• TABLE OF CONTENTS
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 Front Cover
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Introduction
 Notes to users
 Abstract
 Bibliography
 Keyword glossary
 Keyword list of topics
 List of countries and regions
 List of social and ethnic...
 List of disciplines






Group Title: Social impact of Amazonian development: select bibliography of resources on sustainable development and vulnerable populations in Amazonia
Title: Social impact of Amazonian development
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE PAGE TEXT
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00055242/00001
 Material Information
Title: Social impact of Amazonian development select bibliography of resources on sustainable development and vulnerable populations in Amazonia
Physical Description: ix, 152 leaves : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Schmink, Marianne
University of Florida -- Amazon Research and Training Program
UNICEF
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: <1991>
 Subjects
Subject: Women -- Economic conditions -- Bibliography -- Amazon River Region   ( lcsh )
Women -- Economic conditions -- Bibliography -- Brazil   ( lcsh )
Children -- Economic conditions -- Bibliography -- Amazon River Region   ( lcsh )
Children -- Economic conditions -- Bibliography -- Brazil   ( lcsh )
Economic development -- Social aspects -- Bibliography   ( lcsh )
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references and abstracts (leaves 1-28).
Statement of Responsibility: Marianne Schmink ... <et al.>.
General Note: "Sponsored by Amazon Research and Training Program, Center for Latin American Studies, University of Florida ... with support from UNICEF/Brazil.
General Note: "June 1991."
Funding: Electronic resources created as part of a prototype UF Institutional Repository and Faculty Papers project by the University of Florida.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00055242
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida
Resource Identifier: aleph - 002811993
oclc - 24459400
notis - ANU0489

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Title Page
        Page i
    Table of Contents
        Page ii
    Introduction
        Page iii
        Page iv
        Page v
        Page vi
    Notes to users
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    Abstract
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    Bibliography
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    Keyword glossary
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    Keyword list of topics
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    List of countries and regions
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    List of social and ethnic groups
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    List of disciplines
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Full Text


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Amazonian Development


Select Bibliography
of Resources on
Sustainable Development
and Vulnerable Populations
in Amazonia

MARIANNE SCHMINK, KATHLEEN GLADDEN,
GARY W. SHAEFF, GAY M. BIERY-HAMILTON, JONATHRN DRIN
















Sponsored by:
AMAZON RESEARCH AND TRAINING PROGRAM,
CENTER FOR LATIN AMERICAN STUDIES,
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA, GAINESVILLE, FL 32611 U.S.A.
WITH SUPPORT FROM UNICEF/BRAZIL


June, 1991


Social Impact







Table of Contents



Page


Introduction .............................................. iii


Note to User ....................................... ....... vii


Abstracts ....................................... ........ 1


Bibliography ..............................................29


Keyword Glossary ........................................ 125


Keyword List of Topics .................................... 141


List of Countries and Regions .............................. 146


List of Social and Ethnic Groups ............................. 148


List of Disciplines ......................................... 151












INTRODUCTION:
SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT FOR WOMEN
AND CHILDREN IN AMAZONIA


This introductory statement briefly analyzes age
and gender as variables in contemporary Amazonian
development. The discussion reviews several aspects
of change in the region and outlines key issues for
which more research is needed to address the long-
term sustainability of social development activities.







INTRODUCTION:
SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT FOR WOMEN AND CHILDREN IN AMAZONIA


Since the United Nations Decade for Women (1975-1985), there has been a
growing recognition of women's central role in all aspects of economic development and
human welfare. As the Programme of Action for the Second Half of the United Nations
Decade for Women states:

Development is interpreted to mean total growth and improvement in all
areas of human life, of economic and other material resources, and also
the physical, moral, intellectual and cultural growth of the human
person. The improvement of the status of women requires action within
the family and at the local and national levels. It also requires a change in
attitudes and roles of both men and women. Women's development must
not be seen only as an issue in social development but as an essential part
of every dimension of development (United Nations Division for Economic
and Social Information, 1980, p.2).

Growing concern over the environment underscores the importance of age and
gender variables in the development process. According to the World Commission on
Environment and Development, sustainable development "satisfies the needs of the
present without compromising the capacity of future generations to satisfy theirs".
Women's participation is critical in two aspects of sustainable development: in
managing local resources for their family's daily livelihood, and in bearing and raising
children and providing for their future. Although often overlooked, women are active in
market activities as well as non-waged work such as self-provisioning and maintenance,
socialization, and the transmission of cultural knowledge.

The uncritical promotion of western models of development by national and
international specialists frequently undervalues the significant contribution the
knowledge of indigenous peoples can make to a more sustainable development. Studies
cited here suggest that women play a key role in the management of natural resources in
indigenous as well as colonist populations.

The forms of organization of local populations are another important, but often
overlooked, development resource. Traditional communities are often organized around
kinship, religious or cultural events. Moreover, grass-roots political mobilization
has taken place in many Amazonian communities during the past decade, but little is
known about women's roles in these movements or how they affect the lives of women and
children. More information is needed on both formal and informal types of social
learning and social organization by men and women in Amazonian communities, and their
potential for addressing development and conservation problems.

Although there is a growing and excellent literature that documents women's
complex roles in production, the topic is relatively neglected in Latin America. Women's
productive activities are often invisible, especially in rural areas of Brazil. Few
published studies provide information on the participation of women and children in
productive activities in the Amazon region. Many of the mistaken assumptions about
women's role in Latin American agriculture are prevalent with respect to resource
management in Amazonia. Forest extraction and colonist agriculture are viewed as
almost exclusively male activities, focused on a few commodities like rubber or pepper,
while it is assumed that women are restricted to domestic tasks and child care in the
home.








Production is often defined narrowly as the main activities associated with
producing a few key commodities for the market. Yet most rural families are engaged in
a complex strategy to manage their resources for family welfare, including a variety of
minor, but important, activities to provide for their own consumption or for
supplemental, seasonal cash income. Women and children are likely to be in charge of
many aspects of these secondary activities. Moreover, they often have important
responsibilities with respect to the principal commodities controlled by men, especially
in the post-harvest processing, storage and marketing phases. Women also may have
important roles in decision-making about activities undertaken by their husbands. All
of these roles are obscured by overly simplistic notions of the division of labor by
gender and age.

Women are responsible for much of the post-harvest processing of the principal
Amazonian products grown or collected by poor families, such as brazil nuts, babassu,
acai and manioc. In many cases these products are important food staples or sources of
family income that depend on heavy labor inputs from women and children. Yet there are
almost no published studies that document these activities, their labor costs, their
importance to family welfare, and how they are being affected by development changes.
Little is known of the extent of child labor in agriculture, charcoal production, or
mining. This gap is especially worrisome as post-harvest processing and marketing are
key aspects of current attempts to diversify forest extraction for more sustainable rural
incomes. Without better information about the existing division of labor by gender and
age, development interventions could deprive women and children of sources of income
and employment, and families of key elements of their diet.

In the Amazon region, rural communities are undergoing rapid change that
involves complex patterns of migration. Thousands of families have moved into the
region from other parts of Brazil during the past two decades. In new colonization areas,
as well as in traditional Amazonian communities, it is common for men to migrate
seasonally to work in harvesting, mining or land-clearing. In their absence, women are
left with full responsibility for family sustenance, and become de facto heads of their
household. In many cases the men are gone for prolonged periods or never return. There
is little research on the effects of these migratory patterns on resource use, how they
change when women are left in charge without male labor, or the effects on family well-
being.

When disease or migration prevents men from carrying out their normal
productive activities, women add these responsibilities to their other duties. These are
not limited to the time-consuming chores of cleaning the house, preparing, cooking and
serving the family's meals and caring for children. Women and children are also
responsible for procuring water and fuelwood, caring for kitchen gardens and small
livestock, and managing family health. These non-market activities are essential
components of family welfare. For example, herbs grown by women are often the only
medical resources to which the family has access.

