unhappy
and cries and feels unwanted. He may even


stop eating altogether and become ill. It is
much better to keep the baby with his mother
and let him gradually get used to milk from a
cup and continue to get the other foods he has
been taking. Then both the baby and the mother
are happier.
If the mother has been following a good
feeding plan, the baby will already be getting
other building foods when she begins to stop
breast feedings. He will be used to them. If he
continues to get them, his growth will not slow
down when he is weaned.
In some countries, special "weaning" foods
are available. Ask your health department if
any such food is available and recommended in
your country. If so, encourage mothers to use
it. It is made especially for the needs of babies,
Use the weaning foods as recommended by
your health department.

Food Needs from Weaning to 6 Years
A child of this age is often called a toddler
or pre-school child. A child this age often be-
comes the most poorly nourished member of
the family. He often is not given the attention
he got as a baby, and he is still too young to
care for himself.
The importance of animal foods for everyone
has been mentioned several times. The toddler
often does not get his fair share of milk, meat,
eggs, fish, and pulses. This may be because
they are not plentiful or because parents do not
understand that the child needs these foods for
growth and health. They may think that milk
causes diarrhea. Help them understand that it
is the improper care of milk which causes
germs to grow in the milk. These germs cause
the diarrhea, not the milk itself.
Building foods (proteins) are very impor-
tant to a child of this age because he is no
longer getting his mother's milk. The quality
of building food for a toddler (or anyone else)
can be improved by a combination of foods at
the same meal. If a family has both maize and
beans, for example, it is far better to eat some
maize and some beans at each meal rather than
to eat maize for several days and then beans
for several days. Combinations of foods should
have both filling foods and protein foods; for
example, cereals or tubers with milk, eggs,








Weaning

Weaning means (1) getting the baby accus-
tomed to foods besides breast milk, and (2)
stopping breast feeding. Weaning extends from
the time the baby is solely breast fed until he
is eating a good mixed diet which entirely re-
places breast milk.
The length of time the mother continues to
breast feed her baby varies considerably. Many
doctors recommend breast feeding for one year
and even for 2 years if it is possible and
needed. This insures that the baby will get
vital building materials he needs. However,
after the first 5 or 6 months breast milk alone
will not provide the child with all it needs for
growth. Where no other milk is available, pro-
longed breast feeding is necessary for the
baby's growth and quite often for his survival.
However, the mother must eat a good diet with
enough building foods if she is to make milk
for 2 years.
You can prepare a baby for weaning by
starting with small amounts of boiled animal
milk from a cup. Animal milk is the best sub-
stitute for breast milk. Gradually increase the
amount until the baby is taking it at every
meal. Taking the baby off the breast com-
pletely must be done gradually. This usually
takes several weeks.
Normally, the baby should never be weaned
from the breast to a bottle. It is not necessary
and bottles and rubber teats are hard to clean.
Germs which can make the baby ill are found
in unclean bottles and rubber teats.
A wise procedure is to stop the midday
breast feeding first. After 2 or 3 weeks, stop
the second one during the morning, then later
the evening breast feeding. After 2 or 3 more
weeks, stop the early morning breast feeding.
Weaning gradually this way is not only good
for the baby, it is also much more comfortable
for the mother because her breasts do not get
so full and the amount of milk she makes is
gradually reduced.
Some mothers put a bitter powder on their
nipples or send the baby away to his grandpar-
ents when they want to stop nursing the baby.
This is very bad for the baby. He is unhappy
and cries and feels unwanted. He may even


stop eating altogether and become ill. It is
much better to keep the baby with his mother
and let him gradually get used to milk from a
cup and continue to get the other foods he has
been taking. Then both the baby and the mother
are happier.
If the mother has been following a good
feeding plan, the baby will already be getting
other building foods when she begins to stop
breast feedings. He will be used to them. If he
continues to get them, his growth will not slow
down when he is weaned.
In some countries, special "weaning" foods
are available. Ask your health department if
any such food is available and recommended in
your country. If so, encourage mothers to use
it. It is made especially for the needs of babies,
Use the weaning foods as recommended by
your health department.

Food Needs from Weaning to 6 Years
A child of this age is often called a toddler
or pre-school child. A child this age often be-
comes the most poorly nourished member of
the family. He often is not given the attention
he got as a baby, and he is still too young to
care for himself.
The importance of animal foods for everyone
has been mentioned several times. The toddler
often does not get his fair share of milk, meat,
eggs, fish, and pulses. This may be because
they are not plentiful or because parents do not
understand that the child needs these foods for
growth and health. They may think that milk
causes diarrhea. Help them understand that it
is the improper care of milk which causes
germs to grow in the milk. These germs cause
the diarrhea, not the milk itself.
Building foods (proteins) are very impor-
tant to a child of this age because he is no
longer getting his mother's milk. The quality
of building food for a toddler (or anyone else)
can be improved by a combination of foods at
the same meal. If a family has both maize and
beans, for example, it is far better to eat some
maize and some beans at each meal rather than
to eat maize for several days and then beans
for several days. Combinations of foods should
have both filling foods and protein foods; for
example, cereals or tubers with milk, eggs,









tIit


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' *t


Children will eat better if they learn to feed them-
selves. This Indian mother is encouraging her child in
his efforts to learn to drink from a glass.


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YF~
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meat, fish, pulses or cheese. Here are some ex-
amples of mixtures:
1. Maize with pigeon peas
2. Banana cooked with beans and served
with wheat bread
3. Baked sweetpotato served with lentils
and a dark green vegetable
4. Porridge made from two different cereals
and served with sauce made of cowpeas
and tomatoes
5. Groundnut soup with potatoes.
If the mother has powdered milk, she can
stir it into the food.
When a young child is not given enough
milk, meat, fish, eggs, pulses, and cereals, he
does not grow normally. He is more likely to
get colds, coughs, and stomach upsets, as well
as to get very ill from any childhood diseases
he catches. He may be cross and lose interest
in playing. He may get weak and become sick.
Kwashiorkor and marasmus may show up in
children of this age who do not eat enough pro-
tein.
Remind mothers that from weaning to 6
years old is one of the most important times in
a child's life and can be one of the most dan-
gerous from the standpoint of health.
The young child is growing rapidly and
needs more building foods for his size than
adults. The building foods are eggs, milk,
cheese, meat, fish, pulses, and groundnuts. The
young child cannot eat much food at one time
and so he needs more frequent meals than
adults.
In families that use roots and tubers as the
main food, it is very important that the child
have one or more foods from the building
group at each meal. He should have dark green
leafy vegetables and a deep yellow fruit or veg-
etable, and fruits such as orange, mango, pa-
paya, etc. Whole grain cereals are better than
starchy plants in the child's diet.
The young child has few teeth so he requires
soft food. He can begin to eat some adult foods,
but they need to be cut into very small pieces.
Properly feeding a toddler requires time, but
he needs the love and personal attention of his
mother for both his spirit and body. He re-
quires clean food and clean utensils to prevent


infection and protect him from hookworm, di-
arrhea, and other diseases.
These foods are not suitable for babies and
young children.
Strong seasonings and spices such as hot
peppers and curry powder. Take the baby's
food out of the cooking pot before spices
and seasonings are added or cook it sep-
arately.
Foods with skins such as pulses and maize,
unless they are cooked very well and put
through a sieve.
Fish with bones, except small fish whose
bones can be cooked soft and mashed very
fine.
Candy, which is bad for teeth and spoils
the baby's appetite for the other foods
which his body needs.
Beer and other alcoholic drinks which can
make the baby feel dizzy.

Food Needs of School Age Children
After a child starts to school, it may be har-
der for him to get the food he needs to grow,
develop, and learn well in school. He often has
to leave home before breakfast is ready in the
morning and walk a considerable distance to
reach school. If he gets no meal at school and
returns late in the afternoon for his first and
only meal of the day, it is almost impossible
for him to get enough of the right foods. It is of
great importance that he have some food be-
fore going to school and some food while he is
at school. If no hot breakfast is available, the
child can eat some fruit, bread, cold cooked po-
tatoes, or even leftover porridge so that he will
not tire so easily and will feel more like doing
his school work.
The School Lunch
School lunch programs are increasing in
many countries. The ideal is a school that
serves a good midday meal to the children. In
some places children get milk at school, either
free or at a small cost. A program such as this
makes sure that all school children will have
this valuable building food.
Some countries may provide other foods as
well to improve the diets of growing children.
In some areas where the government does not







