• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Foreword
 Table of Contents
 Pie diagram of U.S. imports of...
 Summary
 Introduction
 Geography and climate
 Irrigation
 Growers
 Production facilities
 Government assistance
 Production
 Marketing
 Transportation
 Foreign trade
 Outlook
 Appendix
 Back Cover






Title: Preview of Mexico's vegetable production for export
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE PAGE TEXT
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00055252/00001
 Material Information
Title: Preview of Mexico's vegetable production for export
Physical Description: 74 p. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Emerson, L. P. Bill.
United States -- Foreign Agricultural Service
Publisher: U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Foreign Agricultural Service
Place of Publication: Washington D.C.
Publication Date: [1980]
 Subjects
Subject: Vegetable trade -- Mexico   ( lcsh )
Genre: federal government publication   ( marcgt )
statistics   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: by Leonidas P. Bill Emerson, Jr..
General Note: Cover title.
General Note: "August 1980."
General Note: "FAS M-297."
Funding: Electronic resources created as part of a prototype UF Institutional Repository and Faculty Papers project by the University of Florida.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00055252
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 07281352
lccn - 80603534

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Foreword
        Foreword
    Table of Contents
        Page i
    Pie diagram of U.S. imports of selected Mexican vegetables, 1978/79
        Page ii
    Summary
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
    Introduction
        Page 4
    Geography and climate
        Page 4
        Sinaloa and Sonora
            Page 5
        Baja California
            Page 5
            Page 6
    Irrigation
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
    Growers
        Page 10
        Sinaloa
            Page 10
            Page 11
        Sonora
            Page 12
        Baja California
            Page 12
    Production facilities
        Page 12
        Sinaloa
            Page 12
        Sonora
            Page 13
        Baja California
            Page 13
    Government assistance
        Page 14
    Production
        Page 14
        Tomatoes
            Page 14
            Area
                Page 14
                Page 15
            Yields
                Page 16
            Cultural practices
                Page 16
                Page 17
                Page 18
            Harvesting
                Page 19
            Packing
                Page 19
        Sweet peppers
            Page 19
        Cucumbers
            Page 20
        Eggplant
            Page 20
        Squash
            Page 20
            Page 21
    Marketing
        Page 22
        Sinaloa-Sonora
            Page 22
            Page 23
        Baja California
            Page 24
    Transportation
        Page 24
    Foreign trade
        Page 25
    Outlook
        Page 26
    Appendix
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Regression analyses of U.S. imports of Mexican tomatoes
            Page 29
        Charts - U.S. imports of Mexican tomatoes, 1944/45-1978/79
            Page 30
        Tables 1-41
            Page 31
            Page 32
            Page 33
            Page 34
            Page 35
            Page 36
            Page 37
            Page 38
            Page 39
            Page 40
            Page 41
            Page 42
            Page 43
            Page 44
            Page 45
            Page 46
            Page 47
            Page 48
            Page 49
            Page 50
            Page 51
            Page 52
            Page 53
            Page 54
            Page 55
            Page 56
            Page 57
            Page 58
            Page 59
            Page 60
            Page 61
            Page 62
            Page 63
            Page 64
            Page 65
            Page 66
            Page 67
            Page 68
            Page 69
            Page 70
            Page 71
            Page 72
            Page 73
            Page 74
    Back Cover
        Back Cover
Full Text


SUnited States
".y.' Department of
SAgriculture
Foreign
Agricultural
Service
FAS M-297


Preview of Mexico's

Vegetable Production

for Export ,o2
/0. O<<


II i J










Mexico: Vegetable Growing Areas


SanYsidro
Tijtu ''', exri -

e 8-8
. ColO nia Carmnp ui''
GuerreroAA
S. A San Quintin


'X,


.5
0
CP~


Santo Domingo A

., ', .F. '


KEY ....
*: : .i

KEY TO ZONES AND ADMII


Ciudad


12


-


NJa'e Ju.arez A Fresh Vegetables W
2 A Processed Vegetables

I.-ermo.,lo r c Melons

I Ch.huahu a ---- Inn[ernjion,1si b.;unrdary
SGu --- Stae or terrror,.l rounaClry
C Tr N R TE \ .. Zone boundary
II ( Los Delicas(
I PLATE Au, .
Hualub ampo .. .
S-.,Lare
7 Lo. loc I Hidalgo 4. rownsville
1 b Rlcj Brav:)@ ,
2 'o 's 1 : Tor ren f, ,,.' Maten dros
a Acj C) I 7/' GIJLFAonierrev




Mazati2 l .

NISTRATIVE UNITS- .r.
10 13 3 29
16 go NTRAL 31 jt 29
17 Jalisco ---bPLaATEAM. ..a
18 M 6)inco "Ir pu,3to A f '. 16, *,C "k
19 Mchoa n Guadalalar -- / 16
20 Morelos ..,e '
21 Puebla g17 Zamora A 19 i %'18 '.'Chapingo YVUC ATAN
22 Queretaro Moela Mex 23PENINSLA
23 Tlaxcala .24 O rlAp Megn City.aT.; 2. z t 28
SOUTHERN PACIFIC IV) M 2v
(IA V)-I j." 30 -.. -La


" "


















FOREWORD


Mexico's vegetable industry has expanded dramatically in the last decade, with about a
fourth of total output destined for export. Production in Mexico is of significant
importance in the marketing of U.S. vegetables, particularly in the winter when U.S.
output is at a seasonal low point.
This report describes Mexico's winter vegetable industry, and the factors underlying its
impact on the U.S. vegetable industry. The author is indebted to the staff of the U.S.
Agricultural Counselor's Office in Mexico City for the information and assistance they
provided. Special appreciation is extended to Henry 0. Wagley, former Assistant U.S.
Agricultural Attache in Mexico City; David I. Rosenbloom, Assistant U.S. Agricultural
Attach in Mexico City; and James H. Baldas, District Director, Animal and Plant Health
Inspection Service, Plant Protection and Quarantine, Tijuana, Mexico, for accompanying
the author on his field surveys and providing information for this report.




Gilbert E. Sindelar
Director
Horticultural and Tropical Products Division


August 1980














CONTENTS


Page


Sum m ary ................................................. 1

Introduction ................................................. 4

Geography and Climate ........................................ 4
Sinaloa and Sonora .. ....................................... 5
Baja California ........................................... 5

Irrigation ................................ ...... ........... 7

Grow ers .................................................. 10
Sinaloa .. ...................................... ....... 10
Sonora .. ........................................... .... 12
Baja California ............ .............. ... .... ..... ..... 12

Production Facilities ...................................... ... 12
Sinaloa ............................................... 12
Sonora ..................................... ......... 13
Baja California ...................................... .... 13

Government Assistance ........... ....... ...... ................ 14

Production ... ......................................... .... 14
Tom atoes ............................................... 14
Area ... ....................... ................. .... 14
Yields ........................ ............... ........ 16
Cultural Practices ............... ....... .. ....... ........ 16
Harvesting ........................... .... ... .......... 19
Packing ............................................... 19
Sweet Peppers ........................................ .... 19
Cucum bers ........................................... ... 20
Eggplant ............................................... 20
Squash ............... ............... ................. 20

M marketing ................................................ 22
Sinaloa-Sonora ..................... ............. ....... 22
Baja California ........................................... 24

Transportation ............. .................................. 24

Foreign Trade ....................................... ...... 25

Outlook .................................................. 26

Appendix ................................................. 27





U.S. IMPORTS OF SELECTED MEXICAN VEGETABLES,1978/79
MILLION U.S. DOLLARS
TOMATOES
153=59.3%
















:UMBERS
44=17%
PEPPERS
36=13.9%
SQUASH EGGPLANT
18=6.9% 7=2.7%
















MEXICO'S VEGETABLE PRODUCTION


FOR EXPORT

By Leonidas P. Bill Emerson, Jr.
Horticultural and Tropical Products Division
Commodity Programs
Foreign Agricultural Service


SUMMARY


The past decade has been one of rapid change in
Mexico. Extraordinary oil and natural gas reserves
were discovered, water resources and electrical power
developed, and the national highways improved. This
advancement had a positive impact upon, and pro-
vided a broader base for, the growth of the vegetable
industry.
Mexico's horticultural production has risen
steadily since World War II and a large share of the
additional output has been exported to the United
States. Dramatic production gains came from newly
irrigated areas, particularly in the Pacific Northwest.
In the States of Sinaloa, Sonora, and Baja California,
traditional vegetable production for export diversified
from an almost complete reliance on tomatoes
toward increased exports of cucumbers, green pep-.
pers, eggplant, squash, and other crops.
Mexico's population growth, one of the highest in
the world-plus rising income levels-has also fostered
increased domestic consumption of vegetables.
Mexico's Pacific Northwest vegetable areas were
developed almost entirely for the export market, but
now a rising share-about half-of the three States'
total output is destined for internal consumption.
Population growth, coupled with a slowdown in
the rate of total agricultural growth, has also led to
unprecedented imports of grains and oilseeds. In


response to production shortfalls of these and other
crops, Mexican policymakers have continually raised
crop support prices. As a result, the competitive
position of grains, oilseeds, sugarcane, and cotton-
crops that compete with vegetables-has improved
more than that of horticultural crops.
Despite the rapid growth in the domestic market
and the competition from other crops, Mexico's
vegetable producers have increased output suffi-
ciently to expand exports. In the early 1960's,
growers received large infusions of capital and exper-
tise from the United States, which resulted in higher
yields and better quality produce. During the late
1960's, these farmers became more financially inde-
pendent, and organized powerful producer organiza-
tions in order to improve their marketing arrange-
ments. In the 1970's, the industry expanded
dramatically and exports increased twofold in
quantity and threefold in dollar value.
Although there is adequate land for additional
vegetable output, most of the increase in production
has come from higher yields of export-quality
produce. Despite the rising prices of competing crops,
vegetable farming is still one of the most lucrative
farming activities in Mexico, because of improved
farm productivity and excellent financial returns
from vegetable exports.
















BACKGROUND ON MEXICO


People

Population: 66.9 million, in 1978.
Urban population-60%, rural-40%, (of which farm-20%).
Ethnic groups: Indian-Spanish (Mestizo)-60%; American Indian-30%; Caucasian-9%.
Mexico City's population: 13 million (including Federal District, D.F.)-World's largest city.
Education: 9 years compulsory; percentage attendance-65%, literacy rate-75%.

Economy

Gross domestic product (GDP): $74.3 billion in 1977.
Inflation rate: 17% in 1978, 18% in 1977, and 29% in 1976.
Unemployment rate: 19%in 1978, 20% in 1977, and 25% in 1976.
Employment: 20 million, with 800,000 job market entrants annually.
Exports: $5.8 billion (f.o.b.) 1978, to U.S. $3.4 billion; agricultural $1.0 billion.
Imports: $7.2 billion (c.if.) 1978, from U.S. $4.5 billion; agricultural $900 million.

Agriculture

Total land area: 197 million hectares.
Woods and forests: 37%, or 73 million hectares.
Pasture: 35%, or 68 million hectares.
Mountains and deserts: 14%, or 28 million hectares.
Crop area: 14%, or 28 million hectares.
Irrigated area: 3%, or 5 million hectares.
Leading crops, by area (in thousand hectares), for 1978: Corn (8,100), beans, dry (2,000), sorghum
(1,100), wheat (850), sugar cane (445), safflower (370), cotton (354), coffee (320), barley
(240), and sesame seed (240).
Leading fruits and vegetables, by area (in thousand hectares), for 1978: oranges (168), tomatoes (71),
potatoes (58), peppers (54), bananas (50), limes (44), grapes (40), watermelons (24), cantalopes
(23), and onions (20).

















U.S. Mexico Agricultural Trade in Selected Products, 1976/77-1978/79
(1,000 dol.)

October-September
Item I
1976/77 1977/78 1978/79


U.S. Agricultural Imports from Mexico
Coffee ...................
Tomatoes ..................
Live cattle .................
Cucumbers .................
Strawberries, fresh and frozen . .
Peppers ...................
Beef and veal ................
Cantalopes .................
Squash ...................
Onions ...................
Pineapple ..................
Watermelon ................
Lim e oil ..................
Orange juice ................
Tomato paste ................
Beans, snap ................
Oranges, fresh ...............
Eggplant ..................
Garlic ....................
Asparagus ..................
Grapes ...................


Total U.S. imports of Mexico's fresh vegetables . . . .

Total U.S. imports of Mexico's fruits and vegetables . . .

Total U.S. agricultural imports from Mexico ...............

U.S. Agricultural Exports to Mexico
Feed grains ....................................
Soybeans .....................................
Cattle hides...................................
Soybean oilcake and meal ...........................
Live cattle ....................................
Soybean oil ...................................

Total U.S. agricultural exports to Mexico. . . . .


218 293 321

361 450 519

1,014,462 999,424 1,241,522


221 249 393
110 145 156
29 44 85
57 22 26
15 19 19
10 18 3


608,397


735,429


972,037


Source: Bureau of Census U.S. Dept. of Commerce.















INTRODUCTION


Approximately a quarter of Mexico's output of
fresh vegetables is for export. Since the United States
is by far the largest export market for Mexican
vegetables, production in that country is of signifi-
cant importance in the marketing of U.S. vegetables,
particularly in the winter when U.S. output is at a
seasonal low point.
Mexico's prominence in the U.S. horticultural
market from late fall through early spring (November-
May) is already well established. Because of the
similarity in the marketing seasons, Mexico competes
more directly with Florida than with any other U.S.
State. The five key vegetables exported to the United
States are fresh tomatoes, green peppers, cucumbers,
eggplant, and squash. All five were the subject of the
1978-80 U.S. dumping investigation.
Mexico's share of the U.S. vegetable market is
especially pronounced during the winter months of
January through March. During the last five winter
seasons, Mexico accounted for 60 percent of all the
tomatoes marketed in the United States, 80 percent
of the cucumbers, 70 percent of the eggplant, and 50
percent of the sweet peppers and squash.
Although Mexico has exported substantial quan-
tities of tomatoes to the United States on a regular
basis since World War I, shipments did not start to
soar until after World War II. Mexico's inroads into
the U.S. vegetable market were a consequence of
several underlying factors:
The investment of substantial amounts of U.S.
capital and expertise in the horticultural production
areas of the northwestern States of Sinaloa and
Sonora during the late 1940's and 1950's.


The cessation of U.S. trade with Cuba in 1962,
which enabled Mexico to replace Cuban vegetable
exports to the United States. Cuba had enjoyed a
lower U.S. tariff rate and was especially competitive
in the U.S. winter tomato and cucumber markets.
Termination of the U.S. Bracero Program-
which permitted large-scale use of imported labor in
the United States-on December 31, 1964. This
marked a decisive turning point in Mexican vegetable
exports to the United States. There was an almost
immediate influx of American capital and know-how
into Mexico. Technicians and fieldmen were brought
in to train Mexican growers in the use of proper
cultural techniques, and seeds and plants were im-
ported from the United States. Experimental plots
and continual testing of the adaptation of U.S. plant
varieties to local conditions became an important part
of the growing operations. Technicians from US.
packing equipment manufacturers also contributed
much toward advancing the adoption of more effi-
cient and better quality packing operations.
The floating, or de facto, devaluation of the
peso on August 31, 1976, was the last important
factor assisting Mexican exports. Soon thereafter, the
peso dropped to just about half its former U.S. dollar
value, making Mexican exports very competitive price
in the U.S. market. Although inflation has offset
much of the cost advantage resulting from the
devaluation, an abundance of low-cost labor, land,
and a favorable climate should enable Mexican
produce to be competitively priced in the U.S.
market for a number of years.


GEOGRAPHY AND CLIMATE


Vegetables are grown throughout Mexico; how-
ever, most vegetables for export are produced in the
North because of lower transportation costs to the
United States. The hot and dry, desert climate of
northwestern Mexico favors horticultural production
in the fall, winter, and spring seasons (October-
June).' Vegetables are grown primarily in the north-
west rather than in the northeast where frequent

Vote: All units are metric, unless indicated otherwise.
However, Baja California has winter rains (the opposite
of Sinaloa's and Sonora's summer rains) and has an April-
through-November tomato season.


rainfall and high humidity cause disease problems.2
Production is centered in the fertile coastal valleys,
only a few meters above sea-level, in the northwestern
States of Sinaloa, Sonora, and Baja California. In this
northwestern region, the areas devoted to vegetables
account for only about 5 percent of total farm
acreage and are widely scattered among fields of
grain, oilseeds, sugar cane, cotton, and dry beans.


2Winter vegetables were intensively cultivated in the
Monte-Tampico area of the States of Nuevo Leon, Tam-
paulipas, and Veracruz during 1955-65.















INTRODUCTION


Approximately a quarter of Mexico's output of
fresh vegetables is for export. Since the United States
is by far the largest export market for Mexican
vegetables, production in that country is of signifi-
cant importance in the marketing of U.S. vegetables,
particularly in the winter when U.S. output is at a
seasonal low point.
Mexico's prominence in the U.S. horticultural
market from late fall through early spring (November-
May) is already well established. Because of the
similarity in the marketing seasons, Mexico competes
more directly with Florida than with any other U.S.
State. The five key vegetables exported to the United
States are fresh tomatoes, green peppers, cucumbers,
eggplant, and squash. All five were the subject of the
1978-80 U.S. dumping investigation.
Mexico's share of the U.S. vegetable market is
especially pronounced during the winter months of
January through March. During the last five winter
seasons, Mexico accounted for 60 percent of all the
tomatoes marketed in the United States, 80 percent
of the cucumbers, 70 percent of the eggplant, and 50
percent of the sweet peppers and squash.
Although Mexico has exported substantial quan-
tities of tomatoes to the United States on a regular
basis since World War I, shipments did not start to
soar until after World War II. Mexico's inroads into
the U.S. vegetable market were a consequence of
several underlying factors:
The investment of substantial amounts of U.S.
capital and expertise in the horticultural production
areas of the northwestern States of Sinaloa and
Sonora during the late 1940's and 1950's.


The cessation of U.S. trade with Cuba in 1962,
which enabled Mexico to replace Cuban vegetable
exports to the United States. Cuba had enjoyed a
lower U.S. tariff rate and was especially competitive
in the U.S. winter tomato and cucumber markets.
Termination of the U.S. Bracero Program-
which permitted large-scale use of imported labor in
the United States-on December 31, 1964. This
marked a decisive turning point in Mexican vegetable
exports to the United States. There was an almost
immediate influx of American capital and know-how
into Mexico. Technicians and fieldmen were brought
in to train Mexican growers in the use of proper
cultural techniques, and seeds and plants were im-
ported from the United States. Experimental plots
and continual testing of the adaptation of U.S. plant
varieties to local conditions became an important part
of the growing operations. Technicians from US.
packing equipment manufacturers also contributed
much toward advancing the adoption of more effi-
cient and better quality packing operations.
The floating, or de facto, devaluation of the
peso on August 31, 1976, was the last important
factor assisting Mexican exports. Soon thereafter, the
peso dropped to just about half its former U.S. dollar
value, making Mexican exports very competitive price
in the U.S. market. Although inflation has offset
much of the cost advantage resulting from the
devaluation, an abundance of low-cost labor, land,
and a favorable climate should enable Mexican
produce to be competitively priced in the U.S.
market for a number of years.


GEOGRAPHY AND CLIMATE


Vegetables are grown throughout Mexico; how-
ever, most vegetables for export are produced in the
North because of lower transportation costs to the
United States. The hot and dry, desert climate of
northwestern Mexico favors horticultural production
in the fall, winter, and spring seasons (October-
June).' Vegetables are grown primarily in the north-
west rather than in the northeast where frequent

Vote: All units are metric, unless indicated otherwise.
However, Baja California has winter rains (the opposite
of Sinaloa's and Sonora's summer rains) and has an April-
through-November tomato season.


rainfall and high humidity cause disease problems.2
Production is centered in the fertile coastal valleys,
only a few meters above sea-level, in the northwestern
States of Sinaloa, Sonora, and Baja California. In this
northwestern region, the areas devoted to vegetables
account for only about 5 percent of total farm
acreage and are widely scattered among fields of
grain, oilseeds, sugar cane, cotton, and dry beans.


2Winter vegetables were intensively cultivated in the
Monte-Tampico area of the States of Nuevo Leon, Tam-
paulipas, and Veracruz during 1955-65.









In Sinaloa-Mexico's leading agricultural State-
vegetables are intensively produced in the river valleys
in Culiacan, Los Mochis, and in several smaller
irrigated areas. Sonora was once a leading area for
vegetable exports, but because of occasional mid-
winter freezes, most vegetable operations moved
south to Sinaloa. Nevertheless, in the fall (October-
December) and spring (April-June), there is still
substantial vegetable production in the Guaymas and
Huatabampo valleys of southern Sonora. Baja Cali-
fornia has recently become an important tomato area,
with production for export centered in the northern
coastal valleys of San Quintm, Camalu, and Colonia
Guerrero (collectively known as the San Quintin
region) and to a lesser extent, in the Southern Baja
Valley of Santo Domingo.


Sinaloa and Sonora

Vegetables for export are produced in the coastal
river valleys extending from the river Baluarte in
southern Sinaloa to the Guaymas in southern
Sonora.3 Nevertheless, the leading vegetable area is
the Culiacan Valley of central Sinaloa. It is the largest
frost-free valley with extensive irrigation facilities
relatively close to the U.S. border.4
These coastal valleys are usually only a few meters
above sea level and may extend 200 kilometers (120
miles) inland from the Gulf of California (or Sea of
Cort6z). These valleys follow the westward course of
the numerous rivers that flow from the nearby Sierra
Madre Occidental Mountains.
Lowland soils are generally of a heavy clay loam
that requires large tractors for deep plowing and
heavy applications of fertilizer for high yields. Be-
cause of the subtropical climate, frequent use of
pesticides and soil fumigation is necessary; crop
rotation is also widely practiced.
Important weather factors include occasional
heavy rainfall during the otherwise dry growing
season, an extremely hot and rainy season in the
summer, and midwinter freezes in the northern areas.
Although rainfall comes primarily during the summer,
a heavy winter downpour (as occurred in December
1978) may ruin a crop by cracking fruit and
provoking pest and disease problems. Occasional cool,
cloudy weather causes bloom drop and production
decreases sharply, as occurred in January 1974.

3In central Sonora, around Hermosillo, there are some
minor areas of squash and peppers, which are slightly more
resistant to cold temperatures than tomatoes, cucumbers, and
eggplant.
4Culiacin, the capital of the State of Sinaloa, is a city of
350,000 people on the mainland coast of the Gulf of
California. Culiacin was founded in 1531 by Spanish
conquistadores on the banks of the Culiacan River. Today,
Culiacin has a predominantly agriculture-based economy that
services the whole State of Sinaloa.


Culiacin has extremely hot summers-with
temperatures over 380C (1000F)-and most plantings
must wait until late September or October to avoid
sunburn. The annual rainfall averages about 700
millimeters (28 inches). Evening rains are normal
during July-September and immediately lower
temperatures about 15C (250F) so that nighttime
temperatures average 240C (750F). Many competing
and complementary crops, such as dry beans,
grains, cotton, and sugarcane, can withstand the
extreme summer temperatures better than vege-
tables.
During Culiacin's vegetable growing season, tem-
peratures range from an average daily high of 330C
(910F) to a low of 120C (540F) (see Table 1.).
Furthur north in Guasave, Los Mochis, Huatabampo,
and Guaymas, temperatures average 50-100C lower,
with occasional freezes in January and early Febru-
ary. However, in late February and March, growers in
these northern areas plant a spring vegetable crop that
is harvested from April through June.
Along the coast of Sinaloa and Sonora, annual
rainfall becomes progressively less from south to
north as the subtropical vegetation of southern
Sinaloa gives way to the Sonoroan desert. For
example, average annual rainfall in Guaymas,
Sonora-which is 500 kilometers (300 miles) to the
north of Culiacan-is only 300 millimeters (12
inches). Although there is less irrigation water in the
north than in the south, the cooler summer tem-
peratures permit summer plantings for a fall har-
vest.
During the midwinter, Mexico's vegetable exports
originate from central Sinaloa, principally from
Culiacan. In the spring, harvesting moves north to Los
Mochis, Guaymas, and other areas, where some minor
production also occurs in the fall.


Baja California

Baja's farming areas are separated by the central
mountains, which extend the length of the peninsula
(1,500 kilometers, or 800 miles) and create numerous
coastal valleys. Although sweet and hot peppers are
grown in Baja, tomatoes are the only important
vegetable exported from Baja. The three leading
farming regions are:
Mexicali, located in northeastern Baja Cali-
fornia, bordering California's Imperial Valley and
Arizona's Yuma Valley.
San Quintin (Northern Baja Calif.), on the
Pacific coast, 250 kilometers (150 miles) south
of the U.S. border. This is the main tomato area of
Baja.
Santo Domingo (Southern Baja Calif.) also on
the west coast, 1,000 kilometers (600 miles) south of
the border.









In Sinaloa-Mexico's leading agricultural State-
vegetables are intensively produced in the river valleys
in Culiacan, Los Mochis, and in several smaller
irrigated areas. Sonora was once a leading area for
vegetable exports, but because of occasional mid-
winter freezes, most vegetable operations moved
south to Sinaloa. Nevertheless, in the fall (October-
December) and spring (April-June), there is still
substantial vegetable production in the Guaymas and
Huatabampo valleys of southern Sonora. Baja Cali-
fornia has recently become an important tomato area,
with production for export centered in the northern
coastal valleys of San Quintm, Camalu, and Colonia
Guerrero (collectively known as the San Quintin
region) and to a lesser extent, in the Southern Baja
Valley of Santo Domingo.


Sinaloa and Sonora

Vegetables for export are produced in the coastal
river valleys extending from the river Baluarte in
southern Sinaloa to the Guaymas in southern
Sonora.3 Nevertheless, the leading vegetable area is
the Culiacan Valley of central Sinaloa. It is the largest
frost-free valley with extensive irrigation facilities
relatively close to the U.S. border.4
These coastal valleys are usually only a few meters
above sea level and may extend 200 kilometers (120
miles) inland from the Gulf of California (or Sea of
Cort6z). These valleys follow the westward course of
the numerous rivers that flow from the nearby Sierra
Madre Occidental Mountains.
Lowland soils are generally of a heavy clay loam
that requires large tractors for deep plowing and
heavy applications of fertilizer for high yields. Be-
cause of the subtropical climate, frequent use of
pesticides and soil fumigation is necessary; crop
rotation is also widely practiced.
Important weather factors include occasional
heavy rainfall during the otherwise dry growing
season, an extremely hot and rainy season in the
summer, and midwinter freezes in the northern areas.
Although rainfall comes primarily during the summer,
a heavy winter downpour (as occurred in December
1978) may ruin a crop by cracking fruit and
provoking pest and disease problems. Occasional cool,
cloudy weather causes bloom drop and production
decreases sharply, as occurred in January 1974.

3In central Sonora, around Hermosillo, there are some
minor areas of squash and peppers, which are slightly more
resistant to cold temperatures than tomatoes, cucumbers, and
eggplant.
4Culiacin, the capital of the State of Sinaloa, is a city of
350,000 people on the mainland coast of the Gulf of
California. Culiacin was founded in 1531 by Spanish
conquistadores on the banks of the Culiacan River. Today,
Culiacin has a predominantly agriculture-based economy that
services the whole State of Sinaloa.


Culiacin has extremely hot summers-with
temperatures over 380C (1000F)-and most plantings
must wait until late September or October to avoid
sunburn. The annual rainfall averages about 700
millimeters (28 inches). Evening rains are normal
during July-September and immediately lower
temperatures about 15C (250F) so that nighttime
temperatures average 240C (750F). Many competing
and complementary crops, such as dry beans,
grains, cotton, and sugarcane, can withstand the
extreme summer temperatures better than vege-
tables.
During Culiacin's vegetable growing season, tem-
peratures range from an average daily high of 330C
(910F) to a low of 120C (540F) (see Table 1.).
Furthur north in Guasave, Los Mochis, Huatabampo,
and Guaymas, temperatures average 50-100C lower,
with occasional freezes in January and early Febru-
ary. However, in late February and March, growers in
these northern areas plant a spring vegetable crop that
is harvested from April through June.
Along the coast of Sinaloa and Sonora, annual
rainfall becomes progressively less from south to
north as the subtropical vegetation of southern
Sinaloa gives way to the Sonoroan desert. For
example, average annual rainfall in Guaymas,
Sonora-which is 500 kilometers (300 miles) to the
north of Culiacan-is only 300 millimeters (12
inches). Although there is less irrigation water in the
north than in the south, the cooler summer tem-
peratures permit summer plantings for a fall har-
vest.
During the midwinter, Mexico's vegetable exports
originate from central Sinaloa, principally from
Culiacan. In the spring, harvesting moves north to Los
Mochis, Guaymas, and other areas, where some minor
production also occurs in the fall.


Baja California

Baja's farming areas are separated by the central
mountains, which extend the length of the peninsula
(1,500 kilometers, or 800 miles) and create numerous
coastal valleys. Although sweet and hot peppers are
grown in Baja, tomatoes are the only important
vegetable exported from Baja. The three leading
farming regions are:
Mexicali, located in northeastern Baja Cali-
fornia, bordering California's Imperial Valley and
Arizona's Yuma Valley.
San Quintin (Northern Baja Calif.), on the
Pacific coast, 250 kilometers (150 miles) south
of the U.S. border. This is the main tomato area of
Baja.
Santo Domingo (Southern Baja Calif.) also on
the west coast, 1,000 kilometers (600 miles) south of
the border.










Table 1.-Weather Conditions in Culiacan, Sinaloa,1 1941-70


Items/Parameters


TEMPERATURES
Maximum extreme . . .
Date (day/year) . . . .
Ave. maximum . . . .
Dry bulb (atmosphere) . . .
Average minimum . . .
Minimum extreme . . .
Date (day/year) . . . .
Minimum in rough weather. . .
Date (day/year) . . . .
Oscillation . . . . .
HUMIDITY
Average relative humidity . .
Total evaporation . . . .
Average vapor tension . . .
PRECIPITATION
Average monthly total . . .
Maximum in a month . . .
Date (year) .................
Maximum in 24 hours . . .
Date (day/year) ..............
Minimum ..................
Date (year) ................
Total hours of sunshine . .
Average number of days with
Appreciable rainfall . . .
Inappreciable rainfall . . .
Clear skies . . . . .
Partly cloudy. . . . .
Overcast ..................
Dew . .. . . . .
Hail . . . . . .
Freeze. . . . . .
Lightning ..................
Fogs, mist. ..................
Snow ....................


Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June July Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec. Annual


35.8 37.3 37.9 41.1 41.4 41.2 41.7 40.4 40.7 39.4 39.2 38.4
25/46 17/48 27/53 05/48 14/58 21/65 03/69 01/42 19/60 12/67 -
28.2 29.5 31.1 33.6 35.5 36.1 35.8 35.1 34.8 34.4 32.2 29.0
19.6 20.5 21.7 24.5 27.3 29.5 29.4 28.9 28.7 27.4 23.7 20.6
12.3 12.5 13.1 15.7 19.1 23.7 24.3 23.8 23.8 21.3 16.2 13.5
3.8 1.6 5.5 8.8 12.6 15.8 20.0 19.0 19.0 14.1 6.6 3.8
04/56 24/52 01/70 05/53 13/65 31/69 23/57 24/53
0.7 0.0 3.5 7.5 9.7 13.7 18.5 17.0 17.0 10.1 4.1 1.6
18/49 04/56 24/52 12/45 01/70 05/53 18/64 13/65 28/70 01/68 27/66 24/53
15.9 17.0 18.0 17.9 16.4 12.4 11.5 11.3 11.0 13.1 16.0 15.5

15.8 15.9 16.3 18.2 20.7 24.0 25.5 25.7 25.7 23.7 19.2 16.8
71 65 61 57 57 64 74 79 79 74 68 71
112.5 135.1 193.9 229.0 269.8 247.1 195.9 169.6 156.3 165.4 140.8 113.8

24.9 8.6 7.0 2.8 0.4 25.0 163.7 228.8 146.5 41.2 11.2 38.9
132.2 82.8 71.0 33.3 5.3 124.0 375.0 600.5 349.8 130.9 125.4 241.8
60 68 58 59 43 58 70 66 43 48 44 63
41.2 46.6 53.5 31.3 5.3 63.0 109.0 171.8 141.5 114.1 50.8 145.0
11/60 10/68 06/58 14/59 01/43 30/59 19/70 29/44 17/53 08/45 23/44 10/63
0.5 0.8 0.8 1.3 4.0 0.8 69.7 109.2 31.0 2.1 1.0 0.5
48 53 45 42 56 61 44 41 52 68 41 62


189.5 186.7 230.0 211.8 246.6 221.0 191.6 198.2 195.4 228.4 213.2 183.6

2.96 0.96 0.76 0.36 0.10 2.56 13.86 15.16 9.80 3.34 1.10 2.66
2.13 1.63 1.33 0.76 0.90 4.73 8.13 6.43 5.40 2.41 1.60 2.90
13.56 12.46 15.86 15.00 20.31 14.46 1.86 2.89 8.06 19.23 16.83 13.26
8.80 8.63 10.20 10.46 7.72 11.00 15.83 16.86 12.53 7.90 8.70 9.43
8.63 7.13 4.93 4.53 2.96 4.53 13.30 11.24 9.40 3.86 4.46 8.30
19.75 15.68 15.13 8.03 4.93 0.82 0.33 1.96 5.63 17.70 18.00 18.40
0.00 0.00 0.03 0.00 0.00 0.03 0.10 0.00 0.03 0.00 0.00 0.00
0.16 0.10 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.06
0.03 0.00 0.00 0.03 0.00 0.34 1.70 1.65 0.83 0.06 0.00 0.03
1.55 1.10 0.93 1.20 1.46 0.03 0.46 0.06 1.03 1.30 0.66 1.93
0.63 0.70 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00


Latitude (N) 24-49; longitude (W) 107-24; altitude; 84 meters above sea level. -Denotes not available.

Source: Direcci6n General de Geografia y Meteorologia, Secretaina de Agricultura y Ganaderia


41.7
03/07/69
32.9
25.1
18.2
1.6
04/02/56
0.0
04/02/56
14.7

20.6
68
2129.2

699.0
600.5
08/66
171.8
29/08/44
0.5


2496.0

53.62
38.35
153.78
128.06
83.27
126.36
0.19
0.32
4.67
11.71
1.33


April 1980


Commodity Programs, FAS, USDA








Mexicali is not suited to tender vegetable5 produc-
tion (although asparagus, onions, and garlic are grown
there) because of its extremes in heat and cold.
Winter vegetables are grown farther south-in San
Quintin and Santo Domingo-where the nearby
Pacific Ocean moderates the temperature range dur-
ing the dry season (April-December).
Most of the Baja Peninsula's winter tomato
exports are from northern Baja California in the San
Quintin region, since that area enjoys a competitive
advantage over Santo Domingo in distance and
transportation cost to the U.S. border. The San
Quintin region is divided by coastal mountains into
three separate zones: The San Quintin Valley proper,

STender vegetables (such as tomatoes, peppers, cucum-
bers, eggplant, and squash) are extremely sensitive to cold
temperatures, but they are not called winter vegetables in
Baja because they are not produced there in the winter (when
it rains in Baja).


the Camalu Valley, and Colonia Guerrero. In addi-
tion, there are many lesser areas in northern Baja
both north and south of the San Quintn region.
In Southern Baja California (often called the
territory of Southern Baja California because it is not
a State), most of the tomatoes are produced in the
Santo Domingo Valley. Because of higher transporta-
tion cost, Santo Domingo's tomatoes are only ex-
ported to the United States when U.S. prices are high.
However, tomatoes may be exported both earlier and
later than shipments from San Quintmn because of the
shorter winter season and warmer temperatures of
Southern Baja.
The west coast of the Baja Peninsula receives
100-200 millimeters (5 to 10 inches) of rainfall,
primarily during December to March. Temperatures
average 10 to 200C (500F to 680F) with occasional
freezes in midwinter. Throughout the year, the
nearby Pacific Ocean moderates coastal temperatures,
with frequent mist and ocean fog conditions.


