Citation
Preview of Mexico's vegetable production for export

Material Information

Title:
Preview of Mexico's vegetable production for export
Creator:
Emerson, L. P. Bill.
United States -- Foreign Agricultural Service
Place of Publication:
[Washington D.C.]
Publisher:
U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Foreign Agricultural Service
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
74 p. : ill. ; 28 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Vegetable trade -- Mexico ( lcsh )
Genre:
statistics ( marcgt )
federal government publication ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )

Notes

General Note:
Cover title.
General Note:
"August 1980."
General Note:
"FAS M-297."
Funding:
Electronic resources created as part of a prototype UF Institutional Repository and Faculty Papers project by the University of Florida.
Statement of Responsibility:
[by Leonidas P. Bill Emerson, Jr.].

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
The University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries respect the intellectual property rights of others and do not claim any copyright interest in this item. This item may be protected by copyright but is made available here under a claim of fair use (17 U.S.C. §107) for non-profit research and educational purposes. Users of this work have responsibility for determining copyright status prior to reusing, publishing or reproducing this item for purposes other than what is allowed by fair use or other copyright exemptions. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder. The Smathers Libraries would like to learn more about this item and invite individuals or organizations to contact Digital Services (UFDC@uflib.ufl.edu) with any additional information they can provide.
Resource Identifier:
07281352 ( OCLC )
80603534 ( LCCN )

Full Text
United States o
Dearmet fPreview ofMexico's
Agriculture
Foreign Pouto
AgriculturalV eta l
Service VgtbePouto
FASM-97for Export a




Mexico: Vegetable Growing Areas
SanYsidro
Tijuana e ica-i
Ensenada e
8
Colonia Camau C
GuerreroA 12 Nogales Juarez A Fresh Vegetables
A San Quintin
2 A Processed Vegetables
l 13 Melons
Hermosillo
-7,
- Chihuahua --- International boundary
S Guaymas --- State or territorial boundary
' A NORTHERN Zone boundary
9 i LasDelicias ( .
, V "PLATEAU
.T N ue
0 Huatabampo Ne
, Or- ,-4. .P Lare
Lo Mocs .O3 I Hidalgo 4 rownsville
- 7- Los Mochis .030Ro ao
Santo Domingo A A 0 orr R tBr
Guasave0 1 Torre6n y 9,' Monterrey e Matamoros
Guasave 0i
PACIFICOCEAN ACuliacAn ,' GULF OF MEXICO
Durango "
IMazatlsn /
( Altam ira
KEY TO ZONES AND ADMINISTRATIVE UNITS
I NORTH 10 13 !:
1 Coahuila 16 Hidalgo 31 ProgresoA 32j29
2 Chihuahua 17 Jalisco EA Merida
3 Durango 18 M6xico rapato & 22 BAY OFCAMPECHE /
4 Nuevo Le6n 19 Michoac~n Guadalajara Irapuato1 \A 16 .. ."
5 San Luis Potosi 20 Morelos r Campeche *-e '
6 Tamaulipas 21 Puebla 17 Zamora, 19 io18O.fChapingo UCATAN
7 Zacatecas 22 Queretaro Morela* Mexico 23 PENISULA
II NORTHERN PACIFIC 23 Tlaxcala Apa gnCtY- 28
8 Baja California IV SOUTHERN PACIFIC IV 21 V
North 24 Colima ) 30
9 Baja California 25 Chiapas S Igual a 27 ISTHMU
South 26 Guerrero "" MADRE DEL SUA OF 25
10 Nayarit 27 Oaxaca EL SUR TEHUANTEPEC
11 Sinaloa V GULF OF MEXICO IV
12 Sonora 28 Campeche
III CENTER 29 Quintana Roo (T.)
13 Aguascalientes 30 Tabasco
14 Federal District 31 Veracruz T A
15 Guanajuato 32 Yucatan




FOREWORD
Mexico's vegetable industry has expanded dramatically in the last decade, with about a fourth of total output destined for export. Production in Mexico is of significant importance in the marketing of U.S. vegetables, particularly in the winter when U.S. output is at a seasonal low point.
This report describes Mexico's winter vegetable industry, and the factors underlying its impact on the U.S. vegetable industry. The author is indebted to the staff of the U.S. Agricultural Counselor's Office in Mexico City for the information and assistance they provided. Special appreciation is extended to Henry 0. Wagley, former Assistant U.S. Agricultural Attache' in Mexico City; David 1. Rosenbloom, Assistant U.S. Agricultural Attach6 in Mexico City; and James H. Baldas, District Director, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, Plant Protection and Quarantine, Tijuana, Mexico, for accompanying the author on his field surveys and providing information for this report.
Gilbert E. Sindelar
Director
Horticultural and Tropical Products Division
August 1980




CONTENTS
Page
Sum m ary ................................................. 1
Introduction ............................................... 4
Geography and Climate ........................................ 4
Sinaloa and Sonora ........................................ 5
Baja California ........................................... 5
Irrigation ................................................. 7
Grow ers .................................................. 10
Sinaloa ................................................ 10
Sonora ................................................ 12
Baja California ........................................... 12
Production Facilities .......................................... 12
Sinaloa ................................................ 12
Sonora ................................................ 13
Baja California ........................................... 13
Government Assistance ........................................ 14
Production ................................................ 14
Tom atoes ............................................... 14
A rea .. .... ........ .... ....... .. .. .. ... .... .... ... . 14
Y ields .................................. ............ 16
Cultural Practices ....................................... 16
Harvesting ............................................ 19
Packing ............................................... 19
Sweet Peppers ............................................ 19
Cucum bers .............................................. 20
Eggplant ............................................... 20
Squash ................................................ 20
M arketing ................................................. 22
Sinaloa-Sonora ........................................... 22
Baja California ........................................... 24
Transportation .............................................. 24
Foreign Trade .............................................. 25
Outlook .................................................. 26
Appendix ................................................. 27




U.S. IMPORTS OF SELECTED MEXICAN VEGETABLES,1978/79 MILLION U.S. DOLLARS TOMATOES
153=59.3%
CUCUMBERS
PEPPERS 36=13.9%
SQUASH. -2EGGPLANT
18=6.9% 7=2.7%




MEXICO'S VEGETABLE PRODUCTION
FOR EXPORT
By Leonidas P. Bill Emerson, Jr.
Horticultural and Tropical Products Division
Commodity Programs
Foreign Agricultural Service
SUMMARY
The past decade has been one of rapid change in response to production shortfalls of these and other Mexico. Extraordinary oil and natural gas reserves crops, Mexican policyinakers have continually raised were discovered, water resources and electrical power crop support prices. As a result, the competitive developed, and the national highways improved. This position of grains, oilseeds, sugarcane, and cottonadvancement had a positive impact upon, and pro- crops that compete with vegetables-has improved
vided a broader base for, the growth of the vegetable more than that of horticultural crops. industry. Despite the rapid growth in the domestic market
Mexico's horticultural production has risen and the competition from other crops, Mexico's
steadily since World War II and a large share of the vegetable producers have increased output suffiadditional output has been exported to the United ciently to expand exports. In the early 1960's,
States. Dramatic production gains came from newly growers received large infusions of capital and experirrigated areas, particularly in the Pacific Northwest. tise from the United States, which resulted in higher In the States of Sinaloa, Sonora, and Baja California, yields and better quality produce. During the late traditional vegetable production for export diversified 196Us, these farmers became more financially indefrom an almost complete reliance on tomatoes pendent, and organized powerful producer organizatoward increased exports of cucumbers, green pep- tions in order to improve their marketing arrangepers, eggplant, squash, and other crops. ments. In the 1970's, the industry expanded
Mexico's population growth, one of the highest in dramatically and exports increased twofold in the world-plus rising income levels-has also fostered quantity and threefold in dollar value. increased domestic consumption of vegetables. Although there is adequate land for additional
Mexico's Pacific Northwest vegetable areas were vegetable output, most of the increase in production
developed almost entirely for the export market, but has come from higher yields of export-quality
now a rising share-about half-of the three States' produce. Despite the rising prices of competing crops, total output is destined for internal consumption. vegetable farming is still one of the most lucrative
Population growth, coupled with a slowdown in farniing activities in Mexico, because of improved
the rate of total agricultural growth, has also led to farm productivity and excellent financial returns unprecedented imports of grains and oilseeds. In from vegetable exports.




BACKGROUND ON MEXICO
People
Population: 66.9 million, in 1978.
Urban population-60%, rural-40%, (of which farm-20%).
Ethnic groups: Indian-Spanish (Mestizo)-60%; American Indian-30%; Caucasian-9%.
Mexico City's population: 13 million (including Federal District, D.F.)-World's largest city.
Education: 9 years compulsory; percentage attendance-65%, literacy rate-75%.
Economy
Gross domestic product (GDP): $74.3 billion in 1977.
Inflation rate: 17% in 1978, 18% in 1977, and 29% in 1976.
Unemployment rate: 19% in 1978, 20% in 1977, and 25% in 1976.
Employment: 20 million, with 800,000 job market entrants annually.
Exports: $5.8 billion (f.o.b.) 1978, to U.S. $3.4 billion; agricultural $1.0 billion.
Imports: $7.2 billion (ci.f.) 1978, from U.S. $4.5 billion; agricultural $900 million.
Agriculture
Total land area: 197 million hectares.
Woods and forests: 37%, or 73 million hectares.
Pasture: 35%, or 68 million hectares.
Mountains and deserts: 14%, or 28 million hectares.
Crop area: 14%, or 28 million hectares.
Irrigated area: 3%, or 5 million hectares.
Leading crops, by area (in thousand hectares), for 1978: Corn (8,100), beans, dry (2,000), sorghum
(1,100), wheat (850), sugar cane (445), safflower (370), cotton (354), coffee (320), barley
(240), and sesame seed (240).
Leading fruits and vegetables, by area (in thousand hectares), for 1978: oranges (168), tomatoes (71),
potatoes (58), peppers (54), bananas (50), limes (44), grapes (40), watermelons (24), cantalopes
(23), and onions (20).
2




U.S. Mexico Agricultural Trade in Selected Products, 1976/77-1978/79 (1,000 doL)
October-September
Item
1976/77 1977/78 1978/79
U.S. Agricultural Imports from Mexico
Coffee . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 389 244 379
Tomatoes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147 163 155
Live cattle . . . . . . . 72 99 101
Cucumbers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . is 34 46
Strawberries, fresh and frozen . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 26 40
Peppers . . . . . . . . 20 30 37
Beef and veal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 49 26
Cantaloupes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 21 22
Squash . . . . . . . . . 4 16 19
Onions . . . . . . . . . 7 13 17
Pineapple . . . . . . . . . 7 12 14
Watermelon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 8 11
Lim e oil . 7 9 7
Orange juice . . . 6 9 7
Tomato paste . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 8 6
Beans, snap . . . . . . 2 7 9
Oranges, fresh .................................. 10 6 9
Eggplant ..................................... 3 6 7
Garlic ....................................... 4 6 10
Asparagus ..................................... 3 4 4
Grapes ...................................... 2 2 2
Total U.S. imports of Mexico's fresh vegetables ............. 218 293 321
Total U.S. imports of Mexico's fruits and vegetables . . . . . 361 450 519
Total U.S. agricultural imports from Mexico ............... 1,014,462 999,424 1,241,522
U.S. Agricultural Exports to Mexico
Feed grains . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 221 249 393
Soybeans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110 145 156
Cattle hides. * 29 44 85
Soybean oilcake and meai 57 22 26
Live cattle .................................... 15 19 19
Soybean oil ................................... 10 18 3
Total U.S. agricultural exports to Mexico ................. 608,397 735,429 972,037
Source: Bureau of Census U.S. Dept. of Commerce.
3




INTRODUCTION
Approximately a quarter of Mexico's output of 0 The cessation of U.S. trade with Cuba in 1962,
fresh vegetables is for export. Since the United States which enabled Mexico to replace Cuban vegetable is by far the largest export market for Mexican- exports to the United States. Cuba had enjoyed a
vegetables, production in that country is of signifi- lower U.S. tariff rate and was especially competitive cant importance in the marketing of U.S. vegetables, in the U.S. winter tomato and cucumber markets.
particularly in the winter when U.S. output is at a 9 Termination of the U.S. Bracero Programseasonal low point. which permitted large-scale use of imported labor in
Mexico's prominence in the U.S. horticultural the United States-on December 31, 1964. This
market from late fall through early spring (November- marked a decisive turning point in Mexican vegetable May) is already well established. Because of the exports to the United States. There was an almost
similarity in the marketing seasons, Mexico competes immediate influx of American capital and know-how
more directly with Florida than with any other U.S. into Mexico. Technicians and fieldmen were brought
State. The five key vegetables exported to the United in to train Mexican growers in the use of proper States are fresh tomatoes, green peppers, cucumbers, cultural techniques, and seeds and plants were imeggplant, and squash. All five were the subject of the ported from the United States. Experimental plots 1978-80 U.S. dumping investigation. and continual testing of the adaptation of U.S. plant
Mexico's share of the U.S. vegetable market is varieties to local conditions became an important part
especially pronounced during the winter months of of the growing operations. Technicians from U.S.
January through March. During the last five winter packing equipment manufacturers also contributed
seasons, Mexico accounted for 60 percent of all the much toward advancing the adoption of more effitomatoes marketed in the United States, 80 percent cient and better quality packing operations.
of the cucumbers, 70 percent of the eggplant, and 50 0 The floating, or de facto, devaluation of the
percent of the sweet peppers and squash. peso on August 31, 1976, was the last important
Although Mexico has exported substantial quan- factor assisting Mexican exports. Soon thereafter, the
tities of tomatoes to the United States on a regular peso dropped to just about half its former U.S. dollar
basis since World War 1, shipments did not start to value, making Mexican exports very competitive price
soar until after World War 11. Mexico's inroads into in the U.S. market. Although inflation has offset
the U.S. vegetable market were a consequence of much of the cost advantage resulting from the
several underlying factors: devaluation, an abundance of low-cost labor, land,
0 The investment of substantial amounts of U.S. and a favorable climate should enable Mexican
capital and expertise in the horticultural production produce to be competitively priced in the U.S. areas of the northwestern States of Sinaloa and market for a number of years.
Sonora during the late 1940's and 1950's.
GEOGRAPHY AND CLIMATE
Vegetables are grown throughout Mexico; how- rainfall and high humidity cause disease problems. 2
ever, most vegetables for export are produced in the Production is centered in the fertile coastal valleys,
North because of lower transportation costs to the only a few meters above sea-level, in the northwestern
United States. The hot and dry, desert climate of States of Sinaloa, Sonora, and Baja California. In this
northwestern Mexico favors horticultural production northwestern region, the areas devoted to vegetables
in the fall, winter, and spring seasons (October- account for only about 5 percent of total farm
June).' Vegetables are grown primarily in the north- acreage and are widely scattered among fields of
west rather than in the northeast where frequent grain, oilseeds, sugar cane, cotton, and dry beans.
Vote: All units are metric, unless indicated otherwise.
However, Baja California has winter rains (the opposite 2Winter vegetables were intensively cultivated in the of Sinaloa's and Sonora's summer rains) and has an April- Monte-Tampico area of the States of Nuevo Leon, Tamthrough-November tomato season. paulipas, and Veracruz during 1955-65.
4




In Sinaloa-Mexico's leading agricultural State- Culiacfn has extremely hot summers-with
vegetables are intensively produced in the river valleys temperatures over 38C (1000F)-and most plantings in Culiacan, Los Mochis, and in several smaller must wait until late September or October to avoid
irrigated areas. Sonora was once a leading area for sunburn. The annual rainfall averages about 700
vegetable exports, but because of occasional mid- millimeters (28 inches). Evening rains are normal
winter freezes, most vegetable operations moved during July-September and immediately lower
south to Sinaloa. Nevertheless, in the fall (October- temperatures about 15'C (25F) so that nighttime December) and spring (April-June), there is still temperatures average 240C (750F). Many competing
substantial vegetable production in the Guaymas and and complementary crops, such as dry beans,
Huatabampo valleys of southern Sonora. Baja Cali- grains, cotton, and sugarcane, can withstand the
fornia has recently become an important tomato area, extreme summer temperatures better than vegewith production for export centered in the northern tables.
coastal valleys of San Quintn, Camalti, and Colonia During Culiacin's vegetable growing season, temGuerrero (collectively known as the San Quintfn peratures range from an average daily high of 330C
region) and to a lesser extent, in the Southern Baja (910F) to a low of 120C (540F) (see Table 1.).
Valley of Santo Domingo. Furthur north in Guasave, Los Mochis, Huatabampo,
and Guaymas, temperatures average 5-10C lower,
with occasional freezes in January and early FebruSinaloa and Sonora ary. However, in late February and March, growers in
these northern areas plant a spring vegetable crop that
Vegetables for export are produced in the coastal is harvested from April through June.
river valleys extending from the river Baluarte in Along the coast of Sinaloa and Sonora, annual
southern Sinaloa to the Guaymas in southern rainfall becomes progressively less from south to
Sonora.3 Nevertheless, the leading vegetable area is north as the subtropical vegetation of southern
the Culiac~n Valley of central Sinaloa. It is the largest Sinaloa gives way to the Sonoroan desert. For frost-free valley with extensive irrigation facilities example, average annual rainfall in Guaymas, relatively close to the U.S. border.4vera ge is n500 k i nfall in m u ye s ,
These coastal valleys are usually only a few meters Sonora-which is 500 kilometers (300 miles) to the above sea level and may extend 200 kilometers (120 north of Culiacrn-is only 300 miillimeters (12
miles) inland from the Gulf of California (or Sea of inches). Although there is less irrigation water in the
Cort6z). These valleys follow the westward course of north than in the south, the cooler summer temthe numerous rivers that flow from the nearby Sierra peratures permit summer plantings for a fall harMadre Occidental Mountains. vest.
Lowland soils are generally of a heavy clay loam During the midwinter, Mexico's vegetable exports
that requires large tractors for deep plowing and originate from central Sinaloa, principally from
heavy applications of fertilizer for high yields. Be- Culiacan. In the spring, harvesting moves north to Los cause of the subtropical climate, frequent use of Mochis, Guaymas, and other areas, where some minor
pesticides and soil fumigation is necessary; crop production also occurs in the fall.
rotation is also widely practiced.
Important weather factors include occasional Baja California
heavy rainfall during the otherwise dry growing
season, an extremely hot and rainy season in the Baja's farming areas are separated by the central
summer, and midwinter freezes in the northern areas, mountains, which extend the length of the peninsula
Although rainfall comes primarily during the summer, (1,500 kilometers, or 800 miles) and create numerous
a heavy winter downpour (as occurred in December (1,500 kiles, o 8 mes) and cetenuers
1978) may ruin a crop by cracking fruit and coastal valleys. Although sweet and hot peppers are
provoking pest and disease problems. Occasional cool, grown in Baja, tomatoes are the only important cloudy weather causes bloom drop and production vegetable exported from Baja. The three leading
decreases sharply, as occurred in January 1974. farming regions are:
* Mexicall, located in northeastern Baja Cali3 fornia, bordering California's Imperial Valley and
3In central Sonora, around Hermosillo, there are some Arizona's Yuma Valley. minor areas of squash and peppers, which are slightly more
resistant to cold temperatures than tomatoes, cucumbers, and 0 San Quintin (Northern Baja Calif.), on the eggplant. Pacific coast, 250 kilometers (150 miles) south
4Culacin, the capital of the State of Sinaloa, is a city of of the U.S. border. This is the main tomato area of 350,000 people on the mainland coast of the Gulf of Baja.
California. Culiacin was founded in 1531 by Spanish
conquistadores on the banks of the Culiac6n River. Today, 0 Santo Domingo (Southern Baja Calif.) also on Culiacin has a predominantly agriculture-based economy that the west coast, 1,000 kilometers (600 miles) south of services the whole State of Sinaloa. the border.
5




Table I.-Weather Conditions in Culiacin, Sinaloa,1 1941-70
Items/Parameters Jan. Feb. Mar. IApr. May June July Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec. IAnnual
TEMPERATURES
Maximum extreme............... 35.8 37.3 37.9 41.1 41.4 41.2 41.7 40.4 40.7 39.4 39.2 38.4 41.7
Date (day/year)................. 25/46 17/48 27/53 05/48 14/58 21/65 03/69 01/42 19/60 12/67 03/07/69
Ave. maximum................. 28.2 29.5 31.1 33.6 35.5 36.1 35.8 35.1 34.8 34.4 32.2 29.0 32.9
Dry bulb (atmosphere) .. .. .. .. .....19.6 20.5 21.7 24.5 27.3 29.5 29.4 28.9 28.7 27.4 23.7 20.6 25.1
Average minimum. .. .. .. .. .. ...12.3 12.5 13.1 15.7 19.1 23.7 24.3 23.8 23.8 21.3 16.2 13.5 18.2
Minimum extreme. .. .. .. .. .. .....3.8 1.6 5.5 8.8 12.6 15.8 20.0 19.0 19.0 14.1 6.6 3.8 1.6
Date (day/year). .. .. .. .. .. .. .....- 04/56 24/52 01/70 05/53 13/65 31/69 23/57 24/53 04/02/56
Minimum in rough weather. .. .. .. ....0.7 0.0 3.5 7.5 9.7 13.7 18.5 17.0 17.0 10.1 4.1 1.6 0.0
Date (day/year) .. .. .. .. .. .. .....18/49 04/56 24/52 12/45 01/70 05/53 18/64 13/65 28/70 01/68 27/66 24/53 04/02/56
Oscillation .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ...15.9 17.0 18.0 17.9 16.4 12.4 11.5 11.3 11.0 13.1 16.0 15.5 14.7
HUMIDITY
Average relative humidity .. .. .. .....15.8 15.9 16.3 18.2 20.7 24.0 25.5 25.7 25.7 23.7 19.2 16.8 20.6
Total evaporation. .. .. .. .. .. .....71 65 61 57 57 64 74 79 79 74 68 71 68
Average vapor tension. .. .. .. .. ...112.5 135.1 193.9 229.0 269.8 247.1 195.9 169.6 156.3 165.4 140.8 113.8 2129.2
PRECIPITATION
Average monthly total .. .. .. .. .....24.9 8.6 7.0 2.8 0.4 25.0 163.7 228.8 146.5 41.2 11.2 38.9 699.0
Maximum in a month. .. .. .. .. ....132.2 82.8 71.0 33.3 5.3 124.0 375.0 600.5 349.8 130.9 125.4 241.8 600.5
Date (year).................... 60 68 58 59 43 58 70 66 43 48 44 63 08/66
Maximum in 24 hours .. .. .. .. .....41.2 46.6 53.5 31.3 5.3 63.0 109.0 171.8 141.5 114.1 50.8 145.0 171.8
Date (day/year)................. 11/60 10/68 06/58 14/59 01/43 30/59 19/70 29/44 17/53 08/45 23/44 10/63 29/08/44
Minimum..................... 0.5 0.8 0.8 1.3 4.0 0.8 69.7 109.2 31.0 2.1 1.0 0.5 0.5
Date (year)................... 48 53 45 42 56 61 44 41 52 68 41 62
Total hours of sunshine .. .. .. ....189.5 186.7 230.0 211.8 246.6 221.0 191.6 198.2 195.4 228.4 213.2 183.6 2496.0
Average number of days with
Appreciable rainfall. .. .. .. .. .. ....2.96 0.96 0.76 0.36 0.10 2.56 13.86 15.16 9.80 3.34 1.10 2.66 53.62
Inappreciable rainfall. .. .. .. .. ....2.13 1.63 1.33 0.76 0.90 4.73 8.13 6.43 5.40 2.41 1.60 2.90 38.35
Clear skies .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ...13.56 12.46 15.86 15.00 20.31 14.46 1.86 2.89 8.06 19.23 16.83 13.26 153.78
Partly cloudy. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ....8.80 8.63 10.20 10.46 7.72 11.00 15.83 16.86 12.53 7.90 8.70 9.43 128.06
Overcast...................... 8.63 7.13 4.93 4.53 2.96 4.53 13.30 11.24 9.40 3.86 4.46 8.30 83.27
Dew .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ...19.75 15.68 15.13 8.03 4.93 0.82 0.33 1.96 5.63 17.70 18.00 18.40 126.36
Hail. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ... ....0.00 0.00 0.03 0.00 0.00 0.03 0.10 0.00 0.03 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.19
Freeze. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ...0.16 0.10 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.06 0.32
Lightning..................... 0.03 0.00 0.00 0.03 0.00 0.34 1.70 1.65 0.83 0.06 0.00 0.03 4.67
Fogs, mist..................... 1.55 1.10 0.93 1.20 1.46 0.03 0.46 0.06 1.03 1.30 0.66 1.93 11.71
Snow........................ 0.63 0.70 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 1.33
Latitude (N) 24-49; longitude (W) 107-24; altitude; 84 meters above sea level. -Denotes not available.
Source: Direcci6n General de Geografia y Meteorologia, Secretaria de Agricultura y Ganaderia.
April 1980 Commodity Programs, FAS, USDA




Mexicali is not suited to tender vegetable' produc- the Camalf6 Valley, and Colonia Guerrero. In addition (although asparagus, onions, and garlic are grown tion, there are many lesser areas in northern Baja
there) because of its extremes in heat and cold. both north and south of the San Quintin region.
Winter vegetables are grown farther south-in San In Southern Baja California (often called the
Quintfn and Santo Domingo-where the nearby territory of Southern Baja California because it is not
Pacific Ocean moderates the temperature range dur- a State), most of the tomatoes are produced in the
ing the dry season (April-December). Santo Domingo Valley. Because of higher transportaMost of the Baja Peninsula's winter tomato tion cost, Santo Domingo's tomatoes are only exexports are from northern Baja California in the San ported to the United States when U.S. prices are high.
Quintfn region, since that area enjoys a competitive However, tomatoes may be exported both earlier and
advantage over Santo Domingo in distance and later than shipments from San Quintmn because of the
transportation cost to the U.S. border. The San shorter winter season and warmer temperatures of
Quintfn region is divided by coastal mountains into Southern Baja.
three separate zones: The San Quintin Valley proper, The west coast of the Baja Peninsula receives
100-200 millimeters (5 to 10 inches) of rainfall,
primarily during December to March. Temperatures
STender vegetables (such as tomatoes, peppers, cucum- average 10 to 200C (50'F to 680F) with occasional bers, eggplant, and squash) are extremely sensitive to cold freezes in midwinter. Throughout the year, the temperatures, but they are not called winter vegetables in
Baja because they are not produced there in the winter (when nearby Pacific Ocean moderates coastal temperatures, it rains in Baja). with frequent mist and ocean fog conditions.
IRRIGATION
All vegetables are grown under irrigation. Most is expected to store sufficient water to irrigate an
farms use furrow (or ditch) irrigation; however, in the additional 100,000 hectares in this district. north some growers are using drip irrigation because The Culiacin Valley (District No. 10 (and 10A))
water is scarce. In Sinaloa and southern Sonora, most has 217,500 hectares irrigated both from the
of the water comes from recently constructed reser- A. L6pez Mateos and Sanalona reservoirs of the
voirs. In Baja California and northern Sonora water is Humaya and Tamazula Rivers, respectively. The
usually from deep wells. Humaya and Tamazula Rivers join at the City of
Currently, Sinaloa has 573,000 hectares of irri- Culiacin and form the Culiac6n River, from which
gated farmland. Sonora and Baja have 540,000 and much of the irrigation water is drawn. The A. L6pez
200,000 hectares, respectively, of irrigated areas. Baja Mateos reservoir has a capacity of 4,064 million cubic and Sonora are already using almost all of their water meters and the Sanalona may store up to 845 million
resources, but Sinaloa is dramatically expanding its cubic meters.
irrigated area. The San Lorenzo River Valley (District No. 10B)
Sinaloa has 355,000 hectares of irrigation area is about 50 miles south of Culiacin and has 18,000
under construction and an additional 85,000 hectares hectares of irrigation area. A reservoir, the Comedero,
are planned. This expansion would boost Sinaloa's is being built to store enough water from the San
total irrigated farmland to 1,013,000 hectares-the Lorenzo River to irrigate 99,000 hectares.
largest of any State in Mexico. Added to the dry Guasave has an irrigation area of 34,700 hectares
farming area of 250,000 hectares and marginal (District No. 63), watered directly from the Sinaloa
farmland of 285,000, Sinaloa's total agricultural area Poniente River. The Bacurato Reservoir is under
will be 1,550,000 hectares (see table 2.). construction and is expected to hold sufficient water
Although Culiacan is Sinaloa's leading vegetable to irrigate 110,000 hectares.
area, the State's largest irrigation district is around The Mocorito River Valley (District No. 74)
the City of Los Mochis (National Water District No. contains 20,300 hectares of area irrigated by the
75 (and 75A)), in the valley of the River Fuerte. This Guamlchil reservoir, which has a capacity of 343
district has 223,500 hectares in the Fuerte Sur Valley million cubic meters. The Estaquio Buelna reservoir is
(Zone 75) and 41,600 hectares in the adjacent under construction and should store enough water to
Carrizo Valley (Zone 75A). Fuerte Sur is irrigated irrigate 47,000 hectares from the Mocorito River.
from the Miguel Hidalgo reservoir, which has a The valley of San Elota has 20,000 hectares under
capacity of 3,350 million cubic meters, filled by the irrigation from the Piaxtla Verde and San Elota rivers.
Fuerte River; the Carizzo Valley is irrigated from the The Piaxtla-Elota and the Isla Palmito de Verde
J. Ortez Domingo reservoir with a capacity of 600 reservoirs are planned to be built to store sufficient
million cubic meters, filled by the Alamos River. water to irrigate 45,000 and 40,000 hectares, reAnother reservoir, Huites, is under construction and spectively.
7




