• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Copyright
 Front Cover
 Purpose
 Income opportunities from forest...
 Getting started in timber
 What trees to grow
 Site preparation
 Planting forest trees
 Tending your forest
 Measuring and selling your...
 Selected readings
 Timber sale contract
 Back Cover






Group Title: Circular ;, 447
Title: Forest management for small ownerships
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE PAGE TEXT
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00055249/00001
 Material Information
Title: Forest management for small ownerships
Series Title: Circular Florida Cooperative Extension Service
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Creator: Fisher, R. F
Jensen, A. S
Post, D. M
Publisher: Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: [1979]
 Subjects
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Funding: Circular (Florida Cooperative Extension Service) ;
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00055249
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 001735600
notis - AJE8286

Table of Contents
    Copyright
        Copyright
    Front Cover
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Purpose
        Page 3
    Income opportunities from forest lands
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
    Getting started in timber
        Page 7
        Planning
            Page 8
        Tree planting
            Page 8
        Marketing the trees
            Page 8
        Sources of advice
            Page 8
    What trees to grow
        Page 9
        Hardwoods
            Page 10
        Pines
            Page 11
    Site preparation
        Page 12
        Prescribed fire
            Page 13
        Chemicals
            Page 13
        Mechanical
            Page 14
            Page 15
    Planting forest trees
        Page 16
        Seedling availability and care
            Page 17
        Planting the seedlings
            Page 17
        Planting methods for pine
            Page 18
        Planting hardwoods
            Page 19
        Care of planted seedlings
            Page 20
        Government assistance
            Page 20
    Tending your forest
        Page 20
        Silvicultural systems
            Page 21
            Page 22
        Care of the forest
            Page 23
    Measuring and selling your timber
        Page 24
        Individual tree yield
            Page 25
            Page 26
            Page 27
        Timber stand yield
            Page 28
        Selling the timber
            Page 29
        Assistance
            Page 29
    Selected readings
        Page 30
        Page 31
    Timber sale contract
        Page 32
        Page 33
    Back Cover
        Page 34
        Page 35
Full Text





HISTORIC NOTE


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
(EDIS)

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.






Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida





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FOREST MANAGEMENT FOR SMALL OWNERSHIPS


R. F. Fisher, A. S. Jensen, D. M. Post,
D. L. Rockwood, W. H. Smith, E. T. Sullivan



PURPOSE

This circular is intended to provide basic information about the protection
and management of Florida forests and small woodlands. It also lists sources
of additional information and assistance.
It is not intended to serve as a complete reference manual on managing
the small woodland. It does not attempt to answer all management questions.
Rather, its purpose is to expose the reader to some basic issues and problems
which should be considered before starting to grow trees. The emphasis of
this publication will be on pine management.
Many common forest management practices are similar on woodlands of
the same type, yet each tract of land is different; each landowner is different.
A forest management plan or program should be developed on the ground,
ordinarily with the help of a registered forester.
Only in rare cases would a good forest management plan result from using
the information in this bulletin alone.

INCOME OPPORTUNITIES FROM FOREST LANDS
Many people own land that could be used to grow trees. Many of them do
not use this land for anything, not even to grow trees. They don't want to
spend their spare money to grow trees, because they think growing trees may
not pay although they are not sure how much they can get growing trees.
Instead, they put their money in the bank where they may get 6 or 7 percent
interest on their savings.
You may own land and you may be thinking about growing trees on it.
How much does it cost to grow trees? You may spend $35 an acre to prepare
the ground and another $15 per acre to plant the trees. You pay property
taxes on the land whether you 'use it or not. You probably would have to
plow fire lines each year which, with other expenses, may amount to $1.50
an acre a year.
If, instead of using your money to grow an acre of trees, you put it in a
bank, you would deposit $80 (this is $35 to prepare the ground, $15 to plant
the trees, and $1.50 a year for 20 years for other expenses). If the bank then










FOREST MANAGEMENT FOR SMALL OWNERSHIPS


R. F. Fisher, A. S. Jensen, D. M. Post,
D. L. Rockwood, W. H. Smith, E. T. Sullivan



PURPOSE

This circular is intended to provide basic information about the protection
and management of Florida forests and small woodlands. It also lists sources
of additional information and assistance.
It is not intended to serve as a complete reference manual on managing
the small woodland. It does not attempt to answer all management questions.
Rather, its purpose is to expose the reader to some basic issues and problems
which should be considered before starting to grow trees. The emphasis of
this publication will be on pine management.
Many common forest management practices are similar on woodlands of
the same type, yet each tract of land is different; each landowner is different.
A forest management plan or program should be developed on the ground,
ordinarily with the help of a registered forester.
Only in rare cases would a good forest management plan result from using
the information in this bulletin alone.

INCOME OPPORTUNITIES FROM FOREST LANDS
Many people own land that could be used to grow trees. Many of them do
not use this land for anything, not even to grow trees. They don't want to
spend their spare money to grow trees, because they think growing trees may
not pay although they are not sure how much they can get growing trees.
Instead, they put their money in the bank where they may get 6 or 7 percent
interest on their savings.
You may own land and you may be thinking about growing trees on it.
How much does it cost to grow trees? You may spend $35 an acre to prepare
the ground and another $15 per acre to plant the trees. You pay property
taxes on the land whether you 'use it or not. You probably would have to
plow fire lines each year which, with other expenses, may amount to $1.50
an acre a year.
If, instead of using your money to grow an acre of trees, you put it in a
bank, you would deposit $80 (this is $35 to prepare the ground, $15 to plant
the trees, and $1.50 a year for 20 years for other expenses). If the bank then










pays you 7 percent interest on your deposits and this interest is com-
pounded annually, you would add about $175 more to your account in 20
years. At the end of 20 years, you would have about $255 in your bank
account.
How much would you have if you used the same amounts of money to
grow trees that you put in the bank? While the amount of pulpwood you can
grow in 20 years depends on many things, a rough average would be 30 cords
an acre. Pulpwood now sells for about $20 per cord on the stump. At this
price you would have about $600 per acre in your tree "account" after 20
years. These figures may be seen in Table 1.

Table 1. Comparison of returns from alternative hypothetical investments.

Idle Timber
land Bank Growing
EXPENSES
Site Preparation $ 00.00 $ 35.00 $ 35.00
Tree Planting 00.00 15.00 15.00
Care of Trees 00.00 30.00 30.00
Total to bank or forestry 00.00 80.00 80.00
To tax collector* 20.00 20.00 20.00
Total Expenses $ 20.00 $ 100.00 $ 100.00

INCOMES
Principal $ 00.00 $ 80.00 $ 00.00
Interest at 7 percent 00.00 174.98 00.00
Timber Sale 00.00 00.00 600.00
Total Income $ 00.00 $ 254.98 $ 600.00

NET INCOME (EXPENSE) $ (20.00) $ 154.98 $ 500.00

*Property taxes would be paid by the landowner under each alternative.


As you check Table 1, you will see that if you left the land idle, you
would still have to pay the property tax-a cost of $20 over 20 years. If you
put the money for growing timber in the bank instead, you get back about
$155 more than you deposit. But if you invest in growing trees, you get back
$345 more than you would if you banked the same amounts at the same
times instead of growing trees. In all three cases you still have the land after
20 years.











If you spend money on growing trees, you obviously want to get back
more than you spend. You want to get back at least as much as the bank pays
you when you spend your money to "buy" a bank account.
Incomes and costs for your land would probably be different from those
used above (18)*. However, you can get a rough idea of what costs plus
interest would be by using Figure 1 and Figure 2.


( I+i)n
I= %/100


a :
- 5
_I
_J
o -&.- 5


oo- 2 4


-/00- 3


50- I


0 5 10 15 20

YEARS (an)


Figure 1. Initial costs of site preparation and planting


*Numbers in parentheses refer to publications listed in the Selected Readings section
at the end of this paper.