IRRIGATION


All vegetables are grown under irrigation. Most
farms use furrow (or ditch) irrigation; however, in the
north some growers are using drip irrigation because
water is scarce. In Sinaloa and southern Sonora, most
of the water comes from recently constructed reser-
voirs. In Baja California and northern Sonora water is
usually from deep wells.
Currently, Sinaloa has 573,000 hectares of irri-
gated farmland. Sonora and Baja have 540,000 and
200,000 hectares, respectively, of irrigated areas. Baja
and Sonora are already using almost all of their water
resources, but Sinaloa is dramatically expanding its
irrigated area.
Sinaloa has 355,000 hectares of irrigation area
under construction and an additional 85,000 hectares
are planned. This expansion would boost Sinaloa's
total irrigated farmland to 1,013,000 hectares-the
largest of any State in Mexico. Added to the dry
farming area of 250,000 hectares and marginal
farmland of 285,000, Sinaloa's total agricultural area
will be 1,550,000 hectares (seetable 2.).
Although Culiacan is Sinaloa's leading vegetable
area, the State's largest irrigation district is around
the City of Los Mochis (National Water District No.
75 (and 75A)), in the valley of the River Fuerte. This
district has 223,500 hectares in the Fuerte Sur Valley
(Zone 75) and 41,600 hectares in the adjacent
Carrizo Valley (Zone 75A). Fuerte Sur is irrigated
from the Miguel Hidalgo reservoir, which has a
capacity of 3,350 million cubic meters, filled by the
Fuerte River; the Carizzo Valley is irrigated from the
J. Ortez Domingo reservoir with a capacity of 600
million cubic meters, filled by the Alamos River.
Another reservoir, Huites, is under construction and


is expected to store sufficient water to irrigate an
additional 100,000 hectares in this district.
The Culiacin Valley (District No. 10 (and 10A))
has 217,500 hectares irrigated both from the
A. L6pez Mateos and Sanalona reservoirs of the
Humaya and Tamazula Rivers, respectively. The
Humaya and Tamazula Rivers join at the City of
Culiacin and form the Culiacin River, from which
much of the irrigation water is drawn. The A. L6pez
Mateos reservoir has a capacity of 4,064 million cubic
meters and the Sanalona may store up to 845 million
cubic meters.
The San Lorenzo River Valley (District No. 10B)
is about 50 miles south of Culiacin and has 18,000
hectares of irrigation area. A reservoir, the Comedero,
is being built to store enough water from the San
Lorenzo River to irrigate 99,000 hectares.
Guasave has an irrigation area of 34,700 hectares
(District No. 63), watered directly from the Sinaloa
Poniente River. The Bacurato Reservoir is under
construction and is expected to hold sufficient water
to irrigate 110,000 hectares.
The Mocorito River Valley (District No. 74)
contains 20,300 hectares of area irrigated by the
Guamichil reservoir, which has a capacity of 343
million cubic meters. The Estaquio Buelna reservoir is
under construction and should store enough water to
irrigate 47,000 hectares from the Mocorito River.
The valley of San Elota has 20,000 hectares under
irrigation from the Piaxtla Verde and San Elota rivers.
The Piaxtla-Elota and the Isla Palmito de Verde
reservoirs are planned to be built to store sufficient
water to irrigate 45,000 and 40,000 hectares, re-
spectively.





















CALIFORNIA
SAN DIEGO
ChulaVista. Calexco *El Centro ImperialDam
San Yeedr p._ .i A Yuma ARIZONA INEW MEXICO


*Ensenada .
P.a r. Ctapullpic TUCSON
Puerto Santo Toms *Santo Tomes d Endr I
Elpdo Erendira *e San Vicente0 4 I
SColnoet I a
I Colonel I EL PASO
c.. es Ii e CIUDAD JUAREZ 0
mColon, Gueerehm e" o fr ./ NO*GALg-ES -- _

Bhi Sa n |nn TEXASWirth
*EI Rosano 0 A
BAJA 'a
ALIFORNIA l .
NORTE



I HERMOSILLO*
S\''' SONORA
SGuenero KNe g
n\ 1 CHIHUA*CHIHUAHUA
SeheoSH. NeGro 0g CHIHUAHUA

Gneu GUAYMAS 4In O, \
S DESIERTO < CIUDAD x /
P DE VIZCAIVO OBREGON
BAJA Pr,. lteo.i\
CALIFORNIA .
PACIFIC OCEAN SUR H. mp

P.a. S-o Dogo ~ ir S



B-' S.t. Domringo \ .a Gua. NW" t,0


L ,,,- __ >
EBoca del Ao Moconto i
Wo v, )DURANGO
Pa CUUACAN A



Ofl' ^ *DURANGO/


San Jose del Cabo MAATLAN\
SCabo San Lucas

0 0 100 miles










Table 2.-Sinaloa State: Actual and Potential Irrigation Areas, by River and Reservoirs, 1980

Water capacity Area irrigated
Agricultural areas River Reservoir
(Million cubic meters) (Hectares)


IRRIGATION AREAS
Culiac n . . . . . . . . .



Los Mochis . . . . . . . . .

Mocorito . . . . . . . ...
Guasave ................. ..................
Other ............ .........................
Total . ........ ....................
RESERVOIRS UNDER CONSTRUCTION
Guasave ...................................
Los Mochis .................................

San Lorenzo ................... ..............
Mocorito.................................... .
RESERVOIRS PLANNED
San Elota ................... ................
Mazation ................... ...............
Total planned and under construction ...............
OTHER AREAS
Dryland farm areas .............................
Marginal farm land .............................
Total .................. ..................
GRAND TOTAL ............................


Humayo
Tamazula
Culiacin
Fuerte
Alamos3
Mocorito
Sinaloa


Sanalona (1948)
A. Lopez Mateos (1964)
(2)
Miguel Hidalgo (1956)
J. Ortez de Domingo (1970)3
E. Buelna (Guamuchil) (1973)

(4)


845
4,064

3,350
600
343


1100,000
117,500

223,500
41,600
20,300
34,700
Ic Ann


9,202 572,600


Sinaloa
Fuerte
San Lorenzo
Mocorito


Piaxtla-Elota
Presidio


Bacurato
Huites
Comedero
Eustaquio Buelna


Elota
Palmito de Verde


110,000
100,000
98,500
47,000


45,000
40,000
440,500


250,800
284,900
535,700
1,548,800


SIncludes areas irrigated from Tamazula and Culiacan Rivers. 2 Included in Humaya and Tamazula River areas. Sometimes under Valley del Carrizo. 4River-Canal
system. 5Includes San Lorenzo, Presidio, Baluarte, Piaxtla, and Elota Rivers. Not available.
Source: Secretanra de Agricultura y Recusos Hidraulicos (SARH).


Commodity Programs, FAS, USDA


April 1980









Sinaloa has some small reservoirs in widely scat-
tered locations that irrigate 35,000 hectares. These


smaller reservoir networks also may be enlarged
greatly during the 1980's.


GROWERS


There are three principal types of farmers in
Mexico: Pequenios propietarios (those who own their
land); Ejidatarios (those who usually farm govern-
ment land cooperatively); and tenant farmers (those
who rent). While all three groups are involved in
vegetable farming, the term Pequefios propietarios is
too general for discussion purposes and is, therefore,
subdivided and discussed as 1) large-land owners and
2) small-land owners (generally referred to as
campesinos).
Large-scale producers, with farms of 300 to 1,500
hectares and several packinghouses, control roughly
half of the vegetable export market. Small-land
owners operate farms of roughly 5-100 hectares6, and
generally combine into cooperative units for produc-
tion and marketing activities. Ejidos are a type of
cooperative, generally comprising 5 to 10 families
(called Ejiditarios) and farm 10-30 hectares of land
donated by the national government. The land, which
can be as much as 100 hectares, may be passed on by
the workers to their descendants but title to the land
remains with the government. Ejidos also receive
preferential tax and credit treatment from the na-
tional government. Tenant farmers rent small parcels
of land, generally from large farmers (who also rent
land for crop rotation reasons), and often form
partnerships with other growers.
Grower organizations were formed in the 1950's
and 1960's and have played a major role in the
economic and political advances of Mexico's winter
vegetable industry. At first, these were only scattered
river valley associations in Sinaloa that included all
crops, but with special emphasis on vegetables. Later
these fragmented groups joined together to form a
statewide organization, the Confederaci6n de Aso-
ciaciones Agricolas del Estado de Sinaloa
(CAADES).7
Subsequently, a national horticultural producers
union, the Uni6n Nacional de Productores de
Hortalizas (UNPH), was formed in order to regulate
the flow of produce from all States to the export
market. The UNPH is an umbrella organization for
State and other local producer organizations and
represents Mexico's horticultural industry in foreign


6There are a few farmsin the intermediate size of 100-300
hectares (including all crops), but they are not very impor-
tant on a commercial basis for vegetable output (unless they
combine into a large marketing cooperative).
"Although vegetable growers only account for 10 percent
of the 25,000 farmers represented by CAADES, they provide
40 percent of the funding of CAADES.


and other trade matters. Although the UNPH con-
tinues to expand to include more local associations,
CAADES is still the most important entity within the
UNPH. Most UNPH funds and expertise come from
Sinaloa, inasmuch as it is the leading horticultural
State. For these reasons, UNPH headquarters (and the
CAADES headquarters) are located in the Sinaloa
State capital, Culiacan-also known as Mexico's
"produce" capital.
The UNPH is composed of 250 local associations
with about 18,000 active producers, including 10,700
ejiditarios, 6,000 private farmowners (large and
small), and 1,100 tenant farmers and partners. Vir-
tually all of Mexico's commercial vegetable farmers
belong to this organization. In 1978/79, the UNPH
membership farmed 373,000 hectares, and produced
4 million tons of horticultural crops, valued at about
23 billion pesos (US$1 billion), of which 1 million
tons, representing 64,000 hectares and valued at 10
billion pesos (US$440 million), were exported. UNPH
members employed 350,000 laborers, who worked 31
million worker-days and received 4 billion pesos
(US$176 million) in salaries.


Sinaloa

Although there are about 1,000 small owners,
ejiditarios, and tenant farmers who produce winter
vegetables in Sinaloa, roughly half the State's exports
of these products are produced by 10 large farms,
each between 300-1,500 hectares in size. These large
operations are all based in the Culiac6n river valley,
but most also have additional landholdings in Los
Mochis, Guasave, and other areas.
These large farms are generally run by a family
that oversees the growing, packing, and marketing
operations. Since land reform laws limit produce
farms to 100 hectares, several family members hold
title to the land, although older males usually control
the business." During 1975 and 1976, some farms
lost land through expropriation carved out under the
National Government's reform legislation (enacted
during the revolution of 1910-20).
Most of the large produce farms were started in
the 1950's and early 1960's with American technical
and financial assistance. These operations expanded
dramatically due to additional American investment


8Sometimes two or more family farms form loose
partnerships.









Sinaloa has some small reservoirs in widely scat-
tered locations that irrigate 35,000 hectares. These


smaller reservoir networks also may be enlarged
greatly during the 1980's.


GROWERS


There are three principal types of farmers in
Mexico: Pequenios propietarios (those who own their
land); Ejidatarios (those who usually farm govern-
ment land cooperatively); and tenant farmers (those
who rent). While all three groups are involved in
vegetable farming, the term Pequefios propietarios is
too general for discussion purposes and is, therefore,
subdivided and discussed as 1) large-land owners and
2) small-land owners (generally referred to as
campesinos).
Large-scale producers, with farms of 300 to 1,500
hectares and several packinghouses, control roughly
half of the vegetable export market. Small-land
owners operate farms of roughly 5-100 hectares6, and
generally combine into cooperative units for produc-
tion and marketing activities. Ejidos are a type of
cooperative, generally comprising 5 to 10 families
(called Ejiditarios) and farm 10-30 hectares of land
donated by the national government. The land, which
can be as much as 100 hectares, may be passed on by
the workers to their descendants but title to the land
remains with the government. Ejidos also receive
preferential tax and credit treatment from the na-
tional government. Tenant farmers rent small parcels
of land, generally from large farmers (who also rent
land for crop rotation reasons), and often form
partnerships with other growers.
Grower organizations were formed in the 1950's
and 1960's and have played a major role in the
economic and political advances of Mexico's winter
vegetable industry. At first, these were only scattered
river valley associations in Sinaloa that included all
crops, but with special emphasis on vegetables. Later
these fragmented groups joined together to form a
statewide organization, the Confederaci6n de Aso-
ciaciones Agricolas del Estado de Sinaloa
(CAADES).7
Subsequently, a national horticultural producers
union, the Uni6n Nacional de Productores de
Hortalizas (UNPH), was formed in order to regulate
the flow of produce from all States to the export
market. The UNPH is an umbrella organization for
State and other local producer organizations and
represents Mexico's horticultural industry in foreign


6There are a few farmsin the intermediate size of 100-300
hectares (including all crops), but they are not very impor-
tant on a commercial basis for vegetable output (unless they
combine into a large marketing cooperative).
"Although vegetable growers only account for 10 percent
of the 25,000 farmers represented by CAADES, they provide
40 percent of the funding of CAADES.


and other trade matters. Although the UNPH con-
tinues to expand to include more local associations,
CAADES is still the most important entity within the
UNPH. Most UNPH funds and expertise come from
Sinaloa, inasmuch as it is the leading horticultural
State. For these reasons, UNPH headquarters (and the
CAADES headquarters) are located in the Sinaloa
State capital, Culiacan-also known as Mexico's
"produce" capital.
The UNPH is composed of 250 local associations
with about 18,000 active producers, including 10,700
ejiditarios, 6,000 private farmowners (large and
small), and 1,100 tenant farmers and partners. Vir-
tually all of Mexico's commercial vegetable farmers
belong to this organization. In 1978/79, the UNPH
membership farmed 373,000 hectares, and produced
4 million tons of horticultural crops, valued at about
23 billion pesos (US$1 billion), of which 1 million
tons, representing 64,000 hectares and valued at 10
billion pesos (US$440 million), were exported. UNPH
members employed 350,000 laborers, who worked 31
million worker-days and received 4 billion pesos
(US$176 million) in salaries.


Sinaloa

Although there are about 1,000 small owners,
ejiditarios, and tenant farmers who produce winter
vegetables in Sinaloa, roughly half the State's exports
of these products are produced by 10 large farms,
each between 300-1,500 hectares in size. These large
operations are all based in the Culiac6n river valley,
but most also have additional landholdings in Los
Mochis, Guasave, and other areas.
These large farms are generally run by a family
that oversees the growing, packing, and marketing
operations. Since land reform laws limit produce
farms to 100 hectares, several family members hold
title to the land, although older males usually control
the business." During 1975 and 1976, some farms
lost land through expropriation carved out under the
National Government's reform legislation (enacted
during the revolution of 1910-20).
Most of the large produce farms were started in
the 1950's and early 1960's with American technical
and financial assistance. These operations expanded
dramatically due to additional American investment


8Sometimes two or more family farms form loose
partnerships.

























































1. Cultivating staked tomatoes in
Baja California.
2. Handspraying tomatoes in
Culiacan, Sinaloa.
3. Using horse-plows to cultivate
in Baja California.
4. Tying young tomato plants to
stakes.
5. Using small, older tractors to
cultivate between the rows.
6. Costa Rica Canal, in Culiacan.









following the termination of the U.S. Bracero Pro-
gram in 1964 (the Bracero Program permitted exten-
sive use of Mexican labor on U.S. farms). Recently,
however, the use of U.S. capital and expertise for the
large farms has greatly diminished because of the
increased availability of these inputs within Mexico.


Sonora

Because of its close proximity to the U.S.-Mexican
border, southern Sonora was once a major area for
winter vegetable exports to the United States. How-
ever, the danger of frost caused a shift southward and
now there are only about 100 small farms and a few
large farms growing vegetables for export. Many of
these former vegetable farms switched to growing
wheat, feedgrains, cotton, and other low labor-usage
crops, partly because of labor disputes and the threat
of land expropriation.
The situation in southern Sonora is very similar to
that of Sinaloa, except that the operations are usually
smaller and less efficient. Farmers in the river valleys
of Rio Maya (around the city of Huatabampo) and
Rio Guaymas have producer associations, but these
are not as powerful as those in Sinaloa.


Baja California
The San Quintin region, about 250 kilometers
south of the U.S. border, has about 500 growers,
whose forms are predominantly 20-30 hectares in
size, of which 2-5 hectares are in tomatoes. However,
a few 1,000-hectare farms, with 200 to 500 hectares
in tomatoes, account for the bulk of the region's
tomato crop.
The proportion of small farms-operated by either
campesinos or ejiditarios-is far greater than the
number of similar farms in Sinaloa. As in Sinaloa and
Sonora, small farmers generally combine into coop-
eratives for production and marketing activities.
Despite the tax and credit advantages granted to
ejidos and small owners, the most efficient operations
are the independent farms of 100 or more hectares
that use more advanced technology.
In Santo Domingo, which is about 1,000 kilo-
meters south of the U.S. border, there are about 30
producers-mostly small farms and ejidos. However, it
is reported that one or two large operations from
Sinaloa have expanded into this area. The tomato
industry in Southern Baja California is not as efficient
as in San Quintin, primarily because of its isolated
position far from supplies and markets.


PRODUCTION FACILITIES


Land, labor, and capital are, in general, in ade-
quate supply in northwestern Mexico. Although
water is critically short in Baja California and Sonora,
there are few input constraints in Sinaloa. Therefore,
most of the production facilities are located in
Sinaloa, where output can readily expand with
increased demand from the export and local markets.
There are only a few agricultural research facilities
in Northwest Mexico and a great need exists for
research into problems facing vegetable growers.
Although there are horticultural schools in Sinaloa
and Sonora, most growers, managers, and technicians
are educated in .the United States. The National
Government does support Centro de Investigaciones
Agricolas del Pacifico Norte (CIAPAN)-the research
organization for Northwest Mexico under the Secre-
tary of Agriculture (SARH)-but CIAPAN research is
primarily in the areas of grains, cotton, and stable
crops. In an effort to improve vegetable culture
research, CAADES growers are taxing themselves to
provide funds for research at the 100-hectare research
farm in Culiacan. This facility may be expanded.
Although vegetable research facilities in north-
western Mexico are expanding, growers still rely on
many U.S. research facilities, particularly in Cali-
fornia and Florida. New technology applied in
Florida or California is almost immediately adopted
by Mexican growers (unless the Mexican Government


blocks importation of the technology). For example,
new plant varieties introduced in Florida are often
used in the same, or the following, year in Mexico. In
the long term, Mexico's research facilities should
improve substantially because of continued financial
backing by growers and the Government.


Sinaloa

Sinaloa's State capital, Culiacan, is the center of
Mexico's vegetable industry and headquarters for
several farm organizations and the offices of the
communication and transportation businesses that
service the agricultural industry. Sales offices for
trucks, tractors, farm equipment, fertilizers, chemi-
cals, and seed suppliers are located in the city's
outskirts.
Most of the farm buildings in the countryside of
the Culiacan valley are located near large packing-
house complexes. Vegetable farms are centered
around these packing areas, where the business
headquarters, trucks, tractors, trailers, and other

9The Mexican Government often restricts imports of
materials, particularly labor-saving equipment, from the
United States, to protect local industries and reduce unem-
ployment.









following the termination of the U.S. Bracero Pro-
gram in 1964 (the Bracero Program permitted exten-
sive use of Mexican labor on U.S. farms). Recently,
however, the use of U.S. capital and expertise for the
large farms has greatly diminished because of the
increased availability of these inputs within Mexico.


Sonora

Because of its close proximity to the U.S.-Mexican
border, southern Sonora was once a major area for
winter vegetable exports to the United States. How-
ever, the danger of frost caused a shift southward and
now there are only about 100 small farms and a few
large farms growing vegetables for export. Many of
these former vegetable farms switched to growing
wheat, feedgrains, cotton, and other low labor-usage
crops, partly because of labor disputes and the threat
of land expropriation.
The situation in southern Sonora is very similar to
that of Sinaloa, except that the operations are usually
smaller and less efficient. Farmers in the river valleys
of Rio Maya (around the city of Huatabampo) and
Rio Guaymas have producer associations, but these
are not as powerful as those in Sinaloa.


Baja California
The San Quintin region, about 250 kilometers
south of the U.S. border, has about 500 growers,
whose forms are predominantly 20-30 hectares in
size, of which 2-5 hectares are in tomatoes. However,
a few 1,000-hectare farms, with 200 to 500 hectares
in tomatoes, account for the bulk of the region's
tomato crop.
The proportion of small farms-operated by either
campesinos or ejiditarios-is far greater than the
number of similar farms in Sinaloa. As in Sinaloa and
Sonora, small farmers generally combine into coop-
eratives for production and marketing activities.
Despite the tax and credit advantages granted to
ejidos and small owners, the most efficient operations
are the independent farms of 100 or more hectares
that use more advanced technology.
In Santo Domingo, which is about 1,000 kilo-
meters south of the U.S. border, there are about 30
producers-mostly small farms and ejidos. However, it
is reported that one or two large operations from
Sinaloa have expanded into this area. The tomato
industry in Southern Baja California is not as efficient
as in San Quintin, primarily because of its isolated
position far from supplies and markets.


PRODUCTION FACILITIES


Land, labor, and capital are, in general, in ade-
quate supply in northwestern Mexico. Although
water is critically short in Baja California and Sonora,
there are few input constraints in Sinaloa. Therefore,
most of the production facilities are located in
Sinaloa, where output can readily expand with
increased demand from the export and local markets.
There are only a few agricultural research facilities
in Northwest Mexico and a great need exists for
research into problems facing vegetable growers.
Although there are horticultural schools in Sinaloa
and Sonora, most growers, managers, and technicians
are educated in .the United States. The National
Government does support Centro de Investigaciones
Agricolas del Pacifico Norte (CIAPAN)-the research
organization for Northwest Mexico under the Secre-
tary of Agriculture (SARH)-but CIAPAN research is
primarily in the areas of grains, cotton, and stable
crops. In an effort to improve vegetable culture
research, CAADES growers are taxing themselves to
provide funds for research at the 100-hectare research
farm in Culiacan. This facility may be expanded.
Although vegetable research facilities in north-
western Mexico are expanding, growers still rely on
many U.S. research facilities, particularly in Cali-
fornia and Florida. New technology applied in
Florida or California is almost immediately adopted
by Mexican growers (unless the Mexican Government


blocks importation of the technology). For example,
new plant varieties introduced in Florida are often
used in the same, or the following, year in Mexico. In
the long term, Mexico's research facilities should
improve substantially because of continued financial
backing by growers and the Government.


Sinaloa

Sinaloa's State capital, Culiacan, is the center of
Mexico's vegetable industry and headquarters for
several farm organizations and the offices of the
communication and transportation businesses that
service the agricultural industry. Sales offices for
trucks, tractors, farm equipment, fertilizers, chemi-
cals, and seed suppliers are located in the city's
outskirts.
Most of the farm buildings in the countryside of
the Culiacan valley are located near large packing-
house complexes. Vegetable farms are centered
around these packing areas, where the business
headquarters, trucks, tractors, trailers, and other

9The Mexican Government often restricts imports of
materials, particularly labor-saving equipment, from the
United States, to protect local industries and reduce unem-
ployment.









following the termination of the U.S. Bracero Pro-
gram in 1964 (the Bracero Program permitted exten-
sive use of Mexican labor on U.S. farms). Recently,
however, the use of U.S. capital and expertise for the
large farms has greatly diminished because of the
increased availability of these inputs within Mexico.


Sonora

Because of its close proximity to the U.S.-Mexican
border, southern Sonora was once a major area for
winter vegetable exports to the United States. How-
ever, the danger of frost caused a shift southward and
now there are only about 100 small farms and a few
large farms growing vegetables for export. Many of
these former vegetable farms switched to growing
wheat, feedgrains, cotton, and other low labor-usage
crops, partly because of labor disputes and the threat
of land expropriation.
The situation in southern Sonora is very similar to
that of Sinaloa, except that the operations are usually
smaller and less efficient. Farmers in the river valleys
of Rio Maya (around the city of Huatabampo) and
Rio Guaymas have producer associations, but these
are not as powerful as those in Sinaloa.


Baja California
The San Quintin region, about 250 kilometers
south of the U.S. border, has about 500 growers,
whose forms are predominantly 20-30 hectares in
size, of which 2-5 hectares are in tomatoes. However,
a few 1,000-hectare farms, with 200 to 500 hectares
in tomatoes, account for the bulk of the region's
tomato crop.
The proportion of small farms-operated by either
campesinos or ejiditarios-is far greater than the
number of similar farms in Sinaloa. As in Sinaloa and
Sonora, small farmers generally combine into coop-
eratives for production and marketing activities.
Despite the tax and credit advantages granted to
ejidos and small owners, the most efficient operations
are the independent farms of 100 or more hectares
that use more advanced technology.
In Santo Domingo, which is about 1,000 kilo-
meters south of the U.S. border, there are about 30
producers-mostly small farms and ejidos. However, it
is reported that one or two large operations from
Sinaloa have expanded into this area. The tomato
industry in Southern Baja California is not as efficient
as in San Quintin, primarily because of its isolated
position far from supplies and markets.


PRODUCTION FACILITIES


Land, labor, and capital are, in general, in ade-
quate supply in northwestern Mexico. Although
water is critically short in Baja California and Sonora,
there are few input constraints in Sinaloa. Therefore,
most of the production facilities are located in
Sinaloa, where output can readily expand with
increased demand from the export and local markets.
There are only a few agricultural research facilities
in Northwest Mexico and a great need exists for
research into problems facing vegetable growers.
Although there are horticultural schools in Sinaloa
and Sonora, most growers, managers, and technicians
are educated in .the United States. The National
Government does support Centro de Investigaciones
Agricolas del Pacifico Norte (CIAPAN)-the research
organization for Northwest Mexico under the Secre-
tary of Agriculture (SARH)-but CIAPAN research is
primarily in the areas of grains, cotton, and stable
crops. In an effort to improve vegetable culture
research, CAADES growers are taxing themselves to
provide funds for research at the 100-hectare research
farm in Culiacan. This facility may be expanded.
Although vegetable research facilities in north-
western Mexico are expanding, growers still rely on
many U.S. research facilities, particularly in Cali-
fornia and Florida. New technology applied in
Florida or California is almost immediately adopted
by Mexican growers (unless the Mexican Government


blocks importation of the technology). For example,
new plant varieties introduced in Florida are often
used in the same, or the following, year in Mexico. In
the long term, Mexico's research facilities should
improve substantially because of continued financial
backing by growers and the Government.


Sinaloa

Sinaloa's State capital, Culiacan, is the center of
Mexico's vegetable industry and headquarters for
several farm organizations and the offices of the
communication and transportation businesses that
service the agricultural industry. Sales offices for
trucks, tractors, farm equipment, fertilizers, chemi-
cals, and seed suppliers are located in the city's
outskirts.
Most of the farm buildings in the countryside of
the Culiacan valley are located near large packing-
house complexes. Vegetable farms are centered
around these packing areas, where the business
headquarters, trucks, tractors, trailers, and other

9The Mexican Government often restricts imports of
materials, particularly labor-saving equipment, from the
United States, to protect local industries and reduce unem-
ployment.









following the termination of the U.S. Bracero Pro-
gram in 1964 (the Bracero Program permitted exten-
sive use of Mexican labor on U.S. farms). Recently,
however, the use of U.S. capital and expertise for the
large farms has greatly diminished because of the
increased availability of these inputs within Mexico.


Sonora

Because of its close proximity to the U.S.-Mexican
border, southern Sonora was once a major area for
winter vegetable exports to the United States. How-
ever, the danger of frost caused a shift southward and
now there are only about 100 small farms and a few
large farms growing vegetables for export. Many of
these former vegetable farms switched to growing
wheat, feedgrains, cotton, and other low labor-usage
crops, partly because of labor disputes and the threat
of land expropriation.
The situation in southern Sonora is very similar to
that of Sinaloa, except that the operations are usually
smaller and less efficient. Farmers in the river valleys
of Rio Maya (around the city of Huatabampo) and
Rio Guaymas have producer associations, but these
are not as powerful as those in Sinaloa.


Baja California
The San Quintin region, about 250 kilometers
south of the U.S. border, has about 500 growers,
whose forms are predominantly 20-30 hectares in
size, of which 2-5 hectares are in tomatoes. However,
a few 1,000-hectare farms, with 200 to 500 hectares
in tomatoes, account for the bulk of the region's
tomato crop.
The proportion of small farms-operated by either
campesinos or ejiditarios-is far greater than the
number of similar farms in Sinaloa. As in Sinaloa and
Sonora, small farmers generally combine into coop-
eratives for production and marketing activities.
Despite the tax and credit advantages granted to
ejidos and small owners, the most efficient operations
are the independent farms of 100 or more hectares
that use more advanced technology.
In Santo Domingo, which is about 1,000 kilo-
meters south of the U.S. border, there are about 30
producers-mostly small farms and ejidos. However, it
is reported that one or two large operations from
Sinaloa have expanded into this area. The tomato
industry in Southern Baja California is not as efficient
as in San Quintin, primarily because of its isolated
position far from supplies and markets.


PRODUCTION FACILITIES


Land, labor, and capital are, in general, in ade-
quate supply in northwestern Mexico. Although
water is critically short in Baja California and Sonora,
there are few input constraints in Sinaloa. Therefore,
most of the production facilities are located in
Sinaloa, where output can readily expand with
increased demand from the export and local markets.
There are only a few agricultural research facilities
in Northwest Mexico and a great need exists for
research into problems facing vegetable growers.
Although there are horticultural schools in Sinaloa
and Sonora, most growers, managers, and technicians
are educated in .the United States. The National
Government does support Centro de Investigaciones
Agricolas del Pacifico Norte (CIAPAN)-the research
organization for Northwest Mexico under the Secre-
tary of Agriculture (SARH)-but CIAPAN research is
primarily in the areas of grains, cotton, and stable
crops. In an effort to improve vegetable culture
research, CAADES growers are taxing themselves to
provide funds for research at the 100-hectare research
farm in Culiacan. This facility may be expanded.
Although vegetable research facilities in north-
western Mexico are expanding, growers still rely on
many U.S. research facilities, particularly in Cali-
fornia and Florida. New technology applied in
Florida or California is almost immediately adopted
by Mexican growers (unless the Mexican Government


blocks importation of the technology). For example,
new plant varieties introduced in Florida are often
used in the same, or the following, year in Mexico. In
the long term, Mexico's research facilities should
improve substantially because of continued financial
backing by growers and the Government.


Sinaloa

Sinaloa's State capital, Culiacan, is the center of
Mexico's vegetable industry and headquarters for
several farm organizations and the offices of the
communication and transportation businesses that
service the agricultural industry. Sales offices for
trucks, tractors, farm equipment, fertilizers, chemi-
cals, and seed suppliers are located in the city's
outskirts.
Most of the farm buildings in the countryside of
the Culiacan valley are located near large packing-
house complexes. Vegetable farms are centered
around these packing areas, where the business
headquarters, trucks, tractors, trailers, and other

9The Mexican Government often restricts imports of
materials, particularly labor-saving equipment, from the
United States, to protect local industries and reduce unem-
ployment.









machinery and materials are located. Laborers go to
these central areas for their daily work assignments.
Depending on size, a farm may employ from 20 to
3,500 workers.
There are about 100 vegetable packing plants in
Sinaloa, with the majority of them belonging to small
land owners and ejidarios. However, the 10 largest
businesses have about 25 packinghouses that produce
at least half of total vegetable exports.
The larger firms have complex packing operations
that may employ from 300 to 500 workers on a
packing line at the height of the season, while smaller
outfits have older packing facilities that may use 20
to 30 workers. Big farms have an abundant supply of
heavy U.S.-made machinery, while small farms
usually share, rent, or custom-hire machinery.
Although large farms may have ultramodern equip-
ment (such as four-wheel-drive, articulated tractors,
laser-guided scrapers to prepare fields for planting,
and even their own airplanes for crop spraying),
horses and mules are still used to cultivate the narrow
rows of trellised vine-like vegetables.
Most packinghouses throughout Sinaloa show signs
of new additions. The packing lines often have new
washers, sizers, and conveyors, and many large
packinghouses have precooling rooms and ethylene
gassing facilities similar to those in California and
Florida.
The Mexican Government, however, restricts the
use of labor saving devices-the unemployment rate is
very high in Mexico-and there may be twice as many
workers on a packing line as there would be in a U.S.
packinghouse. Even though U.S. wages are well above
Mexican wages, Mexican growers' labor costs are
approaching those of comparable U.S. labor costs,
because Mexican growers use more workers.
Worker housing is a problem. However, the Mexi-
can Government, CAADES, and growers are now
attempting to improve temporary housing facilities.
About 200,000 migrant workers are employed in
Sinaloa at the height of the winter vegetable season.
Most of the workers are "imported" from the less
developed southern States, particularly Oaxaca. A
majority of large farms have recruiting programs for
migrant labor, and some even invite and host village
officials from Oaxaca before the season starts in order
to discuss areas planted, harvesting periods, and the
number of laborers needed. After the officials return
home, the workers show up on schedule.
The majority of the packing and field laborers are
women. As of January 1980, almost all unskilled


laborers earned 165 pesos (US$7.15) daily, plus
bonuses, with supervisors and skilled workers garner-
ing substantially more. Over the entire 6-month
season, these 200,000 migrant workers may earn
around US$160 million.


Sonora

There are about 20 vegetable packingsheds in
southern Sonora. Most of the packing plants are small
owner and ejido operations, although there are still
one or two large packinghouses around Guaymas.
Growers in Sonora purchase most farm inputs
around Guaymas, Hermosillo, and Nogales; some
materials are obtained in Culiacin. Growers rely on
the communications and transportation network ex-
tending from Nogales, through Guaymas, to Culiac6n.
Most large farm vegetable facilities have deteri-
orated, since the majority of the big vegetable
plantations have switched to growing wheat, feed-
grains, and cotton. In addition to the danger of frost,
labor problems and recent farm expropriations have
caused this area to decline in importance as a
vegetable producer. About 1,000 seasonal workers are
employed in Sonora and their 3-month earnings
amount to roughly $600,000.


Baja California

In Baja California, there are some 30 to 50
packinghouses, the majority of which are older,
smaller, and less efficient than those in Sinaloa and
the United States. Some growers are now receiving
funds from local banks to build larger packinghouses
and many small farm and ejido outfits are moderniz-
ing their operations by purchasing overhead carton
conveyors, mechanical sizers, and other equipment.
In 1979, several modern packingplants came into
production, while many others were modernized and
expanded.
Unlike shipments from Sinaloa or the United
States, no precooling facilities are necessary because
of the relatively cooler temperatures in Baja. Nor are
ethylene gassing facilities available, because the long
haul to market makes them unnecessary.
Approximately 3,000 to 5,000 seasonal workers
are employed in Baja and their earnings amount to
roughly $5 million over a 6-month period.









machinery and materials are located. Laborers go to
these central areas for their daily work assignments.
Depending on size, a farm may employ from 20 to
3,500 workers.
There are about 100 vegetable packing plants in
Sinaloa, with the majority of them belonging to small
land owners and ejidarios. However, the 10 largest
businesses have about 25 packinghouses that produce
at least half of total vegetable exports.
The larger firms have complex packing operations
that may employ from 300 to 500 workers on a
packing line at the height of the season, while smaller
outfits have older packing facilities that may use 20
to 30 workers. Big farms have an abundant supply of
heavy U.S.-made machinery, while small farms
usually share, rent, or custom-hire machinery.
Although large farms may have ultramodern equip-
ment (such as four-wheel-drive, articulated tractors,
laser-guided scrapers to prepare fields for planting,
and even their own airplanes for crop spraying),
horses and mules are still used to cultivate the narrow
rows of trellised vine-like vegetables.
Most packinghouses throughout Sinaloa show signs
of new additions. The packing lines often have new
washers, sizers, and conveyors, and many large
packinghouses have precooling rooms and ethylene
gassing facilities similar to those in California and
Florida.
The Mexican Government, however, restricts the
use of labor saving devices-the unemployment rate is
very high in Mexico-and there may be twice as many
workers on a packing line as there would be in a U.S.
packinghouse. Even though U.S. wages are well above
Mexican wages, Mexican growers' labor costs are
approaching those of comparable U.S. labor costs,
because Mexican growers use more workers.
Worker housing is a problem. However, the Mexi-
can Government, CAADES, and growers are now
attempting to improve temporary housing facilities.
About 200,000 migrant workers are employed in
Sinaloa at the height of the winter vegetable season.
Most of the workers are "imported" from the less
developed southern States, particularly Oaxaca. A
majority of large farms have recruiting programs for
migrant labor, and some even invite and host village
officials from Oaxaca before the season starts in order
to discuss areas planted, harvesting periods, and the
number of laborers needed. After the officials return
home, the workers show up on schedule.
The majority of the packing and field laborers are
women. As of January 1980, almost all unskilled


laborers earned 165 pesos (US$7.15) daily, plus
bonuses, with supervisors and skilled workers garner-
ing substantially more. Over the entire 6-month
season, these 200,000 migrant workers may earn
around US$160 million.


Sonora

There are about 20 vegetable packingsheds in
southern Sonora. Most of the packing plants are small
owner and ejido operations, although there are still
one or two large packinghouses around Guaymas.
Growers in Sonora purchase most farm inputs
around Guaymas, Hermosillo, and Nogales; some
materials are obtained in Culiacin. Growers rely on
the communications and transportation network ex-
tending from Nogales, through Guaymas, to Culiac6n.
Most large farm vegetable facilities have deteri-
orated, since the majority of the big vegetable
plantations have switched to growing wheat, feed-
grains, and cotton. In addition to the danger of frost,
labor problems and recent farm expropriations have
caused this area to decline in importance as a
vegetable producer. About 1,000 seasonal workers are
employed in Sonora and their 3-month earnings
amount to roughly $600,000.