CALIFORNIAI Chula Vista SACIEO enotro Omperil Dam SYsidrof um RZN NEW MEXICO
TjaTecate MEXICALIARZN
*Ensenada S. ?4
P..S-r ei er DGRAIN ~ TUCSON
.er oOoTre Chapulei DESIFRTO Puerto Santo Tomas *Sant. Tomas -P.
EIOo Enendira e San Vicente .4 '0 %
*colnoe I %EL PASO
Co~ (eeoO ,~Itb0Nogles CIUDAD JUAREZ 0
Colons Guernen C lt
0o CaboOca TEXAS
San Quantnh
B AJA
AriF-ORNIA
NO RTE II CI '..r
1.1 HERMOSILLO. S TRROV SONORA
fl Lge,. Boh. ICHIHUAHUA
G--ln Kim, X
~ele, o 0 CHIHUAHUA ,
", GUAYMAS 4lro Obregw%
"'DESIERTO R& k CIUDAD
DE IZAfV1N OBREGON
BAJA pre. lieerodi
CALIFORNIA
PACIFIC OCEAN SR5'.,
El Fane i
Fie '10rBI
Santo Donrngo f. P~p1 IA
BaeN ee. ie Cl 0 10. E'. Ni .0
\w DURNG S UAN %
CULIACAN
8 - %C




Table 2.-Sinaloa State: Actual and Potential Irrigation Areas, by River and Reservoirs, 1980
I Water capacity Area irrigated
Agricultural areas River Reservoir
(Million cubic meters) (Hectares)
IRRIGATION AREAS
Culiacfin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Humayo Sanalona (1948) 845 1100,000
Tamazula A. Lopez Mateos (1964) 4,064 117,500
Culiacin (2) (2)
Los Mochis .................................... Fuerte Miguel Hidalgo (1956) 3,350 223,500
Alamos3 J. Ortez de Domingo (1970)3 600 41,600
Mocorito ...... ............................... Mocorito E. Buelna (Guamuchil) (1973) 343 20,300
Guasave ................................... Sinaloa (4) 34,700
Other ..................................... (s) 35,000
Total ................................... 9,202 572,600
RESERVOIRS UNDER CONSTRUCTION
Guasave ................................... Sinaloa Bacurato 110,000
Los Mochis ................................. Fuerte Huites 100,000
San Lorenzo ................................. San Lorenzo Comedero 98,500
Mocorito ................................... Mocorito Eustaquio Buelna 47,000
RESERVOIRS PLANNED
San Elota ................................... Piaxtla-Elota Elota 45,000
Mazation ...................................... Presidio Palmito de Verde 40,000
Total planned and under construction ................ 440,500
OTHER AREAS
Dryland farm areas ............................. 250,800
Marginal farm land ............................. 284,900
Total ................................... 535,700
GRAND TOTAL ............................ 1,548,800
SIncludes areas irrigated from Tamazula and Culiacn Rivers. 2 Included in Humaya and Tamazula River areas. Sometimes under Valley del Carrizo. 4 River-Canal system. 5Includes San Lorenzo, Presidio, Baluarte, Piaxtla, and Elota Rivers. Not available.
Source: Secretarna de Agricultura y Recusos Hidriulicos (SARH).
April 1980 Commodity Programs, FAS, USDA




Sinaloa has some small reservoirs in widely scat- smaller reservoir networks also may be enlarged
tered locations that irrigate 35,000 hectares. These greatly during the 1980's.
GROWERS
There are three principal types of farmers in and other trade matters. Although the UNPH conMexico: Pequeiios propietarios (those who own their tinues to expand to include more local associations,
land); Ejidatarios (those who usually farm govern- CAADES is still the most important entity within the
ment land cooperatively); and tenant farmers (those UNPH. Most UNPH funds and expertise come from
who rent). While all three groups are involved in Sinaloa, inasmuch as it is the leading horticultural
vegetable farming, the term Pequeios propietarios is State. For these reasons, UNPH headquarters (and the
too general for discussion purposes and is, therefore, CAADES headquarters) are located in the Sinaloa
subdivided and discussed as 1) large-land owners and State capital, Culiacan-also known as Mexico's
2) small-land owners (generally referred to as "produce" capital.
campesinos). The UNPH is composed of 250 local associations
Large-scale producers, with farms of 300 to 1,500 with about 18,000 active producers, including 10,700
hectares and several packinghouses, control roughly ejiditarios, 6,000 private farmowners (large and
half of the vegetable export market. Small-land small), and 1,100 tenant farmers and partners. Virowners operate farms of roughly 5-100 hectares and tually all of Mexico's commercial vegetable farmers
generally combine into cooperative units for produc- belong to this organization. In 1978/79, the UNPH
tion and marketing activities. Ejidos are a type of membership farmed 373,000 hectares, and produced
cooperative, generally comprising 5 to 10 families 4 million tons of horticultural crops, valued at about
(called Ejiditarios) and farm 10-30 hectares of land 23 billion pesos (US$1 billion), of which I million
donated by the national government. The land, which tons, representing 64,000 hectares and valued at 10
can be as much as 100 hectares, may be passed on by billion pesos (US$440 million), were exported. UNPH
the workers to their descendants but title to the land members employed 350,000 laborers, who worked 31
remains with the government. Ejidos also receive million worker-days and received 4 billion pesos
preferential tax and credit treatment from the na- (US$176 million) in salaries.
tional government. Tenant farmers rent small parcels
of land, generally from large farmers (who also rent
land for crop rotation reasons), and often form Sinaloa
partnerships with other growers.
Grower organizations were formed in the 1950's Although there are about 1,000 small owners,
and 1960's and have played a major role in the ejiditarios, and tenant farmers who produce winter
economic and political advances of Mexico's winter vegetables in Sinaloa, roughly half the State's exports
vegetable industry. At first, these were only scattered of these products are produced by 10 large farms, river valley associations in Sinaloa that included all each between 300-1,500 hectares in size. These large
crops, but with special emphasis on vegetables. Later operations are all based in the Culiac6n river valley,
these fragmented groups joined together to form a but most also have additional landholdings in Los
statewide organization, the Confederaci6n de Aso- Mochis, Guasave, and other areas.
ciaciones Agricolas del Estado de Sinaloa These large farms are generally run by a family
(CAADES).' that oversees the growing, packing, and marketing
Subsequently, a national horticultural producers operations. Since land reform laws limit produce
union, the Uni6n Nacional de Productores de farms to 100 hectares, several family members hold
Hortalizas (UNPH), was formed in order to regulate title to the land, although older males usually control
the flow of produce from all States to the export the business.' During 1975 and 1976, some farms
market. The UNPH is an umbrella organization for lost land through expropriation carved out under the
State and other local producer organizations and National Government's reform legislation (enacted
represents Mexico's horticultural industry in foreign during the revolution of 1910-20).
Most of the large produce farms were started in
the 1950's and early 1960's with American technical
6There are a few farmsin the intermediate size of 100-300 and financial assistance. These operations expanded hectares (including all crops), but they are not very impor- dramatically due to additional American investment tant on a commercial basis for vegetable output (unless they
combine into a large marketing cooperative).
'7Although vegetable growers only account for 10 percent
of the 25,000 farmers represented by CAADES, they provide Sometimes two or more family farms form loose
40 percent of the funding of CAADES. partnerships.
10




1. Cultivating staked tomatoes in
Baja California.
2. Handspraying tomatoes in
Culiacin, Sinaloa.
3. Using horse-plows to cultivate 5
in Baja California.
4. Tying young tomato plants to
stakes.
5. Using small, older tractors to
cultivate between the rows.
6. Costa Rica Canal, in Culiacan.
p6
Li




following the termination of the U.S. Bracero Pro- Baja California
gram in 1964 (the Bracero Program permitted extensive use of Mexican labor on U.S. farms). Recently, The San Quintfn region, about 250 kilometers
however, the use of U.S. capital and expertise for the south of the U.S. border, has about 500 growers,
large farms has greatly diminished because of the whose forms are predominantly 20-30 hectares in
increased availability of these inputs within Mexico. size, of which 2-5 hectares are in tomatoes. However,
a few 1,000-hectare farms, with 200 to 500 hectares
in tomatoes, account for the bulk of the region's
Sonora tomato crop.
The proportion of small farms-operated by either
Because of its close proximity to the U.S.-Mexican campesinos or ejiditarios-is far greater than the
border, southern Sonora was once a major area for number of similar farms in Sinaloa. As in Sinaloa and
winter vegetable exports to the United States. How- Sonora, small farmers generally combine into coopever, the danger of frost caused a shift southward and eratives for production and marketing activities.
now there are only about 100 small farms and a few Despite the tax and credit advantages granted to
large farms growing vegetables for export. Many of ejidos and small owners, the most efficient operations
these former vegetable farms switched to growing are the independent farms of 100 or more hectares
wheat, feedgrains, cotton, and other low labor-usage that use more advanced technology.
crops, partly because of labor disputes and the threat In Santo Domingo, which is about 1,000 kiloof land expropriation. meters south of the U.S. border, there are about 30
The situation in southern Sonora is very similar to producers-mostly small farms and ejidos. However, it
that of Sinaloa, except that the operations are usually is reported that one or two large operations from smaller and less efficient. Farmers in the river valleys Sinaloa have expanded into this area. The tomato of Rio Maya (around the city of Huatabampo) and industry in Southern Baja California is not as efficient
Rio Guaymas have producer associations, but these as in San Quintin, primarily because of its isolated
are not as powerful as those in Sinaloa. position far from supplies and markets.
PRODUCTION FACILITIES
Land, labor, and capital are, in general, in ade- blocks importation of the technology).9 For example,
quate supply in northwestern Mexico. Although new plant varieties introduced in Florida are often
water is critically short in Baja California and Sonora, used in the same, or the following, year in Mexico. In there are few input constraints in Sinaloa. Therefore, the long term, Mexico's research facilities should
most of the production facilities are located in improve substantially because of continued financial
Sinaloa, where output can readily expand with backing by growers and the Government.
increased demand from the export and local markets.
There are only a few agricultural research facilities
in Northwest Mexico and a great need exists for Sinaloa
research into problems facing vegetable growers.
Although there are horticultural schools in Sinaloa Sinaloa's State capital, Culiacan, is the center of
and Sonora, most growers, managers, and technicians Mexico's vegetable industry and headquarters for
are educated in -the United States. The National several farm organizations and the offices of the
Government does support Centro de Investigaciones communication and transportation businesses that
Agr-colas del Pacifico Norte (CIAPAN)-the research service the agricultural industry. Sales offices for
organization for Northwest Mexico under the Secre- trucks, tractors, farm equipment, fertilizers, chemitary of Agriculture (SARH)-but CIAPAN research is cals, and seed suppliers are located in the city's
primarily in the areas of grains, cotton, and stable outskirts.
crops. In an effort to improve vegetable culture Most of the farm buildings in the countryside of
research, CAADES growers are taxing themselves to the Culiacan valley are located near large packingprovide funds for research at the 100-hectare research house complexes. Vegetable farms are centered
farm in Culiacan. This facility may be expanded. around these packing areas, where the business
Although vegetable research facilities in north- headquarters, trucks, tractors, trailers, and other
western Mexico are expanding, growers still rely on
many U.S. research facilities, particularly in Cali- 9The Mexican Government often restricts imports of
fornia and Florida. New technology applied in materials, particularly labor-saving equipment, from the
Florida or California is almost immediately adopted United States, to protect local industries and reduce unemby Mexican growers (unless the Mexican Government ployment.
12




machinery and materials are located. Laborers go to laborers earned 165 pesos (US$7.15) daily, plus these central areas for their daily work assignments. bonuses, with supervisors and skilled workers garnerDepending on size, a farm may employ from 20 to ing substantially more. Over the entire 6-month 3,500 workers, season, these 200,000 migrant workers may earn
There are about 100 vegetable packing plants in around US$160 million. Sinaloa, with the majority of them belonging to small
land owners and ejidarios. However, the 10 largest
businesses have about 25 packinghouses that produce Sonora at least half of total vegetable exports.
The larger firms have complex packing operations There are about 20 vegetable packingsheds in that may employ from 300 to 500 workers on a southern Sonora. Most of the packing plants are small
packing line at the height of the season, while smaller owner and ejido operations, although there are still outfits have older packing facilities that may use 20 one or two large packinghouses around Guaymas. to 30 workers. Big farms have an abundant supply of Growers in Sonora purchase most farm inputs heavy U.S.-made machinery, while small farms around Guaymas, Hermosillo, and Nogales; some
usually share, rent, or custom-hire machinery, materials are obtained in Culiac~n. Growers rely on
Although large farms may have ultramodern equip- the communications and transportation network exment (such as four-wheel- drive, articulated tractors, tending from Nogales, through Guaymas, to Culiac6n. laser-guided scrapers to prepare fields for planting, Most large farm vegetable facilities have deteriand even their own airplanes for crop spraying), orated, since the majority of the big vegetable horses and mules are still used to cultivate the narrow plantations have switched to growing wheat, feedrows of trellised vine-like vegetables, grains, and cotton, In addition to the danger of frost,
Most packinghouses throughout Sinaloa show signs labor problems and recent farm expropriations have of new additions. The packing lines often have new caused this area to decline in importance as a washers, sizers, and conveyors, and many large vegetable producer. About 1,000 seasonal workers are
packinghouses have precooling rooms and ethylene employed in Sonora and their 3-month earnings gassing facilities similar to those in California and amount to roughly $600,000. Florida.
The Mexican Government, however, restricts the
use of labor saving devices-the unemployment rate is Baia California very high in Mexico-and there may be twice as many
workers on a packing line as there would be in a U.S. In Baja California, there are some 30 to 50 packinghouse. Even though U.S. wages are well above paknhuetemjryofwihreld,
Mexicn waes, exica groers'labor costsar smaller, and less efficient than those in Sinaloa and approaching those of comparable U.S. lao ot, the United States. Some growers are now receiving
because Mexican growers use more workers. funds from local banks to build larger packinghouses
Worker housing is a problem. However, the Mexi- and many small farm and ejido outfits are modernizcan Government, CAADES, and growers are now igteroeain yprhsn vredcro
attempting to improve temporary housing facilities. invteiors opetospuchaniaes ng ovherheadipcartn
Abou 20,00 miran worersareempoye in In 1979, several modern packingplants came into Sinaloa at the height of the winter vegetable season. prdcinwhlmayoeswreoenzdad Most of the workers are "imported" from the less epodcine hldan.teswr mdrie n
developed southern States, particularly Oaxaca. A exadd majority of large farms have recruiting programs for Unlike shipments from Sinaloa or the United migrant labor, and some even invite and host village States, no precooling facilities are necessary because officials from Oaxaca before the season starts in order of the relatively cooler temperatures in Baja. Nor are to discuss areas planted, harvesting periods, and the ethylene gassing facilities available, because the long number of laborers needed. After the officials return haul to market makes them unnecessary. home, the workers show up on schedule. Approximately 3,000 to 5,000 seasonal workers
The majority of the packing and field laborers are are employed in Baja and their earnings amount to women. As of January 1980, almost all unskilled roughly $5 million over a 6-month period.
13




GOVERNMENT ASSISTANCE
Mexican Government assistance is largely confined The Government is also assisting the railroads to
to constructing irrigation facilities, providing some haul produce. However, the railroads are still inefficredit for small growers, and promoting some re- cient and slow to deliver, hence trucks carry most of
search facilities. Indirectly, the Government is assist- the vegetables (yet, about 30-35 percent of the ing growers by maintaining low domestic prices for produce going through Nogales goes by rail).
petrochemicals- gasoline, diesel fuel, plastics, fertil- The Government also plays a role in allocating
izers, and some chemical sprays-that are now about crop plantings in Northwestern Mexico in order to
half as expensive as those found in the United States. balance the competing needs of various farm comHowever, growers must pay (locally) competitive modities in both local and export markets. In terms
prices for farm inputs and they tax themselves of priorities, the Secretariat of Agriculture and Water
through a checkoff system for some marketing and Resources (SARH) sets the farm-area allocation first
research activities. for planting sugarcane, and then for other staple
Although many crops grown for export are still crops such as wheat, rice, beans, com, and cotton.
financed by U.S. capital' 0 via banks and distribution The remainder is then allocated to all vegetable
firms in Nogales, Ariz., some small farmers receive growers (who also have a strong say in their area
local money and tax advantages. Local farm banks allocations) in accordance with anticipated needs of
have been set up to finance some small farm and domestic and export markets.
ejidos operations with funds for grower inputs. In The vegetable grower associations distribute the
addition, the Mexican Government provides some allocated planted areas for vegetables among individminor tax advantages to these small growers. Despite ual growers. If growers overplant their area allotment,
these financial advantages, large farms are More their irrigation water may be cut off, but this severe
efficient than the small farms and contribute more to measure is rarely taken. Growers, however, make the
the export market. final decision on the amount of acreage planted.
The grower associations provide many services and
have been granted certain police powers by the
Federal and State Governments. They set minimum
I OMany annual farm inputs (such as seed) are imported export standards for grade and size-generally well from the United States, and these materials are often above U.S. minimum requirements-and adjust profinanced with U.S. capital. However, most long-term inputs
(such as buildings) are locally financed, and large farms are auction and marketing schedules for vegetable often financially self-sufficient. exports.
PRODUCTION
Mexico's production of vegetables has risen dra- thirds of cucumber, eggplant, and squash output is
matically in the last two decades, primarily from exported.
higher yields rather than more acreage. From 1960 to Roughly a third to a half of Mexico's tomato and
1979, Mexico's tomato production jumped from pepper production is in the Northwest, and, almost
389,000 tons to 1,120,000 tons, while similar in- all of the country's cucumber, eggplant, and squash is
creases occurred for sweet bell peppers (90,000 to in the Northwest.
474,000 tons), and eggplant (1,000 to 27,000 tons). The largest advance in vegetable production in
Crop data for cucumbers and squash before 1971 are Mexico has occurred in Sinaloa because of its
not available. However, between 1971 and 1979, extensive river-reservoir system. As foreign and
cucumber production rose from 135,000 to 190,000 domestic demand for vegetables rose sharply in the
tons, while squash output grew from 30,000 to 1960's and 1970's, Sinaloa's production increased
72,000 tons. During 1960-79, yields rose roughly dramatically. This trend is expected to continue in
fourfold for most of these five vegetables, while area the 1980's as additional reservoirs come into operaactually declined for tomatoes, and rose only mod- tion and local and export demand expands.
erately for the others.
Much of this additional production is for export, Tomatoes
particularly cucumbers, eggplant, and squash (which
are not as well known in Mexico as tomatoes and Area
peppers-traditional items in the national diet.)
Although a third of the national tomato and sweet The total area devoted to tomatoes in the three
pepper production is for export, approximately two- northwestern States of Sinaloa, Sonora, and Baja
14




1. Harvesting green bell peppers in Culiac~n.
2. Picking cucumbers in Sinaloa.
3. Harvesting staked, vine-ripe tomatoes in Culiac~n.
4. A cucumber field fertilized by i honey bees.
5. Bringing tomatoes to the cen/ trail collection points.
6. Unloading sweet peppers at a packinghouse.
f3
214
15




California declined from roughly 29,000 hectares yields average only 20-30 tons (8,000-12,000 boxes/
(72,000 acres) in 1960 to approximately 18,000 acre).
hectares (44,000 acres) in 1979. The area reduction is More than any other State, Sinaloa's yields are
primarily a result of grower attempts to produce greatly influenced by the export market. When there
more from a smaller area to lower planting costs, and are low prices for export, Sinaloa's growers may a shift from ground-grown tomatoes in Sonora and reduce the number of pickings, have picking holidays,
northern Sinaloa to staked tomatoes (which require and may ultimately abandon acreage if grower prices
only a third of the area for the same output) in do not rise to cover the fixed preharvest and
central Sinaloa. (However, recently there has been harvesting costs. Consequently, commercial yields
expansion of ground grown tomatoes in Guaymas, drop dramatically when export demand drops, inasSonora.) Unlike Sinaloa and Sonora, Baja has ex- much as the export market takes about two-thirds of
panded plantings fourfold during the 1960-79 period, Sinaloa's production.
but this has not offset area cuts in the other two Adverse weather, particularly cool, cloudy
States. weather, reduces yields throughout the three States.
Most of Northwestern Mexico's tomato area is Other weather factors that cut yields sharply include
currently in Culiacin, Sinaloa (12,000 hectares), and freezes in Sonora and northern Sinaloa and heavy in San Quintih, Baja California (3,000 hectares). rains during the growing season in Sinaloa and
Smaller areas are found in Los Mochis and Guasave, Sonora.
Sinaloa (1,500 hectares), and in Guaymas and Huata- Nevertheless, improved cultural practices boosted
bampo, Sonora (1,000 hectares). yields fourfold during the last two decades. In 1965,
There are two types of tomato production-staked yields doubled when most growers adopted stakedand ground-grown tomatoes. Staked tomatoes ac- tomato culture in Sinaloa and Baja and doubled again
count for 80 to 90 percent of overall production and during 1965-79 when many growers throughout the
account for virtually all of the production in Culiacn three States started using intensive farming techand San Quintfn. Ground-grown tomatoes are pri- niques-heavy use of fertilizer, pesticides, hybrid
manly produced in Guaymas and Huatabampo, in varieties, and double-cropping-and extended the
Sonora, and Los Mochis and Guasave, in Sinaloa. harvest period.
Because production in Sonora (Guaymas and Huatabampo) and northern Sinaloa (Los Mochis and Cultural Practices
Guasave) is risky because of danger from frost, these
northern areas are principally planted to the low-cost, Improved cultural practices are basically aimed at
ground-grown tomatoes. The high-cost, high-yielding, increasing yields, thus enabling growers to reduce
staked tomatoes are found in the leading tomato acreage and cut planting costs, while pushing up
districts of Culiaca.n and San Quintn.11 production. (With some minor differences, cultural
practices for tomatoes are the same as for other
Yields winter vegetables.) Recent efforts to boost yields
include: 1) More plants per acre; 2) extensive use of
Crop yields in Culiacin, Sinaloa, are higher than greenhouses to grow seedlings in styrofoam boxes
any other area in all of Mexico. However, Sinaloa's that produce larger and healthier plants than the
overall yield often averages less than that of Baja, older method of pulling plants from seedbeds; 3) imbecause of the low yields of the ground-grown proved hybrid plant varieties and specially formulated
tomatoes in northern Sinaloa (Los Mochis-Guasave). fertilizer mixtures to yield larger crops; and 4) use of
Baja has few ground tomatoes. Sonora's yields are gondolas-large fiberglass tanks of water mounted on
lower than the other two States, because of the truck-trailers-into which tomatoes picked in the
predominance of low-yielding, ground-grown fields are dumped in order to reduce the amount of
tomatoes and a shorter production season. damaged fruit. Recently, some large farms have begun
Generally, yields average 35-45 tons per hectare using plastic mulch to boost yields. Because of these
(14,000-18,000 standard 22-pound boxes/acre) in and other advances, yields are expected to continue
Culiacfn, Sinaloa, and 30-40 tons (12,000-16,000 rising throughout the 1980's.
boxes/acre) in Baja. In Sonora and northern Sinaloa Planting. Generally, tomatoes are planted in
September-November and harvested from December
"Processing tomatoes (primarily for tomato paste and to April in central Sinaloa (Culiacfin). In Baja (San puree) are also produced in Culiacin, Los Mochis, and Quintin) they are planted in April-July and harvested Guasave. However, processors are having problems in market- from July to November. In northern Sinaloa (Los ing and in educating growers to produce a crop of uniform Mochis and Guasave) and Sonora (Guaymas and quality needed for efficient processing. Nevertheless, this Huatabampo), plantings occur from late February to market outlet may expand substantially in the future as
production problems are overcome and growers decide to April for a spring crop and from July to September diversify their market outlets, for a fall crop (see table 3.).
16