Use Figure 1 to check costs for site preparation and planting, which occur
only at the beginning of your operation. In the example given these costs
came to $50 (35 + 15 = 50). Multiply the numbers in the vertical scale (1-11)
by 50 and write the products in. This is done in the figure. Then come up
from 20 years to the 7 percent line and over to the vertical scale; read 194 on
the vertical scale.
Use Figure 2 for the costs that are the same each year. In the example
already given, annual costs are $1.50. Multiply 1.50 by the numbers on the
vertical scale. Write the products in as shown in Figure 2. Then come straight
up from 20 years to the 7 percent line and over to the vertical scale; read
61.50 on the vertical scale.


Figure 2. Constant annual costs










Then 194.00 from Figure 1 plus 61.50 from Figure 2 equals $255.50
which is just about the same* as the total principal and interest of $254.98 in
Table 1.
Better quality land might produce 47 cords at age 24; at $20 a cord the
income would be $940. With a $60 total site preparation and planting cost
and annual costs of $3, costs plus interest of 6 percent (read off Figures 1 and
2) amount to $395. The net for timber production would be $784 as com-
pared with a net of $239 from the bank.
All these figures are before consideration of Federal income taxes. The
effects of the income-tax will vary with the individual, and you should
consider them in appraising the potential of an investment in timber pro-
duction.
Keep in mind that growing timber is not a sure thing. It is riskier than an
insured savings account. Dry weather can kill your seedlings. Insects or fire
or disease can kill your timber before you get a chance to sell it.
Growing timber has some advantages over other investments. Timber
prices have been going up steadily in recent years, a fact which may make
timber look even better to you. Seedlings usually don't need much care after
planting. And another fact about growing and selling trees is that you may
not have to pay as much income tax on the income from selling the trees as
you have to pay on the interest you get from the bank (14). This, of course,
varies since income taxes have to be figured for your own case. Finally, the
Federal government may assist you financially to carry out certain practices.
There is more to timber growing than making money. Many people just
like to look at a grove of trees. Trees protect the soil from erosion. They can
provide a recreation area for people interested in nature or nature study.
Trees may help to reduce air pollution. The forest can be handled so as to
improve conditions for wildlife (5) or cattle (6).

GETTING STARTED IN TIMBER

On the basis of the ideas that have just been presented, you may decide
that you are interested in growing trees-in practicing forestry-on your
land. But before you get started, you should get a better idea of what is
involved. You should take a good look at the process from start to finish.
Growing timber has four major steps: planning, site preparation and tree
planting, growing and caring for your trees, and marketing the trees. Planning
should always come first.




*Tables of compound interest would give more accurate results than the figures.











Planning
Ask yourself, is growing timber the best use I can make of my land? Will I
get more back from it than I spend on it? You have already seen how these
questions can be answered. Now answer these additional questions before you
start. Can I get the information I need to do the job right? What kind of trees
should I grow? Should I grow pulpwood or sawtimber or both? What records
should I keep for income tax purposes? Can I get any financial help from
government? Can I get any help in planning the job?

Tree Planting
At this step ask yourself several questions. Do I have to plant trees; should
I keep growing the trees I have now? Do I have to prepare the land before I
plant the young trees? Where do I get the young trees (the seedlings) for
planting? How do I plant the seedlings? Should I fertilize the seedlings?

Growing the Trees
Major considerations at this step are; how do I protect the trees from fire?
How do I know if the trees are healthy? How do I care for the growing trees?

Marketing the Trees
One of the most important parts of growing trees comes when they are
ready to sell. How do I know when they are ready to sell? What kind of trees
do I have to sell? A few of the trees on each acre may make utility poles. If
they are sold as poles, they may be worth more than if they are sold for
sawtimber or pulpwood.
How much timber do I have to sell? What kind of sale contract should I
use? How should I advertise my timber for sale? How do I get the best
income tax treatment on the sale? After I sell my trees, should I replant?

Sources of Advice
You will probably need help in answering these questions. There are several
different places to look for it.
In county government, you can call the County Agent or the County
Forester. You may also have a U. S. Soil Conservation Service office in your
county.
The Florida Division of Forestry, in Tallahassee, may be useful to you.
The School of Forest Resources and Conservation at the University of Florida
has specialists in many areas of tree growing. Here is a list of possible sources
of help to you:*

*From time to time in this publication we shall suggest that you consult a forester.
The choice of the type of forester you consult is yours.











Planning
Ask yourself, is growing timber the best use I can make of my land? Will I
get more back from it than I spend on it? You have already seen how these
questions can be answered. Now answer these additional questions before you
start. Can I get the information I need to do the job right? What kind of trees
should I grow? Should I grow pulpwood or sawtimber or both? What records
should I keep for income tax purposes? Can I get any financial help from
government? Can I get any help in planning the job?

Tree Planting
At this step ask yourself several questions. Do I have to plant trees; should
I keep growing the trees I have now? Do I have to prepare the land before I
plant the young trees? Where do I get the young trees (the seedlings) for
planting? How do I plant the seedlings? Should I fertilize the seedlings?

Growing the Trees
Major considerations at this step are; how do I protect the trees from fire?
How do I know if the trees are healthy? How do I care for the growing trees?

Marketing the Trees
One of the most important parts of growing trees comes when they are
ready to sell. How do I know when they are ready to sell? What kind of trees
do I have to sell? A few of the trees on each acre may make utility poles. If
they are sold as poles, they may be worth more than if they are sold for
sawtimber or pulpwood.
How much timber do I have to sell? What kind of sale contract should I
use? How should I advertise my timber for sale? How do I get the best
income tax treatment on the sale? After I sell my trees, should I replant?

Sources of Advice
You will probably need help in answering these questions. There are several
different places to look for it.
In county government, you can call the County Agent or the County
Forester. You may also have a U. S. Soil Conservation Service office in your
county.
The Florida Division of Forestry, in Tallahassee, may be useful to you.
The School of Forest Resources and Conservation at the University of Florida
has specialists in many areas of tree growing. Here is a list of possible sources
of help to you:*

*From time to time in this publication we shall suggest that you consult a forester.
The choice of the type of forester you consult is yours.











Planning
Ask yourself, is growing timber the best use I can make of my land? Will I
get more back from it than I spend on it? You have already seen how these
questions can be answered. Now answer these additional questions before you
start. Can I get the information I need to do the job right? What kind of trees
should I grow? Should I grow pulpwood or sawtimber or both? What records
should I keep for income tax purposes? Can I get any financial help from
government? Can I get any help in planning the job?

Tree Planting
At this step ask yourself several questions. Do I have to plant trees; should
I keep growing the trees I have now? Do I have to prepare the land before I
plant the young trees? Where do I get the young trees (the seedlings) for
planting? How do I plant the seedlings? Should I fertilize the seedlings?

Growing the Trees
Major considerations at this step are; how do I protect the trees from fire?
How do I know if the trees are healthy? How do I care for the growing trees?

Marketing the Trees
One of the most important parts of growing trees comes when they are
ready to sell. How do I know when they are ready to sell? What kind of trees
do I have to sell? A few of the trees on each acre may make utility poles. If
they are sold as poles, they may be worth more than if they are sold for
sawtimber or pulpwood.
How much timber do I have to sell? What kind of sale contract should I
use? How should I advertise my timber for sale? How do I get the best
income tax treatment on the sale? After I sell my trees, should I replant?

Sources of Advice
You will probably need help in answering these questions. There are several
different places to look for it.
In county government, you can call the County Agent or the County
Forester. You may also have a U. S. Soil Conservation Service office in your
county.
The Florida Division of Forestry, in Tallahassee, may be useful to you.
The School of Forest Resources and Conservation at the University of Florida
has specialists in many areas of tree growing. Here is a list of possible sources
of help to you:*

*From time to time in this publication we shall suggest that you consult a forester.
The choice of the type of forester you consult is yours.