meat, fish, pulses or cheese. Here are some ex-
amples of mixtures:
1. Maize with pigeon peas
2. Banana cooked with beans and served
with wheat bread
3. Baked sweetpotato served with lentils
and a dark green vegetable
4. Porridge made from two different cereals
and served with sauce made of cowpeas
and tomatoes
5. Groundnut soup with potatoes.
If the mother has powdered milk, she can
stir it into the food.
When a young child is not given enough
milk, meat, fish, eggs, pulses, and cereals, he
does not grow normally. He is more likely to
get colds, coughs, and stomach upsets, as well
as to get very ill from any childhood diseases
he catches. He may be cross and lose interest
in playing. He may get weak and become sick.
Kwashiorkor and marasmus may show up in
children of this age who do not eat enough pro-
tein.
Remind mothers that from weaning to 6
years old is one of the most important times in
a child's life and can be one of the most dan-
gerous from the standpoint of health.
The young child is growing rapidly and
needs more building foods for his size than
adults. The building foods are eggs, milk,
cheese, meat, fish, pulses, and groundnuts. The
young child cannot eat much food at one time
and so he needs more frequent meals than
adults.
In families that use roots and tubers as the
main food, it is very important that the child
have one or more foods from the building
group at each meal. He should have dark green
leafy vegetables and a deep yellow fruit or veg-
etable, and fruits such as orange, mango, pa-
paya, etc. Whole grain cereals are better than
starchy plants in the child's diet.
The young child has few teeth so he requires
soft food. He can begin to eat some adult foods,
but they need to be cut into very small pieces.
Properly feeding a toddler requires time, but
he needs the love and personal attention of his
mother for both his spirit and body. He re-
quires clean food and clean utensils to prevent


infection and protect him from hookworm, di-
arrhea, and other diseases.
These foods are not suitable for babies and
young children.
Strong seasonings and spices such as hot
peppers and curry powder. Take the baby's
food out of the cooking pot before spices
and seasonings are added or cook it sep-
arately.
Foods with skins such as pulses and maize,
unless they are cooked very well and put
through a sieve.
Fish with bones, except small fish whose
bones can be cooked soft and mashed very
fine.
Candy, which is bad for teeth and spoils
the baby's appetite for the other foods
which his body needs.
Beer and other alcoholic drinks which can
make the baby feel dizzy.

Food Needs of School Age Children
After a child starts to school, it may be har-
der for him to get the food he needs to grow,
develop, and learn well in school. He often has
to leave home before breakfast is ready in the
morning and walk a considerable distance to
reach school. If he gets no meal at school and
returns late in the afternoon for his first and
only meal of the day, it is almost impossible
for him to get enough of the right foods. It is of
great importance that he have some food be-
fore going to school and some food while he is
at school. If no hot breakfast is available, the
child can eat some fruit, bread, cold cooked po-
tatoes, or even leftover porridge so that he will
not tire so easily and will feel more like doing
his school work.
The School Lunch
School lunch programs are increasing in
many countries. The ideal is a school that
serves a good midday meal to the children. In
some places children get milk at school, either
free or at a small cost. A program such as this
makes sure that all school children will have
this valuable building food.
Some countries may provide other foods as
well to improve the diets of growing children.
In some areas where the government does not





































A school lunch is popular the world over.


provide lunches, mothers may want to organize
a lunch for the children at school. The families
of the students could pay for this either in
cash or by contributing food. Mothers could
take turns cooking the food or they could hire
someone to do the cooking. Providing such a
meal is a good way to make sure that all the
children in your area have good food at mid-
day.
Carrying Food to School
If a child must carry his lunch to school, it
should be as nutritious as possible. The kind of
food he can take will depend on what is locally
available. It should be wrapped and packed to
keep it clean and make it easy to carry.
Meat or foods that spoil quickly in warm
weather should not be included unless they can


be kept cool at school.
Many different kinds of food can be carried
to school: maize with beans or peas; pilaf with
a sauce of chickpeas and powdered milk; tortil-
la spread with sauce of pulses with powdered
milk; sweetpotato roasted in its skin; hard-
boiled eggs; cold well-cooked dried or smoked
fish or meat; oranges, papaya, bananas, or
other fruit; tomatoes; roasted groundnuts;
sour milk carried in a gourd; and bread. It is a
good idea to take more than one kind of food.
Cooked food could be wrapped in a banana
leaf. A little basket lined with a clean leaf
could serve as a lunch basket.
No doubt you can think of many other foods
children can carry to school. Be sure they con-
tain both building and energy values.
If children are given money to buy lunch








from shops or venders, teach them to buy foods
that will keep them healthy. What foods can
these children choose from if they buy? Which
foods will help them follow the rules of good
eating?
Giving a school child a good diet every day is
one way parents can help their children learn
and do well in school. Teachers can do very lit-
tle with children who are tired, dull, and list-
less from not getting enough of the right kinds
of foods. How well a child learns in school is
the responsibility of his parents as well as his
teacher.

Food Needs During Adolescence
Adolescence is from the time of puberty
until 20 years of age. It is a period of rapid
growth and development for both boys and
girls. It is, therefore, a time when they need
large amounts of food.
Boys and girls who are active in play or do
heavy work may need much more energy food
than adults. Because they are still growing,
they need more building foods. Their need for
protective foods is about the same or even
higher than for adults.

Food Needs of Sick People
When a sick person is being cared for at
home, he should be given good food in an easy-
to-digest form as soon as he can take it. Both
sickness and injury weaken the body and use
up some of the materials in it. It takes extra
building, protective, and energy foods to repair
the damage, and make the body strong again.
In the case of a fever or diarrhea, boiled
water with perhaps a little sugar added may be
all the sick person can take the first day. By
the next day, a well-cooked gruel of finely
pounded cereal, boiled milk, and sugar can be
tried three times a day. Also give orange or
fruit juices with a little sugar added. Boiled
water should be continued. As the ill person
gets better, add other soft foods in addition to
the gruel, boiled water and juices. These could
be soft-cooked eggs, soft fish without hard
bones, tender chicken or other meat, soup with
some mashed vegetables and pulses, papaya,
rice, and other soft, well-cooked cereal foods.


Frequent small meals are better than large
meals. The body will make better use of the
food. Eating six times a day is not too often.
Remember, a well-fed person will recover
faster from any sickness or injury.
Food Habits and Their Influence in Nutrition
All people have their likes, dislikes, and be-
liefs about food. Individuals are influenced by
what their friends and those around them eat.
In some areas, it is the custom to eat certain
protein-rich foods such as insects, snakes, and
dogs. These are all beneficial. Many old cus-
toms such as drinking animal blood, feeding
red millet to new mothers, soaking grain in
limewater, drinking sour milk instead of fresh,
using wild fruits and vegetables, and sprouting
legumes before cooking them make for good
diets.
On the other hand, certain beliefs and cus-
toms about food are very bad. You need to try
to change beliefs such as that women will not
be able to have children if they eat eggs, or
that a child who drinks goat's milk will grow
to look like a goat.
We all enjoy eating foods we ate as we were
growing up-foods that our mothers and
grandmothers used to prepare. They make us
feel happy and safe. Familiar foods, familiar
seasonings, and foods cooked in familiar ways
give pleasure to eating.

Developing Good Eating Patterns
Improving nutrition does not mean changing
all the food customs and habits of people. But
they need to be taught how to improve their
eating patterns so they will have the kind of
daily diet they need for good health and to
enjoy their food, too.
Many countries have developed food guides,
based on the habits of their people, to help
them establish good eating patterns. These
guides generally group together foods that add
the same things to the diet. They emphasize
foods that are often not used enough. Find out
if your country has a food guide and, if so, how
you can use it in your work. Some guides sug-
gest the amounts to use daily from each group.
All food guides encourage the use of many
foods. The more different kinds of food people








from shops or venders, teach them to buy foods
that will keep them healthy. What foods can
these children choose from if they buy? Which
foods will help them follow the rules of good
eating?
Giving a school child a good diet every day is
one way parents can help their children learn
and do well in school. Teachers can do very lit-
tle with children who are tired, dull, and list-
less from not getting enough of the right kinds
of foods. How well a child learns in school is
the responsibility of his parents as well as his
teacher.

Food Needs During Adolescence
Adolescence is from the time of puberty
until 20 years of age. It is a period of rapid
growth and development for both boys and
girls. It is, therefore, a time when they need
large amounts of food.
Boys and girls who are active in play or do
heavy work may need much more energy food
than adults. Because they are still growing,
they need more building foods. Their need for
protective foods is about the same or even
higher than for adults.

Food Needs of Sick People
When a sick person is being cared for at
home, he should be given good food in an easy-
to-digest form as soon as he can take it. Both
sickness and injury weaken the body and use
up some of the materials in it. It takes extra
building, protective, and energy foods to repair
the damage, and make the body strong again.
In the case of a fever or diarrhea, boiled
water with perhaps a little sugar added may be
all the sick person can take the first day. By
the next day, a well-cooked gruel of finely
pounded cereal, boiled milk, and sugar can be
tried three times a day. Also give orange or
fruit juices with a little sugar added. Boiled
water should be continued. As the ill person
gets better, add other soft foods in addition to
the gruel, boiled water and juices. These could
be soft-cooked eggs, soft fish without hard
bones, tender chicken or other meat, soup with
some mashed vegetables and pulses, papaya,
rice, and other soft, well-cooked cereal foods.


Frequent small meals are better than large
meals. The body will make better use of the
food. Eating six times a day is not too often.
Remember, a well-fed person will recover
faster from any sickness or injury.
Food Habits and Their Influence in Nutrition
All people have their likes, dislikes, and be-
liefs about food. Individuals are influenced by
what their friends and those around them eat.
In some areas, it is the custom to eat certain
protein-rich foods such as insects, snakes, and
dogs. These are all beneficial. Many old cus-
toms such as drinking animal blood, feeding
red millet to new mothers, soaking grain in
limewater, drinking sour milk instead of fresh,
using wild fruits and vegetables, and sprouting
legumes before cooking them make for good
diets.
On the other hand, certain beliefs and cus-
toms about food are very bad. You need to try
to change beliefs such as that women will not
be able to have children if they eat eggs, or
that a child who drinks goat's milk will grow
to look like a goat.
We all enjoy eating foods we ate as we were
growing up-foods that our mothers and
grandmothers used to prepare. They make us
feel happy and safe. Familiar foods, familiar
seasonings, and foods cooked in familiar ways
give pleasure to eating.