A major obstacle to women's opportunities for participation is the double
workload they undertake when they work outside the home. Because women are
principally responsible for domestic tasks, these activities must be considered when
analyzing how much time and energy they have available for assuming additional labor
responsibilities or activities outside of the home. Increasing incorporation of Amazonian
communities into the market economy necessitates studies analyzing the impact of this
incorporation on the conditions of women, men and children.







A key priority of research should be to improve the information on the
participation in productive activities, defined broadly, by gender and age. Specific
issues concern: the division of labor; access to and control over resources; decision-
making patterns and control over income; and forms of organization. These aspects of
productive participation will vary by region, social class, cultural background, and
ethnicity.

The long-term viability of sustainable development depends on maintaining or
improving the well-being and quality of life of Amazonian populations. Yet the effect of
current changes in Amazonia (such as migration, technological innovation, or shifts in
subsistence or commercial production strategies) on local populations have not yet been
adequately analyzed. Survey and field research is urgently needed to assess the impact of
changing development policies and practices on the health, nutrition, and quality of life
of different populations in Amazonia, and how these effects are distributed among men
and women, adults and children.

There is substantial literature on Amazon development policies, and on-going
projects such as small farmer colonization as well as new proposals such as extractive
reserves. However, almost no attention has been devoted to the role of women and
children in these projects, or how they are affected. For the most part, women's
potential participation appears to have been ignored.

The authors intend for this bibliography to be used as a tool to stimulate further
discussion and research. It is hoped that this research will increase interdisciplinary
cooperation and generate informed projects to promote more sustainable development
and to alleviate the most pressing problems of women and children in the Amazon region.


Marianne Schmink
Kathleen Gladden

June, 1991












NOTE TO USERS


This note explains the background and purpose
of the bibliography, describes how it was compiled,
and summarizes its contents and organization.








NOTE TO USERS


This select bibliography was compiled by the Amazon Research and Training
Program (ARTP) at the Center for Latin American Studies, University of Florida,
Gainesville, Florida USA. The original purpose of the bibliography was to provide
selected readings and reference materials for UNICEF's Amazon Basin Program in Brazil.
The document is also intended to be useful to a wider audience of governmental and non-
governmental organizations, as well as individuals concerned with the social aspects of
development in the Amazon region. The informed selection of materials provides a
grounding in what has been published on subjects related to sustainable development, and
vulnerable populations such as women, children, indigenous people and the rural poor of
the region.

Since its inception in 1980, the ARTP has accumulated research and training
experience on many aspects of the Amazon region, and developed a strong network of
communications with institutions and groups in Amazonia. ARTP Director Marianne
Schmink also has over a decade of professional experience working in the field of Women
and Development in Latin America. Her extensive library on the Amazon region and on
women and development provided the primary source of materials included here.

The purpose of the bibliography is to draw together some of the key materials
held at the University of Florida on sustainable development for women and children in
Amazonia, with an emphasis on Brazil. The challenge of putting it together was to focus
on the interface between economic development, environmental conservation and social
welfare from the standpoint of age and gender differentiation. The conceptual,
methodological and empirical materials that address these cross-cutting issues are
scarce. Despite a rapidly expanding literature on the Amazon region, there is
surprisingly little written material on the social aspects of change. Only a handful of
studies focus on women and children in the region's development process.

The compilation is intended to be selective rather than exhaustive. Many other
useful materials might have been included. Among the extensive materials on the
Amazon, we emphasized the most recent and most useful studies that focus on social and
ecological sustainability, especially materials published in the United States that might
not be as readily available in the region. We also included some studies of women,
children and sustainable development in other world regions. This list is intended to
provide an informed point of departure for users interested in the subject.

The bibliography project was a team effort under the direction of Marianne
Schmink. Specialists at the University of Florida in the fields of agronomy,
anthropology, biology, forestry, sociology and political science contributed their ideas
and research materials. Kathleen Gladden, Gay Biery-Hamilton, Gary Shaeff, and
Jonathan Dain reviewed approximately 2,000 items in order to select the over 250
items that were finally included. About one-fourth of these were abstracted.

The bibliography includes audio-visual and written materials in English,
Spanish, or Portuguese, books, both published and unpublished research papers,
conference presentations, and descriptions of applied projects in the areas of health,
education,'and income generation. For most items, the complete listing shows the
author, title, date and publisher (and address where possible), region of focus,
institution, discipline, language, social group focus, and several topical keywords that
describe the item's contents.


viii








The bibliography itself is preceded by the abstracts of items considered to be the
most relevant to sustainable development for women and children in Amazonia. A series
of appendices provide additional tools for using the bibliography. The keyword glossary
describes the context within which the keywords were used. The glossary is followed by
a listing of topical keywords, geographical regions, and disciplines covered in the items
included in the bibliography.

For additional copies of this document, or more information about the
bibliography, contact the Amazon Research and Training Program, Center for Latin
American Studies, University of Florida, Gainesville 32611, U.S.A.













ABSTRACTS


These abstracts of selected publications are intended
to serve as a tool for the bibliography user. They
summarize the contents and approach of some of the
most important reading materials in the bibliography.







Abstracts


Alcorn, Janis B. 1989
Process as Resource: The Traditional Agricultural Ideology of Bora and
Huastec Resource Management and its Implications for Research.

In the humid tropics, traditional agriculture is based on natural resource
management, and agricultural ideology reflects a concern for managing natural
processes. Natural resource management is not an activity separable from how people
make a living. While natural resource management is generally taken to mean the
focused management of particular naturally occurring useful items such as wild game,
water, soil, minerals, and timber-producing trees, tropical peoples focus on processes
not items; items are seen to be the result of processes. Agricultural structures,
agricultural "scripts," and the agricultural knowledge of individuals reflect an
ideological stance that natural processes are agricultural resources. Examples from two
neotropical farming groups, the Bora of the Peruvian Amazon and the Huastec of Mexico,
support this thesis. This agricultural ideology is different from the agricultural
ideology outside observers bring with them. By focusing on agroecosystems from a
temporal perspective, outsiders can better appreciate the knowledge of traditional
farmers. Agronomists and foresters may develop new strategies for the humid tropics
not only by taking traditional knowledge into account but also by adopting the traditional
farmers' attitude that natural processes are valuable resources.


Alcorn, Janis B. 1990
Indigenous Agroforestry Strategies Meeting Farmers' Needs.

Indigenous farmers offer an alternative to deforestation "managed deforestation."
Forests meet farmers' needs for a variety of goods and services, and farmers use
agroforestry strategies to insure that the forest is not destroyed. Seven characteristics
of indigenous agroforestry strategies are discussed. These strategies: (1) take
advantage of native trees and native tree communities; (2) rely on native successional
processes; (3) use natural environmental variation; (4) incorporate numerous crop
and native species; (5) are flexible; (6) spread risks by retaining diversity; and (7)
maintain a reliable back-up to meet needs should other sources fail. Specific examples
from the sequential agroforestry and forest grove systems of Mexican Huastec and
Peruvian Bora former demonstrate how indigenous strategies are used by farmers. By
understanding the needs, the knowledge, and the successful strategies of traditional
farmers, agronomists and agroforesters can develop new, imaginative alternatives for
managing deforestation.


Allegretti, Mary Helena. 1990
Extractive Reserves: An Alternative for Reconciling Development and
Environmental Conservation in Amazonia.

This article discusses scientists' involvement in political decisions regarding
development policies in the Amazon region. One way that scientists can assume a more
active role is to conduct research in response to tangible social needs within the region.
The need to reconcile regional development with conservation recently has been
recognized by a large, indigenous population of rubber tappers in the Brazilian state of
Acre, who depend on the rain forest for their livelihood. Destruction of rain forest and
expulsion of rubber tappers by regional development projects sparked a social
movement which led to the formation of the National Council of Rubber Tappers.