Table 3.-Planting and Harvesting Dates for Winter Vegetables in Sinaloa, Sonora, and Baja California
From
Area & item Planting Harvesting planting to
maturity
SINALOA
Winter crops:
Cucumbers .............. August 15 to November 30 October 15 to April 30 60-70 days
Eggplant ................ October 1 to January 15 December 15 to May 30 70-80 days
Peppers, sweet ............. August 1 to December 30 November I to May 30 80-100 days
Squash .................. October I to December 30 November 1 to March 30 50-60 days
Tomatoes:
Staked ............... September I to January 15 December I to April 15 80-100 days
Ground ............... September 1 to November 30 January I to May 15 100-120 days
SONORA
Spring crops:
Cucumbers ............... February 15 to April 15 May 15 to June 30 60-70 days
Peppers, sweet ............. February 1 to April 15 May I to June 30 80-100 days
Squash .................. January 15 to April 15 April 1 to June 30 50-60 days
Tomatoes, ground .......... February 1 to April 15 May I to June 30 100-120 days
Fall crops:
Cucumbers ............... August 1 to September 15 October 1 to December 30 60-70 days
Peppers, sweet ............ July 1 to September 15 October 1 to December 30 80-100 days
Squash .................. August 15 to October 1 October 1 to December 30 50-60 days
Tomatoes, ground .......... July 1 to September 15 October 15 to December 30 100-120 days
BAJA CALIFORNIA
Summer-fall crops:
Peppers, sweet ............. April 1 to July 30 July 1 to November 30 80-100 days
Tomatoes:
Staked ................ April 1 to September 15 June 1 to December 15 80-100 days
Ground ................ April 1 to August 30 July 1 to December 15 100-120 days
Source: Centro de Investigaciones Agrfcoles de Pacific Norte (CIAPAN) Culiacan, Sinaloa.
April 1980 Commodity Programs, FAS, USDA
Transplanting from greenhouses is the principal loosen the ground for land preparation. Roughly a
planting method used by large farms in Sinaloa, month before planting the land is subsoiled and
although some use direct seeding. Since greenhouses plowed, and many large farms have the soil fumiare not available in Baja, direct seeding is the gated. The soil is plowed and disked two to four
principal method for large tomato farms on the times before being harrowed and leveled. Most
Peninsula. Small farms throughout the three States growers later furrow the fields for ditch irrigation. In
generally use transplants from seedbeds, although total, land preparation costs the equivalent of $220
some buy imported plants from the United States. to $250 per hectare ($90-$100 per acre) with the
Seed costs are roughly $50 per hectare ($20/acre) tractor and equipment usage being the major comwhile transplants cost about $90 per hectare ponent of this cost.
($35/acre). For staked fields, rows are established with alterPrincipal tomato varieties used in Sinaloa and nate wide and narrow widths of 2 and 1.5 meters (6
Sonorincial toalt, riets P ed and Floridand 4 feet). Staked rows usually extend about 50 Sonora are Walter, Tropic, Pole Boy, and Floridades. meters (60 yards) with plants 20 to 30 centimeters While these varieties are also used in Baja, the primary (8-12 inches) apart. Ground-grown tomatoes have variety is Ace-55. In Culiac~n, the earliest plantings rosfaunomditce f1.mtrs(fe)
(August-September) are Floridades and Culiacan One rows of a uniform distance of 1.8 meters (5 feet)
(which are resistant to root rot from summer rains), apart, with plants spaced every 20 centimeters. Plant (whericae resantngs toroot r fr obu er e rai, populations for both staked and ground-grown intermediate plantings (September-October) are pri- tomatoes are about the same.
marily Walters, and late-plantings (November-Decem- The stakes used to hold up the vines are not the
ber) are Tropic, Floridades, Culiacan 360, and standard mechanically cut poles found in the United
Manapal. States, but are rather slender tree branches cut to the
The medium-brown, heavy-silt loam soils of north- appropriate size. Large stakes are placed every 2 to 3
western Mexico's coastal valleys require a subsoiler to meters (6-9 feet) with several small stakes in between;
17




four or five strings are tied at various levels to support sium and trace elements such as copper, iron, and the plants. manganese may be added to the soil if soil tests
Roughly 700 large, and 5,000 small, stakes are indicate that they are needed. Two months after
used per hectare (300 and 2,000 per acre, respec- planting, about 50 kilograms of 18-46-0 (18 percent
tively), priced at about 20 and 6 U.S. cents each, nitrogen-46 percent phosphorous-0 percent potasrespectively. About $220 worth of henequen cord sium) or urea may be added as sidedressing, followed
(shipped in from Yucatfin) and approximately $450 by another application a month later.
worth of stakes are needed per hectare ($90 and $180 Nitrogen fertilizer is often applied as liquid
per acre, respectively). About 30 worker-days per ammonia and often mixed with the irrigation water.
hectare are required to install the stakes and twine, at Total fertilizer use per hectare ranges from 400 to a cost of $180 ($70/acre). 800 kilograms (360 to 710 pounds/acre) of nitrogen
Irrigation. All tomatoes are grown under irrigation, and 200 to 600 kilograms (180 to 530 pounds/acre) Water comes from irrigation canals in Sinaloa and of phosphate.
primarily from deep wells in Baja and Sonora. In Large farms do not substitute manure for inorSinaloa, ditch irrigation is primarily used, but drip ganic fertilizer because it often contains weed seeds irrigation is rapidly replacing ditch irrigation in Baja and is more costly to apply than inorganic fertilizers. and Sonora because of the lack of water in these However, manure is a favored fertilizer with
States. ejiditarios and campesinos as it is locally abundant
Diesel pumps are used primarily for pumping canal and inexpensive. On small farms, manure and amwater in Sinaloa while electric pumps are used mainly monium nitrate are generally applied prior to plantfor deep wells in Baja and Sonora. Electric pumps are ing, and inorganic nitrate fertilizers are used later as often used with the drip irrigation systems in Baja sidedressings.
and Sonora. Most inorganic fertilizers cost $300 to $400 per
Under ditch irrigation, fields are flooded 5 to 10 ton and are supplied by PEMEX, FERTIMEX, times monthly, depending on the weather and the GUANOMEX, and ROFOMEX (Mexican firms assotime of the growing season. As a rule, 15 to 25 ciated with the National Government). Roughly
waterings are required during the 100-day growing two-thirds of a ton of fertilizer is used per hectare at
cycle. Because of the moderate temperatures and
a cost of $220 ($90/acre). However, if manure is
occasional mists from the ocean, substantially less used, this cost is reduced substantially.
water is required in Baja than in Sinaloa or Sonora,
where the hot and dry weather causes greater Spraying. Although there is some aerial spraying
evaporation, on the large farms, most spraying is done by hand.
In Culiacin, it costs about 500 pesos per hectare Controlling insects or fungus infestations is usually
($10/acre) to irrigate a field of tomatoes, which is done by semiskilled workers who strap tanks on their
about twice as expensive as for other crops (since backs and hand-spray each row. While some growers
tomatoes require more water). In the drier climates of neglect spraying, worms and nematodes as well as Baja and Sonora, the cost of water is usually Fusarium and Tizon (Alteania solani) can ruin a
calculated as the cost of drilling a well and operating crop, particularly after an unexpected rainfall. an irrigation system, roughly $50 per hectare Insecticide and fungicide costs range from $50 to
($25/acre). $100 per hectare ($20 to $40/acre) for the various
Cultivation. Fields are cultivated about 10 times formulas used. Both the growers and the Government
during the season to kill weeds. Small tractors and claim that only pesticides approved by the U.S.
horse-drawn plows are used to cultivate between the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) are used
staked tomato rows. Horses and mules are used (the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)
widely in most areas of northwestern Mexico, because monitors their exports for compliance with EPA
these animals are specially trained to step around the regulations). Malathion is often used to control staked rows of tomatoes without damaging the plants insects, while Benlate, Faltan, and Methyl bromide
while pulling a one-man plow. are the popular fungicides.
Roughly 10 worker-days of labor are required to Sometimes Mexican vegetables have pesticide resicultivate and maintain 1 hectare of tomatoes. Labor dues that are not permitted by the EPA; when the
costs about $60 per hectare ($25/acre) while the cost FDA finds these residues, the vegetables are not of using animals, tractors, and cultivators is roughly permitted entry into the United States. For example, $50 per hectare ($25/acre). in 1980, some tomatoes were found to have
Fertilization. Before planting tomatoes, each hec- Celathion and some peppers had Chlorthiothos,
tare generally receives about 150 kilograms (330 Daconil, or Triazophos, which did not comply with
pounds) of nitrogen, and 50 kilograms (110 pounds) EPA regulations, and these shipments were (reof phosphorous in one form or another. Also potas- portedly) either destroyed or sent back to Mexico.
18




Harvesting At sorting tables, tomatoes are separated into
Pickng s doe eeryothe da duing he eak "exportable quality" and "domestic market" grades. pidcin isdneeriognry the ry-durilng ethepak No. 1 grade fruit usually goes to the export market in prnouctionJuperi gnoera JanayAlo n central the United States or Canada, while No. 2's and No. anaJloy-Jnee in noja.Hrsinoaad Soora 3's go to the local market. The more firm, green10and Juy-over ing aja. Hareting sart ab2ots colored fruit is generally channeled into the export or until the arrival of adverse weather. Plantings are adrepacinguhasa withsrelativelylessadamage staggered so that some farms may produce for a 3- to Fndrupit g ay h beplae y n2laer boxae.fas f1 6-month harvesting season. kira (22 pund n wegti-layer boxes of
In staked fields, laborers pick only the largest fruit 1 kilograms (3 pounds) net weight, o in rbsalle for export. The fruit is picked when it has a tinge of 2-ae1oxso4 kilograms (18 pounds) net weight. mle yellow or pink at the blossom end; these are the Almostallxexport quailitygruis hapond-placed wite so-called "vine ripes". Ground-grown tomatoes are Aboe cardbexor boxesy gertialplthed -iogram generally picked in 4-7 day intervals'12 and are abvcdod boxes, exceprcher y toaeswhhe p0klced m labeled as "mature greens"; these have completely 12-pinxet crtons of78togas (16-18ar pund n green skins but have reached the stage where they wil weiht Toartos usull go8 tiogrm the lol s maret turn red either on or off the vine. wih.Tmte sal ot h oa akti
On the large farms, fieldworkers empty buckets of large wooden boxes of all sizes, but primarily in
fresly ickd tmatos ito arg fibrglss ondlas boxes of 25-30 kilograms (55-65 pounds) net weight. fnreslyckedratomsatote intl fibeglass gonols. Some growers are bulk-packing to cut labor otuktros at thhuedt tenracoleinons points require ments- using 20 to 30 percent fewer workers. Tte are hen aule o the pdoacingo us hred Other operations are field packing (particularly other
theyarefluhedout f te gndoa ino achlrinted vegetables) to reduce fruit damage. Many operations water tank.
On small farms, workers use plastic or cloth bags aressortdg vegetables beaise o groingd eorto to collect the tomatoes, which are then dumped into demantd fortes shpents fgoigepr wooden field boxes of 25-30 kilograms (55-65 deadfrtsehimn.
pounds) net weight at central collection points. Other
workers and supervisors load the field boxes onto Sweet Peppers trucks after counting the number of bags or boxes Mexico's production of sweet peppers increased
stacked on truch ks -ers Thighiad hauledato then fourfold in 1960-79, reaching 474,000 tons, primarily
staced n tucks3-5layrs hgh nd aule tothe as a result of higher yields. Crop yields rose fivefold packinghouse where they are unloaded, often using while total area gradually expanded to 52,700 hechandtrucks and/or forklifts. trs(3,2 ce)
Harvstig a ectre f toatos rquirs aout In the Pacific Northwest, total area decreased 10-20 laborers (primarily women) for each picking, or moderately during the 1960-79 period, a sharp 300-400 labor-days for the season. Fieldworkers reduction in Sinaloa offsetting larger plantings in Baja
(71)iy1(generallyreiv thy iiu ae nof 165d on5a and Sonora. However, production throughout the ($7.15 dae aiys)gnrll.hyaeno ado Northwest has risen markedly because of better
piec rat bass).cultural practices. In 1979, area in Sinaloa, Sonora, Packing and Northern Baja was placed at 3,300, 2,400, and
2,000 hectares (8,200, 5,900, and 4,900 acres)
At the packinghouse door, tomatoes are generally respectively, while production was estimated at dumped in large bins of chlorinated water to disinfect 50,000, 20,000, and 20,000 tons, respectively. and wash the fruit. Often, large hydraulic systems are Generally, sweet peppers are planted from August used to water-flume the vegetables off tractor-carts through December in central Sinaloa (Culiacan), so into water baths. Then the fruit (excluding cherry that they can be harvested from November to May; in tomatoes) is moved over a series of belts and is sorted Baja (San Quintn'), they are planted from April to by hand for color and grade and by machine for size; July and harvested from July to November. In cherry tomatoes are placed in 12-pint containers by northern Sinaloa (Los Mochis-Guasave) and Sonora hand. (Guaymas-Huatabampo), plantings occur from February through April for harvesting from May to June (a
spring crop) and again in July through September for
"Vfie ripes (which account for 80-90 percent of produe- an October-December (fall crop) harvest.
tion) are picked every 1 or 2 days while mature greens are As with tomatoes, the most important recent picked in 4- to 7-day intervals.
13Mexico's minimum wage varies from State to State and cultural improvement was the adoption of containerby urban and rural areas within States. However, these wages ized transplants from greenhouses. Plants are set in all rise by the same percentage every year on January 1. rows 0.9 to 1.0 meter (about 3 feet) apart, with
19




plants every 40 centimeters (16 inches); sometimes attributed to heavy use of fertilizers, better disease rows are wider to permit cultivation to kill weeds. control methods, and the use of gondolas. Often stakes are used, at 2- to 3-meter (6 to 9 feet) At the packinghouse, cucumbers are flushed out of intervals, so that twine or wire can be strung to gondolas and washed, waxed, sorted, sized, and support the plants. graded on a packing line. As with sweet peppers, most
California Wonder is by far the leading variety, cucumbers are place-packed in 1 1/9-bushel wireOther plantings include Yolo Wonder, and Early bound crates and cartons (50-55 pounds net weight).
Wonder. These are the same sweet varieties as the
ones grown in the United States. Egln
Most harvesting and cultural practices for peppers Egln
are the same as those for tomatoes. However, peppers Mexico's production of eggplants rose from 1 ,300 are not placed in gondolas, as tomatoes are, because tn n16 o2,0 os iha rao ,0
they cannot be so immersed in water without ht s 190t2,000 toes ns w9ikothe naetabe1,20
inmfied bheoxe ofte pcking pepspwerae oehued much of the increased production is attributed to
in iel boes o te pckig pant whre veread sharpl1 higher yields. Crop yields rose threefold in cranes lift the field boxes and dump the peppers into th yas gho yeae. p the packing line. After being washed and waxed, sized thela two dea th nyae fregln and graded, peppers are packed primarily in proucion is essetiallyte onlyco ae foeggasntl
wIg9-helwrbud)rts(530pud.o of Mexico. However, there are some minor areas in
weight).central Mexico that supply Mexico City.
Eggplants are planted in Culiacin from October to
Cucumbers January for harvesting from late December through
May. Black Beauty is the primary variety, while there
Mexico's cucumber production increased from are a few fields in Black Magic, Black Oval, Black
135,000 tons in 1971 14 to 190,000 tons in 1979. Night and Long Purple. During this time, crop yields rose twofold while As with tomatoes and sweet peppers, the adoption
acreage remained static at about 10,000 hectares of containerized transplants from greenhouses is the (25,000 acres), and even declined in Sinaloa. most important recent cultural improvement. Plants
Unlike tomatoes and peppers, cucumbers are not are spaced in rows about 0.9 meter (5 feet) apart, traditionally grown in Mexico and most production is with plants set every 50 to 60 centimeters (roughly for the export market. The Culiac~n valley is the 18 inches), for a plant population of 10,000 per primary area in the Northwest for cucumber produc- hectare (4,000/acre). Eggplants are usually staked in tion, although there are minor areas in northern the same manner as tomatoes and cucumbers; howSinaloa and Sonora. ever, since they are not vine-like plants, the stakes are
Cucumbers are planted in Culiacin from August often smaller or sometimes not used at all.
15 to November 30. For the earlier plantings (August- At the packinghouse, eggplants are water-flumed
Septmbe), Ahle an Poitse ar thepriary out of tractor-trailers onto a packingline where they Saretember), Ashlae antPinse arcte primaery, are washed, waxed, sized, sorted, and graded. Exports vae riies andyfr la pleatings (OcitobrNoebe) are hand-packed in bushel crates or cartons, with the theTrumphber ridietl a eeleading vaity, tosn most common sizes being 18's and 24's (counts of the
planters. Rows are established about 1.8 meters (5 nubrofuipecntnr) feet) apart with plants set at 10- to I 5-centimeter (4to 6-inch) intervals. Most cucumbers are staked in the Squash same way as tomatoes, with large stakes every 2'/z-3
meters (8-10 feet) and several small stakes in be- Mexico's production of squash has grown from tween. Twine and wire are tied to the stakes to 2500tn n1716, o7,0 osi 99
support the vines.2500tnin17 to7,0tnsn19.
Bees are brought in to assist in pollination (as is During this time, crop yields rose twofold while area the case with cantalopes, melons, squash and some planted remained static.
othr tem i th ccumerfamly. Fveto 10 Like cucumbers, squash is not well known in
otehries in tsdphecumb nofer fmly) Fi ai Mexico and most production is grown in the State of to an apiculturist (owner of the beehives). Snlafrteepr akt uciiadylo
Most cultural and harvesting practices are the same
as for tomatoes. Recent advances in yields are IS Although eggplants are not as wvell-known in Mexico as tomatoes or peppers, Mexico has recorded statistics on
eggplant production since 1932.
14 There are no crop statistics prior to 1971. 16 There are no crop statistics prior to 1971.
20




1. Watering vegetable seedlings in a greenhouse.
2. Washing and sizing tomatoes in a packinghouse.
3. Sorting tomatoes by color on the packing line.
4. Moving vegetable seedlings from transplanting in the fields.
5. Washing and waxing cucumbers at the
packing plant entrance.
6. The owner of a packing plant watching
the tomato operation.
4
MW
Ow
IN N A
21




summer squash are the most common types with Ebony, Table Queen, and Mammoth Table Queen
some acorn and other winter squash. Acorn.
Squash is planted in Culiacan from October Cultural advances have resulted from use of
through December for harvest from December improved hybrid varieties, better pest and disease
through April. Squash is directly seeded by tractors control, and intensive use of fertilizer.
and planted with rows 1-1.5 meters (3-5 feet) apart. At the packinghouse, squash is water-flumed out
The primary zucchini varieties are Aristocrat, of tractor trailers into a packing line where it is
Ambassador, Blackini, and Chefinia. The main yellow washed (some is waxed), sorted, sized, and graded.
varieties are Early Prolific Straightneck and Golden Most squash is hand packed for export in wooden
Summer Crookneck. The dominant acorn varieties are lugs (18-22 pounds, or 24-28 pounds, net weight).
MARKETING
Since roughly half of the production of vegetables Nogales, Arizona. These distributors, and some rein the northwestern States is exported, produce is lated brokerage outfits, usually are members of the
either marketed at U.S.-Mexican border points or at West Mexico Vegetable Distributors Association
shipping points for the domestic market. Growers (WMVDA).
focus most of their activities on export markets, Distributors have longstanding business relationrather than the local market (still a residual outlet), ships with Mexican growers, U.S. and Mexican because the higher valued produce goes to the export Customs brokers, buyers, sellers, truck brokers, and
outlet. officials of CAADES, UNPH, and the U.S. and
Most exports from Sinaloa and Sonora pass Mexican Governments. By coordinating with all of
through Nogales, Arizona, and most of Baja's exports these offices, distributors are at the center of the
go through San Ysidro, California, to the Chula Vista export marketing system.
market. The vegetable distributors-U.S. sales agents Many distributors are financially integrated with
representing Mexican growers-in Nogales and Chula Mexican growers-several distributors are wholly
Vista are the key agents for exporting this produce, owned subsidiaries of Culiacn's vegetable producers.
although some minor quantities pass through distribu- Some distributors are partly owned by Mexican
tors in Texas and other border points, growers; others have, in effect, partnerships with
For all border points, the method of export Culiac6n's growers. A few distributors have effective
marketing is similar. However, the highest level of control held by firms with other similar production
sophistication and complexity is found in Nogales, and marketing interests in the United States.
Sonora, and Arizona17, where 80-90 percent of The Culiacan grower-Nogales distributor arrangeMexico's vegetable exports are marketed. ment differs from the relationship between U.S.
Strong grower-distributor relationships have been growers and marketing agents. West Mexico distribuformed to span the 1,000-kilometer (600-mile) tors generally have closer relationships with their
separation between the Culiacan shipping point and growers because the Mexican growers need official
the Nogales distribution point. Similarly, well-estab- import-export permits and loans from U.S. banks
lished grower-distributor arrangements exist between during the season.
San Quintin growers and Chula Vista distributors. Most large-scale producers in Culiacn have inThese Culiachn-Nogales and San Quintin-Chula Vista creased their economic efficiency by vertically intebusiness links are at the center of the export grating their distribution system to cut commission
marketing of Mexico's vegetables (growers in north- costs. However, most small-scale Mexican growers are
ern Sinaloa and Sonora also rely on the Culiacan- still primarily dependent on capital and marketing
Nogales business network). arrangements from Nogales distributors. These distributors also furnish other services to growers such as
translating reports on crops, weather, and markets.
Sinaloa-Sonora They also provide some supervision of the growing,
harvesting, and packaging, as well as supply U.S. farm
There are about 50 distributors located in offices inputs. Consequently, distributors' fees are high by
and warehouses scattered along the highway north of U.S. standards-generally three to four times above
comparable U.S. fees because of the extra services
17 provided.
1 Nine-tenths of Nogales population and industry is When produce arrives at the U.S. border, distribulocated in Sonora, on the Mexican rather than on the U.S.
side of the border. The primary industry of Nogales is the tors cooperate with U.S. and Mexican Customs
border traffic and the spinoff transportation and other brokers, who handle the paperwork and official businesses that the border traffic generates. import-export clearances. After the vegetables have
22




crossed the border, distributors work with institu- Mexican Customs broker presents both the "peditional buyers, other sellers, shippers, and truck mento" and the "certificates of origin" to the
brokers in order to move the produce into the U.S. Mexican Customs officials who assess export tax
and Canadian marketplaces. duties, based on official Mexican produce prices, and
On the southern side of the border (Nogales, compile Mexican export statistics.
Sonora), Mexican customs brokers work with Food Once all the clearances and papers are prepared,
Safety and Quality Service (USDA/FSQS) grade the shipment may move on to the U.S. Customs
(quality) inspectors, and officials of CAADES, facility at the U.S. side of the border. This entire
UNPH, and the Mexican Customs Service. North of process in the Mexican CAADES compound takes 2-5
the border (Nogales, Ariz.), U.S. Customs brokers hours.
work with U.S. Customs officials, USDA quarantine Upon arriving at the U.S. Customs compound, the
(Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service-Plant truck driver presents three inward manifests, displayProtection and Quarantine APHIS-PPQ/USDA) in- ing the truck number, the number of boxes of each
spectors, and Food and Drug Administration FDA vegetable, the weight and the destination of the
pesticide investigators, shipment. U.S. Customs brokers match their invoices
Mexican Customs brokers prepare "Pedimentos," (written up earlier from information received by
an export declaration needed by Mexican Customs wire) with the Mexican manifests, and then process
officials, and a "certificate of origin," required by the manifests and weigh sample packages of the. U.S. Customs officers. American Customs brokers use produce to verify the listed weight. This process is the "certificates of origin" to move the produce done by U.S. Customs officials at each broker's
through U.S. import procedures to reach the Nogales loading dock, while the broker is watching. U.S. (Arizona) distributors warehouse. import duties are levied according to the final weight
The Culiacin grower initiates the entire import- determination, except where produce, such as export market procedure by calling up the distributor melons, are assessed duties on a value basis, ad and the U.S. and Mexican Customs brokers, after the valorem duties, which requires checking of price loading of a truck or railcar for shipment. When the declarations by U.S. Customs officials(see Table 4.). grower, or the distributor, tells the Mexican Customs At the same compound, the shipments are sampled
broker what, precisely, is in the shipment, the for insects and disease by the USDA-PPQ officials and
Mexican Customs broker writes up an "invoice" and a by the Food and Drug Administration representa"pedimento" that matches the grower's "manifest" tives. The Plant Quarantine inspectors check for
sent with the shipment. harmful diseases or pests that could endanger U.S.
When the truck or railcar arrives at the Mexican crops. The FDA samples for pesticide residues that produce compound (owned and operated by are not permitted by Environmental Protection
CAADES), the truck driver presents the "tipo de Agency (EPA) standards and for "wholesomeness" of
embase," a certificate issued by the UNPH to the imported products.
growers for use by CAADES officials to calculate After about 1 hour, the truck is cleared to leave
CAADES and UNPH assessments on export ship- the U.S. Customs compound for the Arizona State
ments. Then, CAADES officials complete the filling Highway Department checkpoint, where documents
out of the "certificates of origin" on shipments for for fumigation (required for some produce) and Mexican Customs officials, licenses are examined. When everything is determined
During this time, Customs brokers are having the to be in order, the truck moves to the distributor's shipment unloaded for sampling, sizing, and grading warehouse in Nogales. At the warehouse, the shipby USDA inspectors to determine if these imports ment is still subject to spot checks by U.S. Customs,
meet minimum U.S. marketing order standards.1 a USDA, or FDA inspectors to make sure that the
Then the USDA papers are presented to CAADES weight, grades, and number of boxes still match those
and UNPH officials to see if they comply with on the manifest.
minimum UNPH export standards (which are generally At the distributor's warehouse the produce is sold
well above U.S. minimum requirements). on commission or on consignment. Although produce
After obtaining a UNPH export permit1 9, the at Culiaca.n is consigned to a distributor (for Customs
clearance procedures) the distributor may sell the
produce in either the U.S. or Canadian market on
18Under section 608e of the U.S. Agricultural Marketing commission f.o.b. Nogales, or on consignment to the Agreement Act (1937), U.S. imports must meet the same or
comparable grade and size standards. Of the five winter receiver at a terminal market. Generally, growers and vegetables, U.S. marketing orders are in effect for tomatoes distributors jointly decide whether to sell on commisonly. sion or consignment. As a rule distributors always
191f the UNPH does not issue an export permit, the make some money on consignment sales, while
shipment is usually returned to the grower. However, some
trucks go to other border points such as Calexico, Calif., and growers may actually lose money (after paying tariff enter the United States without UNPH permits. Mexican duties and marketing fees). Distributors have progresproducers refer to this as "contraband." sively added to the number of items available,
23




particularly on "mixed load" vegetable selections, ports. The U.S. distributors are located in Chula
The "one-stop" convenience of mixed loads is, Vista, California, and the overall brokerage operations
reportedly, attractive to small-scale institutional are the same as in Nogales, except that the procedure buyers who might otherwise have to go to several passes through the San Ysidro border point.
sources for an array of vegetables. Because only 5 to 10 percent of produce volume
moves through San Ysidro compared with Nogales, there are only a few brokers and a few Mexican Baja California officials. Baja's growers decide whether to market the
best quality produce in the local or export market, Baja California's marketing system is similar to depending on the prices quoted to them by Chula
Sinaloa's operation, except that it is not as complex. Vista distributors; Sinaloa's growers almost always The U.S. Government and the UNPH impose the sell their best quality produce in the export market
same quality standards that apply to Sinaloa's ex- regardless of the price.
Table 4.-U.S. Tariff Duties for Winter Vegetables, 1980
TSUS Country of Rates of duty
Vegetable item Time period origin Column 1 Column 2
no. MFN other
Cucumbers: 135.90 Dec. 1 through Feb. 29 All 2.24/lb. 34/lb.
135.91 Dec. 1 through Feb. 29 Cuba(s) 14/lb.
135.92 March 1 through June 30 and Sept. 1 through All 34/lb. 34/lb.
Nov. 30
135.93 March 1 through June 30 and Sept. 1 through Cuba(s) 2.44/1b.
Nov. 30
135.94 July 1 through August 31 All 1.54/1b. 34/lb.
Eggplant: 136.20 April 1 through Nov. 30 All 1.54/lb. 1.54/1b.
136.21 April 1 through Nov. 30 Cuba(s) 1.24/lb
136.22 Dec. 1 through Feb. 29 All 1.14/lb. 1.54/lb.
136.23 Dec. 1 through Feb. 29 Cuba(s) 0.54/lb.
Peppers: 137.10 Jan. 1 through Dec. 31 All 2.54/lb. 2.54/lb.
137.11 Jan. 1 through Dec. 31 Cuba(s) 2.24/lb.
Squash: 137.50 Jan. 1 through Dec. 31 All 1.14/lb. 24/lb.
137.51 Jan. 1 through Dec. 31 Cuba(s) 0.84/lb.
Tomatoes: 137.60 March 1 through July 14 and Sept. 1 through Nov. 14 All 2.14/lb. 34/lb.
137.61 March 1 through July 14 and Sept. 1 through Nov. 14 Cuba(s) 1.84/lb.
137.62 July 15 through Aug. 31 All 1.54/lb. 34/lb.
137.63 Nov. 15 through Feb. 29 All 1.54/lb. 34/lb.
137.64 Nov. 15 through Feb. 29 Cuba(s) 1.24/lb.
(Note: (s) denotes suspended (in 1962).
Source: Tariff Schedules of the United States (TSUS) annotated, 1980, U.S. International Trade Commission.
April 1980 Commodity Programs, FAS, USDA
TRANSPORTATION
Virtually all shipments are by refrigerated truck- No. 15 and the Guadalajarar Nogales railroad-contrailers, although railroad transportation is reviving. structed in 1885 by the U.S. Southern Pacific At the packinghouse, vegetables are loaded in boxes Railroad (nationalized in 1951). Baja's producers use
and stacked on pallets that are either placed into Highway No. 1, which runs down the length of the
trucks or piggyback railroad trailers ("pigs"). entire peninsula.
Sinaloa and Sonora have both railroad and high- Truck shipments from Culiacfin to Nogales generway transportation, while Baja does not have a ally take 14 to 16 hours over the 1,000-kilometer
railroad. Sinaloa and Sonora are serviced by Highway (600-mile) road. The trip from San Quintfn, Baja, to
24




the San Ysidro border point takes 24 hours for the money on shipments-even though railroad fees are
1,000-kilometer (600-mile) trip. Tractor-trailer units only about a third of trucking rates. are the same type as those used in the United States, During the height of the railroad hauling business
except that Mexican trucks usually have "giant in the 1950's, 5,000 to 6,000 "pigs" were loaded in a
cow-catcher" bumpers in front, season. 20 Most of this business was handled by the
Both (Baja's) Highway No. 1 and (Sinaloa- Pacific Fruit Express (PFE) "pigs," on the U.S.
Sonora's) No. 15 consist of only two lanes on top of Southern Pacific Railroad. Railroads crossed the
old roadbeds that often wash away when heavy rains border at the main tourist border point in downtown
cause flashfloods. Baja's road is over more moun- Nogales where they were checked and sent directly to
tainous terrain and is slower than Sinaloa's and U.S. retail markets. Now, railroad "pigs" are moved
Sonora's road. It costs about $700 to send a truck to trucks, south of the border (at the CAADESfrom Culiacf.n to Nogales and about $250 to truck Mexican Customs compound) and return to the
vegetables from San Quintin to San Ysidro. Mexican shipping points.
During the last two decades, railroad transporta- Presently, both the U.S. and Mexican truck comtion declined to almost nothing; however, it is pounds can accommodate 400 to 500 trucks daily.
starting up again with the assistance of Mexico's Roughly 43,000 trucks are checked at these two
nationalized railroad, Ferocarril del Pacifico (FCP). compounds over the entire season. This railroad recently purchased 100 "pigs" to add to Mexican trucks unload vegetables at the distribuits fleet of 400 trailers. FCP has granted exclusive tors' warehouses, just north of Nogales, Arizona, and
transport rights to Arrendadora Mejicana Sociedad return to their shipping point. From the distributors'
An6nima (AMSA), a company that owns a fleet of warehouses, U.S. trucks take shipments to the U.S.
trucks in both Culiacin and Nogales. AMSA delivers terminal (wholesale) and retail markets.
pigbacks from warehouses to the railroads in
Culiacin; upon arrival in Nogales offloads the trailer
and delivers the trailer to the warehouses in Nogales, 20
Arizona. In the 1920's almost an shipments (mature green
Nevertheless, rail service is reportedly poor. Be- tomatoes) were by rail cars from Guaymas through Hermosillo to Nogales. Sometimes trains carried armed guards for
cause transport by rail is slow and unloading arrange- protection against bandits and revolutionaries-who were ments are poor, growers and distributors often lose often indistinguishable.
FOREIGN TRADE
Mexico's vegetable exports traditionally begin in exports were 5 to 10 percent below the previous
October, rise slowly in the fall (October-December), year's record-high level.
peak in the winter and early spring (February-April), During the last five winter seasons (Januaryand drop rapidly in the late spring (May-June). March), Mexico accounted for 60 percent of all the
Sinaloa produces more vegetables for export than any tomatoes marketed in the United States, 80 percent
other State because of the timing of its crop harvests, of the cucumbers, 70 percent of the eggplant, and 50 which coincide with seasonally low production in the percent of the sweet peppers and squash. Because of
United States. the similar marketing seasons, Mexico (particularly
Roughly two-thirds of Sinaloa's output is for Sinaloa) competes more directly with Florida than
export, half of Sonora's, and a third of Baja's. with any other U.S. State.
Sinaloa's harvests are during the winter and early The United States and Canada account for 99
spring, when Mexico's exports are at the highest level. percent of Mexico's vegetable exports, with Canada Sonora's crops are in the spring and fall, when taking about a fifth. In calendar 1978, Canada
exports are at an intermediate level; Baja's summer imported 92,000 tons of tomatoes (valued at C$43
..and early fall crops are harvested when exports are at million), 23,000 tons of cucumbers (valued at C$8 a seasonal low. million), and 6,000 tons of peppers (valued at C$3
million) from Mexico21 Although the United States
In 1978/79 (October-September), U.S. imports supplies two to four times the volume of these
from Mexico included: 323,548 tons of tomatoes vegetables to the Canadian market (over the whole
(valued at $155 million), 133,065 tons of cucumbers year) as does Mexico, Mexico is the leading supplier
(valued at $46 million), 62,671 tons of peppers in the winter.
(valued at $37 million), 43,334 tons of squash
(valued at $19 million), and 17,203 tons of eggplant
(valued at $7 million). In 1978/79, rains and adverse 21Canada's import statistics do not separately classify
weather reduced Sinaloa's production, and total eggplant and squash.
25