Planning
Ask yourself, is growing timber the best use I can make of my land? Will I
get more back from it than I spend on it? You have already seen how these
questions can be answered. Now answer these additional questions before you
start. Can I get the information I need to do the job right? What kind of trees
should I grow? Should I grow pulpwood or sawtimber or both? What records
should I keep for income tax purposes? Can I get any financial help from
government? Can I get any help in planning the job?

Tree Planting
At this step ask yourself several questions. Do I have to plant trees; should
I keep growing the trees I have now? Do I have to prepare the land before I
plant the young trees? Where do I get the young trees (the seedlings) for
planting? How do I plant the seedlings? Should I fertilize the seedlings?

Growing the Trees
Major considerations at this step are; how do I protect the trees from fire?
How do I know if the trees are healthy? How do I care for the growing trees?

Marketing the Trees
One of the most important parts of growing trees comes when they are
ready to sell. How do I know when they are ready to sell? What kind of trees
do I have to sell? A few of the trees on each acre may make utility poles. If
they are sold as poles, they may be worth more than if they are sold for
sawtimber or pulpwood.
How much timber do I have to sell? What kind of sale contract should I
use? How should I advertise my timber for sale? How do I get the best
income tax treatment on the sale? After I sell my trees, should I replant?

Sources of Advice
You will probably need help in answering these questions. There are several
different places to look for it.
In county government, you can call the County Agent or the County
Forester. You may also have a U. S. Soil Conservation Service office in your
county.
The Florida Division of Forestry, in Tallahassee, may be useful to you.
The School of Forest Resources and Conservation at the University of Florida
has specialists in many areas of tree growing. Here is a list of possible sources
of help to you:*

*From time to time in this publication we shall suggest that you consult a forester.
The choice of the type of forester you consult is yours.










COUNTY GOVERNMENT
1. County Agent (in telephone directory of county seat)
2. County Forester (in telephone directory of county seat)
STATE GOVERNMENT
1. School of Forest Resources and Conservation (University of Florida,
Gainesville, FL, 32611).
2. Florida Division of Forestry (Collins Building, Tallahassee, FL, 32304).
FEDERAL GOVERNMENT
1. U. S. Forest Service (State and Private Forestry, 1720 Peachtree Rd.,
N. W., Atlanta, GA, 30309).
2. Soil Conservation Service (in telephone directory, local or county seat).
3. Internal Revenue Service
4. Agricultural Stabilization & Conservation Service (in telephone direc-
tory of county seat).
PRIVATE FIRMS
1. Consulting foresters
2. Forest product manufacturers
3. Florida Foi stry Association

WHAT TREES TO GROW

One of the first things you will want to think about in making your plans
is the kind of trees to grow. Should you consider growing hardwoods such as
sycamore or red gum, or should you plan to grow one of the pines.




or.



.. @ , "










In Florida, there are choices among both hardwoods and pine trees.
Because of the diversity in soils and climate, more of the southern pines grow
in Florida than in other southern states. The low fertility generally charac-
terizing the sandy soils of the state limits the choices among hardwoods.
Hardwoods (23) generally require moist fertile soils. Many hardwood
stands now growing are in poor condition. Managing these stands shows
little promise. There are a few hardwood species that can be grown in plan-
tations established from seedlings obtainable from state nurseries.
The market for conifers, especially pines, is rather strong in most of the
state. Pines are especially suited to sandy soils that are either too wet or too
dry to be used for agriculture. Pine seedlings are readily available from
state nurseries. Procedures for growing pines in plantations from which the
trees have been removed are well established. Pines can be grown on land
formerly used for agricultural crops; they can be grown on land from which
the timber has been cut; and there is a pine species well adapted to nearly
every land type in Florida. Pine timber is used for many products-fence
posts, pulpwood, lumber, plywood, and poles are examples. For these reasons
pine is often the species chosen for planting.
Tree breeding programs now produce pine seedlings which grow faster and
are disease resistant (22). Fertilizers are used to increase pine growth rates. To
use these advances, the right species of pine must be chosen and the planting
area be properly prepared (2).

Hardwoods
Among hardwoods there are two groups to consider-the soft hardwoods
for the better soils and eucalyptus, introduced from Australia. Among the
native soft hardwoods the species to consider are listed below:
Sycamore: Grows well on fine-textured bottomland soils; established with
seedlings; good pulp species; weed control is useful.
Sweetgum: Grows well on loamy upland soils; established with seedlings;
used for veneer, pulp and lumber; weed control is helpful.











American sycamore. '. Sweetgum.









Eastern cottonwood: Grows well in moist but well-drained bottomlands;
can be regenerated best from cuttings which are available from state nurseries;
weed control is essential.
Tulip Poplar: Grows well on well-drained bottomland and loamy upland
soils; reforesting is usually with seedlings; weed control is desired.
Tupelo gum: Grows well in river swamps in soils occasionally flooded;
excellent timber, honey, and wildlife food tree; established with seedlings.
Eucalyptus: Has been grown successfully in plantations, mainly in south
Florida. There it grows rapidly, reaching pulpwood sizes in 7-10 years.
Recently, cold hardy selections have been identified that may extend the
range of this rapid-growing tree.



/ ^







Tulip poplar Tupelo gum
Eucalyptus camaldulensis appears to be the best species for south Florida
although grandis, robusta, and saligna also grow well. Soils subject to exces-
sive flooding should be avoided.
Eucalyptus viminalis is more cold tolerant than other species and shows
promise for north Florida.

Pines
All of the most used pines grow in Florida. In addition, sand pine, which is
native to Florida, offers another choice for timber growing. Pines that grow in
Florida but not in commercial stands include pond, spruce, and shortleaf
pine. The pine species to consider for growing in Florida are identified below.
Slash pine: Grows on the wetter sandy soils in Florida. Tree seedlings bred
for rapid, straight growth and fusiform rust resistance are now available in
quantities. Slash pine is especially suited to the flatwoods-land usually sup-
porting saw palmetto, gall berry, and wiregrass.
Longleaf pine: Grows well on drier land than slash pine. Its use has been
limited by difficulty in nursery production, planting, and delayed early
growth (grass stage). Research and development efforts promise to solve most










of these problems. Longleaf pine may now be grown successfully and should
regain its position of prominence.
Loblolly pine: Grows especially well on loamy soils that either occur in
drainages or lands suitable for agriculture. Abandoned crop lands that were
once producers of good field crops usually grow loblolly pine well.
Sand pine: Grows best on drought sandy soils that never get saturated
with water. Of the two races recognized, the Choctawhatchee race is usually
preferred over the Ocala race. A woodland dominated by turkey oak and
sparse longleaf pine will usually grow sand pine rapidly. Sand pine also shows
potential for Christmas trees as well as for conventional timber uses (21).














Longleaf pine. Loblolly pine. Slash pine.


Selecting a Species

Because trees require a long time to grow, the species to grow must be
selected carefully. Advice on the proper species for a site under consideration
is available. Government or private foresters can help you in answering your
questions.


SITE PREPARATION
Some form of site preparation is essential in establishing a stand of trees
on most lands whether you are planning to plant, direct seed or use some
form of natural regeneration (4). The primary reason for site preparation is
to reduce the competition of unwanted vegetation in order to increase
survival and growth rate of the desired trees.
There are many ways or combinations of ways by which a landowner can
accomplish these goals from a simple, cheap burn to a very expensive opera-










tion of shearing, raking, disking, and bedding. The landowner has many
options in between these two extremes that may fit his needs.
Planting of seedlings on clearcut lands is by far the most prevalent method
of stand regeneration. However, with the high cost of complete site prepara-
tion many landowners are looking at some form of natural regeneration.
In the early days natural regeneration was the only method available for
the regeneration of stands of trees. At that same time the only tool the
forester had for vegetation control and seedbed preparation was fire. Today
we have many tools that can be used in site preparation. A major problem
that the small woodland owner has today is finding an operator who will
site prepare small acreages at reasonable costs. This is due primarily to the
high cost of moving heavy machinery to these small holdings.
Successful establishment and growth of a stand of trees requires adequate
site preparation. Therefore, anyone planning to spend time and money on the
preparation of land for establishing tree seedlings should know something
about methods used and their advantages, disadvantages, limitations, costs,
and ecological contingencies.

