• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Copyright
 Front Cover
 Title Page
 Abstract
 Introduction
 Agronomic data for perennial...
 The trial procedure
 Results
 Summary and conclusion
 Table 1: Estimated returns from...
 Table 2: Estimated returns from...
 Table 3: Herbicide application...
 Table 4: Rate of forage coverage...
 Table 5: Estimated establishment...
 Table 6: Estimated establishment...
 Table 7: Estimated establishment...
 Bibliography
 References






Group Title: Staff paper - University of Florida. Food and Resource Economics Department - 279
Title: Cost, returns and establishment procedures for "Florigraze" rhizoma peanut compared with alfalfa and coastal bermuda grass
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE PAGE TEXT
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00055248/00001
 Material Information
Title: Cost, returns and establishment procedures for "Florigraze" rhizoma peanut compared with alfalfa and coastal bermuda grass
Series Title: Staff paper
Alternate Title: Florigraze rhizoma peanut
Physical Description: 16 leaves : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Andrews, Jimmy
Olson, Clay
Van Blokland, P. J
Publisher: Food and Resource Economics Dept., Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1985
 Subjects
Subject: Peanuts -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Bibliography: leaf 16.
Statement of Responsibility: by Jimmy Andrews, Clay Olson and P.J. van Blokland.
General Note: "May 1985."
Funding: Staff paper (University of Florida. Food and Resource Economics Dept.) ;
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00055248
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: Marston Science Library, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Holding Location: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, and the Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station; Institute for Food and Agricultural Services (IFAS), University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000933706
oclc - 16654829
notis - AEP4723

Table of Contents
    Copyright
        Copyright
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Title Page
        Title Page
    Abstract
        Page 1
    Introduction
        Page 1
        Literature review
            Page 1
        Objectives
            Page 2
        Farm description
            Page 3
        History, four generations
            Page 3
    Agronomic data for perennial peanuts
        Page 4
        Soil requirements
            Page 4
        Digging rhizomes
            Page 4
        Time to plant
            Page 5
    The trial procedure
        Page 5
        Seed bed preparations
            Page 5
        Planting
            Page 6
        Weed control
            Page 7
        Cost
            Page 7
    Results
        Page 7
    Summary and conclusion
        Page 8
        Page 9
    Table 1: Estimated returns from one acre of perennial peanut, North Florida, as haying operation
        Page 10
    Table 2: Estimated returns from one acre of perennial peanut, North Florida, as both haying and rhizome production
        Page 11
    Table 3: Herbicide application and rates for perennial peanut establishment, North Florida, 1983
        Page 12
    Table 4: Rate of forage coverage for Perennial Peanut in north Florida, one year
        Page 12
    Table 5: Estimated establishment cost for one acre of alfalfa, North Florida, 1983
        Page 13
    Table 6: Estimated establishment cost for one acre of coastal bermuda-grass in North Florida, 1983
        Page 14
    Table 7: Estimated establishment cost for one acre of perennial peanut, North Florida, 1983
        Page 15
    Bibliography
        Page 16
    References
        Page 16
Full Text





HISTORIC NOTE


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
(EDIS)

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.






Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida




4l o/il
3A 0


Staff Paper Series


FOOD AND RESOURCE ECONOMICS DEPARTMENT
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
University of Florida
Gainesville, Florida 32611


























COST, RETURNS AND ESTABLISHMENT
PROCEDURES FOR "FLORIGRAZE" RHIZOMA PEANUT
COMPARED WITH ALFALFA AND COASTAL BERMUDA GRASS

by
JIMMY ANDREWS
CLAY OLSON
P. J. van BLOKLAND


Staff Paper 279


May 1985


Staff papers are circulated without formal review
by the Food and Resource Economics Department.
Content is the sole responsibility of the authors.







Food and Resource Economics Department
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
University of Florida
Gainesville, Florida 32611












Costs, Returns and Establishment Procedures for
"Florigraze" Rhizoma Peanut Compared with
Alfalfa and Costal Bermuda Grass

Jimmy Andrews
Clay Olson
P. J. van Blokland


Abstract
This report provides data about the cost and methods of establishing
Perennial Peanut (Arachis glabrata Benth) on a north Florida farm.
Perennial Peanut or "Florigraze" is a relatively new forage legume which
can be used for grazing and hay. The report describes how this crop
was established on a farm in 1983 and also compares Perennial Peanut with
alfalfa and coastal bermuda alternatives.


Introduction
Perennial Peanut is a warm season perennial legume which can be used
for both grazing and hay. The crop is relatively new and many questions
concerning its establishment and costs must still be answered.