Baja California

In Baja California, there are some 30 to 50
packinghouses, the majority of which are older,
smaller, and less efficient than those in Sinaloa and
the United States. Some growers are now receiving
funds from local banks to build larger packinghouses
and many small farm and ejido outfits are moderniz-
ing their operations by purchasing overhead carton
conveyors, mechanical sizers, and other equipment.
In 1979, several modern packingplants came into
production, while many others were modernized and
expanded.
Unlike shipments from Sinaloa or the United
States, no precooling facilities are necessary because
of the relatively cooler temperatures in Baja. Nor are
ethylene gassing facilities available, because the long
haul to market makes them unnecessary.
Approximately 3,000 to 5,000 seasonal workers
are employed in Baja and their earnings amount to
roughly $5 million over a 6-month period.









GOVERNMENT ASSISTANCE


Mexican Government assistance is largely confined
to constructing irrigation facilities, providing some
credit for small growers, and promoting some re-
search facilities. Indirectly, the Government is assist-
ing growers by maintaining low domestic prices for
petrochemicals-gasoline, diesel fuel, plastics, fertil-
izers, and some chemical sprays-that are now about
half as expensive as those found in the United States.
However, growers must pay (locally) competitive
prices for farm inputs and they tax themselves
through a checkoff system for some marketing and
research activities.
Although many crops grown for export are still
financed by U.S. capital1 0 via banks and distribution
firms in Nogales, Ariz., some small farmers receive
local money and tax advantages. Local farm banks
have been set up to finance some small farm and
ejidos operations with funds for grower inputs. In
addition, the Mexican Government provides some
minor tax advantages to these small growers. Despite
these financial advantages, large farms are more
efficient than the small farms and contribute more to
the export market.


10Many annual farm inputs (such as seed) are imported
from the United States, and these materials are often
financed with U.S. capital. However, most long-term inputs
(such as buildings) are locally financed, and large farms are
often financially self-sufficient.


The Government is also assisting the railroads to
haul produce. However, the railroads are still ineffi-
cient and slow to deliver, hence trucks carry most of
the vegetables (yet, about 30-35 percent of the
produce going through Nogales goes by rail).
The Government also plays a role in allocating
crop plantings in Northwestern Mexico in order to
balance the competing needs of various farm com-
modities in both local and export markets. In terms
of priorities, the Secretariat of Agriculture and Water
Resources (SARH) sets the farm-area allocation first
for planting sugarcane, and then for other staple
crops such as wheat, rice, beans, corn, and cotton.
The remainder is then allocated to all vegetable
growers (who also have a strong say in their area
allocations) in accordance with anticipated needs of
domestic and export markets.
The vegetable grower associations distribute the
allocated planted areas for vegetables among individ-
ual growers. If growers overplant their area allotment,
their irrigation water may be cut off, but this severe
measure is rarely taken. Growers, however, make the
final decision on the amount of acreage planted.
The grower associations provide many services and
have been granted certain police powers by the
Federal and State Governments. They set minimum
export standards for grade and size-generally well
above U.S. minimum requirements-and adjust pro-
duction and marketing schedules for vegetable
exports.


PRODUCTION


Mexico's production of vegetables has risen dra-
matically in the last two decades, primarily from
higher yields rather than more acreage. From 1960 to
1979, Mexico's tomato production jumped from
389,000 tons to 1,120,000 tons, while similar in-
creases occurred for sweet bell peppers (90,000 to
474,000 tons), and eggplant (1,000 to 27,000 tons).
Crop data for cucumbers and squash before 1971 are
not available. However, between 1971 and 1979,
cucumber production rose from 135,000 to 190,000
tons, while squash output grew from 30,000 to
72,000 tons. During 1960-79, yields rose roughly
fourfold for most of these five vegetables, while area
actually declined for tomatoes, and rose only mod-
erately for the others.
Much of this additional production is for export,
particularly cucumbers, eggplant, and squash (which
are not as well known in Mexico as tomatoes and
peppers-traditional items in the national diet.)
Although a third of the national tomato and sweet
pepper production is for export, approximately two-


thirds of cucumber, eggplant, and squash output is
exported.
Roughly a third to a half of Mexico's tomato and
pepper production is in the Northwest, and, almost
all of the country's cucumber, eggplant, and squash is
in the Northwest.
The largest advance in vegetable production in
Mexico has occurred in Sinaloa because of its
extensive river-reservoir system. As foreign and
domestic demand for vegetables rose sharply in the
1960's and 1970's, Sinaloa's production increased
dramatically. This trend is expected to continue in
the 1980's as additional reservoirs come into opera-
tion and local and export demand expands.


Tomatoes

Area

The total area devoted to tomatoes in the three
northwestern States of Sinaloa, Sonora, and Baja









GOVERNMENT ASSISTANCE


Mexican Government assistance is largely confined
to constructing irrigation facilities, providing some
credit for small growers, and promoting some re-
search facilities. Indirectly, the Government is assist-
ing growers by maintaining low domestic prices for
petrochemicals-gasoline, diesel fuel, plastics, fertil-
izers, and some chemical sprays-that are now about
half as expensive as those found in the United States.
However, growers must pay (locally) competitive
prices for farm inputs and they tax themselves
through a checkoff system for some marketing and
research activities.
Although many crops grown for export are still
financed by U.S. capital1 0 via banks and distribution
firms in Nogales, Ariz., some small farmers receive
local money and tax advantages. Local farm banks
have been set up to finance some small farm and
ejidos operations with funds for grower inputs. In
addition, the Mexican Government provides some
minor tax advantages to these small growers. Despite
these financial advantages, large farms are more
efficient than the small farms and contribute more to
the export market.


10Many annual farm inputs (such as seed) are imported
from the United States, and these materials are often
financed with U.S. capital. However, most long-term inputs
(such as buildings) are locally financed, and large farms are
often financially self-sufficient.


The Government is also assisting the railroads to
haul produce. However, the railroads are still ineffi-
cient and slow to deliver, hence trucks carry most of
the vegetables (yet, about 30-35 percent of the
produce going through Nogales goes by rail).
The Government also plays a role in allocating
crop plantings in Northwestern Mexico in order to
balance the competing needs of various farm com-
modities in both local and export markets. In terms
of priorities, the Secretariat of Agriculture and Water
Resources (SARH) sets the farm-area allocation first
for planting sugarcane, and then for other staple
crops such as wheat, rice, beans, corn, and cotton.
The remainder is then allocated to all vegetable
growers (who also have a strong say in their area
allocations) in accordance with anticipated needs of
domestic and export markets.
The vegetable grower associations distribute the
allocated planted areas for vegetables among individ-
ual growers. If growers overplant their area allotment,
their irrigation water may be cut off, but this severe
measure is rarely taken. Growers, however, make the
final decision on the amount of acreage planted.
The grower associations provide many services and
have been granted certain police powers by the
Federal and State Governments. They set minimum
export standards for grade and size-generally well
above U.S. minimum requirements-and adjust pro-
duction and marketing schedules for vegetable
exports.


PRODUCTION


Mexico's production of vegetables has risen dra-
matically in the last two decades, primarily from
higher yields rather than more acreage. From 1960 to
1979, Mexico's tomato production jumped from
389,000 tons to 1,120,000 tons, while similar in-
creases occurred for sweet bell peppers (90,000 to
474,000 tons), and eggplant (1,000 to 27,000 tons).
Crop data for cucumbers and squash before 1971 are
not available. However, between 1971 and 1979,
cucumber production rose from 135,000 to 190,000
tons, while squash output grew from 30,000 to
72,000 tons. During 1960-79, yields rose roughly
fourfold for most of these five vegetables, while area
actually declined for tomatoes, and rose only mod-
erately for the others.
Much of this additional production is for export,
particularly cucumbers, eggplant, and squash (which
are not as well known in Mexico as tomatoes and
peppers-traditional items in the national diet.)
Although a third of the national tomato and sweet
pepper production is for export, approximately two-


thirds of cucumber, eggplant, and squash output is
exported.
Roughly a third to a half of Mexico's tomato and
pepper production is in the Northwest, and, almost
all of the country's cucumber, eggplant, and squash is
in the Northwest.
The largest advance in vegetable production in
Mexico has occurred in Sinaloa because of its
extensive river-reservoir system. As foreign and
domestic demand for vegetables rose sharply in the
1960's and 1970's, Sinaloa's production increased
dramatically. This trend is expected to continue in
the 1980's as additional reservoirs come into opera-
tion and local and export demand expands.


Tomatoes

Area

The total area devoted to tomatoes in the three
northwestern States of Sinaloa, Sonora, and Baja









GOVERNMENT ASSISTANCE


Mexican Government assistance is largely confined
to constructing irrigation facilities, providing some
credit for small growers, and promoting some re-
search facilities. Indirectly, the Government is assist-
ing growers by maintaining low domestic prices for
petrochemicals-gasoline, diesel fuel, plastics, fertil-
izers, and some chemical sprays-that are now about
half as expensive as those found in the United States.
However, growers must pay (locally) competitive
prices for farm inputs and they tax themselves
through a checkoff system for some marketing and
research activities.
Although many crops grown for export are still
financed by U.S. capital1 0 via banks and distribution
firms in Nogales, Ariz., some small farmers receive
local money and tax advantages. Local farm banks
have been set up to finance some small farm and
ejidos operations with funds for grower inputs. In
addition, the Mexican Government provides some
minor tax advantages to these small growers. Despite
these financial advantages, large farms are more
efficient than the small farms and contribute more to
the export market.


10Many annual farm inputs (such as seed) are imported
from the United States, and these materials are often
financed with U.S. capital. However, most long-term inputs
(such as buildings) are locally financed, and large farms are
often financially self-sufficient.


The Government is also assisting the railroads to
haul produce. However, the railroads are still ineffi-
cient and slow to deliver, hence trucks carry most of
the vegetables (yet, about 30-35 percent of the
produce going through Nogales goes by rail).
The Government also plays a role in allocating
crop plantings in Northwestern Mexico in order to
balance the competing needs of various farm com-
modities in both local and export markets. In terms
of priorities, the Secretariat of Agriculture and Water
Resources (SARH) sets the farm-area allocation first
for planting sugarcane, and then for other staple
crops such as wheat, rice, beans, corn, and cotton.
The remainder is then allocated to all vegetable
growers (who also have a strong say in their area
allocations) in accordance with anticipated needs of
domestic and export markets.
The vegetable grower associations distribute the
allocated planted areas for vegetables among individ-
ual growers. If growers overplant their area allotment,
their irrigation water may be cut off, but this severe
measure is rarely taken. Growers, however, make the
final decision on the amount of acreage planted.
The grower associations provide many services and
have been granted certain police powers by the
Federal and State Governments. They set minimum
export standards for grade and size-generally well
above U.S. minimum requirements-and adjust pro-
duction and marketing schedules for vegetable
exports.


PRODUCTION


Mexico's production of vegetables has risen dra-
matically in the last two decades, primarily from
higher yields rather than more acreage. From 1960 to
1979, Mexico's tomato production jumped from
389,000 tons to 1,120,000 tons, while similar in-
creases occurred for sweet bell peppers (90,000 to
474,000 tons), and eggplant (1,000 to 27,000 tons).
Crop data for cucumbers and squash before 1971 are
not available. However, between 1971 and 1979,
cucumber production rose from 135,000 to 190,000
tons, while squash output grew from 30,000 to
72,000 tons. During 1960-79, yields rose roughly
fourfold for most of these five vegetables, while area
actually declined for tomatoes, and rose only mod-
erately for the others.
Much of this additional production is for export,
particularly cucumbers, eggplant, and squash (which
are not as well known in Mexico as tomatoes and
peppers-traditional items in the national diet.)
Although a third of the national tomato and sweet
pepper production is for export, approximately two-


thirds of cucumber, eggplant, and squash output is
exported.
Roughly a third to a half of Mexico's tomato and
pepper production is in the Northwest, and, almost
all of the country's cucumber, eggplant, and squash is
in the Northwest.
The largest advance in vegetable production in
Mexico has occurred in Sinaloa because of its
extensive river-reservoir system. As foreign and
domestic demand for vegetables rose sharply in the
1960's and 1970's, Sinaloa's production increased
dramatically. This trend is expected to continue in
the 1980's as additional reservoirs come into opera-
tion and local and export demand expands.


Tomatoes

Area

The total area devoted to tomatoes in the three
northwestern States of Sinaloa, Sonora, and Baja









GOVERNMENT ASSISTANCE


Mexican Government assistance is largely confined
to constructing irrigation facilities, providing some
credit for small growers, and promoting some re-
search facilities. Indirectly, the Government is assist-
ing growers by maintaining low domestic prices for
petrochemicals-gasoline, diesel fuel, plastics, fertil-
izers, and some chemical sprays-that are now about
half as expensive as those found in the United States.
However, growers must pay (locally) competitive
prices for farm inputs and they tax themselves
through a checkoff system for some marketing and
research activities.
Although many crops grown for export are still
financed by U.S. capital1 0 via banks and distribution
firms in Nogales, Ariz., some small farmers receive
local money and tax advantages. Local farm banks
have been set up to finance some small farm and
ejidos operations with funds for grower inputs. In
addition, the Mexican Government provides some
minor tax advantages to these small growers. Despite
these financial advantages, large farms are more
efficient than the small farms and contribute more to
the export market.


10Many annual farm inputs (such as seed) are imported
from the United States, and these materials are often
financed with U.S. capital. However, most long-term inputs
(such as buildings) are locally financed, and large farms are
often financially self-sufficient.


The Government is also assisting the railroads to
haul produce. However, the railroads are still ineffi-
cient and slow to deliver, hence trucks carry most of
the vegetables (yet, about 30-35 percent of the
produce going through Nogales goes by rail).
The Government also plays a role in allocating
crop plantings in Northwestern Mexico in order to
balance the competing needs of various farm com-
modities in both local and export markets. In terms
of priorities, the Secretariat of Agriculture and Water
Resources (SARH) sets the farm-area allocation first
for planting sugarcane, and then for other staple
crops such as wheat, rice, beans, corn, and cotton.
The remainder is then allocated to all vegetable
growers (who also have a strong say in their area
allocations) in accordance with anticipated needs of
domestic and export markets.
The vegetable grower associations distribute the
allocated planted areas for vegetables among individ-
ual growers. If growers overplant their area allotment,
their irrigation water may be cut off, but this severe
measure is rarely taken. Growers, however, make the
final decision on the amount of acreage planted.
The grower associations provide many services and
have been granted certain police powers by the
Federal and State Governments. They set minimum
export standards for grade and size-generally well
above U.S. minimum requirements-and adjust pro-
duction and marketing schedules for vegetable
exports.


PRODUCTION


Mexico's production of vegetables has risen dra-
matically in the last two decades, primarily from
higher yields rather than more acreage. From 1960 to
1979, Mexico's tomato production jumped from
389,000 tons to 1,120,000 tons, while similar in-
creases occurred for sweet bell peppers (90,000 to
474,000 tons), and eggplant (1,000 to 27,000 tons).
Crop data for cucumbers and squash before 1971 are
not available. However, between 1971 and 1979,
cucumber production rose from 135,000 to 190,000
tons, while squash output grew from 30,000 to
72,000 tons. During 1960-79, yields rose roughly
fourfold for most of these five vegetables, while area
actually declined for tomatoes, and rose only mod-
erately for the others.
Much of this additional production is for export,
particularly cucumbers, eggplant, and squash (which
are not as well known in Mexico as tomatoes and
peppers-traditional items in the national diet.)
Although a third of the national tomato and sweet
pepper production is for export, approximately two-


thirds of cucumber, eggplant, and squash output is
exported.
Roughly a third to a half of Mexico's tomato and
pepper production is in the Northwest, and, almost
all of the country's cucumber, eggplant, and squash is
in the Northwest.
The largest advance in vegetable production in
Mexico has occurred in Sinaloa because of its
extensive river-reservoir system. As foreign and
domestic demand for vegetables rose sharply in the
1960's and 1970's, Sinaloa's production increased
dramatically. This trend is expected to continue in
the 1980's as additional reservoirs come into opera-
tion and local and export demand expands.


Tomatoes

Area

The total area devoted to tomatoes in the three
northwestern States of Sinaloa, Sonora, and Baja
























tomatoes in Culiachn.
4. A cucumber field fertilized by
S honey bees.
5. Bringing tomatoes to the cen-
Stral collection points.




a
6. Unloading sweet peppers at a
S packinghouse.



























4







.e


IL


a









California declined from roughly 29,000 hectares
(72,000 acres) in 1960 to approximately 18,000
hectares (44,000 acres) in 1979. The area reduction is
primarily a result of grower attempts to produce
more from a smaller area to lower planting costs, and
a shift from ground-grown tomatoes in Sonora and
northern Sinaloa to staked tomatoes (which require
only a third of the area for the same output) in
central Sinaloa. (However, recently there has been
expansion of ground grown tomatoes in Guaymas,
Sonora.) Unlike Sinaloa and Sonora, Baja has ex-
panded plantings fourfold during the 1960-79 period,
but this has not offset area cuts in the other two
States.
Most of Northwestern Mexico's tomato area is
currently in Culiacin, Sinaloa (12,000 hectares), and
in San Quintih, Baja California (3,000 hectares).
Smaller areas are found in Los Mochis and Guasave,
Sinaloa (1,500 hectares), and in Guaymas and Huata-
bampo, Sonora (1,000 hectares).
There are two types of tomato production-staked
and ground-grown tomatoes. Staked tomatoes ac-
count for 80 to 90 percent of overall production and
account for virtually all of the production in Culiacan
and San Quintin. Ground-grown tomatoes are pri-
marily produced in Guaymas and Huatabampo, in
Sonora, and Los Mochis and Guasave, in Sinaloa.
Because production in Sonora (Guaymas and Huata-
bampo) and northern Sinaloa (Los Mochis and
Guasave) is risky because of danger from frost, these
northern areas are principally planted to the low-cost,
ground-grown tomatoes. The high-cost, high-yielding,
staked tomatoes are found in the leading tomato
districts of Culiacan and San Quintmn.1'

Yields

Crop yields in Culiacin, Sinaloa, are higher than
any other area in all of Mexico. However, Sinaloa's
overall yield often averages less than that of Baja,
because of the low yields of the ground-grown
tomatoes in northern Sinaloa (Los Mochis-Guasave).
Baja has few ground tomatoes. Sonora's yields are
lower than the other two States, because of the
predominance of low-yielding, ground-grown
tomatoes and a shorter production season.
Generally, yields average 35-45 tons per hectare
(14,000-18,000 standard 22-pound boxes/acre) in
Culiacin, Sinaloa, and 30-40 tons (12,000-16,000
boxes/acre) in Baja. In Sonora and northern Sinaloa

1 Processing tomatoes (primarily for tomato paste and
puree) are also produced in Culiacin, Los Mochis, and
Guasave. However, processors are having problems in market-
ing and in educating growers to produce a crop of uniform
quality needed for efficient processing. Nevertheless, this
market outlet may expand substantially in the future as
production problems are overcome and growers decide to
diversify their market outlets.


yields average only 20-30 tons (8,000-12,000 boxes/
acre).
More than any other State, Sinaloa's yields are
greatly influenced by the export market. When there
are low prices for export, Sinaloa's growers may
reduce the number of pickings, have picking holidays,
and may ultimately abandon acreage if grower prices
do not rise to cover the fixed preharvest and
harvesting costs. Consequently, commercial yields
drop dramatically when export demand drops, inas-
much as the export market takes about two-thirds of
Sinaloa's production.
Adverse weather, particularly cool, cloudy
weather, reduces yields throughout the three States.
Other weather factors that cut yields sharply include
freezes in Sonora and northern Sinaloa and heavy
rains during the growing season in Sinaloa and
Sonora.
Nevertheless, improved cultural practices boosted
yields fourfold during the last two decades. In 1965,
yields doubled when most growers adopted staked-
tomato culture in Sinaloa and Baja and doubled again
during 1965-79 when many growers throughout the
three States started using intensive farming tech-
niques-heavy use of fertilizer, pesticides, hybrid
varieties, and double-cropping-and extended the
harvest period.

Cultural Practices

Improved cultural practices are basically aimed at
increasing yields, thus enabling growers to reduce
acreage and cut planting costs, while pushing up
production. (With some minor differences, cultural
practices for tomatoes are the same as for other
winter vegetables.) Recent efforts to boost yields
include: 1)More plants per acre; 2) extensive use of
greenhouses to grow seedlings in styrofoam boxes
that produce larger and healthier plants than the
older method of pulling plants from seedbeds; 3) im-
proved hybrid plant varieties and specially formulated
fertilizer mixtures to yield larger crops; and 4) use of
gondolas-large fiberglass tanks of water mounted on
truck-trailers-into which tomatoes picked in the
fields are dumped in order to reduce the amount of
damaged fruit. Recently, some large farms have begun
using plastic mulch to boost yields. Because of these
and other advances, yields are expected to continue
rising throughout the 1980's.
Planting. Generally, tomatoes are planted in
September-November and harvested from December
to April in central Sinaloa (Culiacfn). In Baja (San
Quintin) they are planted in April-July and harvested
from July to November. In northern Sinaloa (Los
Mochis and Guasave) and Sonora (Guaymas and
Huatabampo), plantings occur from late February to
April for a spring crop and from July to September
for a fall crop (see table 3.).









California declined from roughly 29,000 hectares
(72,000 acres) in 1960 to approximately 18,000
hectares (44,000 acres) in 1979. The area reduction is
primarily a result of grower attempts to produce
more from a smaller area to lower planting costs, and
a shift from ground-grown tomatoes in Sonora and
northern Sinaloa to staked tomatoes (which require
only a third of the area for the same output) in
central Sinaloa. (However, recently there has been
expansion of ground grown tomatoes in Guaymas,
Sonora.) Unlike Sinaloa and Sonora, Baja has ex-
panded plantings fourfold during the 1960-79 period,
but this has not offset area cuts in the other two
States.
Most of Northwestern Mexico's tomato area is
currently in Culiacin, Sinaloa (12,000 hectares), and
in San Quintih, Baja California (3,000 hectares).
Smaller areas are found in Los Mochis and Guasave,
Sinaloa (1,500 hectares), and in Guaymas and Huata-
bampo, Sonora (1,000 hectares).
There are two types of tomato production-staked
and ground-grown tomatoes. Staked tomatoes ac-
count for 80 to 90 percent of overall production and
account for virtually all of the production in Culiacan
and San Quintin. Ground-grown tomatoes are pri-
marily produced in Guaymas and Huatabampo, in
Sonora, and Los Mochis and Guasave, in Sinaloa.
Because production in Sonora (Guaymas and Huata-
bampo) and northern Sinaloa (Los Mochis and
Guasave) is risky because of danger from frost, these
northern areas are principally planted to the low-cost,
ground-grown tomatoes. The high-cost, high-yielding,
staked tomatoes are found in the leading tomato
districts of Culiacan and San Quintmn.1'

Yields

Crop yields in Culiacin, Sinaloa, are higher than
any other area in all of Mexico. However, Sinaloa's
overall yield often averages less than that of Baja,
because of the low yields of the ground-grown
tomatoes in northern Sinaloa (Los Mochis-Guasave).
Baja has few ground tomatoes. Sonora's yields are
lower than the other two States, because of the
predominance of low-yielding, ground-grown
tomatoes and a shorter production season.
Generally, yields average 35-45 tons per hectare
(14,000-18,000 standard 22-pound boxes/acre) in
Culiacin, Sinaloa, and 30-40 tons (12,000-16,000
boxes/acre) in Baja. In Sonora and northern Sinaloa

1 Processing tomatoes (primarily for tomato paste and
puree) are also produced in Culiacin, Los Mochis, and
Guasave. However, processors are having problems in market-
ing and in educating growers to produce a crop of uniform
quality needed for efficient processing. Nevertheless, this
market outlet may expand substantially in the future as
production problems are overcome and growers decide to
diversify their market outlets.


yields average only 20-30 tons (8,000-12,000 boxes/
acre).
More than any other State, Sinaloa's yields are
greatly influenced by the export market. When there
are low prices for export, Sinaloa's growers may
reduce the number of pickings, have picking holidays,
and may ultimately abandon acreage if grower prices
do not rise to cover the fixed preharvest and
harvesting costs. Consequently, commercial yields
drop dramatically when export demand drops, inas-
much as the export market takes about two-thirds of
Sinaloa's production.
Adverse weather, particularly cool, cloudy
weather, reduces yields throughout the three States.
Other weather factors that cut yields sharply include
freezes in Sonora and northern Sinaloa and heavy
rains during the growing season in Sinaloa and
Sonora.
Nevertheless, improved cultural practices boosted
yields fourfold during the last two decades. In 1965,
yields doubled when most growers adopted staked-
tomato culture in Sinaloa and Baja and doubled again
during 1965-79 when many growers throughout the
three States started using intensive farming tech-
niques-heavy use of fertilizer, pesticides, hybrid
varieties, and double-cropping-and extended the
harvest period.

Cultural Practices

Improved cultural practices are basically aimed at
increasing yields, thus enabling growers to reduce
acreage and cut planting costs, while pushing up
production. (With some minor differences, cultural
practices for tomatoes are the same as for other
winter vegetables.) Recent efforts to boost yields
include: 1)More plants per acre; 2) extensive use of
greenhouses to grow seedlings in styrofoam boxes
that produce larger and healthier plants than the
older method of pulling plants from seedbeds; 3) im-
proved hybrid plant varieties and specially formulated
fertilizer mixtures to yield larger crops; and 4) use of
gondolas-large fiberglass tanks of water mounted on
truck-trailers-into which tomatoes picked in the
fields are dumped in order to reduce the amount of
damaged fruit. Recently, some large farms have begun
using plastic mulch to boost yields. Because of these
and other advances, yields are expected to continue
rising throughout the 1980's.
Planting. Generally, tomatoes are planted in
September-November and harvested from December
to April in central Sinaloa (Culiacfn). In Baja (San
Quintin) they are planted in April-July and harvested
from July to November. In northern Sinaloa (Los
Mochis and Guasave) and Sonora (Guaymas and
Huatabampo), plantings occur from late February to
April for a spring crop and from July to September
for a fall crop (see table 3.).









Table 3.-Planting and Harvesting Dates for Winter Vegetables in Sinaloa, Sonora, and Baja California

From
Area & item Planting Harvesting planting to
maturity

SINALOA
Winter crops:
Cucumbers ......... August 15 to November 30 October 15 to April 30 60-70 days
Eggplant ............. October 1 to January 15 December 15 to May 30 70-80 days
Peppers, sweet .......... August 1 to December 30 November 1 to May 30 80-100 days
Squash ............... October 1 to December 30 November 1 to March 30 50-60 days
Tomatoes:
Staked . . ... September 1 to January 15 December 1 to April 15 80-100 days
Ground . . ... September 1 to November 30 January 1 to May 15 100-120 days

SONORA
Spring crops:
Cucumbers ......... February 15 to April 15 May 15 to June 30 60-70 days
Peppers, sweet . .... February 1 to April 15 May 1 to June 30 80-100 days
Squash . . ..... January 15 to April 15 April 1 to June 30 50-60 days
Tomatoes, ground ........ February 1 to April 15 May 1 to June 30 100-120 days
Fall crops:
Cucumbers ........... August 1 to September 15 October 1 to December 30 60-70 days
Peppers, sweet .......... July 1 to September 15 October 1 to December 30 80-100 days
Squash ............... August 15 to October 1 October 1 to December 30 50-60 days
Tomatoes, ground ........ July 1 to September 15 October 15 to December 30 100-120 days

BAJA CALIFORNIA
Summer-fall crops:
Peppers, sweet .. ...... .. April 1 to July 30 July 1 to November 30 80-100 days
Tomatoes:
Staked ............. April 1 to September 15 June 1 to December 15 80-100 days
Ground ............. April 1 to August 30 July 1 to December 15 100-120 days

Source: Centro de Investigaciones Agricoles de Pacific Norte (CIAPAN) Culiacan, Sinaloa.


April 1980


Commodity Programs, FAS, USDA


Transplanting from greenhouses is the principal
planting method used by large farms in Sinaloa,
although some use direct seeding. Since greenhouses
are not available in Baja, direct seeding is the
principal method for large tomato farms on the
Peninsula. Small farms throughout the three States
generally use transplants from seedbeds, although
some buy imported plants from the United States.
Seed costs are roughly $50 per hectare ($20/acre)
while transplants cost about $90 per hectare
($35/acre).
Principal tomato varieties used in Sinaloa and
Sonora are Walter, Tropic, Pole Boy, and Floridades.
While these varieties are also used in Baja, the primary
variety is Ace-55. In Culiacin, the earliest plantings
(August-September) are Floridades and Culiacan One
(which are resistant to root rot from summer rains),
intermediate plantings (September-October) are pri-
marily Walters, and late-plantings (November-Decem-
ber) are Tropic, Floridades, Culiacan 360, and
Manapal.
The medium-brown, heavy-silt loam soils of north-
western Mexico's coastal valleys require a subsoiler to


loosen the ground for land preparation. Roughly a
month before planting the land is subsoiled and
plowed, and many large farms have the soil fumi-
gated. The soil is plowed and disked two to four
times before being harrowed and leveled. Most
growers later furrow the fields for ditch irrigation. In
total, land preparation costs the equivalent of $220
to $250 per hectare ($90-$100 per acre) with the
tractor and equipment usage being the major com-
ponent of this cost.
For staked fields, rows are established with alter-
nate wide and narrow widths of 2 and 1.5 meters (6
and 4 feet). Staked rows usually extend about 50
meters (60 yards) with plants 20 to 30 centimeters
(8-12 inches) apart. Ground-grown tomatoes have
rows of a uniform distance of 1.8 meters (5 feet)
apart, with plants spaced every 20 centimeters. Plant
populations for both staked and ground-grown
tomatoes are about the same.
The stakes used to hold up the vines are not the
standard mechanically cut poles found in the United
States, but are rather slender tree branches cut to the
appropriate size. Large stakes are placed every 2 to 3
meters (6-9 feet) with several small stakes in between;









four or five strings are tied at various levels to support
the plants.
Roughly 700 large, and 5,000 small, stakes are
used per hectare (300 and 2,000 per acre, respec-
tively), priced at about 20 and 6 U.S. cents each,
respectively. About $220 worth of henequen cord
(shipped in from Yucatan) and approximately $450
worth of stakes are needed per hectare ($90 and $180
per acre, respectively). About 30 worker-days per
hectare are required to install the stakes and twine, at
a cost of $180 ($70/acre).
Irrigation. All tomatoes are grown under irrigation.
Water comes from irrigation canals in Sinaloa and
primarily from deep wells in Baja and Sonora. In
Sinaloa, ditch irrigation is primarily used, but drip
irrigation is rapidly replacing ditch irrigation in Baja
and Sonora because of the lack of water in these
States.
Diesel pumps are used primarily for pumping canal
water in Sinaloa while electric pumps are used mainly
for deep wells in Baja and Sonora. Electric pumps are
often used with the drip irrigation systems in Baja
and Sonora.
Under ditch irrigation, fields are flooded 5 to 10
times monthly, depending on the weather and the
time of the growing season. As a rule, 15 to 25
waterings are required during the 100-day growing
cycle. Because of the moderate temperatures and
occasional mists from the ocean, substantially less
water is required in Baja than in Sinaloa or Sonora,
where the hot and dry weather causes greater
evaporation.
In Culiacin, it costs about 500 pesos per hectare
($10/acre) to irrigate a field of tomatoes, which is
about twice as expensive as for other crops (since
tomatoes require more water). In the drier climates of
Baja and Sonora, the cost of water is usually
calculated as the cost of drilling a well and operating
an irrigation system, roughly $50 per hectare
($25/acre).
Cultivation. Fields are cultivated about 10 times
during the season to kill weeds. Small tractors and
horse-drawn plows are used to cultivate between the
staked tomato rows. Horses and mules are used
widely in most areas of northwestern Mexico, because
these animals are specially trained to step around the
staked rows of tomatoes without damaging the plants
while pulling a one-man plow.
Roughly 10 worker-days of labor are required to
cultivate and maintain 1 hectare of tomatoes. Labor
costs about $60 per hectare ($25/acre) while the cost
of using animals, tractors, and cultivators is roughly
$50 per hectare ($25/acre).
Fertilization. Before planting tomatoes, each hec-
tare generally receives about 150 kilograms (330
pounds) of nitrogen, and 50 kilograms (110 pounds)
of phosphorous in one form or another. Also potas-


sium and trace elements such as copper, iron, and
manganese may be added to the soil if soil tests
indicate that they are needed. Two months after
planting, about 50 kilograms of 18-46-0 (18 percent
nitrogen-46 percent phosphorous-0 percent potas-
sium) or urea may be added as sidedressing, followed
by another application a month later.
Nitrogen fertilizer is often applied as liquid
ammonia and often mixed with the irrigation water.
Total fertilizer use per hectare ranges from 400 to
800 kilograms (360 to 710 pounds/acre) of nitrogen
and 200 to 600 kilograms (180 to 530 pounds/acre)
of phosphate.
Large farms do not substitute manure for inor-
ganic fertilizer because it often contains weed seeds
and is more costly to apply than inorganic fertilizers.
However, manure is a favored fertilizer with
ejiditarios and campesinos as it is locally abundant
and inexpensive. On small farms, manure and am-
monium nitrate are generally applied prior to plant-
ing, and inorganic nitrate fertilizers are used later as
sidedressings.
Most inorganic fertilizers cost $300 to $400 per
ton and are supplied by PEMEX, FERTIMEX,
GUANOMEX, and ROFOMEX (Mexican firms asso-
ciated with the National Government). Roughly
two-thirds of a ton of fertilizer is used per hectare at
a cost of $220 ($90/acre). However, if manure is
used, this cost is reduced substantially.
Spraying. Although there is some aerial spraying
on the large farms, most spraying is done by hand.
Controlling insects or fungus infestations is usually
done by semiskilled workers who strap tanks on their
backs and hand-spray each row. While some growers
neglect spraying, worms and nematodes as well as
Fusarium and Tizon (Altemania solani) can ruin a
crop, particularly after an unexpected rainfall.
Insecticide and fungicide costs range from $50 to
$100 per hectare ($20 to $40/acre) for the various
formulas used. Both the growers and the Government
claim that only pesticides approved by the U.S.
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) are used
(the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)
monitors their exports for compliance with EPA
regulations). Malathion is often used to control
insects, while Benlate, Faltan, and Methyl bromide
are the popular fungicides.
Sometimes Mexican vegetables have pesticide resi-
dues that are not permitted by the EPA; when the
FDA finds these residues, the vegetables are not
permitted entry into the United States. For example,
in 1980, some tomatoes were found to have
Celathion and some peppers had Chlorthiothos,
Daconil, or Triazophos, which did not comply with
EPA regulations, and these shipments were (re-
portedly) either destroyed or sent back to Mexico.









Harvesting
Picking is done every other day during the peak
production period, generally January-April in central
Sinaloa, May-June in northern Sinaloa and Sonora,
and July-November in Baja. Harvesting starts about
100 days after planting and continues for 1-2 months,
or until the arrival of adverse weather. Plantings are
staggered so that some farms may produce for a 3- to
6-month harvesting season.
In staked fields, laborers pick only the largest fruit
for export. The fruit is picked when it has a tinge of
yellow or pink at the blossom end; these are the
so-called "vine ripes". Ground-grown tomatoes are
generally picked in 4-7 day intervals12 and are
labeled as "mature greens"; these have completely
green skins but have reached the stage where they will
turn red either on or off the vine.
On the large farms, fieldworkers empty buckets of
freshly picked tomatoes into large fiberglass gondolas
on truck-tractors at the central collection points.
Tomatoes are then hauled to the packinghouse where
they are flushed out of the gondola into a chlorinated
water tank.
On small farms, workers use plastic or cloth bags
to collect the tomatoes, which are then dumped into
wooden field boxes of 25-30 kilograms (55-65
pounds) net weight at central collection points. Other
workers and supervisors load the field boxes onto
trucks after counting the number of bags or boxes
picked by each worker. The field boxes are then
stacked on trucks 3-5 layers high and hauled to the
packinghouse where they are unloaded, often using
handtrucks and/or forklifts.
Harvesting a hectare of tomatoes requires about
10-20 laborers (primarily women) for each picking, or
300-400 labor-days for the season. Fieldworkers
generally receive the minimum wage of 165 pesos
($7.15) daily13 (generally they are not paid on a
piece rate basis).

Packing
At the packinghouse door, tomatoes are generally
dumped in large bins of chlorinated water to disinfect
and wash the fruit. Often, large hydraulic systems are
used to water-flume the vegetables off tractor-carts
into water baths. Then the fruit (excluding cherry
tomatoes) is moved over a series of belts and is sorted
by hand for color and grade and by machine for size;
cherry tomatoes are placed in 12-pint containers by
hand.


12Vine ripes (which account for 80-90 percent of produc-
tion) are picked every 1 or 2 days while mature greens are
picked in 4- to 7-day intervals.
13Mexico's minimum wage varies from State to State and
by urban and rural areas within States. However, these wages
all rise by the same percentage every year on January 1.