Prescribed Fire
This is one of the simplest, time-proven, and versatile tools available to
land managers. There are eight and possibly more uses of prescribed fire in
the management of southern pine. They are:
1. Hazard reduction.
2. Control of undesirable species.
3. Wildlife habitat improvement.
4. Improved grazing.
5. Improved access, visibility.
6. Disease control.
7. Enhancement of appearance and aesthetics.
8. Site preparation for planting, seeding and natural regeneration.
Many times two or more of these results can be accomplished at the same
time. Although fire is a very effective, inexpensive land management tool,
you must never forget that fire under adverse conditions can be disastrous.
Under some conditions, as in old fields and areas of light brush, you may
need only to burn off the area in late summer or early fall before planting.
In other areas fire may be used in conjunction with chemical or mechanical
treatment either before or after the treatment.

Chemicals
The application of chemicals is done by individually injecting each tree or
broadcasting with a mist blower. The injection of individual stems require










tion of shearing, raking, disking, and bedding. The landowner has many
options in between these two extremes that may fit his needs.
Planting of seedlings on clearcut lands is by far the most prevalent method
of stand regeneration. However, with the high cost of complete site prepara-
tion many landowners are looking at some form of natural regeneration.
In the early days natural regeneration was the only method available for
the regeneration of stands of trees. At that same time the only tool the
forester had for vegetation control and seedbed preparation was fire. Today
we have many tools that can be used in site preparation. A major problem
that the small woodland owner has today is finding an operator who will
site prepare small acreages at reasonable costs. This is due primarily to the
high cost of moving heavy machinery to these small holdings.
Successful establishment and growth of a stand of trees requires adequate
site preparation. Therefore, anyone planning to spend time and money on the
preparation of land for establishing tree seedlings should know something
about methods used and their advantages, disadvantages, limitations, costs,
and ecological contingencies.

Prescribed Fire
This is one of the simplest, time-proven, and versatile tools available to
land managers. There are eight and possibly more uses of prescribed fire in
the management of southern pine. They are:
1. Hazard reduction.
2. Control of undesirable species.
3. Wildlife habitat improvement.
4. Improved grazing.
5. Improved access, visibility.
6. Disease control.
7. Enhancement of appearance and aesthetics.
8. Site preparation for planting, seeding and natural regeneration.
Many times two or more of these results can be accomplished at the same
time. Although fire is a very effective, inexpensive land management tool,
you must never forget that fire under adverse conditions can be disastrous.
Under some conditions, as in old fields and areas of light brush, you may
need only to burn off the area in late summer or early fall before planting.
In other areas fire may be used in conjunction with chemical or mechanical
treatment either before or after the treatment.

Chemicals
The application of chemicals is done by individually injecting each tree or
broadcasting with a mist blower. The injection of individual stems require











much labor; therefore, when a large number of stems per acre exist cost
becomes a factor. When a large number of small stems are to be treated
broadcast application has advantages. The use of a tractor-mounted or hand-
carried mist blower is suitable for small areas. When large areas are to be
treated, the use of aircraft becomes most economical. There are, however,
some disadvantages with these treatments. There is always the chance of
drift with broadcast application which would injure adjoining crops. The
resulting standing dead material also impedes planting and other cultural
activities and is a fire hazard.


















Tree injector
Mechanical
Site preparation with heavy equipment can be divided into two categories,
that designed to break or crush the existing vegetation in place and that
which moves the vegetation from the planting site. The most-used tool in
the category of crushing existing vegetation in place is the rolling drum
chopper. This tool comes in various sizes from one a farmer might use to cut
down cornstalks to a giant self-propelled chopper weighing 80 tons that can
crush a 20-inch tree at 2/2 miles per hour. Choppers of this size are extremely
difficult to transport. Therefore, they are unavailable to small landowners.
Medium sized choppers are a very desirable tool for handling a large
number of stems up to five inches in diameter. The usual procedure for
conditions like this would be a double chopper sequence with a hot fire
after a first chop had concentrated and deadened the fuel. In some instances
there is so much debris left on the land that seeding or hand planting is
necessary. One outstanding characteristic of the rolling chopper is that it
does not displace the topsoil and it also has a minimal effect on soil runoff.










A more intensive site preparation would be the use of the shearing blade.
This is a horizontal knife blade mounted on a large crawler tractor that
shears vegetation at the ground line. The sheared material then must be piled
or raked into windows. This operation can cause some topsoil displacement
under some conditions. The site is usually clear enough for further treatment
such as disking and bedding.
The cost of site preparation methods is extremely variable, ranging
from as little as a few dollars per acre for burning to as much as $150 per
acre for complete site preparation on difficult sites.
There are many variable factors that must be considered in deciding which
site preparation method to use. Every ownership has its unique requirements
with relation to management objectives, financial resources and availability of
equipment. Therefore, no particular method of site preparation can be
prescribed for all areas.


kk \ ,


Chopper


Beading plough










Anyone planning to do site preparations for the first time should get
advice from a forester. In most cases, the County Forester can be very helpful
in appraising the land area, prescribing what treatment should be done, and
advising on equipment availability and possible government assistance pro-
grams. If a County Forester is not available, there are consulting foresters
who offer these services at a fee.


Newly prepared bed


PLANTING FOREST TREES
Tree planting can be successful and profitable only if certain conditions
are met. Whether you use hardwood (23) or pine (2), the species must fit the
site and the seeds must be from the right geographical location. The ground
must be prepared properly for planting. The seedlings must be handled and
planted correctly. The plantation must receive the proper care.


























. -.


Beds with planted seedlings


Seedling Availability and Care

Many forest landowners purchase seedlings at cost from the Florida
Division of Forestry. The forest industry sometimes makes seedlings available
to landowners. A few commercial nurseries handle forest tree seedlings. As
forest research and knowledge expands, so does the variety of hardwood and
pine species that can be successfully planted.
The Division of Forestry has available for planting many species of pine
and hardwood seedlings. It is very important to get the right species for the
site that you want to plant. If you do not, you may have insect or disease
problems in your plantation.
Division of Forestry district offices currently accept orders for seedlings
from July through September. Contact the district office for additional
details. Order as early as possible.

Planting the Seedlings
It is important to keep the seedlings from being exposed to extremely
high or low temperatures after they have been received. The roots of the
seedlings must be kept moist during the planting operation.
The usual time for planting seedlings runs from mid-November to mid-
February. The seedlings should be dormant when they are planted. If possible
the seedlings should not be planted when the soil is either unusually wet or
dry.
Decide how far apart to plant the seedlings before ordering them. No one
spacing best fits all conditions. The best spacing depends on such things as


4'.~~'~


~L' """


























. -.


Beds with planted seedlings


Seedling Availability and Care

Many forest landowners purchase seedlings at cost from the Florida
Division of Forestry. The forest industry sometimes makes seedlings available
to landowners. A few commercial nurseries handle forest tree seedlings. As
forest research and knowledge expands, so does the variety of hardwood and
pine species that can be successfully planted.
The Division of Forestry has available for planting many species of pine
and hardwood seedlings. It is very important to get the right species for the
site that you want to plant. If you do not, you may have insect or disease
problems in your plantation.
Division of Forestry district offices currently accept orders for seedlings
from July through September. Contact the district office for additional
details. Order as early as possible.