Tomatoes are one of Mexico's leading agricultural vegetable exports are a traditional source of employexports. Before the coffee price increases in 1976-78, ment and foreign exchange in Mexico, this trade has tomatoes were Mexico's top agricultural foreign been a particularly sensitive item in U.S.-Mexican
exchange earner. Because tomato and other winter relations for over three decades.
OUTLOOK
The outlook for Mexico's vegetable export indus- the traditional mainstay of the industry. Production
try is very favorable, given the additional resources of sweet peppers, cucumbers, eggplant, summer allocated to the industry and the growing market squash, and many other items (such as processed and
outlets. Essential physical and economic resources- frozen vegetables) is increasing at an unprecedented
land, labor, capital, technology, and water-are being rate as both consumers in the local and export invested in the industry at a rapid rate. Because the markets demand more vegetables. For this reason, industry is both labor intensive and an important producer associations are allocating almost $1 million
foreign exchange earner, producer groups have little annually to promote consumption, at the point of
difficulty in gaining support for expanding their purchase, of fresh winter vegetables from "sunny
enterprises. Mexico." Producers believe that their promotion
Although production costs have been rising more activities are paying dividends by increasing exports
rapidly in Mexico than in the United States, Mexico's to Canada and the United States, by way of increased Government is committed to ensuring that Mexico's consumer demand.
vegetable exports remain competitive. Because labor Production should increase sharply in the 1980's
costs-the largest component of production costs-are as new reservoirs in Sinaloa come into operation.
increasing faster in Mexico than in the United States, This, coupled with the expansion in other production the Mexican Government is gradually allowing the use facilities, should easily permit growers to boost
of labor-saving devices to compensate for rapidly output to meet the expected growth in local and
rising minimum wages. Furthermore, Mexico's prices export market outlets.
for petroleum and natural gas-based products (gaso- Despite the favorable outlook for the industry,
line, fertilizer, plastics, and various chemicals) are there are problems, particularly in obtaining indusnow almost half of comparable U.S. prices, and in the trial inputs. Virtually all farming and packaging future this cost advantage may provide a decisive materials are controlled by various Government agenassist to exporters. cies (or Govemment-affiliated agencies) that are often
Though export markets are growing in both the slow to supply. Although Mexico has a high unemnited States and Canada, the fastest growth has ployment rate, unionization and rapidly rising minirecently been in the Mexican domestic market. As mum wages are increasing production costs and
Mexico's population and income continue to rise causing new financial problems.
rapidly, more produce from northwestern Mexico will Nevertheless, the industry is expected to expand
be sent to the domestic market, about half of substantially during the 1980's. As the new reservoirs
Sinaloa's vegetables now go to the domestic market come into operation, winter vegetable production will
whereas in the recent past this area produced almost probably double by 1980, with exports to the United
solely for export. Moreover, vegetables have played States and Canada showing similar growth. As North
an important role in the National Government's America's per capita consumption of salad vegetables
attempt to improve the typical corn-based, starchy continues to rise, Mexico's output and exports of
diets of the average Mexican. tomatoes and other fresh vegetables should expand
Market outlets are also diversifying as growers accordingly.
increase output of vegetables other than the tomato,
26




APPENDIX
Page
REGRESSION ANALYSES OF U.S. IMPORTS OF MEXICAN TOMATOES ................ 29
CHART-U.S. IMPORTS OF MEXICAN TOMATOES, 1944/45-1978/79 .................. 30
TABLES:
1. MEXICO'S AREA AND PRODUCTION OF SELECTED VEGETABLES, 1955-79 .......... 31
2. TOMATOES: MEXICO'S AREA, YIELDS, PRODUCTION, PRICE, VALUE, FOREIGN TRADE,
AND CONSUMPTION, 1925-79 .................................... 32
3. GREEN PEPPERS: MEXICO'S AREA, YIELD, PRODUCTION, PRICE, VALUE, FOREIGN TRADE, AND CONSUMPTION, 1925-79 .................................... 35
4. EGGPLANT, MEXICO'S AREA, YIELD, PRODUCTION, PRICE, VALUE, FOREIGN TRADE, AND
CONSUMPTION, 1932-79 ....................................... 38
5. CUCUMBERS: MEXICO'S AREA, YIELD, PRODUCTION, GROWER PRICES, EXPORTS, AND CONSUMPTION, 1970/71-1978/79 .................................. 40
6. SQUASH: MEXICO'S AREA, YIELD, PRODUCTION, GROWER PRICES, EXPORTS, AND CONSUMPTION, 1970/71-1978/79 .................................. 40
7. TOMATOES: MEXICO'S AREA, YIELDS, AND PRODUCTION IN THE NORTHWESTERN STATES, 1960-1979 .. ............. ......... ................ .. 41
8. TOMATOES: AVERAGE GROWER PRICES AND CROP VALUES IN BAJA CALIFORNIA, SINALOA, AND SONORA, 1960-79 .................................. 42
9. MEXICO: TOMATO AREA BY STATE, 1960-77 ........................... 43
10. MEXICO: TOMATO YIELDS BY STATE, 19 60-77 .......................... 43
11. MEXICO: TOMATO PRODUCTION BY STATE, 1960-77 ....................... 44
12. MEXICO: AVERAGE GROWER PRICES FOR TOMATOES, BY STATE, 1960-79 .......... 44
13. SWEET BELL PEPPERS: MEXICO'S AREA HARVESTED, BY STATES, 1960-79 .......... 45
14. SWEET BELL PEPPERS: MEXICO'S YIELDS, BY STATES, 1960-79 ................ 46
15. SWEET BELL PEPPERS: MEXICO'S PRODUCTION, BY STATES, 1960-79 ............. 47
16. SWEET BELL PEPPERS: MEXICO'S GROWER PRICES, BY STATES, 1960-79 ........... 48
17. CUCUMBERS: MEXICO'S AREA, YIELD, PRODUCTION, AND GROWER PRICES, BY STATES,
1973-79 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
27




TABLES: (continued) Page
18. SQUASH: MEXICO'S AREA, YIELD, PRODUCTION, AND GROWER PRICES, BY STATES,
1974-79 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
19. EGGPLANTS: MEXICO'S AREA, YIELD, PRODUCTION, PRICE, VALUE, AND EXPORTS,
1960-79 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
20. WINTER VEGETABLES: SINALOA'S AREA, YIELD, AND PRODUCTION FOR EXPORT,
1969/70-1978/79 .. . ... . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
21. WINTER VEGETABLES: SINALOA'S AREA GROWN FOR EXPORT BY RIVER VALLEYS,
1974/75-1978/79 . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . 53
22. TOMATOES: SINALOA'S PRODUCTION FOR THE LOCAL AND EXPORT MARKETS,
1969/70-1978/79 . . . .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. 54
23. TOMATOES: SINALOA'S PRODUCTION BY TYPE, 1969/70-1978/79 ............... 55
24. TOMATOES: SINALOA'S AREA BY TYPE AND RIVER VALLEY, 1974/75-1978/79 ....... 56 25. TOMATOES, FRESH: U.S. IMPORTS FROM MEXICO, 1969/70-1979/80 .............. 57
26. PEPPERS, FRESH: U.S. IMPORTS FROM MEXICO 1969/70-1979/80 ................ 58
27. CUCUMBERS, FRESH: U.S. IMPORTS FROM MEXICO, 1969/70-1979/80 ............. 59
28. SQUASH, FRESH: U.S. IMPORTS FROM MEXICO, 1969/70-1979/80 ................ 60
29. EGGPLANT, FRESH: U.S. IMPORTS FROM MEXICO, 1969/70-1979/80 .............. 61
30. VEGETABLES, FRESH, CHILLED, OR FROZEN: U.S. IMPORTS FROM MEXICO, 1965-79 .... 62 31. VEGETABLE PREPARATIONS: U.S. IMPORTS FROM MEXICO, 1965-79 ............. 64
32. FRUITS AND VEGETABLES: VALUE OF U.S. IMPORTS FROM MEXICO, 1965-79 ........ 65
33. MEXICO TRUCK EXPORTS THROUGH SOUTH TEXAS, PORT OF ENTRY, 1975/76-1978/79 . 66 34. MEXICO'S RAIL AND TRUCK EXPORTS THROUGH NOGALES, ARIZONA, PORT OF ENTRY,
1974/75-1978/79 .. .. . .. .. .. .. . . . . .. .. . ... .. . . 67
35. TOMATOES: U.S. IMPORTS BY PRINCIPAL PORTS OF ENTRY, 1960-78 ............. 68
36. U.S. IMPORTS OF FRESH TOMATOES FROM MEXICO, BY QUARTERS, 1960/61-1978/79 . 69 37. FRESH TOMATOES: U.S. SHIPMENTS AND MARKET SHARES BY SEASONAL GROUPS,
CALIFORNIA, FLORIDA, AND MEXICO, NOVEMBER-MAY, 1974/75-1979/80 .......... 70
38. FRESH GREEN PEPPERS: U.S. SHIPMENTS AND MARKET SHARES BY SEASONAL GROUPS,
FLORIDA AND MEXICO, NOVEMBER-MAY, 1974/75 -1979/80 ................... 71
39. FRESH CUCUMBERS: U.S. SHIPMENTS AND MARKET SHARES BY SEASONAL GROUPS,
FLORIDA, TEXAS, AND MEXICO, NOVEMBER-MAY, 1974/75-1979/80 .............. 72
40. FRESH EGGPLANT: UNLOADS IN 41 CITIES AND MARKET SHARES BY SEASONAL GROUPS,
FLORIDA AND MEXICO, NOVEMBER-MAY, 1974/75-1979/80 ................... 73
41. FRESH SQUASH: UNLOADS IN 41 CITIES AND MARKET SHARES BY SEASONAL GROUPS,
CALIFORNIA, FLORIDA, AND MEXICO, NOVEMBER-MAY, 1974/75 -1979/80 .......... 74
28




REGRESSION ANALYSIS OF U.S. IMPORTS OF MEXICAN TOMATOES
Regression analysis may be used to explain the mined the majority of the changes in imports,
historical relationships underlying U.S. imports of because demand, although rising, has been relatively
Mexican tomatoes. In this regression model1 changes stable during the last 35 years. in U.S. imports are primarily explained by variation There is little correlation between production
in supplies in Mexico and Florida and by U.S. import levels in Mexico and Florida, i.e., when Florida's crop
demand, as reflected by U.S. population growth. is large, Mexico's decreases, and vice versa. Mexico is
Thus, the basic parameters of this model are produc- largely a residual supplier of tomatoes to the U.S.
tion levels in Mexico and Florida and the U.S. market. When adverse weather reduces the winter
population (see the following figure). crop in Florida (for example after the disastrous
Roughly a fourth of Mexico's total tomato pro- Florida freeze in 1977), U.S. imports increase.
duction is exported, and this is reflected in the B5 Inasmuch as only a fourth of Mexico's total
estimator of .267 (about 27 percent of Mexico's crop production is for export, most of the Mexican output
was estimated to be exported). Florida's winter crop increases go to the domestic market and do not affect
has the greatest competitive effect on U.S. imports; production in Florida. However, Florida's winter corp
and this B2 estimator of -.534 indicates that does displace some U.S. imports from Mexico, but
Florida's winter crop displaces U.S. imports by an these displaced shipments are then diverted to the
estimated 53 percent. The U.S. population growth Mexican national market and are an insignificant
estimator, B3 of 178, reveals that as the U.S. amount of Mexico's total production. Thus producpopulation rises by 1 million persons, an additional tion in Mexico and Florida is largely independent,
178 tons of tomatoes (about .2 kilograms-0.5 and primarily depends on areas planted and the
pounds-per person). Since U.S. per capita consump- weather rather than on U.S. import levels.
tion has remained relatively constant (at about 12 ^ The t statistical tests indicate that parameters
pounds per person) the steady growth in the U.S. (B1-Mexico's total production, B2-Florida's winter
popt,.ation during the last 35 years is a proxy variable production, B3-US. population, and B4-Cuba's for the tnderlying trend for increased import de- 1949/50-60/61 presence in the U.S. market) are
mand. Because Cuba shipped large amounts of toma- highly significant in estimating U.S. imports in
toes to the United States during 1949/50 to 1960/61 1944/45-78/79. The correlation coefficient, R2=.90,
(and caused a large degree of autocorrelation in the indicates that 90 percent of the variation in U.S.
model without this parameter), this is accounted for imports was explained by variation in these paramby a Dummy variable, B4. eters. The Durbin Watson statistic (D.W.=1.86) indiMost year-to-year variation in imports in this cates insignificant autocorrelation; multicolinearity
model is estimated by production levels in Mexico tests are negative.
and Florida. Competing supplies in these areas deter- This is just a regression statistical model to explain
historical relationships, rather than to project future
U.S. import levels. In order to use this model to
1Estimated imports (=) (1) Mexico's production, (2) Flor- forecast future import levels, this model should be ida winter production, (3) U.S. population, and, (4) Cuba's elaborated to include some economic variables, such trade, as prices, costs, and exchange rates.
29




U.S. Imports of Mexican Tomatoes: Actual vs. Estimated Imports in Crop Years
(October-September), 1944145 through 197879
Thus. metric tons Million lbs.
400
Regression analysis Indicates that 90 percent of the
variation In U.S. imports of tomatoes from Mexico during 1945-46 to 1978-79 is explained by variation in supplies in
350- Mexico and Florida and by steady growth in U.S. import Actual Imports 800
demand as the U.S. population rose (while U.S. per capita consumption remained relatively constant).
Because Cuba shipped large amounts of tomatoes to
the United States during 1949/50 to 1960/61 this is 700
300 accounted for by a dummy variable. 1969170
\ I
2 5 (1 -- [- 6 0 0
1974175
Estimated imports 500
400
150 196465
0 300
1959160
100 ,- etmtdlvl nMxc
Most year-to-year variation in imports in this model is 200
.0/ estimated by production levels in Mexico and Florida.
V Competing supplies In these areas determined the
majority of the change In imports, because demand (although rising) was relatively stable during the last 35 100 1949150 years.
19545
0 0
1944145 1949/50 1954/55 1959/60 1964165 1969/70 1974/75 1979/80
Crop years (Oct.-Sept.)
Regressiou Statistical Model
Dependent Variable*- Independent Variables Parameters
IMPORTS Intercept, Mexico's Prod., Fla. W. Prod.. U.S. population, Cuba's variable (dummy)
"ESTIMATE = O + (X,) + 1 (ZJ) + ". CW1k + ,(D) where i, 1, and k = 1,2, 3 + ... + 35 (i.e., tons of tomatoes and U.S. population In 1945-46 to 78-79).
T197879 EST. 41.000 + .267 (1,082,00)" + .534 (117,028) + 178(221) + -39,742(o) = 307,000 tons of estimate imports In 1978-79 versus 323,548 actual tons.
t STATISTIC (-3.23) (4.95) (-5.72) (4.07) (-4.06) t statistics that 5, 8 and 11, estimators are highly significant.
Std. Est. Error 12,893 .054 .093 44 9.737 Durbin Watson D.W. 1.86 indicating insignificant autocorrelation.
Probability .0030 .0001 .0001 .0003 .0003 Multicolinearity tests are negative.
FP .90 indicating that 90 percent of the variation In imports Is explained by variation In these data.
0 STANDARD DEVIATION .15 Indicating that 2 out of 3 times imports should fall, within 15 percent of the Import estimate (in 1979, the estimate was 5 percent below actual imports) Note: Imports are correlated with competing supplies In Mexico, Florida. and Cuba (as a dummy variable for 1950-61) while U.S. import demand Is represented by the U.S. population.
-January 1980 estimate.




Table l.-Mexico's Area and Production of Selected Vegetables, 1955-79
Area Production
Crop Year Pepper Peppers
Oct.-Sept. Cucumbers Eggplant Peppers Squash Tomatoes Cucumbers Eggplants Squash Tomatoes
Green I Green
HA HA HA HA HA MT MT MT MT MT
1955 ............ 68 19,123 62,519 554 41,577 363,607
1956 ........... 51 25,520 64,790 422 64,515 371,714
1957 ............ 48 27,953 60,990 383 69,329 341,019
1958 ............ 45 30,111 62,387 373 80,495 354,811
1959 ........... 144 32,747 62,802 1,235 88,415 372,476
1955-59 Average .. 71 27,091 62,698 593 68,866 360,725
1960 .......... 148 33,287 63,805 1,270 90,492 388,648
1961 ............ 383 34,117 61,719 3,215 96,798 453,125
1962 .......... 392 37,409 60,355 3,277 109,206 433,819
1963 ............ 442 40,129 60,540 3,663 122,701 442,682
1964 .......... 467 41,517 61,142 3,903 133,619 444,971
1960-64 Average . 366 37,292 61,512 3,066 110,563 432,649
1965 ............ 545 41,751 45,023 4,556 134,440 553,938
1966 .......... 584 42,502 45,246 4,877 167,129 555,213
1967 ............ 652 37,801 46,173 5,495 199,522 618,956
1968 ............ 906 38,259 52,338 7,899 191,721 669,677
1969 ............ 1,027 35,588 55,164 16,032 178,384 714,912
1965-69 Average . 743 39,180 48,789 7,772 174,239 622,539
1970 .......... 1,040 36,291 63,721 17,100 190,836 923,063
1971 ............. 13,189 684 44,949 61,384 134,526 14,551 310,302 24,902 938,584
1972 ............ 17,527 1,065 60,787 71,714 145,651 20,330 435,070 33,232 1,203,702
1973 ............ 11,498 1,335 56,876 69,408 121,515 24,834 339,511 43,266 1,091,001
1974 ............ 10,187 1,165 55,765 4,388 62,577 113,255 22,625 415,614 42,726 1,120,846
1970-74 Average . 13,100 1,058 50,934 65,761 128,749 19,888 338,267 36,258 1,055,439
1975 ............ 10,592 990 40,189 4,955 59,361 85,381 19,305 273,149 47,986 1,056,408
1976 ............ 12,599 698 40,246 4,969 48,359 106,760 15,616 338,930 54,868 806,831
1977 .......... ..... 6,716 443 49,821 4,530 61,695 127,957 13,854 481,682 62,333 974,258
19781 ............. 7,301 1,088 59,716 3,000 59,232 144,072 23,306 465,972 66,946 1,117,360
19791 ........... 9,500 1,200 52,700 2,800 61,850 190,000 27,000 474,300 71,900 1,082,375
1975-79 Average 9,342 884 48,534 4,051 58,099 130,834 19,816 406,807 60,807 1,007,446
- Not available, unknown, or not applicable.
1 Preliminary.
Source: Union Nacional de Productores de Hortalizas (UNPH), and Direcci6n General de Economrn Agricola, Secretarna de Agricultura y Recursos Hidr~ulicos (DGEA, SARH).
April 1980 Commodity Programs, FAS, USDA




Table 2.-Tomatoes: Mexico's Area, Yields, Production, Price, Value, Foreign Trade, and Consumption, 1925 -79
Area Yields PrcAg au fFrinTaeConsumption
Year Harvested Avg./Ha. Production Prce Avg oVauetiofnoeg rd
Groer Prdutin mports Exports National j Per capita
HA Kg MT Pesos/MT Pesos MT MT MT Kg
1925............... 21,485 2,792 59,977 101 6,060,064 38,298 21,679 1.392
1926............... 25,705 2,642 67,918 107 7,273,932 39,563 28,355 1.798
1927............... 30,239 2,763 83,552 101 8,423,506 57,361 26,191 1.641
1928............... 29,329 3,029 88,831 96 8,514,187 51,923 36,908 2.285
1929............... 29,054 3,264 94,823 117 11,118,165 28,897 65,926 4.032
1925-29 Average . .. 27,162 2,909 79,020 105 8,277,971 43,208 35,812 2.244
1930................ 22,159 3,669 81,312 121 9,860,929 251 64,174 17,389 1.051
1931............... 21,681 3,573 77,474 91 7,025,203 278 51,537 26,215 1.557
1932............... 21,898 3,945 86,386 121 10,468,346 153 59,201 27,338 1.596
1933................ 19,301 3,438 66,351 80 5,278,354 251 21,237 45,365 2.603
1934............... 14,179 3,597 51,003 83 4,254,637 206 14,648 36,561 2.062
1930-34 Average . 19,844 3,654 72,505 102 7,377,494 228 42,159 30,574 1.784
W 1935............... 14,454 3,637 52,569 106 5,559,818 350 25,289 27,630 1.532
t~1936............... 15,635 4,395 68,721 141 9,664,678 440 27,987 41,174 2.244
1937............... 15,671 4,820 75,537 145 10,919,834 457 33,600 42,394 2.271
1938............... 15,749 4,148 65,325 159 10,378,130 484 21,792 44,017 2.318
1939............... 19,550 4,098 80,117 162 13,007,768 421 13,704 66,834 3.460
1935-39 Average . .. 16,212 4,222 68,454 145 9,906,046 430 24,474 44,410 2.378
1940............... 20,588 3,903 80,362 170 13,662,625 484 16,136 64,710 3.293
1941............... 26,894 4,699 126,376 195 24,680,226 1,007 43,394 83,989 4.159
1942............... 30,921 5,066 156,635 208 32,616,161 992 70,628 86,999 4.192
1943 .. .. .. .. .. .....32,623 5,317 173,441 270 46,803,896 418 93,186 80,673 3.783
1944 .. .. .. .. .. .....37,883 5,518 209,047 295 61,656,495 192 97,327 111,912 5.108
1940-44 Average . .. 29,782 5,009 149,172 241 35,883,881 619 64,134 85,657 4.125
1945............... 41,366 5,656 233,963 337 78,904,391 104 103,219 130,848 5.812
1946............... 40,236 5,600 225,340 348 78,348,351 267 88,261 137,446 5.941
1947............... 41,566 5,805 241,286 342 82,503,731 1,005 126,971 115,320 4.851
1948............... 49,724 5,761 286,444 444 127,148,351 2,415 114,298 174,561 7.146
1949............... 48,917 6,850 335,073 494 165,548,586 3,311 102,877 235,507 9.383
1945.49 Average . .. 44,362 5,961 264,421 403 106,490,682 1,420 107,125 158,736 6.672
See footnotes at end of table. Continued-




Table 2.-Tomatoes: Mexico's Area, Yields, Production, Price, Value, Foreign Trade, and Consumption, 1925 -79 -Continued
YerArea Yields Prdcin Price, Avg. Value of Foreign Trade Consumption
YearHarvested Avg./Ha. Prdcin Grower Production
Imos Exports National T Per capita
HA Kg MT Pesos/MT Pesos MT MT MT Kg
1950............... 56,443 6,287 354,854 509 180,561,979 2,442 82,573 274,723 10.652
1951 .. .. .. .. .. .....57,608 6,223 358,500 513 184,001,828 2,421 99,406 261,515 9.837
1952 .. .. .. .. .. .....59,564 5,873 349,821 512 179,265,849 5,468 107,716 247,573 9.035
1953............... 61,730 6,001 370,428 518 192,063,511 4,728 118,255 256,901 9.095
1954................ 62,500 6,000 374,999 534 200,341,128 4,186 82,845 296,340 10.178
1950-54 Average . . 59,569 6,072 361,720 518 187,246,859 3,849 98,159 267,410 9.749
1955............... 62,519 5,816 363,607 655 238,259,853 1,558 49,254 315,911 10.526
1956............... 64,790 5,737 371,714 731 271,881,839 887 50,368 322,233 10.416
1957............... 60,990 5,591 341,019 999 340,806,132 2,112 73,541 269,590 8.454
1958............... 62,387 5,687 354,811 879 311,837,070 16,356 136,738 234,429 7.132
1959............... 62,802 5,931 372,476 806 300,325,159 7,189 151,696 227,969 6.729
1955-59 Average . . 62,698 5,769 360,725 809 292,622,011 5,620 92,319 275,026 8.617
W 1960............... 63,805 6,091 388,648 756 293,694,263 443 159,048 230,043 6.587
W 1961 .. .. .. .. .. .....61,719 7,342 453,125 94S 428,148,414 2,027 104,573 350,579 9.720
1962............... 60,355 7,188 433,819 960 416,256,985 186 157,027 276,978 7A455
1963 .. .. .. .. .. .....60,540 7,312 442,682 990 438,343,258 71 142,351 300,402 7.808
1964............... 61,142 7,278 444,971 1,055 469,398,146 71 155,776 289,266 7.280
1960-64 Average . . 61,512 7,034 432,649 946 409,168,213 560 143,755 289,454 7.762
1965 .. .. .. .. .. .....45,023 12,303 553,938 1,082 599,560,520 112 165,040 389,010 9.479
1966 .. .. .. .. .. .....45,246 12,271 555,213 1,063 590,279,481 78 231,145 324,146 7.648
1967............... 46,173 13,405 618,956 1,030 637,671,531 28 215,600 403,384 9.215
1968............... 52,338 12,795 669,677 1,060 709,705,208 91 293,909 375,859 8.314
1969............... 55,164 12,960 714,912 1,108 791,945,420 556 279,031 436,437 9.347
1965-69 Average . . 48,789 12,760 622,539 1,070 665,832,432 173 236,945 385,767 8.803
1970 .. .. .. .. .. .....63,721 14,486 923,063 1,186 1,094,869,132 25 367,297 555,791 10.963
1971............... 61,384 15,290 938,584 1,377 1,292,688,114 84 330,882 607,786 11.586
1972 .. .. .. .. .. .....71,714 16,785 1,203,702 1,514 1,821,931,623 1,627 332,283 873,046 16.083
1973................69,408 15,719 1,091,001l 1,640 1,789,509,818 356 424,802 666,555 11.867
1974............... 62,577 17,911 1,120,846 1,989 2,229,319,300 877 306,103 815,620 14.033
1970-74 Average .. 65,761 16,050 1,055,439 1,559 1,645,663,597 594 352,273 703,760 12.950
See footnotes at end of table. Continued-




Table 2.-Tomatoes: Mexico's Area, Yields, Production, Price, Value, Foreign Trade, and Consumption, 1925-79-Continued
Area Yields Price, Avg. Value of Foreign Trade Consumption
Year Harvested Avg./Ha. Production Grower Production Imports Exports Nationa Per capital
Imports Exports Nainl Per capita
HA Kg MT Pesos/MT Pesos MT MT MT Kg
1975 ........... 59,361 17,796 1,056,408 2,498 2,639,279,660 23 330,496 725,930 12.069
1976 ........... 48,359 16,684 806,831 4,069 3,282,807,740 195 361,738 454,086 7.285
1977 ........... 61,695 15,792 974,258 4,858 4,732,945,300 419,189 555,067 8.540
19781 ........... ... 59,232 18,864 1,117,360 5,677 6,343,252,700
1979 ............... 61,850 17,500 1,082,375 5,000 5,411,875,000
1975-79 Average . . 58,099 17,340 1,007,446 4,420 4,482,032,080
-Denotes not available, unknown, or insignificant.
I Preliminary.
Source: Direcci6n General de Economfa Agricola (DGEA), Secretarfa de Agricultura de Recursos Hidriulicos (SARH).
April 1980 Commodity Programs, FAS, USDA