At sorting tables, tomatoes are separated into
"exportable quality" and "domestic market" grades.
No. 1 grade fruit usually goes to the export market in
the United States or Canada, while No. 2's and No.
3's go to the local market. The more firm, green-
colored fruit is generally channeled into the export
market inasmuch as it can withstand more handling
and repacking with relatively less damage.
Fruit may be placed in 2-layer boxes (flats) of 10
kilograms (22 pounds) net weight, in 3-layer boxes of
14 kilograms (30 pounds) net weight, or in smaller
2-layer boxes of 8 kilograms (18 pounds) net weight.
Almost all export quality fruit is hand-placed in the
above cardboard boxes, generally the 10-kilogram
boxes, except cherry tomatoes, which are placed in
12-pint cartons of 7-8 kilograms (16-18 pounds) net
weight. Tomatoes usually go to the local market in
large wooden boxes of all sizes, but primarily in
boxes of 25-30 kilograms (55-65 pounds) net weight.
Some growers are bulk-packing to cut labor
requirements-using 20 to 30 percent fewer workers.
Other operations are field packing (particularly other
vegetables) to reduce fruit damage. Many operations
are starting up packing operations for mixed loads of
assorted vegetables because of growing export
demand for these shipments.

Sweet Peppers
Mexico's production of sweet peppers increased
fourfold in 1960-79, reaching 474,000 tons, primarily
as a result of higher yields. Crop yields rose fivefold
while total area gradually expanded to 52,700 hec-
tares (130,220 acres).
In the Pacific Northwest, total area decreased
moderately during the 1960-79 period, a sharp
reduction in Sinaloa offsetting larger plantings in Baja
and Sonora. However, production throughout the
Northwest has risen markedly because of better
cultural practices. In 1979, area in Sinaloa, Sonora,
and Northern Baja was placed at 3,300, 2,400, and
2,000 hectares (8,200, 5,900, and 4,900 acres)
respectively, while production was estimated at
50,000, 20,000, and 20,000 tons, respectively.
Generally, sweet peppers are planted from August
through December in central Sinaloa (Culiacan), so
that they can be harvested from November to May; in
Baja (San Quintn), they are planted from April to
July and harvested from July to November. In
northern Sinaloa (Los Mochis-Guasave) and Sonora
(Guaymas-Huatabampo), plantings occur from Febru-
ary through April for harvesting from May to June (a
spring crop) and again in July through September for
an October-December (fall crop) harvest.
As with tomatoes, the most important recent
cultural improvement was the adoption of container-
ized transplants from greenhouses. Plants are set in
rows 0.9 to 1.0 meter (about 3 feet) apart, with









Harvesting
Picking is done every other day during the peak
production period, generally January-April in central
Sinaloa, May-June in northern Sinaloa and Sonora,
and July-November in Baja. Harvesting starts about
100 days after planting and continues for 1-2 months,
or until the arrival of adverse weather. Plantings are
staggered so that some farms may produce for a 3- to
6-month harvesting season.
In staked fields, laborers pick only the largest fruit
for export. The fruit is picked when it has a tinge of
yellow or pink at the blossom end; these are the
so-called "vine ripes". Ground-grown tomatoes are
generally picked in 4-7 day intervals12 and are
labeled as "mature greens"; these have completely
green skins but have reached the stage where they will
turn red either on or off the vine.
On the large farms, fieldworkers empty buckets of
freshly picked tomatoes into large fiberglass gondolas
on truck-tractors at the central collection points.
Tomatoes are then hauled to the packinghouse where
they are flushed out of the gondola into a chlorinated
water tank.
On small farms, workers use plastic or cloth bags
to collect the tomatoes, which are then dumped into
wooden field boxes of 25-30 kilograms (55-65
pounds) net weight at central collection points. Other
workers and supervisors load the field boxes onto
trucks after counting the number of bags or boxes
picked by each worker. The field boxes are then
stacked on trucks 3-5 layers high and hauled to the
packinghouse where they are unloaded, often using
handtrucks and/or forklifts.
Harvesting a hectare of tomatoes requires about
10-20 laborers (primarily women) for each picking, or
300-400 labor-days for the season. Fieldworkers
generally receive the minimum wage of 165 pesos
($7.15) daily13 (generally they are not paid on a
piece rate basis).

Packing
At the packinghouse door, tomatoes are generally
dumped in large bins of chlorinated water to disinfect
and wash the fruit. Often, large hydraulic systems are
used to water-flume the vegetables off tractor-carts
into water baths. Then the fruit (excluding cherry
tomatoes) is moved over a series of belts and is sorted
by hand for color and grade and by machine for size;
cherry tomatoes are placed in 12-pint containers by
hand.


12Vine ripes (which account for 80-90 percent of produc-
tion) are picked every 1 or 2 days while mature greens are
picked in 4- to 7-day intervals.
13Mexico's minimum wage varies from State to State and
by urban and rural areas within States. However, these wages
all rise by the same percentage every year on January 1.


At sorting tables, tomatoes are separated into
"exportable quality" and "domestic market" grades.
No. 1 grade fruit usually goes to the export market in
the United States or Canada, while No. 2's and No.
3's go to the local market. The more firm, green-
colored fruit is generally channeled into the export
market inasmuch as it can withstand more handling
and repacking with relatively less damage.
Fruit may be placed in 2-layer boxes (flats) of 10
kilograms (22 pounds) net weight, in 3-layer boxes of
14 kilograms (30 pounds) net weight, or in smaller
2-layer boxes of 8 kilograms (18 pounds) net weight.
Almost all export quality fruit is hand-placed in the
above cardboard boxes, generally the 10-kilogram
boxes, except cherry tomatoes, which are placed in
12-pint cartons of 7-8 kilograms (16-18 pounds) net
weight. Tomatoes usually go to the local market in
large wooden boxes of all sizes, but primarily in
boxes of 25-30 kilograms (55-65 pounds) net weight.
Some growers are bulk-packing to cut labor
requirements-using 20 to 30 percent fewer workers.
Other operations are field packing (particularly other
vegetables) to reduce fruit damage. Many operations
are starting up packing operations for mixed loads of
assorted vegetables because of growing export
demand for these shipments.

Sweet Peppers
Mexico's production of sweet peppers increased
fourfold in 1960-79, reaching 474,000 tons, primarily
as a result of higher yields. Crop yields rose fivefold
while total area gradually expanded to 52,700 hec-
tares (130,220 acres).
In the Pacific Northwest, total area decreased
moderately during the 1960-79 period, a sharp
reduction in Sinaloa offsetting larger plantings in Baja
and Sonora. However, production throughout the
Northwest has risen markedly because of better
cultural practices. In 1979, area in Sinaloa, Sonora,
and Northern Baja was placed at 3,300, 2,400, and
2,000 hectares (8,200, 5,900, and 4,900 acres)
respectively, while production was estimated at
50,000, 20,000, and 20,000 tons, respectively.
Generally, sweet peppers are planted from August
through December in central Sinaloa (Culiacan), so
that they can be harvested from November to May; in
Baja (San Quintn), they are planted from April to
July and harvested from July to November. In
northern Sinaloa (Los Mochis-Guasave) and Sonora
(Guaymas-Huatabampo), plantings occur from Febru-
ary through April for harvesting from May to June (a
spring crop) and again in July through September for
an October-December (fall crop) harvest.
As with tomatoes, the most important recent
cultural improvement was the adoption of container-
ized transplants from greenhouses. Plants are set in
rows 0.9 to 1.0 meter (about 3 feet) apart, with









Harvesting
Picking is done every other day during the peak
production period, generally January-April in central
Sinaloa, May-June in northern Sinaloa and Sonora,
and July-November in Baja. Harvesting starts about
100 days after planting and continues for 1-2 months,
or until the arrival of adverse weather. Plantings are
staggered so that some farms may produce for a 3- to
6-month harvesting season.
In staked fields, laborers pick only the largest fruit
for export. The fruit is picked when it has a tinge of
yellow or pink at the blossom end; these are the
so-called "vine ripes". Ground-grown tomatoes are
generally picked in 4-7 day intervals12 and are
labeled as "mature greens"; these have completely
green skins but have reached the stage where they will
turn red either on or off the vine.
On the large farms, fieldworkers empty buckets of
freshly picked tomatoes into large fiberglass gondolas
on truck-tractors at the central collection points.
Tomatoes are then hauled to the packinghouse where
they are flushed out of the gondola into a chlorinated
water tank.
On small farms, workers use plastic or cloth bags
to collect the tomatoes, which are then dumped into
wooden field boxes of 25-30 kilograms (55-65
pounds) net weight at central collection points. Other
workers and supervisors load the field boxes onto
trucks after counting the number of bags or boxes
picked by each worker. The field boxes are then
stacked on trucks 3-5 layers high and hauled to the
packinghouse where they are unloaded, often using
handtrucks and/or forklifts.
Harvesting a hectare of tomatoes requires about
10-20 laborers (primarily women) for each picking, or
300-400 labor-days for the season. Fieldworkers
generally receive the minimum wage of 165 pesos
($7.15) daily13 (generally they are not paid on a
piece rate basis).

Packing
At the packinghouse door, tomatoes are generally
dumped in large bins of chlorinated water to disinfect
and wash the fruit. Often, large hydraulic systems are
used to water-flume the vegetables off tractor-carts
into water baths. Then the fruit (excluding cherry
tomatoes) is moved over a series of belts and is sorted
by hand for color and grade and by machine for size;
cherry tomatoes are placed in 12-pint containers by
hand.


12Vine ripes (which account for 80-90 percent of produc-
tion) are picked every 1 or 2 days while mature greens are
picked in 4- to 7-day intervals.
13Mexico's minimum wage varies from State to State and
by urban and rural areas within States. However, these wages
all rise by the same percentage every year on January 1.


At sorting tables, tomatoes are separated into
"exportable quality" and "domestic market" grades.
No. 1 grade fruit usually goes to the export market in
the United States or Canada, while No. 2's and No.
3's go to the local market. The more firm, green-
colored fruit is generally channeled into the export
market inasmuch as it can withstand more handling
and repacking with relatively less damage.
Fruit may be placed in 2-layer boxes (flats) of 10
kilograms (22 pounds) net weight, in 3-layer boxes of
14 kilograms (30 pounds) net weight, or in smaller
2-layer boxes of 8 kilograms (18 pounds) net weight.
Almost all export quality fruit is hand-placed in the
above cardboard boxes, generally the 10-kilogram
boxes, except cherry tomatoes, which are placed in
12-pint cartons of 7-8 kilograms (16-18 pounds) net
weight. Tomatoes usually go to the local market in
large wooden boxes of all sizes, but primarily in
boxes of 25-30 kilograms (55-65 pounds) net weight.
Some growers are bulk-packing to cut labor
requirements-using 20 to 30 percent fewer workers.
Other operations are field packing (particularly other
vegetables) to reduce fruit damage. Many operations
are starting up packing operations for mixed loads of
assorted vegetables because of growing export
demand for these shipments.

Sweet Peppers
Mexico's production of sweet peppers increased
fourfold in 1960-79, reaching 474,000 tons, primarily
as a result of higher yields. Crop yields rose fivefold
while total area gradually expanded to 52,700 hec-
tares (130,220 acres).
In the Pacific Northwest, total area decreased
moderately during the 1960-79 period, a sharp
reduction in Sinaloa offsetting larger plantings in Baja
and Sonora. However, production throughout the
Northwest has risen markedly because of better
cultural practices. In 1979, area in Sinaloa, Sonora,
and Northern Baja was placed at 3,300, 2,400, and
2,000 hectares (8,200, 5,900, and 4,900 acres)
respectively, while production was estimated at
50,000, 20,000, and 20,000 tons, respectively.
Generally, sweet peppers are planted from August
through December in central Sinaloa (Culiacan), so
that they can be harvested from November to May; in
Baja (San Quintn), they are planted from April to
July and harvested from July to November. In
northern Sinaloa (Los Mochis-Guasave) and Sonora
(Guaymas-Huatabampo), plantings occur from Febru-
ary through April for harvesting from May to June (a
spring crop) and again in July through September for
an October-December (fall crop) harvest.
As with tomatoes, the most important recent
cultural improvement was the adoption of container-
ized transplants from greenhouses. Plants are set in
rows 0.9 to 1.0 meter (about 3 feet) apart, with









plants every 40 centimeters (16 inches); sometimes
rows are wider to permit cultivation to kill weeds.
Often stakes are used, at 2- to 3-meter (6 to 9 feet)
intervals, so that twine or wire can be strung to
support the plants.
California Wonder is by far the leading variety.
Other plantings include Yolo Wonder, and Early
Wonder. These are the same sweet varieties as the
ones grown in the United States.
Most harvesting and cultural practices for peppers
are the same as those for tomatoes. However, peppers
are not placed in gondolas, as tomatoes are, because
they cannot be so immersed in water without
damage. Therefore, after picking, peppers are hauled
in field boxes to the packing plants where overhead
cranes lift the field boxes and dump the peppers into
the packing line. After being washed and waxed, sized
and graded, peppers are packed primarily in
1 1/9-bushel wirebound crates (25-30 pounds net
weight).


Cucumbers

Mexico's cucumber production increased from
135,000 tons in 197114 to 190,000 tons in 1979.
During this time, crop yields rose twofold while
acreage remained static at about 10,000 hectares
(25,000 acres), and even declined in Sinaloa.
Unlike tomatoes and peppers, cucumbers are not
traditionally grown in Mexico and most production is
for the export market. The Culiacan valley is the
primary area in the Northwest for cucumber produc-
tion, although there are minor areas in northern
Sinaloa and Sonora.
Cucumbers are planted in Culiacun from August
15 to November 30. For the earlier plantings (August-
September), Ashley and Pointset are the primary
varieties and, for later plantings (October-November),
the Triumph hybrid is a leading variety.
Cucumbers are directly seeded by tractors and
planters. Rows are established about 1.8 meters (5
feet) apart with plants set at 10- to 15-centimeter (4-
to 6-inch) intervals. Most cucumbers are staked in the
same way as tomatoes, with large stakes every 2%'-3
meters (8-10 feet) and several small stakes in be-
tween. Twine and wire are tied to the stakes to
support the vines.
Bees are brought in to assist in pollination (as is
the case with cantalopes, melons, squash and some
other items in the cucumber family). Five to 10
beehives are used per hectare and often a fee is paid
to an apiculturist (owner of the beehives).
Most cultural and harvesting practices are the same
as for tomatoes. Recent advances in yields are


14There are no crop statistics prior to 1971.


attributed to heavy use of fertilizers, better disease
control methods, and the use of gondolas.
At the packinghouse, cucumbers are flushed out of
gondolas and washed, waxed, sorted, sized, and
graded on a packing line. As with sweet peppers, most
cucumbers are place-packed in 1 1/9-bushel wire-
bound crates and cartons (50-55 pounds net weight).

Eggplant

Mexico's production of eggplants rose from 1,300
tons in 1960 to 27,000 tons, with an area of 1,200
hectares (3,000 acres) in 1979. Like other vegetables,
much of the increased production is attributed to
sharply higher yields. Crop yields rose threefold in
the last two decades.' 5
Culiacin is essentially the only area for eggplant
production in northwestern Mexico, as well as in all
of Mexico. However, there are some minor areas in
central Mexico that supply Mexico City.
Eggplants are planted in Culiacin from October to
January for harvesting from late December through
May. Black Beauty is the primary variety, while there
are a few fields in Black Magic, Black Oval, Black
Night and Long Purple.
As with tomatoes and sweet peppers, the adoption
of containerized transplants from greenhouses is the
most important recent cultural improvement. Plants
are spaced in rows about 0.9 meter (5 feet) apart,
with plants set every 50 to 60 centimeters (roughly
18 inches), for a plant population of 10,000 per
hectare (4,000/acre). Eggplants are usually staked in
the same manner as tomatoes and cucumbers; how-
ever, since they are not vine-like plants, the stakes are
often smaller or sometimes not used at all.
At the packinghouse, eggplants are water-flumed
out of tractor-trailers onto a packingline where they
are washed, waxed, sized, sorted, and graded. Exports
are hand-packed in bushel crates or cartons, with the
most common sizes being 18's and 24's (counts of the
number of fruit per container).


Squash

Mexico's production of squash has grown from
25,000 tons in 197116, to 72,000 tons in 1979.
During this time, crop yields rose twofold while area
planted remained static.
Like cucumbers, squash is not well known in
Mexico and most production is grown in the State of
Sinaloa for the export market. Zucchini and yellow


1sAlthough eggplants are not as well-known in Mexico as
tomatoes or peppers, Mexico has recorded statistics on
eggplant production since 1932.
16There are no crop statistics prior to 1971.









plants every 40 centimeters (16 inches); sometimes
rows are wider to permit cultivation to kill weeds.
Often stakes are used, at 2- to 3-meter (6 to 9 feet)
intervals, so that twine or wire can be strung to
support the plants.
California Wonder is by far the leading variety.
Other plantings include Yolo Wonder, and Early
Wonder. These are the same sweet varieties as the
ones grown in the United States.
Most harvesting and cultural practices for peppers
are the same as those for tomatoes. However, peppers
are not placed in gondolas, as tomatoes are, because
they cannot be so immersed in water without
damage. Therefore, after picking, peppers are hauled
in field boxes to the packing plants where overhead
cranes lift the field boxes and dump the peppers into
the packing line. After being washed and waxed, sized
and graded, peppers are packed primarily in
1 1/9-bushel wirebound crates (25-30 pounds net
weight).


Cucumbers

Mexico's cucumber production increased from
135,000 tons in 197114 to 190,000 tons in 1979.
During this time, crop yields rose twofold while
acreage remained static at about 10,000 hectares
(25,000 acres), and even declined in Sinaloa.
Unlike tomatoes and peppers, cucumbers are not
traditionally grown in Mexico and most production is
for the export market. The Culiacan valley is the
primary area in the Northwest for cucumber produc-
tion, although there are minor areas in northern
Sinaloa and Sonora.
Cucumbers are planted in Culiacun from August
15 to November 30. For the earlier plantings (August-
September), Ashley and Pointset are the primary
varieties and, for later plantings (October-November),
the Triumph hybrid is a leading variety.
Cucumbers are directly seeded by tractors and
planters. Rows are established about 1.8 meters (5
feet) apart with plants set at 10- to 15-centimeter (4-
to 6-inch) intervals. Most cucumbers are staked in the
same way as tomatoes, with large stakes every 2%'-3
meters (8-10 feet) and several small stakes in be-
tween. Twine and wire are tied to the stakes to
support the vines.
Bees are brought in to assist in pollination (as is
the case with cantalopes, melons, squash and some
other items in the cucumber family). Five to 10
beehives are used per hectare and often a fee is paid
to an apiculturist (owner of the beehives).
Most cultural and harvesting practices are the same
as for tomatoes. Recent advances in yields are


14There are no crop statistics prior to 1971.


attributed to heavy use of fertilizers, better disease
control methods, and the use of gondolas.
At the packinghouse, cucumbers are flushed out of
gondolas and washed, waxed, sorted, sized, and
graded on a packing line. As with sweet peppers, most
cucumbers are place-packed in 1 1/9-bushel wire-
bound crates and cartons (50-55 pounds net weight).

Eggplant

Mexico's production of eggplants rose from 1,300
tons in 1960 to 27,000 tons, with an area of 1,200
hectares (3,000 acres) in 1979. Like other vegetables,
much of the increased production is attributed to
sharply higher yields. Crop yields rose threefold in
the last two decades.' 5
Culiacin is essentially the only area for eggplant
production in northwestern Mexico, as well as in all
of Mexico. However, there are some minor areas in
central Mexico that supply Mexico City.
Eggplants are planted in Culiacin from October to
January for harvesting from late December through
May. Black Beauty is the primary variety, while there
are a few fields in Black Magic, Black Oval, Black
Night and Long Purple.
As with tomatoes and sweet peppers, the adoption
of containerized transplants from greenhouses is the
most important recent cultural improvement. Plants
are spaced in rows about 0.9 meter (5 feet) apart,
with plants set every 50 to 60 centimeters (roughly
18 inches), for a plant population of 10,000 per
hectare (4,000/acre). Eggplants are usually staked in
the same manner as tomatoes and cucumbers; how-
ever, since they are not vine-like plants, the stakes are
often smaller or sometimes not used at all.
At the packinghouse, eggplants are water-flumed
out of tractor-trailers onto a packingline where they
are washed, waxed, sized, sorted, and graded. Exports
are hand-packed in bushel crates or cartons, with the
most common sizes being 18's and 24's (counts of the
number of fruit per container).


Squash

Mexico's production of squash has grown from
25,000 tons in 197116, to 72,000 tons in 1979.
During this time, crop yields rose twofold while area
planted remained static.
Like cucumbers, squash is not well known in
Mexico and most production is grown in the State of
Sinaloa for the export market. Zucchini and yellow


1sAlthough eggplants are not as well-known in Mexico as
tomatoes or peppers, Mexico has recorded statistics on
eggplant production since 1932.
16There are no crop statistics prior to 1971.









plants every 40 centimeters (16 inches); sometimes
rows are wider to permit cultivation to kill weeds.
Often stakes are used, at 2- to 3-meter (6 to 9 feet)
intervals, so that twine or wire can be strung to
support the plants.
California Wonder is by far the leading variety.
Other plantings include Yolo Wonder, and Early
Wonder. These are the same sweet varieties as the
ones grown in the United States.
Most harvesting and cultural practices for peppers
are the same as those for tomatoes. However, peppers
are not placed in gondolas, as tomatoes are, because
they cannot be so immersed in water without
damage. Therefore, after picking, peppers are hauled
in field boxes to the packing plants where overhead
cranes lift the field boxes and dump the peppers into
the packing line. After being washed and waxed, sized
and graded, peppers are packed primarily in
1 1/9-bushel wirebound crates (25-30 pounds net
weight).


Cucumbers

Mexico's cucumber production increased from
135,000 tons in 197114 to 190,000 tons in 1979.
During this time, crop yields rose twofold while
acreage remained static at about 10,000 hectares
(25,000 acres), and even declined in Sinaloa.
Unlike tomatoes and peppers, cucumbers are not
traditionally grown in Mexico and most production is
for the export market. The Culiacan valley is the
primary area in the Northwest for cucumber produc-
tion, although there are minor areas in northern
Sinaloa and Sonora.
Cucumbers are planted in Culiacun from August
15 to November 30. For the earlier plantings (August-
September), Ashley and Pointset are the primary
varieties and, for later plantings (October-November),
the Triumph hybrid is a leading variety.
Cucumbers are directly seeded by tractors and
planters. Rows are established about 1.8 meters (5
feet) apart with plants set at 10- to 15-centimeter (4-
to 6-inch) intervals. Most cucumbers are staked in the
same way as tomatoes, with large stakes every 2%'-3
meters (8-10 feet) and several small stakes in be-
tween. Twine and wire are tied to the stakes to
support the vines.
Bees are brought in to assist in pollination (as is
the case with cantalopes, melons, squash and some
other items in the cucumber family). Five to 10
beehives are used per hectare and often a fee is paid
to an apiculturist (owner of the beehives).
Most cultural and harvesting practices are the same
as for tomatoes. Recent advances in yields are


14There are no crop statistics prior to 1971.


attributed to heavy use of fertilizers, better disease
control methods, and the use of gondolas.
At the packinghouse, cucumbers are flushed out of
gondolas and washed, waxed, sorted, sized, and
graded on a packing line. As with sweet peppers, most
cucumbers are place-packed in 1 1/9-bushel wire-
bound crates and cartons (50-55 pounds net weight).

Eggplant

Mexico's production of eggplants rose from 1,300
tons in 1960 to 27,000 tons, with an area of 1,200
hectares (3,000 acres) in 1979. Like other vegetables,
much of the increased production is attributed to
sharply higher yields. Crop yields rose threefold in
the last two decades.' 5
Culiacin is essentially the only area for eggplant
production in northwestern Mexico, as well as in all
of Mexico. However, there are some minor areas in
central Mexico that supply Mexico City.
Eggplants are planted in Culiacin from October to
January for harvesting from late December through
May. Black Beauty is the primary variety, while there
are a few fields in Black Magic, Black Oval, Black
Night and Long Purple.
As with tomatoes and sweet peppers, the adoption
of containerized transplants from greenhouses is the
most important recent cultural improvement. Plants
are spaced in rows about 0.9 meter (5 feet) apart,
with plants set every 50 to 60 centimeters (roughly
18 inches), for a plant population of 10,000 per
hectare (4,000/acre). Eggplants are usually staked in
the same manner as tomatoes and cucumbers; how-
ever, since they are not vine-like plants, the stakes are
often smaller or sometimes not used at all.
At the packinghouse, eggplants are water-flumed
out of tractor-trailers onto a packingline where they
are washed, waxed, sized, sorted, and graded. Exports
are hand-packed in bushel crates or cartons, with the
most common sizes being 18's and 24's (counts of the
number of fruit per container).


Squash

Mexico's production of squash has grown from
25,000 tons in 197116, to 72,000 tons in 1979.
During this time, crop yields rose twofold while area
planted remained static.
Like cucumbers, squash is not well known in
Mexico and most production is grown in the State of
Sinaloa for the export market. Zucchini and yellow


1sAlthough eggplants are not as well-known in Mexico as
tomatoes or peppers, Mexico has recorded statistics on
eggplant production since 1932.
16There are no crop statistics prior to 1971.










/ / 7/'


'if'


1. Watering vegetable seedlings in a green-
house.
2. Washing and sizing tomatoes in a pack-
inghouse.
3. Sorting tomatoes by color on the pack-
ing line.
4. Moving vegetable seedlings from trans-
planting in the fields.
5. Washing and waxing cucumbers at the
packing plant entrance.
6. The owner of a packing plant watching
the tomato operation.


4

I I









summer squash are the most common types with
some acorn and other winter squash.
Squash is planted in Culiacan from October
through December for harvest from December
through April. Squash is directly seeded by tractors
and planted with rows 1-1.5 meters (3-5 feet) apart.
The primary zucchini varieties are Aristocrat,
Ambassador, Blackini, and Chefinia. The main yellow
varieties are Early Prolific Straightneck and Golden
Summer Crookneck. The dominant acorn varieties are


Ebony, Table Queen, and Mammoth Table Queen
Acorn.
Cultural advances have resulted from use of
improved hybrid varieties, better pest and disease
control, and intensive use of fertilizer.
At the packinghouse, squash is water-flumed out
of tractor trailers into a packing line where it is
washed (some is waxed), sorted, sized, and graded.
Most squash is hand packed for export in wooden
lugs (18-22 pounds, or 24-28 pounds, net weight).


MARKETING


Since roughly half of the production of vegetables
in the northwestern States is exported, produce is
either marketed at U.S.-Mexican border points or at
shipping points for the domestic market. Growers
focus most of their activities on export markets,
rather than the local market (still a residual outlet),
because the higher valued produce goes to the export
outlet.
Most exports from Sinaloa and Sonora pass
through Nogales, Arizona, and most of Baja's exports
go through San Ysidro, California, to the Chula Vista
market. The vegetable distributors-U.S. sales agents
representing Mexican growers-in Nogales and Chula
Vista are the key agents for exporting this produce,
although some minor quantities pass through distribu-
tors in Texas and other border points.
For all border points, the method of export
marketing is similar. However, the highest level of
sophistication and complexity is found in Nogales,
Sonora, and Arizona17, where 80-90 percent of
Mexico's vegetable exports are marketed.
Strong grower-distributor relationships have been
formed to span the 1,000-kilometer (600-mile)
separation between the Culiacan shipping point and
the Nogales distribution point. Similarly, well-estab-
lished grower-distributor arrangements exist between
San Quintin growers and Chula Vista distributors.
These Culiachn-Nogales and San Quintin-Chula Vista
business links are at the center of the export
marketing of Mexico's vegetables (growers in north-
ern Sinaloa and Sonora also rely on the Culiacan-
Nogales business network).


Sinaloa-Sonora

There are about 50 distributors located in offices
and warehouses scattered along the highway north of

'Nine-tenths of Nogales population and industry is
located in Sonora, on the Mexican rather than on the U.S.
side of the border. The primary industry of Nogales is the
border traffic and the spinoff transportation and other
businesses that the border traffic generates.


Nogales, Arizona. These distributors, and some re-
lated brokerage outfits, usually are members of the
West Mexico Vegetable Distributors Association
(WMVDA).
Distributors have longstanding business relation-
ships with Mexican growers, U.S. and Mexican
Customs brokers, buyers, sellers, truck brokers, and
officials of CAADES, UNPH, and the U.S. and
Mexican Governments. By coordinating with all of
these offices, distributors are at the center of the
export marketing system.
Many distributors are financially integrated with
Mexican growers-several distributors are wholly
owned subsidiaries of Culiacan's vegetable producers.
Some distributors are partly owned by Mexican
growers; others have, in effect, partnerships with
Culiac6n's growers. A few distributors have effective
control held by firms with other similar production
and marketing interests in the United States.
The Culiacan grower-Nogales distributor arrange-
ment differs from the relationship between U.S.
growers and marketing agents. West Mexico distribu-
tors generally have closer relationships with their
growers because the Mexican growers need official
import-export permits and loans from U.S. banks
during the season.
Most large-scale producers in Culiacin have in-
creased their economic efficiency by vertically inte-
grating their distribution system to cut commission
costs. However, most small-scale Mexican growers are
still primarily dependent on capital and marketing
arrangements from Nogales distributors. These dis-
tributors also furnish other services to growers such as
translating reports on crops, weather, and markets.
They also provide some supervision of the growing,
harvesting, and packaging, as well as supply U.S. farm
inputs. Consequently, distributors' fees are high by
U.S. standards-generally three to four times above
comparable U.S. fees because of the extra services
provided.
When produce arrives at the U.S. border, distribu-
tors cooperate with U.S. and Mexican Customs
brokers, who handle the paperwork and official
import-export clearances. After the vegetables have









summer squash are the most common types with
some acorn and other winter squash.
Squash is planted in Culiacan from October
through December for harvest from December
through April. Squash is directly seeded by tractors
and planted with rows 1-1.5 meters (3-5 feet) apart.
The primary zucchini varieties are Aristocrat,
Ambassador, Blackini, and Chefinia. The main yellow
varieties are Early Prolific Straightneck and Golden
Summer Crookneck. The dominant acorn varieties are


Ebony, Table Queen, and Mammoth Table Queen
Acorn.
Cultural advances have resulted from use of
improved hybrid varieties, better pest and disease
control, and intensive use of fertilizer.
At the packinghouse, squash is water-flumed out
of tractor trailers into a packing line where it is
washed (some is waxed), sorted, sized, and graded.
Most squash is hand packed for export in wooden
lugs (18-22 pounds, or 24-28 pounds, net weight).


MARKETING


Since roughly half of the production of vegetables
in the northwestern States is exported, produce is
either marketed at U.S.-Mexican border points or at
shipping points for the domestic market. Growers
focus most of their activities on export markets,
rather than the local market (still a residual outlet),
because the higher valued produce goes to the export
outlet.
Most exports from Sinaloa and Sonora pass
through Nogales, Arizona, and most of Baja's exports
go through San Ysidro, California, to the Chula Vista
market. The vegetable distributors-U.S. sales agents
representing Mexican growers-in Nogales and Chula
Vista are the key agents for exporting this produce,
although some minor quantities pass through distribu-
tors in Texas and other border points.
For all border points, the method of export
marketing is similar. However, the highest level of
sophistication and complexity is found in Nogales,
Sonora, and Arizona17, where 80-90 percent of
Mexico's vegetable exports are marketed.
Strong grower-distributor relationships have been
formed to span the 1,000-kilometer (600-mile)
separation between the Culiacan shipping point and
the Nogales distribution point. Similarly, well-estab-
lished grower-distributor arrangements exist between
San Quintin growers and Chula Vista distributors.
These Culiachn-Nogales and San Quintin-Chula Vista
business links are at the center of the export
marketing of Mexico's vegetables (growers in north-
ern Sinaloa and Sonora also rely on the Culiacan-
Nogales business network).


Sinaloa-Sonora

There are about 50 distributors located in offices
and warehouses scattered along the highway north of

'Nine-tenths of Nogales population and industry is
located in Sonora, on the Mexican rather than on the U.S.
side of the border. The primary industry of Nogales is the
border traffic and the spinoff transportation and other
businesses that the border traffic generates.


Nogales, Arizona. These distributors, and some re-
lated brokerage outfits, usually are members of the
West Mexico Vegetable Distributors Association
(WMVDA).
Distributors have longstanding business relation-
ships with Mexican growers, U.S. and Mexican
Customs brokers, buyers, sellers, truck brokers, and
officials of CAADES, UNPH, and the U.S. and
Mexican Governments. By coordinating with all of
these offices, distributors are at the center of the
export marketing system.
Many distributors are financially integrated with
Mexican growers-several distributors are wholly
owned subsidiaries of Culiacan's vegetable producers.
Some distributors are partly owned by Mexican
growers; others have, in effect, partnerships with
Culiac6n's growers. A few distributors have effective
control held by firms with other similar production
and marketing interests in the United States.
The Culiacan grower-Nogales distributor arrange-
ment differs from the relationship between U.S.
growers and marketing agents. West Mexico distribu-
tors generally have closer relationships with their
growers because the Mexican growers need official
import-export permits and loans from U.S. banks
during the season.
Most large-scale producers in Culiacin have in-
creased their economic efficiency by vertically inte-
grating their distribution system to cut commission
costs. However, most small-scale Mexican growers are
still primarily dependent on capital and marketing
arrangements from Nogales distributors. These dis-
tributors also furnish other services to growers such as
translating reports on crops, weather, and markets.
They also provide some supervision of the growing,
harvesting, and packaging, as well as supply U.S. farm
inputs. Consequently, distributors' fees are high by
U.S. standards-generally three to four times above
comparable U.S. fees because of the extra services
provided.
When produce arrives at the U.S. border, distribu-
tors cooperate with U.S. and Mexican Customs
brokers, who handle the paperwork and official
import-export clearances. After the vegetables have








crossed the border, distributors work with institu-
tional buyers, other sellers, shippers, and truck
brokers in order to move the produce into the U.S.
and Canadian marketplaces.
On the southern side of the border (Nogales,
Sonora), Mexican customs brokers work with Food
Safety and Quality Service (USDA/FSQS) grade
(quality) inspectors, and officials of CAADES,
UNPH, and the Mexican Customs Service. North of
the border (Nogales, Ariz.), U.S. Customs brokers
work with U.S. Customs officials, USDA quarantine
(Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service-Plant
Protection and Quarantine APHIS-PPQ/USDA) in-
spectors, and Food and Drug Administration FDA
pesticide investigators.
Mexican Customs brokers prepare "Pedimentos,"
an export declaration needed by Mexican Customs
officials, and a "certificate of origin," required by
U.S. Customs officers. American Customs brokers use
the "certificates of origin" to move the produce
through U.S. import procedures to reach the Nogales
(Arizona) distributors warehouse.
The Culiacin grower initiates the entire import-
export market procedure by calling up the distributor
and the U.S. and Mexican Customs brokers, after the
loading of a truck or railcar for shipment. When the
grower, or the distributor, tells the Mexican Customs
broker what, precisely, is in the shipment, the
Mexican Customs broker writes up an "invoice" and a
"pedimento" that matches the grower's "manifest"
sent with the shipment.
When the truck or railcar arrives at the Mexican
produce compound (owned and operated by
CAADES), the truck driver presents the "tipo de
embase," a certificate issued by the UNPH to the
growers for use by CAADES officials to calculate
CAADES and UNPH assessments on export ship-
ments. Then, CAADES officials complete the filling
out of the "certificates of origin" on shipments for
Mexican Customs officials.
During this time, Customs brokers are having the
shipment unloaded for sampling, sizing, and grading
by USDA inspectors to determine if these imports
meet minimum U.S. marketing order standards.1
Then the USDA papers are presented to CAADES
and UNPH officials to see if they comply with
minimum UNPH export standards (which are generally
well above U.S. minimum requirements).
After obtaining a UNPH export permit 9, the

1 Under section 608e of the U.S. Agricultural Marketing
Agreement Act (1937), U.S. imports must meet the same or
comparable grade and size standards. Of the five winter
vegetables, U.S. marketing orders are in effect for tomatoes
only.
191f the UNPH does not issue an export permit, the
shipment is usually returned to the grower. However, some
trucks go to other border points such as Calexico, Calif., and
enter the United States without UNPH permits. Mexican
producers refer to this as "contraband."