Developing Good Eating Patterns
Improving nutrition does not mean changing
all the food customs and habits of people. But
they need to be taught how to improve their
eating patterns so they will have the kind of
daily diet they need for good health and to
enjoy their food, too.
Many countries have developed food guides,
based on the habits of their people, to help
them establish good eating patterns. These
guides generally group together foods that add
the same things to the diet. They emphasize
foods that are often not used enough. Find out
if your country has a food guide and, if so, how
you can use it in your work. Some guides sug-
gest the amounts to use daily from each group.
All food guides encourage the use of many
foods. The more different kinds of food people








from shops or venders, teach them to buy foods
that will keep them healthy. What foods can
these children choose from if they buy? Which
foods will help them follow the rules of good
eating?
Giving a school child a good diet every day is
one way parents can help their children learn
and do well in school. Teachers can do very lit-
tle with children who are tired, dull, and list-
less from not getting enough of the right kinds
of foods. How well a child learns in school is
the responsibility of his parents as well as his
teacher.

Food Needs During Adolescence
Adolescence is from the time of puberty
until 20 years of age. It is a period of rapid
growth and development for both boys and
girls. It is, therefore, a time when they need
large amounts of food.
Boys and girls who are active in play or do
heavy work may need much more energy food
than adults. Because they are still growing,
they need more building foods. Their need for
protective foods is about the same or even
higher than for adults.

Food Needs of Sick People
When a sick person is being cared for at
home, he should be given good food in an easy-
to-digest form as soon as he can take it. Both
sickness and injury weaken the body and use
up some of the materials in it. It takes extra
building, protective, and energy foods to repair
the damage, and make the body strong again.
In the case of a fever or diarrhea, boiled
water with perhaps a little sugar added may be
all the sick person can take the first day. By
the next day, a well-cooked gruel of finely
pounded cereal, boiled milk, and sugar can be
tried three times a day. Also give orange or
fruit juices with a little sugar added. Boiled
water should be continued. As the ill person
gets better, add other soft foods in addition to
the gruel, boiled water and juices. These could
be soft-cooked eggs, soft fish without hard
bones, tender chicken or other meat, soup with
some mashed vegetables and pulses, papaya,
rice, and other soft, well-cooked cereal foods.


Frequent small meals are better than large
meals. The body will make better use of the
food. Eating six times a day is not too often.
Remember, a well-fed person will recover
faster from any sickness or injury.
Food Habits and Their Influence in Nutrition
All people have their likes, dislikes, and be-
liefs about food. Individuals are influenced by
what their friends and those around them eat.
In some areas, it is the custom to eat certain
protein-rich foods such as insects, snakes, and
dogs. These are all beneficial. Many old cus-
toms such as drinking animal blood, feeding
red millet to new mothers, soaking grain in
limewater, drinking sour milk instead of fresh,
using wild fruits and vegetables, and sprouting
legumes before cooking them make for good
diets.
On the other hand, certain beliefs and cus-
toms about food are very bad. You need to try
to change beliefs such as that women will not
be able to have children if they eat eggs, or
that a child who drinks goat's milk will grow
to look like a goat.
We all enjoy eating foods we ate as we were
growing up-foods that our mothers and
grandmothers used to prepare. They make us
feel happy and safe. Familiar foods, familiar
seasonings, and foods cooked in familiar ways
give pleasure to eating.

Developing Good Eating Patterns
Improving nutrition does not mean changing
all the food customs and habits of people. But
they need to be taught how to improve their
eating patterns so they will have the kind of
daily diet they need for good health and to
enjoy their food, too.
Many countries have developed food guides,
based on the habits of their people, to help
them establish good eating patterns. These
guides generally group together foods that add
the same things to the diet. They emphasize
foods that are often not used enough. Find out
if your country has a food guide and, if so, how
you can use it in your work. Some guides sug-
gest the amounts to use daily from each group.
All food guides encourage the use of many
foods. The more different kinds of food people








from shops or venders, teach them to buy foods
that will keep them healthy. What foods can
these children choose from if they buy? Which
foods will help them follow the rules of good
eating?
Giving a school child a good diet every day is
one way parents can help their children learn
and do well in school. Teachers can do very lit-
tle with children who are tired, dull, and list-
less from not getting enough of the right kinds
of foods. How well a child learns in school is
the responsibility of his parents as well as his
teacher.

Food Needs During Adolescence
Adolescence is from the time of puberty
until 20 years of age. It is a period of rapid
growth and development for both boys and
girls. It is, therefore, a time when they need
large amounts of food.
Boys and girls who are active in play or do
heavy work may need much more energy food
than adults. Because they are still growing,
they need more building foods. Their need for
protective foods is about the same or even
higher than for adults.

Food Needs of Sick People
When a sick person is being cared for at
home, he should be given good food in an easy-
to-digest form as soon as he can take it. Both
sickness and injury weaken the body and use
up some of the materials in it. It takes extra
building, protective, and energy foods to repair
the damage, and make the body strong again.
In the case of a fever or diarrhea, boiled
water with perhaps a little sugar added may be
all the sick person can take the first day. By
the next day, a well-cooked gruel of finely
pounded cereal, boiled milk, and sugar can be
tried three times a day. Also give orange or
fruit juices with a little sugar added. Boiled
water should be continued. As the ill person
gets better, add other soft foods in addition to
the gruel, boiled water and juices. These could
be soft-cooked eggs, soft fish without hard
bones, tender chicken or other meat, soup with
some mashed vegetables and pulses, papaya,
rice, and other soft, well-cooked cereal foods.


Frequent small meals are better than large
meals. The body will make better use of the
food. Eating six times a day is not too often.
Remember, a well-fed person will recover
faster from any sickness or injury.
Food Habits and Their Influence in Nutrition
All people have their likes, dislikes, and be-
liefs about food. Individuals are influenced by
what their friends and those around them eat.
In some areas, it is the custom to eat certain
protein-rich foods such as insects, snakes, and
dogs. These are all beneficial. Many old cus-
toms such as drinking animal blood, feeding
red millet to new mothers, soaking grain in
limewater, drinking sour milk instead of fresh,
using wild fruits and vegetables, and sprouting
legumes before cooking them make for good
diets.
On the other hand, certain beliefs and cus-
toms about food are very bad. You need to try
to change beliefs such as that women will not
be able to have children if they eat eggs, or
that a child who drinks goat's milk will grow
to look like a goat.
We all enjoy eating foods we ate as we were
growing up-foods that our mothers and
grandmothers used to prepare. They make us
feel happy and safe. Familiar foods, familiar
seasonings, and foods cooked in familiar ways
give pleasure to eating.

Developing Good Eating Patterns
Improving nutrition does not mean changing
all the food customs and habits of people. But
they need to be taught how to improve their
eating patterns so they will have the kind of
daily diet they need for good health and to
enjoy their food, too.
Many countries have developed food guides,
based on the habits of their people, to help
them establish good eating patterns. These
guides generally group together foods that add
the same things to the diet. They emphasize
foods that are often not used enough. Find out
if your country has a food guide and, if so, how
you can use it in your work. Some guides sug-
gest the amounts to use daily from each group.
All food guides encourage the use of many
foods. The more different kinds of food people








eat, the better chance they have to get all the
nutrients they need.
Let us look at Puerto Rico as an example.
Puerto Rico has a nutrition committee repre-
sentin, various agencies and groups concerned
with food and nutrition. This committee
worked out a guide called A Basic Food Pat-
tern for Puerto Rico. The committee agreed
that almost all Puerto Ricans eat rice and
beans, starchy fruits such as plantain and green
bananas, codfish, lard, sugar, and coffee. Most
families have something more, but those foods
are the only ones the committee could be sure
almost everybody had every day. These form
the basic diet. Although it is good as far as it
goes, other foods are needed to meet the body's
need for good health. The food guide was de-
veloped to emphasize the foods that are gener-
ally not eaten often enough. Puerto Rico used
the term "Yellows and Greens" because they
wanted to emphasize the deep yellow fruits
such as papaya and mango along with the dark
green leafy vegetables. A chart was made as
shown:


OSo Everyone _.

For Your Health
Eat One From Each Group Every Day


A flannelgraph has been made from the
chart. The circle is cut into five pieces. Each
piece can be used as a separate lesson. This
food guide flannelgraph is used to teach nutri-
tion throughout Puerto Rico.