Planting the Seedlings
It is important to keep the seedlings from being exposed to extremely
high or low temperatures after they have been received. The roots of the
seedlings must be kept moist during the planting operation.
The usual time for planting seedlings runs from mid-November to mid-
February. The seedlings should be dormant when they are planted. If possible
the seedlings should not be planted when the soil is either unusually wet or
dry.
Decide how far apart to plant the seedlings before ordering them. No one
spacing best fits all conditions. The best spacing depends on such things as


4'.~~'~


~L' """









land quality and the products to be grown. Most plantations now are planted
with 600 to 700 trees per acre. But many of those are being planted for
pulpwood. If you want to grow larger trees, you should probably plant fewer
trees per acre. Regardless of what spacing you decide on, some rows should
be spaced 10- to 12-feet apart to allow for access for fire fighting and logging
equipment.
To figure the number of seedlings needed for each acre, divide the square
feet needed for one seedling into 43560 (the number of square feet per
acre). For example, with a spacing of 6 by 10 feet, each seedling would
require 60 feet. Divide 60 into 43560 to get 726, the number of seedlings
needed to plant one acre.
Planting Methods for Pine
Hand planting or machine planting are your usual choices. Big areas are
best suited to machine planting if ground conditions permit. Hand planting is
efficient on small areas or on rough terrain. An artificial seeding operation
would require the detailed advice of a forester.
To do hand planting you will need a planting bar, also called a dibble. You
will also need a planting bag to hold the seedlings while you plant. In an
8-hour day one man can plant from 800 to 2000 trees. To plant a large area,
therefore, machine planting is more practical.
About 1000 seedlings per hour can be planted by an experienced machine
planting crew. Be sure to line up a planting machine crew or contract to have


Planting bar









the job done before you order your seedlings. All too often landowners find
after ordering seedlings that they can not hire anybody to plant them. Your
County Forester may be of help to you in finding planting contractors in
your locality.


Planting dibble


Tree planting machine


Planting Hardwoods

Much less information is available on planting hardwoods in Florida than
on planting pine. Obtain the advice of a forester before planning a large-scale
hardwood planting operation.









For a small hardwoods operation, five important rules for planting were
developed many years ago. These still apply today.
1. Plant species suited to the site. Florida has far less real hardwood soil
than many other southern states. Care must be taken in selecting the proper
soils.
2. Prepare the site. Many hardwood species cannot compete with weeds
early in life. Cottonwood cuttings, for example, generally require cultural
techniques reserved for row crops.
3. Use good stock. Vigorous seedlings of the best size should be selected
for planting.
4. Plant properly. Hardwood seedlings are easily damaged by improper
handling. Generally they should be planted with root collar at ground level.
5. Care for the hardwood plantation properly. Cultivation of the planta-
tion is either necessary or highly desirable for most species. Cattle and deer
browsing can be a serious problem as can insect and disease attacks and wild
fire.

Care of Planted Seedlings
Check the number of seedlings still alive 6 to 8 months after planting. If
300 well-distributed seedlings survive per acre, it probably will not pay to
replant. If the surviving seedlings are not well distributed, replanting by hand
can be done the following year. However, if you wait longer than one year,
do not replant within 20 feet of an established seedling as the newly-planted
ones can not compete with the older ones.
These are some of the things that you will need to think about before you
start on even a small-scale planting operation. But before you decide to carry
out a planting operation on your own, read some of the publications under
Selected Readings. These have much of the information that you will need.
But do not hesitate to get advice from a forester.

Government Assistance
There are a number of federal government programs that will pay a por-
tion of your planting costs. To get detailed, up-to-date information for your
operation, contact your County Agricultural Stabilization and Conservation
Service office or your County Forester.


TENDING YOUR FOREST
The care and tending of the forest so that it will produce those products
that forest land yields is called silviculture. Classical European silviculture
often meant simply game keeping, but modern silviculture bears a strong









For a small hardwoods operation, five important rules for planting were
developed many years ago. These still apply today.
1. Plant species suited to the site. Florida has far less real hardwood soil
than many other southern states. Care must be taken in selecting the proper
soils.
2. Prepare the site. Many hardwood species cannot compete with weeds
early in life. Cottonwood cuttings, for example, generally require cultural
techniques reserved for row crops.
3. Use good stock. Vigorous seedlings of the best size should be selected
for planting.
4. Plant properly. Hardwood seedlings are easily damaged by improper
handling. Generally they should be planted with root collar at ground level.
5. Care for the hardwood plantation properly. Cultivation of the planta-
tion is either necessary or highly desirable for most species. Cattle and deer
browsing can be a serious problem as can insect and disease attacks and wild
fire.

Care of Planted Seedlings
Check the number of seedlings still alive 6 to 8 months after planting. If
300 well-distributed seedlings survive per acre, it probably will not pay to
replant. If the surviving seedlings are not well distributed, replanting by hand
can be done the following year. However, if you wait longer than one year,
do not replant within 20 feet of an established seedling as the newly-planted
ones can not compete with the older ones.
These are some of the things that you will need to think about before you
start on even a small-scale planting operation. But before you decide to carry
out a planting operation on your own, read some of the publications under
Selected Readings. These have much of the information that you will need.
But do not hesitate to get advice from a forester.

Government Assistance
There are a number of federal government programs that will pay a por-
tion of your planting costs. To get detailed, up-to-date information for your
operation, contact your County Agricultural Stabilization and Conservation
Service office or your County Forester.


TENDING YOUR FOREST
The care and tending of the forest so that it will produce those products
that forest land yields is called silviculture. Classical European silviculture
often meant simply game keeping, but modern silviculture bears a strong









For a small hardwoods operation, five important rules for planting were
developed many years ago. These still apply today.
1. Plant species suited to the site. Florida has far less real hardwood soil
than many other southern states. Care must be taken in selecting the proper
soils.
2. Prepare the site. Many hardwood species cannot compete with weeds
early in life. Cottonwood cuttings, for example, generally require cultural
techniques reserved for row crops.
3. Use good stock. Vigorous seedlings of the best size should be selected
for planting.
4. Plant properly. Hardwood seedlings are easily damaged by improper
handling. Generally they should be planted with root collar at ground level.
5. Care for the hardwood plantation properly. Cultivation of the planta-
tion is either necessary or highly desirable for most species. Cattle and deer
browsing can be a serious problem as can insect and disease attacks and wild
fire.

Care of Planted Seedlings
Check the number of seedlings still alive 6 to 8 months after planting. If
300 well-distributed seedlings survive per acre, it probably will not pay to
replant. If the surviving seedlings are not well distributed, replanting by hand
can be done the following year. However, if you wait longer than one year,
do not replant within 20 feet of an established seedling as the newly-planted
ones can not compete with the older ones.
These are some of the things that you will need to think about before you
start on even a small-scale planting operation. But before you decide to carry
out a planting operation on your own, read some of the publications under
Selected Readings. These have much of the information that you will need.
But do not hesitate to get advice from a forester.

Government Assistance
There are a number of federal government programs that will pay a por-
tion of your planting costs. To get detailed, up-to-date information for your
operation, contact your County Agricultural Stabilization and Conservation
Service office or your County Forester.


TENDING YOUR FOREST
The care and tending of the forest so that it will produce those products
that forest land yields is called silviculture. Classical European silviculture
often meant simply game keeping, but modern silviculture bears a strong










resemblance to agriculture. The silviculture that one practices can fall any-
where between these two extremes depending on the products one wishes to
produce.