Mexican Customs broker presents both the "pedi-
mento" and the "certificates of origin" to the
Mexican Customs officials who assess export tax
duties, based on official Mexican produce prices, and
compile Mexican export statistics.
Once all the clearances and papers are prepared,
the shipment may move on to the U.S. Customs
facility at the U.S. side of the border. This entire
process in the Mexican CAADES compound takes 2-5
hours.
Upon arriving at the U.S. Customs compound, the
truck driver presents three inward manifests, display-
ing the truck number, the number of boxes of each
vegetable, the weight and the destination of the
shipment. U.S. Customs brokers match their invoices
(written up earlier from information received by
wire) with the Mexican manifests, and then process
the manifests and weigh sample packages of the.
produce to verify the listed weight. This process is
done by U.S. Customs officials at each broker's
loading dock, while the broker is watching. U.S.
import duties are levied according to the final weight
determination, except where produce, such as
melons, are assessed duties on a value basis, ad
valorem duties, which requires checking of price
declarations by U.S. Customs officials(see Table 4.).
At the same compound, the shipments are sampled
for insects and disease by the USDA-PPQ officials and
by the Food and Drug Administration representa-
tives. The Plant Quarantine inspectors check for
harmful diseases or pests that could endanger U.S.
crops. The FDA samples for pesticide residues that
are not permitted by Environmental Protection
Agency (EPA) standards and for "wholesomeness" of
imported products.
After about 1 hour, the truck is cleared to leave
the U.S. Customs compound for the Arizona State
Highway Department checkpoint, where documents
for fumigation (required for some produce) and
licenses are examined. When everything is determined
to be in order, the truck moves to the distributor's
warehouse in Nogales. At the warehouse, the ship-
ment is still subject to spot checks by U.S. Customs,
USDA, or FDA inspectors to make sure that the
weight, grades, and number of boxes still match those
on the manifest.
At the distributor's warehouse the produce is sold
on commission or on consignment. Although produce
at Culiacan is consigned to a distributor (for Customs
clearance procedures) the distributor may sell the
produce in either the U.S. or Canadian market on
commission f.o.b. Nogales, or on consignment to the
receiver at a terminal market. Generally, growers and
distributors jointly decide whether to sell on commis-
sion or consignment. As a rule distributors always
make some money on consignment sales, while
growers may actually lose money (after paying tariff
duties and marketing fees). Distributors have progres-
sively added to the number of items available,









particularly on "mixed load" vegetable selections.
The "one-stop" convenience of mixed loads is,
reportedly, attractive to small-scale institutional
buyers who might otherwise have to go to several
sources for an array of vegetables.


Baja California

Baja California's marketing system is similar to
Sinaloa's operation, except that it is not as complex.
The U.S. Government and the UNPH impose the
same quality standards that apply to Sinaloa's ex-


ports. The U.S. distributors are located in Chula
Vista, California, and the overall brokerage operations
are the same as in Nogales, except that the procedure
passes through the San Ysidro border point.
Because only 5 to 10 percent of produce volume
moves through San Ysidro compared with Nogales,
there are only a few brokers and a few Mexican
officials. Baja's growers decide whether to market the
best quality produce in the local or export market,
depending on the prices quoted to them by Chula
Vista distributors; Sinaloa's growers almost always
sell their best quality produce in the export market
regardless of the price.


Table 4.-U.S. Tariff Duties for Winter Vegetables, 1980

TSUS Rates of duty
Country of
Vegetable item Time period origin Column 1 Column 2
no. MFN other

Cucumbers: 135.90 Dec. 1 through Feb. 29 All 2.24/lb. 34/lb.
135.91 Dec. 1 through Feb. 29 Cuba(s) 14/lb.
135.92 March 1 through June 30 and Sept. 1 through All 34/lb. 34/lb.
Nov. 30
135.93 March 1 through June 30 and Sept. 1 through Cuba(s) 2.44/lb.
Nov. 30
135.94 July 1 through August 31 All 1.54/lb. 34/lb.

Eggplant: 136.20 April 1 through Nov. 30 All 1.54/lb. 1.54/lb.
136.21 April 1 through Nov. 30 Cuba(s) 1.24/lb
136.22 Dec. 1 through Feb. 29 All 1.14/lb. 1.54/lb.
136.23 Dec. 1 through Feb. 29 Cuba(s) 0.54/lb.

Peppers: 137.10 Jan. 1 through Dec. 31 All 2.54/lb. 2.54/lb.
137.11 Jan. 1 through Dec. 31 Cuba(s) 2.2/lb. -
Squash: 137.50 Jan. 1 through Dec. 31 All 1.14/lb. 24/lb.
137.51 Jan. 1 through Dec. 31 Cuba(s) 0.84/lb.
Tomatoes: 137.60 March 1 through July 14 and Sept. 1 through Nov. 14 All 2.14/b. 34/lb.
137.61 March 1 through July 14 and Sept. 1 through Nov. 14 Cuba(s) 1.84/lb.
137.62 July 15 through Aug. 31 All 1.54/lb. 34/lb.
137.63 Nov. 15 through Feb. 29 All 1.54/lb. 34/lb.
137.64 Nov. 15 through Feb. 29 Cuba(s) 1.24/lb.

(Note: (s) denotes suspended (in 1962).
Source: Tariff Schedules of the United States (TSUS) annotated, 1980, U.S. International Trade Commission.
April 1980 Commodity Programs, FAS, USDA


TRANSPORTATION


Virtually all shipments are by refrigerated truck-
trailers, although railroad transportation is reviving.
At the packinghouse, vegetables are loaded in boxes
and stacked on pallets that are either placed into
trucks or piggyback railroad trailers ("pigs").
Sinaloa and Sonora have both railroad and high-
way transportation, while Baja does not have a
railroad. Sinaloa and Sonora are serviced by Highway


No. 15 and the Guadalajarar Nogales railroad-con-
structed in 1885 by the U.S. Southern Pacific
Railroad (nationalized in 1951). Baja's producers use
Highway No. 1, which runs down the length of the
entire peninsula.
Truck shipments from Culiacin to Nogales gener-
ally take 14 to 16 hours over the 1,000-kilometer
(600-mile) road. The trip from San Quintfn, Baja, to









particularly on "mixed load" vegetable selections.
The "one-stop" convenience of mixed loads is,
reportedly, attractive to small-scale institutional
buyers who might otherwise have to go to several
sources for an array of vegetables.


Baja California

Baja California's marketing system is similar to
Sinaloa's operation, except that it is not as complex.
The U.S. Government and the UNPH impose the
same quality standards that apply to Sinaloa's ex-


ports. The U.S. distributors are located in Chula
Vista, California, and the overall brokerage operations
are the same as in Nogales, except that the procedure
passes through the San Ysidro border point.
Because only 5 to 10 percent of produce volume
moves through San Ysidro compared with Nogales,
there are only a few brokers and a few Mexican
officials. Baja's growers decide whether to market the
best quality produce in the local or export market,
depending on the prices quoted to them by Chula
Vista distributors; Sinaloa's growers almost always
sell their best quality produce in the export market
regardless of the price.


Table 4.-U.S. Tariff Duties for Winter Vegetables, 1980

TSUS Rates of duty
Country of
Vegetable item Time period origin Column 1 Column 2
no. MFN other

Cucumbers: 135.90 Dec. 1 through Feb. 29 All 2.24/lb. 34/lb.
135.91 Dec. 1 through Feb. 29 Cuba(s) 14/lb.
135.92 March 1 through June 30 and Sept. 1 through All 34/lb. 34/lb.
Nov. 30
135.93 March 1 through June 30 and Sept. 1 through Cuba(s) 2.44/lb.
Nov. 30
135.94 July 1 through August 31 All 1.54/lb. 34/lb.

Eggplant: 136.20 April 1 through Nov. 30 All 1.54/lb. 1.54/lb.
136.21 April 1 through Nov. 30 Cuba(s) 1.24/lb
136.22 Dec. 1 through Feb. 29 All 1.14/lb. 1.54/lb.
136.23 Dec. 1 through Feb. 29 Cuba(s) 0.54/lb.

Peppers: 137.10 Jan. 1 through Dec. 31 All 2.54/lb. 2.54/lb.
137.11 Jan. 1 through Dec. 31 Cuba(s) 2.2/lb. -
Squash: 137.50 Jan. 1 through Dec. 31 All 1.14/lb. 24/lb.
137.51 Jan. 1 through Dec. 31 Cuba(s) 0.84/lb.
Tomatoes: 137.60 March 1 through July 14 and Sept. 1 through Nov. 14 All 2.14/b. 34/lb.
137.61 March 1 through July 14 and Sept. 1 through Nov. 14 Cuba(s) 1.84/lb.
137.62 July 15 through Aug. 31 All 1.54/lb. 34/lb.
137.63 Nov. 15 through Feb. 29 All 1.54/lb. 34/lb.
137.64 Nov. 15 through Feb. 29 Cuba(s) 1.24/lb.

(Note: (s) denotes suspended (in 1962).
Source: Tariff Schedules of the United States (TSUS) annotated, 1980, U.S. International Trade Commission.
April 1980 Commodity Programs, FAS, USDA


TRANSPORTATION


Virtually all shipments are by refrigerated truck-
trailers, although railroad transportation is reviving.
At the packinghouse, vegetables are loaded in boxes
and stacked on pallets that are either placed into
trucks or piggyback railroad trailers ("pigs").
Sinaloa and Sonora have both railroad and high-
way transportation, while Baja does not have a
railroad. Sinaloa and Sonora are serviced by Highway


No. 15 and the Guadalajarar Nogales railroad-con-
structed in 1885 by the U.S. Southern Pacific
Railroad (nationalized in 1951). Baja's producers use
Highway No. 1, which runs down the length of the
entire peninsula.
Truck shipments from Culiacin to Nogales gener-
ally take 14 to 16 hours over the 1,000-kilometer
(600-mile) road. The trip from San Quintfn, Baja, to









the San Ysidro border point takes 24 hours for the
1,000-kilometer (600-mile) trip. Tractor-trailer units
are the same type as those used in the United States,
except that Mexican trucks usually have "giant
cow-catcher" bumpers in front.
Both (Baja's) Highway No. 1 and (Sinaloa-
Sonora's) No. 15 consist of only two lanes on top of
old roadbeds that often wash away when heavy rains
cause flashfloods. Baja's road is over more moun-
tainous terrain and is slower than Sinaloa's and
Sonora's road. It costs about $700 to send a truck
from Culiacan to Nogales and about $250 to truck
vegetables from San Quintin to San Ysidro.
During the last two decades, railroad transporta-
tion declined to almost nothing; however, it is
starting up again with the assistance of Mexico's
nationalized railroad, Ferocarril del Pacifico (FCP).
This railroad recently purchased 100 "pigs" to add to
its fleet of 400 trailers. FCP has granted exclusive
transport rights to Arrendadora Mejicana Sociedad
An6nima (AMSA), a company that owns a fleet of
trucks in both Culiacin and Nogales. AMSA delivers
pigbacks from warehouses to the railroads in
Culiacin; upon arrival in Nogales offloads the trailer
and delivers the trailer to the warehouses in Nogales,
Arizona.
Nevertheless, rail service is reportedly poor. Be-
cause transport by rail is slow and unloading arrange-
ments are poor, growers and distributors often lose


money on shipments-even though railroad fees are
only about a third of trucking rates.
During the height of the railroad hauling business
in the 1950's, 5,000 to 6,000 "pigs" were loaded in a
season.20 Most of this business was handled by the
Pacific Fruit Express (PFE) "pigs," on the U.S.
Southern Pacific Railroad. Railroads crossed the
border at the main tourist border point in downtown
Nogales where they were checked and sent directly to
U.S. retail markets. Now, railroad "pigs" are moved
to trucks, south of the border (at the CAADES-
Mexican Customs compound) and return to the
Mexican shipping points.
Presently, both the U.S. and Mexican truck com-
pounds can accommodate 400 to 500 trucks daily.
Roughly 43,000 trucks are checked at these two
compounds over the entire season.
Mexican trucks unload vegetables at the distribu-
tors' warehouses, just north of Nogales, Arizona, and
return to their shipping point. From the distributors'
warehouses, U.S. trucks take shipments to the U.S.
terminal (wholesale) and retail markets.


20In the 1920's almost all shipments (mature green
tomatoes) were by rail cars from Guaymas through Hermo-
sillo to Nogales. Sometimes trains carried armed guards for
protection against bandits and revolutionaries-who were
often indistinguishable.


FOREIGN TRADE


Mexico's vegetable exports traditionally begin in
October, rise slowly in the fall (October-December),
peak in the winter and early spring (February-April),
and drop rapidly in the late spring (May-June).
Sinaloa produces more vegetables for export than any
other State because of the timing of its crop harvests,
which coincide with seasonally low production in the
United States.
Roughly two-thirds of Sinaloa's output is for
export, half of Sonora's, and a third of Baja's.
Sinaloa's harvests are during the winter and early
spring, when Mexico's exports are at the highest level.
Sonora's crops are in the spring and fall, when
exports are at an intermediate level; Baja's summer
..and early fall crops are harvested when exports are at
a seasonal low.
In 1978/79 (October-September), U.S. imports
from Mexico included: 323,548 tons of tomatoes
(valued at $155 million), 133,065 tons of cucumbers
(valued at $46 million), 62,671 tons of peppers
(valued at $37 million), 43,334 tons of squash
(valued at $19 million), and 17,203 tons of eggplant
(valued at $7 million). In 1978/79, rains and adverse
weather reduced Sinaloa's production, and total


exports were 5 to 10 percent below the previous
year's record-high level.
During the last five winter seasons (January-
March), Mexico accounted for 60 percent of all the
tomatoes marketed in the United States, 80 percent
of the cucumbers, 70 percent of the eggplant, and 50
percent of the sweet peppers and squash. Because of
the similar marketing seasons, Mexico (particularly
Sinaloa) competes more directly with Florida than
with any other U.S. State.
The United States and Canada account for 99
percent of Mexico's vegetable exports, with Canada
taking about a fifth. In calendar 1978, Canada
imported 92,000 tons of tomatoes (valued at C$43
million), 23,000 tons of cucumbers (valued at C$8
million), and 6,000 tons of peppers (valued at C$3
million) from Mexico21. Although the United States
supplies two to four times the volume of these
vegetables to the Canadian market (over the whole
year) as does Mexico, Mexico is the leading supplier
in the winter.

21Canada's import statistics do not separately classify
eggplant and squash.









Tomatoes are one of Mexico's leading agricultural
exports. Before the coffee price increases in 1976-78,
tomatoes were Mexico's top agricultural foreign
exchange earner. Because tomato and other winter


vegetable exports are a traditional source of employ-
ment and foreign exchange in Mexico, this trade has
been a particularly sensitive item in U.S.-Mexican
relations for over three decades.


OUTLOOK


The outlook for Mexico's vegetable export indus-
try is very favorable, given the additional resources
allocated to the industry and the growing market
outlets. Essential physical and economic resources-
land, labor, capital, technology, and water-are being
invested in the industry at a rapid rate. Because the
industry is both labor intensive and an important
foreign exchange earner, producer groups have little
difficulty in gaining support for expanding their
enterprises.
Although production costs have been rising more
rapidly in Mexico than in the United States, Mexico's
Government is committed to ensuring that Mexico's
vegetable exports remain competitive. Because labor
costs-the largest component of production costs-are
increasing faster in Mexico than in the United States,
the Mexican Government is gradually allowing the use
of labor-saving devices to compensate for rapidly
rising minimum wages. Furthermore, Mexico's prices
for petroleum and natural gas-based products (gaso-
line, fertilizer, plastics, and various chemicals) are
now almost half of comparable U.S. prices, and in the
future this cost advantage may provide a decisive
assist to exporters.
Though export markets are growing in both the
United States and Canada, the fastest growth has
recently been in the Mexican domestic market. As
Mexico's population and income continue to rise
rapidly, more produce from northwestern Mexico will
be sent to the domestic market, about half of
Sinaloa's vegetables now go to the domestic market
whereas in the recent past this area produced almost
solely for export. Moreover, vegetables have played
an important role in the National Government's
attempt to improve the typical corn-based, starchy
diets of the average Mexican.
Market outlets are also diversifying as growers
increase output of vegetables other than the tomato,


the traditional mainstay of the industry. Production
of sweet peppers, cucumbers, eggplant, summer
squash, and many other items (such as processed and
frozen vegetables) is increasing at an unprecedented
rate as both consumers in the local and export
markets demand more vegetables. For this reason,
producer associations are allocating almost $1 million
annually to promote consumption, at the point of
purchase, of fresh winter vegetables from "sunny
Mexico." Producers believe that their promotion
activities are paying dividends by increasing exports
to Canada and the United States, by way of increased
consumer demand.
Production should increase sharply in the 1980's
as new reservoirs in Sinaloa come into operation.
This, coupled with the expansion in other production
facilities, should easily permit growers to boost
output to meet the expected growth in local and
export market outlets.
Despite the favorable outlook for the industry,
there are problems, particularly in obtaining indus-
trial inputs. Virtually all farming and packaging
materials are controlled by various Government agen-
cies (or Government-affiliated agencies) that are often
slow to supply. Although Mexico has a high unem-
ployment rate, unionization and rapidly rising mini-
mum wages are increasing production costs and
causing new financial problems.
Nevertheless, the industry is expected to expand
substantially during the 1980's. As the new reservoirs
come into operation, winter vegetable production will
probably double by 1980, with exports to the United
States and Canada showing similar growth. As North
America's per capital consumption of salad vegetables
continues to rise, Mexico's output and exports of
tomatoes and other fresh vegetables should expand
accordingly.
















APPENDIX

Page

REGRESSION ANALYSES OF U.S. IMPORTS OF MEXICAN TOMATOES ................ 29

CHART-U.S. IMPORTS OF MEXICAN TOMATOES, 1944/45-1978/79 ................ .... 30

TABLES:

1. MEXICO'S AREA AND PRODUCTION OF SELECTED VEGETABLES, 1955-79 .......... 31

2. TOMATOES: MEXICO'S AREA, YIELDS, PRODUCTION, PRICE, VALUE, FOREIGN TRADE,
AND CONSUMPTION, 1925-79 .............. ... .. ...... ........... 32

3. GREEN PEPPERS: MEXICO'S AREA, YIELD, PRODUCTION,PRICE, VALUE, FOREIGN TRADE,
AND CONSUMPTION, 1925-79 ..................................... 35

4. EGGPLANT, MEXICO'S AREA, YIELD, PRODUCTION, PRICE, VALUE, FOREIGN TRADE, AND
CONSUMPTION, 1932-79 ....... ...... ........................ 38

5. CUCUMBERS: MEXICO'S AREA, YIELD, PRODUCTION, GROWER PRICES, EXPORTS, AND
CONSUMPTION, 1970/71-1978/79 ................... ... .......... 40

6. SQUASH: MEXICO'S AREA, YIELD, PRODUCTION, GROWER PRICES, EXPORTS, AND
CONSUMPTION, 1970/71-1978/79 .................................. 40

7. TOMATOES: MEXICO'S AREA, YIELDS, AND PRODUCTION IN THE NORTHWESTERN
STATES, 1960-1979 ...................................... .... 41

8. TOMATOES: AVERAGE GROWER PRICES AND CROP VALUES IN BAJA CALIFORNIA,
SINALOA, AND SONORA, 1960-79 ................... ............. 42

9. MEXICO: TOMATO AREA BY STATE, 1960-77 ................... ....... 43

10. MEXICO: TOMATO YIELDS BY STATE, 1960-77 ................... ...... 43

11. MEXICO: TOMATO PRODUCTION BY STATE, 1960-77 ................. ..... .. 44

12. MEXICO: AVERAGE GROWER PRICES FOR TOMATOES, BY STATE, 1960-79 .......... 44

13. SWEET BELL PEPPERS: MEXICO'S AREA HARVESTED, BY STATES, 1960-79 .......... 45

14. SWEET BELL PEPPERS: MEXICO'S YIELDS, BY STATES, 1960-79 ................ 46

15. SWEET BELL PEPPERS: MEXICO'S PRODUCTION, BY STATES, 1960-79 ............. 47

16. SWEET BELL PEPPERS: MEXICO'S GROWER PRICES, BY STATES, 1960-79 ........... 48

17. CUCUMBERS: MEXICO'S AREA, YIELD, PRODUCTION, AND GROWER PRICES, BY STATES,
1973-79 ............... ...... ............. .............. 49









TABLES: (continued) Page
18. SQUASH: MEXICO'S AREA, YIELD, PRODUCTION, AND GROWER PRICES, BY STATES,
1974-79 ...................................... .......... 50

19. EGGPLANTS: MEXICO'S AREA, YIELD, PRODUCTION, PRICE, VALUE, AND EXPORTS,
1960-79 ......................................... ....... 51

20. WINTER VEGETABLES: SINALOA'S AREA, YIELD, AND PRODUCTION FOR EXPORT,
1969/70-1978/79 ................... ................... ..... 52

21. WINTER VEGETABLES: SINALOA'S AREA GROWN FOR EXPORT BY RIVER VALLEYS,
1974/75-1978/79 ......... ................................. ......... .. 53

22. TOMATOES: SINALOA'S PRODUCTION FOR THE LOCAL AND EXPORT MARKETS,
1969/70-1978/79 ......... ................................... 54

23. TOMATOES: SINALOA'S PRODUCTION BY TYPE, 1969/70-1978/79 ............... 55

24. TOMATOES: SINALOA'S AREA BY TYPE AND RIVER VALLEY, 1974/75-1978/79 ....... 56

25. TOMATOES, FRESH: U.S. IMPORTS FROM MEXICO, 1969/70-1979/80 .............. 57

26. PEPPERS, FRESH: U.S. IMPORTS FROM MEXICO 1969/70-1979/80 ................ 58
27. CUCUMBERS, FRESH: U.S. IMPORTS FROM MEXICO, 1969/70-1979/80 ............ 59
28. SQUASH, FRESH: U.S. IMPORTS FROM MEXICO, 1969/70-1979/80 ................. 60

29. EGGPLANT, FRESH: U.S. IMPORTS FROM MEXICO, 1969/70-1979/80 .............. 61

30. VEGETABLES, FRESH, CHILLED, OR FROZEN: U.S. IMPORTS FROM MEXICO, 1965-79 .... 62

31. VEGETABLE PREPARATIONS: U.S. IMPORTS FROM MEXICO, 1965-79 ............. 64

32. FRUITS AND VEGETABLES: VALUE OF U.S. IMPORTS FROM MEXICO, 1965-79 ........ 65

33. MEXICO TRUCK EXPORTS THROUGH SOUTH TEXAS,PORT OF ENTRY, 1975/76-1978/79 66

34. MEXICO'S RAIL AND TRUCK EXPORTS THROUGH NOGALES, ARIZONA, PORT OF ENTRY,
1974/75-1978/79 ............................... ................ 67

35. TOMATOES: U.S. IMPORTS BY PRINCIPAL PORTS OF ENTRY, 1960-78 ............. 68

36. U.S. IMPORTS OF FRESH TOMATOES FROM MEXICO, BY QUARTERS, 1960/61-1978/79 .. 69

37. FRESH TOMATOES: U.S. SHIPMENTS AND MARKET SHARES BY SEASONAL GROUPS,
CALIFORNIA, FLORIDA, AND MEXICO, NOVEMBER-MAY, 1974/75-1979/80 ......... 70

38. FRESH GREEN PEPPERS: U.S. SHIPMENTS AND MARKET SHARES BY SEASONAL GROUPS,
FLORIDA AND MEXICO, NOVEMBER-MAY, 1974/75-1979/80 ................... 71

39. FRESH CUCUMBERS: U.S. SHIPMENTS AND MARKET SHARES BY SEASONAL GROUPS,
FLORIDA, TEXAS, AND MEXICO, NOVEMBER-MAY, 1974/75-1979/80 .............. 72

40. FRESH EGGPLANT: UNLOADS IN 41 CITIES AND MARKET SHARES BY SEASONAL GROUPS,
FLORIDA AND MEXICO, NOVEMBER-MAY, 1974/75-1979/80 .................. 73

41. FRESH SQUASH: UNLOADS IN 41 CITIES AND MARKET SHARES BY SEASONAL GROUPS,
CALIFORNIA, FLORIDA, AND MEXICO, NOVEMBER-MAY, 1974/75-1979/80 ......... 74

28









REGRESSION ANALYSIS OF U.S. IMPORTS OF MEXICAN TOMATOES


Regression analysis may be used to explain the
historical relationships underlying U.S. imports of
Mexican tomatoes. In this regression model', changes
in U.S. imports are primarily explained by variation
in supplies in Mexico and Florida and by U.S. import
demand, as reflected by U.S. population growth.
Thus, the basic parameters of this model are produc-
tion levels in Mexico and Florida and the U.S.
population (see the following figure).
Roughly a fourth of Mexico's total tomato pro-
duction is exported, and this is reflected in the Bi
estimator of .267 (about 27 percent of Mexico's crop
was estimated to be exported). Florida's winter crop
has the greatest competitive effect on U.S. imports;
and this B2 estimator of -.534 indicates that
Florida's winter crop displaces U.S. imports by an
estimated 53 percent. The U.S. population growth
estimator, B3 of 178, reveals that as the U.S.
population rises by 1 million persons, an additional
178 tons of tomatoes (about .2 kilograms-0.5
pounds-per person). Since U.S. per capital consump-
tion has remained relatively constant (at about 12
pounds per person) the steady growth in the U.S.
poptiiation during the last 35 years is a proxy variable
for the underlying trend for increased import de-
mand. Because Cuba shipped large amounts of toma-
toes to the United States during 1949/50 to 1960/61
(and caused a large degree of autocorrelation in the
model without this parameter), this is accounted for
by a Dummy variable, B4.
Most year-to-year variation in imports in this
model is estimated by production levels in Mexico
and Florida. Competing supplies in these areas deter-


1Estimated imports (=) (1) Mexico's production, (2) Flor-
ida winter production, (3) U.S. population, and, (4) Cuba's
trade.


mined the majority of the changes in imports,
because demand, although rising, has been relatively
stable during the last 35 years.
There is little correlation between production
levels in Mexico and Florida, i.e., when Florida's crop
is large, Mexico's decreases, and vice versa. Mexico is
largely a residual supplier of tomatoes to the U.S.
market. When adverse weather reduces the winter
crop in Florida (for example after the disastrous
Florida freeze in 1977), U.S. imports increase.
Inasmuch as only a fourth of Mexico's total
production is for export, most of the Mexican output
increases go to the domestic market and do not affect
production in Florida. However, Florida's winter corp
does displace some U.S. imports from Mexico, but
these displaced shipments are then diverted to the
Mexican national market and are an insignificant
amount of Mexico's total production. Thus produc-
tion in Mexico and Florida is largely independent,
and primarily depends on areas planted and the
weather rather than on U.S. import levels.
The t statistical tests indicate that parameters
(B1-Mexico's total production, B2-Florida's winter
production, B3-U.S. population, and B4-Cuba's
1949/50-60/61 presence in the U.S. market) are
highly significant in estimating U.S. imports in
1944/45-78/79. The correlation coefficient, R2=.90,
indicates that 90 percent of the variation in U.S.
imports was explained by variation in these param-
eters. The Durbin Watson statistic (D.W.=1.86) indi-
cates insignificant autocorrelation; multicolinearity
tests are negative.
This is just a regression statistical model to explain
historical relationships, rather than to project future
U.S. import levels. In order to use this model to
forecast future import levels, this model should be
elaborated to include some economic variables, such
as prices, costs, and exchange rates.







U.S. Imports of Mexican Tomatoes: Actual vs. Estimated Imports in Crop Years
(October-September), 1944/45 through 1978179


Thous. metric tons


AMi


300--


1969/70


-/


Estimated imports /




~- 1964165

/ 1959160


Most year-to-year
0 estimated by pro
S- Competing supply
majority of the ct
(although rising)
1949150 years.
1954/55


'variation in imports in this model is
duction levels in Mexico and Florida.
les in these areas determined the
change in imports, because demand
was relatively stable during the last 35


I I I


1949150


1954155


1959/60 1964/65
Cro years (Oct.-Senft


1969/70


1974/75


1979/80


Regression Statistical Model
Dependent Variable** Independent Variables -Parameters
IMPORTS Intercept, Mexico's Prod., Fla. W. Prod., U.S. population, Cuba's variable (dummy)
ESTIMATE = BO + (Xi) + ; (Z) + ;F (Wk) + D,(0 where 1., and k 1, 2, 3+ ... + 35 (i.e., tons of tomatoes and U.S. population In 1945-48 to 78-79).
19779 EST. = 41,000 + .267 (1,082,00)' + -.534(117,028) + 178(221) + -39,742(o) = 307.000 tons of estimate imports In 1978-79 versus 323,548 actual tons.
t STATISTIC (-3.23) (4.95) (-5.72) (4.07) (-4.06) t statistics that l, V,6s and 6, estimators are highly significant.
Std. Est. Error 12,893 .054 .093 44 9,737 Durbin Watson D.W. = 1.86 Indicating insignificant autocorrelation.
Probability .0030 .0001 .0001 .0003 .0003 Multlcolinearity tests are negative.
FP .90 Indicating that 90 percent of the variation In imports is explained by variation in these data.
O STANDARD DEVIATION .15 Indicating that 2 out of 3 times Imports should fall, within 15 percent of the import estimate (in 1979, the estimate was 5 percent below actual imports)
Note: Imports are correlated with competing supplies In Mexico, Florida, and Cuba (as a dummy variable for 1950-61) while U.S. Import demand is represented by the U.S. population.
*January 1980 estimate.


Regression analysis indicates that 90 percent of the
variation in U.S. imports of tomatoes from Mexico during
1945-46 to 1978-79 is explained by variation in supplies in
Mexico and Florida and by steady growth in U.S. import
demand as the U.S. population rose (while U.S. per
capital consumption remained relatively constant).
Because Cuba shipped large amounts of tomatoes to
the United States during 1949/50 to 1960/61 this is
accounted for by a dummy variable.


Million Ibs.


250


200



150


100.


--1500


1944/45


200


100


-ATW


I I i


I I I I I I










Table l.-Mexico's Area and Production of Selected Vegetables, 1955-79

Area Production
Crop YearPeppers Peppers
Oct.-Sept. Cucumbers Eggplant Peppers Squash Tomatoes Cucumbers Eggplants reen Squash Tomatoes


1955 ..........
1956 ..........
1957 . . .
1958 . . .
1959 . . .
1955-59 Average .

1960 ..........
1961 ..........
1962 ..........
1963 ..........
1964 ..........

1960-64 Average .

1965 ..........
1966 ..........
S 1967 ..........
1968 ..........
1969 ..........

1965-69 Average .

1970 ..........
1971 ..........
1972 ..........
1973 ..........
1974 ..........

1970-74 Average .

1975 ..........
1976 ..........
1977 ..........
1978 ..........
19791 ..........

1975-79 Average .


13,189
17,527
11,498
10,187

13,100

10,592
12,599
6,716
7,301
9,500

9,342


148
383
392
442
467

366

545
584
652
906
1,027

743

1,040
684
1,065
1,335
1,165

1,058

990
698
443
1,088
1,200

884


HA
19,123
25520
27,953
30,111
32,747

27,091

33,287
34,117
37,409
40,129
41,517

37,292

41,751
42,502
37,801
38,259
35,588

39,180

36,291
44,949
60,787
56,876
55,765

50,934

40,189
40,246
49,821
59,716
52,700

48,534


HA HA
62,519
64,790
60,990
62,387
62,802

62,698

63,805
61,719
60,355
60,540
61,142

61,512

45,023
45,246
46,173
52,338
55,164

48,789

63,721
61,384
71,714
69,408
4,388 62,577
65,761

4,955 59,361
4,969 48,359
4,530 61,695
3,000 59,232
2,800 61,850

4,051 58,099


134,526
145,651
121,515
113,255
128,749

85,381
106,760
127,957
144,072
190,000

130,834


MT
554
422
383
373
1,235

593

1,270
3,215
3,277
3,663
3,903

3,066

4,556
4,877
5,495
7,899
16,032

7,772

17,100
14,551
20,330
24,834
22,625

19,888

19,305
15,616
13,854
23,306
27,000

19,816


MT
41,577
64,515
69,329
80,495
88,415

68,866

90,492
96,798
109,206
122,701
133,619

110,563

134,440
167,129
199,522
191,721
178,384

174,239

190,836
310,302
435,070
339,511
415,614
338,267

273,149
338,930
481,682
465,972
474,300

406,807


24,902
33,232
43,266
42,726

36,258

47,986
54,868
62,333
66,946
71,900

60,807


MT
363,607
371,714
341,019
354,811
372,476

360,725

388,648
453,125
433,819
442,682
444,971

432,649

553,938
555,213
618,956
669,677
714,912

622,539

923,063
938,584
1,203,702
1,091,001
1,120,846

1,055,439

1,056,408
806,831
974,258
1,117,360
1,082,375

1,007,446


- Not available, unknown, or not applicable.
' Preliminary.


Source: Union Nacional de Productores de Hortalizas (UNPH), and Direcci6n General de EconomLa Agricola, Secretarna de Agricultura y Recursos HidrAulicos (DGEA, SARH).

April 1980 Commodity Programs, FAS, USDA









Table 2.-Tomatoes: Mexico's Area, Yields, Production, Price, Value, Foreign Trade, and Consumption, 1925-79


HA Kg MT Pesos/MT Pesos MT MT MT Kg
1925 .......... 21,485 2,792 59,977 101 6,060,064 38,298 21,679 1.392
1926 ........... 25,705 2,642 67,918 107 7,273,932 39,563 28,355 1.798
1927 ........... 30,239 2,763 83,552 101 8,423,506 57,361 26,191 1.641
1928 ........... 29,329 3,029 88,831 96 8,514,187 51,923 36,908 2.285
1929 ......... 29,054 3,264 94,823 117 11,118,165 28,897 65,926 4.032

1925-29 Average . 27,162 2,909 79,020 105 8,277,971 43,208 35,812 2.244

1930 .......... .. 22,159 3,669 81,312 121 9860,929 251 64,174 17,389 1.051
1931 ........... 21,681 3,573 77,474 91 7,025,203 278 51,537 26,215 1.557
1932 ......... 21,898 3,945 86,386 121 10,468,346 153 59,201 27,338 1.596
1933 ............ 19,301 3,438 66,351 80 5,278,354 251 21,237 45,365 2.603
1934 ............ 14,179 3,597 51,003 83 4,254,637 206 14,648 36,561 2.062

1930-34 Average . 19,844 3,654 72,505 102 7,377,494 228 42,159 30,574 1.784

S1935 ........... 14,454 3,637 52,569 106 5,559,818 350 25,289 27,630 1.532
t 1936 ............ 15,635 4,395 68,721 141 9,664,678 440 27,987 41,174 2.244
1937 ........ .. 15,671 4,820 75,537 145 10,919,834 457 33,600 42,394 2.271
1938 .......... .. 15,749 4,148 65,325 159 10,378,130 484 21,792 44,017 2.318
1939 ............ 19,550 4,098 80,117 162 13,007,768 421 13,704 66,834 3.460

1935-39 Average . 16,212 4,222 68,454 145 9,906,046 430 24,474 44,410 2.378

1940 ............ 20,588 3,903 80,362 170 13,662,625 484 16,136 64,710 3.293
1941 ......... 26,894 4,699 126,376 195 24,680,226 1,007 43,394 83,989 4.159
1942 ............ 30,921 5,066 156,635 208 32,616,161 992 70,628 86,999 4.192
1943 ............ 32,623 5,317 173,441 270 46,803,896 418 93,186 80,673 3.783
1944 .......... 37,883 5,518 209,047 295 61,656,495 192 97,327 111,912 5.108

194044 Average . 29,782 5,009 149,172 241 35,883,881 619 64,134 85,657 4.125

1945 . . ... 41,366 5,656 233,963 337 78,904,391 104 103,219 130,848 5.812
1946 ............ 40,236 5,600 225,340 348 78,348,351 267 88,261 137,446 5.941
1947 ........... 41,566 5,805 241,286 342 82,503,731 1,005 126,971 115,320 4.851
1948 ........... 49,724 5,761 286,444 444 127,148,351 2,415 114,298 174,561 7.146
1949 ........... 48,917 6,850 335,073 494 165,548,586 3,311 102,877 235,507 9.383

1945-49 Average . 44,362 5,961 264,421 403 106,490,682 1,420 107,125 158,736 6.672


See footnotes at end of table.


Continued-










Table 2.-Tomatoes: Mexico's Area, Yields, Production, Price, Value, Foreign Trade, and Consumption, 1925-79-Continued


1950 ...........
1951 . . .
1952 . . .
1953 ...........
1954 ............

1950-54 Average .

1955 ...........
1956 ...........
1957 ...........
1958 ...........
1959 ...........

1955-59 Average .

w 1960 . . .
w 1961 . . .
1962 . . .
1963 . . .
1964 . . .

1960-64 Average .

1965 . . .
1966 . . .
1967 . . .
1968 . . .
1969 . . .

1965-69 Average .

1970 . . .
1971 . . .
1972 . . .
1973 . . .
1974 ...........

1970-74 Average ...