Learn the Facts
You will need to learn their food habits and
customs before you can help people develop
good food patterns. Review with them what
they have learned about the kinds of food the
body needs. To help them see what kind of eat-
ing patterns they have, ask the following ques-
tions:
What is the main food you eat?
Do you use whole grain cereals and flours?
How often? More than one kind?
Do you use cereal foods more often than
starchy plants?
What building foods do you eat regularly
with the staple foods? Do you use build-
ing foods three times each day?
Do you use pulses, seeds, or nuts? Which
ones? How often?
Do you use meat, fish, eggs, poultry? How
often? How much?
Do you use milk of any kind? How often?
How much?
What fruits and vegetables do you use?
How often? How much?
Do you use leafy greens regularly? Yel-
low vegetables?
Do you use oranges, papaya, mango, and
other deep yellow fruits every day?
Their answers to these questions will tell
you whether or not they are eating a good vari-
ety of food Show the people what they can do
to improve their basic diet. They should regu-
larly eat:
More than one kind of cereal grain.
More than one kind of legume (pulses,
grams).
Whole grain or undermilled cereal foods
rather than the refined, white grain
products.
Staple foods in combination with build-
ing and protective foods. For example,
they should cook cereal foods with dry
skim milk or add some meat, fish, pulses,







or vegetables to rice, cassava, or other sta-
ple.
More leafy greens or small whole fish
if milk is not available.
The "Yellows and Greens" (both vege-
tables and fruits).

Handling Food
The way food is handled influences the nu-
trients it has, its safety, appearance, and. taste.
Handling means everything that happens to
food while it is being grown, processed, stored,
and prepared for eating. In some areas, at least
one-third of all the food produced is lost by
poor harvesting, and loss from insects, rats
and spoilage or faulty handling in the home.
Good farming increases the amount and the
quality of the food produced. For example,
good soil and the right kind of fertilizer can
improve the amount and flavor of crops. If in-
secticides are needed and are used, the farmer
must learn how to use them in the right way so
that the food will be safe to eat. Many insecti-
cides are poisonous.
The way food is processed influences its
body building value. Highly milled cereals con-
tain smaller amounts of some nutrients than
whole grain undermilled cereals. Enriching
highly milled foods by adding vitamins, iron,
and possibly calcium during processing in-
creases their nutritive value. Dried skimmed
milk has the fat removed in processing; it does
not have vitamins A and D. Dried whole milk
powder does have the fat and vitamins A and
D. The water is removed from both types of
powdered milk. However, some factories may
add vitamins A and D to dried skimmed milk
to improve its nutritive value.
The nutrients may be partially lost in food
stored for long periods, especially when it has
not been properly stored. Milk or other perish-
able foods such as leftovers, kept for even a
short time, can easily become contaminated
with bacteria and cause illness unless they are
properly stored.
The way food is cooked greatly influences its
taste and appearance as well as its food value.
Certain foods cause illness. There are poi-
sonous plants such as some toadstools and ber-
ries. Some kinds of cassava also have a toxic


skin and juice which should not be eaten.
But the foods we have talked about do not in
themselves cause illness. Quite the opposite:
the foods we have talked about are needed to
build strong, healthy bodies. It is when foods
become spoiled or contaminated with bacteria
or parasites that they cause illness. Proper
handling, preparation, and storage of food will
prevent illness from contaminated food.

Principles of Food Preparation
Following these rules in handling and pre-
paring food will help keep it safe, make it
taste better, and preserve the food values it
contains.


MILK:


MEAT:




EGGS:





PULSES:


Keep milk in a clean con-
tainer with a tight
cover. Store in a cold
place. Always boil
raw milk before using
it. Use boiled water
to mix milk powder
Cook all meat, poultry,
and fish thoroughly to
make sure any germs
they contain are de-
stroyed.
Cook eggs slowly over low
heat. Do not eat raw
eggs as they may con-
tain germs. Cooking
them well will destroy
these germs.
Wash pulses quickly once.
Cover them with wa-
ter and let them soak
for several hours or
overnight. Cook them
until they are tender
in the same water in
which they were soak-
ed. Add salt, if you
wish, after the pulses
are cooked. Do not
throw away the water
in which .the pulses
were soaked or cook-
ed. It contains useful
food values.







or vegetables to rice, cassava, or other sta-
ple.
More leafy greens or small whole fish
if milk is not available.
The "Yellows and Greens" (both vege-
tables and fruits).

Handling Food
The way food is handled influences the nu-
trients it has, its safety, appearance, and. taste.
Handling means everything that happens to
food while it is being grown, processed, stored,
and prepared for eating. In some areas, at least
one-third of all the food produced is lost by
poor harvesting, and loss from insects, rats
and spoilage or faulty handling in the home.
Good farming increases the amount and the
quality of the food produced. For example,
good soil and the right kind of fertilizer can
improve the amount and flavor of crops. If in-
secticides are needed and are used, the farmer
must learn how to use them in the right way so
that the food will be safe to eat. Many insecti-
cides are poisonous.
The way food is processed influences its
body building value. Highly milled cereals con-
tain smaller amounts of some nutrients than
whole grain undermilled cereals. Enriching
highly milled foods by adding vitamins, iron,
and possibly calcium during processing in-
creases their nutritive value. Dried skimmed
milk has the fat removed in processing; it does
not have vitamins A and D. Dried whole milk
powder does have the fat and vitamins A and
D. The water is removed from both types of
powdered milk. However, some factories may
add vitamins A and D to dried skimmed milk
to improve its nutritive value.
The nutrients may be partially lost in food
stored for long periods, especially when it has
not been properly stored. Milk or other perish-
able foods such as leftovers, kept for even a
short time, can easily become contaminated
with bacteria and cause illness unless they are
properly stored.
The way food is cooked greatly influences its
taste and appearance as well as its food value.
Certain foods cause illness. There are poi-
sonous plants such as some toadstools and ber-
ries. Some kinds of cassava also have a toxic


skin and juice which should not be eaten.
But the foods we have talked about do not in
themselves cause illness. Quite the opposite:
the foods we have talked about are needed to
build strong, healthy bodies. It is when foods
become spoiled or contaminated with bacteria
or parasites that they cause illness. Proper
handling, preparation, and storage of food will
prevent illness from contaminated food.

Principles of Food Preparation
Following these rules in handling and pre-
paring food will help keep it safe, make it
taste better, and preserve the food values it
contains.


MILK:


MEAT:




EGGS:





PULSES:


Keep milk in a clean con-
tainer with a tight
cover. Store in a cold
place. Always boil
raw milk before using
it. Use boiled water
to mix milk powder
Cook all meat, poultry,
and fish thoroughly to
make sure any germs
they contain are de-
stroyed.
Cook eggs slowly over low
heat. Do not eat raw
eggs as they may con-
tain germs. Cooking
them well will destroy
these germs.
Wash pulses quickly once.
Cover them with wa-
ter and let them soak
for several hours or
overnight. Cook them
until they are tender
in the same water in
which they were soak-
ed. Add salt, if you
wish, after the pulses
are cooked. Do not
throw away the water
in which .the pulses
were soaked or cook-
ed. It contains useful
food values.








GREENS:








































OTHER
VEGE-
TABLES:


Tender green leaves
should be prepared
immediately after
they are picked. Look
them over carefully to
remove any bugs or
insects that may be
on them. Wash them
quickly twice in clean
water. Cook them
gently in a very small
amount of water with
a little oil, fat or milk
added. Keep a cover
on the pan and stir
or shake the greens
occasionally to keep
them from burning.
Tear leaves that are
not so tender into
small pieces before
cooking them. Cook
them only until they
are tender, not until
they are soggy. Any
water that is left in
the pot contains part
of the protective val-
ue of the greens. Use
this water for soups,
stews, sauces or
for drinking. Never
throw it away. Do
not use soda in cook-
ing greens. It de-
stroys some of the
protective value.
Prepare and cook vege-
tables as soon as pos-
sible after they are
brought from the
garden. Freshly gath-
ered vegetables taste
much better than
those that have been
allowed to stand be-
fore cooking. Wash
them well and cook
them in a covered pot
with just enough wa-


ter to cook done. Use
any water left after
cooking in soups
as suggested above.
Teach mothers not to
throw away the wa-
ter they cook their
peas, beans, and oth-
er vegetables in. By
adding it to soup, cur-
ries, etc., they can im-
prove the nutrition of
their children. Some
vegetables such as
carrots, turnips, and
tomatoes may be en-
joyed most when they
are eaten raw. They
should be washed well
in safe water.
Some fruits are best eat-
en raw. Some protec-
tive value is destroy-
ed in cooking, but of
course cooked fruits
are nice for variety.
Fruit jams and pre-
serves are cooked so
long that much of
their protective val-
ue is destroyed.
Do not burn fat. Burning
makes it harder to
digest.
Wash the grain quickly
just one time in a
small amount of wa-
ter to remove any
dirt. Every time the
rice is washed, it
loses some of its food
value. Pick out small
stones and other dirt.
When cooking, use
only as much water
as the rice or millet
will absorb when it
is done. Add salt as
desired.


FRUITS:











FAT:


RICE OR
MILLET:








HOME Wash cereal grains
POUNDED (maize, wheat, etc.)
CEREALS: before ^ pounding
them. After the
grains are pounded,
use only the amount
of water needed for
soaking or cooking.
The water in which
they are soaked or
cooked has food value
in it. Use it in soup
or to cook other foods.
Cook cereals thor-
oughly to make them
easy to digest. Maize
can be soaked over-
night and cooked
whole without pound-
ing. It must be pound-
ed or well mashed if
it is fed to young chil-
dren.
STARCHY Wash potatoes well and
PLANTS: cook them with their
skins on. Eat the
skins or peel the po-
tatoes after cooking.
If the skins of starchy
plants must be re-
moved before cook-
ing, peel them as
thinly as possible.
The skin of the po-
tato and right under
the skin contain more
of the vitamins and
minerals. All starchy
plants and roots need
to be cooked well
done.
CASSAVA: Peel before cooking. Some
kinds may need to be
cooked done.