Literature Review
During recent years Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
researchers have illustrated various propagation phases of Perennial
Peanut. Through research and plant breeding, the researchers have been
able to develop a new improved variety of Perennial Peanut, called
Florigraze. Florigraze has the disadvantage of low yield and establishment
period compared to coastal bermuda and alfalfa.




Jimmy Andrews received his Bachelor of Science from the Food and Resource
Economics Department in August, 1984 at the University of Florida.

Clay Olson is a County Extension Director I for Taylor County in Perry,
Florida.

P. J. van Blokland is an Associate Professor in the Food and Resource
Economics Department in the Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
at the Univeristy of Florida.












Costs, Returns and Establishment Procedures for
"Florigraze" Rhizoma Peanut Compared with
Alfalfa and Costal Bermuda Grass

Jimmy Andrews
Clay Olson
P. J. van Blokland


Abstract
This report provides data about the cost and methods of establishing
Perennial Peanut (Arachis glabrata Benth) on a north Florida farm.
Perennial Peanut or "Florigraze" is a relatively new forage legume which
can be used for grazing and hay. The report describes how this crop
was established on a farm in 1983 and also compares Perennial Peanut with
alfalfa and coastal bermuda alternatives.


Introduction
Perennial Peanut is a warm season perennial legume which can be used
for both grazing and hay. The crop is relatively new and many questions
concerning its establishment and costs must still be answered.


Literature Review
During recent years Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
researchers have illustrated various propagation phases of Perennial
Peanut. Through research and plant breeding, the researchers have been
able to develop a new improved variety of Perennial Peanut, called
Florigraze. Florigraze has the disadvantage of low yield and establishment
period compared to coastal bermuda and alfalfa.




Jimmy Andrews received his Bachelor of Science from the Food and Resource
Economics Department in August, 1984 at the University of Florida.

Clay Olson is a County Extension Director I for Taylor County in Perry,
Florida.

P. J. van Blokland is an Associate Professor in the Food and Resource
Economics Department in the Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
at the Univeristy of Florida.












Costs, Returns and Establishment Procedures for
"Florigraze" Rhizoma Peanut Compared with
Alfalfa and Costal Bermuda Grass

Jimmy Andrews
Clay Olson
P. J. van Blokland


Abstract
This report provides data about the cost and methods of establishing
Perennial Peanut (Arachis glabrata Benth) on a north Florida farm.
Perennial Peanut or "Florigraze" is a relatively new forage legume which
can be used for grazing and hay. The report describes how this crop
was established on a farm in 1983 and also compares Perennial Peanut with
alfalfa and coastal bermuda alternatives.


Introduction
Perennial Peanut is a warm season perennial legume which can be used
for both grazing and hay. The crop is relatively new and many questions
concerning its establishment and costs must still be answered.


Literature Review
During recent years Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
researchers have illustrated various propagation phases of Perennial
Peanut. Through research and plant breeding, the researchers have been
able to develop a new improved variety of Perennial Peanut, called
Florigraze. Florigraze has the disadvantage of low yield and establishment
period compared to coastal bermuda and alfalfa.




Jimmy Andrews received his Bachelor of Science from the Food and Resource
Economics Department in August, 1984 at the University of Florida.

Clay Olson is a County Extension Director I for Taylor County in Perry,
Florida.

P. J. van Blokland is an Associate Professor in the Food and Resource
Economics Department in the Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
at the Univeristy of Florida.










It is suspected that Florigraze is a seedling from Arbrook, the
parent variety. The Arbrook material was collected in Campo Grande,
Brazil in 1936. Soil characteristics and climatic factors in north
Florida and south Georgia are similar to the growth conditions in
2
South America and will support Perennial Peanuts.


University of Florida forage specialists have recognized Florigraze
as having superior grazing and haying capabilities when grown with other
forages, such as clovers and grasses. They have increased Perennial
yields and developed varieties which sprout more vigorously and grow
more rapidly.3


To investigate some of the questions of Perennial Peanut establishment
and production, a one-acre test plot was planted on a farm near Perry,
in Taylor County, Florida, on January 29, 1983.


Objectives


1. To determine the economic returns from Perennial
Peanut used as a hay crop and from the sale of
rhizomes marketed as plant material.


2. To establish an alternative forage crop.


3. To estimate the cost of establishing one acre of
Perennial Peanuts.




G.M. Prine, L.S. Dunavin, J.E. Moore and R.D. Roush, "Florigraze" Rhizoma
Peanut, January 1981, Circular S-275.

2Prine, G.M. 1973. Perennial Peanuts for Forage. Soil and Crop Sci.
Soc. Fla. Proc. 32:33-35.