56,443
57,608
59,564
61,730
62,500

59,569

62,519
64,790
60,990
62,387
62,802

62,698

63,805
61,719
60,355
60,540
61,142

61,512

45,023
45,246
46,173
52,338
55,164

48,789

63,721
61,384
71,714
69,408
62,577

65,761


6,287
6,223
5,873
6,001
6,000

6,072

5,816
5,737
5,591
5,687
5,931

5,769

6,091
7,342
7,188
7,312
7,278

7,034

12,303
12,271
13,405
12,795
12,960

12,760

14,486
15,290
16,785
15,719
17,911

16,050


MT Pesos/MT


354,854
358,500
349,821
370,428
374,999

361,720

363,607
371,714
341,019
354,811
372,476

360,725

388,648
453,125
433,819
442,682
444,971

432,649

553,938
555,213
618,956
669,677
714,912

622,539

923,063
938,584
1,203,702
1,091,001
1,120,846

1,055,439


509
513
512
518
534

518

655
731
999
879
806

809

756
945
960
990
1,055

946

1,082
1,063
1,030
1,060
1,108

1,070

1,186
1,377
1,514
1,640
1,989

1,559


Pesos MT MT MT Kg


180,561,979
184,001,828
179,265,849
192,063,511
200,341,128

187,246,859

238,259,853
271,881,839
340,806,132
311,837,070
300,325,159

292,622,011

293,694,263
428,148,414
416,256,985
438,343,258
469,398,146

409,168,213

599,560,520
590,279,481
637,671,531
709,705,208
791,945,420

665,832,432

1,094,869,132
1,292,688,114
1,821,931,623
1,789,509,818
2,229,319,300

1,645,663,597


2,442
2,421
5,468
4,728
4,186

3,849

1,558
887
2,112
16,356
7,189

5,620

443
2,027
186
71
71

560

112
78
28
91
556

173

25
84
1,627
356
877

594


82,573
99,406
107,716
118,255
82,845

98,159

49,254
50,368
73,541
136,738
151,696

92,319

159,048
104,573
157,027
142,351
155,776

143,755

165,040
231,145
215,600
293,909
279,031

236,945

367,297
330,882
332,283
424,802
306,103

352,273


274,723
261,515
247,573
256,901
296,340

267,410

315,911
322,233
269,590
234,429
227,969

275,026

230,043
350,579
276,978
300,402
289,266

289,454

389,010
324,146
403,384
375,859
436,437

385,767

555,791
607,786
873,046
666,555
815,620

703,760


See footnotes at end of table.


10.652
9.837
9.035
9.095
10.178

9.749

10.526
10.416
8.454
7.132
6.729

8.617

6.587
9.720
7.455
7.808
7.280

7.762

9.479
7.648
9.215
8.314
9.347

8.803

10.963
11.586
16.083
11.867
14.033

12.950


Continued-









Table 2.-Tomatoes: Mexico's Area, Yields, Production, Price, Value, Foreign Trade, and Consumption, 1925-79-Continued


Area Yields Price, Avg. Value of Foreign Trade Consumption
Year Harvested Avg./Ha. Production Grower Production Impos Exports Nationa
Imports Exports National Per capital


HA Kg MT Pesos/MT Pesos MT MT MT Kg
1975 ........... 59,361 17,796 1,056,408 2,498 2,639,279,660 23 330,496 725,930 12.069
1976 ........... 48,359 16,684 806,831 4,069 3,282,807,740 195 361,738 454,086 7.285
1977 ........... 61,695 15,792 974,258 4,858 4,732,945,300 419,189 555,067 8.540
19781 .. ..... 59,232 18,864 1,117,360 5,677 6,343,252,700 -
19791 ........... 61,850 17,500 1,082,375 5,000 5,411,875,000 -

1975-79 Average .. 58,099 17,340 1,007,446 4,420 4,482,032,080 -


-Denotes not available, unknown, or insignificant.
1 Preliminary.

Source: Direcci6n General de Economfa Agricola (DGEA), Secretaria de Agricultura de Recursos Hidriulicos (SARH).

April 1980


Commodity Programs, FAS, USDA










Table 3.-Green Peppers: Mexico's Area, Yield, Production, Price, Value, Foreign Trade, and Consumption, 1925-79


1925 ...........
1926 ...........
1927 ...........
1928 ...........
1929 ...........

1925-29 Average ....

1930 . . .
1931 ...........
1932 ...........
1933 ...........
1934 ...........

1930-34 Average ....


HA
9,245
8,873
9,971
10,886
8,012


9,397

7,193
7,067
7,176
7,234
7,112

7,156


1,868
1,884
2,034
1,877
1,958

1,924

2,219
2,489
2,382
2,387
2,377

2,370


MT
17,270
16,719
20,282
20,431
15,685

18,077

15,964
17,591
17,093
17,265
16,905

16,964


Pesos/


'MT Pesos MT MT MT Kg
150 2,596,875 2,162 15,108 0.970
161 2,687,947 2,785 13,934 0.884
176 3,573,443 4,009 16,273 1.020
164 3,356,059 5,033 15,398 0.953
158 2,472,499 3,009 12,676 0.775

162 2,937,365 3,400 14,677 0.920

169 2,701,071 1 3,301 12,664 0.765
157 2,753,571 3 2,596 14,998 0.891
136 2,329,675 2 1,802 15,293 0.893
134 2,319,551 1 698 16,568 0.951
134 2,267,420 1 601 16,305 0.920

146 2,474,258 2 1,800 15,166 0.885


1935 ........... 6,387 2,747 17,545 160 2,808,313 1,608 15,937 0.884
S 1936 ....... 7,252 2,478 17,972 169 3,033,346 2,657 15,315 0.835
1937 ........... 10,051 1,658 16,668 180 2,994,521 1 2,375 14,294 0.766
1938 ........... 12,593 1,582 19,916 190 3,793,256 2,361 17,555 0.924
1939 ............ 13,949 1,719 23,980 219 5,249,861 945 23,035 1.192

1935-39 Average 10,046 1,913 19,216 186 3,575,859 1,989 17,227 0.923

1940 .......... 13,110 2,050 26,872 230 6,183,804 2,667 24,205 1.232
1941 ........... 14,276 2,168 30,945 240 7,412,001 3,845 27,100 1.342
1942 .......... 14,452 2,343 33,866 252 8,539,677 5,984 27,882 1.344
1943 . . ... 14,742 2,135 31,480 328 10,313,830 5,999 25,481 1.195
1944 . . ... 14,673 2,225 32,651 410 13,393,248 4,257 28,394 1.296

1940-44 Average . 14,251 2,187 31,163 294 9,168,512 4,550 26,613 1.282

1945 . . ... 15,786 2,382 37,607 463 17,426,957 9,556 28,051 1.246
1946 . . ... 15,796 2,343 37,011 476 17,606,469 7,600 29,411 1.271
1947 ............ 15,880 2,314 36,739 488 17,924,176 9,509 27,230 1.145
1948 .... ..... 15,779 2,370 37,400 452 16,897,186 8,284 29,116 1.792
1949 ........... 15,838 2,372 37,568 506 19,006,937 4,755 32,813 1.307

1945-49 Averae .. 15.816 2.356 37.265 477 17.772.345 7.941 29,324 1.233


See footnotes at end of table.


I


I


I


Continued-









Table 3.-Green Peppers: Mexico's Area, Yield, Production, Price, Value, Foreign Trade, and Consumption, 1925-79-Continued


HA Kg MT Pesos/MT Pesos MT MT MT Kg
1950 ............ 16,000 2,400 38,397 533 20,446,723 7,862 30,535 1.184
1951 ........... 16,532 2,365 39,101 538 21,021,942 8,555 30,546 1.149
1952 ............ 16,778 2,410 40,440 546 22,065,631 7,840 32,600 1.190
1953 ............ 16,682 2,403 40,087 547 21,935,697 9,717 30,370 1.075
1954 ............ 17,271 2,298 39,689 568 22,536,173 6,077 33,612 1.154

1950-54 Average . 16,653 2,375 39,543 546 21,601,233 8,010 31,533 1.150

1955 ........... 19,123 2,174 41,577 739 30,745,214 2,324 39,253 1.308
1956 .......... 25,520 2,528 64,515 969 62,521,607 3,125 61,390 1.984
1957 . . ... 27,953 2,480 69,329 808 56,022,378 4,900 64,429 2.021
1958 .......... 30,111 2,673 80,495 876 70,493,065 11 7,488 73,018 2.222
1959 .......... 32,747 2,700 88,415 910 80,466,056 39 10,293 78,161 2.307

1955-59 Average .... 27,091 2,542 68,866 872 60,049,664 10 5,626 63,250 1.982

1960 .......... 33,287 2,719 90,492 898 81,241,547 11 11,793 78,710 2.254
w 1961 . . 34,117 2,837 96,798 976 94,499,466 18 9,934 86,882 2.409
1962 . . ... 37,409 2,919 109,206 1,040 113,600,172 13 8,959 100,260 2.691
1963 .......... 40,129 3,058 122,701 1,079 132,442,450 1 8,031 114,671 2.981
1964 .......... 41,517 3,218 133,619 1,216 162,436,715 8 7,104 126,523 3.184

1960-64 Average . 37,292 2,965 110,563 1,057 116,844,066 10 9,164 101,409 2.719

1965 .......... 41,751 3,220 134,440 1,262 169,712,452 5 9,840 124,605 3.036
1966 .......... 42,502 3,932 167,129 1,243 207,754,404 1 17,748 149,382 3.524
1967 .......... 37,801 5,278 199,522 1,222 243,908,065 17,649 181,873 4.155
1968 .......... 38,259 5,011 191,721 1,260 241,526,167 2 15,711 176,012 3.893
1969 . . ... 35,588 5,012 178,384 1,334 237,881,513 1 24,470 153,915 3.296

1965-69 Average . 39,180 4,447 174,239 1,264 220,156,520 2 17,084 157,157 3.586

1970 . . ... 36,291 5,258 190,836 1,370 261,419,183 1 37,085 153,752 3.033
1971 .......... 44,949 6,901 310,202 1,407 436,553,631 1 46,093 264,110 5.035
1972 . . ... 60,787 7,157 435,070 1,967 855,733,352 122 37,509 397,683 7.326
1973 .......... 56,876 7,024 399,511 2,104 840,536,204 57 58,952 340,616 6.064
1974 .......... 55,765 7,453 415,614 2,007 834,251,890 49,616 365,998 6.297

1970-74 Average . 50,934 6,876 350,247 1,844 645,698,252 36 45,851 304,432 5.602


See footnotes at end of table.


Continued-










Table 3.-Green Peppers: Mexico's Area, Yield, Production, Price, Value, Foreign Trade, and Consumption, 1925-79-Continued

Foreign Trade Consumption
Area Yields Prices, Avg. Value of Foreign Trade Consumption
Year Harvested Avg./Ha. Production Grower Production Imports Exports National Per capital


HA Kg MT Pesos/MT Pesos MT MT MT Kg
1975 ........... 40,189 6,797 273,149 2,955 807,044,630 29,349 243,800 3.997
1976 ........... 40,246 8,421 338,930 3,869 1,311,313,340 40,848 298,082 4.769
1977 .. ....... 49,821 9,668 481,682 4,492 2,163,715,500 53,047 428,635 6.697
1978 ....... 59,716 7,803 465,972 5,176 2,411,871,000 -
1979 ........... 52,700 9,000 474,300 6,778 3,214,805,400 -

1975-79 Average .... 48,534 8,382 406,807 4,871 1,981,749,900


Denotes unknown, not available, or insignificant.
Preliminary.

Source: Direcci6n General de Economfa Agricola, Secretaria de Agricultura y Recursos Hidriulicos (SARH).

April 1980


Commodity Programs, FAS, USDA









Table 4.-Eggplant: Mexico's Area, Yield, Production, Price, Value, Foreign Trade, and Consumption, 1932-79

r Area Yields Production Price, Avg. Value of Foreign Trade Consumption
Year Harvested Avg./Ha. Grower Production Imports Exports National I per capital


1932 . . .
1933 . . .
1934 . . .

1932-34 Average ....

1935 . . .
1936 ...........
1937 . . .
1938 . . .
1939 ...........

1935-39 Average ....

1940 .. . ....
1941 ...........
1942 ...........
1943 . . .
W 1944 . . .
00
1940-44 Average .

1945 ...........
1946 ...........
1947 . . .
1948 ...........
1949 ...........

1945-49 Average ...

1950 ...........
1951 ............
1952 . . .
1953 . . .
1954 . . .

1950-54 Average .

1955 ...........
1956 ...........
1957 ...........
1958 . . .
1959 ...........
1955-59 Average ...


37
38
23

33

23
27
49
51
49

40

52
55
58
44
54

53

57
69
75
80
83

73

85
83
86
113
104

94

68
51
48
45
144
71


Kg
10,784
10,316
9,652

10,242

8,522
7,741
9,857
10,882
8,878

9,400

7,904
8,200
8,828
8,682
10,352

8,736

8,789
8,884
8,413
8,750
8,795

8,699

8,824
8,675
8,186
8,115
7,875

8,319

8,147
8,275
7,979
8,289
8,576
8,352


MT Pess/MT
399 127
392 160
222 128

338 140

196 191
209 245
483 86
555 87
435 102

376 118

411 140
451 146
512 176
382 282
559 489

463 257

501 690
613 720
631 892
700 857
730 829

635 805

750 835
720 845
704 859
917 870
819 916

782 866

554 1,005
422 1,047
383 671
373 724
1,235 796


Pesos
50,680
62,575
28,395

47,217

37,428
51,256
41,533
48,048
44,170

44,487

57,404
65,993
90,009
107,560
273,440

118,881

345,700
441,220
562,700
600,068
605,024

510,942

625,966
608,361
604,590
797,900
750,250

677,413

557,005
441,877
256,882
270,216
982,548


846 501,706


See footnotes at end of table.


0.023
0.014
0.007

0.015

(a)
0.003
0.010
0.011
0.011

0.007

0.008
0.013
0.015
0.010
0.026

0.015

0.022
0.026
0.027
0.029
0.029

0.027

0.029
0.027
0.026
0.032
0.028

0.028

0.013
0.012
0.012
0.011
0.002
0.010
Continued-


23
59


1,159
248










Table 4.-Eggplant: Mexico's Area, Yield, Production, Price, Value, Foreign Trade, and Consumption, 1932-79-Continued

Yea Area Yields poduction Pice, Avg. Value of Foreign Trade Consumption
Year Harvested Avg./Ha. ion Grower Production Imports Exports National Per capital


1960 ..........
1961 ..........
1962 ..........
1963 ..........
1964 ..........

1960/64 Average ...
1965 ..........
1966 ..........
1967 ..........
1968 ..........
1969 ..........

1965/69 Average ...
1970 ..........
1971 ..........
o 1972 . . .
1973 ..........
1974 ..........

1970/74 Average .
1975 ..........
1976 ..........
1977 . ....
1978 ........
19791 ..........

1975/79 Average .


I.


HA
148
383
392
442
467

366
545
584
652
906
1,027

743
1,040
684
1,065
1,335
1,165

1,058
990
698
443
1,088
1,200


Kg
8,581
8,394
8,360
8,287
8,358

8,377
8,360
8,351
8,428
8,719
15,611

10,460
16,442
21,273
19,089
18,602
19,421

18,798
19,500
22,372
31,273
21,421
22,500


884 22,416


MT
1,270
3,215
3,277
3,663
3,903

3,066
4,556
4,877
5,495
7,899
16,032

7,772
17,100
14,551
20,330
24,834
22,625

19,888
19,305
15,616
13,854
23,306
27,000

19,816


Pesos/MT
917
969
1,168
1,266
1,277


Pesos
1,164,301
3,115,010
3,826,008
4,636,304
4,982,764


1,156 3,544,877


1,286
1,317
1,315
1,324
1,350

1,328
1,302
1,494
2,965
2,842
2,766

2,388
3,840
4,661
3,085
7,219
7,390


5,857,806
6,421,528
7,226,445
10,462,034
21,641,185

10,321,800
22,266,074
21,746,084
60,279,434
70,577,941
62,575,000

44,488,907
61,872,525
72,793,700
42,795,006
168,246,000
198,450,000


MT
1,155
1,124
1,317
1,687
1,987

1,454
2,223
3,430
4,698
7,065
11,404

5,764
13,802
13,744
18,730
23,629
16,657

17,312
17,552
19,176


MT
115
2,091
1,960
1,976
1,916

1,612
2,333
1,447
797
834
4,628

2,008
3,298
807
1,600
1,205
5,968

2,576
1,753


5,492 108,832,000


Denotes unknown, not available, or insignificant.
Preliminary.

Source: Direccion General de Economla Agricola, Secretarna de Agricultura y Recursos HidrAulicos (SARH).

April 1980


Commodity Programs, FAS, USDA


Kg
0.003
0.058
0.053
0.051
0.048

0.043
0.057
0.034
0.018
0.018
0.099

0.046
0.065
0.015
0.029
0.021
0.103

0.047
0.029












Table 5.-Cucumbers: Mexico's Area, Yield, Production, Grower Prices, Exports, and Consumption 1970/71-1978/79


HA MT/HA MT Pesos/Kg MT MT Kg
1970/71 ........... .. 13,189 10.20 134,526 1.30 67,273 67,253 1.342

1971/72 ...... ..... 17,527 8.31 145,651 1.05 65,542 80,109 1.546

1972/73 ...... ..... 11,498 10.57 121,515 2.03 77,614 43,901 0.819

1973/74 ...... ..... 10,187 11.12 113,255 1.81 71,687 41,568 0.750

1974/75 ...... ..... 10,592 8.06 85,381 2.21 42,114 43,267 0.753

1975/76 ...... ..... 12,599 8.47 106,760 3.81 73,754 33,006 0.55

1976/77 ............. 6,716 19.05 127,957 2.04 76,548 51,409 0.82

1977/781 ............ 7,301 19.73 144,072 5.91 2 80,000 64,072 0.98

1978/791 .............. 9,500 20.00 190,000 6.18 2 80,000 90,000 7.34

SPreliminary. 2 Estimated.

Source: Uni6n Nacional de Productores de Hortalizas (UNPH), and Direcci6n General de Economia Agrcola (DGEA),
Secretaria de Agricultura y Recusos Hidriulicos (SARH).

April 1980




Table 6.-Squash: Mexico's Area, Yield, Production, Grower Prices, Exports, and Consumption 1970/71-1978/79


Year Area Yield Production Grower Exports Consumption
Oct.-Sept. Harvested Average Price National Per capital
National Per capital

HA MT/HA MT Pesos/Kg MT MT Kg
1970/71 .......... 24,902 13,984 10,918 0.218

1971/72 ............ .. 33,232 16,616 16,616 .321

1972/73 . . ... 43,632 17,453 26,179 .488

1973/74 ...... ..... 4,388 9.86 43,266 1.81 21,149 22,117 .399

1974/75 . . ... 4,955 9.68 47,986 2.48 17,700 30,286 .528

1975/76 ............ 4,969 11.04 54,868 2.85 21,872 32,988 .555

1976/77 .............. 4,530 13.76 62,333 2.35 29,979 32,354 526

1977/781 ............ 4,000 16.74 66,946 2.50 33,849 33,097 .525

1978/791 .............. 4,000 17.98 71,900 3.00 43,957 27,947 .430

Not available or unknown.
I Preliminary.

Source: Union Nacional de Productores de Hortalizas (UNPH), and Direcci6n General de Economia Agricola (DGEA),
Secretaria de Agricultura y Recusos Hidraulicos (SARH).

April 1980 Commodity Programs, FAS, USDA









Table 7.-Tomatoes: Mexico's Area, Yields, and Production in the Northwestern States, 1960-1979

Area Yields Production
Year Baja Sinaloa' Sonora Total Baja Sinaloa1 Sonora Average Baja Sinaloa Sonora Total
Calif. Calif. Calif.

- Hectares - - Boxes (10 kilograms) per hectare- - -Metric tons- - -
1960 ................. 803 22,192 6,115 29,110 544 657 583 638 4,369 145,799 35,622 185,790
1961 . . . . 821 22,383 6,166 29,370 764 874 617 817 6,275 195,543 38,036 239,854
1962 .............. 831 21,863 5,779 28,473 702 853 617 800 5,834 186,423 35,650 227,907
1963 ................... 716 18,916 2,895 22,527 714 892 619 851 5,113 168,755 17,934 191,802
1964 ................. 623 18,697 2,643 21,963 719 890 620 853 4,479 166,468 16,395 187,342
1960-64 Average. ........... 758 20,810 4,720 26,288 688 829 609 786 5,214 172,598 28,727 206,539
1965 ................... 355 12,915 1,314 14,584 1,341 1,647 934 1,575 4,762 212,723 12,268 229,753
1966 . . . ... 429 11,385 1,432 13,246 1,358 1,802 945 1,695 5,824 205,196 13,530 224,550
1967 ................. 739 10,363 545 11,647 1,327 2,191 2,123 2,133 9,804 227,074 11,571 248,449
1968 ............... 890 10,870 603 12,363 1,596 2,091 2,306 2,066 14,208 227,317 13,904 255,429
1969 ............... 810 12,086 958 13,854 907 2,371 1,412 2,219 7,350 286,534 13,530 307,414
1965-69 Average . ... 645 11,524 970 13,139 1,301 2,011 1,336 1,926 8,390 231,769 12,961 253,119
1970 . . . ..... 781 14,358 2,425 17,564 1,225 2,362 1,800 2,234 9,566 339,157 43,650 392,373
1971 ................... 1,380 13,010 1,068 15,458 2,359 2,417 1,200 2,327 32,550 314,416 12,816 359,782
1972 . . . ... 1,603 18,876 633 21,112 2,823 1,683 2,570 1,796 45,252 317,737 16,265 379,254
1973 . . . .... 1,774 20,745 879 23,398 2,851 2,132 2,894 2,215 50,570 442,245 25,442 518,257
1974. . . ... 1,159 14,697 630 16,486 3,446 2,305 2,671 2,399 39,944 338,750 16,828 395,522
1970-74 Average . .... 1,339 16,337 1,127 18,804 2,657 2,145 2,041 2,175 35,576 350,461 23,000 409,038
1975 . . . ... 2,063 12,995 440 15,498 3,951 2,567 3,000 2,774 81,519 333,568 13,200 428,287
1976 . . . ... 2,349 13,083 424 15,856 4,033 3,303 3,000 3,402 94,730 432,109 12,720 539,559
1977 . . . ... 2,627 15,470 1,119 19,216 3,427 2,884 1,996 2,906 90,030 446,115 22,338 558,483
19782 . . . ... 3,000 13,826 1,000 17,826 3,333 3,645 2,500 3,528 100,000 503,973 25,000 628,973
1979 . . . ..... 3,300 13,500 1,000 17,800 3,636 3,333 2,000 3,315 120,000 450,000 20,000 590,000
1975-79 Average . . 2,668 13,775 797 17,239 3,645 3,144 2,340 3,187 97,256 433,153 18,652 549,060
Note: Yields jumped sharply in 1965-69 because of the change over to staked culture.


1 Does not include cherry tomatoes.


2 Preliminary.


3Estimate.


Source: Sinaloa-Confederacion de Asociaciones Agricolas de Estado de Sinaloa (CAADES); Baja California and Sonora-Union Nacional de Productores de Hortalizas (UNPH),
and Secretaria de Agricultura y Recursos Hidriulicos (SARH).


Commodity Programs, FAS, USDA


April 1980










Table 8.-Tomatoes: Average Grower Prices and Crop Values in Baja California, Sinaloa, and Sonora, 1960-79

Grower prices Value of crop
Pesos Dollars Dollars
Year
Year ------ Calif.
a Sinaloa Sonora Avg.1 Ca. Sinaloa Sonora Avg.1 Cali Sinaloa Sonora Total


-Mexican Pesos per kilogram -- U.S. Dollars per Std. Box2 --- --Million U.S. Dollars- - -
1960 ................. 0.96 0.84 1.00 0.55 0.77 0.67 0.80 0.69 0.3 9.8 2.8 12.9
1961 ................ 1.28 0.94 1.19 0.99 1.02 0.75 0.95 0.79 0.6 14.7 3.6 18.9
1962 ................. 1.20 1.01 1.00 1.01 0.96 0.81 0.80 0.81 0.5 15.1 2.9 18.5
1963 .............. .. 1.25 1.05 1.05 1.05 1.00 0.84 0.84 0.84 0.5 14.2 1.5 16.2
1964 ................. 1.26 1.08 1.09 1.10 1.01 0.86 0.87 0.88 0.5 14.3 1.7 16.5

1960-64 Average. ........... 1.25 1.00 1.10 1.03 1.00 0.80 0.88 0.82 0.5 14.7 2.7 17.9

1965 .............. .. 1.30 1.10 1.10 1.10 1.04 0.88 0.88 0.88 0.5 18.7 1.1 20.3
1966 .... .......... 1.30 1.10 1.10 1.11 1.04 0.88 0.88 0.89 0.6 18.1 1.2 19.9
1967 ........ ....... 1.24 1.10 1.12 1.11 0.99 0.88 0.90 0.89 1.0 20.0 1.0 22.0
1968 .................... 1.25 1.12 1.14 1.13 1.00 0.90 0.91 0.90 1.4 20.5 1.3 23.2
1969 ................. 1.30 1.15 1.15 1.15 1.04 0.92 0.92 0.92 0.8 26.4 1.2 28.4

1965-69 Average. ........... 1.28 1.11 1.12 1.12 1.02 0.89 0.90 0.90 0.9 20.7 1.2 22.8

1970 . . . ..... 1.56 1.20 1.20 1.21 1.25 0.96 0.96 0.97 1.2 32.6 4.2 38.0
1971 .............. ... 1.30 1.37 1.20 1.36 1.04 1.10 0.96 1.09 3.4 34.6 1.4 39.4
1972 ................. 0.61 2.41 1.17 2.20 0.49 1.93 0.94 1.76 2.2 61.3 3.1 66.6
1973 ................. 1.10 2.54 1.33 2.41 0.88 2.03 1.06 1.93 4.8 89.8 5.2 99.8
1974 ................... 1.89 2.50 1.30 2.39 1.51 2.00 1.04 1.91 6.1 67.8 1.8 75.7

1970-74 Average. ........... 1.29 2.00 1.24 1.91 1.03 1.60 0.99 1.53 3.5 57.2 3.1 63.9

1975 ............ 1.58 3.93 1.50 3.40 1.26 3.14 1.20 2.72 10.3 104.7 1.6 116.6
1976 . . . ..... 5.27 6.40 1.50 6.08 2.32 2.82 0.66 2.68 22.1 121.9 0.8 144.8
1977 .. .. 4.19 8.78 4.14 7.86 1.85 3.87 1.82 3.46 16.7 172.6 4.1 193.4
1978 . . . . 6.00 9.00 5.00 8.35 2.64 3.96 2.20 3.68 26.4 199.6 5.5 231.5
1979 . . . 7.00 10.00 6.00 9.26 3.07 4.39 2.63 4.06 36.8 197.6 5.3 239.7

1975-79 Average .......... 4.81 7.62 3.63 6.99 2.23 3.64 1.70 3.32 22.5 159.3 3.4 185.2


NOTE: 1 U.S. Dollar equalled: 12.5 Pesos prior to 1976, 22.7 Pesos during 1976-78, and 22.8 Pesos in 1979.

1 Weighted average, by quantity. 2 Standard 2-layer box of 10 kilograms (22 pounds) net weight. Preliminary.


4Estimate.
Estimate.


Source: Confederacion de Asociaciones Agricolas de Estado de Sinaloa (CAADES), Union Nacional de Productores de Hortalizas (UNPH), and Secretaria de Agricultura y
Recursos Hidriulicos (SARH).

May 1980 Commodity Programs, FAS, USDA









Table 9.-Mexico: Tomato Area by State, 1960-77
(Hectares)

Baja California San
Baja California Guan- Mich- Mor- Nay- Luis Sin- Son- Tam- Ver- Total1
er Norte Sur ajuato oacan elos arit Potosi aloa ora aulipas acruz

1960 ........ 670 133 3,945 2,023 1,502 807 1,458 22,192 6,115 9,418 3,048 63,805
1961 ........ 680 141 4,376 2,173 1,592 887 1,599 22,383 6,166 5,179 3,221 61,719
1962 ........ 700 131 4,461 1,921 1,820 911 1,637 21,863 5,779 5,320 2,938 60,355
1963 . ... 587 129 5,177 1,880 3,375 1,034 2,846 18,916 2,895 6,442 3,662 60,540
1964 . ... 505 118 5,722 2,101 3,387 1,056 2,798 18,697 2,643 6,310 3,498 61,142
1965 ....... 300 55 3,600 1,602 6,335 1,191 855 12,915 1,314 941 2,141 45,023
1966 ........ 372 57 3,447 1,914 6,586 1,889 938 12,815 1,432 925 1,800 45,246
1967 ........ 634 105 7,123 1,217 6,486 479 1,897 10,899 545 979 4,145 46,173
1968 ....... 865 25 8,125 1,259 8,341 839 1,846 11,481 603 2,026 5,624 52,338
1969 . ... 785 25 8,043 1,122 8,164 613 2,046 13,644 958 2,052 5,174 55,164
1970 . ... 756 25 8,445 1,299 11,457 698 2,006 15,372 2,425 1,999 5,514 63,721
1971 ........ 1,350 30 8,150 1,651 8,609 1,097 2,000 13,845 1,068 2,189 5,286 61,384
1972 ........ 1,568 35 9,000 1,966 9,068 689 2,700 21,638 633 2,704 2,528 71,714
1973 ........ 1,724 50 8,320 3,104 7,038 627 2,700 21,911 879 2,017 4,419 69,408
1974 . ... 1,047 112 12,500 3,047 7,786 750 2,800 16,457 630 1,527 870 62,577
1975 ........ 1,953 110 6,500 2,810 8,055 928 2,550 17,361 440 2,338 950 59,361
1976 ........ 2,208 141 2,750 1,805 6,358 915 1,975 14,721 424 1,045 1,035 48,359
1977 ........ 2,417 210 6,600 3,169 6,494 913 4,000 17,326 1,119 1,847 1,441 61,695
19782 2,700 300 6,600 3,200 6,500 1,000 4,000 17,300 1,000 1,800 1,400 59,232
19793 ........ 3,000 300 6,600 3,200 6,500 1,000 4,000 17,300 1,000 1,800 1,400 61,850


Ma


Includes other states. 2 Preliminary. 3Estimate.
Source: Direccion General de Economfa Agricola (DGEA), Secretaria de Agricultura y Recursos Hidraulicos (SARH).
Ly 1980 Commodity Programs, FAS, USDA


Table 10.-Mexico: Tomato Yields by State, 1960-77
(Metric tons per hectare)

Baja California Guan- Mich- Mor- Nay- an Sin- Son- Tam- Ver- vera
Year S ajuato oacan elos arit us aloa ora aulipas acruz
Norte Sur Potosi

1960 . ... 5.29 6.17 5.92 5.46 6.35 6.17 5.81 6.57 5.83 6.41 5.61 6.09
1961 .......... 7.88 6.49 6.41 6.09 6.55 6.36 6.44 8.74 6.17 8.63 5.86 7.34
1962 . ... 7.00 7.13 6.33 6.05 5.97 6.23 6.44 8.53 6.17 8.35 5.91 7.19
1963 . ... 7.16 7.04 6.36 6.65 6.22 6.22 6.72 8.92 6.19 8.29 5.85 7.31
1964 .......... 7.24 6.96 6.33 6.54 6.20 6.27 6.69 8.90 6.20 8.24 5.86 7.28
1965 . ... 14.57 7.13 29.88 6.52 9.88 6.38 6.88 16.47 9.34 8.24 5.86 12.30
1966 .......... 14.58 7.04 29.99 6.63 9.99 6.50 7.00 16.45 9.45 8.23 5.82 12.27
1967 .......... 14.21 7.57 20.58 5.14 8.92 3.86 4.29 22.02 21.23 9.54 7.79 13.41
1968 . ... 16.13 10.24 18.26 5.49 8.07 4.19 10.12 20.62 23.06 10.03 5.80 12.80
1969 ......... 9.04 10.00 18.38 6.06 7.93 4.96 8.00 21.80 14.12 9.90 5.09 12.96
1970 . ... 12.32 10.10 17.51 7.89 13.24 5.03 11.47 22.33 18.00 8.75 5.17 14.49
1971 ......... 24.00 10.00 18.33 12.11 17.41 7.85 15.00 24.00 12.00 8.06 3.14 15.29
1972 .......... 28.64 10.00 18.76 14.76 19.20 8.15 16.82 21.50 25.70 7.93 14.74 16.79
1973 .......... 29.04 10.00 20.38 12.38 17.94 8.05 15.00 18.00 28.94 10.68 6.61 15.72
1974 .......... 36.68 13.71 23.40 17.50 20.53 9.77 16.50 18.00 26.71 9.42 11.14 17.91
1975 .......... .40.97 13.64 24.23 8.12 23.72 10.53 15.85 18.50 30.00 7.23 8.58 17.80
1976 .......... .40.99 30.00 24.09 12.95 19.97 11.75 13.00 16.36 30.00 11.99 7.87 16.68
1977 .......... 35.48 20.40 24.61 13.87 20.68 10.41 15.00 16.00 19.96 7.88 7.08 15.79
1978 34.81 20.00 21.21 15.63 20.00 11.11 15.00 21.67 25.00 8.33 7.14 18.86
1979. ......... 37.00 30.00 22.73 15.63 21.54 8.88 12.50 18.79 20.00 8.33 7.14 17.50

1 Includes other states. 2 Preliminary. 3 Estimate.
Source: Direccion General de Economfa Agricola (DGEA), Secretaria de Agricultura y Recursos Hidraulicos (SARH).
May 1980 Commodity Programs, FAS/USDA










Table ll.-Mexico: Tomato Production by State, 1960-77
(Metric tons)


1960 . .
1961 . .
1962 . .
1963 . .
1964 . .
1965 . .
1966 . .
1967 . .
1968 . .
1969 . .
1970 . .
1971 . .
1972 . .
1973 . .
1974 . .
1975 . .
1976 . .
1977 . .
1978 .
1979 ...


Baja California

Norte Sur


3,546
5,360
4,900
4,205
3,658
4,370
5,423
9,009
13,952
7,100
9,314
32,250
44,902
50,070
38,408
80,019
90,500
85,745
94,000
111,000


1 Includes other states.


821
915
934
908
821
392
401
795
256
250
252
300
350
500
1,536
1,500
4,230
4,285
6,000
9,000


Guan- Mich-
ajuato oacan


23,356
28,064
28,256
32,908
36,232
107,554
103,365
146,584
148,354
147,790
147,855
149,349
168,876
169,520
292,500
157,500
66,250
139,577
140,000
150,000


2 Preliminary.


11,049
13,236
11,612
12,499
13,735
10,448
12,696
6,259
6,910
6,797
10,253
19,990
29,027
38,420
53,327
22,807
23,368
44,536
50,000
50,000


Mor-
elos


9,541
10,429
10,873
20,975
20,992


Nay-
arit


4,977
5,642
5,673
6,436
6,626


62,564 7,603
65,774 12,269
57,849 1,848
67,270 3,513
64,732 3,039
151,679 3,510
149,909 8,610
172,294 5,612
126,251 5,046
159,847 7,325
191,082 9,770
126,996 10,750
120,831 9,503
130,000 10,000
140,000 8,000


San Sin-
Luis aloa
Potosi


8,468
10,297
10,540
19,136
18,730
5,882
6,561
8,136
18,687
16,368
23,013
30,000
45,401
40,500
46,200
40,425
25,675
60,000
60,000
50,000


145,799
195,543
186,423
168,755
166,468


Son- Tam-
ora aulipas


35,622
38,036
35,650
17,934
16,395


212,723 12,268
210,820 13,530
240,007 11,571
236,773 13,904
297,412 13,530
343,257 43,650
332,280 12,816
465,217 16,265
394,398 25,442
296,226 16,828


321,178
240,832
277,036
375,000
325,000


13,200
12,720
22,338
25,000
20,000


3Estimate.


Source: Direccion General de Economfa Agricola (DGEA), Secretarna de Agricultura y Recursos Hidraulicos (SARH).
May 1980 Commodity Programs, FAS/USDA


Trble 12.-Mexico: Average Grower Prices for Tomatoes, by State, 1960-79
(Pesos per kilogram)1

Baja California San
Year Guan- Mich- Mor- Nay- Luis Sin- Son- Tam- Ver- Average
Norte Sur ajuato oacan elos arit Potosi aloa ora aulipas acruz Mexico2

1960 ...... 0.95 1.01 0.65 0.60 0.70 0.52 0.59 0.84 1.00 0.60 0.85 0.76
1961 ........ 1.30 1.19 0.91 0.86 0.88 0.89 0.85 0.94 1.19 0.83 0.93 0.95
1962 ...... 1.20 1.21 0.87 0.90 0.96 0.94 0.85 1.01 1.00 0.85 0.84 0.96
1963 ...... 1.25 1.27 0.90 0.95 1.00 0.98 0.90 1.05 1.05 0.90 0.88 0.99
1964 ...... 1.25 1.28 1.00 1.00 1.11 1.07 1.00 1.08 1.09 1.00 0.99 1.05
1965 ...... 1.30 1.26 1.05 1.04 1.08 1.09 1.03 1.10 1.10 1.05 1.04 1.08
1966 . ... 1.30 1.24 0.95 0.93 1.13 1.00 1.00 1.10 1.10 1.00 1.00 1.06
1967 . ... 1.24 1.26 0.90 0.90 1.03 0.95 1.00 1.10 1.12 0.98 1.00 1.03
1968 . ... 1.25 1.28 0.95 0.95 1.06 1.00 1.02 1.12 1.14 1.00 1.02 1.06
1969 . ... 1.30 1.30 1.00 0.95 1.10 1.20 1.05 1.15 1.15 1.00 1.05 1.11
1970 . ... 1.57 1.40 1.10 0.97 1.22 1.24 1.05 1.20 1.20 1.00 1.20 1.19
1971 ...... 1.30 1.50 1.73 1.24 1.25 1.53 1.11 1.37 1.20 1.10 1.45 1.38
1972 ........ 0.60 1.30 1.05 1.00 0.70 0.84 0.97 2.41 1.17 0.98 1.08 1.51
1973 ...... 1.05 1.65 0.70 1.21 1.56 1.12 0.90 2.54 1.33 1.10 1.22 1.64
1974 ....... 1.85 3.02 1.69 2.77 1.92 1.08 1.88 2.50 1.30 1.00 1.04 1.99
1975 ........ 1.55 3.00 1.23 2.78 2.59 1.12 1.50 3.93 1.50 1.80 1.10 2.50
1976 ...... 5.38 3.00 3.83 2.26 2.00 1.68 1.50 6.40 1.50 1.80 2.20 4.07
1977 ....... 4.26 2.81 2.95 2.88 4.11 3.12 1.70 8.78 4.14 2.40 2.18 4.86
1978. . 6.00 5.50 3.00 3.00 4.50 3.50 2.00 9.00 5.00 2.50 2.50 5.68
19794. . 7.00 6.50 4.00 3.50 5.00 4.50 2.50 10.00 6.00 3.00 3.00 6.00


1 1961-76, 12.5 pesos = $1; 1976-78, 22.7 pesos = $1; 1979, 22.8 pesos = $1.
states. 3 Preliminary. 4 Estimate.