Teaching Food and Nutrition
You will have to use many different methods
and approaches to teach good nutrition to vil-
lage people. As you begin your teaching, re-


member to start with the basic diet of the peo-
ple and gradually show them how they can im-
prove this diet. It is easier to improve existing
food habits than to change their customs com-
pletely.
Talk to the people. Learn how they think
about their problems. A home visit is always a
good way to learn about an individual family
and its particular problems. Group meetings
give you a chance to discuss general village
problems and develop awareness of those that
are common but unrecognized. In group discus-
sions, use posters and exhibits of different
kinds of foods to create interest. Method and
result demonstrations will make your teaching
more interesting and helpful.
One of the best ways is to tell people a story
about a family very much like their own, such
as the example on Samuel and Mary given in
this chapter. You may want to adapt this story
to your own local situation or use one of your
own in a group meeting. You can adapt it to
role playing or to a puppet show. Use familiar
names and change the situation so it suits your
area.
You might also use some of these suggested
demonstrations to teach your village women.

I. Preparing foods for children
Mothers are more likely to feed their babies
and young children some of the recommended
foods if they have been shown how to prepare
them and have tasted them. You might prepare
enough food for the mothers to taste. Some
mothers will probably bring their babies and
young children with them. You can show how
to feed them, using some of the food prepared.
Such demonstrations will let you show how to
wash, boil, and care for the baby's and child's
dishes. Let the mothers help throughout the
demonstration.
You can also show how to prepare a good
school lunch. Show not only the kinds of food
and how to fix them, but also how to pack them
for a child to carry to school.
Have each member of the group bring a
lunch suitable for a child to carry to school.
Discuss the lunches. Do they contain building
and protective foods? What staple do they
have? Are they packed to keep clean?








HOME Wash cereal grains
POUNDED (maize, wheat, etc.)
CEREALS: before ^ pounding
them. After the
grains are pounded,
use only the amount
of water needed for
soaking or cooking.
The water in which
they are soaked or
cooked has food value
in it. Use it in soup
or to cook other foods.
Cook cereals thor-
oughly to make them
easy to digest. Maize
can be soaked over-
night and cooked
whole without pound-
ing. It must be pound-
ed or well mashed if
it is fed to young chil-
dren.
STARCHY Wash potatoes well and
PLANTS: cook them with their
skins on. Eat the
skins or peel the po-
tatoes after cooking.
If the skins of starchy
plants must be re-
moved before cook-
ing, peel them as
thinly as possible.
The skin of the po-
tato and right under
the skin contain more
of the vitamins and
minerals. All starchy
plants and roots need
to be cooked well
done.
CASSAVA: Peel before cooking. Some
kinds may need to be
cooked done.

Teaching Food and Nutrition
You will have to use many different methods
and approaches to teach good nutrition to vil-
lage people. As you begin your teaching, re-


member to start with the basic diet of the peo-
ple and gradually show them how they can im-
prove this diet. It is easier to improve existing
food habits than to change their customs com-
pletely.
Talk to the people. Learn how they think
about their problems. A home visit is always a
good way to learn about an individual family
and its particular problems. Group meetings
give you a chance to discuss general village
problems and develop awareness of those that
are common but unrecognized. In group discus-
sions, use posters and exhibits of different
kinds of foods to create interest. Method and
result demonstrations will make your teaching
more interesting and helpful.
One of the best ways is to tell people a story
about a family very much like their own, such
as the example on Samuel and Mary given in
this chapter. You may want to adapt this story
to your own local situation or use one of your
own in a group meeting. You can adapt it to
role playing or to a puppet show. Use familiar
names and change the situation so it suits your
area.
You might also use some of these suggested
demonstrations to teach your village women.

I. Preparing foods for children
Mothers are more likely to feed their babies
and young children some of the recommended
foods if they have been shown how to prepare
them and have tasted them. You might prepare
enough food for the mothers to taste. Some
mothers will probably bring their babies and
young children with them. You can show how
to feed them, using some of the food prepared.
Such demonstrations will let you show how to
wash, boil, and care for the baby's and child's
dishes. Let the mothers help throughout the
demonstration.
You can also show how to prepare a good
school lunch. Show not only the kinds of food
and how to fix them, but also how to pack them
for a child to carry to school.
Have each member of the group bring a
lunch suitable for a child to carry to school.
Discuss the lunches. Do they contain building
and protective foods? What staple do they
have? Are they packed to keep clean?































These parents know the value of a good diet for a nomics worker in El Salvador shows how to prepare
young child. They watch with interest as a home eco- food for toddlers.




Suggested Demonstrations on Suitable Foods for Infants,
Toddlers, and Young Children


How to Prepare

1. Boiled Milk
Bring a small amount of whole milk to the
boiling point. Stir it so that it does not
burn. Remove it from the fire. Put a clean
cover over it and let it cool.

2. Porridge With Milk
Mix 1/4 cup of whole cereal flour and 1
cup whole milk. If powdered milk is used,
add one measure of milk powder to 4 mea-
sures of water. Mix so there are no lumps.
Boil or simmer the mixture gently for 20
minutes, stirring to keep it from burning.


Key Points to Explain

All raw milk must be boiled before it is
given to the baby. Start feeding the baby
boiled milk from a clean spoon until the
baby is used to the taste. Then start using
a cup.

Any cereal grain can be used. Using whole
cereal flour with milk gives both building
and energy foods. Never use white flour
and water to make a baby's porridge. Cer-
eal helps to satisfy the baby's appetite.
Start with just a taste of porridge and
gradually increase the amount until he is
able to take 1/2 cup at a feeding. Be sure
the porridge is not lumpy. Babies do not
like lumpy foods. Adding an egg, fruit or
vegetables gives the porridge more of the
food values babies and young children
need.








How to Prepare
3. Fruit Mush
Wash fruit well in safe water. Peel and
mash it to a fine pulp with a clean fork. If
fruits like apples, peaches, apricots, and
pears are grown in the area and used, they
may be softer and more easily mashed if
they are cooked first.






4. Fruit Juice
Wash any ripe fruit in safe water. Cut it
with a clean knife. Squeeze out the juice
or crush the fruit through a sieve. Remove
seeds and any hard parts that may have
gotten into the juice.



5. Eggs
Hard cook or soft cook eggs. Then mash
them in a clean dish. Add a spoonful or
two to porridge, mashed banana, or green
vegetables.



6. Meat-Fish-Chicken
Scrape a piece of lean, raw beef with a
spoon or knife. Scrape off only the tender,
red meat. Gently boil it for 5 minutes in a
small amount of safe water.

Cook fish in a little water until it is thor-
oughly tender. Be sure there are no bones.
Mash the fish until it is very fine and soft.

Choose the tender part of chicken to pre-
pare for the baby. Cook it in water until it
is very tender and then mash it very fine
or rub it through a sieve. Mix it with
chicken broth to feed to the baby.


Key Points to Explain
Fruit must be well ripened. All are protec-
tive foods and have energy value. Add a
little boiled milk or milk powder to ba-
nana or papaya. You can add orange juice
to an avocado. Start with only one or two
teaspoons and gradually increase the
amount to 1/3 cup at each feeding. Be sure
there are no stringy parts or seeds in the
fruit. Remember, fruits shipped in from
other countries will cost more and likely
will not have the food value of fruits
grown right at home or in the area.

Start with one teaspoon of juice at a feed-
ing and gradually increase the amount
until the baby takes the juice of an entire
fruit. Any fruit juice has protective value.
Lemon and lime juice are good, but they
are very sour and may be mixed with a lit-
tle boiled, cooled water and sugar before
they are given to the baby.

Eggs are easily digested and an excellent
building food. Start with one or two tea-
spoons and increase until the child eats a
whole egg. A fresh egg beaten into por-
ridge is an excellent food for the toddler.
Start with egg yolk first for the young
child.

These are excellent building foods and
good for the baby if they are prepared
properly. All meat must be thoroughly
cooked to kill any parasites which are pre-
sent. Be sure all meat is free of bones and
fine enough so the baby will not choke.
Meats can be cooked with a few vegetables
and mashed together. Small fish like sar-
dines or sprats can be cooked and mashed
or sieved with the bones left in because
the bones are very soft. Sieved meat, fish,
and chicken can be added to porridge or
gruel.
Do not throw away the water in which the
meat, fish or chicken is cooked. It con-
tains many things that are good for chil-
dren and adults too. Be sure to use this
cooking water in the next meal or it may
spoil.







Key Points to Explain


7. Liver
Boil a small piece of beef, sheep, or
chicken liver for 10 minutes in just
enough clean water to cover. Chop the
liver and rub it through a sieve, or mash
it to a pulp in the water it was cooked in.