Prine, G.M. 1964. Forage possibilities in the genus Arachis. Soil and
Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc. 24:187-196.










Farm Description


The Andrews farm is located 12 miles north of Perry on State Highway
221. The farm is between two small communities, Lake Bird and Shady Grove,
in township 16, section 2, south 7. The farm consists of five 40 acre
tracts and possesses 80 acres of fresh-water lake.


The soil is loamy sand and the terrain has one to three percent
gradient slopes. There are 100 acres of cultivable land, and the rest is
under hardwood trees and cypress ponds.


History, Four Generations


In 1850, the first Andrews bought the farm, which, at that time
supported virgin pine timber. He had a sawmill to produce lumber and a
grist mill to process corn. He produced tobacco and cotton with horse
drawn implements and with the help of tenant farmers.


His son's farming practices followed agricultural trends during the
1940s and 1950s. His main cash crop was tobacco. Tobacco production during
this period required a lot of manual labor because the tobacco was cured
with wood fired barns. He made the transition from horse to mechanical
power and produced other row crops. The family produced many of their
meats and vegetables for home consumption. He had a source of off-farm
income but was still forced to sell some of the property.


The grandson inherited the farm in the late 1950s and farmed it
during the 1960s and 1970s. He served on the Agricultural Stabilization
and Conservation Board for 12 years and developed the farm to raise
purebred Aberdeen Angus cattle. After the cattle market declined in the
1970s, he decided to pass the farm over to his son, Jimmy Andrews, who
is presently running the business.










Farm Description


The Andrews farm is located 12 miles north of Perry on State Highway
221. The farm is between two small communities, Lake Bird and Shady Grove,
in township 16, section 2, south 7. The farm consists of five 40 acre
tracts and possesses 80 acres of fresh-water lake.


The soil is loamy sand and the terrain has one to three percent
gradient slopes. There are 100 acres of cultivable land, and the rest is
under hardwood trees and cypress ponds.


History, Four Generations


In 1850, the first Andrews bought the farm, which, at that time
supported virgin pine timber. He had a sawmill to produce lumber and a
grist mill to process corn. He produced tobacco and cotton with horse
drawn implements and with the help of tenant farmers.


His son's farming practices followed agricultural trends during the
1940s and 1950s. His main cash crop was tobacco. Tobacco production during
this period required a lot of manual labor because the tobacco was cured
with wood fired barns. He made the transition from horse to mechanical
power and produced other row crops. The family produced many of their
meats and vegetables for home consumption. He had a source of off-farm
income but was still forced to sell some of the property.


The grandson inherited the farm in the late 1950s and farmed it
during the 1960s and 1970s. He served on the Agricultural Stabilization
and Conservation Board for 12 years and developed the farm to raise
purebred Aberdeen Angus cattle. After the cattle market declined in the
1970s, he decided to pass the farm over to his son, Jimmy Andrews, who
is presently running the business.












His farming practices have been confined to row cropping and coastal
bermuda hay since 1978. The main crops grown on the 250 acre farm are
corn, soybeans, southern peas and various vegetable crops. In January
of 1983, while working towards a degree in agricultural business management
at the University of Florida, he decided to conduct this Perennial Peanut
trail in cooperation with Clay Olson, the County Extension Director of
Taylor County, Dr. E. C, French, Associate Professor of Agronomy and
Dr. P. J. van Blokland, Associate Professor of Agricultural Finance
at the University of Florida.


Agronomic Data for Perennial Peanuts


Soil Requirements


The soil should be tested before planting Rhizoma peanuts and
fertilizer and lime should be applied and incorporated at recommended
4
rates. Soil calcium oxide (C 0), and magnesium oxide (M 0) should be
a g
at least 750 and 100 pounds, respectively, per acre. If the soil
requirements are unknown, apply phosphorus and potassium at a rate of
300 pounds per acre using 0-10-20 (N-P205-K20) before planting.


Digging Rhizomes


Rhizomes are underground lateral roots used for plant material. The
peanuts must be three years old before rhizomes can be taken. A bushel of
rhizomes weights approximately 200 pounds. The rhizomes used for this
experiment were taken from the "Green Acres" Agronomy Research Unit in
Gainesville. To harvest rhizomes with a modified potato digger, the



4
Prine, G.M.,L.S. Dunavin, J.E. Moore and R.D. Rouse, "Florigraze" Rhizoma
Peanut, January 1981, Circular S-275.












His farming practices have been confined to row cropping and coastal
bermuda hay since 1978. The main crops grown on the 250 acre farm are
corn, soybeans, southern peas and various vegetable crops. In January
of 1983, while working towards a degree in agricultural business management
at the University of Florida, he decided to conduct this Perennial Peanut
trail in cooperation with Clay Olson, the County Extension Director of
Taylor County, Dr. E. C, French, Associate Professor of Agronomy and
Dr. P. J. van Blokland, Associate Professor of Agricultural Finance
at the University of Florida.