Abstracts


Currently supported by a broad coalition of indigenous and environmental groups, as
well as by policy makers and government officials in and out of Brazil, this organization
calls for the establishment of so-called extractivee reserves" public lands designated
for the specific purpose of sustainable use of forest products such as rubber, Brazil nut,
and palm heart by the resident population. Scientists can have a potentially crucial role
in designing these reserves and seeking alternative forms of resource management that
will promote social well-being while preserving the environment.


Anderson, Anthony. 1990
Alternatives to Deforestation: Steps Toward Sustainable Use of the
Amazon Rain Forest.

This edited volume explores a variety of alternative and possibly sustainable uses of
the Amazon rain forest. The essays are drawn from an international conference held in
Bel6m, Brazil, that was attended by scientists in several fields as well as government
policymakers and foundations interested in tropical forest preservation. Included are
articles presenting new approaches and new technologies that link forest conservation
and economic development with the intention of benefiting the population of Amazonia as
a whole. Sections on background to the deforestation problem, natural forest
management, agroforestry, landscape recovery and implications for regional
development give the reader an overall view of current efforts to address these issues.
In general, it is argued that the current environmental destruction taking place is not an
inevitable part of development, but rather the result of highly artificial, as well as
socially and economically questionable policies which can be reversed. The authors
promote (1) cutting economic incentives to deforestation within the region, (2)
relieving pressures for settlement by strengthening land, health and welfare programs
outside of Amazonia, (3) consolidating existing settlement by improving infrastructure
in already occupied areas of Amazonia, (4) promoting ecologically and economically
sustainable forms of land use.


Anderson, Anthony B. 1990
Deforestation in Amazonia: Dynamics, Causes and Alternatives.

This chapter describes the causes of deforestation in Amazonia. Although the author
states that the underlying causes of deforestation are complex, he highlights colonization
as a major cause of this problem. However, colonization does not operate in isolation,
but rather interacts with programs of government incentives, international markets for
forest products, and the cutting down of the region to implement cattle ranches.
Alternatives to deforestation include sustainable forms of land use, which, he states must
be part of any long-term effort to promote conservation. Agroforestry and landscape
recovery are two alternatives to deforestation promoted by the author.







Abstracts


Anderson, Anthony B. 1990
Extraction and Forest Management by Rural Inhabitants in the Amazon
Estuary.

Although traditional inhabitants of tropical region frequently possess a profound
knowledge concerning natural resources and their sustained use, such knowledge has
been rarely documented in Amazonia. This paper describes the use of forest resources
among descendents of Amerindians (known regionally as "caboclos" or "ribeirinhos") in
the floodplain forests of the Amazon estuary. Relatively high accessibility and high
concentration of resources have made these forests a historical source of timber, edible
fruits, fibers, latex and medicinals. Although the caboclos' use of these forests is
usually viewed as mere extraction, in fact it frequently involves subtle forms of
management. Common practices include favoring highly desirable species and
eliminating or thinning less desirable competitors, while maintaining the essential
forest structure and composition. These practices, which the author refers to as
"tolerant" forest management, facilitate access to and exploitation of forest resources,
and they are simple and inexpensive to implement. This case study illustrates how
traditional inhabitants can utilize Amazonian forests in ways that conserve natural
resources and at the same time generate moderate economic returns.


Ashby, Jacqueline and Stella G6mez. 1985
Women, Agriculture, and Rural Development in Latin America.

This bibliography considers how women's role in agricultural changes during
development, as well as, how agricultural change affects women. The presentation of
references focuses on: women's participation in agricultural production activities; time
allocation between agricultural and domestic activities; the impact of agricultural
development, particularly mechanization, on women; rural women's access to
technology; emigration from the countryside; rural women's access to education; levels
of living; health, fertility and nutrition of rural women; implications of land reform
programs for women; women's role in the commercialization of the household sphere of
production, and its impact on women; women's access to and role in rural cooperatives
and credit programs; and the sociocultural status of women in rural society. From their
review of the literature, the authors conclude that a broad assessment is needed of
women's participation in agricultural field tasks and in farm management decisions for
specific commodities in regions of major importance within Latin America. Although a
review of the literature suggests that technology adaptation, food production, and welfare
of the rural poor in Latin America are dependant on women, no adequate data base on the
sexual division of labor on a commodity specific basis is available.


Bal6e, William and Anne Gely. 1989
Managed Forest Succession in Amazonia: The Ka'apor Case.

The Ka'apor Indians of eastern Amazonian Brazil exhibit an integrated system of
forest management. The Ka'apor manipulate flora and fauna as well as create diverse
vegetational zones and ecotones across space and time. This system may help sustain the
utility of the local environment and hence, enhance its habitability. Forest management
manifests itself in the evolution of Ka'apor settlements. The diversity of vegetational







Abstracts


zones and the evidently sustained productivity of the land, flora, and fauna about Ka'apor
settlements may be conceived in terms of human manipulations of "primary" Amazonian
forest over the long term.

Barroso, Carmen. 1982
Mulher, Sociedade e Estado no Brasil.

A UNICEF-sponsored work, Barroso's book looks at questions of the conditions that
women encounter when entering the labor market and how women balance domestic work
with labor outside the home. In addition, differences between rural and urban settings
and other diverse regions are addressed as well as the problems of child care and
women's health. Sections of the book are devoted specifically to labor, education, health,
child care, government policy, non-governmental organizations, and recommendations
for new programs in the above areas. The author concludes that programs which
increase women's possible income generation are a priority. These programs permit
more flexibility in the structure of the household and a more effective integration into
the market economy. Collective organizations such as cooperatives should be encouraged.
Women should administrate the project in all its aspects, and be given the training
necessary for their active participation. All project planning should be preceded by
research considering raw material available locally, technology required, and
organization of production. Projects should include social, as well as economic aspects.
These recommendations are not exhaustive however, and represent only the most urgent
points.


Becker, Bertha K. 1982
Geopolitica da Amaz6nia: A Nova Fronteira de Recursos.

This book examines the Amazon as a national and world frontier, an advancing
frontier of industrial and urban society which seeks new resources to enable its
expansion. The author tries to understand spatial organization through theoretical and
empirical research, and to examine the privileged, political face of geography. The
research shows the unevenness of growth based on capital intensive technology, the
result of theory that represents the politics that orient it. The rapid and unequal
growth, the apparent contradiction of an intense urbanization process in areas destined
for agricultural production, a monolithic vision of the center and periphery that
overlooks the diversity of the groups which compose it and the accompanying alliances
and conflicts are some of the problems focused on in this analysis.


Bedoya Garland, Eduardo 1987
Las Estrategias Productivas Familiares y el Deterioro Amblental en la
Selva Alta.

The purpose of this document is to describe some of the most significant productive
strategies of the colonists and finally compare them with the amazonian indigenous
groups. For this reason, this article criticizes the technological options as they affect
the environmental destruction. For each alternative the rationale for the behavior of the
agriculturists and the impact of the ecological question on their behavior is analyzed.
The arguments emphasizes endogenous household factors which lead to environmental
unbalance.







Abstracts


Biery-Hamilton, Gay Maurene. 1987
Coping with Change: The Impact of the Tucurui Dam on an Amazonian
Community.

Local impacts of large-scale development projects, like the Tucurui dam in Pard
Brazil, are poorly understood. The costs and benefits of these projects are differentially
distributed among social groups. In the case of Tucurui, the benefits from the dam flow
to social groups outside the Amazon region, mostly southern Brazil, while the costs are
borne by local inhabitants in and around the reservoir. However, the impact of the
Tucurui Dam did not effect everyone, locally, in the same way. Those people who
managed to increase their resources had accumulated resources from economic activities
before the dam. A majority of people, however, suffered from poor expropriation,
indemnification and resettlement planning as well as from the destruction of former
resources, which were integral to their traditional socioeconomic relations of
production and exchange. Despite their economic strategies to maintain a living and the
gains these people made from political expression, the outlook for many former
Amazonian peasants is in question. Their difficulty stems from the dam as well as the
new land tenure laws, and other resource extracting policies being implemented.