8. Pulses
Wash pulses once in clean water. Soak
them for several hours in enough clean
water to cover. Boil them in the same
water until they are very soft. Remove the
skins. Use only pulses from which the
skins can be removed. Mash or sieve pul-
ses and add a little boiled milk or milk
powder and pot liquid.

9. Green Vegetables and Starchy Plants
Carrots, tender greens, green beans,
green peas, white potatoes, sweetpotatoes,
etc., should be washed in clean water. Cut
them into fine pieces and boil them in just
enough water to cover them until they are
very tender. Mash them to a fine pulp or
sieve them in the cooking water. Each of
these may be cooked separately. Two or
more can also be cooked, mashed, and fed
together.

10. Soup
Cook clean vegetables, cereal grains,
starchy plants, pulses, or meat until they
are very tender in safe water or in broth
made by boiling bones. Mash them well
and mix them with the broth.


Liver is an excellent building food and
good for babies. It is easily prepared. It
should be thoroughly cooked to kill all
parasites, but not so long that it becomes
tough.


Pulses are an inexpensive building food.
They are especially good when mixed with
even a small amount of milk or milk pow-
der. Mixed with porridge, they make an
excellent meal.





These foods may be brought to the demon-
stration by mothers. The greens must be
very tender. They will mash better if they
are finely chopped with a knife first. A
cooked egg makes an excellent combina-
tion with greens. Potatoes or cooking ba-
nana may be used at the evening meal in
place of porridge. Vegetables should be
served with both noon and evening meals.
Dark green leafy and yellow vegetables
are especially important.

Soup made from these foods makes an ex-
cellent meal for a growing child. Broth
made by boiling bones in water is not a
building food. It is a nice-tasting water
that is good to cook these foods in. Any
meat scraped from the bones and added to
the soup has building value.


How to Prepare







II. Plan and prepare three meals for one day.
By planning and actually preparing the
meals for one day with your people, you can
teach them the principles of meal planning and
fond preparation much better than if you just
talk about it. Plan together a whole day's
menu. Use a variety of the local foods availa-
ble.
Prepare the meals at three different times.
Select the place and see that all materials and
utensils you will need are ready to use. Outline
the steps you will use in preparing the meal.
Emphasize sanitation in food preparation, such
as washing hands, using safe water to wash
vegetables and fruits, clean cooking utensils
and dishes, and clean working surfaces. When
the meal is cooked, serve it to a make-believe
family. Include a father, nursing mother, in-
fant of 8 months, a 4-year-old child, and a
teenage boy. Some of the group can pretend
they are members of the family.
Let the women help with each step in pre-
paring and serving the meals. You will find
this outline helpful after you and your women
have decided on the foods to prepare for each
meal. Work out the key points to emphasize in
each step. It is very important to plan the
meals you demonstrate with the women them-
selves, using foods available in your area. The
following may serve as useful guides:

The Morning Menu
Porridge prepared with whole maize meal,
millet flour, and milk powder
Papaya with lemon juice
Milk and tea

Steps in Preparing the Meal:
1. Wash your hands with soap and rinse away
all the soap with safe water.
2. Mix together maize meal, millet flour, and
dry milk powder. Add enough cool, clean
water to make a smooth paste. Stir this
into boiling water. Cook and stir the por-
ridge for 20 minutes. Be sure it is not
lumpy. Add lemon and sugar to taste.
3. Wash and cut papaya into pieces for each
member of the family. Add lemon if it is de-
sired. Mash a piece of papaya for the baby.
4. Pour the milk for drinking into a clean pot.


Bring it to the boiling point, and allow it to
cool in the same container with a cover on
it.
5. Brew the tea.
6. Emphasize sanitation practices and food
values in each step of the meal.
Key Points to Emphasize:
1. The menu follows a good eating pattern
with building, protective, and energy foods.
2. Foods selected taste good together-papaya
and porridge.
3. Use whole maize meal. It is less expensive
and adds more food value than white maize
meal.
4. Millet flour adds food value to a maize por-
ridge.
5. Milk powder in the porridge makes the por-
ridge a better building food.
6. Milk included for children to drink; milk
or else tea or coffee with a lot of milk in it
for the nursing mother. (Tea or coffee
alone is not a food.) Sugar and milk in tea
and coffee add food value.
7. A ripe papaya with deep yellow color has
more protective value than an unripe one.
Midday Menu
Rice-home pounded
Lean meat or fish with onions and tomatoes
Greens (kind available in area)
Boiled milk for children and nursing mother
Tea or coffee
Evening Menu
Stiff porridge -prepared with powdered milk
and any whole grain cereal.
Pigeon peas -(or other legume) with on-
ion, potato, and tomato add-
ed. Also other vegetables if
desired.
Mixed ripe fruits-papaya, pineapple, banana.

III. Serving the Meals
Select those who will pretend to be the
members of the family from the group. Serve
the meal as is customary in your area. Sitting
around a table is a convenient way to eat. It is
above the floor and a table is easy to clean. If
you do not use a table, spread a clean cloth on
the floor or choose a clean, grassy place out-







II. Plan and prepare three meals for one day.
By planning and actually preparing the
meals for one day with your people, you can
teach them the principles of meal planning and
fond preparation much better than if you just
talk about it. Plan together a whole day's
menu. Use a variety of the local foods availa-
ble.
Prepare the meals at three different times.
Select the place and see that all materials and
utensils you will need are ready to use. Outline
the steps you will use in preparing the meal.
Emphasize sanitation in food preparation, such
as washing hands, using safe water to wash
vegetables and fruits, clean cooking utensils
and dishes, and clean working surfaces. When
the meal is cooked, serve it to a make-believe
family. Include a father, nursing mother, in-
fant of 8 months, a 4-year-old child, and a
teenage boy. Some of the group can pretend
they are members of the family.
Let the women help with each step in pre-
paring and serving the meals. You will find
this outline helpful after you and your women
have decided on the foods to prepare for each
meal. Work out the key points to emphasize in
each step. It is very important to plan the
meals you demonstrate with the women them-
selves, using foods available in your area. The
following may serve as useful guides:

The Morning Menu
Porridge prepared with whole maize meal,
millet flour, and milk powder
Papaya with lemon juice
Milk and tea

Steps in Preparing the Meal:
1. Wash your hands with soap and rinse away
all the soap with safe water.
2. Mix together maize meal, millet flour, and
dry milk powder. Add enough cool, clean
water to make a smooth paste. Stir this
into boiling water. Cook and stir the por-
ridge for 20 minutes. Be sure it is not
lumpy. Add lemon and sugar to taste.
3. Wash and cut papaya into pieces for each
member of the family. Add lemon if it is de-
sired. Mash a piece of papaya for the baby.
4. Pour the milk for drinking into a clean pot.


Bring it to the boiling point, and allow it to
cool in the same container with a cover on
it.
5. Brew the tea.
6. Emphasize sanitation practices and food
values in each step of the meal.
Key Points to Emphasize:
1. The menu follows a good eating pattern
with building, protective, and energy foods.
2. Foods selected taste good together-papaya
and porridge.
3. Use whole maize meal. It is less expensive
and adds more food value than white maize
meal.
4. Millet flour adds food value to a maize por-
ridge.
5. Milk powder in the porridge makes the por-
ridge a better building food.
6. Milk included for children to drink; milk
or else tea or coffee with a lot of milk in it
for the nursing mother. (Tea or coffee
alone is not a food.) Sugar and milk in tea
and coffee add food value.
7. A ripe papaya with deep yellow color has
more protective value than an unripe one.
Midday Menu
Rice-home pounded
Lean meat or fish with onions and tomatoes
Greens (kind available in area)
Boiled milk for children and nursing mother
Tea or coffee
Evening Menu
Stiff porridge -prepared with powdered milk
and any whole grain cereal.
Pigeon peas -(or other legume) with on-
ion, potato, and tomato add-
ed. Also other vegetables if
desired.
Mixed ripe fruits-papaya, pineapple, banana.

III. Serving the Meals
Select those who will pretend to be the
members of the family from the group. Serve
the meal as is customary in your area. Sitting
around a table is a convenient way to eat. It is
above the floor and a table is easy to clean. If
you do not use a table, spread a clean cloth on
the floor or choose a clean, grassy place out-







side. In cultures where the whole family eats
together, let your demonstration show the
father's place, nursing mother's place, a place
for a child of four, for an infant, and for a
teenage boy.
It might look like this so the father could
share in serving the children, and the mother
could be near the cooking area.


Infant

F-

Mother


Cooking
Area


Teenager


4-year-old


Key Points to Emphasize in Serving
1. It is good for children to have special
places to sit at a meal and to know they can
expect good meals there regularly. It gives
a child a safe feeling.
2. Give special attention to how to feed a
baby, a toddler, and other children unable
to feed themselves.
Other Suggestions For Teaching Nutrition
1. Send simple printed sheets with informa-


tion on food and nutrition home to mothers
with schoolchildren.
2. Visit good home gardens, especially those
growing dark green leafy and deep yellow
vegetables. Discuss the value of such gar-
dens in improving diets.
3. Use puppets and filmstrips to instruct
women about good diets and local foods
which would enrich diets. You might tell a
part of the story of Samuel and Mary each
time you visit a village.
4. Make wide use of flannelgraph method
demonstrations.
5. Arrange attractive displays of foods which
should be included each day in the diet of:
(1) Pregnant and nursing mothers.
(2) Children of different ages.
6. Whenever possible, use real foods as teach-
ing aids.
7. Work with mothers who have children in
the hospital. Many children who go to the
hospital for malnutrition are cured and dis-
charged without their mothers ever being
shown how to feed them properly to avoid
malnutrition in the future.
8. Help to carry out a program of food and
nutrition education: (1) in the schools, (2)
in literacy classes, (3) in farmers' training
centers, (4) in village council meetings, and
(5) in other organized groups.