Agronomic Data for Perennial Peanuts


Soil Requirements


The soil should be tested before planting Rhizoma peanuts and
fertilizer and lime should be applied and incorporated at recommended
4
rates. Soil calcium oxide (C 0), and magnesium oxide (M 0) should be
a g
at least 750 and 100 pounds, respectively, per acre. If the soil
requirements are unknown, apply phosphorus and potassium at a rate of
300 pounds per acre using 0-10-20 (N-P205-K20) before planting.


Digging Rhizomes


Rhizomes are underground lateral roots used for plant material. The
peanuts must be three years old before rhizomes can be taken. A bushel of
rhizomes weights approximately 200 pounds. The rhizomes used for this
experiment were taken from the "Green Acres" Agronomy Research Unit in
Gainesville. To harvest rhizomes with a modified potato digger, the



4
Prine, G.M.,L.S. Dunavin, J.E. Moore and R.D. Rouse, "Florigraze" Rhizoma
Peanut, January 1981, Circular S-275.












His farming practices have been confined to row cropping and coastal
bermuda hay since 1978. The main crops grown on the 250 acre farm are
corn, soybeans, southern peas and various vegetable crops. In January
of 1983, while working towards a degree in agricultural business management
at the University of Florida, he decided to conduct this Perennial Peanut
trail in cooperation with Clay Olson, the County Extension Director of
Taylor County, Dr. E. C, French, Associate Professor of Agronomy and
Dr. P. J. van Blokland, Associate Professor of Agricultural Finance
at the University of Florida.


Agronomic Data for Perennial Peanuts


Soil Requirements


The soil should be tested before planting Rhizoma peanuts and
fertilizer and lime should be applied and incorporated at recommended
4
rates. Soil calcium oxide (C 0), and magnesium oxide (M 0) should be
a g
at least 750 and 100 pounds, respectively, per acre. If the soil
requirements are unknown, apply phosphorus and potassium at a rate of
300 pounds per acre using 0-10-20 (N-P205-K20) before planting.


Digging Rhizomes


Rhizomes are underground lateral roots used for plant material. The
peanuts must be three years old before rhizomes can be taken. A bushel of
rhizomes weights approximately 200 pounds. The rhizomes used for this
experiment were taken from the "Green Acres" Agronomy Research Unit in
Gainesville. To harvest rhizomes with a modified potato digger, the



4
Prine, G.M.,L.S. Dunavin, J.E. Moore and R.D. Rouse, "Florigraze" Rhizoma
Peanut, January 1981, Circular S-275.












rhizome mass must be cut into squares or clumps using gangs of rolling
collars (10" straight cutting disc). The digger extracts the rhizomes
from the soil and deposits them on the ground surface. Rhizomes should
not stand in the sunlight for more than three hours. They should,
preferably, be stored in loosely packed piles and placed in shaded areas.


Time to Plant


Florigraze should be planted during the winter months (December,
January, February and early March) when the top growth of peanuts is
either dead or dormant. During the winter, rhizomes are resistant to
drying and soil moisture is not so critical.


Florigraze planted during the winter months, spread from the
rhizomes which will develop during the fall of the planting year. If
planting is delayed until summer, limited rhizome growth occurs the first
fall, and little spread occurs during the second year. Winter planted
Florigraze develops a good root system and can withstand the spring
droughts.


The Trial Procedure


Seed Bed Preparations


On January 19, 1983, the one acre test plot was disced twice, turned
with a plow, and disced again. This treatment properly prepared the soil
for planting and crop growth.




Prine, G.M., E.A. Ott and J.W. Breman. "Economics, Establishment in
Pensacola Bahia grass and Fertilization of Florigraze Rhizoma Peanut.
Working paper, undated.












rhizome mass must be cut into squares or clumps using gangs of rolling
collars (10" straight cutting disc). The digger extracts the rhizomes
from the soil and deposits them on the ground surface. Rhizomes should
not stand in the sunlight for more than three hours. They should,
preferably, be stored in loosely packed piles and placed in shaded areas.


Time to Plant


Florigraze should be planted during the winter months (December,
January, February and early March) when the top growth of peanuts is
either dead or dormant. During the winter, rhizomes are resistant to
drying and soil moisture is not so critical.