Average weighted by production in all


Source: Direccion General de Economia Agricola (DGEA), Secretaria de Agricultura y Recursos Hidraulicos (SARH).
May 1980 Commodity Programs, FAS, USDA


Ver- T
acruz Total


60,366
44,667
44,413
53,395
52,009
7,749
7,608
9,336
20,327
20,319
17,491
17,635
21,436
21,554
14,386
16,913
12,527
14,561
15,000
15,000


17,099
18,866
17,356
21,431
20,512
12,536
10,481
32,269
32,597
26,336
28,480
16,603
37,262
29,192
9,691
8,150
8,145
10,848
10,000
10,000


388,648
453,125
433,819
442,682
444,971
553,938
555,213
618,956
669,677
714,912
923,063
938,584
1,203,702
1,091,001
1,120,846
1,056,408
806,831
974,258
1,117,360
1,082,375


' '









Table 13.-Sweet Bell Peppers: Mexico's Area Harvested by States, 1960-79
(In hectares)


Baja California Chi- Guan- Jalisco Nayait sm Sinaler- Total
Year huahua ajuato Potosi aulipas acruz Mexico,
Norte Sur Po

1960 .........740 190 830 2,800 680 790 1,281 5,000 601 3,372 4,853 33,287
1961 .. .............. 665 211 933 2,855 656 885 1,212 5,088 751 3,343 5,128 34,117
1962 .. .............. 720 212 22 2,900 623 826 1,623 6,598 687 3,358 5,282 37,409
1963 ................. 675 204 1,300 2,931 662 997 1,938 6,803 949 3,340 6,159 40,129
1964 ................ .. 474 123 1,530 3,016 656 1,351 1,846 6,423 1,836 1,941 6,950 41,157

1965 .........765 198 987 1,211 678 1,708 1,519 5,432 168 2,823 12,659 41,751
1966 ................ 1,287 201 819 2,139 952 3,236 1,384 5,123 324 2,134 11,435 42,502
1967 .................1,759 213 262 3,934 987 2,185 1,259 2,863 895 1,543 7,261 37,801
1968 ................. 2,233 234 268 3,543 1,011 2,149 1,543 1,834 895 2,011 7,457 38,259
1969 ................ 1,980 259 298 3,150 1,065 2,184 1,278 2,493 549 1,850 5,801 35,588

1970 .. .............. 2,250 299 351 3,469 1,085 2,150 1,250 2,721 725 1,674 5,925 36,291
1971 .. . . ....... 1,475 120 1,300 2,679 1,250 4,113 1,500 5,675 1,521 1,500 8,640 44,949
1972 .. . ........ 1,857 250 1,729 3,750 420 3,563 2,250 5,749 1,381 2,500 19,788 60,787
1973 .. . . ....... 2,000 250 2,163 3,800 2,500 2,305 2,250 5,167 792 3,084 16,585 56,876
1974.. .. . . 1,800 270 1,462 5,924 3,872 3,380 1,000 4,300 1,520 3,279 10,600 55,765

1975 .............. ...... 1,500 323 2,000 2,500 2,620 1,585 1,570 2,347 1,175 1,627 7,100 40,189
1976 .. ............. 1,500 256 3,893 3,500 3,600 2,256 1,903 2,869 1,147 640 4,100 40,246
1977 .. . . ....... 1,800 363 4,638 3,500 566 2,838 3,200 3,290 2,403 712 3,850 49,821
19782 ......... .. 2,000 400 4,000 4,000 500 3,000 3,500 3,500 2,500 800 4,000 59,716
19792. .. ........ 2,000 400 4,000 3,500 500 3,000 3,000 3,300 2,400 700 3,500 52,700

1 Includes other states. 2 Preliminary.

Source: Direcci6n General de Economfa Agricola, Secretaria de Agricultura y Recursos Hidraulicos (DGEA, SARH), and Uni6n Nacional de Productores de Hortalizas (UNPH).


Commodity Programs, FAS, USDA


April 1980










Table 14.-Sweet Bell Peppers: Mexico's Yields by States, 1960-79
(In metric tons per hectare)


Baja California Chi- Guan-ayarit Sinaloa Sonora Tam- Ver- Total
Year huahua Guan- Jalisco Nayarit Luis Sinaloa Sonora aulipas acruz Mexico1
huahua ajuato Pot aulipas acruz Mexico
Norte Sur otosi

1960 .............. ... 3.0 3.0 2.8 2.7 2.5 2.9 2.5 3.2 3.1 2.9 2.5 2.7
1961 .............. ... 2.7 3.2 2.8 3.1 2.7 3.1 2.4 3.2 3.4 3.0 2.6 2.8
1962 ................. 2.7 2.3 3.2 3.2 2.8 3.4 2.3 3.2 3.2 3.0 2.8 2.9
1963 .............. ... 2.7 3.2 3.3 3.3 3.0 2.9 2.9 3.3 3.4 2.9 3.0 3.1
1964 . . . ..... 3.5 3.1 3.2 3.5 3.2 2.9 3.1 3.4 3.9 2.9 3.0 3.2

1965 . . . ..... 2.8 3.1 2.3 7.0 2.8 3.5 4.4 3.1 4.0 2.6 3.4 3.2
1966 .............. ... 2.8 2.5 2.1 7.0 3.9 4.0 4.4 3.0 3.1 2.6 5.7 3.9
1967 .............. ... 8.6 8.6 3.8 8.7 3.9 4.3 4.7 4.1 9.0 5.0 8.5 5.3
1968 .............. ... 8.7 8.8 3.5 8.8 3.0 4.1 5.0 5.7 8.9 6.8 6.2 5.0
1969 ................. 9.3 9.5 3.6 8.9 3.0 4.0 3.0 7.6 6.7 6.9 5.2 5.0

1970 ................ 9.4 10.0 3.7 9.3 3.4 4.1 3.1 7.6 8.0 4.1 5.2 5.3
1971 .............. ... 12.0 15.0 8.1 12.0 4.2 6.3 8.0 9.8 14.0 4.8 6.3 6.9
1972 .............. ... 12.0 15.0 12.3 13.0 8.0 9.5 8.0 9.0 13.9 5.2 6.0 7.2
1973 .............. ... 8.4 13.0 8.0 13.5 6.4 8.7 12.5 7.50 13.1 5.1 6.7 7.0
S 1974 . . . ..... 10.0 11.1 8.7 11.9 7.9 7.8 12.5 9.3 13.1 4.8 7.3 7.5

1975 . . . ..... 8.0 18.1 11.8 12.0 8.0 9.1 15.0 10.7 13.7 2.1 5.0 6.8
196 . . . ..... 10.0 25.1 12.0 12.0 8.0 10.2 12.5 12.2 19.0 8.0 9.0 8.4
1977 ................. 12.0 26.9 20.0 10.5 7.5 10.4 12.5 16.9 8.7 9.1 5.0 9.7
19782 .. ......... 12.0 25.0 20.0 10.0 8.0 10.0 11.4 17.1 10.0 8.8 5.0 7.8
19792................. 10.0 20.0 20.0 11.4 8.0 10.0 7.5 15.2 8.3 10.0 5.7 9.0

1 Includes other states. 2 Preliminary.

Source: Direcci6n General de Economia Agncola, Secretarfa de Agricultura y Recursos Hidraulicos (DGEA, SARH), and Uni6n Nacional de Productores Hidraulicos (UNPH).


Commodity Programs, FAS, USDA


April 1980











Table 15.-Sweet Bell Peppers: Mexico Production by State, 1960-79
(In metric tons)


Baja California Chi- Guan- San Tam- Ver- Total
Yehuahua uato Jalisco Nayarit Luis Sinaloa Sonora aulipas acruz Mexico1
Norte I- Sur Potosi
Norte Sur


1960 .................
1961 .................
1962 .................
1963 .................
1964 .................

1965 .................
1966 .................
1967 .................
1968 .................
1969 .................

1970 .................
1971 .................
1972 .................
1973 .................
- 1974 .................

1975 .................
1976 .................
1977. .................
19782 .................
1979 ...............


2,308 7,672
2,638 8,774
3,616 9,336
3,723 9,594
4,953 12,625

2,315 8,470
1,754 14,973
985 34,045
950 31,504
1,073 27,925

1,277 32,192
10,500 32,148
21,218 48,750
17,306 51,300
12,766 70,474

23,600 30,000
46,716 42,000
92,700 36,600
80,000 40,000
80,000 40,000


1,708
1,757
1,744
1,954
2,130


2,309
2,741
2,842
2,875
3,911


1,891 5,952
3,695 12,883
3,865 9,437
3,058 8,795
3,195 8,758

3,711 8,707
5,250 25,898
3,360 33,774
16,000 19,971
30,600 26,300

20,960 14,455
28,784 22,964
4,245 29,505
4,000 30,000
4,000 30,000


3,227 16,140
2,920 16,431
3,807 20,933
5,798 22,376
5,769 21,925

6,644 17,084
6,049 15,487
5,866 11,821
7,752 10,514
3,834 19,006

13,813 20,598
12,000 55,615
18,000 51,741
28,125 38,753
12,500 40,000

23,550 25,000
23,787 35,000
40,000 55,696
40,000 60,000
40,000 50,000


1,884
2,539
2,168
3,232
7,118


9,711 12,327 90,492
9,890 13,188 96,798
3,939 14,628 109,206
9,537 18,310 122,701
5,715 21,123 133,619


664 7,430 43,585 134,440
994 5,521 65,305 167,129
8,051 7,767 61,755 199,522
7,947 13,653 45,875 191,721
3,673 12,765 30,107 178,384

5,800 11,762 30,810 190,836
21,294 7,149 54,069 310,202
19,130 13,000 120,923 435,070
10,753 15,744 110,920 399,511
20,015 15,780 77,450 415,614


2,216
1,770
1,925
1,847
1,657

2,118
3,588
15,214
19,378
18,315

21,195
17,700
22,284
20,000
18,000

12,000
15,000
21,000
24,000
20,000


572
670
684
652
381

605
494
1,824
2,051
2,461

2,990
1,800
3,750
3,250
2,984

16,097
6,430
9,780
10,000
8,000


SIncludes other states. 2 Preliminary.

Source: Direcci6n General de Economia Agnrcola, Secretarfa de Agricultura y Recursos Hidriulicos (DGEA, SARH), and Union Nacional de Productores de Hortalizas (UNPH).

April 1980 Commodity Programs, FAS, USDA


16,097
21,793
20,958
25,000
20,000


3,377 39,200 273,149
5,113 36,900 338,930
6,476 19,250 481,682
7,000 20,000 465,972
7,000 20,000 447,300









Table 16.-Sweet Bell Peppers: Mexico's Grower Prices, by States, 1960-79
(In pesos per kilogram)


1960
1961
1962
1963
1964

1965
1966
1967
1968
1969

1970
1971
1972
1973
1974


1975 .......
1976 .......
1977 .......
19782 .
1979 .......


0.95 0.87 0.90 0.80 0.99 0.99 0.94 0.90 0.86 0.95 0.90 0.90
1.05 0.99 0.97 0.96 1.07 1.00 1.05 0.93 1.02 1.04 0.96 0.98
1.10 1.12 1.01 1.05 1.14 1.09 1.04 1.04 1.13 1.08 1.01 1.04
1.15 1.17 1.03 1.08 1.18 1.12 1.07 1.10 1.20 1.12 1.05 1.08
1.25 1.23 1.16 1.18 1.30 1.20 1.18 1.25 1.35 1.20 1.25 1.22

1.28 1.25 1.19 1.22 1.35 1.25 1.22 1.27 1.34 1.29 1.36 1.26
1.50 1.25 1.22 1.35 1.25 1.15 1.20 1.24 1.30 1.25 1.25 1.24
1.28 1.25 1.30 1.38 1.27 1.25 1.20 1.26 1.27 1.26 1.10 1.22
1.31 1.28 1.32 1.40 1.30 1.20 1.23 1.27 1.30 1.30 1.12 1.26
1.40 1.30 1.35 1.50 1.33 1.45 1.25 1.30 1.35 1.32 1.15 1.33


4.80
7.70
12.03
10.00
14.00


1.45
2.20
10.98
8.00
10.00


1 Includes other states. 2 Preliminary.

Source: Direccion General de Economfa Agrfcola, Secretaria de Agricultura de Recursos Hidraulicos (DGEA, SARH), and Union Nacional de Productores de Hortalizas (UNPH).


i:jjjijj


April 1980


Commodity Programs, FAS, USDA










Table 17.-Cucumbers: Mexico's Area, Yield, Production, and Grower Prices, By States, 1973-79


States Gauan- Jalisco Mich- Morelos Nayarit San Lui Sinaloa Sonora Tam- Veracruz Mexio
Year ajuato oacan Potosi aulipas Mexico

AREA
-- -- ----- ----- Hectares- - -- - - ----


_______________________________________________________________I


1,100
946
848
883
408
400
400


5,667
5,100
3,720
3,046
3302
4,000
4,500


YIELDS
-- ------------------ TonsPerHectare- -
16.0 18.6 9.9 12.7 9.4 15.0 13.5
16.0 18.0 10.0 16.1 13.0 15.0 12.0
16.0 18.6 10.9 12.6 13.0 15.0 13.0
16.0 18.0 12.9 13.0 13.0 15.0 16.5
16.0 16.4 11.6 12.6 11.8 15.0 165
16.0 15.7 12.2 15.0 10.0 16.7 23.8
16.0 17.1 12.0 175 10.0 15.0 22.2
PRODUCTION
- ---- --------- --- --------- ---Tons- ------


1973
1974
1975
1976
1977 .
19782.
19792.


1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
19782.
19792.


1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
19782.
19792.


1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
19782
19792.


1.15
1.31
1.23
1.63
1.81
1.80
2.00


1,678
6,383
5,200
2,730
966
1,000
1,000


2,250
1,186
2,325
1,950
1,800
2,000
1,800


76,504
61,200
48,360
70,000
80,000
95,000
100,000


PRICE
- Pesos Per Kilogram -
1.00 0.40
0.60 1.50
0.70 1.60
0.85 1.80
0.71 1.80
0.70 1.80
1.00 2.00


259
702
148
113
343
400
350


6.7
6.7
75
75
8.2
10.0
8.6


1,738
4,686
1,110
847
2,822
4,000
3,000


2.70 0.72
2.50 0.90
3.00 0.90
6.00 0.90
7.03 3.35
7.00 3.30
8.00 4.00


7.2 15.0
6.1 21.8
5.1 10.0
13.0 4.0
5.4 13.0
5.0 15.0
5.0 13.8


1,231
1,171
470
26
443
400
400


1.28
1.32
1.32
1.60
1.42
1.50
1.60


11,498
10,187
10,592
12,599
6,716
7,301
9,500


10.6
11.1
8.1
8.5
19.1
19.7
20.0


3,000 121,515


3,700
1,070
304
1,122
1,200
1,100


1.06
1.06
1.10
2.00
2.00
2.50
3.00


113,305
85,381
106,760
127,957
144,072
190,000


2.03
1.81
2.21
3.81
5.05
5.91
6.18


1 Includes other States.


2 Preliminary.


Source: Direcci6n General de EconomiaAgricola, Secretaria de Agricultura y Recursos Hidrfulicos (DGEA, SARH), and Union Nacional de Productores de Hortalizas (UNPH).

April 1980 Commodity Programs, FAS, USDA


675
840
755
1,358
945
900
1,000


14,014
13,505
10,716
7,580
5,137
6,000
7,000


9,300
8,646
5,580
10,800
11,020
11,000
12,000


5,600
3,200
1,600
400
800
800
800


1.00
1.50
1.50
1.50
2.00
2.00
2.00


6,713
9,478
8,260
17,584
10,952
11,000
12,000


0.77
0.79
1.06
1.18
1.73
1.75
2.00


0.60
0.84
1.50
1.00
1.17
1.20
1.50


"^ "











Table 18.-Squash: Mexico's Area, Yield, Production, and Grower Prices, by States, 1974-79


State
San Luis Total
Yeare Guanajuato Hidalgo Jalisco Michoacan Morelos Nayarit Potosi Sinaloa Sonora Tamaulipas Mexico1
Year Potosi Mexic


1974 ..........................
1975 ..........................
1976 ..........................
1977 ..........................
19782 ................. .. ....
19792 .........................



1974 ..........................
1975 ..........................
1976 ..........................
1977 ..........................
19782 .........................
19792 .......... .... ......



1974 ..........................
1975 ..........................
1976 ..........................
1977 .........................
19782 .........................
19792 ........................
1979 ............ . .......



1974 ..........................
1975.........................
1976 ..........................

19782 ............ ..........
19782
19792................... ......


10 420 45 300
10 430 60 -
400 500 340 80
350 480 150 180
400 500 200 200
400 500 200 200


8.35 7.00 12.00


2,490
3,023
3,250
3,120
3,500
3,500



2.50
2.00
1.50
2.00
2.50
3.00


12.00
14.00
14.00
15.00
15.00


540
720
4,760
2,100
3,000
3,000



1.60
1.75
1.66
1.75
2.00
2.50


8.50
15.00
15.00
15.00
15.00


84
85
6,000
5,250
6,000
6,000



0.85
0.95
1.00
1.50
2.00
2.50


360
639
348
355
400
400


AREA
Hectares
58

53
50
50
50


YIELDS
------- Tons per hectare
7.33 8.21 18.00


0.90
8.90
10.00
10.00


8.00
9.31
9.31
10.00
10.00


18.00
18.00
18.00
18.00
18.00


75 1,545
160 1,613
115 1,605
110 1,467
100 2,000
100 2,200


882 445 4,388
931 357 4,955
866 216 4,969
893 203 4,530
900 200 4,000
900 200 4,000


18.00 10.50 13.34 3.11 9.860


15.00
15.00
15.00
15.00
15.00


9.50
10.50
14.13
20.00
20.00


13.30
13.50
13.50
15.00
15.00


9.684
11.042
13.760
16.737
17.975


PRODUCTION
-----------Tons-------------------------
2,200 2,955 1,044 1,350 16,223 11,762 1,386 43,266
5,112 2,400 15,324 12,382 1,055 47,986
72 3,240 954 1,725 16,852 11,691 831 54,868
1,600 3,305 900 1,650 20,733 12,055 781 62,333
2,000 4,000 900 1,500 40,000 13,500 1,000 66,946
2,000 4,000 900 1,500 44,000 13,500 1,000 71,900


GROWER PRICES
------- Pesos per kilograms
0.94 2.20 1.00
1.00 -
1.00 2.50 0.70
1.28 2.70 0.90
1.50 3.00 1.00
2.00 3.50 1.50


1.00 2.50 1.00 1.81 1.81
1.50 5.00 1.40 1.39 2.48
1.50 6.00 1.40 1.52 2.85
1.70 6.20 1.45 1.60 3.35
1.70 6.00 2.00 2.00 2.50
2.00 7.00 2.50 2.50 3.00


- Not available, or unknown.
1 Includes other states. 2 Preliminary.

SOURCE: Direcci6n General de Economa Agricola, Secretarfa de Agricultura y Recursos Hidriulicos (DGEA, SARH), and Uni6n Nacional deProductores de Hortalizas(UNPH).


April 1980


Commodity Programs, FAS, USDA









Table 19.-Eggplant: Mexico's Area, Yield, Production, Price, Value, and Exports, 1960-79


Area Yield Production Price
Year Total Average Total Total
Sinaloa Mexico Sinaloa Mexico Sinaloa Mexico Sinaloa Mexico


Hectares MT/hectares MT Pesos/Kg
1960 ......... 40 148 9.0 8.6 360 1,270 1.00 0.92
1961 ......... 40 383 9.5 8.4 380 3,215 1.00 0.97
1962 ......... 41 392 9.6 8.4 392 3,277 1.15 1.69
1963 ......... 100 442 9.6 8.3 960 3,663 1.25 1.27
1964 ......... 40 467 8.1 8.4 325 3,903 1.16 1.28

1965 ......... 132 545 9.7 8.4 1,276 4,556 1.29 1.29
1966 ......... 144 584 9.6 8.4 1,389 4,877 1.30 1.32
1967 ......... 168 652 9.5 8.4 1,602 5,495 1.28 1.32
1968 ......... 293 906 10.1 8.7 2,950 7,899 1.30 1.32
1969 ......... 545 1,027 22.9 15.6 12,463 16,032 1.35 1.35

1970 ......... 596 1,040 23.2 16.4 13,805 17,100 1.30 1.30
1971 ......... 585 684 23.5 21.3 13,748 14,551 1.50 1.49
1972 ........ 999 1,065 19.8 19.1 19,776 20,330 2.98 2.97
1973 ........ 1,219 1,335 19.1 18.6 23,299 24,834 2.90 2.84
1974 ........ .. 1,100 1,165 20.0 19.4 22,000 22,625 2.80 2.77

1975 ......... .. 606 990 20.0 19.5 12,120 19,305 3.85 3.84
1976 ......... .. 669 698 22.9 22.4 15,321 15,616 4.70 4.66
1977 ......... 419 443 32.6 31.3 13,644 13,854 6.50 6.46
19781 ........ 800 1,088 26.2 21.4 21,000 23,306 7.25 7.22
19791 ........ 1,000 1,200 25.0 22.5 25,000 27,000 7.50 7.35
SPreliminary.

SOURCE: Uni6n Nacional de Productores de Hortalizas (UNPH), and Direcci6n General de Economi'a Agricola (DGEA),
Secretaria de Agricola (SARH).

April 1980 Commodity Programs, FAS, USDA











Table 20.-Winter Vegetables: Sinaloa's Area, Yield, and Production for Export, 1969/70-1978/79


1969/70 1970/71 1971/72 1972/73 1973/74 1974/75 1975/76 1976/77 1977/781 1978/792


AREA:
Cucumbers .................
Eggplant ...................
Peppers, Sweet Bell ............
Squash ....................
Tomatoes3 . . . . .

YIELD:
Cucumbers. ..................
Eggplant ............. ......
Peppers, Sweet Bell ............
Squash ....................
Tomatoes3 . . . . .

PRODUCTION:
Cucumbers. ..................
Eggplant ...................
Peppers, Sweet Bell ............
Squash ....................
Tomatoes3 ..................


3,289 4,810 6,661
635 948
3,081 4,979 5,397
2,049
15,615 13,845 19,287


11.65 7.69
14.27 13.09
6.52 4.30
5.58
17.31 12.48


11,254 56,026
9,061
25,854 32,495

268,717 239,645


5,614
831
4,869
1,588
21,960


11.08
21.54
7.22
6.54
14.15


- Hectares -
4,898 2,195
917 522
3,743 1,676
1,545 1,968
16,457 14,009

Tons per hectare- -
12.61 17.12
16.14 23.08
10.39 13.32
9.43 6.73
15.49 16.71


-------------- Tons
51,223 62,203 61,764
12,409 17,902 14,799
23,186 35,138 38,889
11,434 10,390 14,564
240,618 310,701 254,862


2,910
591
2,629
1,651
13,977


23.13
24.35
11.36
9.32
21.42


3,307 3,632
423 532
2,248 3,671
1,527 1,946
16,628 15,300


23.20
33.87
17.74
12.09
20.85


25.76
32.99
13.92
10.71
22.95


37,518 67,308 76,722 93,564
12,048 14,394 14,327 17,550
22,319 29,847 39,875 51,093
13,249 15,380 18,469 21,042
234,092 299,380 346,746 351,195


3,500
500
3,500
2,000
15,000


25.71
34.00
14.29
10.00
20.00


90,000
17,000
50,000
20,000
300,000


Note: This does not include production for the domestic market, which generally takes 10 to 40 percent of the total output.


- Denotes not available.
* Preliminary. 2 Estimate.


3Includes staked, ground grown, cherry, roma, tomatillo and other varieties.


Source: Confederaci6n de Asociaciones Agricolas del Estado de Sinaloa (CAADES).


Commodity Programs, FAS, USDA


11.25

8.39

17.21


-






-


--


May 1980










Table 21.-Winter Vegetables: Sinaloa's Area Grown for Export by River Valley's 1974/75-1978/79
(In hectares)


1974/75 1975/76 1976/77 1977/78 1978/791


CULIACAN
Tomatoes ........................ 7,726 6,933 8,318 8,553 8,400
Peppers, Bell ...................... 902 1,172 1,254 1,848 1,700
Cucumbers ........................ 1,826 2,261 2,567 2,588 2,400
Eggplant ......................... 522 591 419 484 460
Squash .......................... 466 291 277 347 350

GUASAVE
Tomatoes ........................ 4,735 4,962 6,667 4,620 4,500
Peppers, Bell ...................... 356 542 280 795 700
Cucumbers ........................ 30 200 211 422 400
Eggplant .......................... 2 4 18 15
Squash .......................... 358 493 239 390 400

LOS MOCHIS
Tomatoes ........................ 1,548 2,081 1,504 2,019 2,000
Peppers, Bell ...................... 348 815 469 648 600
Cucumbers ....................... 185 124 103 174 170
Eggplant ......................... 9 4 19 15
Squash............................ 998 774 847 639 650

SAN LORENZO
Tomatoes ........................ 1 81 49 50
Peppers, Bell ...................... 33 49 122 195 190
Cucumbers ....................... 94 225 215 242 240
Squash .......................... 7 50 63 60

MOROCRITO
Tomatoes ........................ 5 59 50
Peppers, Bell ...................... 37 50 70 99 100
Cucumbers ....................... 12 10
Squash .......................... 138 47 140 507 500

ELOTA and BACUARTE
Tomatoes ........................ 53 -
Peppers, Bell ..................... 1 53 86 80
Cucumbers ....................... 8 100 211 194 190

TOTAL SINALOA
Tomatoes ........................ 14,009 13,977 16,628 15,300 15,000
Peppers, Bell ...................... 1,676 2,629 2,248 3,671 3,500
Cucumbers ....................... .2,195 2,910 3,307 3,632 3,500
Eggplant ......................... 553 595 423 532 500
Squash .......................... 1,968 1,651 1,563 1,946 2,000

Denotes not available.
Estimates.

Source: Confederaci6n de Asociaciones Agricolas del Estado de Sinaloa.

May 1980 Commodity Programs, FAS, USDA










Table 22.-Tomatoes: Sinaloa's Production for the Local and Export Markets, 1969/70-1978/79


1969/70 1970/71 1971/72 1972/73 1973/74 1974/75 1975/76 1976/77 1977/78 1978/791

AREA -- - - ---------- ----Hectares- ------------------------
Total........................ 15,615 13,845 19,287 21,960 16,457 14,009 13,977 16,628 15,300 15,000

YIELDS- -- - --- -- ------ --Tons/hectare --------------------------
Total ........................ 23.12 24.28 17.65 20.33 22.64 25.59 32.54 28.44 34.69 30.00
Export ..................... 17.21 17.31 12.48 14.15 15.49 16.71 21.42 20.85 22.95 20.00
Domestic .................... 5.91 6.97 5.17 6.18 7.15 8.88 11.12 7.59 11.73 10.00

PRODUCTION- -- - - ------ ----- --Tons----------------------------
Total ....................... 361,017 336,145 340,377 446,388 372,602 358,438 454,816 472,953 530,732 450,000
Export ..................... 268,717 239,645 240,618 310,701 254,862 234,092 299,380 346,746 351,195 300,000
Domestic .................... 92,300 96,500 99,759 135,687 117,740 124,346 155,436 126,207 179,537 150,000

1 Estimate.


Source: Confederaci6n de Asociaciones Agrfcolas del Estado de Sinaloa.

May 1980


Commodity Programs, FAS, USDA










Table 23.-Tomatoes: Sinaloa's Production by Type, 1969/70-1978/79

Staked tomatoes Ground grown Cherry-type All tomatoes
Crop-Year (Vine ripes) (Mature greens)
(Oct-Sept)
Area Yield Production Area Yield Production Area Yield Production Area Yield Production

hectares tons/ha tons hectares tons/ha tons hectares tons/ha tons hectares tons/ha tons
1969/70 ............. 11,976 19.26 230,689 2,382 6.79 16,169 1,257 17.39 21,859 15,615 17.21 268,717
1970/71............ 9,914 20.39 202,174 3,096 5.08 15,742 835 26.02 21,729 13,845 17.31 239,645
1971/72 ............. 14,411 13.73 197,834 3,865 5.21 20,144 1,011 22.39 22,640 19,287 12.48 240,618
1972/73 ........... .. 14,201 18.27 259,396 6,544 3.52 23,039 1,214 21.64 26,266 21,960 14.15 310,701
1973/74 ............. 11,401 17.66 201,286 3,296 5.31 17,490 1,655 20.45 33,853 16,457 15.49 254,862
1974/75 ............. 9,195 20.19 185,657 3,689 5.81 21,438 1,008 24.60 24,799 14,009 16.71 234,092
1975/76 ............. 9,225 27.48 253,526 3,753 5.18 19,422 877 25.77 22,596 13,977 21.42 299,380
1976/77 ............. 11,175 25.87 289,082 4,103 6.91 28,357 1,098 20.85 22,889 16,628 20.85 346,746
1977/78 .......... 10,305 28.36 292,201 3,294 7.63 25,144 1,407 18.62 26,195 15,300 22.95 351,195
1978/793 ............ 10,000 25.00 250,000 3,000 6.67 20,000 1,500 16.67 25,000 15,000 20.00 300,000

Note: This does not include production for the domestic market, which generally takes 30 to 40 percent of the total output.


I Includes Roma, Tomatillo and other varieties.


2 Preliminary. Estimates.


Source: Confederaci6n de Asociaciones Agricolas del Estado de Sinaloa (CAADES)

May 1980


Commodity Programs, FAS, USDA










Table 24.-Tomatoes:


Culiacan
Staked . . . .
Ground . . . .
Cherry . . . .
Roma ..............
Tomatillo ...........
Total ............
Guasave
Staked .............
Ground .............
Cherry .............
Roma...............
Tomatillo ...........
Total ....... ....
Los Mochis
Staked .............
Ground .............
Cherry . . . .
Roma ..............
Tomatillo .. .........
Total ............
San Lorenzo
Staked .............
Cherry .............
Total ............
Mocorito
Cherry .............
Roma ..............
Total ............
Total Sinaloa
Staked . . . .
Ground . . . .
Cherry . . . .
Roma ................
Tomatillo............
Total . . .


Sinaloa's Area by Type and River Valley,
1974/75-1978/79
(In hectares)


Note: Totals may not add because of insufficient data (particularly in 1978/79).
Denotes not available or insignificant
Estimate

Source: Confederaci6n de Asociaciones Agrcolas del Estado de Sinaloa.

May 1980


Commodity Programs, FAS, USDA


1974/75 1975/76 1976/77 1977/78 1978/791



6,998 6,359 7,563 7,613 7,300
252 200 193 320 300
371 280 404 487 500
105 93 156 133 150
1 2 -
7,726 6,933 8,318 8,553 8,250

1,453 2,177 2,869 2,020 2,000
2,771 2,298 3,243 1,884 1,700
508 487 499 699 700
3 55 17 25

4,735 4,962 6,667 4,620 3,425

744 688 673 630 600
666 1,255 647 1,090 1,000
129 110 151 189 200
3 10 17 85 100
6 18 16 25 25
1,548 2,081 1,504 2,019 1,925

1 55 42 40
26 7 10
-1 81 49 50

25 25
5 34 30
5 59 55


9,195 9,225 11,175 10,305 10,000
3,689 3,753 4,103 3,294 3,000
1,008 877 1,098 1,407 1,500
111 103 223 269 275
6 19 19 25 25
14,009 13,977 16,628 15,300 15,000










Table 25.-Tomatoes, Fresh: US. Imports from Mexico, 1969/70-1979/80
(Metric tons)


October November December January IFebruary March April May I June July August September Total


1969/70 . .

1970/71 . .

1971/72 . .

1972/73 . .

1973/74 . .

1974/75 . .

1975/76 . .

1976/77 . .

1977/78 . .

1978/79 . .

1979/80 . .


679

904

1,437

2,358

2,181

2,024

3,025

5,929

10,687

6,753

3,656


2,561 8,488

3,386 13,874

3,704 8,489

7,353 6,238

7,943 7,629

7,163 4,645

4,357 7,155

11,804 10,746

9,639 9,819

4,177 10,924

6,995 9,825


35,265 47,568

26,550 54,657

17,871 70,116

26,959 59,468

37,976 61,675

10,700 37,794

25,517 64,451

24,385 76,214

56,772 65,124

26,015 72,294

34,605 62,917


55,460 68,799 44,665 17,327

39,841 54,826 49,193 16,088

35,941 57,295 50,798 13,167

50,146 88,630 52,246 37,011

38,418 40,934 52,019 18,256

38,846 44,628 56,607 36,176

41,978 53,526 2,121 66,849

53,577 79,631 58,882 23,618

76,279 64,811 54,314 16,751

58,671 65,083 49,010 14,580


1,619 1,076

1,941 1,033

550 1,371

4,075 2,455

3,150 1,139

10,773 1,557

8,608 1,433

4,016 3,244

2,970 5,549

4,468 10,232


818 284,325

920 263,213

1,065 261,804

1,056 337,995

495 271,815

1,987 252,900

1,234 280,254

2,538 354,584

4,857 377,572

1,341 323,548


-Denotes not available, unknown, or not applicable.

Source: Bureau of Census, Department of Commerce.

April 1980


Season


Commodity Programs, FAS, USDA










Table 26.-Peppers, Fresh: US. Imports from Mexico, 1969/70-1979/80
(Metric tons)


October Nove ermberDecember January February March April May June July I August September Total


+


1969/70 . .

1970/71 . .

1971/72 . .

1972/73 . .

1973/74 . .

1974/75 . .

1975/76 . .

1976/77 . .

1977/78 . .
-Il
00 1978/79 . .

1979/80 . .


91 937 3,662 6,011 7,828 4,974 2,465 628

335 2,584 5,486 11,243 6,996 4,809 1,475 1,094

343 1,727 3,801 10,293 6,031 3,356 1,636 677

228 1,126 4,579 10,775 9,004 7,345 3,129 1,221

421 2,430 9,441 12,410 7,061 4,673 2,237 760

333 1,192 3,396 5,876 5,813 4,151 2,801 1,205

558 2,653 7,008 11,563 8,771 4,719 1,726 1,762

454 2,423 6,307 14,085 12,373 7,138 3,891 1,361

602 3,099 14,158 14,125 13,476 9,170 2,910 1,222

895 6,381 9,582 14,858 11,382 10,864 3,888 1,509

650 5,337 14,185 17,580 -


-I


124

211

208

352

525

614

535

712

727

1,170


178 27,099

98 34,553

69 28,337

238 38,383

167 40,725

463 26,342

338 40,557

579 50,264

843 61,650

517 62,670


-Denotes not available, unknown, or not applicable.

Source: Bureau of Census, Department of Commerce.

April 1980


Season


Commodity Programs, FAS, USDA










Table 27.-Cucumbers, Fresh: US. Imports from Mexico, 1969/70-1979/80
(Metric tons)

Season October November December January February March April May June July August September Total


1969/70 ........ 6 279 8,119 8,535 10,642 12,641 9,102 1,193 42 2 50,561

1970/71 ........ 101 13,153 14,266 20,837 9,686 10,288 2,323 155 2 70,811

1971/72 ........ 227 7,057 14,552 21,656 12,132 8,543 1,039 41 65,247

1972/73 ..... .. 35 576 11,309 16,728 16,040 11,181 18,555 3,149 1,161 203 25 29 78,991

1973/74 ......... 203 535 7,707 22,971 24,720 10,354 9,625 2,017 344 17 58 43 78,594

1974/75 ......... 414 1,107 4,472 10,736 17,006 6,403 6,386 5,257 1,007 513 53,301

1975/76 ......... 426 541 7,207 20,888 27,517 17,004 9,572 765 1,817 88 85,825

1976/77 ......... 1,278 10,075 21,354 31,622 15,629 14,868 3,132 506 217 20 98,701

1977/78 ........ 10 2,410 17,351 37,539 27,843 18,867 16,855 3,182 670 239 5 13 124,984

1978/79 . ... 132 2,328 21,551 20,893 32,811 29,930 22,629 2,304 400 69 12 5 133,064

1979/80 ........ 137 4,240 21,260 32,233 42,221 -


-Denotes not available, unknown, or not applicable.