GROWING FOOD AT HOME


The best way for rural people to have good
diets is to grow their own food. As you teach
people the place each kind of food has in their
diet, also teach them how to produce more of it
for their own use. In most areas, families can
grow enough foods from each group we have
discussed to have a good diet. As you help fam-
ilies grow their own food, consider the follow-
ing questions: Is the best possible kind of seed
being used in planting? Is the land being pre-
pared, fertilized, cultivated, and watered as
well as it could be to grow the best food possi-
ble? Are several different kinds of pulses, cer-
eals, vegetables, and fruits grown to give vari-
ety and a year-round supply? Can storage fa-
cilities keep a year-round supply safe from
weevils, insects, rats, and mice, etc. ?
Could the production of milk and meat be in-
creased by better management, better feed,
preventing disease, or upgrading the stock?
Animals that are not productive might be used
as food for the family and replaced by younger
animals of improved stock. It is a waste of feed
and pasture to keep a nonproductive animal.
Could poultry and egg production be in-
creased in your village by vaccinating birds to
prevent disease, improving housing of birds, or
culling unproductive birds?
Could fish eating be increased in your village
by using, or importing into your area, fish flour
and dried fish? These are relatively inexpen-
sive sources of good quality building food.
Could villagers establish fish ponds or stock
local rivers and lakes with fish to produce a
fresh supply?
We come back to the story of Samuel and
Mary to show how much a family can do to
supply its own food needs by planning ahead
and improving farming and storage methods.
From all that had been said in the meetings,
Samuel through that perhaps he could make
better use of his land and grow more food for
his family. He decided to ask the agricultural
officer to help him.
Samuel had 8 acres of land, you remember.
The soil was quite good. The agricultural


officer said it was "better than some but not as
fertile as the best." He said Samuel could do
much to improve it.
Samuel listed in his mind the foods he had
learned his family needed. They would need
about seven bags of cereal grain. That would
be enough for the family, plus some for guests
plus a little extra in case of spoilage.
Samuel knew how much land it took to grow
six bags of maize and one bag of millet. If it
had been measured, it would have come to
about 1 acre for the maize and 1/2 acre for the
millet.
Samuel planned to put the pulses in the
same field as the maize, so he allowed a bit
more space for the combined maize-pulse crop.
He planned on one bag of pulses. He planted
three different kinds: beans, pigeon peas, and
some groundnuts.
Samuel planned a space not quite as big for
a cow and his few goats. It would have mea-
sured about 1-2/3 acres. Samuel planned an-
other space, about the same size as the millet
field, for root vegetables. He fenced off a sec-
tion by the stream so Mary could grow green
vegetables and tomatoes the year round.
These food crops, the house, and the space
for the chickens took up about half the farm.
The agricultural officer said that part of the
land should be left to rest (fallow). Next year
it could be used and another section left to
"rest". It was good for the soil to rest. Samuel
planted a soil-building crop on this section. He
planned to plow the crop under later to enrich
the soil.
But Samuel knew he needed to grow some-
thing to sell. Then he would have cash for
school fees, for fertilizer for next year, for
clothes, and for the food he was not able to
produce. Perhaps he would need to buy other
foods too if the season was too dry. Therefore,
he planned to plant some pyrethrum, a cash
crop which does well in his country.
Samuel planted the crops as he had planned.
The growing season was good that year. Sam-
uel took the agricultural officer's advice and







used fertilizer. He and Mary weeded the fields
so the crops had plenty of nourishment from
the soil. Samuel helped Mary with the vegeta-
ble garden. They learned from the agricultural
officer and the village worker what fertilizer to
use and how to plant vegetables. They had
fresh tomatoes, leafy greens, carrots, beans,
cabbage, and other vegetables most of the year.
Mary said growing these vegetables herself
helped her use more and prepare better meals
for her family.
At harvest, Samuel got four extra bags of
maize and half a bag of millet and pulses more
than he had planned. You see, he had not
counted on the results of fertilizer and proper
weeding.
He was pleased indeed! He sold all the pyr-
ethrum and four bags of maize. He put money
in the local bank and kept out enough cash to
buy a new fruit tree, some cloth so Mary could
make new dresses for herself and Rosa, and
new shirts and pants for himself and Peter.
Best of all, he bought a new, shiny roof for his
house. He had money in the bank for meat,
perhaps some fruits and vegetables if needed,
fat, and extra food items. He had a cow for
milk and pulses and cereals in the store. He
also had money put away for school fees and
fertilizer.
Life seemed very good indeed. Because of
what they had learned, they were eating better
than ever before. Peter was doing good work
in school and he was ever so much livlier. Rosa
was so active and so bright now that Mary had
to keep an eye on her almost every minute.
Samuel and Mary both felt better. They did
not tire so easily. Samuel started planning to
clear more land to enlarge his farm.
They got along fine until the dry season was
nearly over. Mary realized the maize and beans
were nearly gone and would not last until the
next crop. She found that rats were eating the
maize and weevils were destroying the beans.
Samuel had to use some of the money he had
put in the bank to buy maize and beans.
This angered Samuel and he asked himself,
"Why should I work hard and follow good
farming methods to feed the rats and wee-
vils?"


With the help of the local Extension agricul-
turist, Samuel rebuilt his grain store. He put it
up high on legs and put strong metal shields
around the legs so the rats could not climb
there. To make it even safer from rats, he put
wire around the outside of the store. He
learned how to use a safe insecticide to control
weevils in his beans. Samuel and Mary learned
how useless it is to work hard to produce good
food for themselves and their children and
then let the rats and weevils destroy it. It is
just as useless to grow other foods if they spoil
or rot before they can be used.
But Samuel and Mary learned. Because they
planned ahead, improved their farming and
storage methods, and improved their eating
practices, the whole family feels better and is
happier.


Other families can learn also. Families in
your area can increase and improve the food
they grow and improve their diets by learning
more about the foods they need and how to
prepare them.
You can use this part of the story of Samuel
and Mary to show how much a family can do
to supply their own food needs. You can also
use the story to show why families need to plan
for cash to buy foods they cannot produce, as
well as other things like school fees, fertilizer,
clothes, etc.

Your Agriculturist Can Help You
Village workers like yourself will face
widely different situations in helping to bring
about livestock and poultry improvement. You
will need much information to make recom-
mendations to families. The local agricultur-





































KiXN IA


BOLIVIA


m .-


qYA

VENEZUELA


TAIWAN


GROWING FOOD AT HOME







ists, extension agents, or vocational agriculture
teachers in your area can help you. There are
specialists in the Ministry of Agriculture or in
your agricultural college to whom you can also
turn for information.

Talk the Situation Over With the People
Every family interested in raising livestock
or poultry should make its own decisions about
growing them. Discuss the following questions
with them as you start a livestock or poultry
improvement program:
What will the family's aim be: to have
more meat, milk, and eggs for themselves
to eat, to sell some for extra cash income,
or a combination of these?
Can they grow enough feed or must they
buy some?
What experience have they had with live-
stock and poultry? What kinds and how
many of each do they now have? What

When visiting a woman who is growing a good crop like
this local spinach in Kenya, you can point out the many
ways it can be used to add food value to the family's
97- X- I 2VMWA*QW?!;~,~~R3


size herd or flock can they care for?
Is the climate good for the kinds they
want to raise?
What building materials are available for
housing?
What are the chief hazards to overcome?
What is the best way to begin?

Home Gardens
None of your work is more important than
encouraging families to grow good gardens for
as long as the weather permits. You will find
much help within your country for doing this.
People in most areas already know how to
grow vegetables and small fruits suitable to
the climate and soil. Collect the literature al-
ready available in your country and use it in
your teaching.
Help your people want to grow better gar-
dens. As you work with village leaders and
families, relate the growing of vegetables and

diet. It would also make a good place for a tour group
to visit.







ists, extension agents, or vocational agriculture
teachers in your area can help you. There are
specialists in the Ministry of Agriculture or in
your agricultural college to whom you can also
turn for information.

Talk the Situation Over With the People
Every family interested in raising livestock
or poultry should make its own decisions about
growing them. Discuss the following questions
with them as you start a livestock or poultry
improvement program:
What will the family's aim be: to have
more meat, milk, and eggs for themselves
to eat, to sell some for extra cash income,
or a combination of these?
Can they grow enough feed or must they
buy some?
What experience have they had with live-
stock and poultry? What kinds and how
many of each do they now have? What

When visiting a woman who is growing a good crop like
this local spinach in Kenya, you can point out the many
ways it can be used to add food value to the family's
97- X- I 2VMWA*QW?!;~,~~R3


size herd or flock can they care for?
Is the climate good for the kinds they
want to raise?
What building materials are available for
housing?
What are the chief hazards to overcome?
What is the best way to begin?