Brown, Nigel J. 1990
Mercury Pollution with Specific Reference to the Amazon Basin

Since 1979 Brazil has been undergoing a goldrush comparable in size to the
nineteenth century goldrush in California. Approximately a hundred tonnes of mercury
is being released into the Amazon basin each year as a result of informal sector
goldmining. The mercury is used in the process of gold-amalgamation by the
garimpeiros, or place miners. There are no effective controls on the distribution, use
and disposal of mercury. The possible pollution problems are both occupational
exposure, where metallic mercury is involved, and environmental contamination, where
a range of mercury species including methylmercury are involved. Mercury poisoning
is put into context focusing on epidemiology, metabolism and environmental health
criteria. A review of the small amount of research that has been carried out in the
Amazon reveals that there is, indeed, a grave pollution problem emerging. Instances of
occupational and environmental exposure of humans are cited as well more general
contamination of the ecosystem. The democratic transition in Brazil, coupled with the
rise of international interest in rainforests is likely to mean an increased level of
activity in mercury pollution research. Consequently, Brazil's internal institutions,
which are expected to be involved in the research and subsequent clean-up, are listed.
Governmental policies are assessed and the feasibility of emerging extraction and clean-
up technologies are appraised.

Bunker, Stephen G. 1982
Os programs de cr6dito e a desintegragAo nio intencional das economies
extrativas de exportagio no M6dio Amazonas do Pard.

This article analyzes the effects of the formation of pasture financed through special
credit programs in a regional economy based on small-scale agriculture in the
extractive forests of the Amazon in Para. The author demonstrates that in these cases







Abstracts


credit programs have had the unintentional consequences of disintegrating the existent
export economy based on Brazilnut and some less important extractive products.
Furthermore, the economy has disintegrated in spite of the fact that the extractive
economy generated more cash and created more employment than the pastures for which
they were substituted.


Butler, John Robert. 1985
Land, Gold and Farmers: Agricultural Colonization and Frontier Expansion
in the Brazilian Amazon.

The Brazilian Amazon is presently undergoing profound ecological, political, and
socioeconomic changes as a range of interest groups struggle to exploit this vast and
complex region. Current government policy emphasizes private colonization as a means
of establishing farming communities in Amazonia. Private colonization is becoming a
dominant feature in the occupation of certain frontier areas. The 400,000 hectare
Tucuma Project, in south central Pard, is the central focus of this study.
While the colonization effort at Tucuma suffered both from the inexperience of the
colonization firm and severe cutbacks in expected government funding, the unplanned
event of the gold rush provided a boost to the local economy in the initial phase of the
project. The opportunities for off-farm work helped many farmers subsidize the heavy
costs of moving to the frontier. Given the dynamic nature of many contemporary Amazon
frontier areas these findings stress the importance of being adaptable and open to
unplanned opportunities.
Although private colonization provides an alternative for small farmers with some
financial resources it effectively closes the frontier to a large segment of the migrant
population, including the landless poor. The private colonization firms are also major
beneficiaries for they are able to acquire large tracts of government land at very low
cost. Private colonization serves the interests of an agribusiness model that advocates
large mechanized farms and the production of cash crops for the international market.
Paradoxically it is this model that forced many frontier colonists to leave their small
farms and move. The Amazon continues to be thought of by policy makers as a solution to
many national problems. Unless major changes are made in Amazon frontier policy it is
likely that the inequalities found elsewhere in Brazil will be replicated on the frontier.


Campbell, Constance Elaine. 1990
The Role of a Popular Education Project in Mobilizing a Rural Community:
A Case Study of the Rubber Tappers of Acre, Brazil.
[O Papel do Projecto de Educagio Popular na Mobilizacgo de uma
Comunidade Rural: Um Estudo de Caso com Seringueiros do Acre, Brasil].

This study compares four communities of extractive producers or rubber tappers in
the state of Acre in the Brazilian Amazon to determine the impact of a popular education
project on individuals' lives and on community mobilization efforts. Each of these four
areas has various access to educational facilities, different experiences in unionization
and community mobilization, and various forms of land tenure.
Through interviews with families in these four areas, measurements were made of
five variables dependent upon the presence and type of school in the community.
Measurements indicate that those families with a history of participation in the popular
education project, or those living in the community where the project is operating,
participate more actively in the union and in local political elections, receive higher







Abstracts


prices for their cash crop (rubber), have fewer family members residing in the urban
centers to study and are more proficient in literacy and numeracy skills than rubber
tappers in the other three communities. Average prices received for rubber and the
political participation levels of those families studying at a rural government-sponsored
school (or living in the area served by this school) are no higher than those of the
rubber tappers who have no access to any education whatsoever.
This study indicates that the popular education project, Projeto Seringueiro
(Project Rubber Tapper), is a key component in the rubber tappers' efforts to improve
the quality of their lives and defend the rainforest in which they live. The Projeto
provides both the environment and the practical skills for the community to mobilize for
economic, social and political changes even in the face of violent opposition. During the
course of this study and in large part due to the impact of the Projeto Seringueiro
education project, the rubber tappers achieved the establishment of extractive reserves,
a new type of agrarian reform which guarantees extractive rights to rubber tappers and
protects the rainforest from clearing.


Chernela, Janet M. 1990
Managing Rivers of Hunger: The Tukano of Brazil.

The Tukano Indians of the upper Rio Negro Basin in the northwest portion of the
Brazilian Amazon rain forest practice an important strategy of river management. By
reserving the natural vegetation of the riperian forest for fisheries maintenance rather
than deforesting the margin for agriculture they demonstrate the potential of the
forested floodplain as an important source of animal protein. No experimentation shows
comparable potential for agricultural production on blackwater soils.


Cleary, David. 1990
Anatomy of the Amazon Gold Rush.

This important anthropological study takes a broad look at the gold rush to explain
its history, the social organization of the gold camps, the politics and economics of gold
in Brazil, and the implications of the gold rush for Amazonia and its people. Garimpagem
is defined as small scale informal secor mining, undertaken by garimpeiros. The diggins
and communities which form around these activities are known as garimpos. The author
emphasizes that gold mining has a long history in the Brazilian Amazon, and the
prospects for its continued existence in the region are good. In fact, he states, that as
inflation climbs the gold rush is likely to become an increasingly attractive option to
investors from the formal economy. However, as lands coveted by ranchers become
populated with small scale miners, the likelihood of their appropriation decreases.
Although the gold rush can stimulate land speculation, it is more common for small scale
mining to constrain it by deterring potential land speculators from moving in. For
example if smallholders are struggling for control of an area, a gold discovery will work
in their favor by attracting large numbers of people who will be equally hostile to the
idea of appropriation of the land by large capital, since the garimpeiros stand to lose as
much as smallholders if access to the land is restricted.
Before 1982, the economy of one garimpeira area, Gurupi, was based mainly on
smallholder agriculture and some hunting and fishing. The expansion of garimpagem did
not mean that these activities were curtailed, rather, it stimulated them by providing a
local market for foodstuffs. By 1985, agriculture and gold extraction survived in a
symbiotic relationship. In addition, large traders attracted to the area by the increasing







Abstracts


flow of garimpeiros extended credit and supplies to smaller traders. In a larger city,
Maraba, the relationship between garimpagem and castanha changed dramatically with
the gold rush. The growth of Serra Pelada (a mining town) and Cumar 6 have meant that
the Brazil nut industry has not been able to retain workers since the gold rush began,
and the donos have permanently lost their economic and political hegemony in the region.
Despite attempts by governments and mining companies to control it, the Amazon gold
rush has flourished, involving hundreds of thousands of miners in an informal-sector
industry which produces over a billion dollars worth of gold annually.


Cleary, David. 1991
The Brazilian Rainforest: Politics, Finance, Mining and the Environment.