Florigraze planted during the winter months, spread from the
rhizomes which will develop during the fall of the planting year. If
planting is delayed until summer, limited rhizome growth occurs the first
fall, and little spread occurs during the second year. Winter planted
Florigraze develops a good root system and can withstand the spring
droughts.


The Trial Procedure


Seed Bed Preparations


On January 19, 1983, the one acre test plot was disced twice, turned
with a plow, and disced again. This treatment properly prepared the soil
for planting and crop growth.




Prine, G.M., E.A. Ott and J.W. Breman. "Economics, Establishment in
Pensacola Bahia grass and Fertilization of Florigraze Rhizoma Peanut.
Working paper, undated.












rhizome mass must be cut into squares or clumps using gangs of rolling
collars (10" straight cutting disc). The digger extracts the rhizomes
from the soil and deposits them on the ground surface. Rhizomes should
not stand in the sunlight for more than three hours. They should,
preferably, be stored in loosely packed piles and placed in shaded areas.


Time to Plant


Florigraze should be planted during the winter months (December,
January, February and early March) when the top growth of peanuts is
either dead or dormant. During the winter, rhizomes are resistant to
drying and soil moisture is not so critical.


Florigraze planted during the winter months, spread from the
rhizomes which will develop during the fall of the planting year. If
planting is delayed until summer, limited rhizome growth occurs the first
fall, and little spread occurs during the second year. Winter planted
Florigraze develops a good root system and can withstand the spring
droughts.


The Trial Procedure


Seed Bed Preparations


On January 19, 1983, the one acre test plot was disced twice, turned
with a plow, and disced again. This treatment properly prepared the soil
for planting and crop growth.




Prine, G.M., E.A. Ott and J.W. Breman. "Economics, Establishment in
Pensacola Bahia grass and Fertilization of Florigraze Rhizoma Peanut.
Working paper, undated.












Planting


Planting requires several steps.


Step 1. Prepare a furrow wide and deep enough to cover the plant
material with two or three inches of soil. The implement
used to make the furrow was a corn/soybean planter equipped

with six inch opening shovels, set on 36 inch rows. One
pass was made, then another one was made by doubling back
to create furrows about four inches apart.


Step 2. Place the plant material in the furrows in five inch
pieces of rhizome. Stems are taken from a pickup and placed
in a furrow by hand to assure an even distribution.


Step 3. Pack the rhizomes firmly in the furrow. This was accomplished
by driving the tractor over the rhizomes and compressing
them into the soil.


Step 4. Cover the material. A disc harrow was used to distribute
the soil and to cover the furrow.


Step 5. Pack the test plot. To make sure the plant material was
secured in the soil, the tractor was used again to compete
the procedures.


Nine people distributed the 90 bushels of plant material on the
one acre test plot. The planting process required two hours of labor.













Weed Control


Weed control is very important during the establishment period.
This trial used a combination of mechanical, chemical and biological
methods of weed control.


During the growing season, chemical herbicides are effective on
suppressing weeds. Because Florigraze is a new crop, it is hard to find
instructions for proper herbicide procedures. Therefore, herbicide
applications generally followed the spraying procedures for common
peanuts. The chemical herbicides used are shown in Table 3. Annual

weeds, including coffee, beggar and ragweed are effectively controlled

with a rotary mower. The mower must be sufficiently high enough to avoid
damaging the canopy of the peanut hills. Cover crops such as wheat or
rye are beneficial in controlling weeds that emerge in early spring.
Consequently, wheat was planted on the test plot on November 24, 1983,
Thanksgiving Day.


Cost


Cost of establishing Florigraze is similar to that of alfalfa and
coastal bermuda. The main disadvantage of Florigraze is that it produces
no economic returns for the first couple of years. Its main advantage
is that, once established, it is more economical to maintain and the cost
of production can be partially offset from the sale of the plant material.


Results


One objective of this trial was to get some idea of the returns
associated with perennial peanuts. Revenues from both hay and hay-rhizome
production for a period of 10 years are presented in Tables 1 and 2. Test

results of the experiment compared to other test plots is presented in
Table 4.


0 .













Weed Control


Weed control is very important during the establishment period.
This trial used a combination of mechanical, chemical and biological
methods of weed control.


During the growing season, chemical herbicides are effective on
suppressing weeds. Because Florigraze is a new crop, it is hard to find
instructions for proper herbicide procedures. Therefore, herbicide
applications generally followed the spraying procedures for common
peanuts. The chemical herbicides used are shown in Table 3. Annual

weeds, including coffee, beggar and ragweed are effectively controlled

with a rotary mower. The mower must be sufficiently high enough to avoid
damaging the canopy of the peanut hills. Cover crops such as wheat or
rye are beneficial in controlling weeds that emerge in early spring.
Consequently, wheat was planted on the test plot on November 24, 1983,
Thanksgiving Day.