Silvicultural Systems

Silvicultural systems are series of operations that will care for the forest
from regeneration through harvesting. If the forest is left untended a natural
silvicultural system prevails. The forest grows to large size and old age and is
then destroyed by some major event such as a fire, a wind storm, or a disease
or insect attack. Fire commonly follows blowdown or insect or disease attack
and a new forest springs up on the burned over area. If left alone this forest
will develop and in a cyclical manner meet the same fate as its predecessor.
Silvicultural systems of humans', like nature, properly begin with the har-
vest of the mature forest. This starting point allows several options for the
regeneration of a new forest. The harvest can be managed so that the new
trees arise from sprouts or seeds from the trees that are removed or if a
change of species is desired the cutover is planted with seedlings. This is, of
course, the method used if old fields or brush lands are to be reforested.
Silvicultural systems can be grouped into the following broad classes:
selection system, shelterwood system, seed tree system, clearcut system.
If the species to be regenerated grows well in the shade, then the selection
system may be used. This means that individual trees that are ready for har-
vest are cut and new trees allowed to grow into the space left in the forest.
If the species that one wishes to grow only grows in full sunlight or light
shade, as do most pines and soft hardwoods, this system will not work. The
spaces simply fill with brush.
The shelterwood systems entails removing 2/3 to 3/4 of the trees from the
stand.* Healthy trees with large crowns should be left to protect the site and
provide seed for the next crop. Some site preparation may be necessary but
often logging creates enough soil disturbance to get a good stand established.
This system works well if one wishes to keep a stand on the site but still
utilize some trees. It is well adapted to many species, but reduces the income
from the harvest cut since many merchantable trees are left. If these trees are
harvested later, after the new stand is established, some damage to the young
trees will result. With proper care this damage can be held to a tolerable level.
The seed tree system leaves 5 to 10 large, healthy trees per acre to provide
seed for the next crop. This system reduces site preparation and planting
costs and if properly managed provides an adequate second crop. Often too
many seedlings become established and a weeding must be carried out to in-

*Stand means the trees on a particular area of land. Usually a stand can.be distin-
guished from surrounding stands by its age or species.










sure a vigorous second stand. The seed trees are usually harvested after the
seedlings are established. If left until they die or blow over, they can provide
good nesting and den sites for wildlife. An important aspect of this system
and the shelterwood system is competition control. If proper care is not
taken the site may be taken over by undesirable trees or brush. Generally a
series of prescribed fires are used for this control.




















Seed trees

Clearcutting removes all of the trees on an area. The size of cut can vary
from an acre to several hundred acres. If the area cut is small, natural seeding
may be used to regenerate it. However as the size increases so does the neces-
sity to reforest by planting. Clearcutting is preferred when the value of the
timber is low. Nearly all stems can be utilized, and the desired species for
reforestation grows best in full sunlight. When clearcuts are properly designed
and carried out, they cause no more environmental disturbance than other
silvicultural systems.
Old timber stands should be evaluated by a forester to aid in determining
what silvicultural system can successfully be applied. Often such evaluation
will lead to the recommendation that an improvement cut be made followed
in several years by the harvest cut that will initiate the silvicultural system to
be used. Timber stand improvement cuts, TSI for short, are essential in many
older forests to correct the problems caused by previous mismanagement.
Often there are government subsidies for TSI work. The landowner should
consult the County Forester for advice and assistance.










Care of the Forest


Regardless of the system used to establish the new stand of trees, several
things must be done to care for the forest over the next two or three decades.
Fire, insect and disease attack, and competition from undesirable species are
the biggest hazards to proper forest growth. Fire prevention activities are
concentrated on the periphery of the stand but insect and disease prevention
and brush control should concentrate on the interior of the stand.
To keep fire out of the forest, fire lines or bare earth strips are maintained
around the perimeter of the stand. These are constructed by tractor drawn
plows or discs. Once the trees are large enough, prescribed fires are used to
reduce the ground level fuel and thus the danger of disastrous wildfire. Advice
and assistance in planning a proper fire prevention system is available from
the County Forester.



















Firebreak

Insect and disease problems must be detected early if they are to be dealt
with successfully. This necessitates walking throughout the stand, not just
around the edge, and looking for signs of attack or outbreak. These inspec-
tions should be made seasonally on a regular basis. During periods of drought
or after large storms extra inspections should be'made. Guidelines as to what
to look for are available (9). When insect or disease problems are suspected a
forester should be contacted immediately.
Control of brush and undesirable tree species is important during all
phases of stand development. In older stands this unwanted understory










vegetation is best controlled by prescribed burning (17). Properly done
this practice is not only good for the trees but also increases valuable wildlife
habitat. In young stands, vegetation that overtops the seedlings may or may
not be a problem. If the overtopping vegetation is made up of annual plants
or species that do not grow to large size the seedlings will generally escape
from the competition in a few years. If however the competition is from a
tree species that reaches large size it may be necessary to release the seedlings.
This can be done by hand or by using herbicides. Brush control is a complex
process. If you feel that it is necessary to control brush in your forest, you
should seek advice from a registered forester.


















Prescribed burn

Fertilizing and thinning alone or in combination are silvicultural tech-
niques often practiced on southern pine stands. The biological and economic
advisability of these practices depends on a great many factors. Consult a
forester if you feel that your forest might benefit from these intensive prac-
tices.
Watchfulness is the key to tending the forest. You can educate yourself
on what to look for by reading the excellent publications that are available.
When your watchfulness discovers potential problems, you should seek advice
and assistance from a forester, either private or public. Proper action taken
eany can solve most of the problems encountered by the growing forest.

MEASURING AND SELLING YOUR TIMBER

You can estimate the amount of timber on your land and arrange for its
sale, by following certain basic techniques. Determining the amount of tim-










ber and its value usually requires measuring a sample, say 10 percent, of the
trees in the stand, estimating their yield, and then using the sample yield to
calculate the yield of the whole stand. Getting a fair value for your timber
depends not only on knowing the amount of timber but also on contacting
timber buyers and negotiating a timber sale contract.

Individual Tree Yield
The pines are the most valuable trees in most parts of Florida, and they
are sold for a variety of products (Table 2). To realize the most income, a
timber owner should sell trees properly. Each tree should be harvested for the
maximum value possible. In most timber stands, however, relatively few trees
qualify as poles, while more are suitable for sawtimber, and nearly all can be
sold as pulpwood.


Some pole trees





























some pulpwood timber
Basic size criteria of trees are d.b.h.* and height (either total height or
merchantable height, the height to some specified minimum stem diameter).
The yield of an individual tree can be derived from its d.b.h. alone or in
combination with its height. Pulpwood is usually sold in units of cords.**
To approximate cord content of a tree, use:
Equation la) Volume in cords = 4 x (DBH 6) ,
90
or for a slightly better approximation using total height as well as d.b.h., use:

Equation 1b) Volume in cords = [(.003 x Height x DBH2) 1]
90
The estimated yields of a 9 inch, 60 foot tree according to the equations
would be:
Equation la) [4 x (9- 6)] = .13 cords
90
Equation 1b) [(.003 x 60 x 92) 1] = 15 cords
90
Sawtimber yield is expressed in board feet, the number of 1" X 12" X 12"
units ot lumber that can be cut from a tree. Board foot content can be calcu-
lated according to a number of log rules; the most commonly used in Florida

*Diameter breast high, or tree diameter 4.5 feet from ground level.
**A cord contains 128 cubic feet of stacked wood or approximately 90 cubic feet of
solid wood.










for pine is the Scribner log rule. To estimate the sawtimber content of a tree,
use:

Equation 2a) Scribner board feet = .016 x (Height to an 8" top) x DBH2
or
Equation 2b) Scribner board feet = (.014 x Total Height x DBH2) 46

A 14 inch tree that is 3 logs (48 feet) to an 8 inch diameter and 70 feet tall
would have estimated volumes of:

Equation 2a) .016 x 48 x 142 = 151 board feet Scribner
Equation 2b) (.014 x 70 x 142) 46 = 146 board feet Scribner

Yields of special products are more difficult to estimate. Poles can be
classified into a large number of categories. Generally, a stand must consist of
a good proportion of large, straight, well pruned trees to be considered for a
pole cut.