This work examines the political and economic consequences of development policies
in the Brazilian Amazon. Beginning with the assumption that environmental issues are
inseparable from their socioeconomic contexts, the author describes how debate
surrounding environmental factors affect Brazil's social and economic policies. The
author predicts that the early part of the 1990s should demonstrate progress made on
deforestation and the demarcation of Indian and extractive reserves. In addition, he
states that the "greening" of multilateral lending agencies, Sr. Lutzenberger's presence
at the environmental secretariat and Fernando Dollor's determination to maintain good
relations with developed countries will lead to funds to support environmental reforms
such as agroecological zoning. He is less certain that President Collor will enact an
agrarian reform which is badly needed if one of the root causes of land conflict is to be
eliminated.


Collins, Jane L. 1986
Smallholder Settlement of Tropical South America: The Social Causes
of Ecological Destruction.

This paper examines the relationship between social cycles of indebtedness and
differentiation and cycles of ecological destruction and decline in three newly settled
regions of Latin America. In contrasting the case of colonization along the Transamazon
Highway in Brazil with that of the Lago Agno colonization in northeastern Ecuador and
with seasonal migration into the Tambopata Valley of southern Peru, significant patterns
of interaction emerge between social context, producer decisions and environmental
deterioration. Structural incentives to produce for short-term gain are described in
each case, as are the ways in which these factors work against sustained yield production
systems. Identification of the complete interactions between ecological and social
processes in each area challenge assumptions that the failure of many efforts to open new
lands in the tropics can be attributed to the unsuitability of the soils or to the
inefficiency of small producers in these environments.


Collins, Jane L. 1991
Women and the Environment: Social Reproduction and Sustainable
Development.

Collins argues that gender and the concomitant issues raised by feminist analysis
should be emphasized in considering sustainable use of the environment in the
development process. The foremost reason for making women's work visible in studies







Abstracts


of sustainable resource use is that women play a major role in the social reproduction of
their families on daily basis and over generations. Hence, women's daily activities in
social reproduction are intricately linked to their ecological and social environments,
and also to processes of ecological change.


Deere, Carmen Diana, and Leon, Magdalena. 1987
Rural Women and State Policy: Feminist Perspectives on Latin American
Agricultural Development.
[La mujer y la political agraria en am6rica latina].

The United Nations Decade for Women coincided with an economic crisis in Latin
America. This text synthesizes what has been learned over the past decade with regard to
agricultural development for rural women, taking into account the impact of the
economic crisis, models of development in the region, and the scope and consequences of
"women in development" projects and policies.
Part 1 consists of country case studies ranging from the neo-liberal model of Chile
to socialist Cuba. Each author reviews the growing literature on women's roles in
agricultural development and examines how changes in those roles relate to agricultural
development initiatives and the changing role of the agricultural sector in national and
international economies. They evaluate national programs established during the decade
that were designed to benefit rural women and explore the consequences of ignoring
rural women in state development initiatives.
Part 2 contains four comparative analyses. Contributors consider the major state
agricultural policy initiatives in Latin America during the past decade (agrarian reform
and integrated rural development) as well as the effectiveness of income-generating
projects, which were the main initiatives targeted at rural women. The rural-to-urban
migration of women is analyzed as the outcome of the lack of attention to their productive
roles.


Denslow, Julie Sloan and Christine Padoch (eds.). 1988
People of the Tropical Rain Forest.

The future of the tropical rainforest depends on the people who inhabit it and those
outsiders who make decisions affecting its resources. This edited volume looks at the
world's rainforests in terms of the human beings who control their fates. Sections
include: Tropical Rain Forest in Fact and Fiction, Tropical Rain-Forest people in
Prehistory, Tropical Tribal Peoples, Smallholders and Recent Arrivals, Big Business in
Tropical Forests, Government Policy and Use of Forest Lands, and Prospects for the
Future of the Rain Forest. Although the book covers tropical rainforests throughout the
world, chapters within each section deal specifically with Amazonian issues.

Dounce, Teresa Valdivia. 1987
Derechos indigenas, mujeres y discriminaci6n en Am6rica Latina.

This work is the product of analysis and discussion which took place during the fifth
interdisciplinary course of human rights in Ecuador. The article discusses similarities
between the discrimination of indigenous peoples and discrimination against women in
Latin America. The discussion of the diversity of indigenous groups in Latin America
debunks the myth that the solution for indigenous groups is their complete incorporation







Abstracts


into the national context. The author recommends active participation of indigenous
groups in the national culture. A participation which includes the right to official status
and the freedom to form appropriate representative organizations; their right to retain
their life styles in the area where they live, the right to maintain their own language
where possible for the administration and economic development of the region, the right
to access to the land and its natural resources, and the right to establish, direct, and
control their education systems.


Dubois, Jean C. 1990
Secondary Forests as a Land-Use Resource in Frontier Zones of Amazonia.

Secondary forests are an increasingly common phenomenon in recently settled areas
of Amazonia. Although these forests are frequently perceived as indicators of land
abandonment following shifting cultivation or pasture degradation, they are in fact used
and managed within a wide variety of rural communities. This chapter characterizes
various types of secondary forest use and management in the South American humid
tropics. Examples show how these communities introduce or promote useful perennial
species within secondary forests, which become increasingly manipulated as traditional
systems of swidden agriculture become progressively sedentary. Other examples
illustrate the utilization of secondary forests that naturally possess high concentrations
of economic species; such forests can be readily managed and incorporated into
agroforestry systems. This chapter illustrates the significant role of South American
inhabitants in the process of landscape recovery and suggests that intensified use of
secondary forests in already settled areas can reduce land-use pressures on the frontier.


Dufour, Darna L. 1989
Diet and Nutritional Status of Amazonian Peoples. Paper prepared for
symposium no. 109, "Amazonian Synthesis: An Integration of
Disciplines, Paradigms, and Methodologies" Novo Friburgo, Brazil.

This paper reviews and evaluates the available data on diet and nutritional status of
ethnographically known indigenous populations in Amazonia, to examine the nutritional
problems characteristic of the area, and to examine the changes in diet and nutritional
status which accompany acculturation. The author concludes that the diets of Native
Amazonians in tropical forest environments are based on cassava and plantains/bananas,
with high quality protein coming from wild fauna. Wild plant foods do not appear to be
very important in the diets of most groups, but their role in the diet has not been well
studied and may be underestimated. It appears adequate in protein and other nutrients,
but the diets are high in bulk and low in caloric density. Dietary intake of household
groups and adults appears adequate, and the nutritional status of adults is generally good.
Children, however, are small for their age, and in some groups many would be classified
as undernourished on the basis of weight for height, and/or clinical signs of
undernutrition. It is likely that diet in combination with disease stress is responsible
for the delayed growth and relatively poor nutritional status seen in some children.







Abstracts


Engr6cia de Oliveira, Adelia. 1983
Amaz6nia: Modificag6es Socials e Culturais Decorrentes do Processo de
Ocupacio Humana (S6c, XVII AO XX).

This article presents a historical revision with a focus on the cultural and social
transformations that have taken place in Amazonia since the XVII century. Despite the
discontinuity of the facts, historical diversity and the consequent difficulty in
establishing periods, four moments in which changes in Amazonia have been most
accentuated are analysed: that of the Portuguese expansion (XVII century), that of the
action of Francisco Xavier do Mendonga Furtado (XVIII century), that of the expansion
caused by the search for rubber (XIX century) and that of the action of development
policies for Amazonia (from the 60's of the XX century).


Fearnside, Philip M. 1986/87
Derrubada da Floresta e Rogagem de Crescimento SecundArio em Projetos
de Colonizaggo na Amaz8nia Brasileira e a Sua Relagco d Capacidade de
Suporte Humano.