Table 3.-Green Peppers: Mexico's Area, Yield, Production, Price, Value, Foreign Trade, and Consumption, 1925 -79
Area Yields Prices, Avg. Value of Foreign Trade Consumption
Year Harvested Avg./Ha. Production Grower Production ImotExrs Nainl Prcpa
HA Kg MT Pesos/MT Pesos MT MT MT Kg
1925............... 9,245 1,868 17,270 150 2,596,875 2,162 15,108 0.970
1926............... 8,873 1,884 16,719 161 2,687,947 2,785 13,934 0.884
1927............... 9,971 2,034 20,282 176 3,573,443 4,009 16,273 1.020
1928............... 10,886 1*,877 20,431 164 3,356,059 5,033 15,398 0.953
1929............... 8,012 1,958 15,685 158 2,472,499 3,009 12,676 0.775
1925-29 Average . .. 9,397 1,924 18,077 162 2,937,365 3,400 14,677 0.920
1930................7,193 2,219 15,964 169 2,701,071 1 3,301 12,664 0.765
1931............... 7,067 2,489 17,591 157 2,753,571 3 2,596 14,998 0.891
1932............... 7,176 2,382 17,093 136 2,329,675 2 1,802 15,293 0.893
1933............... 7,234 2,387 17,265 134 2,319,551 1 698 16,568 0.951
1934............... 7,112 2,377 16,905 134 2,267,420 1 601 16,305 0.920
1930-34 Average . .. 7,156 2,370 16,964 146 2,474,258 2 1,800 15,166 0.885
1935............... 6,387 2,747 17,545 160 2,808,313 1,608 15,937 0.884
1936............... 7,252 2,478 17,972 169 3,033,346 2,657 15,315 0.835
tA 1937............... 10,051 1,658 16,668 180 2,994,521 1 2,375 14,294 0.766
1938............... 12,593 1,582 19,916 190 3,793,256 2,361 17,555 0.924
1939................13,949 1,719 23,980 219 5,249,861 945 23,035 1.192
1935-39 Average .. 10,046 1,913 19,216 186 3,575,859 1,989 17,227 0.923
1940 .. .. .. .. .. .....13,110 2,050 26,872 230 6,183,804 2,667 24,205 1.232
1941............... 14,276 2,168 30,945 240 7,412,001 3,845 27,100 1.342
1942 .. .. .. .. .. .....14,452 2,343 33,866 252 8,539,677 5,984 27,882 1.344
1943 .. .. .. .. .. .....14,742 2,135 31,480 328 10,313,830 5,999 25,481 1.195
1944 .. .. .. .. .. .....14,673 2,225 32,651 410 13,393,248 4,257 28,394 1.296
1940-44 Average . . 14,251 2,187 31,163 294 9,168,512 -4,550 26,613 1.282
1945 .. .. .. .. .. .....15,786 2,382 37,607 463 17,426,957 9,556 28,051 1.246
1946 .. .. .. .. .. .....15,796 2,343 37,011 476 17,606,469 7,600 29,411 1.271
1947................ 15,880 2,314 36,739 488 17,924,176 9,509 27,230 1.145
1948............... 15,779 2,370 37,400 452 16,897,186 8,284 29,116 1.792
1949............... 15,838 2,372 37,568 506 19,006,937 4,755 32,813 1.307
1945-49 Average . .. 15,816 2,356 37,265 477 17,772,345 7,941 29,324 1.233
See footnotes at end of table. Continued-




Table 3.-Green Peppers: Mexico's Area, Yield, Production, Price, Value, Foreign Trade, and Consumption, 1925-79-Continued
Harvste vg/aGrwr PoutnArea Yields Prdutio Price, Avg Value of Foreign Trade Consumption
Havsed Ag/H-Gowr Podcin Imports Exports National Per capita
HA Kg MT Pesos/MT Pesos -MT MT MT Kg
1950............... 16,000 2,400 38,397 533 20,446,723- 7,862 30,535 1.184
1951............... 16,532 2,365 39,101 538 21,021,942- 8,555 30,546 1.149
1952............... 16,778 2,410 40,440 546 22,065,631- 7,840 32,600 1.190
1953............... 16,682 2,403 40,087 547 21,935,697- 9,717 30,370 1.075
1954............... 17,271 2,298 39,689 568 22,536,173- 6,077 33,612 1.154
1950-54 Average . .. 16,653 2,375 39,543 546 21,601,233 -8,010 31,533 1.150
1955............... 19,123 2,174 41,577 739 30,745,214- 2,324 39,253 1.308
1956............... 25,520 2,528 64,515 969 62,521,607- 3,125 61,390 1.984
1957 .. .. .. .. .. .....27,953 2,480 69,329 808 56,022,378 -4,900 64,429 2.021
1958 .. .. .. .. .. .....30,111 2,673 80,495 876 70,493,065 11 7,488 73,018 2.222
1959 .. .. .. .. .. .....32,747 2,700 88,415 910 80,466,056 39 10,293 78,161 2.307
1955-59 Average . .. 27,091 2,542 68,866 872 60,049,664 10 5,626 63,250 1.982
1960 .. .. .. .. .. .....33,287 2,719 90,492 898 81,241,547 11 11,793 78,710 2.254
W 1961 .. .. .. .. .. .....34,117 2,837 96,798 976 94,499,466 18 9,934 86,882 2.409
c 1962 .. .. .. .. .. .....37,409 2,919 109,206 1,040 113,600,172 13 8,959 100,260 2.691
1963 .. .. .. .. .. .....40,129 3,058 122,701 1,079 132,442,450 1 8,031 114,671 2.981
1964 .. .. .. .. .. .....41,517 3,218 133,619 1,216 162,436,715 8 7,104 126,523 3.184
1960-64 Average . .. 37,292 2,965 110,563 1,057 116,844,066 10 9,164 101,409 2.719
1965 .. .. .. .. .. .....41,751 3,220 134,440 1,262 169,712,452 5 9,840 124,605 3.036
1966 .. .. .. .. .. .....42,502 3,932 167,129 1,243 207,754,404 1 17,748 149,382 3.524
1967 .. .. .. .. .. .....37,801 5,278 199,522 1,222 243,908,065 17,649 181,873 4.155
1968 .. .. .. .. .. .....38,259 5,011 191,721 1,260 241,526,167 2 15,711 176,012 3.893
1969 .. .. .. .. .. .....35,588 5,012 178,384 1,334 237,881,513 1 24,470 153,915 3.296
1965-69 Average . .. 39,180 4,447 174,239 1,264 220,156,520 2 17,084 157,157 3.586
1970 .. .. .. .. .. .....36,291 5,258 190,836 1,370 261,419,183 1 37,085 153,752 3.033
1971 .. .. .. .. .. .....44,949 6,901 310,202 1,407 436,553,631 1 46,093 264,110 5.035
1972 .. .. .. .. .. .....60,787 7,157 435,070 1,967 855,733,352 122 37,509 397,683 7.326
1973 .. .. .. .. .. .....56,876 7,024 399,511 2,104 840,536,204 57 58,952 340,616 6.064
1974 .. .. .. .. .. .....55,765 7,453 415,614 2,007 834,251,890 49,616 365,998 6.297
1970-74 Average . .. 50,934 6,876 350,247 1,844 645,698,252 36 45,851 304,432 5.602
See footnotes at end of table. Cniud




Table 3.-Green Peppers: Mexico's Area, Yield, Production, Price, Value, Foreign Trade, and Consumption, 1925-79-Continued
YerArea Yields Prdcin Prices, Avg. Value of Foreign Trade Consumption
Year Harvested Avg./Ha. Production Grower Production Imports Exports National Per capita
HA Kg MT Pesos/MT Pesos MT MT MT Kg
1975 .............. 40,189 6,797 273,149 2,955 807,044,630 29,349 243,800 3.997
1976 .............. 40,246 8,421 338,930 3,869 1,311,313,340 40,848 298,082 4.769
1977 ........... ..... 49,821 9,668 481,682 4,492 2,163,715,500 53,047 428,635 6.697
1978 ........... ..... 59,716 7,803 465,972 5,176 2,411,871,000 -...
19791 ............... 52,700 9,000 474,300 6,778 3,214,805,400 .
1975-79 Average .... 48,534 8,382 406,807 4,871 1,981,749,900
- Denotes unknown, not available, or insignificant.
1 Preliminary.
Source: Direcci6n General de Economia Agricola, Secretaria de Agricultura y Recursos Hidraulicos (SARH).
April 1980 Commodity Programs, FAS, USDA




Table 4.-Eggplant: Mexico's Area, Yield, Production, Price, Value, Foreign Trade, and Consumption, 1932-79
Area Yields Production Price, Avg. Value of Foreign Trade Consumption
Harvested Avg./Ha. i Grower Production Imports Exports National I Per capita
HA Kg MT Pe"So/MT Pesos MT MT MT Kg
1932 ............. 37 10,784 399 127 50,680 12 387 0.023
1933 ............. 38 10,316 392 160 62,575 146 246 0.014
1934 ............. 23 9,652 222 128 28,395 90 132 0.007
1932-34 Average .... 33 10,242 338 140 47,217 83 255 0.015
1935 ............. 23 8,522 196 191 37,428 237 -41 (a)
1936 ............. 27 7,741 209 245 51,256 146 63 0.003
1937 ............. 49 9,857 483 86 41,533 294 189 0.010
1938 ............. 51 10,882 555 87 48,048 350 205 0.011
1939 ............. 49 8,878 435 102 44,170 215 220 0.011
1935-39 Average .... 40 9,400 376 118 44,487 248 128 0.007
1940 ............. 52 7,904 411 140 57,404 247 164 0.008
1941 ............. 55 8,200 451 146 65,993 182 269 0.013
1942 ............. 58 8,828 512 176 90,009 200 312 0.015
1943 ........... ...... 44 8,682 382 282 107,560 163 219 0.010
1944 ........... ...... 54 10,352 559 489 273,440 559 0.026
00
1940-44 Average .... 53 8,736 463 257 118,881 158 305 0.015
1945 ............. 57 8,789 501 690 345,700 501 0.022
1946 ............. 69 8,884 613 720 441,220 613 0.026
1947 ............. 75 8,413 631 892 562,700 631 0.027
1948 ............. 80 8,750 700 857 600,068 700 0.029
1949 ............. 83 8,795 730 829 605,024 730 0.029
1945-49 Average .... 73 8,699 635 805 510,942 635 0.027
1950 ............. 85 8,824 750 835 625,966 750 0.029
1951 ............ ... 83 8,675 720 845 608,361 720 0.027
1952 ........... ....... 86 8,186 704 859 604,590 704 0.026
1953 ........... ...... 113 8,115 917 870 797,900 917 0.032
1954 ........... ...... 104 7,875 819 916 750,250 819 0.028
1950-54 Average . . 94 8,319 782 866 677,413 782 0.028
1955 ............. 68 8,147 554 1,005 557,005 23 531 0.013
1956 ............. 51 8,275 422 1,047 441,877 59 363 0.012
1957 ............. 48 7,979 383 671 256,882 383 0.012
1958 ........... ...... 45 8,289 373 724 270,216 373 0.011
1959 .............. 144 8,576 1,235 796 982,548 1,159 76 0.002
1955-59 Average .... 71 8,352 593 846 501,706 248 345 0.010
See footnotes at end of table. Continued-




Table 4.-Eggplant: Mexico's Area, Yield, Production, Price, Value, Foreign Trade, and Consumption, 1932-79-Continued
Yearr Ar Yed Prdcin rice, Avg. Value of Foreign Trade Consumption
Year Harvested Avg./Ha. Production Grower Production Imports Exports National Per capita
HA Kg MT Pesos/MT Pesos MT MT MT Kg
1960 .......... 148 8,581 1,270 917 1,164,301 1,155 115 0.003
1961 .......... 383 8,394 3,215 969 3,115,010 1,124 2,091 0.058
1962 .......... 392 8,360 3,277 1,168 3,826,008 1,317 1,960 0.053
1963 .......... 442 8,287 3,663 1,266 4,636,304 1,687 1,976 0.051
1964 .......... 467 8,358 3,903 1,277 4,982,764 1,987 1,916 0.048
1960/64 Average . 366 8,377 3,066 1,156 3,544,877 1,454 1,612 0.043
1965 .......... 545 8,360 4,556 1,286 5,857,806 2,223 2,333 0.057
1966 .......... 584 8,351 4,877 1,317 6,421,528 3,430 1,447 0.034
1967 .......... 652 8,428 5,495 1,315 7,226,445 4,698 797 0.018
1968 .......... 906 8,719 7,899 1,324 10,462,034 7,065 834 0.018
1969 .......... 1,027 15,611 16,032 1,350 21,641,185 11,404 4,628 0.099
1965/69 Average . 743 10,460 7,772 1,328 10,321,800 5,764 2,008 0.046
1970 .......... 1,040 16,442 17,100 1,302 22,266,074 13,802 3,298 0.065
1971 .......... 684 21,273 14,551 1,494 21,746,084 13,744 807 0.015
1o 1972 .......... 1,065 19,089 20,330 2,965 60,279,434 18,730 1,600 0.029
1973 .......... 1,335 18,602 24,834 2,842 70,577,941 23,629 1,205 0.021
1974 .......... 1,165 19,421 22,625 2,766 62,575,000 16,657 5,968 0.103
1970/74 Average . 1,058 18,798 19,888 2,388 44,488,907 17,312 2,576 0.047
1975 .......... 990 19,500 19,305 3,840 61,872,525 17,552 1,753 0.029
1976 .......... 698 22,372 15,616 4,661 72,793,700 19,176
1977 .......... 443 31,273 13,854 3,085 42,795,006
1978 .......... ........1,088 21,421 23,306 7,219 168,246,000
19791 .......... 1,200 22,500 27,000 7,390 198,450,000 -...
1975/79 Average . 884 22,416 19,816 5,492 108,832,000
- Denotes unknown, not available, or insignificant.
I Preliminary.
Source: Direccion General de Economla Agricola, Secretaxla de Agricultura y Recursos Hidrulicos (SARH).
April 1980 Commodity Programs, FAS, USDA




Table 5.-Cucumbers: Mexico's Area, Yield, Production, Grower Prices, Exports, and Consumption 1970/71-1978/79 Consumption
Year Area Yield Produc Grower Exports
Oct.-Sept. Harvested Average Production Prices Exports National Per capita
HA MT/HA MT Pesos/Kg MT MT Kg
1970/71 .............. 13,189 10.20 134,526 1.30 67,273 67,253 1.342
1971/72 .............. 17,527 8.31 145,651 1.05 65,542 80,109 1.546
1972/73 .............. 11,498 10.57 121,515 2.03 77,614 43,901 0.819
1973/74 .............. 10,187 11.12 113,255 1.81 71,687 41,568 0.750
1974/75 .............. 10,592 8.06 85,381 2.21 42,114 43,267 0.753
1975/76 .............. 12,599 8.47 106,760 3.81 73,754 33,006 0.55
1976/77 .............. 6,716 19.05 127,957 2.04 76,548 51,409 0.82
1977/781.............. 7,301 19.73 144,072 5.91 2 80,000 64,072 0.98
1978/79 .............. 9,500 20.00 190,000 6.18 2 80,000 90,000 7.34
1 Preliminary. 2 Estimated.
Source: Uni6n Nacional de Productores de Hortalizas (UNPH), and Direcci6on General de Economia Agrcola (DGEA), Secretaria de Agricultura y Recusos Hidriulicos (SARH).
April 1980
Table 6.-Squash: Mexico's Area, Yield, Production, Grower Prices, Exports, and Consumption 1970/71-1978/79
Year Area Yield Production Grower Exports Consumption
Oct.-Sept. Harvested Average Price National Per capita
HA MT/HA MT Pesos/Kg MT MT Kg
1970/71 ............. ... 24,902 13,984 10,918 0.218
1971/72 ............. ... 33,232 16,616 16,616 .321
1972/73 . . . . . . 43,632 17,453 26,179 .488
1973/74 . . . . . . 4,388 9.86 43,266 1.81 21,149 22,117 .399
1974/75 . . . . . . 4,955 9.68 47,986 2.48 17,700 30,286 .528
1975/76 . . . . . . 4,969 11.04 54,868 2.85 21,872 32,988 .555
1976/77 ............... 4,530 13.76 62,333 2.35 29,979 32,354 .526
1977/78 .............. 4,000 16.74 66,946 2.50 33,849 33,097 .525
1978/79 .............. 4,000 17.98 71,900 3.00 43,957 27,947 .430
- Not available or unknown.
1 Preliminary.
Source: Union Nacional de Productores de Hortalizas (UNPH), and Direcci6n General de Economlia Agricola (DGEA), Secretaria de Agricultura y Recusos Hidraulicos (SARH).
April 1980 Commodity Programs, FAS, USDA
40




Table 7.-Tomatoes: Mexico's Area, Yields, and Production in the Northwestern States, 1960-1979
Area Yields Production
Year Baja Sinaloa Sonora Total Baja Sinaloa1 Sonora I Average Baja Sinaloa1 I Sonora I Total
Calif. IICalif. IIICalif. III
-------------- Hectares -------- Boxes (10 kilograms) per hectare -.------ -- Metric tons-------1960 ..................... 803 22,192 6,115 29,110 544 657 583 638 4,369 145,799 35,622 185,790
1961 ..................... 821 22,383 6,166 29,370 764 874 617 817 6,275 195,543 38,036 239,854
1962 .................... 831 21,863 5,779 28,473 702 853 617 800 5,834 186,423 35,650 227,907
1963 ..................... 716 18,916 2,895 22,527 714 892 619 851 5,113 168,755 17,934 191,802
1964 ..................... 623 18,697 2,643 21,963 719 890 620 853 4,479 166,468 16,395 187,342
1960-64 Average .............. 758 20,810 4,720 26,288 688 829 609 786 5,214 172,598 28,727 206,539
1965 ................. 355 12,915 1,314 14,584 1,341 1,647 934 1,575 4,762 212,723 12,268 229,753
1966 ..................... 429 11,385 1,432 13,246 1,358 1,802 945 1,695 5,824 205,196 13,530 224,550
1967 .................... 739 10,363 545 11,647 1,327 2,191 2,123 2,133 9,804 227,074 11,571 248,449
1968 .................... 890 10,870 603 12,363 1,596 2,091 2,306 2,066 14,208 227,317 13,904 255,429
1969 .................... 810 12,086 958 13,854 907 2,371 1,412 2,219 7,350 286,534 13,530 307,414
1965-69 Average .......... ..... 645 11,524 970 13,139 1,301 2,011 1,336 1,926 8,390 231,769 12,961 253,119
1970 ..................... 781 14,358 2,425 17,564 1,225 2,362 1,800 2,234 9,566 339,157 43,650 392,373
1971 ..................... 1,380 13,010 1,068 15,458 2,359 2,417 1,200 2,327 32,550 314,416 12,816 359,782
1972 .................... 1,603 18,876 633 21,112 2,823 1,683 2,570 1,796 45,252 317,737 16,265 379,254
" 1973 .................... 1,774 20,745 879 23,398 2,851 2,132 2,894 2,215 50,570 442,245 25,442 518,257
1974 .................... 1,159 14,697 630 16,486 3,446 2,305 2,671 2,399 39,944 338,750 16,828 395,522
1970-74 Average ........... ... 1,339 16,337 1,127 18,804 2,657 2,145 2,041 2,175 35,576 350,461 23,000 409,038
1975 .................... 2,063 12,995 440 15,498 3,951 2,567 3,000 2,774 81,519 333,568 13,200 428,287
1976 ................. 2,349 13,083 424 15,856 4,033 3,303 3,000 3,402 94,730 432,109 12,720 539,559
1977 .................... 2,627 15,470 1,119 19,216 3,427 2,884 1,996 2,906 90,030 446,115 22,338 558,483
19782 ................. ..... 3,000 13,826 1,000 17,826 3,333 3,645 2,500 3,528 100,000 503,973 25,000 628,973
19793 ................. ..... 3,300 13,500 1,000 17,800 3,636 3,333 2,000 3,315 120,000 450,000 20,000 590,000
1975-79 Average .......... 2,668 13,775 797 17,239 3,645 3,144 2,340 3,187 97,256 433,153 18,652 549,060
Note: Yields jumped sharply in 1965-69 because of the change over to staked culture.
1 Does not include cherry tomatoes. 2 Preliminary. 3 Estimate.
Source: Sinaloa-Confederacion de Asociaciones Agrfcolas de Estado de Sinaloa (CAADES); Baja California and Sonora-Union Nacional de Productores de Hortalizas (UNPH),
and Secretaria de Agricultura y Recursos Hidriulicos (SARH).
April 1980 Commodity Programs, FAS, USDA




Table 8.-Tomatoes: Average Grower Prices and Crop Values in Baja California, Sinaloa, and Sonora, 1960-79
Grower prices Value of crop
Pesos Dollars Dollars
Year SnlaClf
Baa Sinaloa Sonora Avg.1 Calif. Sinaloa Sonora Avg.1 Bai Sinaloa Sonora Total
Calif. Calif.
- Mexican Pesos per kilogram -------- U.S. Dollars per Std. Box ------- --- Million US. Dollars-----1960 .................... 0.96 0.84 1.00 0.55 0.77 0.67 0.80 0.69 0.3 9.8 2.8 12.9
1961 .................... 1.28 0.94 1.19 0.99 1.02 0.75 0.95 0.79 0.6 14.7 3.6 18.9
1962 .................... 1.20 1.01 1.00 1.01 0.96 0.81 0.80 0.81 0.5 15.1 2.9 18.5
1963 .................... 1.25 1.05 1.05 1.05 1.00 0.84 0.84 0.84 0.5 14.2 1.5 16.2
1964 .................... 1.26 1.08 1.09 1.10 1.01 0.86 0.87 0.88 0.5 14.3 1.7 16.5
1960-64 Average ............... 1.25 1.00 1.10 1.03 1.00 0.80 0.88 0.82 0.5 14.7 2.7 17.9
1965 .................... 1.30 1.10 1.10 1.10 1.04 0.88 0.88 0.88 0.5 18.7 1.1 20.3
1966 .................... 1.30 1.10 1.10 1.11 1.04 0.88 0.88 0.89 0.6 18.1 1.2 19.9
1967 .................... 1.24 1.10 1.12 1.11 0.99 0.88 0.90 0.89 1.0 20.0 1.0 22.0
1968 .................... 1.25 1.12 1.14 1.13 1.00 0.90 0.91 0.90 1.4 20.5 1.3 23.2
1969 .................... 1.30 1.15 1.15 1.15 1.04 0.92 0.92 0.92 0.8 26.4 1.2 28.4
1965-69 Average ............... 1.28 1.11 1.12 1.12 1.02 0.89 0.90 0.90 0.9 20.7 1.2 22.8
1970 ..................... 1.56 1.20 1.20 1.21 1.25 0.96 0.96 0.97 1.2 32.6 4.2 38.0
1971 .................... 1.30 1.37 1.20 1.36 1.04 1.10 0.96 1.09 3.4 34.6 1.4 39.4
1972 .................... 0.61 2.41 1.17 2.20 0.49 1.93 0.94 1.76 2.2 61.3 3.1 66.6
1973 .................... 1.10 2.54 1.33 2A1 0.88 2.03 1.06 1.93 4.8 89.8 5.2 99.8
1974 .................... 1.89 2.50 1.30 2.39 1.51 2.00 1.04 1.91 6.1 67.8 1.8 75.7
1970-74 Average ............... 1.29 2.00 1.24 1.91 1.03 1.60 0.99 1.53 3.5 57.2 3.1 63.9
1975 .................... 1.58 3.93 1.50 3A0 1.26 3.14 1.20 2.72 10.3 104.7 1.6 116.6
1976 ..................... 5.27 6.40 1.50 6.08 2.32 2.82 0.66 2.68 22.1 121.9 0.8 144.8
1977 3.... 4.19 8.78 4.14 7.86 1.85 3.87 1.82 3.46 16.7 172.6 4.1 193.4
19784 ................... 6.00 9.00 5.00 8.35 2.64 3.96 2.20 3.68 26.4 199.6 5.5 231.5
1979 ................. 7.00 10.00 6.00 9.26 3.07 4.39 2.63 4.06 36.8 197.6 5.3 239.7
1975-79 Average ............. 1 4.81 7.62 3.63 6.99 2.23 3.64 1.70 3.32 22.5 159.3 3.4 185.2
NOTE: I U.S. Dollar equalled: 12.5 Pesos prior to 1976, 22.7 Pesos during 1976-78, and 22.8 Pesos in 1979.
1 Weighted average, by quantity. 2 Standard 2-layer box of 10 kilograms (22 pounds) net weight. 3 Preliminary. 4 Estimate.
Source: Confederacion de Asociaciones Agricolas de Estado de Sinaloa (CAADES), Union Nacional de Productores de Hortalizas (UNPH), and Secretari'a de Agricultura y Recursos Hidriulicos (SARH).
May 1980 Commodity Programs, FAS, USDA




Table 9.-Mexico: Tomato Area by State, 1960-77
(Hectares)
aaCaionaSan
Baja California Guan- Mich- Mor- Nay- Luis Sin- Son- Tam- Ver- Total1
Norte Sur ajuato oacan elos art Potosi a a ora aulipas acruz
1960 .......... 670 133 3,945 2,023 1,502 807 1,458 22,192 6,115 9,418 3,048 63,805
1961 .......... 680 141 4,376 2,173 1,592 887 1,599 22,383 6,166 5,179 3,221 61,719 1962 .......... 700 131 4,461 1,921 1,820 911 1,637 21,863 5,779 5,320 2,938 60,355
1963 ........ ... 587 129 5,177 1,880 3,375 1,034 2,846 18,916 2,895 6,442 3,662 60,540
1964 ........ ... 505 118 5,722 2,101 3,387 1,056 2,798 18,697 2,643 6,310 3,498 61,142
1965 .......... 300 55 3,600 1,602 6,335 1,191 855 12,915 1,314 941 2,141 45,023
1966 .......... 372 57 3,447 1,914 6,586 1,889 938 12,815 1,432 925 1,800 45,246
1967 .......... 634 105 7,123 1,217 6,486 479 1,897 10,899 545 979 4,145 46,173
1968 .......... 865 25 8,125 1,259 8,341 839 1,846 11,481 603 2,026 5,624 52,338
1969 ........ ... 785 25 8,043 1,122 8,164 613 2,046 13,644 958 2,052 5,174 55,164
1970 ........ ... 756 25 8,445 1,299 11,457 698 2,006 15,372 2,425 1,999 5,514 63,721
1971 ......... 1,350 30 8,150 1,651 8,609 1,097 2,000 13,845 1,068 2,189 5,286 61,384
1972 ......... 1,568 35 9,000 1,966 9,068 689 2,700 21,638 633 2,704 2,528 71,714
1973 ......... 1,724 50 8,320 3,104 7,038 627 2,700 21,911 879 2,017 4,419 69,408
1974 ........ ..1,047 112 12,500 3,047 7,786 750 2,800 16,457 630 1,527 870 62,577
1975 ......... 1,953 110 6,500 2,810 8,055 928 2,550 17,361 440 2,338 950 59,361
1976 ......... 2,208 141 2,750 1,805 6,358 915 1,975 14,721 424 1,045 1,035 48,359
1977 ......... 2,417 210 6,600 3,169 6,494 913 4,000 17,326 1,119 1,847 1,441 61,695
1978 2,700 300 6,600 3,200 6,500 1,000 4,000 17,300 1,000 1,800 1,400 59,232
1979 ........ ..3,000 300 6,600 3,200 6,500 1,000 4,000 17,300 1,000 1,800 1,400 61,850
I Includes other states. 2 Preliminary. 3 Estimate.
Source: Direccion General de Economia Agricola (DGEA), Secretarfa de Agricultura y Recursos Hidraulicos (SARH).
May 1980 Commodity Programs, FAS, USDA
Table 10.-Mexico: Tomato Yields by State, 1960-77
(Metric tons per hectare)
Baja California Guan- Mich- Mor- Nay- Sin- Son- Tam- Ver- 1
Year ajuato oacan elos arit i aloa ora aulipas acruz
1960 ............ 5.29 6.17 5.92 5.46 6.35 6.17 5.81 6.57 5.83 6.41 5.61 6.09
1961 ............ 7.88 6.49 6.41 6.09 6.55 6.36 6.44 8.74 6.17 8.63 5.86 7.34
1962 .......... ... 7.00 7.13 6.33 6.05 5.97 6.23 6.44 8.53 6.17 8.35 5.91 7.19
1963 .......... ... 7.16 7.04 6.36 6.65 6.22 6.22 6.72 8.92 6.19 8.29 5.85 7.31
1964 ............ 7.24 6.96 6.33 6.54 6.20 6.27 6.69 8.90 6.20 8.24 5.86 7.28
1965 .......... ..14.57 7.13 29.88 6.52 9.88 6.38 6.88 16.47 9.34 8.24 5.86 12.30
1966 ........... 14.58 7.04 29.99 6.63 9.99 6.50 7.00 16.45 9.45 8.23 5.82 12.27
1967 ........... 14.21 7.57 20.58 5.14 8.92 3.86 4.29 22.02 21.23 9.54 7.79 13.41
1968 .......... .. 16.13 10.24 18.26 5.49 8.07 4.19 10.12 20.62 23.06 10.03 5.80 12.80
1969 ............ 9.04 10.00 18.38 6.06 7.93 4.96 8.00 21.80 14.12 9.90 5.09 12.96
1970 .......... .. 12.32 10.10 17.51 7.89 13.24 5.03 11.47 22.33 18.00 8.75 5.17 14.49
1971 ........... 24.00 10.00 18.33 12.11 17.41 7.85 15.00 24.00 12.00 8.06 3.14 15.29
1972 ........... 28.64 10.00 18.76 14.76 19.20 8.15 16.82 21.50 25.70 7.93 14.74 16.79
1973 ........... 29.04 10.00 20.38 12.38 17.94 8.05 15.00 18.00 28.94 10.68 6.61 15.72
1974 ........... 36.68 13.71 23.40 17.50 20.53 9.77 16.50 18.00 26.71 9.42 11.14 17.91
1975 ........... 40.97 13.64 24.23 8.12 23.72 10.53 15.85 18.50 30.00 7.23 8.58 17.80
1976 ........... 40.99 30.00 24.09 12.95 19.97 11.75 13.00 16.36 30.00 11.99 7.87 16.68
1977 2.......... 35.48 20.40 24.61 13.87 20.68 10.41 15.00 16.00 19.96 7.88 7.08 15.79
1978 34.81 20.00 21.21 15.63 20.00 11.11 15.00 21.67 25.00 8.33 7.14 18.86
1979 .......... 37.00 30.00 22.73 15.63 21.54 8.88 12.50 18.79 20.00 8.33 7.14 17.50
1 Includes other states. 2 Preliminary. 3 Estimate.
Source: Direccion General de Economfa Agricola (DGEA), Secretana de Agricultura y Recursos Hidraulicos (SARH).
May 1980 Commodity Programs, FAS/USDA
43