Table 2. Common standards for pine timber products


Product


Relative
value


Minimum tree characteristics
DBH Merchantable height


Form


Pulpwood Low


Chip-N-Saw Intermediate



Sawtimber Intermediate


Plylogs


Intermediate


Poles


4" 16' to a 4" diameter


8" 16' to a 6" diameter



10" 16' to an 8" diameter



12" 17' to an 8" diameter


Relatively
straight

Straight,
few large
branches

Straight,
few large
branches

Relatively
straight,
few large
branches


10" 35' to a 7" diameter Very straight,
few branches,
small branches










Timber Stand Yield


The yield of a stand is usually impossible to calculate by measuring each
tree. Typically, a portion of the stand is measured, and the results of the
measured trees are expanded to represent the whole stand. The degree of
sampling, the percentage of the stand to measure, depends on the size of the
stand. General guidelines for the percentage of the stand acreage that must be
measured are:
Size of Stand Percent Cruise
(Acres)

<10 100
11-25 33
26-50 20
51 -100 10
101-500 5
>500 <1
The exact cruising* percentage that is needed will change according to the
precision that is required and the conditions in the stand. The advice of a for-
ester should be sought if high values are involved.
The first step in cruising your stand is to determine its boundaries and its
area. A recent map or an aerial photograph is useful here. The county tax
assessor's office can provide recent photographic coverage. In many cases, the
boundaries and area are already known.
The actual cruise of a stand may use a number of inventory methods. The
appropriate method depends on the condition of the stand. A strip cruise
may be useful for a high percent cruise. In a strip cruise all the trees in a
narrow strip are measured. Several strips are run through the stand. Fixed
area plots, such as 1/20-acre circular plots, are better for larger stands com-
posed of relatively small size trees. Horizontal point sampling is ideal for
stands with large diameter trees. You should consult a forester or do more
reading (1) for the details of these sampling methods. Basically the methods
measure the trees on a percentage of total stand area, and the sample data are
used to determine total stand volume and then value.
The ultimate objective of a cruise is the volume of the trees, and from the
buyer's standpoint the relative sizes of the trees. A stock table, which lists
volumes by d.b.h. classes fulfills these requirements.
With the volumes derived from the stock tables, the value of your timber
can be calculated. The total value is the total volume times the unit stumpage
price. Stumpage prices vary considerably with location and time. For the sake

*Cruising means the actual measurement of the percentage of trees in the stand that
you have decided to measure.










of demonstration, assume that pulpwood is bringing $20 a cord. A stand with
640 cords in it would have a stumpage value of $12,800.
An estimate of stand volume, and also value, derived from a cruise should
have an error figure associated with it. For the inventory methods mentioned,
representative sampling errors of-+10 percent can be used. The sampling
error indicates the reasonable deviation from the estimated volume or value
that the buyer and seller might expect when the stand is actually harvested.
In other words, with a sampling error of 10 percent, you should expect to
cut between 900 and 1100 cords if the volume estimate from a cruise was
1000 cords.

Selling the Timber

Cruising a timber stand achieves a number of things which bear on the sale
of the timber. The cruise identifies the types and volumes of trees involved,
characteristics of the stand that affect harvesting, and management alterna-
tives for the stand. Trees to be sold can be marked.
To insure competitive bidding, you should notify a number of prospective
timber buyers of the proposed sale. Interested buyers will usually submit
sealed bids, and the highest bid meeting your requirement can be selected.
Upon selection of a buyer, a timber sale contract should be negotiated. A
number of items should be detailed as shown in the sample contract in the ap-
pendix.


Assistance
Timber owners can actually conduct a cruise and a sale of their own. In
many cases, assistance from a professional forester is needed. Private land-
owners can contact their County Forester for a wide variety of assistance,
including information on cruising equipment and techniques, marking of
timber, and instructions on conducting a timber sale. The County Forester
can provide any kind of help up to a maximum of 3 man-days per year.
Beyond that, the County Forester will refer the landowner to a forestry
consultant. For assistance that is obviously going to take more than 3 days,
the landowner should contact a consultant initially.
Now that you have read this publication, you should have a better idea of
what is involved in growing trees. You are already in the planning process.
You may decide now that you do not want to grow trees. But if you decide
that you do want to grow trees, you have more planning to do. Now you can
go in two directions. You can do it yourself or you can look for help from a
forester. If you want to do it yourself, a list of publications is given in the
Selected Readings section that follows. If you decide to seek help, check the
earlier section of this publication for sources of such help.










of demonstration, assume that pulpwood is bringing $20 a cord. A stand with
640 cords in it would have a stumpage value of $12,800.
An estimate of stand volume, and also value, derived from a cruise should
have an error figure associated with it. For the inventory methods mentioned,
representative sampling errors of-+10 percent can be used. The sampling
error indicates the reasonable deviation from the estimated volume or value
that the buyer and seller might expect when the stand is actually harvested.
In other words, with a sampling error of 10 percent, you should expect to
cut between 900 and 1100 cords if the volume estimate from a cruise was
1000 cords.

Selling the Timber

Cruising a timber stand achieves a number of things which bear on the sale
of the timber. The cruise identifies the types and volumes of trees involved,
characteristics of the stand that affect harvesting, and management alterna-
tives for the stand. Trees to be sold can be marked.
To insure competitive bidding, you should notify a number of prospective
timber buyers of the proposed sale. Interested buyers will usually submit
sealed bids, and the highest bid meeting your requirement can be selected.
Upon selection of a buyer, a timber sale contract should be negotiated. A
number of items should be detailed as shown in the sample contract in the ap-
pendix.


Assistance
Timber owners can actually conduct a cruise and a sale of their own. In
many cases, assistance from a professional forester is needed. Private land-
owners can contact their County Forester for a wide variety of assistance,
including information on cruising equipment and techniques, marking of
timber, and instructions on conducting a timber sale. The County Forester
can provide any kind of help up to a maximum of 3 man-days per year.
Beyond that, the County Forester will refer the landowner to a forestry
consultant. For assistance that is obviously going to take more than 3 days,
the landowner should contact a consultant initially.
Now that you have read this publication, you should have a better idea of
what is involved in growing trees. You are already in the planning process.
You may decide now that you do not want to grow trees. But if you decide
that you do want to grow trees, you have more planning to do. Now you can
go in two directions. You can do it yourself or you can look for help from a
forester. If you want to do it yourself, a list of publications is given in the
Selected Readings section that follows. If you decide to seek help, check the
earlier section of this publication for sources of such help.