Cost


Cost of establishing Florigraze is similar to that of alfalfa and
coastal bermuda. The main disadvantage of Florigraze is that it produces
no economic returns for the first couple of years. Its main advantage
is that, once established, it is more economical to maintain and the cost
of production can be partially offset from the sale of the plant material.


Results


One objective of this trial was to get some idea of the returns
associated with perennial peanuts. Revenues from both hay and hay-rhizome
production for a period of 10 years are presented in Tables 1 and 2. Test

results of the experiment compared to other test plots is presented in
Table 4.


0 .













Weed Control


Weed control is very important during the establishment period.
This trial used a combination of mechanical, chemical and biological
methods of weed control.


During the growing season, chemical herbicides are effective on
suppressing weeds. Because Florigraze is a new crop, it is hard to find
instructions for proper herbicide procedures. Therefore, herbicide
applications generally followed the spraying procedures for common
peanuts. The chemical herbicides used are shown in Table 3. Annual

weeds, including coffee, beggar and ragweed are effectively controlled

with a rotary mower. The mower must be sufficiently high enough to avoid
damaging the canopy of the peanut hills. Cover crops such as wheat or
rye are beneficial in controlling weeds that emerge in early spring.
Consequently, wheat was planted on the test plot on November 24, 1983,
Thanksgiving Day.


Cost


Cost of establishing Florigraze is similar to that of alfalfa and
coastal bermuda. The main disadvantage of Florigraze is that it produces
no economic returns for the first couple of years. Its main advantage
is that, once established, it is more economical to maintain and the cost
of production can be partially offset from the sale of the plant material.


Results


One objective of this trial was to get some idea of the returns
associated with perennial peanuts. Revenues from both hay and hay-rhizome
production for a period of 10 years are presented in Tables 1 and 2. Test

results of the experiment compared to other test plots is presented in
Table 4.


0 .










Another objective was to obtain information on the cost of establish-
ment. A cost comparison for alfalfa, coastal bermuda and Perennial
Peanut is presented in the budget form in Tables 5, 6 and 7. The total
costs are divided into variable or fixed cost. Variable costs are inputs
that vary with output. Fixed costs however, are not related to output
and do not vary during the production period. The fixed cost include
depreciation, insurance, taxes and interest.


The total cost per acre for establishing alfalfa is $296.13, for
coastal bermuda, $182.53, and for perennial peanut it is $468.80. Cost
is higher because, first, plant material is more expensive. It costs
$2.50 per bushel, and 90 bushels were used in the experiment. Second,
because more herbicides are used than with alfalfa and coastal bermuda.
However, in the long-run, perennial peanut costs less to maintain and is
economically superior to the other forage crops. The crop requires only
300 pounds of 0-10-30 fertilizer per year once established.


Summary


Perennial Peanut can be grown in north Florida soils and climate,
and a 77 percent forage cover was achieved on the trial plot after 330
days.. It is also noted, by IFAS researchers that poor establishment
and failure is possible. Establishment for the crop required more cost
and management time than any other forages. Perennial Peanut has promised
to be a primary forage crop used for both hay and grazing.


Conclusion


Perennial Peanut is a relatively new crop and there is still much to
be learned about it. The results of this test indicated that it can be
successfully established during the first year of growth. The success of
establishment is affected by controllable factors (management skills and

propagation techniques) and uncontrollable factors (weather conditions
and growing season).











The returns associated with Perennial Peanut production are
attractive compared to the returns associated with row crops and other
forages. The increased revenues created from the sale of rhizomes, helps
cover the cost of harvesting and production. Consequently, the crop adapts
well to current Florida farming practices.


Penetration of the alfalfa hay market is sought by the producers of
Perennial Peanut. Florida farmers, mainly horse farms, spent $94 million
in 1983 to purchase alfalfa hay. Florigraze hay quality is comparable to
alfalfa. It has a 16 percent protein content and a digestable matter of
60 percent. While Perennial Peanut has the potential to top the market
for locally and western grown alfalfa, more research is needed, particularly
to answer two questions:


1) What propagation and management techniques should be used
to achieve the quickest rate of establishment?


2) What types of companion crops can be grown with Perennial
Peanut to create revenue during the establishment period?


Further research and publications are needed for farmers and
ranchers who are interested in the production of Florigraze. Researchers
cooperating with Extension educators and farmers are experimenting and
distributing valuable information to interested growers.














Table 1. Estimated returns from one acre of Perennial Peanut,
North Florida, as haying operation.