This article describes a simulated computer model which estimates human carrying
capacity by describing the behavior of colonists of the TransAmazon highway regarding
the cutting of primary and secondary forest. The cut areas are limited by the colonists'
available resources including land, labor, and capital. The parameters of the simulation
are based on interviews between colonists in an area 50 km east of Altamira in the state
of Par A. Data from the colonization project of Ouro Preto in the state of Rond6nia
demonstrate many similarities with the data from Altamira. The objective of the
simulation is to classify colonists' lots according to the age of the secondary growth with a
separate classification assigned to virgin forests (i.e. areas not previously cut down by
colonists). The probability of cutting, in each class, is calculated based on the
proportion of lots to years. The probabilities refer to cutting a section in a part of the
area in the class in question. These "cuts" are for the preparation of land for non-
pasture crops (pasture is calculated separately. In Rond8nia the lands are divided into
single-owner lots that grow for six years, although deforested areas grow much more
slowly. The sale of lots to recently-arrived colonists leads to new periods of rapid
deforestation. The effects of the behavior of the colonists in what are referred to as
forest and scrub cuttings for human carrying capacity include: (a) the lack of a
schedule that allows the soil to rest so that periods without cultivation will be sufficient
to restore the quality of the soil, as it is in the case of longer fallow periods in systems
of itinerant traditional agriculture. Shorter fallow periods can potentially lead to the
degrading of the natural resource base and the diminishing carrying capacity. (b) rapid
forest clearance leads to the planting of pastures which are associated with a decrease in
the human carrying capacity and (c) passing the maximum limit for deforestation can be
used as criteria for determining carrying capacity.


Fearnside, Philip M. 1983
Land-use Trends in the Brazilian Amazon Region as Factors in
Accelerating Deforestation.

The settlement pattern in the Brazilian Amazon has encouraged rapid deforestation
in certain regions, especially along highways. One main trend is the creation of pasture







Abstracts


after agricultural use, which is promoted by land tenure policies, government loans and
tax incentives. Despite efforts to foster perennial crop plantations as another
development alternative, the saturation of world markets for cacao and coffee and the
expense of tree crops make these land-use efforts unprofitable. At the same time, cattle
ranching, and the extraction of timber and charcoal, the most rapacious land-use
activities in the Brazilian Amazon, are likely to increase, while less land-intensive
options remain small relative to the size of the region.


Fearnside, Philip M. 1990
Predominant Land Uses in Brazilian Amazonia.

The land uses that now predominate in Brazilian Amazonia are unlikely to produce
sustainable yields, and they also tend to close off potentially sustainable alternative uses.
Cattle pastures either functional or abandoned now occupy most deforested land.
Rather than beef production, the principal motive for planting pasture is often its low
cost and high effectiveness as a means of securing speculative land claims. Pasture and
cattle yields are low and, after use for about a decade, the planted grasses are
outcompeted by secondary forest species or inedible grasses. Depletion of available
phosphorus in the soil is a major cause of yield decline; Brazil's relatively modest
phosphorus deposits, virtually all of which are outside of Amazonia, make fertilizer use
unfeasible for the vast areas not rapidly being converted to pasture. Converting a
substantial portion of Amazonia to pasture would have potential climatic effects. Areas
that can be planted in annual and perennial crops are restrained by world markets, as
well as by soil quality and Brazil's limited stocks of the inputs needed for intensive
agriculture.
Recent research on land-use alternatives could be a first step toward changing
predominant forms of land use in Brazilian Amazonia. Policies are urgently needed to
slow deforestation, to discourage unsustainable uses, and to make sustainable
alternatives profitable.


Fortmann, Louis and Dianne Rocheleau. 1985
Women and Agroforestry: Four Myths and Three Case Studies.

Women are traditionally important participants in both the agricultural and forestry
components of agroforestry production. This article examines the involvement of women
in agroforestry projects and activities in case studies from the Dominican Republic,
India, and Kenya. The authors emphasize that men's and women's priorities for
agroforestry may differ. Because the division of labor in agriculture often results in
men's involvement with export cash crops, and women's involvement in the subsistence
sector, women's subsistence needs may conflict with men's interest in wage employment.
Therefore there is a clear need to establish who uses what trees for what purposes
before planning a project. In addition men and women have differential access to
resources. Either resource constraints must be alleviated or the project must be geared
to the resources women actually control. Failure to do this will result in an exclusion of
women from project benefits. The failure to include women in agroforestry projects
excludes the increasing proportion of rural households which are headed by women from
project benefits, may prevent project designers from benefiting from women's special
knowledge, and may exclude activities and products such as fuelwood, basket making, and
minor forest products which are part of women's economic sphere. The inclusion of
women is essential for the success of agroforestry projects but it may require change in







Abstracts


both approach and personnel of forestry and extension departments. This includes
diagnosing the existing agricultural and resource management systems to determine what
women presently use and what they need; analysing the constraints imposed on women's
agroforestry by social institutions such as land tenure or property laws or the division
of labor by gender; arranging a format for discussions with women which enables them
to express their concerns and questions freely, and by hiring women extension workers
and technical personnel who can work easily with both men and women.

Fundaggo Carlos Chagas. 1981
A Mulher Brasileira: Bibliografia anotada 2.

As part of an attempt to document women's condition in Brasil, this annotated
bibliography of women's issues (volume 2) deals with work, law, education, art and
communication mediums. This complements volume 1 which was a listing of mainly
academic works. Authors from around the world have contributed to this volue which
includes works in Portuguese, English, Spanish, and French. The volume contains a list
of libraries, and centers of documentation in Brazil, as well as journals and other
published bibliographies which were consulted for information. By giving voice to
women's concerns, this work highlights theoretical as well as practical areas of
research in the field of women's studies. This multidisciplinary work amply covers
material published up through 1976.


Geninnino, Angela. 1980
Amazonia: Voices from the Rainforest: A Resource and Action Guide.

This action guide is designed as an organizing tool to help people and groups who are
about to begin Amazonian work for the first time. The bulk of the guide is a directory of
more than 150 organizations who are working on Amazonian issues, from the most
remote parts of the jungle to the lobbying offices of Washington and London. It also
spotlights the grass-roots movements of the Amazon's indigenous peoples, rubber
tappers, and other forest dwellers, explaining their goals, strategies and special needs.
This publication is a companion guide for the documentary Amazonia: Voices from the
Rainforest, also produced by the Rainforest Action Network.


Gistelinck Frans. 1988
Carajas, Usinas e Favelas.

The focus of the book is the process of change that is taking place in the state of
Maranhao, Brazil in the face of large industrial projects stemming from the Grande
CarajAs development program. The work is divided into three parts which comprise an
analysis and criticism of the social, economic, cultural, and ecological transformations
that are occurring in the region. Specific topics addressed include the problems of rural
out-migration, rising regional population concentrations, deterioration of the quality of
life of both urban and rural workers, the industrial population, and the devastation of
local forests.







Abstracts


Hahner, June E. 1981
A Mulher Brasileira e Suas Lutas Sociais e Politicas: 1850-1937.

This work deals with the struggle for women's rights and the suffrage movement in
Brazil from 1850-1937. It discusses women's publications, higher education,
professions and organization as well as changes in attitudes in the early 20th Century. It
concludes with a chapter on "the vote", detailing a side of history that until now has been
ignored, women's social and political activism during this period of change.


Hartshorn, Gary S. 1990
Natural Forest Management by the Yanesha Forestry Cooperative in
Peruvian Amazonia.

This article discusses five native communities of Amuesha (Yanesha) Indians in the
PalcazO valley of eastern Peru who formed a forestry cooperative to manage their
natural production forests on a sustained-yield basis. Long, narrow (30-40 m wide)
strips are clear-cut to maximize utilization of timber and to facilitate natural
regeneration of trees. The strip clear-cuts are rotated through a production forest so
that uncut primary forest or advanced secondary forest borders a harvested strip. The
clear cutting of narrow strips in a production forest promotes excellent natural
regeneration of hundreds of native tree species. Local processing of timber for
sawnwood, preserved posts and poles, and charcoal adds considerable value to the native
forest products. Timber production from Amuesha forest lands, local processing
(sawmill and preservation plant), and marketing of forest products are vertically
integrated through the operations of the Yanesha Forestry Cooperative. Net returns
(after local processing) are projected to be $3,500 per hectare harvested.