SELECTED READINGS


1. Avery, T. E. 1967. Forest measurements. McGraw-Hill Book Co., New
York.
2. Balmer, W. E. and H. L. Williston. 1974. Guide for planting southern
pines. S. E. Area, State and Private Forestry. U.S.F.S., Atlanta Ga.
30309
3. Balmer, W. E. and H. L. Williston. 1975. Early considerations in pine
management. Forest Mgt. Bullet. S. E. Area, State and Private
Forestry. U.S.F.S., Atlanta, Ga. 30309
4. Balmer, W. E. and others. 1976. Site preparation why and how. Forest
Manag. Bullet., S. E. Area, State and Private Forestry, U.S.F.S.,
Atlanta, Ga. 30309
5. Byrd, N. A. and H. L. Holbrook. 1974. How to improve forest game
habitat. Forest Mgt. Bulletin. S. E. Area, State and Private Forestry.
U.S.F.S., Atlanta, Ga. 30309
6. Byrd, N. A. and C. E. Lewis. 1976. Managing southern pine forests to
produce forage for beef cattle. Forest Mgt. Bullet. S.E. Area, State
and Private Forestry, U.S.F.S.
7. Florida Div. of Forestry. 1972. Forest trees of Florida. Tenth ed.
Talahassee, Fl.
8. Florida Div. of Forestry. Annual. How to order seedlings.
9. Forest Service. U.S.D.A. 1972. Insects and diseases of trees in the
south. S. E. Area, State and Private Forestry, Atlanta, Ga. 30309
10. Forest Service. U.S.D.A. 1975. The timber owner and his federal
income tax. Ag. Handbook No. 274.
11. Forest Service. U.S.D.A. 1975 (rev). Service foresters handbook.
S.E. Area, State and Private Forestry.
12. Forest Service. U.S.D.A. 1976. Publications for the forest land manager
and user of forest resources in the south. S. E. Area, State and
Private Forestry.
13. Forest Service. U.S.D.A. 1977. Publications for the forest land manager
and user of forest resources in the south. 1977 Supplement. S. E.
Area, State and Private Forestry.
14. Forest Service. U.S.D.A. 1977. Many forest landowners pay too much
income tax: do you? S. E. Area, State and Private Forestry. U.S.F.S.
Atlanta, Ga. 30309
15. Husch, B. and others. 1972. Forest mensuration. (2nd ed.). John Wiley
& Sons, New York.
16. Mark, G. G. and R. S. Dimmick. 1971. Managing the family forest.
Farmer's Bulletin No. 2187. U.S.D.A.











17. Mobley, M. E. and others. 1977. A guide for prescribed fire in Southern
forests. S. E. Area, State and Private Forestry, U.S.F.S. Atlanta, Ga.
30309
18. Myers, Walter (ed.) 1977. Forest farmer's manual 1977 edition.
19. Pritchett, W. L. and W. H. Smith. 1974. Management of wet savanna
soils for pine production. Tech. Bullet. 762, Florida Agricultural
Experiment Station, Gainesville.
20. Pritchett, W. L. and J. W. Gooding. 1975. Fertilizer recommendations
for pines in the Southeastern coastal plain of the United States.
Tech. Bull. 774, Florida Agricultural Experiment Station,
Gainesville, Fl.
21. Rockwood, D. L. 1977. Sand pine-a potential Christmas tree. Forestry
Report 77-9. Fla. Coop. Exten. Service, I.F.A.S.
22. Rockwood, D. L. 1977. Forest tree improvement. Forestry Report 77-4
Fla. Coop. Exten. Serv., I.F.A.S.
23. Shropshire, F. W. 1972. Tips on Hardwood Forest Management. Forest
Mgt. Bullet., State and Private Forestry. U.S.F.S. Atlanta, Ga. 30309
24. U.S. Dept. of Agriculture FIP TIPS. Newsletter, S. E. Area, State and
Private Forestry, U.S.F.S., Atlanta, Ga. 30309
25. U.S. Dept. of Agriculture. 1976. Public Assistance for Forest Land-
owners, U.S.F.S., U.S.D.A. leaflet. Atlanta, Ga. 30309
26. U.S. Dept. of Agriculture. 1977. Services available through the U.S.
Department of Agriculture. Washington, D.C.
27. Various. 1977. Proceedings Site preparation workshop. S. E. Area,
State and Private Forestry. F.S., U.S.D.A.
28. Williston, H. L. 1974. Forest management plan for small landowners.
Technical Topic. State and Private Forestry. U.S.F.S., Atlanta,
Ga. 30309
29. Williston, H. L. and W. E. Balmer. 1974. Managing for natural regenera-
tion. Forest Mgt. Bullet., S. E. Area, State and Private Forestry,
U.S.F.S. Atlanta, Ga. 30309
30. Williston, H. L. and W. E. Balmer. 1975. Growth, yield and harvesting.
Forest Mgt. Bulletin. State and Private Forestry. U.S.F.S., Atlanta,
Ga. 30309
31. Williston, H. L. and others. 1976. Chemical control of vegetation in
southern forests. Forest Mgt. Bullet. S. E. Area, State and Private
Forestry, U.S.F.S., Atlanta, Ga. 30309
32. Williston, H. L. 1977. Release cuttings in southern forests. Forest
Mgt. Bullet. S. E. Area, State and Private Forestry, U.S.F.S., Atlanta,
Ga. 30309
33. Williston, H. L. 1977. Tips on improvement cutting. Forest Mgt. Bullet.
S. E. Area, State and Private Forestry, U.S.F.S. Atlanta, Ga. 30309












34. Williston, H. L. and W. E. Balmer. 1977. Direct seeding of southern
pines regeneration alternative. Forest Mgt. Bullet. State and Private
Forestry. U.S.F.S., Atlanta, Ga. 30309


APPENDIX

TIMBER SALE CONTRACT*

LUMPSUM

THIS AGREEMENT, entered into this day of 19 between
of State of ,
hereinafter called the seller and of
State of hereinafter called the
purchaser.



WITNESSETH
ARTICLE I. The seller agrees to sell to the purchaser under the terms and conditions
hereinafter stated, certain timber located on a certain tract of land belonging to the seller
situated in the County of State of described as
follows:

ARTICLE II. The purchaser agrees to pay the seller_ in a lump sum for all
of the trees agreed to in this contract prior to the cut and removal of any of the trees
agreed to in this contract.

ARTICLE III. The purchaser agrees to cut and remove said trees in accordance with the
following conditions.
(1) No trees of any kind shall be cut except the trees that have been
marked with paint by the seller. Trees marked at the stump and another
point on the trunk of the tree.
(2) Unless extension of time is granted, all trees shall be cut and removed on or before
the -day of 19-.
(3) Any trees cut without permission of the seller, which are not included in this agree-
ment, shall be paid for at the rate of __ per tree.
(4) All damages caused by the purchaser or his agents to fences or other improvements
of the seller shall be repaired or paid for at replacement value by the purchaser.
(5) Care shall be exercised against the starting and spreading of fires in the area. In the
event of a fire during active cutting operations, the purchaser or his employees or his
agents will do their best to suppress same.
(6) Seedlings and other remaining trees shall be protected from unnecessary injury, only
dead trees, limbs and scrub oak trees may be used for construction purposes in connec-
tion with the cutting operation.
(7) To cut stumps so as to cause the least possible waste.



*Source: Florida Division of Forestry.











(8) The purchaser agrees to indemnify and save harmless the seller against all claims of
loss, damage or expenses of any kind which may arise as a result of the purchaser's
operations herunder, and to take out and maintain adequate Workmen's Compensation
Insurance.
ARTICLE IV. The seller guarantees clear title to the timber and will defend said title
from all persons whomsoever, and also guarantees the right of ingress, egress and regress
to the purchaser and his agents for the purchase of this contract.

ARTICLE V. It is mutually agreed by and between parties hereto as follows: (1) In the
case of dispute over the terms of this contract, the decisions shall rest with a reputable
person to be mutually agreed upon by the parties to the contract, and, in case of further
disagreement, with an arbitration board of three persons; one to be selected by each
party to this contract and a third by mutual agreement between the members appointed
by the contracting parties.

IN WITNESS WHEREOF, the parties have hereunto set their hands and seals this day
of__ 19.


WITNESS
WITNESS Seller
WITNESS
WITNESS Purchaser






































Single copies free to residents of Florida. Bulk rates
available upon request. Please submit details on
request to Chairman, Editorial Department, Institute
of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of
Florida,.Gainesville, Florida 32611.



This publication was printed at a cost of $1,100, or
.220 cents per copy, to identify opportunities for
managing small woodlots, procedures for man-
agement, and assistance available. 5-5M-80
















































































COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK IN AGRICULTURE AND HOME ECONOMICS
(Acts of May 8 and June 30, 1914)
Cooperative Extension Service, IFAS, University of Florida
and United States Department of Agriculture, Cooperating
K. R. Tefertiller, Director




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