Year Quantity/Tons Cuttings Price/Ton Value
------Dollars----------


1983

1984

1985

1986

1987

1988

1989

1990

1991

1992


2.0

3.0

4.0

4.0

4.5

4.5

4.5

4.5

4.5


- 3.0

- 4.0

- 4.0

- 5.0

- 5.0

- 5.0

- 5.0

- 5.0

- 5.0


200

200

200

200

200

200

200

200

200


- 600

- 800

- 1000

- 1000

- 1000

- 1000

- 1000

- 1000

- 1000














Table 2. Estimated returns from one acre of Perennial Peanut,
north Florida, as both haying and rhizome production.


Year


1983


1984


1985


1986


1987


1988


1989


1990


1991


1992


TOTAL


Product


hay
rhizomes

hay
rhizomes

hay
rhizomes

hay
rhizomes

hay
rhizomes

hay
rhizomes

hay
rhizomes

hay
rhizomes

hay
rhizomes

hay
rhizomes


Unit


ton
bushel

ton
bushel

ton
bushel

ton
bushel

ton
bushel

ton
bushel

ton
bushel

ton
bushel

ton
bushel

ton
bushel


Quantity


0
0

2.0 3.0
0

3.0 4.0
0

2.0 3.0
1000

4.5 5.0
0

2.0 3.0
1000

4.5 5.0
0

2.0 3.0
1000

4.5 5.0
0

2.0 3.0
1000


Price Value
----Dollars----

200 0
500 0

200 400 -
500 0

200 600 -
500 0

200 400 -
500 5000

200 900 -
500 0

200 400 -
400 4000

200 900 -
400 0

200 400 -
400 4000

200 900 -
400 0

100 400 -
400 4000


600


800


600


1000


600


1000


600


1000


600


0


400 600


600 800


5400 5600


900 1000


4400 4600


900 1000


4400 4600


900 1000


4400 4600











Table 3. Herbicide application
north Florida, 1983.


and rates for perennial peanut establishment,


Date Brand Name Rate Intended Control


March 19, 1983 Lasso 3 quarts Broadleaves
Klean Crop 2 pints Grasses


August 7, 1983 Poast 2.5 pints Pusley & Grasses
Surfactant 2 pints


September 4, 1983 Butoxin 1 quart Broadleaves
Poast 1 pint Grasses
Surfactant 2 pints


November 5, 1983 Fusilade 1/2 pint Coastal Bermuda
Surfactant 2 pints








Table 4. Rate of forage coverage for Perennial Peanut in north
Florida, one year.


Percent
Farm Location-County Test Date Coverage


Morgan Hamilton October 5, 83 21.6

Beasley Suwannee October 7, 83 12.3

Shiver Lafayette October 12, 83 43.6

Koon Suwannee October 12, 83 17.2

Andrews Taylor October 24, 83 77.2











Table 3. Herbicide application
north Florida, 1983.


and rates for perennial peanut establishment,


Date Brand Name Rate Intended Control


March 19, 1983 Lasso 3 quarts Broadleaves
Klean Crop 2 pints Grasses


August 7, 1983 Poast 2.5 pints Pusley & Grasses
Surfactant 2 pints


September 4, 1983 Butoxin 1 quart Broadleaves
Poast 1 pint Grasses
Surfactant 2 pints


November 5, 1983 Fusilade 1/2 pint Coastal Bermuda
Surfactant 2 pints








Table 4. Rate of forage coverage for Perennial Peanut in north
Florida, one year.


Percent
Farm Location-County Test Date Coverage


Morgan Hamilton October 5, 83 21.6

Beasley Suwannee October 7, 83 12.3

Shiver Lafayette October 12, 83 43.6

Koon Suwannee October 12, 83 17.2

Andrews Taylor October 24, 83 77.2













Table 5. Estimated establishment
Florida, 1983.


cost for one acre of alfalfa, north


Item Unit Quantity Price Value


-------dollars----------


Variable costs:


Seed
Inoculant
Fertilizer (0-10-20
or equivalent)
Lime
Boron
Herbicide
Insecticide
Tractor (80 hp)
Truck, pickup
Equipment
Labor
Land rent
Interest on Cash
Expense
Total variable
costs

Fixed costs:

Tractor (80 hp)
Truck, pickup
Equipment
Total fixed costs


lb.
pkg.

cwt.
ton
lb.
acre
acre
hr.
mi.
hr.
hr.
acre

$


hr.
mi.
hr.