Table 11.-Mexico: Tomato Production by State, 1960-77
(Metric tons)
Baja California Guan- Mich- Mor- Nay- San Sin- Son- Tam- Ver- Total
Norte Sur ajuato oacan elos arit aloa ora aulipas acruz
1960 ...... 3,546 821 23,356 11,049 9,541 4,977 8,468 145,799 35,622 60,366 17,099 388,648
1961 ..... 5,360 915 28,064 13,236 10,429 5,642 10,297 195,543 38,036 44,667 18,866 453,125
1962 ...... 4,900 934 28,256 11,612 10,873 5,673 10,540 186,423 35,650 44,413 17,356 433,819 1963 ..... 4,205 908 32,908 12,499 20,975 6,436 19,136 168,755 17,934 53,395 21,431 442,682
1964 ..... 3,658 821 36,232 13,735 20,992 6,626 18,730 166,468 16,395 52,009 20,512 444,971
1965 ...... 4,370 392 107,554 10,448 62,564 7,603 5,882 212,723 12,268 7,749 12,536 553,938 1966 ..... 5,423 401 103,365 12,696 65,774 12,269 6,561 210,820 13,530 7,608 10,481 555,213
1967 ..... 9,009 795 146,584 6,259 57,849 1,848 8,136 240,007 11,571 9,336 32,269 618,956
1968 ..... 13,952 256 148,354 6,910 67,270 3,513 18,687 236,773 13,904 20,327 32,597 669,677
1969 ..... 7,100 250 147,790 6,797 64,732 3,039 16,368 297,412 13,530 20,319 26,336 714,912
1970 ..... 9,314 252 147,855 10,253 151,679 3,510 23,013 343,257 43,650 17,491 28,480 923,063
1971 ..... 32,250 300 149,349 19,990 149,909 8,610 30,000 332,280 12,816 17,635 16,603 938,584
1972 ..... 44,902 350 168,876 29,027 172,294 5,612 45,401 465,217 16,265 21,436 37,262 1,203,702
1973 ..... 50,070 500 169,520 38,420 126,251 5,046 40,500 394,398 25,442 21,554 29,192 1,091,001
1974 ..... 38,408 1,536 292,500 53,327 159,847 7,325 46,200 296,226 16,828 14,386 9,691 1,120,846
1975 ..... 80,019 1,500 157,500 22,807 191,082 9,770 40,425 321,178 13,200 16,913 8,150 1,056,408
1976 ....... 90,500 4,230 66,250 23,368 126,996 10,750 25,675 240,832 12,720 12,527 8,145 806,831 1977 ....... 85,745 4,285 139,577 44,536 120,831 9,503 60,000 277,036 22,338 14,561 10,848 974,258 19782 94,000 6,000 140,000 50,000 130,000 10,000 60,000 375,000 25,000 15,000 10,000 1,117,360
1979 .....1111,000 9,000 150,000 50,000 140,000 8,000 50,000 325,000 20,000 15,000 10,000 1,082,375
1 Includes other states. 2 Preliminary. 3 Estimate.
Source: Direccion General de Economa Agnicola (DGEA), Secretana de Agricultura y Recursos Hidraulicos (SARH).
May 1980 Commodity Programs, FAS/USDA
Trble 12.-Mexico: Average Grower Prices for Tomatoes, by State, 1960-79 (Pesos per kilogram) 1
Baja California San
Year Guan- Mich- Mor- Nay- Luis Sin- Son- Tam- Ver- Average
Norte Sur ajuato oacan elos arit Potosi aloa ora aulipas acruz Mexico2
1960 ....... ... 0.95 1.01 0.65 0.60 0.70 0.52 0.59 0.84 1.00 0.60 0.85 0.76
1961 ....... ... 1.30 1.19 0.91 0.86 0.88 0.89 0.85 0.94 1.19 0.83 0.93 0.95
1962 ....... ... 1.20 1.21 0.87 0.90 0.96 0.94 0.85 1.01 1.00 0.85 0.84 0.96
1963 ....... ... 1.25 1.27 0.90 0.95 1.00 0.98 0.90 1.05 1.05 0.90 0.88 0.99
1964 ....... ... 1.25 1.28 1.00 1.00 1.11 1.07 1.00 1.08 1.09 1.00 0.99 1.05
1965 ....... ... 1.30 1.26 1.05 1.04 1.08 1.09 1.03 1.10 1.10 1.05 1.04 1.08
1966 ....... ... 1.30 1.24 0.95 0.93 1.13 1.00 1.00 1.10 1.10 1.00 1.00 1.06
1967 ....... ... 1.24 1.26 0.90 0.90 1.03 0.95 1.00 1.10 1.12 0.98 1.00 1.03
1968 ....... ... 1.25 1.28 0.95 0.95 1.06 1.00 1.02 1.12 1.14 1.00 1.02 1.06
1969 ....... ... 1.30 1.30 1.00 0.95 1.10 1.20 1.05 1.15 1.15 1.00 1.05 1.11
1970 ....... ... 1.57 1.40 1.10 0.97 1.22 1.24 1.05 1.20 1.20 1.00 1.20 1.19
1971 ....... ... 1.30 1.50 1.73 1.24 1.25 1.53 1.11 1.37 1.20 1.10 1.45 1.38
1972 ....... ... 0.60 1.30 1.05 1.00 0.70 0.84 0.97 2.41 1.17 0.98 1.08 1.51
1973 ....... ... 1.05 1.65 0.70 1.21 1.56 1.12 0.90 2.54 1.33 1.10 1.22 1.64
1974 ....... ... 1.85 3.02 1.69 2.77 1.92 1.08 1.88 2.50 1.30 1.00 1.04 1.99
1975 ....... ... 1.55 3.00 1.23 2.78 2.59 1.12 1.50 3.93 1.50 1.80 1.10 2.50
1976 ....... ... 5.38 3.00 3.83 2.26 2.00 1.68 1.50 6.40 1.50 1.80 2.20 4.07
1977 ....... ... 4.26 2.81 2.95 2.88 4.11 3.12 1.70 8.78 4.14 2.40 2.18 4.86
19783 ........ 6.00 5.50 3.00 3.00 4.50 3.50 2.00 9.00 5.00 2.50 2.50 5.68
1979.4 ........ 7.00 6.50 4.00 3.50 5.00 4.50 2.50 10.00 6.00 3.00 3.00 6.00
1 1961-76, 12.5 pesos = $1; 1976-78, 22.7 pesos = $1; 1979, 22.8 pesos = $1. 2 Average weighted by production in all states. 3 Preliminary. 4 Estimate.
Source: Direccion General de Economa Agricola (DGEA), Secretara de Agricultura y Recursos Hiddulicos (SARH).
May 1980 Commodity Programs, FAS, USDA
44




Table 13.-Sweet Bell Peppers: Mexico's Area Harvested by States, 1960-79
(In hectares)
Baja California Chi- Guan- Jalisco Tam- Ver- Total
Year huahua ajuato Luis Sinaloa Sonora aulipas acruz Mexico,
Note I S r Potosi
1960 ..................... 740 190 830 2,800 680 790 1,281 5,000 601 3,372 4,853 33,287
1961 ..................... 665 211 933 2,855 656 885 1,212 5,088 751 3,343 5,128 34,117
1962 ..................... 720 212 22 2,900 623 826 1,623 6,598 687 3,358 5,282 37,409
1963 ..................... 675 204 1,300 2,931 662 997 1,938 6,803 949 3,340 6,159 40,129
1964 ..................... 474 123 1,530 3,016 656 1,351 1,846 6,423 1,836 1,941 6,950 41,157
1965 ..................... 765 198 987 1,211 678 1,708 1,519 5,432 168 2,823 12,659 41,751
1966 ..................... 1,287 201 819 2,139 952 3,236 1,384 5,123 324 2,134 11,435 42,502
1967 ..................... 1,759 213 262 3,934 987 2,185 1,259 2,863 895 1,543 7,261 37,801
1968 .................... 2,233 234 268 3,543 1,011 2,149 1,543 1,834 895 2,011 7,457 38,259
1969 ..................... 1,980 259 298 3,150 1,065 2,184 1,278 2,493 549 1,850 5,801 35,588
1970 .................... 2,250 299 351 3,469 1,085 2,150 1,250 2,721 725 1,674 5,925 36,291
1971 ..................... 1,475 120 1,300 2,679 1,250 4,113 1,500 5,675 1,521 1,500 8,640 44,949
1972 .................... 1,857 250 1,729 3,750 420 3,563 2,250 5,749 1,381 2,500 19,788 60,787
1973 ..................... 2,000 250 2,163 3,800 2,500 2,305 2,250 5,167 792 3,084 16,585 56,876
, 1974 ..................... 1,800 270 1,462 5,924 3,872 3,380 1,000 4,300 1,520 3,279 10,600 55,765
1975 ..................... 1,500 323 2,000 2,500 2,620 1,585 1,570 2,347 1,175 1,627 7,100 40,189
1976 ..................... 1,500 256 3,893 3,500 3,600 2,256 1,903 2,869 1,147 640 4,100 40,246
1977 ..................... 1,800 363 4,638 3,500 566 2,838 3,200 3,290 2,403 712 3,850 49,821
19782 .................. 2,000 400 4,000 4,000 500 3,000 3,500 3,500 2,500 800 4,000 59,716
19792 ................. 2,000 400 4,000 3,500 500 3,000 3,000 3,300 2,400 700 3,500 52,700
1 Includes other states. 2 Preliminary.
Source: Direcci6n General de Economia Agricola, Secretaria de Agricultura y Recursos Hidrauicos (DGEA, SARH), and Uni6n Nacional de Productores de Hortalizas (UNPH).
April 1980 Commodity Programs, FAS, USDA




Table 14.-Sweet Bell Peppers: Mexico's Yields by States, 1960-79
(In metric tons per hectare)
Baja California Chi- Guan- San Tam- Ver- Total
Year huahua ajuato Jalisco Nayarit Luis Sinaloa Sonora aulipas acruz Mexico1
Norte Sur Potosi
1960 .................... 3.0 3.0 2.8 2.7 2.5 2.9 2.5 3.2 3.1 2.9 2.5 2.7
1961 .................... 2.7 3.2 2.8 3.1 2.7 3.1 2.4 3.2 3.4 3.0 2.6 2.8
1962 ...................... 2.7 2.3 3.2 3.2 2.8 3.4 2.3 3.2 3.2 3.0 2.8 2.9
1963 .................... 2.7 3.2 3.3 3.3 3.0 2.9 2.9 3.3 3.4 2.9 3.0 3.1
1964 ...................... 3.5 3.1 3.2 3.5 3.2 2.9 3.1 3.4 3.9 2.9 3.0 3.2
1965 ...................... 2.8 3.1 2.3 7.0 2.8 3.5 4.4 3.1 4.0 2.6 3.4 3.2
1966 .................... 2.8 2.5 2.1 7.0 3.9 4.0 4.4 3.0 3.1 2.6 5.7 3.9
1967 .................... 8.6 8.6 3.8 8.7 3.9 4.3 4.7 4.1 9.0 5.0 8.5 5.3
1968 .................... 8.7 8.8 3.5 8.8 3.0 4.1 5.0 5.7 8.9 6.8 6.2 5.0
1969 .................... 9.3 9.5 3.6 8.9 3.0 4.0 3.0 7.6 6.7 6.9 5.2 5.0
1970 ..................... 9.4 10.0 3.7 9.3 3.4 4.1 3.1 7.6 8.0 4.1 5.2 5.3
1971 .................... 12.0 15.0 8.1 12.0 4.2 6.3 8.0 9.8 14.0 4.8 6.3 6.9
1972 .................... 12.0 15.0 12.3 13.0 8.0 9.5 8.0 9.0 13.9 5.2 6.0 7.2
1973 .................... 8.4 13.0 8.0 13.5 6.4 8.7 12.5 7.50 13.1 5.1 6.7 7.0
h 1974 ..................... 10.0 11.1 8.7 11.9 7.9 7.8 12.5 9.3 13.1 4.8 7.3 7.5
1975 ....................... 8.0 18.1 11.8 12.0 8.0 9.1 15.0 10.7 13.7 2.1 5.0 6.8
1976 ..................... 10.0 25.1 12.0 12.0 8.0 10.2 12.5 12.2 19.0 8.0 9.0 8.4
1977 .................... 12.0 26.9 20.0 10.5 7.5 10.4 12.5 16.9 8.7 9.1 5.0 9.7
19782 ................. 12.0 25.0 20.0 10.0 8.0 10.0 11.4 17.1 10.0 8.8 5.0 7.8
1979. ................. 10.0 20.0 20.0 11.4 8.0 10.0 7.5 15.2 8.3 10.0 5.7 9.0
1 Includes other states. 2 Preliminary.
Source: Direcci6n General de Economi/a Agnicola, Secretala de Agricultura y Recursos Hidraulicos (DGEA, SARH), and Uni6n Nacional de Productores Hidraulicos (UNPH).
April 1980 Commodity Programs, FAS, USDA




Table 15.-Sweet Bell Peppers: Mexico Production by State, 1960-79
(In metric tons)
Baja California Chi- Guan- San Tam- Ver- Total
Year huahua ajuato Jalisco Nayarit Luis Sinaloa Sonora aulipas acruz Mexicol
Norte T -Sur Potosi
1960 ..................... 2,216 572 2,308 7,672 1,708 2,309 3,227 16,140 1,884 9,711 12,327 90,492
1961 ..................... 1,770 670 2,638 8,774 1,757 2,741 2,920 16,431 2,539 9,890 13,188 96,798
1962 ..................... 1,925 684 3,616 9,336 1,744 2,842 3,807 20,933 2,168 3,939 14,628 109,206
1963 ..................... 1,847 652 3,723 9,594 1,954 2,875 5,798 22,376 3,232 9,537 18,310 122,701
1964 ..................... 1,657 381 4,953 12,625 2,130 3,911 5,769 21,925 7,118 5,715 21,123 133,619
1965 ..................... 2,118 605 2,315 8,470 1,891 5,952 6,644 17,084 664 7,430 43,585 134,440
1966 ..................... 3,588 494 1,754 14,973 3,695 12,883 6,049 15,487 994 5,521 65,305 167,129
1967 ..................... 15,214 1,824 985 34,045 3,865 9,437 5,866 11,821 8,051 7,767 61,755 199,522
1968 ..................... 19,378 2,051 950 31,504 3,058 8,795 7,752 10,514 7,947 13,653 45,875 191,721
1969 ..................... 18,315 2,461 1,073 27,925 3,195 8,758 3,834 19,006 3,673 12,765 30,107 178,384
1970 ..................... 21,195 2,990 1,277 32,192 3,711 8,707 13,813 20,598 5,800 11,762 30,810 190,836
1971 .................. 17,700 1,800 10,500 32,148 5,250 25,898 12,000 55,615 21,294 7,149 54,069 310,202
1972 ..................... 22,284 3,750 21,218 48,750 3,360 33,774 18,000 51,741 19,130 13,000 120,923 435,070
1973 ..................... 20,000 3,250 17,306 51,300 16,000 19,971 28,125 38,753 10,753 15,744 110,920 399,511
1 974 ..................... 18,000 2,984 12,766 70,474 30,600 26,300 12,500 40,000 20,015 15,780 77,450 415,614
1975 ..................... 12,000 16,097 23,600 30,000 20,960 14,455 23,550 25,000 16,097 3,377 39,200 273,149
1976 ..................... 15,000 6,430 46,716 42,000 28,784 22,964 23,787 35,000 21,793 5,113 36,900 338,930
1977 .................... 21,000 9,780 92,700 36,600 4,245 29,505 40,000 55,696 20,958 6,476 19,250 481,682
19782 .................... 24,000 10,000 80,000 40,000 4,000 30,000 40,000 60,000 25,000 7,000 20,000 465,972
9792 ................. 20,000 8,000 80,000 40,000 4,000 30,000 40,000 50,000 20,000 7,000 20,000 447,300
1 Includes other states. 2 Preliminary.
Source: Direcci6n General de Economua Agnrcola, Secretarfa de Agricultura y Recursos Hidriulicos (DGEA, SARH), and Union Nacional de Productores de Hortalizas (UNPH).
April 1980 Commodity Programs, FAS, USDA




Table 16.-Sweet Bell Peppers: Mexico's Grower Prices, by States, 1960-79
(In pesos per kilogram)
Baja California Chi- Guan- San Tam- Ver- Total
Year huahua ajuato Jalisco Nayarit Luis Sinaloa Sonora aulipas acruz Mexicol
Norte IE Sur Potosi
1960 .................... 0.95 0.87 0.90 0.80 0.99 0.99 0.94 0.90 0.86 0.95 0.90 0.90
1961 ..................... 1.05 0.99 0.97 0.96 1.07 1.00 1.05 0.93 1.02 1.04 0.96 0.98
1962 .................... 1.10 1.12 1.01 1.05 1.14 1.09 1.04 1.04 1.13 1.08 1.01 1.04
1963 .................... 1.15 1.17 1.03 1.08 1.18 1.12 1.07 1.10 1.20 1.12 1.05 1.08
1964 .................1.25 1.23 1.16 1.18 1.30 1.20 1.18 1.25 1.35 1.20 1.25 1.22
1965 ..................... 1.28 1.25 1.19 1.22 1.35 1.25 1.22 1.27 1.34 1.29 1.36 1.26
1966 ..................... 1.50 1.25 1.22 1.35 1.25 1.15 1.20 1.24 1.30 1.25 1.25 1.24
1967 .................1.28 1.25 1.30 1.38 1.27 1.25 1.20 1.26 1.27 1.26 1.10 1.22
1968 ..................... 1.31 1.28 1.32 1.40 1.30 1.20 1.23 1.27 1.30 1.30 1.12 1.26
1969 .................... 1.40 1.30 1.35 1.50 1.33 1.45 1.25 1.30 1.35 1.32 1.15 1.33
1970 ..................... 1.50 1.40 1.30 1.50 1.35 1.50 1.26 1.40 1.30 1.32 1.16 1.37
1971 ..................... 1.45 1.50 1.25 1.48 1.38 1.50 1.30 1.50 1.39 1.35 1.24 1.41
1972 ..................... 1.28 1.73 1.25 1.87 2.01 1.28 1.36 5.18 2.00 1.43 1.35 1.97
1973 ..................... 3.09 1.44 1.32 1.76 2.67 2.13 1.75 3.50 3.94 3.00 1.83 2.10
00 1974 .................3.00 3.00 1.54 1.49 2.51 1.55 2.00 3.00 3.13 3.00 1.27 2.01
1975 ..................... 3.50 1.45 3.00 2.00 6.38 2.10 2.00 4.80 1.45 2.80 1.50 2.95
1976 .................... 4.00 2.88 3.50 4.00 4.20 7.10 1.50 7.70 2.20 2.80 2.00 3.87
1977 ..................... 5.00 2.85 2.00 6.00 4.35 3.50 1.80 12.03 10.98 3.10 3.50 4.49
19782 5.00 3.00 3.00 6.00 4.50 4.00 2.00 10.00 8.00 3.50 4.00 5.18
19792 ................. 6.00 4.00 4.00 6.00 5.00 5.00 2.50 14.00 10.00 4.00 5.00 6.78
1 Includes other states. 2 Preliminary.
Source: Direccion General de Economi'a Agrlcola, Secretar/a de Agricultura de Recursos Hidr ulicos (DGEA, SARH), and Unon Nacional de Productores de Hortalizas (UNPH).
April 1980 Commodity Programs, FAS, USDA




Table 17.-Cucumbers: Mexico's Area, Yield, Production, and Grower Prices, By States, 1973-79
aStates Guan- Jalisco Mich- Morelos Nayarit Sots Sinaloa Sonora Tam- Veracruz Total
Year ajuato oacan Potosi aulipas Mexico1
AREA
- ----------------------- Hectares--------------------1973 ...................... 350 500 675 1,100 178 150 5,667 259 171 200 11,498
1974 ...................... 200 480 840 946 491 70 5,100 702 191 170 10,187
1975 ......................... 100 300 755 848 400 155 3,720 148 92 107 10,592
1976 ......................... 25 600 1,358 883 210 130 3,046 113 2 76 12,599
1977 ...................... .. 50 670 945 408 82 120 3,802 343 82 80 6,716
1978. ...................... 150 700 900 400 100 120 4,000 400 80 80 7,301
19792 ........................... 150 700 1,000 400 100 120 4,500 350 80 80 9,500
YIELDS
---- --------------------------Tons Per Hectare- ------------------1973 ...................... 16.0 18.6 9.9 12.7 9.4 15.0 13.5 6.7 7.2 15.0 10.6
1974 ............................ 16.0 18.0 10.0 16.1 13.0 15.0 12.0 6.7 6.1 21.8 11.1
1975 ...................... 16.0 18.6 10.9 12.6 13.0 15.0 13.0 7.5 5.1 10.0 8.1
1976 ...................... 16.0 18.0 12.9 13.0 13.0 15.0 16.5 75 13.0 4.0 8.5
1977 ....................... 16.0 16.4 11.6 12.6 11.8 15.0 16.5 8.2 5.4 13.0 19.1
1978. ...................... 16.0 15.7 12.2 15.0 10.0 16.7 23.8 10.0 5.0 15.0 19.7
19792 ............................ 16.0 17.1 12.0 17.5 10.0 15.0 22.2 8.6 5.0 13.8 20.0
PRODUCTION
- ---------------------------Tons---------------------1973 ...................... 5,600 9,300 6,713 14,014 1,678 2,250 76,504 1,738 1,231 3,000 121,515
1974 ...................... 3,200 8,646 9,478 13,505 6,383 1,186 61,200 4,686 1,171 3,700 113,305
1975 ...................... 1,600 5,580 8,260 10,716 5,200 2,325 48,360 1,110 470 1,070 85,381
1976 ...................... 400 10,800 17,584 7,580 2,730 1,950 70,000 847 26 304 106,760
1977 ....................... 800 11,020 10,952 5,137 966 1,800 80,000 2,822 443 1,122 127,957
19782 ...................... 800 11,000 11,000 6,000 1,000 2,000 95,000 4,000 400 1,00 144,072
19792 ............................ 800 12,000 12,000 7,000 1,000 1,800 100,000 3,000 400 1,100 190,000
PRICE
--------------------------------- Pesos Per Kilogram------------------1973 ...................... 1.00 0.60 0.77 1.15 1.00 0.40 2.70 0.72 1.28 1.06 2.03
1974 ...................... 1.50 0.84 0.79 1.31 0.60 1.50 2.50 0.90 1.32 1.06 1.81
1975 ...................... 1.50 1.50 1.06 1.23 0.70 1.60 3.00 0.90 1.32 1.10 2.21
1976 ...................... 1.50 1.00 1.18 1.63 0.85 1.80 6.00 0.90 1.60 2.00 3.81
1977 ....................... 2.00 1.17 1.73 1.81 0.71 1.80 7.03 3.35 1.42 2.00 5.05
1978. ...................... 2.00 1.20 1.75 1.80 0.70 1.80 7.00 3.30 1.50 2.50 5.91
19792 ............................ 2.00 1.50 2.00 2.00 1.00 2.00 8.00 4.00 1.60 3.00 6.18
Includes other States. 2 Preliminary.
Source: Direcci6n General de EconomlaAgrfcola, Secretarfa de Agricultura y Recursos Hidrfulicos (DGEA, SARH), and Union Nacional de Productores de Hortalizas (UNPH).
April 1980 Commodity Programs, FAS, USDA




Table 18.-Squash: Mexico's Area, Yield, Production, and Grower Prices, by States, 1974-79
Year Guanajuato Hidalgo Jalisco Michoacan Morelos Nayarit San Luis Sinaloa Sonora Tamaulipas otai 1
AREA
------- ---- -------------------Hectares- -------------------1974 .......................... 10 420 45 300 360 58 75 1,545 882 445 4,388
1975 .............................. 10 430 60 639 160 1,613 931 357 4,955
1976 .......................... 400 500 340 80 348 53 115 1,605 866 216 4,969
1977 .......................... 350 480 150 180 355 50 110 1,467 893 203 4,530
19782 400 500 200 200 400 50 100 2,000 900 200 4,000
19792 ......................... 400 500 200 200 400 50 100 2,200 900 200 4,000
YIELDS
- ------ ---- ------------------Tons per hectare-- -----------------1974 .......................... 8.35 7.00 12.00 7.33 8.21 18.00 18.00 10.50 13.34 3.11 9.860
1975 .............................. 8.50 7.03 12.00 8.00 15.00 9.50 13.30 2.96 9.684
1976 .......................... 15.00 6.50 14.00 0.90 9.31 18.00 15.00 10.50 13.50 3.85 11.042
1977 ............................ 15.00 6.50 14.00 8.90 9.31 18.00 15.00 14.13 13.50 3.85 13.760
19782 ........................... 15.00 7.00 15.00 10.00 10.00 18.00 15.00 20.00 15.00 5.00 16.737
19792 ......................... 15.00 7.00 15.00 10.00 10.00 18.00 15.00 20.00 15.00 5.00 17.975
PRODUCTION
----------- ---------- -------- ----------Tons---------------- - --- -- -- -- -- -- -1974 .......................... 84 2,490 540 2,200 2,955 1,044 1,350 16,223 11,762 1,386 43,266
1975 .............................. 85 3,023 720 5,112 2,400 15,324 12,382 1,055 47,986
1976 .......................... 6,000 3,250 4,760 72 3,240 954 1,725 16,852 11,691 831 54,868
1977 ..5,250 3,120 2,100 1,600 3,305 900 1,650 20,733 12,055 781 62,333
19782 ......................... 6,000 3,500 3,000 2,000 4,000 900 1,500 40,000 13,500 1,000 66,946
19792 ......................... 6,000 3,500 3,000 2,000 4,000 900 1,500 44,000 13,500 1,000 71,900
GROWER PRICES
-------------- ------------------------ Pesos per kilograms- -----------------1974 .......................... 0.85 2.50 1.60 0.94 2.20 1.00 1.00 2.50 1.00 1.81 1.81
1975 .......................... 0.95 2.00 1.75 1.00 1.50 5.00 1.40 1.39 2.48
1976 .......................... 1.00 1.50 1.66 1.00 2.50 0.70 1.50 6.00 1.40 1.52 2.85
1977 .......................... 1.50 2.00 1.75 1.28 2.70 0.90 1.70 6.20 1.45 1.60 3.35
19782 2.00 2.50 2.00 1.50 3.00 1.00 1.70 6.00 2.00 2.00 2.50
19792 ......................... 2.50 3.00 2.50 2.00 3.50 1.50 2.00 7.00 2.50 2.50 3.00
- Not available, or unknown.
I Includes other states. 2 Preliminary.
SOURCE: Direcci6n General de Economa Agricola, Secretara de Agricultura y Recursos Hidriulicos (DGEA, SARH), and Uni6n Nacional deProductores de Hortalizas (UNPH).
April 1980 Commodity Programs, FAS, USDA