Source: Bureau of Census, Department of Commerce.

April 1980


Commodity Programs, FAS, USDA










Table 28.-Squash, Fresh: U.S. Imports from Mexico, 1969/70-1979/80
(Metric tons)


Season


1969/70..........

1970/71..........

1971/72..........

1972/73..........

1973/74.......... 6

1974/75 .... .. 9

1975/76 ......... 12

1976/77 ......... 1

1977/78 .......... 24

8 1978/79.......... .

1979/80.......... 48


October November December January February March April May June July August September Total


39 911 2,291 2,881 3,065 1,339

- 1,169 2,076 4,446 2,869 1,830

4 14 1,177 3,197 6,537 3,436 1,048

9 36 1,948 3,830 4,336 3,086 3,168

5 133 1,707 5,234 5,767 3,588 1,871

1 85 1,088 2,996 4,760 4,650 1,900

5 42 1,143 4,772 7,478 4,898 1,867

17 191 2,815 4,897 7,530 7,000 3,602

4 323 4,258 9,943 7,527 6,325 2,732

4 904 7,038 6,251 10,606 9,890 5,854

86 1,053 5,517 8,854 9,792 -


831

652

333

907

1,143

814

571

1,774

2,289

2,201


-Denotes not available, unknown, or not applicable.

Source: Bureau of Census, Department of Commerce.

April 1980


11,597

13,123

1 32 15,902

12 17,641

- 7 19,657

5 6 16,607

- 21,435

4 28,527

8 6 33,816

8 8 43,336


Commodity Programs, FAS, USDA










Table 29.-Eggplant, Fresh: U.S. Imports from Mexico, 1969/70-1979/80
(Metric tons)

Season October November December January February March April May June July August September Total



1969/70 ....... 2 22 1,271 1,661 2,006 2,487 1,637 606 108 9,800

1970/71 ....... 28 1,258 1,675 3,076 1,833 1,060 825 521 3 10,279

1971/72 ....... 164 1,347 2,388 2,821 2,025 1,168 1,437 361 1 11,712

1972/73 ....... 10 815 2,041 3,341 3,018 2,298 3,610 1,707 950 84 2 17,876

1973/74 . ... 1 554 2,197 3,000 3,185 1,767 914 1,430 338 14 13,400

1974/75 ........ 67 1,169 1,839 2,079 1,697 1,540 1,749 476 133 10,749

1975/76 ......... 334 1,857 2,221 3,110 3,444 1,064 26 1,651 170 13,877

1976/77 ......... 384 1,409 1,956 3,368 3,606 1,772 1,148 671 9 14,323

1977/78 ........ 100 1,827 4,385 2,995 3,077 2,948 1,929 575 138 1 17,975

1978/79 ....... 472 2,422 2,200 3,774 2,635 2,764 1,996 941 17,204

1979/80 ..... .. 62 1,026 2,612 2,900 3,858 -


-Denotes not available, unknown, or not applicable.

Source: Bureau of Census, Department of Commerce.

April 1980


Commodity Programs, FAS, USDA










Table 30.-Vegetables, Fresh, Chilled or Frozen: U.S. Imports (for consumption) from Mexico, 1965-79

Year Asparagus Green beans Brussel Cabbage Carrots Cucumbers Eggplant Garlic Okra
(fresh) sprouts


QUANTITY
1965 ....................
1966. ....................
1967 .....................
1968 ....................
1969. ....................
1970.....................
1971.....................
1972.....................
1973.....................
1974.....................
1975 .....................
1976.....................
1977 .....................
1978 .....................
1979.....................

VALUE
1965.....................
1966.....................
1967.....................
1968. ....................
1969 .....................
1970 .....................
1971.....................
1972.....................
1973.....................
1974 .................. ....
1975.....................
1976 ................... ..
1977 .....................
1978 .....................
1979.....................


(1) 8,255 (1) 38
(1) 6,112 (1) 416
(1) 7,162 (1) _
(1) 7,841 (1) 79
(1) 10,980 (1) 23
(1) 12,176 (1) -108
(1) 11,979 (1) 581
(1) 17,668 (1) 106
7,284 14,720 (1) 121
9,109 14,693 (1) 160
8,485 10,222 (1) 371
8,244 11,975 (1) 189
7,091 16,928 3,998 24,668
5,006 24,786 4,478 4,809
6,693 23,904 4,848 11,898
--------------------------
0() 1,019 (1) 1
(1) 951 (1) 10
(1) 1,040 (1)
(1) 1,180 (1) 3
(1) 1,475 (1)
(1) 1,669 (1) 2
(1) 1,583 (1) 26
(1) 2,301 (1) 4
1,454 2,063 (1) 2
1,788 1,638 (1) 10
2,496 1,095 (1) 36
2,490 1,232 (1) 32
2,878 3,194 688 984
2,546 7,929 755 241
3,817 7,848 830 835


1,000 Pounds
1,518
4,170
2,653
16,767
1,288
2,583
2,660
10,413
5,929
9,563
7,893
4,999
18,533
8,566
7,963

1,000 Dollars
10
35
41
356
19
33
44
208
311
385
344
267
727
494
408


39,370
48,076
58,412
59,876
109,953
122,160
142,948
154,064
166,484
167,864
122,316
196,218
236,154
284,884
296,941


2,843
3,638
4,518
4,595
10,891
10,566
12,116
13,150
14,468
8,059
5,869
11,487
17,893
42,405
42,785


4,426
5,686
7,186
10,432
17,769
21,585
23,153
28,806
39,156
26,201
25,806
29,719
31,871
41,759
39,702


388
481
565
982
2,008
2,520
2,581
3,319
4,176
1,332
1,306
1,594
3,278
7,537
6,912


6,968
6,248
9,160
7,997
9,361
8,424
6,790
6,861
10,584
15,502
16,125
11,290
13,227
23,444
34,256


962
912
1,538
1,743
1,514
1,390
1,239
1,754
2,596
3,474
4,075
3,511
3,926
6,425
9,724


110
31
798
4,229
2,788
5,459
4,200
5,203
6,625
7,665
5,855
9,565
16,170
20,957
23,802


7
2
49
238
133
304
289
479
534
639
355
581
927
1,361
1,510


- Denotes not available, unknown, or not applicable.
I Not separately classified.


continued -










Table 30.-Vegetables, Fresh, Chilled or Frozen: U.S. Imports (for consumption) from Mexico Annually, 1965-79-Continued


Year Onions Peas Peppers Radishes Squash Tomatoes Other TOTAL


QUANTITY
1965 ......................
1966 ......................
1967 ......................
1968.............. .......
1969......................
1970......................
1971 ......................
1972 ......................
1973......................
1974 ......................
1975......................
1976 ......................
1977 ......................
1978 ......................
1979......................

VALUE
1965......................
S 1966......................
1967......................
1968 ......................
1969 ......................
1970......................
1971......................
1972......................
1973 .....................
1974......................
1975 ......................
1976......................
1977. .....................
1978 ......................
1979......................


-------------------------- 1,000Pounds -----------


39,312
50,530
41,407
70,465
51,248
61,809
41,110
57,305
124,129
90,347
75,037
74,414
97,450
118,733
143,081


4,702
5,767
4,848
3,973
6,164
5,766
5,316
5,257
6,434
7,656
4,668
6,908
6,788
6,675
6,423


17,672
24,591
27,799
24,429
40,662
63,946
74,319
60,948
88,363
86,583
62,397
88,416
112,873
144,617
135,319


374
683
1,612
3,992
2,226
1,496
2,128
3,558
4,036
4,644
2,858
4,600
7,352


5,525
5,057
11,129
9,476
18,944
26,049
28,988
36,814
38,700
41,925
36,711
51,032
66,863
81,561
93,439


-------------------------- 1,000 Dollars


2,158
3,097
2,776
4,597
3,471
5,587
3,444
4,875
9,065
7,077
6,846
6,403
11,932
13,400
17,689


642
783
778
533
746
1,086
1,013
1,002
1,300
1,086
806
981
871
988
1,868


2,024
3,702
4,293
4,068
7,671
12,222
13,553
10,881
16,132
9,124
7,928
10,485
21,450
32,530
35,837


414
546
1,149
1,451
2,512
3,387
3,620
4,981
4,838
2,130
1,893
3,006
6,049
17,561
17,748


265,459
358,743
362,354
387,401
446,240
641,015
570,287
582,284
749,121
590,601
559,095
648,584
785,386
814,116
710,250


29,425
52,015
42,607
46,973
68,018
94,967
84,131
88,150
115,138
64,071
64,132
72,429
149,406
161,097
153,184


4,423
8,986
9,504
16,147
23,770
25,621
30,235
35,140
31,784
36,754
35,978
39,545
43,347
18,872
32,625


366
637
585
1,229
2,048
2,967
3,810
4,402
3,834
5,378
5,776
7,163
7,664
2,329
5,175


Source: U.S. Bureau of Census, Department of Commerce.

April 1980


397,778
524,413
542,786
619,795
740,802
1,000,693
944,792
1,002,365
1,291,562
1,108,181
974,995
1,185,742
1,484,205
1,607,863
1,578,496


40,259
66,809
59,962
67,989
100,589
136,861
127,579
135,617
176,095
106,528
103,361
122,094
232,230
298,227
307,067


Commodity Programs, FAS, USDA










Table 31.-Vegetable Preparations: U.S. Imports (for consumption) from Mexico, 1965-79


QUANTITY ----------------- 1,00Pounds --------
1965 ................ (1) 1 1,899 5,243 10,741 345 18,229
1966 ................ (1) 1 7,080 1,554 6,882 1,719 17,236
1967 ................ (1) 1,143 10,015 187 13,344 1,556 26,245
1968 ................ () 4 410 6 12,178 1,768 14,366
1969 ................ (1) 445 6,310 17 15,146 1,291 23,209
1970 ................ 156 1,226 9,015 9 18,276 1,310 29,992
1971 ................ 1,941 1,164 9,030 4 22,576 2,137 36,852
1972 ................ 4,011 540 4,724 8 29,757 3,313 42,353
1973............... 3,282 5,650 4,938 42 31,971 3,121 49,004
1974 ................ 4,546 3,970 4,931 163 36,686 7,530 57,826
1975 ................ 5,582 3,588 3,103 188 25,792 6,329 44,582
1976 ................ 2,719 278 13,389 299 33,377 7,645 57,707
1977 ................ 2,315 672 24,338 270 35,885 9,230 72,710
1978 ................ 1,768 575 28,162 575 46,252 15,724 93,056
1979 ................ 1,861 739 22,775 553 50,859 19,164 95,951

-VALUE ---- ------------1,000 Dollars-----------------
VALUE
1965 ................ () 180 584 675 92 1,531
1966 ................ (1) 966 300 705 268 2,239
1967 ................ (1) 68 1,432 82 1,103 236 2,921
1968 ................ (1) 1 73 7 1,429 461 1,971
1969 ................ (1) 31 1,206 15 1,582 431 3,265
1970 ................ 39 99 1,360 13 2,078 363 3,952
1971 ................ 612 138 1,256 3 2,298 653 4,960
1972 ................ 1,173 178 670 7 2,898 971 5,897
1973 ................ 1,102 515 817 13 3,568 919 6,934
1974 ................ 1,739 458 2,200 290 5,159 1,881 11,727
1975................ 2,428 537 804 405 5,324 2,589 12,087
1976 ................ 961 54 3,287 585 7,064 2,817 14,768
1977 ................ 1,099 116 7,172 456 7,088 3,665 19,596
1978 ................ 1,145 115 7,652 1,475 8,749 6,297 25,433
1979 ................ 1,342 206 6,306 1,457 12,110 8,089 29,510

Denotes not available, unknown, or not applicable.
I Not separately classified.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Census, Department of Commerce.

April 1980 Commodity Programs, FAS, USDA









Table 32.-Fruits and Vegetables: Value of US. Imports (for consumption) from Mexico, 1965-1979
(In $1,000)


Fruits and Preparations (Including melons) Vegetables & Preparations
Total
Year Fresh Processed Fruits and
it i Total Fresh Processed Total' Vegs.
Fruits Melons Total Fruit oilts Other Total
juices oil

1965 . . . ... 6,147 8,958 15,105 744 3,789 12,113 16,646 31,751 40,259 1,531 41,790 73,541

1966 . . . . 6,568 7,436 14,004 271 4,018 20,443 24,732 38,736 66,809 2,239 69,048 107,784

1967 . . . . 8,503 7595 16,098 230 5,813 14,572 20,615 36,713 59,962 2,921 62,883 99,596

1968 . . . ... 13,730 6,367 20,097 659 5,682 16,979 23,320 43,417 67,989 1,971 69,960 113,377

1969 . . . ... 12,878 9,048 21,926 302 2,322 19,625 22,249 44,175 100,589 3,265 103,854 148,029

1970 ............... 16,119 11,309 27,428 319 3,445 18,835 22,599 50,027 136,861 3,952 140,813 190,840

1971 . . . ... 15,808 12,222 28,030 647 2,841 16,038 19,526 47,556 127,579 4,960 132,539 180,095

1972 ............... 16,163 12,957 29,120 2,724 4,151 18,175 25,050 54,170 135,617 5,897 141,514 195,684

1973 ............... 18,818 16,095 34,913 3,777 4,440 29,789 38,006 72,919 176,095 6,934 183,029 255,948

1974 ............... 20,240 18,193 38,433 3,446 6,138 33,259 42,843 81,276 106,528 11,727 118,255 199,531

1975 ............... 19,236 20,026 39,262 2,145 5,540 28,915 36,600 75,862 103,361 12,087 115,448 191,310

1976 ............... 21,936 23,526 45,462 983 3,899 24,940 29,822 75,284 122,094 14,768 136,862 212,146

1977 ............... 28,523 30,015 58,538 9,721 7,597 39,541 56,859 115,397 232,230 19,596 251,826 367,223

1978 ............... 36,834 32,578 69,412 12,164 9,476 38,317 59,957 129,369 298,227 25,433 323,660 453,029

1979 ............... 40,295 36,256 76,551 11,508 14,743 49,309 75,560 152,111 307,067 29,510 336,577 488,688

1 Excludes dried beans and peas.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Census, Department of Commerce.


April 1980


Commodity Programs, FAS, USDA










Table 33.-Mexico Truck Imports Through South Texas, Port of Entry, 1975/76-1978-791
(Pounds)


Commodity 1975/76 1976/77 1977/78 1978/79


Asparagus ............................... 870,000 930,000 720,000 720,000
Bananas .............................. 4,720,000 21,200,000 18,480,000 2,544,000
Beans, green ................. ....... ... 810,000 2,940,000 1,590,000 360,000
Broccoli ............................ 161,000 1,495,000 92,000
Cabbage ............................ 25,450,000 3,650,000 7,300,000
Cantaloupes . . . ..... ........ 78,920,000 78,920,000 96,440,000 132,840,000
Carrots . . . . . . ... 12,336,000 16,320,000 14,832,000 6,576,000
Cauliflower ......................... 66,000 22,000 1,892,000 1,562,000
Coconuts ................. .......... 2,150,000 1,700,000 920,000 1,360,000
Cucumbers ................. .......... 19,085,000 13,475,000 21,065,000 17,820,000
Eggplant ............................ 33,000 -
Garlic ...... ........... ............. 5,720,000 6,094,000 7,678,000 21,098,000
Honeydews ............................. 7,800,000 12,960,000 16,020,000 33,540,000
Mangoes ................. .......... 2,618,000 2,198,000 3,752,000 8,918,000
Melons, mixed ......................... 1,860,000 630,000 -
Okra ................. .. .......... 12,840,000 11,880,000 17,520,000 17,520,000
Onions, dry ................. ......... 77,050,000 103,050,000 112,800,000 98,850,000
Papayas .............. .. ............ 10,000 -
Parsley ............................. 21,000 -
Peas, So ............................ 832,000 3,094,000 5,798,000 2,990,000
Peppers ............................ 7,900 12,240,000 6,575,000 5,225,000
Others ................ ........... 4,140,000
Pineapples ........................... 65,640,000 80,200,000 85,240,000 87,960,000
Squash ..... ............ ............ .. 5,334,000 7,938,000 10,374,000 6,342,000
Strawberries ................. ......... 13,356,000 19,200,000 23,160,000 29,616,000
Tomatoes ................. ........... 11,640,000 53,100,000 28,830,000 5,700,000
Cherry ............................ 22,920,000
Turnips .......................... .. 150,000 -
Watermelons ................. ......... 98,430,000 78,404,000 106,148,000 116,484,000
Grapefruit ................. .......... ..56,000 11,360,000 5,080,000 4,920,000
Limes ................. ............ 7,240,000 10,880,000 19,080,000 19,080,000
Oranges ............................ 8,643,000 31,261,000 23,994,000 43,946,000
Tangerines . . . .... . ... 39,690,000 66,375,000 38,925,000 43,830,000

Denotes not available, unknown, or not applicable.
1 Period covered: September 1-June 30.
Source: Plant Quarantine, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS), U.S. Department of Agriculture.

April 1980 Commodity Programs, FAS, USDA









Table 34.-Mexico Rail and Truck Imports Through Nogales, Arizona, Port of Entry 1974/75-1978/791
(Pounds)


Commodities 1974/75 1975/76 1976/77 1977/78 1978/79

Asparagus ............. ....... 267,908 75,463 55,054
Beans, green ................. 9,913,294 11,790,141 14,416,447 20,387,615 25,880,459
Brussel sprouts ............... 705,542 435,449 288,394 80,921
Cucumbers .................. 103,580,297 162,609,172 192,206,405 231,613,361 239,509,112
Corn, sweet. . . . 105,532 75,119 135,045 110,164 72,927
Eggplant. . . . 27,740,728 38,769,527 33,717,799 40,975,266 39,438,073
Garlic ................. .. 2,037,718 1,087,732 915,420 2,793,610 8,428,350
Grapes, table ................ 4,016,074 8,959,684 9,987,512 10,141,407 19,758,299
Limes .................... ... 8,544 39,877 66,217 43,398
Mangoes ................. .... 2,864,486 2,603,879 3,306,203 8,558,539 10,075,548
Melons, all
Cantaloupes & mixed types. ..... 265,195,963 2 56,431,263 295,326,501 2 94,319,956 5,142,818
Onions, dry . . . ..... 836,215 584,723 110,785 1,168,030 267,483
Oranges ................... 74,866 710,630
Peas, green ................ .... 5,496,089 9,021,095 6,528,131 6,643,196 5,885,490
Peppers
Calwndr type ............ .. 41,962,187 66,163,300 90,980,342 121,219,691 111,559,217
Other types ............ ... 7,505,294 12,180,313 10,507,466 14,781,378 11,201,576
Combined total . . ..... 49,467,481 78,343,613 101,487,808 136,001,069 122,760,793
Squash ................ ... 38,642,635 45,928,984 58,660,345 70,901,824 86,310,825
Strawberries ................. 815,668 403,684 588,804 443,254 667,450
Tomatoes
Green, breakers & ripers ....... 506,412,400 558,784,873 669,267,308 693,774,063 625,721,019
Cherry type ............. .. 58,855,583 56,221,640 63,346,121 75,745,725 49,179,923

Total ................. 565,267,983 615,006,513 732,613,429 769,519,788 674,900,942

Watermelons ................. 60,164,564 81,543,324 80,905,971 77,362,199 86,215,763

Denotes not available, unknown, or not applicable.
1 Period covered: July 1-June 30. 2 Includes cantaloupes.

Source: Plant Quarantine, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS), U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA).


Commodity Programs, FAS, USDA


April 1980










Table 35.-Tomatoes: US. Imports by Principal Ports of Entry, 1960-78


Fiscalyear Nogales, Calexico, San Diego, Brownsville, Hidalgo, Laredo, Total3
Fiscal yearArizona California California2 Texas Texas Texas


---------------- -Metric Tons ----------------
1960 . ... 91,511 41 2,550 5,744 2,872 10,251 112,969
1961 .......... 67,046 239 2,009 7,500 1,078 3,767 81,639
1962 .......... 97,443 126 2,573 3,117 959 2,651 106,869
1963 .......... 103,414 11 928 4,110 1,238 4,900 114,601
1964 .......... 109,989 387 587 2,529 2,076 3,405 118,973

1965 .......... 122,114 1,912 967 951 2,218 1,902 130,064
1966 .......... 174,907 1,492 1,112 973 802 2,841 182,127
1967 ........... 194,375 322 3,205 1,582 1,678 5,585 206,747
1968 ........... 178,774 180 3,575 963 1,474 2,486 187,452
1969 . ... 235,252 245 2,841 1,328 3,646 6,150 249,462

1970 .......... 298,175 100 3,751 3,287 5,791 7,515 318,619
1971 .......... 262,858 347 6,172 4,736 6,360 9,079 289,552
1972 .......... 259,470 877 7,164 3,167 6,866 10,196 287,740
1973 .......... 308,718 532 10,004 2,605 7,304 10,492 339,655
1974 .......... 249,203 1,030 12,463 1,247 7,112 8,956 280,011

1975 .......... 250,604 353 11,652 147 7,912 5,027 275,695
1976 .......... 233,484 880 15,684 95 5,367 2,027 257,537
1977 .......... 332,335 1,130 28,815 764 12,698 8,371 384,113
1978 . .... 348,966 637 35,184 215 13,308 2,722 401,032


Note: This data may include Transshipments to Canada.

I July-June through 1976. October-September year beginning in 1977.
3 Total does not include all U.S. Ports of Entry.


2 Includes entries labeled San Ysidro.


Source: Foreign Agricultural Trade of the United States (FATUS) Imports under plant quarantine regulations, Plant Protec-
tion and Quarantine, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, (PPQ-APHIS), USDA.

January 1980 Commodity Programs, FAS, USDA









Table 36.-U.S. Imports of Fresh Tomatoes from Mexico, 1960/61-1978/79

Quantity (1,000 pounds) Percentage of total
Season Fall Winter Spring Summer Total Fall Winter Spring Summer
Oct-Dec Jan-Mar Apr-Jun Jul-Sep Oct-Dec Jan-Mar Apr-Jun Jul-Sep


1960/61 .. 32,988 105,839 40,537 3,097 182,461 18.1 58.0 22.2 1.7
1961/62 ...... 6,596 139,498 83,361 642 230,097 2.9 60.6 36.2 0.2
1962/63 .. 9,717 150,856 74,897 446 235,916 4.1 64.0 31.7 0.2
1963/64 . 13,765 136,847 97,215 1,389 249,216 5.5 54.9 39.0 0.6
1964/65 ...... 10,671 139,341 107,471 1,026 258,509 4.1 53.9 41.6 0.3

1965/66 ...... 17,622 179,987 140,051 2,398 340,058 5.2 52.9 41.2 0.7
1966/67 ...... 36,306 190,801 150,722 8,277 386,106 9.4 49.4 39.0 2.1
1967/68 ... 12,555 186,971 151,984 7,510 359,020 3.5 52.1 42.3 2.1
1968/69 .. 40,936 235,498 179,864 5,020 461,318 8.9 51.0 39.0 1.1
1969/70 . 25,857 304,881 288,344 7,747 626,829 4.1 48.7 46.0 1.2

1970/71 . 40,044 266,864 264,789 8,586 580,283 6.9 46.0 45.6 1.5
1971/72 ... 30,049 273,211 267,328 6,582 577,170 5.2 47.3 46.3 1.1
1972/73 .. 35,164 301,088 392,170 16,724 745,146 4.7 40.4 52.6 2.2
1973/74 ... 39,140 304,389 245,172 10,546 599,247 6.5 50.8 40.9 1.8
1974/75 ... 30,494 192,549 302,935 31,563 557,541 5.5 34.5 54.3 5.7

1975/76 32,047 290,890 270,054 24,857 617,848 5.2 47.1 43.7 4.0
1976/77 . 62,783 339,896 357,435 21,602 781,716 8.0 43.5 45.7 2.8
1977/78 ... 66,458 436,898 299,554 29,487 832,397 8.0 52.5 36.0 3.5
1978/79 .. 48,182 346,078 283,672 35,363 713,295 6.7 48.5 39.8 5.0

Source: Dept. of Commerce, Bureau of Census.


Commodity Programs, FAS, USDA


January 1980










Table 37.-Fresh Tomatoes: U.S. shipments and market shares by seasonal groups, California, Florida, and Mexico,
November-May, 1974/75-1979/80


Fall: Nov.-Dec.

1974 ........
1975 ........
1976 ........
1977 . .
1978 ........
19794 . .

Winter: Jan.-March

1975 . .
1976 ........
1977 ... .....
1978 . .
19794 ........
19804 ........

Spring: April-May

1975 . .
1976 . .
1977 . .
1978 ........
19794 . ..


Combined seasons

1974/75 . .
1975/76 . .
1976/77 . .
1977/78 . .
1978/794 ......


- --- -1,000 cwt. --------


759 1,658 260
806 1,663 254
575 2,179 497
810 1,935 429
660 2,573 333
610 2,482 371



22 2,716 1,926
32 2,435 2,909
51 991 3,399
7 1,945 4,370
10 2,220 3,461
17 3,268 -



13 2,542 2,232
38 3,143 1,227
71 2,408 3,054
106 2,408 2,626
77 3,233 2,515


794 6,916 4,418
876 7,241 4,390
697 5578 6,950
923 6,288 7,425
727 8,026 6,309


- ----- Percent ----------


91 2,768 27.4 59.9 9.4 3.3 100.0
102 2,825 28.5 58.9 9.0 3.6 100.0
29 3,280 17.5 66.4 15.2 .9 100.0
12 3,186 25.4 60.7 13.5 .4 100.0
13 3,579 18.4 71.9 9.3 .4 100.0
45 3,508 17.4 70.8 10.6 1.2 100.0



54 4,718 .5 57.6 40.8 1.1 100.0
30 5,406 .6 45.0 53.8 .6 100.0
36 4,477 1.1 22.1 75.9 .9 100.0
14 6,336 .1 30.7 69.0 .2 100.0
12 5,703 .2 38.9 60.7 .2 100.0




145 4,932 .3 51.5 45.3 2.9 100.0
131 4,539 .8 69.3 27.0 2.9 100.0
128 5,661 1.3 42.5 53.9 2.3 100.0
68 5,208 2.0 46.2 50.4 1.4 100.0
57 5,882 1.3 55.0 42.7 1.0 100.0




290 12,418 6.4 55.7 35.6 2.3 100.0
263 12,770 6.9 56.7 34.4 2.0 100.0
193 13,418 5.2 41.6 51.8 1.4 100.0
94 14,730 6.3 42.7 50.4 .6 100.0
82 15,144 4.8 53.0 41.7 .5 100.0


Denotes not available, unknown, or not applicable.
SIncluding imports. 2 Percentage of total U.S. shipments, including imports. 3 Includes other States and foreign
countries. 4 Preliminary.

Source: Data compiled by Vegetable Branch, F & V Div., AMS from annual reports of the Market News Branch, F & V Div.,
AMS.


April 1980


Commodity Programs, FAS, USDA










Table 38.-Fresh Green Peppers: U.S. Shipments and Market Shares by Seasonal Groups, Florida and Mexico,
November-May, 1974/75-1979/80


Fall: Nov.-Dec.

1974 . .
1975 . .
1976 . .
1977 . .
1978 . .
19794 . .

Winter: Jan.-March

1975 ......
1976 ......
1977 ......
1978 ......
19794 .....
19804 . .

Spring: April-May

1975 ......
1976 ......
1977 ......
1978 ......
19794 . .


Combined seasons

1974/75 .
1975/76 ....
1976/77 .
1977/78. ..
1978/79 .


- ---- 1,000 cwt. -------


2,020
1,791
1,627
1,661
1,648


442
669
875
1,255
1,276


-------- Percent----------


270 676 55.8 4.3 39.9 100.0
244 638 56.3 5.5 38.2 100.0
223 734 62.3 7.4 30.3 100.0
317 906 57.4 7.6 35.0 100.0
337 870 42.8 18.5 38.7 100.0
416 799 31.4 16.5 52.1 100.0



19 1,124 73.1 25.2 1.7 100.0
21 1,167 54.2 44.0 1.8 100.0
34 944 31.4 65.0 3.6 100.0
44 1,530 37.0 60.1 2.9 100.0
41 1,465 43.3 53.9 2.8 100.0




104 1,055 77.8 12.3 9.9 100.0
164 1,084 73.7 11.2 15.1 100.0
86 1,167 74.9 17.7 7.4 100.0
73 914 62.9 29.1 8.0 100.0
85 1,052 61.0 30.9 8.1 100.0




393 2,855 70.8 15.5 13.7 100.0
429 2,889 62.0 23.2 14.8 100.0
343 2,845 57.2 30.8 12.0 100.0
434 3,350 49.6 37.5 12.9 100.0
463 3,387 48.7 37.7 13.6 100.0


Denotes not available, unknown, or not applicable.
Including imports. 2Percentage of total U.S. shipments, including imports.
tries. 4 Preliminary.


3 Includes other States and foreign coun-


Source: Data compiled by Vegetable Branch, F & V Div., AMS from annual reports of the Market News Branch, F & V Div.,
AMS

April 1980 Commodity Programs, FAS, USDA










Table 39.-Fresh Cucumbers: U.S. Shipments and Market Shares by Seasonal Groups, Florida, Texas, and Mexico,
November-May 1974/75-1979/80


Fall: Nov.-Dec.

1974 . . .
1975 . . .
1976 . . .
1977 .........
1978 . . .
19794 .........

Winter: Jan.-March

1975 .........
1976 . . .
1977 . . .
1978 .........
19794 .........
19804 .........

Spring: April-May

1975 . . .
1976 . . .
1977 .........
1978 . . .
19794 .........


Combined seasons

1974/75 .......
1975/76 .......
1976/77 .......
1977/78 .......
1978/794. ......


------ -1,000 cwt,--------- -------- Percent ---------


637 107 132 18 894 71.3 12.0 14.8 1.9 100.0
511 87 182 29 809 63.2 10.8 22.5 3.5 100.0
507 106 526 33 1,172 43.3 9.0 44.9 2.8 100.0
641 206 466 68 1,381 46.4 14.9 33.7 5.0 100.0
846 146 526 46 1,564 54.1 9.3 33.6 3.0 100.0
516 176 562 44 1,298 39.8 13.6 43.3 3.3 100.0



275 2 805 73 1,155 23.8 .2 69.7 6.3 100.0
243 1,542 142 1,927 12.6 80.0 7.4 100.0
127 2 1,617 105 1,851 6.9 .1 87.3 5.7 100.0
141 10 1,858 95 2,104 6.7 .5 88.3 4.5 100.0
214 1,844 128 2,186 9.8 84.4 5.8 100.0
191 -


955
1,240
1,188
1,054
998


1,867
1,994
1,822
1,836
2,058


144 275 77 1,451 65.8 9.9 19.0
127 244 129 1,740 71.3 7.3 14.0
279 425 219 2,111 56.3 13.2 20.1
222 442 96 1,814 58.1 12.2 24.4
242 550 150 1.940 51.4 12.5 28.4


100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0


253 1,212 168 3,500 53.3 7.2 34.6
214 1,968 300 4,476 44.5 4.8 44.0
387 2,568 357 5,134 35.5 7.5 50.0
438 2,766 259 5,299 34.6 8.3 52.2
388 2,920 324 5,690 36.2 6.8 51.3


100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0


Denotes not available, unknown, or not applicable.
SIncluding imports. 2 Percentage of total U.S. shipments, including imports. 3 Includes other States and foreign coun-
tries. 4 Preliminary.

Source: Data compiled by Vegetable Branch, F & V Div., AMS from annual reports of the Market News Branch, F & V Div.,
AMS.


April 1980


Commodity Programs, FAS, USDA









Table 40.-Fresh Eggplant: Unloads in 41 US. cities and market shares by seasonal groups, Florida and Mexico,
November-May, 1974/75-1979/80

41 US. city unloads1 Market shares2
Season and year
Florida Mexico Other3 Total Florida Mexico Other Total


- 1,000cwt. ---- -Percent- - -
Fall: Nov.-Dec.

1974 ........... 81 32 16 129 62.8 24.8 12.4 100.0
1975 ............. 91 54 20 165 55.2 32.7 12.1 100.0
1976 ............. 87 40 21 148 58.8 27.0 14.2 100.0
1977 ............ 103 44 22 169 61.0 26.0 13.0 100.0
1978 ............. 84 35 20 139 60.4 25.2 14.4 100.0
19794 ........... .. 78 50 23 151 51.7 33.1 15.2 100.0

Winter: Jan.-March

1975 .......... ... 95 125 1 221 42.9 56.6 5 100.0
1976 .......... ... 75 162 1 238 31.5 68.1 .4 100.0
1977 ............. .36 160 196 18.4 81.6 100.0
1978 .......... ... 59 175 234 25.2 74.8 100.0
19794 ............ 77 146 4 227 33.9 64.3 1.8 100.0
19804 ............ .. 87 166 3 256 34.0 64.8 1.2 100.0

Spring: April-May

1975 ............. 112 57 1 170 65.9 33.5 .6 100.0
1976 .......... ... 100 59 1 160 62.5 36.9 .6 100.0
1977 ............. 85 70 1 156 54.5 44.9 .6 100.0
1978 ............. 56 87 4 147 38.1 59.2 2.7 100.0
19794 ............. 59 70 4 133 44.4 52.6 3.0 100.0

Combined seasons

1974/75 . . ... 288 214 18 520 55.4 41.1 3.5 100.0
1975/76 ......... .. 266 275 22 563 47.2 48.9 3.9 100.0
1976/77 ........... .. 208 270 22 500 41.6 54.0 4.4 100.0
1977/78 ......... 218 306 26 550 39.6 55.7 4.7 100.0
1978/79........... 220 251 28 499 44.1 50.3 5.6 100.0
1979/804........... -


Denotes not available, unknown, or not applicable.
Including imports. 2 Percentage of total unloads, including imports, in 41 US. cities.
and foreign countries. 4Preliminary.


3 Includes other States


Source: Data compiled by Vegetable Branch, F & V Div., AMS from annual reports of the Market News Branch, F & V Div.,
AMS.


Commodity Programs, FAS, USDA


April 1980









Table 41.-Fresh Squash: Unloads in 41 U.S. cities and market shares by seasonal groups, California, Florida, and Mexico,
November-May, 1974/75-1979/80

41 U.S. city unloads' Market shares2
Seasonand year Florida Mexico Other Total Florida Mexico Other3 Total


--- ---- ---1,000 cwt. - -- -- Percent----------
Fall: Nov.-Dec.

1974 ......... 93 119 26 134 372 25.0 32.0 7.0 36.0 100.0
1975 ......... 99 105 48 146 398 24.9 26.4 12.1 36.6 100.0
1976 ......... 107 132 64 126 429 24.9 30.8 14.9 29.4 100.0
1977 ......... 99 124 86 158 467 21.2 26.6 18.4 33.8 100.0
1978 .. ..... 94 148 90 124 456 20.6 32.5 19.7 27.2 100.0
19794 ......... 89 114 68 124 395 22.5 28.9 17.2 31.4 100.0

Winter: Jan.-March

1975 ......... 35 172 197 68 472 7.4 36.4 41.7 145 100.0
1976 ........ 49 136 256 67 508 9.6 26.8 50.4 13.2 100.0
1977 ........ 57 98 292 60 507 11.2 19.3 57.6 11.9 100.0
1978 ......... 75 90 342 68 575 13.0 15.7 59.5 11. 100.0
19794 ......... 67 154 411 74 706 9.5 21.8 58.2 105 100.0
19804 ........ 40 176 313 53 582 6.9 30.2 53.8 9.1 100.0

Spring: April-May

1975 ........ 77 164 29 73 343 22.4 47.8 8.5 21.3 100.0
1976 ........ 92 180 28 93 393 23.4 45.8 7.1 23.7 100.0
1977 ......... 110 192 51 93 446 24.7 43.0 11.4 20.9 100.0
1978 ...... 137 175 38 94 444 30.9 39.4 8.6 21.1 100.0
19794 ........ 217 173 77 106 573 37.9 30.2 13.4 18.5 100.0
1980 .......

Combined seasons

1974/75 ....... 205 455 252 275 1,187 17.3 38.3 21.2 23.2 100.0
1975/76 ....... 240 421 332 306 1,299 18.5 32.4 25.6 235 100.0
1976/77 ... .... 274 422 407 279 1,382 19.8 305 295 20.2 100.0
1977/78 ...... .. 311 389 466 320 1,486 20.9 26.2 31.4 21.5 100.0
1978/79 ....... 378 475 578 304 1,735 21.8 27.4 33.3 175 100.0

1 Ti.:--t 2 *,,.In. ;irino as il imnnrts in 41 _US. cities. Includes other


Includillng iUports.
States and foreign countries.


ercenagll e v vIU 1" uluuge o I .r --
4 Preliminary.


Source: Data compiled by Vegetable Branch, F & V Div., AMS from annual reports of the Market News Branch, F & V Div.,
AMS.


Commodity Programs, FAS, USDA


April 1980












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