18
1

6
1
2.5
1
1
3.5
20
3.5
5.0
1.0

224.26


3.5
20
3.5


2.90
.75

7.50
18.00
1.25
16.75
12.20
4.26
.10
3.02
3.75
30.00

.15


5.32
.13
4.86


TOTAL COSTS


52.20
.75

45.00
18.00
3.13
16.75
12.20
14.91
2.00
10.57
18.75
30.00

33.64

257.90


18.62
2.60
17.01
38.23

296.13


Reference:


Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
Economics of Hay Production, north Florida.


publication,














Table 6. Estimated establishment cost for one
grass in north Florida, 1983.


acre of coastal bermuda-


Item Unit Quantity Price Total


------dollars---------


Variable costs:


Lime
Fertilizer (5-10-15
or equivalent)
Custom sprigging
(sprigs included)
Nitrogen
Herbicide
Tractor (50 hp)
Truck, pickup
Equipment
Labor
Land rent
Interest on cash
expenses
TOTAL variable costs

Fixed costs:

Tractor(50 hp.)
Truck, pickup
Equipment
TOTAL fixed costs

TOTAL COSTS


cwt

acre
lb.
lb.
hr.
mi.
hr.
hr.
acre


3.0

1.0
60
2.0
1.75
20
1.75
2.0
1

156.44


hr.
mi.
hr.


1.75
20
1.75


20.00

7.50

55.00
.26
3.75
2.58
.10
1.04
3.75
20.00

15% (6 mo.)


3.12
.13
3.60


20.00

22.50

55.00
15.60
7.50
4.52
2.00
1.82
7.50
20.00

11.73
168.16


5.46
2.60
6.30
14.36

182.53


Reference: Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, Economics of
Hay Production, north Florida.












Table 7. Estimated establishment cost for one acre of perennial peanut,
north Florida, 1983.



Item Unit Quantity Price Value


--------dollars---------
Variable costs:

Plant material bushels 90 2.50 225.00
Inoculant pkg. 1 .75 .75
Fertilizer (0-10-20
or equivalent) cwt. 6 7.50 45.00
Lime ton 1 18.00 18.00
Herbicide acre 1 20.00 20.00
Tractor (80 hp) hr. 3.5 4.26 14.91
Truck, pickup mi. 20 .10 2.00
Equipment hr. 3.5 3.02 10.57
Labor hr. 5.0 3.75 18.75
Land rent acre 1.0 30.00 30.00
Interest on cash
expense $ 374.41 .15 56.16
TOTAL variable costs 430.57

Fixed costs:

Tractor (80 hp.) hr. 3.5 5.32 18.62
Truck, pickup mi. 20 .13 2.60
Equipment hr. 3.5 4.86 17.01
TOTAL fixed costs 38.23


TOTAL COSTS


468.80









BIBLIOGRAPHY



[ 1]. Prine, G.M., L.S. Dunavin, J.E. Moore and R.D. Rouse, "Florigraze"
Rhizoma Peanut, January 1981, Circular S-275.

[ 2]. Prine, G.M. 1973. Perennial Peanuts for Forage. Soil and Crop
Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc. 32:33-35.

[ 3]. Prine, G.M. 1964. Forage possibilities.in the genus Arachis.
Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc. 24:187-196.

[ 4]. Prine, G.M., L.S. Dunavin, J.E. Moore and R.D. Rouse, "Florigraze"
Rhizoma Peanut, January 1981, Circular S-275.

[ 5]. Prine, G.M., E.A. Ott and J.W. Breman, "Economic Establishment in
Pensacola Bahai grass and fertilization of Florigraze Rhizoma
Peanut." Working paper, undated.






REFERENCES


French, E.C., personal communication. Associate Professor, Department
of Agronomy, College of Agriculture, University of Florida, January-
December, 1983.









BIBLIOGRAPHY



[ 1]. Prine, G.M., L.S. Dunavin, J.E. Moore and R.D. Rouse, "Florigraze"
Rhizoma Peanut, January 1981, Circular S-275.

[ 2]. Prine, G.M. 1973. Perennial Peanuts for Forage. Soil and Crop
Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc. 32:33-35.

[ 3]. Prine, G.M. 1964. Forage possibilities.in the genus Arachis.
Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc. 24:187-196.

[ 4]. Prine, G.M., L.S. Dunavin, J.E. Moore and R.D. Rouse, "Florigraze"
Rhizoma Peanut, January 1981, Circular S-275.

[ 5]. Prine, G.M., E.A. Ott and J.W. Breman, "Economic Establishment in
Pensacola Bahai grass and fertilization of Florigraze Rhizoma
Peanut." Working paper, undated.






REFERENCES


French, E.C., personal communication. Associate Professor, Department
of Agronomy, College of Agriculture, University of Florida, January-
December, 1983.




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