Home Gardens
None of your work is more important than
encouraging families to grow good gardens for
as long as the weather permits. You will find
much help within your country for doing this.
People in most areas already know how to
grow vegetables and small fruits suitable to
the climate and soil. Collect the literature al-
ready available in your country and use it in
your teaching.
Help your people want to grow better gar-
dens. As you work with village leaders and
families, relate the growing of vegetables and

diet. It would also make a good place for a tour group
to visit.








small fruits to their program for better living.
A good vegetable supply, for example, is a part
of any work with foods and nutrition. These
vegetables can come from good home gardens.
Help them understand how growing fruits
and vegetables for the family not only will
help them eat better and improve their health,
but also will save money. Farm families often
value the extra cash they get from selling food
they produce more than they value the food for
themselves. Try to get them to see this is a
big mistake. When families grow gardens, they
need less money to buy food. Fruits and vege-
tables used fresh from the garden generally
taste better than those you buy. They are also
more nutritious.
Families everywhere generally try to grow
some vegetables if they have even a small piece
of land. However, many of them only scatter a
few seeds here and there. The few vegetables
this method produces add little to the family's
food supply.
Try to get families to save some land around
the house or in the field to grow food for them-
selves. Help them make gardening a family af-
fair. Garden projects are very popular with
club boys and girls throughout the world.


Children generally like to work in the garden if they
are shown how and given encouragement.


Planning and Getting Ready
Deciding on the kind of garden you want,
where you will put it, what you will grow, and
getting everything ready before the actual
work should be started is important to having
a good garden. Here are some suggestions:

Decide where to put the garden.
The garden will be a valuable piece of land.
It deserves the best location possible. Some
families may not have a choice. They must
make the best of whatever land is available.
When there is some choice of location, consider
these things in deciding where to put the gar-
den:
1. Nearness to water
This is an important consideration. Gar-
dens must have water. When there is not
enough rain, they must be irrigated or
watered by hand. Therefore, they should
be located near a permanent water supply
such as stream, well, dam, or other
source, especially in areas that have dry
seasons.
2. Nearness to the house or compound
Gardens need some care almost every day.
When they are near the house, it is easier
to give them this constant care and easier
to protect them from thieves. When they
are located far from the house, they are
often neglected. Then the family is disap-
pointed because they do not get the
amount of vegetables they expect.
3. In the sun
Growing vegetables need sun. Do not
locate the garden too near trees that will
shade it. Tree roots also take food and
water from the soil around them.
4. In good soil
A deep, rich loam, a mixture of sand,
humus, and clay soils, is often the most
fertile. This is the best kind of soil for
vegetables. Remember, it takes good soil
to grow good vegetables.
5. Lay of the land
A steep slope does not make a good gar-
den location. The seeds and plants along
with the soil and fertilizer may wash
away. The land at the bottom of such a
slope may become too damp or wet for








best growth. Gentle slopes with good
drainage are best. If only a steep slope is
available, plant across the slope, rather
than up and down.

Plan the size of the garden.
The size will depend on the:
1. amount of'space available
2. number of people to be fed
3. number of people to work in the garden
4. ability of the workers
5. kind of soil available-this affects the
distance between rows and between
plants.
6. kinds of vegetables to be grown.
If people have never made a garden before,
it is best for them to begin with a small garden
and enlarge it year by year. Some people make
the mistake of having a larger plot than they
will take care of. A small plot, well looked
after and managed, is better than a large plot
which is neglected.

Decide on the kinds and amounts of
vegetables needed.
Consider the number of people in the family
and the vegetables they like. For good nutri-
tion, remember the special need for leafy
greens and for dark green and deep yellow
vegetables. Most families like a lot of tomatoes
and need to plan for them. In many countries,
families have plenty of starchy plants such as
potatoes and yams. Where this is the case, the
space in the garden would be better used for
vegetables needed to improve the diet.
Families should decide which vegetables
they will plant several crops of during a grow-
ing season and also which ones they want to
grow enough of to dry and store. Lowland
areas may be more favorable for warm season
crops and higher altitudes for cool season
crops. Encourage families to try a few new
vegetables each year.
They should choose vegetables from each of
these groups:
a. The leafy vegetables-beet tops, cabbage,
collards, mustard, chard, spinach, and turnip
tops. Local wild greens of high food value,
such as amaranth, may be worth a place in the
garden.


b. The root vegetables-beets, carrots, tur-
nips, potatoes, sweet potatoes, and yams.
c. The fruit vegetables-tomatoes, eggplant,
okra, peppers, squash, sweet corn, garden peas,
chickpeas, table varieties of cowpeas, and
beans. Beans may be grown for green snap
beans or shelled beans. Lima and kidney beans
are especially good for shelling. They may be
used fresh or dried.
Fruits should be grown if there is enough
space. Some of the smaller fruits, such as
grapes, may be grown in a large garden. If the
garden is small, fruits may be grown nearby,
perhaps in the yard around the house. The
fruits may grow on vines, bushes grown singly
or as a hedge, or trees.
Here are a few examples:
a. Vines-grapes, chayote, granadilla
b. Bushes-many kinds of berries
c. Trees-apple, peach, pear, avocado,
guava, mango, papaya, sapote, orange,
grapefruit, lemon.
There will be many others that grow in your
area.

Choose the seeds.
Buy the best seeds available. If possible, get
a new improved, disease-resistant variety that
grows in the area. They usually produce better.
Consider the need for both early and late vari-
eties. Be sure families have enough seed for
the number of crops they plan of each vegeta-
ble. Get seed well before planting time.

Plan when to plant.
Knowing the best planting date for each
kind and variety of vegetable is important.
Study the rainy and dry seasons to learn which
months will be best suited for vegetable crops.
Some vegetables require a lot of water and will
not grow well in the dry season. On the other
hand, some vegetables may not grow well dur-
ing a rainy season if the rains are heavy. Ask
your local agriculturist to help you learn the
best months for planting various vegetables.

Make a garden plan.
Families should make a rough sketch of how
their garden will be laid out, how the seed beds
will be arranged, the kind of seeds to be








planted in each, and where the paths will be.
By planting the same vegetable at different
times, they can have fresh vegetables for many
months. For example, they could plant two or
three rows of beans or sweet corn every 3 or 4
weeks. The garden plan should show these re-
peated plantings.


Getting Garden Tools Ready
Only a few tools are needed to make a good
garden. The kind of tools used will vary. In
most villages, a farmer will have one or two
basic hand tools with which he does most of
his farm work. He will also probably use these
for gardening. Get tools ready before they are
needed. Garden work is easier when tools are
sharp and clean. They should not be left lying
around. The following are useful garden tools:
a. Machete or ax to clear brush
b. Mattock for digging out stones or large
roots
c. Spade to turn the soil
d. Spading fork to turn soil, handle manure
and compost, and harvest root crops
e. Rake for leveling soil and removing
stones and trash
f. Cord and stakes to mark off rows
g. Trowel for transplanting seedlings
h. Sprayer or duster for insecticides
i. Hoe for cultivating, weeding, and opening
row.
Be sure to teach families the following rules
on tool use and care. Keep tools in good condi-
tion. Clean them after each use to prevent rust.
Keep cutting tools sharp. Keep wooden handles
tight, clean, and smooth. Mend or replace bro-
ken handles immediately. Store tools in a dry


place. Grease or oil tools before storing them to
prevent rust. Clean and dry sprayers and dus-
ters after each use.
Use, tools safely to avoid injuring yourself
and fellow gardeners. Do not leave sharp tools
on the ground where they can be stepped on.
Tools are not toys. Even small children can
help in the garden, but .you must watch them
carefully when they are using sharp tools.

Preparing the Garden Site
This should be done at least 4 to 6 weeks be-
fore planting time. First, clear the site of trees
and bushes. Dig out the roots and stumps and
burn or haul them away from the plot. Clear
away all stones, trash, and rubbish. This helps
to keep down insects. Dig out any grass on the
site and put it on the compost pile.
Fence the garden plot to keep out chickens,
goats, cattle, rabbits, and other animals. It is a
great waste of effort to let animals destroy veg-
etables that families have worked hard to
grow. Wire, mesh, bamboo, or other durable
local materials can be used for fencing. Thorn-
less cactus, hibiscus, sisal, or other plants that
will grow into strong hedges can be used to
make an inexpensive living fence.
Prepare the ground. Carefully and thor-
oughly working the soil before planting makes
it easier for the young seedlings to come up
and start toward strong, healthy growth. It
also makes later cultivation and weed control
easier.
Work the soil when it is moist but not wet.
When it is not possible to plow the ground,
spade or thoroughly turn it with a fork to a
depth of about 10 inches. Break up all clods
and make the soil loose, fine, and crumbly.
Use animal manure, compost, green manure,
or some of each to make the soil rich so that it
will grow more and better vegetables. Mix in
the manure or compost well.
Animal manure from chickens, cows, goats,
sheep, or hogs is good. It should be well rotted
because fresh manure is likely to injure the
plants. Use about 1 pound of manure per
square foot of garden area. Use only about
one-fourth this much chicken manure. Spread
manure over the ground before digging or
plowing. Never use human waste on a garden.




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