Hebette, Jean and Rosa Acevedo. 1979
Colonizagio Para Quem?

This book brings together studies of colonization along the Belem-Brasilia highway.
Topics include health and economic issues, providing a picture of the process of both
planned and unplanned colonization and its failure to achieve intended results. The
authors discuss specific colonization projects such as the Col6nia Agricola de Gurupi and
progress to a broad-based analysis of the frontier process.


Hecht, Susanna B. 1985
Environment, Development and Politics: Capital Accumulation and the
Livestock Sector in Eastern Amazonia.

Deforestation and environmental degradation are increasingly common themes in the
literature on humid tropical rural development. This paper explores the frameworks
used to analyze environmental questions in developing economies and how well these
function in the particular case of livestock development in the Eastern Amazon Basin.
The paper argues that, due to the peculiarities of the state subsidies available for
ranching activities that spurred a frenzy of land speculation, the exchange rather than
productive value of land became paramount. In such a context, cautious land management







Abstracts


was irrelevant and serious environmental degradation was the result. The paper
suggests that models of environmental degradation that focus only on the question of
production cannot capture the environmental dynamics of speculative economies.


Hecht, Susanna B., and Alexander Cockburn. 1989
The Fate of the Forest.

The Fate of the Forest documents environmental and socioeconomic changes in
Amazonia, particularly within the last two decades. The book describes how the pace of
change in the region is quickening and aboriginal cultures and many unique ecosystems
are threatened. The major conclusion of the book is that the survival of the Amazon
forest hinges on a better understanding of the political and economic forces triggering
changes in Amazonian landscapes and that social justice is essential for safeguarding
nature and indigenous cultures. The Fate of the Forest is descriptive and analytical and
successfully debunks a number of myths. A concise critique is offered of the various
explanations for accelerated deforestation in Amazonia, in which simplistic models such
as international capital being primarily responsible for the falling forests in Amazonia
are rejected. The increasing gap between the poor and rich in Brazil is lamented and
implicated as a major cause of environmental destruction.


Hecht, S.B., A.B. Anderson, and P. May,. 1988
The Subsidy from Nature: Shifting Cultivation, Successional Palm
Forests, and Rural Development

This paper outlines the importance of the small-scale extractive sector to extremely
impoverished households in rural areas of tropical Brazil. Extractive activities are
important as inputs to household reproduction, and are critical as a source of cash
income. In the case study the authors analyze, small-scale extraction was roughly
equivalent to wage labor and to agriculture in its contribution to household income. The
authors suggest that in rural development analysis, a significant source of both use and
exchange values has been overlooked. This issue is of particular concern for three mains
reasons. First, the importance of small-scale extraction is more pronounced among the
more impoverished. Second, extraction is a major source of cash for women, who are
often denied access to alternative means of acquiring income in rural areas. Finally,
current rural development programs are actively undermining access to the resources
and often imply their destruction. Through a detailed social and ecological analysis of the
babassu palm/shifting cultivation system in Northeast Brazil, the authors show the
interdependence of regional biological and human agricultural systems. Changes in
social relations and technology can undermine the bases for the sustainability of the
stable interactions between shifting cultivators and palms.


Hecht, Susanna B., and Darrell A. Posey. 1990
Preliminary Results on Soil Management Techniques of the Kayap6
Indians.

The soils of the Amazon Basin are generally quite poor, and the diminished soil
fertility is often blamed for the instability of many of the agricultural systems that
replace tropical forests. Many agronomic efforts in Amazonia have focused on improving
soil fertility for crop production, but these approaches have largely overlooked the







Abstracts


potential contribution of indigenous soil management. Some authors have even argued
that there are no intensive upland agricultural formations in Amazonia. In this paper
the authors outline some of the major features of Kayap6 agricultural systems, and the
soil management methods they use to enhance soil fertility over time, including special
ash additions, mulches, etc. This paper documents the differences in soil fertility
internal to the Kayap6 fields, and how this heterogeneity is created and managed in the
life of the field. In addition, the nutrient content of several of the nutrient inputs used
by the Kayap6 are presented. Indigenous soil management is an enormously under-
researched field with great potential for informing research strategies for tropical land
management.


Hecht, Susanna B., Richard B. Norgaard, and Giorgio Possio. 1988
The Economics of Cattle Ranching in Eastern Amazonia.

The economic results of the simulation of cattle ranches in eastern Amazonia indicate
that cattle ranching is profitable to the corporation because of the fiscal incentives, low
interest loans, tax benefits, inflationary hedges and land speculation. The simulation
verifies the profitability of overgrazing and gives additional insight into this strategy.
This study points out some very disturbing dynamics that continue the patterns of
deforestation associated with livestock development in Amazonia. While the availability
of cheap capital can contribute to the increasing deforestation, it is not the only process
involved. The rates of increase in land value for "improved land" can still drive the
system even if there are no incentives or credits at all. This process is linked to a
complex situation related to the overall regional development dynamics, the structure of
land markets, and inflation rates, phenomena that are more closely related to macro-
economic forces.
This simulation also shows that overgrazing is profitable, particularly when linked
to rises in land prices with and without incentives under most market configurations.
The ensemble of these issues explains why livestock has continued to expand in
Amazonia, and suggests that the means of addressing the livestock issue requires a far
more comprehensive analysis and policy strategy.


Hemming, John (ed). 1982
Man's Impact on Forests and Rivers, Vol. 1.

This edited volume of Change in the Amazon Basin deals with the physical aspects of
deforestation and analyses different types of Amazonian ecosystems. It focuses on the
development potential of Amazonia through giant dam and mining projects, through
sustainable exploitation of different ecosystems, and through increased awareness of
ethnobotany and indigenous farming methods. In addition it provides the historical
background to some recent changes.

Hemming, John (ed.). 1985
The Frontier After A Decade of Colonization: Change in the Amazon Basin,
Vol 2.

This edited volume (second in the series of Change in the Amazon Basin) is the result
of an international symposium about the Amazon organized by the Royal Geographic
Society in Manchester, UK. It contains a series of chapters on the people settled in







Abstracts


Amazonia, particularly since the Brazilian government launched its program of national
integration in 1970 and began construction of the Transamazon highway. The book gives
an assessment of demographic change over the last 20 years while examining official
methods and objectives used in directing that change. Also included are case studies of
colonization projects in various Amazon basin countries. This is volume #2, a
companion to volume #1, Man's Impact on Forests and Rivers.


Kohlhepp, Gerd and Ashim Schrader (eds.) 1987
Homem e Natureza na Amaznila/ Hombre y Naturaleza en Amaz6nia.

This compilation of articles is the result of a conference held in Germany about Latin
America (Associagao Alema de Pesquisas sobre a America Latina (ADLAF). These
articles encompass an interdisciplinary approach to human impact on the Amazonian
environment. Topics discussed include deforestation and its impact on soil fertility and
the applicability of these concepts to agricultural development. In addition, indigenous
lifeways are examined in terms of ethnobiology and folk science. The political and
economic conditions of regional development are addressed as well as problems in
colonization and agrarian reform planning. Recommendations for solutions to future
development problems are provided.


Lisansky, Judith. 1979
Women in the Brazilian Frontier.

The last two decades have witnessed increasing numbers of land conflicts in the
Brazilian Amazon between squatter farmers and large companies installing government
supported investment projects in cattle, mineral, and timber production. Limited access
to land has forced many peasant families out of the countryside and out of agricultural
production. This essay focuses on the impact of these larger events on the women of the
frontier town of Santa Terezinha in northern Mato Grosso. This article examines some of
the changes in women's work, roles and statuses as peasant families make the transition
from a farming life to life in the frontier town in a region dominated by large cattle-
raising companies.


Loureiro, Violeta. 1985
Os Parceiros do Mar: Natureza e Conflito Social na Pesca da Amaz6nia.