Table 19.-Eggplant: Mexico's Area, Yield, Production, Price, Value, and Exports, 1960-79
Area Yield Production Price
Year Total Average Total Total
Sinaloa Mexico Sinaloa Mexico S Inaloa Mexico Sinaloa Mexico
Hectares MT/hectares MT Pesos/Kg
1960 ......... 40 148 9.0 8.6 360 1,270 1.00 0.92
1961 ......... 40 383 9.5 8.4 380 3,215 1.00 0.97
1962 ......... 41 392 9.6 8.4 392 3,277 1.15 1.69
1963 ......... 100 442 9.6 8.3 960 3,663 1.25 1.27
1964 ......... 40 467 8.1 8.4 325 3,903 1.16 1.28
1965 ......... 132 545 9.7 8.4 1,276 4,556 1.29 1.29
1966 ......... 144 584 9.6 8.4 1,389 4,877 1.30 1.32
1967 ......... 168 652 9.5 8.4 1,602 5,495 1.28 1.32
1968 ......... 293 906 10.1 8.7 2,950 7,899 1.30 1.32
1969 ......... 545 1,027 22.9 15.6 12,463 16,032 1.35 1.35
1970 ......... 596 1,040 23.2 16.4 13,805 17,100 1.30 1.30
1971 ......... 585 684 23.5 21.3 13,748 14,551 1.50 1.49
1972 ......... 999 1,065 19.8 19.1 19,776 20,330 2.98 2.97
1973 ......... 1,219 1,335 19.1 18.6 23,299 24,834 2.90 2.84
1974 ......... 1,100 1,165 20.0 19.4 22,000 22,625 2.80 2.77
1975 ......... 606 990 20.0 19.5 12,120 19,305 3.85 3.84
1976 ......... 669 698 22.9 22.4 15,321 15,616 4.70 4.66
1977 ......... 419 443 32.6 31.3 13,644 13,854 6.50 6.46
19781 ........ 800 1,088 26.2 21.4 21,000 23,306 7.25 7.22
19791 .......... 1,000 1,200 25.0 22.5 25,000 27,000 7.50 7.35
1 Preliminary.
SOURCE: Uni6n Nacional de Productores de Hortalizas (UNPH), and Direcci6n General de Econom'a Agrfcola (DGEA), Secretarla de Agricola (SARH).
April 1980 Commodity Programs, FAS, USDA
51




Table 20.-Winter Vegetables: Sinaloa's Area, Yield, and Production for Export, 1969/70-1978/79
1969/70 1970/71 1971/72 1 1972/73 1973/74 1 1974/75 1975/76 1976/77 1977/781 1978/792
AREA: ------------------------ Hectares-- -------------------Cucumbers ................... 3,289 4,810 6,661 5,614 4,898 2,195 2,910 3,307 3,632 3,500
Eggplant ...................... 635 948 831 917 522 591 423 532 500
Peppers, Sweet Bell ............ 3,081 4,979 5,397 4,869 3,743 1,676 2,629 2,248 3,671 3,500
Squash ..................... 2,049 1,588 1,545 1,968 1,651 1,527 1,946 2,000
Tomatoes3 ................. 15,615 13,845 19,287 21,960 16,457 14,009 13,977 16,628 15,300 15,000
YIELD: ----------------------- Tons per hectare- ------------------Cucumbers .................. 11.25 11.65 7.69 11.08 12.61 17.12 23.13 23.20 25.76 25.71
Eggplant ................... 14.27 13.09 21.54 16.14 23.08 24.35 33.87 32.99 34.00
Peppers, Sweet Bell ............ 8.39 6.52 4.30 7.22 10.39 13.32 11.36 17.74 13.92 14.29
Squash ..................... 5.58 6.54 9.43 6.73 9.32 12.09 10.71 10.00
Tomatoes3 .................. 17.21 17.31 12.48 14.15 15.49 16.71 21.42 20.85 22.95 20.00
PRODUCTION: ------------------------- Tons----------------------Cucumbers .................. 11,254 56,026 51,223 62,203 61,764 37,518 67,308 76,722 93,564 90,000
Eggplant ...................... 9,061 12,409 17,902 14,799 12,048 14,394 14,327 17,550 17,000
Peppers, Sweet Bell ............ 25,854 32,495 23,186 35,138 38,889 22,319 29,847 39,875 51,093 50,000
Squash ..................... 11,434 10,390 14,564 13,249 15,380 18,469 21,042 20,000
Tomatoes3 .................. 268,717 239,645 240,618 310,701 254,862 234,092 299,380 346,746 351,195 300,000
Note: This does not include production for the domestic market, which generally takes 10 to 40 percent of the total output.
- Denotes not available.
1 Preliminary. 2 Estimate. 3 Includes staked, ground grown, cherry, roma, tomatillo and other varieties.
Source: Confederaci6n de Asociaciones Agrfcolas del Estado de Sinaloa (CAADES).
May 1980 Commodity Programs, FAS, USDA




Table 21.-Winter Vegetables: Sinaloa's Area Grown for Export by River Valley's 1974/75-1978/79
(In hectares)
1974/75 1975/76 1976/77 1977/78 1978/79'
CULIACAN
Tomatoes ........................... 7,726 6,933 8,318 8,553 8,400
Peppers, Bell ...................... ..... 902 1,172 1,254 1,848 1,700
Cucumbers ........................ 1,826 2,261 2,567 2,588 2,400
Eggplant ............................. 522 591 419 484 460
Squash .............................. 466 291 277 347 350
GUASAVE
Tomatoes ........................... 4,735 4,962 6,667 4,620 4,500
Peppers, Bell ...................... ..... 356 542 280 795 700
Cucumbers ........................ 30 200 211 422 400
Eggplant .......................... 2 4 18 15
Squash .............................. 358 493 239 390 400
LOS MOCHIS
Tomatoes ........................... 1,548 2,081 1,504 2,019 2,000
Peppers, Bell ...................... ..... 348 815 469 648 600
Cucumbers ............................ 185 124 103 174 170
Eggplant ......................... 9 4 19 15
Squash ........................... 998 774 847 639 650
SAN LORENZO
Tomatoes ............................... 1 81 49 50
Peppers, Bell ...................... ...... 33 49 122 195 190
Cucumbers ............................. 94 225 215 242 240
Squash .................................. 7 50 63 60
MOROCRITO
Tomatoes ............................... 5 59 50
Peppers, Bell ...................... ...... 37 50 70 99 100
Cucumbers .............................. 12 10
Squash .............................. 138 47 140 507 500
ELOTA and BACUARTE
Tomatoes ............................... 53
Peppers, Bell ...................... ...... 1 53 86 80
Cucumbers .............................. 8 100 211 194 190
TOTAL SINALOA
Tomatoes ........................... 14,009 13,977 16,628 15,300 15,000
Peppers, Bell ......................... 1,676 2,629 2,248 3,671 3,500
Cucumbers ......................... .2,195 2,910 3,307 3,632 3,500
Eggplant ............................. 553 595 423 532 500
Squash ........................... 1,968 1,651 1,563 1,946 2,000
- Denotes not available.
Estimates.
Source: Confederaci6n de Asociaciones Agrfcolas del Estado de Sinaloa.
May 1980 Commodity Programs, FAS, USDA
53




Table 22.-Tomatoes: Sinaloa's Production for the Local and Export Markets, 1969/70-1978/79
1969/70 1970/71 1 1971/72 1972/73 1973/74 1 1974/75 1975/76 1976/77 1977/78 11978/791
AREA ---- ---- ---- ------------- Hectares- ---------------------Total ....................... 15,615 13,845 19,287 21,960 16,457 14,009 13,977 16,628 15,300 15,000
YIELDS -- -------- ------------ -- Tons/hectare- ---------------------Total ....................... 23.12 24.28 17.65 20.33 22.64 25.59 32.54 28.44 34.69 30.00
Export ..................... 17.21 17.31 12.48 14.15 15.49 16.71 21.42 20.85 22.95 20.00
Domestic .................... 5.91 6.97 5.17 6.18 7.15 8.88 11.12 7.59 11.73 10.00
PRODUCTION--------- -------- ---- --- -- Tons- -----------------------Total ....................... 361,017 336,145 340,377 446,388 372,602 358,438 454,816 472,953 530,732 450,000
Export ..................... 268,717 239,645 240,618 310,701 254,862 234,092 299,380 346,746 351,195 300,000
Domestic .................... 92,300 96,500 99,759 135,687 117,740 124,346 155,436 126,207 179,537 150,000
1 Estimate.
Source: Confederaci6n de Asociaciones Agrfcolas del Estado de Sinaloa.
May 1980 Commodity Programs, FAS, USDA
Leo




Table 23.-Tomatoes: Sinaloa's Production by Type, 1969/70-1978/79
Staked tomatoes Ground grown Cherry-type All tomatoes
Crop-Year (Vine ripes) (Mature greens)
(Oct-Sept) Area Yield Production Area Yield Production Area I Yield Production Area I Yield I Production
hectares tons/ha tons hectares tons/ha tons hectares tons/ha tons hectares tons/ha tons
1969/70 ................ 11,976 19.26 230,689 2,382 6.79 16,169 1,257 17.39 21,859 15,615 17.21 268,717
1970/71 ................ 9,914 20.39 202,174 3,096 5.08 15,742 835 26.02 21,729 13,845 17.31 239,645
1971/72 ................ 14,411 13.73 197,834 3,865 5.21 20,144 1,011 22.39 22,640 19,287 12.48 240,618
1972/73 ................ 14,201 18.27 259,396 6,544 3.52 23,039 1,214 21.64 26,266 21,960 14.15 310,701
1973/74 ................ 11,401 17.66 201,286 3,296 5.31 17,490 1,655 20.45 33,853 16,457 15.49 254,862
1974/75 ................ 9,195 20.19 185,657 3,689 5.81 21,438 1,908 24.60 24,799 14,009 16.71 234,092
1975/76 ................ 9,225 27.48 253,526 3,753 5.18 19,422 877 25.77 22,596 13,977 21.42 299,380
1976/77 ................ 11,175 25.87 289,082 4,103 6.91 28,357 1,098 20.85 22,889 16,628 20.85 346,746
1977/78 ............... 10,305 28.36 292,201 3,294 7.63 25,144 1,407 18.62 26,195 15,300 22.95 351,195
1978/793 ............ 10,000 25.00 250,000 3,000 6.67 20,000 1,500 16.67 25,000 15,000 20.00 300,000
Note: This does not include production for the domestic market, which generally takes 30 to 40 percent of the total output.
1 Includes Roma, Tomatillo and other varieties. 2 Preliminary. 3 Estimates.
Source: Confederaci6n de Asociaciones Agrfcolas del Estado de Sinaloa (CAADES)
May 1980 Commodity Programs, FAS, USDA




Table 24.-Tomatoes: Sinaloa's Area by Type and River Valley, 1974/75-1978/79
(In hectares)
1974/75 1975/76 1976/77 1977/78 1978/79'
Culiac~n
Staked ....................... 6,998 6,359 7,563 7,613 7,300
Ground ............................. 252 200 193 320 300
Cherry ............................. 371 280 404 487 500
Roma .............................. 105 93 156 133 150
Tomatillo... .................................. 1 2
Total ...... ...................... 7,726 6,933 8,318 8,553 8,250
Guasave
Staked ....... ......... .......... 1,453 2,177 2,869 2,020 2,000
Ground ........................... 2,771 2,298 3,243 1,884 1,700
Cherry .... ..... .... ....... ... 508 487 499 699 700
Roma ... ........................ 3 55 17 25
Tomatilo...... ...........- 1
Total ....... .... .............. 4,735 4,962 6,667 4,620 3,425
Los Mochis
Staked ....................... 744 688 673 630 600
Ground ............................ 666 1,255 647 1,090 1,000
Cherry ....................... 129 110 151 189 200
Roma ........................ 3 10 17 85 100
Tomatillo ......................... 6 18 16 25 25
Total ...................... 1,548 2,081 1,504 2,019 1,925
San Lorenzo
Staked ................ ......... .. 1 55 42 40
Cherry ................ ........... 26 7 10
Total ...................... 1 81 49 50
Mocorito
Cherry ................ ........... 25 25
Roma ........................... -- 5 34 30
Total ...................... 5 59 55
Total Sinaloa
Staked ....................... 9,195 9,225 11,175 10,305 10,000
Ground ............................. 3,689 3,753 4,103 3,294 3,000
Cherry ..... ....................... 1,008 877 1,098 1,407 1,500
Roma .............................. 111 103 223 269 275
Tomatillo ......................... 6 19 19 25 25
Total ........................... 14,009 13,977 16,628 15,300 15,000
Note: Totals may not add because of insufficient data (particularly in 1978/79).
Denotes not available or insignificant
Estimate
Source: Confederaci6n de Asociaciones Agrlcolas del Estado de Sinaloa.
May 1980 Commodity Programs, FAS, USDA
56




Table 25.-Tomatoes, Fresh: US. Imports from Mexico, 1969/70-1979/80
(Metric tons)
Season October November December January February March IApril IMay IJune July August September Total
1969/70. .. .. .. ....679 2,561 8,488 35,265 47,568 55,460 68,799 44,665 17,327 1,619 1,076 818 284,325
1970/71. .. .. .. ....904 3,386 13,874 26,550 54,657 39,841 54,826 49,193 16,088 1,941 1,033 920 263,213
1971/72 .. .. .. .....1,437 3,704 8,489 17,871 70,116 35,941 57,295 50,798 13,167 550 1,371 1,065 261,804
1972/73 .. .. .. .....2,358 7,353 6,238 26,959 59,468 50,146 88,630 52,246 37,011 4,075 2,455 1,056 337,995
1973/74 .. .. .. .....2,181 7,943 7,629 37,976 61,675 38,418 40,934 52,019 18,256 3,150 1,139 495 271,815
1974/75 .. .. .. .....2,024 7,163 4,645 10,700 37,794 38,846 44,628 56,607 36,176 10,773 1,557 1,987 252,900
1975/76 .. .. .. .....3,025 4,357 7,155 25,517 64,451 41,978 53,526 2,121 66,849 8,608 1,433 1,234 280,254
1976/77 .. .. .. .....5,929 11,804 10,746 24,385 76,214 53,577 79,631 58,882 23,618 4,016 3,244 2,538 354,584
1977/78. .. .. .. ...10,687 9,639 9,819 56,772 65,124 76,279 64,811 54,314 16,751 2,970 5,549 4,857 377,572
1978/79 .. .. .. .....6,753 4,177 10,924 26,015 72,294 58,671 65,083 49,010 14,580 4,468 10,232 1,341 323,548
1979/80 .. .. .. ......3,656 6,995 9,825 34,605 62,917
-Denotes not available, unknown, or not applicable.
Source: Bureau of Census, Department of Commerce.
April 1980 Commodity Programs, FAS, USDA




Table 26.-Peppers, Fresh: US. Imports from Mexico, 1969/70-1979/80
(Metric tons)
Season October November jDecember January February March April I May IJune IJuly IAugust ISeptember Total
1969/70 .. .. .. ......65 91 937 3,662 6,011 7,828 4,974 2,465 628 124 136 178 27,099
1970/71 .. .. .. ......80 335 2,584 5,486 11,243 6,996 4,809 1,475 1,094 211 142 98 34,553
1971/72 .. .. .. ......85 343 1,727 3,801 10,293 6,031 3,356 1,636 677 208 ill 69 28,337
1972/73. .. .. .. .....1l 228 1,126 4,579 10,775 9,004 7,345 3,129 1,221 352 275 238 38,383
1973/74. .. .. .. ....311 421 2,430 9,441 12,410 7,061 4,673 2,237 760 525 289 167 40,725
1974/75. .. .. .. ....149 333 1,192 3,396 5,876 5,813 4,151 2,801 1,205 614 349 463 26,342
1975/76. .. .. .. ....425 558 2,653 7,008 11,563 8,771 4,719 1,726 1,762 535 499 338 40,557
1976/77. .. .. .. ....308 454 2,423 6,307 14,085 12,373 7,138 3,891 1,361 712 633 579 50,264
1977/78. .. .. .. ....419 602 3,099 14,158 14,125 13,476 9,170 2,910 1,222 727 899 843 61,650
-L
00 1978/79. .. .. .. ....793 895 6,381 9,582 14,858 11,382 10,864 3,888 1,509 1,170 831 517 62,670
1979/80. .. .. .. .....791 650 5,337 14,185 17,580
-Denotes not available, unknown, or not applicable.
Source: Bureau of Census, Department of Commerce.
April 1980 Commodity Programs, FAS, USDA




Table 27.-Cucumbers, Fresh: US. Imports from Mexico, 1969/70-1979/80
(Metric tons)
Season October November December January February March ,April May I June July August September Total
1969/70 ........ 6 279 8,119 8,535 10,642 12,641 9,102 1,193 42 2 50,561
1970/71 ........ 101 13,153 14,266 20,837 9,686 10,288 2,323 155 2 70,811
1971/72 ........ 227 7,057 14,552 21,656 12,132 8,543 1,039 41 65,247
1972/73 ........ 35 576 11,309 16,728 16,040 11,181 18,555 3,149 1,161 203 25 29 78,991
1973/74 ........ 203 535 7,707 22,971 24,720 10,354 9,625 2,017 344 17 58 43 78,594
1974/75 ........ 414 1,107 4,472 10,736 17,006 6,403 6,386 5,257 1,007 513 53,301
1975/76 ........ 426 541 7,207 20,888 27,517 17,004 9,572 765 1,817 88 85,825
1976/77 ........ 1,278 10,075 21,354 31,622 15,629 14,868 3,132 506 217 20 98,701
1977/78 ........ 10 2,410 17,351 37,539 27,843 18,867 16,855 3,182 670 239 5 13 124,984
' 1978/79 ........ .... 132 2,328 21,551 20,893 32,811 29,930 22,629 2,304 400 69 12 5 133,064
1979/80 ........ .... 137 4,240 21,260 32,233 42,221
-Denotes not available, unknown, or not applicable.
Source: Bureau of Census, Department of Commerce.
April 1980 Commodity Programs, FAS, USDA




Table 28.-Squash, Fresh: U.S. Imports from Mexico, 1969/70-1979/80
(Metric tons)
Season October November December January February March April IMay June I July August ISeptember Total
1969/70 ........... 39 911 2,291 2,881 3,065 1,339 831 234 6 11,597
1970/71 .......... 1,169 2,076 4,446 2,869 1,830 652 63 18 13,123
1971/72 .......... 4 14 1,177 3,197 6,537 3,436 1,048 333 82 21 21 32 15,902
1972/73 .......... 9 36 1,948 3,830 4,336 3,086 3,168 907 309 12 17,641
1973/74 .......... 65 133 1,707 5,234 5,767 3,588 1,871 1,143 133 9 7 19,657
1974/75 .......... 91 85 1,088 2,996 4,760 4,650 1,900 814 196 6 15 6 16,607
1975/76 .......... 125 42 1,143 4,772 7,478 4,898 1,867 571 502 37 21,435
1976/77 .......... 17 191 2,815 4,897 7,530 7,000 3,602 1,774 657 30 14 28,527
1977/78 .......... 244 323 4,258 9,943 7,527 6,325 2,732 2,289 102 59 8 6 33,816
1978/79 .......... 64 904 7,038 6,251 10,606 9,890 5,854 2,201 444 58 18 8 43,336
1979/80 .......... 1. 486 1,053 5,517 8,854 9,792
-Denotes not available, unknown, or not applicable.
Source: Bureau of Census, Department of Commerce.
April 1980 Commodity Programs, FAS, USDA




Table 29.-Eggplant, Fresh: U.S. Imports from Mexico, 1969/70-1979/80
(Metric tons)
Season October November December January February March April May I June July August September Total
1969/70 ........ 2 22 1,271 1,661 2,006 2,487 1,637 606 108 9,800
1970/71 ......... 28 1,258 1,675 3,076 1,833 1,060 825 521 3 10,279
1971/72 ........ 164 1,347 2,388 2,821 2,025 1,168 1,437 361 1 11,712
1972/73 ........ 10 815 2,041 3,341 3,018 2,298 3,610 1,707 950 84 2 17,876
1973/74 ........ ..... 1 554 2,197 3,000 3,185 1,767 914 1,430 338 14 13,400
1974/75 ......... 67 1,169 1,839 2,079 1,697 1,540 1,749 476 133 10,749
1975/76 ........ 334 1,857 2,221 3,110 3,444 1,064 26 1,651 170 13,877
1976/77 ........... 384 1,409 1,956 3,368 3,606 1,772 1,148 671 9 14,323
ON 1977/78 ........ 100 1,827 4,385 2,995 3,077 2,948 1,929 575 138 1 17,975
1978/79 ........ 472 2,422 2,200 3,774 2,635 2,764 1,996 941 17,204
1979/80 ........ ..62 1,026 2,612 2,900 3,858
-Denotes not available, unknown, or not applicable.
Source: Bureau of Census, Department of Commerce.
April 1980 Commodity Programs, FAS, USDA




Table 30.-Vegetables, Fresh, Chilled or Frozen: U.S. Imports (for consumption) from Mexico, 1965-79
Year Asparagus Green beans Brussel Cbae Cros Ccmes Egln alcOr
(fresh) sprouts Cbae Cros Ccmes Egln alcOr
QUANTITY--------- ------ ----- ----- ----- ------1,000 Pounds------- ----- - -- -- -- -- -- -- -1965........................(1) 8,255 (1) 38 1,518 39,370 4,426 6,968 110
1966 ...................... .() 6,112 ()416 4,170 48,076 5,686 6,248 31
1967 ...................... .() 7,162 ()- 2,653 58,412 7,186 9,160 798
1968 .........................1 7,841 (1 ~79 16,767 59,876 10,432 7,997 4,229
1969 ...................... .() 10,980 ()23 1,288 109,953 17,769 9,361 2,788
1970 ...................... .() 12,176 ()-108 2,583 122,160 21,585 8,424 5,459
1971 ...................... .() 11,979 ()581 2,660 142,948 23,153 6,790 4,200
1972 ...................... .() 17,668 ()106 10,413 154,064 28,806 6,861 5,203
1973 .........................7,284 14,720 ()121 5,929 166,484 39,156 10,584 6,625
1974 .........................9,109 14,693 ()160 9,563 167,864 26,201 15,502 7,665
1975 .........................8,485 10,222 ()371 7,893 122,316 25,806 16,125 5,855
1976 .........................8,244 11,975 ()189 4,999 196,218 29,719 11,290 9,565
1977 .........................7,091 16,928 3,998 24,668 18,533 236,154 31,871 13,227 16,170
1978 .........................5,006 24,786 4,478 4,809 8,566 284,884 41,759 23,444 20,957
1979 .........................6,693 23,904 4,848 11,898 7,963 296,941 39,702 34,256 23,802
VALUE----------- ----- ----- ----- -----------1,00Do~ars------- ----- - - -- -- -- -- -- -- -1965 ...................... .() 1,019 ()1 10 2,843 388 962 7
1966 ...................... .() 951 ()10 35 3,638 481 912 2
t') 1967 ...................... .() 1,040 (1 41 4,518 565 1,538 49
1968 ...................... .() 1,180 ()3 356 4,595 982 1,743 238
1969 ...................... .() 1,475 (1 19 10.891 2,008 1,514 133
1970 ...................... .() 1,669 ()2 33 10,566 2,520 1,390 304
1971 ...................... .() 1,583 ()26 44 12,116 2,581 1,239 289
1972 ........................(1) 2,301 ()4 208 13,150 3,319 1,754 479
1973 .........................1,454 2,063 ()2 311 14,468 4,176 2,596 534
1974 ..........................1,788 1,638 ()10 385 8,059 1,332 3,474 639
1975 .........................2,496 1,095 ()36 344 5,869 1,306 4,075 355
1976 .........................2,490 1,232 ()32 267 11,487 1,594 3,511 581
1977 .........................2,878 3,194 688 984 727 17,893 3,278 3,926 927
1978 .........................2,546 7,929 755 241 494 42,405 7,537 6,425 1,361
1979 ..........................3,817 7,848 830 835 408 42,785 6,912 9,724 1,510
- Denotes not available, unknown, or not applicable.
I Not separately classified. continued -




Table 30.-Vegetables, Fresh, Chilled or Frozen: U.S. Imports (for consumption) from Mexico Annually, 1965-79-Continued
Year Onions Peas Peppers Radishes Squash Tomatoes Other TOTAL
QUANTITY---------- ----- ----- ----- ----- ----- --1,00Pounds------- ------ - - -- -- -- -- -- -- -1965 ..........................39,312 4,702 17,672 5,525 265,459 4,423 397,778
1966 ..........................50,530 5,767 24,591 5,057 358,743 8,986 524,413
1967 ..........................41,407 4,848 27,799 374 11,129 362,354 9,504 542,786
1968 ..........................70,465 3,973 24,429 683 9,476 387,401 16,147 619,795
1969 ..........................51,248 6,164 40,662 1,612 18,944 446,240 23,770 740,802
1970 ..........................61,809 5,766 63,946 3,992 26,049 641,015 25,621 1,000,693
1971 ..........................41,110 5,316 74,319 2,226 28,988 570,287 30,235 944,792
1972 ..........................57,305 5,257 60,948 1,496 36,814 582,284 35,140 1,002,365
1973 ..........................124,129 6,434 88,363 2,128 38,700 749,121 31,784 1,291,562
1974 ...........................0,347 7,656 86,583 3,558 41,925 590,601 36,754 1,108,181
1975 ..........................75,037 4,668 62,397 4,036 36,711 559,095 35,978 974,995
1976 ..........................74,414 6,908 88,416 4,644 51,032 648,584 39,545 1,185,742
1977 ..........................97,450 6,788 112,873 2,858 66,863 785,386 43,347 1,484,205
1978 ..........................118,733 6,675 144,617 4,600 81,561 814,116 18,872 1,607,863
1979 ..........................143,081 6,423 135,319 7,352 93,439 710,250 32,625 1,578,496
VALUE----------- ---- ----- ----- ----- ------ --1, 000 Dollars------- ----- - -- --- -- -- -- -- -- -C\ 1965 ...........................2,158 642 2,024 414 29,425 366 40,259
1966 ...........................3,097 783 3,702 546 52,015 637 66,809
1967 ...........................2,776 778 4,293 23 1,149 42,607 585 59,962
1968 ...........................4,597 533 4,068 41 1,451 46,973 1,229 67,989
1969 ...........................3,471 746 7,671 83 2,512 68,018 2,048 100,589
1970 ...........................5,587 1,086 12,222 161 3,387 94,967 2,967 136,861
1971 ...........................3,444 1,013 13,553 130 3,620 84,131 3,810 127,579
1972 ...........................4,875 1,002 10,881 111 4,981 88,150 4,402 135,617
1973 ...........................9,065 1,300 16,132 184 4,838 115,138 3,834 176,095
1974 ...........................7,077 1,086 9,124 337 2,130 64,071 5,378 106,528
1975 ...........................6,846 806 7,928 404 1,893 64,132 5,776 103,361
1976 ...........................6,403 981 10,485 433 3,006 72,429 7,163 122,094
1977 ..........................11,932 871 21,450 363 6,049 149,406 7,664 232,230
1978 ..........................13,400 988 32,530 629 17,561 161,097 2,329 298,227
1979 ...........................17,689 1,868 35,837 897 17,748 153,184 5,175 307,067
Source: U.S. Bureau of Census, Department of Commerce.
April 1980 Commodity Programs, FAS, USDA




Table 31.-Vegetable Preparations: U.S. Imports (for consumption) from Mexico, 1965-79
Canned Canned Tomato Dehydrated Pickled
Year aspags tomatoes paste & vegetables vegetables Other TOTAL
sauce NES
QUANTITY------ -- ----- -----------1,O00Pounds -- -- -------- -- -- -- -1965 ...................1 1 1,899 5,243 10,741 345 18,229
1966 ...................1 1 7,080 1,5S4 6,882 1,719 17,236
1967 ...................(1) 1,143 10,015 187 13,344 1,556 26,245
1968 ...................1 4 410 6 12,178 1,768 14,366
1969 ...................1 445 6,310 17 15,146 1,291 23,209
1970 ....................156 1,226 9,015 9 18,276 1,310 29,992
1971 ...................1,941 1,164 9,030 4 22,576 2,137 36,852
1972 ...................4,011 540 4,724 8 29,757 3,313 42,353
1973 ...................3,282 5,650 4,938 42 31,971 3,121 49,004
1974 ...................4,546 3,970 4,931 163 36,686 7,530 57,826
1975 ...................5,582 3,588 3,103 188 25,792 6,329 44,582
1976 ...................2,719 278 13,389 299 33,377 7,645 57,707
1977 ...................2,315 672 24,338 270 35,885 9,230 72,710
1978 ...................1,768 575 28,162 575 46,252 15,724 93,056
1979 ...................1,861 739 22,775 553 50,859 19,164 95,951
VALUE---- ----- ----- -------1,000 Dollars-------- -- -- -- -- ---1965 ...................(1) 180 584 675 92 1,531
1966 ..................() 966 300 705 268 2,239
1967 ..................() 68 1,432 82 1,103 236 2,921
1968 ..................() 1 73 7 1,429 461 1,971
1969 ..................() 31 1,206 15 1,582 431 3,265
1970 ....................39 99 1,360 13 2,078 363 3,952
1971 ....................612 138 1,256 3 2,298 653 4,960
1972 ...................1,173 178 670 7 2,898 971 5,897
1973 ...................1,102 515 817 13 3,568 919 6,934
1974 ...................1,739 458 2,200 290 5,159 1,881 11,727
1975 ...................2,428 537 804 405 5,324 2,589 12,087
1976 ....................961 54 3,287 585 7,064 2,817 14,768
1977 ...................1,099 116 7,172 456 7,088 3,665 19,596
1978 ...................1,145 115 7,652 1,475 8,749 6,297 25,433
1979 ....................1,342 206 6,306 1,457 12,110 8,089 29,510
- Denotes not available, unknown, or not applicable.
1 Not separately classified.
Source: U.S. Bureau of Census, Department of Commerce.
April 1980 Commodity Programs, FAS, USDA
64




Table 32.-Fruits and Vegetables: Value of US. Imports (for consumption) from Mexico, 1965 -1979 (In $1,000)
Fruits and Preparations (Including melons) Vegetables & Preparations
I Total
Year Fresh IProcessed Fruits and
Frit Mlos Toalj uie ol otl Total Fresh Processed Total 1 Vegs.
_ Mln Ttl ri Citrus IOther _ta
1965. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ...6,147 8,958 15,105 744 3,789 12,113 16,646 31,751 40,259 1,531 41,790 73,541
1966. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ...6,568 7,436 14,004 271 4,018 20,443 24,732 38,736 66,809 2,239 69,048 107,784
1967. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ...8,503 7,595 16,098 230 5,813 14,572 20,615 36,713 59,962 2,921 62,883 99,596
1968 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ....13,730 6,367 20,097 659 5,682 16,979 23,320 43,417 67,989 1,971 69,960 113,377
1969 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ....12,878 9,048 21,926 302 2,322 19,625 22,249 44,175 100,589 3,265 103,854 148,029
1970................... 16,119 11,309 27,428 319 3,445 18,835 22,599 50,027 136,861 3,952 140,813 190,840
1971 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ....15,808 12,222 28,030 647 2,841 16,038 19,526 47,556 127,579 4,960 132,539 180,095
1972................... 16,163 12,957 29,120 2,724 4,151 18,175 25,050 54,170 135,617 5,897 141,514 195,684
1973................... 18,818 16,095 34,913 3,777 4,440 29,789 38,006 72,919 176,095 6,934 183,029 255,948
1974................... 20,240 18,193 38,433 3,446 6,138 33,259 42,843 81,276 106,528 11,727 118,255 199,531
1975................... 19,236 20,026 39,262 2,145 5,540 28,915 36,600 75,862 103,361 12,087 115,448 191,310
1976................... 21,936 23,526 45,462 983 3,899 24,940 29,822 75,284 122,094 14,768 136,862 212,146
1977................... 28,523 30,015 58,538 9,721 7,597 39,541 56,859 115,397 232,230 19,596 251,826 367,223
1978................... 36,834 32,578 69,412 12,164 9,476 38,317 59,957 129,369 298,227 25,433 323,660 453,029
1979................... 40,295 36,256 76,551 11,508 14,743 49,309 75,560 152,111 307,067 29,510 336,577 488,688
1 Excludes dried beans and peas.
Source: U.S. Bureau of Census, Department of Commerce.
April 1980 Commodity Programs, FAS, USDA




Table 33.-Mexico Truck Imports Through South Texas, Port of Entry, 1975/76-1978-79 1 (Pounds)
Commodity 1975/76 1976/77 1977/78 1978/79
Asparagus..................................870,000 930,000 720,000 720,000
Bananas................................. 4,720,000 21,200,000 18,480,000 2,544,000
Beans, green................................ 810,000 2,940,000 1,590,000 360,000
Broccoli.................................. ...- 161,000 1,495,000 92,000
Cabbage.................................. ...- 25,450,000 3,650,000 7,300,000
Cantaloupes .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ... .. ... .....78,920,000 78,920,000 96,440,000 132,840,000
Carrots. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ... .. .. ... .....12,336,000 16,320,000 14,832,000 6,576,000
Cauliflower............................... ..66,000 22,000 1,892,000 1,562,000
Coconuts................................. 2,150,000 1,700,000 920,000 1,360,000
Cucumbers................................ 19,085,000 13,475,000 21,065,000 17,820,000
Eggplant................................... ..- 33,000
Garlic....................................5,720,000 6,094,000 7,678,000 21,098,000
Honeydews............................... 7,800,000 12,960,000 16,020,000 33,540,000
Mangoes................................. 2,618,000 2,198,000 3,752,000 8,918,000
Melons, mixed. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ... .. ....1,860,000 630,000
Okra. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ... .. ... .. .. .......12,840,000 11,880,000 17,520,000 17,520,000
Onions, dry............................... 77,050,000 103,050,000 112,800,000 98,850,000
Papayas..................................... 10,000
Parsley.................................... ..- 21,000
Peas, So.................................. 832,000 3,094,000 5,798,000 2,990,000
Peppers................................... 7,900 12,240,000 6,575,000 5,225,000
Others............................................- 4,140,000
Pineapples................................ 65,640,000 80,200,000 85,240,000 87,960,000
Squash.................................. 5,334,000 7,938,000 10,374,000 6,342,000
Strawberries............................... 13,356,000 19,200,000 23,160,000 29,616,000
Tomatoes................................. 11,640,000 53,100,000 28,830,000 5,700,000
Cherry............................................ 22,920,000
Turnips..................................... 150,000
Watermelons.............................. 98,430,000 78,404,000 106,148,000 116,484,000
Grapefruit................................. .56,000 11,360,000 5,080,000 4,920,000
Limes....................................7,240,000 10,880,000 19,080,000 19,080,000
Oranges.................................. 8,643,000 31,261,000 23,994,000 43,946,000
Tangerines. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ... .. .. .......39,690,000 66,375,000 38,925,000 43,830,000
-Denotes not available, unknown, or not applicable.
1Period covered: September 1-June 30.
Source: Plant Quarantine, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS), U.S. Department of Agriculture.
April 1980 Commodity Programs, FAS, USDA
66




Table 34.-Mexico Rail and Truck Imports Through Nogales, Arizona, Port of Entry 1974/75.1978/791
(Pounds)
Commodities 1974/ 75 1975/76 1976/77 1977/78 1978/79
Asparagus....................... 267,908- 75,463 55,054
Beans, green..................... 9,913,294 11,790,141 14,416,447 20,387,615 25,880,459
Brussel sprouts................... 705,542 435,449 288,394 80,921
Cucumbers..................... 103,580,297 162,609,172 192,206,405 231,613,361 239,509,112
Corn, sweet. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ......105,532 75,119 135,045 110,164 72,927
Eggplant. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .....27,740,728 38,769,S27 33,717,799 40,975,266 39,438,073
Garlic......................... 2,037,718 1,087,732 915,420 2,793,610 8,428,350
Grapes, table.................... 4,016,074 8,959,684 9,987,512 10,141,407 19,758,299
Limes.......................... 8,544 39,877 66,217 43,398
Mangoes....................... 2,864,486 2,603,879 3,306,203 8,558,539 10,075,548
Melons, all
Cantaloupes & mixed types. .. .. .....2 65,195,963 2 56,431,263 2 95,326,501 2 94,319,956 5,142,818 Onions, dry. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ......836,215 584,723 110,785 1,168, 030 267,483
Oranges .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ... ........- 74,866 710,630
Peas, green...................... 5,496,089 9,021,095 6,528,131 6,643,196 5,885,490
Peppers
Calwndr type................. 41,962,187 66,163,300 90,980,342 121,219,691 111,559,217
Other types................... 7,505,294 12,180,313 10,507,466 14,781,378 11,201,576
Combined total. .. .. .. .. .. .....49,467,481 78,343,613 101,487,808 136,001,069 122,760,793
Squash........................ 38,642,635 45,928,984 58,660,345 70,901,824 86,310,825
Strawberries......................815,668 403,684 588,804 443,254 667,450
Tomatoes
Green, breakers & ripers.......... 506,412,400 558,784,873 669,267,308 693,774,063 625,721,019 Cherry type.................. 58,855,583 56,221,640 63,346,121 75,745,725 49,179,923
Total.................... 565,267,983 615,006,513 732,613,429 769,519,788 674,900,942
Watermelons.................... 60,164,564 81,543,324 80,905,971 77,362,199 86,215,763
-Denotes not available, unknown, or not applicable.
1Period covered: July 1-June 30. 2 Includes cantaloupes.
Source: Plant Quarantine, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS), U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA).
April 1980 Commodity Programs, FAS, USDA
67




Table 35.-Tomatoes: US. Imports by Principal Ports of Entry, 1960-78
Fiscal year1 Nogales, Calexico, San Diego, Brownsville, Hidalgo, Laredo, Total3
Arizona California California2 Texas Texas I Texas
- --- ------ ------ -----Metric Tons------ -- -- -- -- -- -1960 .. .. .. .. ......91,511 41 2,550 5,744 2,872 10,251 112,969
1961 .. .. .. .. ......67,046 239 2,009 7,500 1,078 3,767 81,639
1962 .. .. .. .. ......97,443 126 2,573 3,117 959 2,651 106,869
1963. .. .. .. .. ....103,414 11 928 4,110 1,238 4,900 114,601
1964. .. .. .. .. ....109,989 387 587 2,529 2,076 3,405 118,973
1965. .. .. .. .. ....122,114 1,912 967 951 2,218 1,902 130,064
1966. .. .. .. .. ....174,907 1,492 1,112 973 802 2,841 182,127
1967............. 194,375 322 3,205 1,582 1,678 5,585 206,747
1968............. 178,774 180 3,575 963 1,474 2,486 187,452
1969. .. .. .. .. ....235,252 245 2,841 1,328 3,646 6,150 249,462
1970............. 298,175 100 3,751 3,287 5,791 7,515 318,619
1971. .. .. .. .. ....262,858 347 6,172 4,736 6,360 9,079 289,552
1972............. 259,470 877 7,164 3,167 6,866 10,196 287,740
1973. .. .. .. .. ....308,718 532 10,004 2,605 7,304 10,492 339,655
1974. .. .. .. .. ....249,203 1,030 12,463 1,247 7,112 8,956 280,011
1975. .. .. .. .. ....250,604 353 11,652 147 7,912 5,027 275,695
1976. .. .. .. .. ....233,484 880 15,684 95 5,367 2,027 257,537
1977. .. .. .. .. ....332,335 1,130 28,815 764 12,698 8,371 384,113
1978. .. .. .. .. ....348,966 637 35,184 215 13,308 2,722 401,032
Note: This data may include Transshipments to Canada.
IJuly-June through 1976, October-September year beginning in 1977. 2Includes entries labeled San Ysidro.
3 Total does not include all U.S. Ports of Entry.
Source: Foreign Agricultural Trade of the United States (FATUS) Imports under plant quarantine regulations, Plant Protection and Quarantine, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, (PPQ-APHIS), USDA.
January 1980 Commodity Programs, FAS, USDA
68




Table 36.-U.S. Imports of Fresh Tomatoes from Mexico, 1960/61-1978/79
Quantity (1,000 pounds) Percentage of total
Season Fall Winter Spring Summer Total Fall Winter Spring Summer
Oct-Dec Jan-Mar Apr-Jun JuI-Sep Oct-Dec Jan-Mar Apr-Jun Jul-Sep
1960/61 . . . 32,988 105,839 40,537 3,097 182,461 18.1 58.0 22.2 1.7
1961/62 ...... 6,596 139,498 83,361 642 230,097 2.9 60.6 36.2 0.2
1962/63 . . . 9,717 150,856 74,897 446 235,916 4.1 64.0 31.7 0.2
1963/64 . . . 13,765 136,847 97,215 1,389 249,216 5.5 54.9 39.0 0.6
1964/65 ...... 10,671 139,341 107,471 1,026 258,509 4.1 53.9 41.6 0.3
1965/66 ...... 17,622 179,987 140,051 2,398 340,058 5.2 52.9 41.2 0.7
1966/67 ...... 36,306 190,801 150,722 8,277 386,106 9.4 49.4 39.0 2.1
1967/68 . . . 12,555 186,971 151,984 7,510 359,020 3.S 52.1 42.3 2.1
1968/69 . . . 40,936 235,498 179,864 5,020 461,318 8.9 51.0 39.0 1.1
1969/70 . . . 25,857 304,881 288,344 7,747 626,829 4.1 48.7 46.0 1.2
1970/71 . . . 40,044 266,864 264,789 8,586 580,283 6.9 46.0 45.6 1.5
1971/72 . . . 30,049 273,211 267,328 6,582 577,170 5.2 47.3 46.3 1.1
1972/73 . . . 35,164 301,088 392,170 16,724 745,146 4.7 40.4 52.6 2.2
1973/74 . . . 39,140 304,389 245,172 10,546 S99,247 6.5 50.8 40.9 1.8
1974/75 . . . 30,494 192,549 302,935 31,563 557,541 5.5 34.5 54.3 5.7
1975/76 . . . 32,047 290,890 270,054 24,857 617,848 5.2 47.1 43.7 4.0
1976/77 . . . 62,783 339,896 357,435 21,602 781,716 8.0 43.5 45.7 2.8
1977/78 . . . 66,458 436,898 299,554 29,487 832,397 8.0 52.5 36.0 3.5
1978/79 . . . 48,182 346,078 283,672 35,363 713,295 6.7 48.5 39.8 5.0
1
Source: Dept. of Commerce, Bureau of Census.
January 1980 Commodity Programs, FAS, USDA
69




Table 37.-Fresh Tomatoes: U.S. shipments and market shares by seasonal groups, California, Florida, and Mexico, November-May, 1974/75.1979/80
U.S. shipments' Market shares
Season and year Cali- Flrd eioOhr3 Ttl Cali- FoiaMxc te3 Toa
fornia oId eIc Ote Toa fornia oId MIc Ote Toa
- - -- - ---1,000 cwt.-- -- -- -- - ---- ---Percent-- -- -- -- --
Fall: Nov.-Dec.
1974........... 759 1,658 260 91 2,768 27.4 59.9 9.4 3.3 100.0
1975........... 806 1,663 254 102 2,825 28.5 58.9 9.0 3.6 100.0
1976. .. .. .. ....575 2,179 497 29 3,280 17.5 66.4 15.2 .9 100.0
1977. .. .. .. ....810 1,935 429 12 3,186 25.4 60.7 13.5 .4 100.0
1978........... 660 2,573 333 13 3,579 18.4 71.9 9.3 .4 100.0
197 94.. .. .. .....610 2,482 371 45 3,508 17.4 70.8 10.6 1.2 100.0
Winter: Jan.-March
1975 .. .. .. ......22 2,716 1,926 54 4,718 .5 57.6 40.8 1.1 100.0
1976........... .32 2,435 2,909 30 5,406 .6 45.0 53.8 .6 100.0
1977........... .51 991 3,399 36 4,477 1.1 22.1 75.9 .9 100.0
1978 ........ 7 1,945 4,370 14 6,336 .1 30.7 69.0 .2 100.0
197 94. .. .. .. ....10 2,220 3,461 12 5,703 .2 38.9 60.7 .2 100.0
1980 ............17 3,268 --
Spring: April-May
1975 .. .. .. ......13 2,542 2,232 145 4,932 .3 51.5 45.3 2.9 100.0
1976 .. .. .. ......38 3,143 1,227 131 4,539 .8 69.3 27.0 2.9 100.0
1977 .. .. .. ......71 2,408 3,054 128 5,t661 1.3 42.5 53.9 2.3 100.0
1978........... 106 2,408 2,626 68 5,208 2.0 46.2 50.4 1.4 100.0
197 94. .. .. .. ....77 3,233 2,515 57 5,882 1.3 55.0 42.7 1.0 100.0
Combined seasons
1974/75 ...... 794 6,916 4,418 290 12,418 6.4 55.7 35.6 2.3 100.0
1975/76 ...... 876 7,241 4,390 263 12,770 6.9 56.7 34.4 2.0 100.0
1976/77 ...... 697 5,578 6,950 193 13,418 5.2 41.6 51.8 1.4 100.0
1977/78 ...... 923 6,288 7,425 94 14,730 6.3 42.7 50.4 .6 100.0
1978/7 94 727 8,026 6,309 82 15,144 4.8 53.0 41.7 .5 100.0
- Denotes not available, unknown, or not applicable.
1 Including imports. 2 Percentage of total U.S. shipments, including imports. 3 Includes other States and foreign countries. 4 Preliminary.
Source: Data compiled by Vegetable Branch, F & V Div., AMS from annual reports of the Market News Branch, F & V Div., AMS.
April 1980 Commodity Programs, FAS, USDA
70




Table 38.-Fresh Green Peppers: U.S. Shipments and Market Shares by Seasonal Groups, Florida and Mexico, November-May, 1974/75-1979/80
U.S. shipments1 Market shares2
SaoanyerFlorida M exico IOther3 Total Florida IMexico IOther3 Total
- 1,000 cWt.-- -- -- ---- ------Percent--- -- -- -Fall: Nov.-Dec.
1974................. 377 29 270 676 55.8 4.3 39.9 100.0
1975.................359 35 244 638 56.3 5.5 38.2 100.0
1976................. 457 54 223 734 62.3 7.4 30.3 100.0
1977. .. .. .. .. .. .....520 69 317 906 57.4 7.6 35.0 100.0
19784.. .. .. .. .. .. ....372 161 337 870 42.8 18.5 38.7 100.0
174....... 251 132 416 799 31.4 16.5 52.1 100.0
Winter: Jan.-March
1975................. 822 283 19 1,124 73.1 25.2 1.7 100.0
1976................. 633 513 21 1,167 54.2 44.0 1.8 100.0
1977................. 296 614 34 '944 31.4 65.0 3.6 100.0
1978.................. 566 920 44 1,530 37.0 60.1 2.9 100.0
1979 ................. 634 790 41 1,465 43.3 53.9 2.8 100.0
1980 ................ 508 ------Spring: April-May
1975................. 821 130 104 1,055 77.8 12.3 9.9 100.0
1976................. 799 121 164 1,084 73.7 11.2 15.1 100.0
1977. .. .. .. .. .. ......874 207 86 1,167 74.9 17.7 7.4 100.0
1978. .. .. .. .. .. ......575 266 73 914 62.9 29.1 8.0 100.0
197 94.. .. .. .. .. .. ....642 325 85 1,052 61.0 30.9 8.1 100.0
Combined seasons
1974/75.............. 2,020 442 393 2,855 70.8 15.5 13.7 100.0
1975/76.............. 1,791 669 429 2,889 62.0 23.2 14.8 100.0
1976/77.............. 1,627 875 343 2,845 57.2 30.8 12.0 100.0
1977/78................1,661 1,255 434 3,350 49.6 37.5 12.9 100.0
1978/79 ............. 1,648 1,276 463 3,387 48.7 37.7 13.6 100.0
- Denotes not available, unknown, or not applicable.
IIncluding imports. 2Percentage of total U.S. shipments, including imports. 3Includes other States and foreign countries. 4 Preliminary.
Source: Data compiled by Vegetable Branch, F & V Div., AMS from annual reports of the Market News Branch, F & V Div., AMS
April 1980 Commodity Programs, FAS, USDA
71




Table 39.-Fresh Cucumbers: U.S. Shipments and Market Shares by Seasonal Groups, Florida, Texas, and Mexico, November-May 1974/75.1979/80
*U.S. shipments1 Market shares2
Season and year
Florida ITexas IMexico IOther3I Total Florida ITexas Mexico IOther3 Total
- ------ ---1,000 cwt.-- -- -- -- ----- ------Percent-- -- -- ---Fall: Nov.-Dec.
1974 .. .. .. .. ....637 107 132 18 894 71.3 12.0 14.8 1.9 100.0
1975 .. .. .. .. ....511 87 182 29 809 63.2 10.8 22.5 3.5 100.0
1976 .. .. .. .. ....507 106 526 33 1,172 43.3 9.0 44.9 2.8 100.0
1977............ 641 206 466 68 1,381 46.4 14.9 33.7 5.0 100.0
1978............. 846 146 526 46 1,564 54.1 9.3 33.6 3.0 100.0
1979 ........... 5S16 176 562 44 1,298 39.8 13.6 43.3 3.3 100.0
Winter: Jan.-March
1975............ 275 2 805 73 1,155 23.8 .2 69.7 6.3 100.0
1976 .. .. .. .. ....243 1,542 142 1,927 12.6 80.0 7.4 100.0
1977 .. .. .. .. ....127 2 1,617 105 1,851 6.9 .1 87.3 5.7 100.0
1978............. 141 10 1,858 95 2,104 6.7 .5 88.3 4.5 100.0
1979 ............. 214 1,844 128 2,186 9.8 84.4 5.8 100.0
1980 ............ 191
Spring: April-May
1975 .. .. .. .. ....955 144 275 77 1,451 65.8 9.9 19.0 5.3 100.0
1976. .. .. .. .....1,240 127 244 129 1,740 71.3 7.3 14.0 7.4 100.0
1977............ 1,188 279 425 219 2,111 56.3 13.2 20.1 10.4 100.0
19784. .. .. .. .....1,054 222 442 96 1,814 58.1 12.2 24.4 5.3 100.0
1979 ........... 998 242 550 150 1,940 51.4 12.5 28.4 7.7 100.0
Combined seasons
1974/75.......... 1,867 253 1,212 168 3,500 53.3 7.2 34.6 4.9 100.0
1975/76.......... 1,994 214 1,968 300 4,476 44.5 4.8 44.0 6.7 100.0
1976/77.......... 1,822 387 2,568 357 5,134 35.5 7.5 50.0 7.0 100.0
1977/78. .. .. .....1,836 438 2,766 259 5,299 34.6 8.3 52.2 4.9 100.0
1978/794. .. .. .....2,058 388 2,920 324 5,690 36.2 6.8 51.3 5.7 100.0
- Denotes not available, unknown, or not applicable.
IIncluding imports. 2Percentage of total U.S. shipments, including imports. 3Includes other States and foreign countries. 4~ Preliminary.
Source: Data compiled by Vegetable Branch, F & V Div., AMS from annual reports of the Market News Branch, F & V Div., AMS.
April 1980 Commodity Programs, FAS, USDA
72




Table 40.-Fresh Eggplant: Unloads in 41 US. cities and market shares by seasonal groups, Florida and Mexico, November-May, 1974/75-1979/80
41 US. city unloads 1 Market shares 2
SesnadFlorida IMexico IOther 3 1Total Florida Mxco IOther 3 1Total
- 1,000 cwt. ---- --- ------Percent--- -- -- --
Fall: Nov.-Dec.
1974................. 81 32 16 129 62.8 24.8 12.4 100.0
1975................. .91 54 20 165 55.2 32.7 12.1 100.0
1976................. 87 40 21 148 58.8 27.0 14.2 100.0
1977................. 103 44 22 169 61.0 26.0 13.0 100.0
1978................. 84 35 20 139 60.4 25.2 14.4 100.0
197 94. .. .. .. .. .. ......78 50 23 151 51.7 33.1 15.2 100.0
Winter: Jan.-March
1975................. 95 125 1 221 42.9 56.6 .5 100.0
1976................. 75 162 1 238 31.5 68.1 .4 100.0
1977................. 36 160 196 18.4 81.6 100.0
1978................. 5S9 175 234 25.2 74.8 100.0
1979 4. .. .. .. .. .. ....77 146 4 227 33.9 64.3 1.8 100.0
1980 ................. .87 166 3 256 34.0 64.8 1.2 100.0
Spring: April-May
1975.................112 57 1 170 65.9 33.5 .6 100.0
1976................. 100 59 1 160 62.5 36.9 .6 100.0
1977................. 85 70 1 156 54.5 44.9 .6 100.0
1978................. 56 87 4 147 38.1 59.2 2.7 100.0
197 94. .. .. .. .. .. ......59 70 4 133 44.4 52.6 3.0 100.0
Combined seasons
1974/75. .. .. .. .. ......288 214 18 520 55.4 41.1 3.5 100.0
1975/76............... 266 275 22 563 47.2 48.9 3.9 100.0
1976/77............... 208 270 22 500 41.6 54.0 4.4 100.0
1977/78............... 218 306 26 550 39.6 55.7 4.7 100.0
1978/7 94.. .. .. .. .. ....220 251 28 499 44.1 50.3 5.6 100.0
1979/8 04.. .. .. .. .. .....-
- Denotes not available, unknown, or not applicable.
IIncluding imports. 42 Percentage of total unloads, including imports, in 41 US. cities. 3Includes other States and foreign countries. Preliminary.
Source: Data compiled by Vegetable Branch, F & V Div., AMS from annual reports of the Market News Branch, F & V Div., AMS.
April 1980 Commodity Programs, FAS, USDA
73




Table 41.-Fresh Squash: Unloads in 41 U.S. cities and market shares by seasonal groups, California, Florida, and Mexico, November-May, 1974/75-1979/80
41 U.S. city unloads1 Market shares 2
Season and year Catil Oha Callco t Otr F o
-- -- ---- --1,000 cwt. -- -------------Percent--- -- -- -- -Fall: Nov.-Dec.
1974. .. .. .. ......93 119 26 134 372 25.0 32.0 7.0 36.0 100.0
1975............. 99 105 48 146 398 24.9 26.4 12.1 36.6 100.0
1976............ 107 132 64 126 429 24.9 30.8 14.9 29.4 100.0
1977. .. .. .. ......99 124 86 158 467 21.2 26.6 18.4 33.8 100.0
1978. .. .. .. ......94 148 90 124 456 20.6 32.5 19.7 27.2 100.0
197 94.. .. .. .. ....89 114 68 124 395 22.5 28.9 17.2 31.4 100.0
Winter: Jan.-March
1975............. 35 172 197 68 472 7.4 36.4 41.7 14.5 100.0
1976..............49 136 256 67 508 9.6 26.8 50.4 13.2 100.0
1977............. 57 98 292 60 507 11.2 19.3 57.6 11.9 100.0
1978............. 75 90 342 68 575 13.0 15.7 59.5 11.8 100.0
197 94.. .. .. .. ....67 154 411 74 706 9.5 21.8 58.2 10S 100.0
1980 4.. .. .. .. ....40 176 313 53 582 6.9 30.2 53.8 9.1 100.0
Spring: April-May
1975. .. .. .. ......77 164 29 73 343 22.4 47.8 8.5 21.3 100.0
1976. .. .. .. ......92 180 28 93 393 23.4 45.8 7.1 23.7 100.0
1977 .. .. .. .. ....110 192 51 93 446 24.7 43.0 11.4 20.9 100.0
1978............ 137 175 38 94 444 30.9 39.4 8.6 21.1 100.0
197 94. .. .. .. .....217 173 77 106 573 37.9 30.2 13.4 18.5 100.0
1980..........
Combined seasons
1974/75.......... 205 455 252 275 1,187 17.3 38.3 21.2 23.2 100.0
1975/76...........240 421 332 306 1,299 18.5 32.4 25.6 23.5 100.0
1976/77.......... 274 422 407 279 1,382 19.8 30.5 29.5 20.2 100.0
1977/78 .. .. .. ....311 389 466 320 1,486 20.9 26.2 31.4 21.5 100.0
1978/79...........378 475 578 304 1,735 21.8 27.4 33.3 17.5 100.0
IIncluding imports. 2Percentage of total unloads, including imports, in 41 U.S. cities. 3Includes other
States and foreign countries. 4 Preliminary.
Source: Data compiled by Vegetable Branch, F & V Div., AMS from annual reports of the Market News Branch, F & V Div., AMS.
April 1980 Commodity Programs, FAS, USDA
74




UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
WASHINGTON, D.C. 20250
POSTAGE AND FEES PAID U.S. DEPARTMENT OF OFFICIAL BUSINESS AGRICULTURE
PENALTY FOR PRIVATE USE, 8300
AGR 101
If you no longer need this publication, check here FIRST CLASS
and return this sheet and/or envelope in
which it was mailed and your name will be dropped
from mailing list.
If your address should be changed PRINT OR TYPE the new address, including ZIP CODE and
return the whole sheet and/or envelope to:
FOREIGN AGRICULTURAL SERVICE. Room 5918So.
U.S. Department of Agriculture
Washington, D.C. 20250
3381 KAVAJE115A112 10029 0001 J KAMAL DOW IFAS FOOD & RFS
ECON UNIV OF FLCRICA 1157 MCCARTY
.I:z -2 F "