In this volume, the author studies a small fishing village located on an island at the
mouth of the Amazon. Her analysis focuses on the economic transformations occurring in
the village as the result of capital penetration. She reviews the fishing industry, the
lives of community members, class conflict, and social organization on the island.
Through an analysis of the labor processes the author describes the repercussions of
modernization of industrial fishing on the small artisanal fisher. The mechanisms
through which capital investment is concentrated in the large industrial sector are
delineated. The author concludes that the artisanal fisherman contribute to the
reproduction of the larger propietarios through the process of commercialization of
fishing products in which the profits are retained by the modernized industrial
complexes. The persistence of forms of capitalist domination and of the resistance of the
small producers lead to continuous conflict. The villagers are battling forces that







Abstracts


threaten to destroy their lifestyles, and in the process they are adjusting to
contemporary economic realities.

Loureiro, Violeta. 1987
A Mis6ria da Acensio Social: Capitalismo e Pequena Produgcdo na
Amaz6nia.

This work describes the economic transformations taking place in the Amazon using
the small-scale producer as the unit of analysis. It looks at the production systems and
the hopes and realities of families living at the mouth of the Amazon. Many ranches on
the island of Maraj6 on the estuary of Pard don't have fences: their borders are
determined by cows. Where these animals roam, there the borders end. In this way, the
development of land ownership impedes the development of small independent plots. The
final section examines the essential forms of subordination to capital experienced by the
small-scale fishing industry on these impoverished islands.


Magee, Pennie L. 1990
"The Water is our Land: Peasants of the River Tocantins, Brazilian
Amazonia".

This dissertation analyzes the socioeconomic and ecological changes occurring in the
island community of Paruru in the Tocantins River, Par a state, Brazil. Islanders have
traditionally made a living based on fishing and the extraction of forest products, in an
environment characterized by daily and seasonal tides which flood the island. Islanders
are responding to the impoverishment of their resource base by using different survival
strategies. Households with fewer resources put more people to work in wage labor than
households with more resources, who more frequently hire wage labor than do those
with few resources. The socioeconomic differentiation and incipient proletarianization
underway is the root of a new-found political awareness. Islanders are mobilizing
politically against the Tucurui hydroelectric dam, which has become the symbol for the
cause of their impoverished resource base.


Major, Michael, Carlos E. Reiche, and Thomas McKenzie. 1989
Participaci6n de la Mujer en la reforestaci6n de Hojancha, Costa Rica.

This document is based on experiences at Hojancha, Guanacaste, Costa Rica, where
CATIE's Project "Madelefa" works together with Costa Rican Department of Forestry
(Ministry of Agriculture). The article presents the results of a case-study using a
survey methodology based on the McLeon comparative model questionnaire. The
objectives were to identify women's participation and restrictions in future
reforestation projects, as well as to provide information that can contribute to better
formulation and planning of future forestry projects and extension activities.
Population in the study area was estimated as 1,615 inhabitants in an area of 1,882
hectares. Since 1979 CORENA (Department of Forestry) and CATIE's "Lena" and
"Madelena" projects have worked in this zone. At present CACH (Agricultural Center of
Hojancha) promotes active reforestation activities in the region.







Abstracts


Martinello, Pedro. 1988
A "Batalha da Borracha" na Segunda Guerra Mundial e suas conseqiincias
para o vale Amaz6nica.

This book detailing the second Amazon rubber boom is divided into five sections. The
first shows how the rubber economy relates to the structural transformations in the
world economy at the end of the last century while analyzing the relations of production
that rejuvenated the credit and debt cycle known as aviamento. The second chapter
chronicles the relationship between Brazil on the United States that developed as a result
of the allied need for rubber. The third section centers around the operationalization of
the rubber boom, and the fourth its impact on the work and lives of the rubber tappers
on the rubber estates. Finally, the post-war results are discussed including the re-
opening of the Malasian plantations, the invention of synthetic rubber, the resulting
impact on US-Brazil relations and the effect it all had on the rubber tappers.

May, Peter H., Anthony B. Anderson, Michael J. Balick, and Jos6 Mdrio F.
Frazao. 1985
Subsistence Benefits from the Babassu Palm (Orbignya martiana).

Stands of babassu palms (Orbignya martiana) occupy an area of Brazil estimated at
nearly 200,000 km2, concentrated in the states of Maranhao, Piauf and Goias.
Babassu's cryptogeal germination, establishing the apical meristem of the plant below
ground for its early growth and development, enables it to survive human disturbance,
making the palm an integral part of shifting cultivation and pastoral farming systems.
People obtain a multitude of products from babassu throughout the palm's life cycle:
leaves are used widely for thatch, basketry, and construction; trunks for palmito and
bridges; the fruit for feed, oil and charcoal. As many as 450,000 subsistence-level
households rely on the sale of babassu kernels, used in a regional vegetable oil industry,
for an important share of their cash incomes. Deforestation pressures and technological
innovation toward an industry based on mechanical processing of whole babassu fruit
threaten to reduce benefits the palm provides to the region's rural poor. Understanding
how babassu is used by rural families who depend upon it will help to make current
efforts at "domesticating" the palm and whole-fruit processing more responsive to
human needs.


McBride, Jenness E. 1988
Women and Agroforestry: Traditional Roles and New Directions for
Development (A Review of the Literature with an Annotated
Bibliography).

This literature review relates studies in areas ranging from women's issues to
agroforestry systems in subsistence agriculture. McBride begins describing women as
traditional agroforesters, emphasizing that deforestation significantly increases the
financial hardships of rural women along with their daily work loads as they spend more
time walking longer distances to gather fuelwood. She highlights the literature on the
interdependence between community forestry, agroforestry systems and women. She
defines women in agroforestry as a planning concept, emphasizing the importance of the
methodology of project design and baseline surveys. She then goes on to describe several







Abstracts


agroforestry projects in Latin America, the Caribbean, and Asia. The review concludes
with the recommendation that development planners identify the role of agroforestry in
stabilizing the life support systems of the rural poor, and in particular "identify what
agroforestry can contribute to the well-being and advancement of women".


Miller, Linda. 1982
Schools, Community, and Change:
The Role of Educators in the Development of Muitaspedras.

This is a study of the school system of a frontier community in the Amazon region of
Brazil. Between 1971 and 1974, construction of two federal highways through
Muitaspedras County altered previous riverine orientation and stimulated rapid
population growth, leading to the increased importance of the county seat as an
administrative and commercial center. Growth and change in the community was
matched by growth and change in the school system.
The principal change in the community is the creation of a middle class from a fusion
of the old local elite with the outsiders who came to staff new agencies or to start
businesses. Educators are an important segment of the new middle class. The expanded
social system is paralleled by an expanded role for educators, who reach more students,
may keep them in school longer, and attempt to involve the larger community in
entertainment events. Furthermore, the old formal role of educators as transmitters of
a frontier approximation of national, urban, elite, academic culture to children has
changed with the dilution of the aristocratic ideal by a more middle class ideal of
education for work.


Monosowski, Elizabeth. 1990
Institutional Capacities for Assessing Impacts and Trade-offs of large
hydro Power Dams in the Tropics and Subtropics: The Case of Tucurui
Dam in Brazilian Amazonia. Final report for ELETROBRAS Environment
Department.

Tucurui was the first large-scale hydropower project implemented in the Brazilian
Amazon. Its reservoir is one of the largest man made lakes ever built in a tropical forest
area and has caused significant changes in the environmental and socio-economic
dynamics of the eastern Amazon. This study deals with the main issues associated with
the economic and environmental planning of Tucurui dam. It also considers the
environmental management of the project and analyses its successes and shortcomings.
The current trends toward the integrated environmental management of large
hydroschemes in Brazil are also discussed as well as a number of strategies for its
improvement.







Abstracts


Oz6rio de Almeida, Anna Luiza. 1989
The Cost of Amazon Colonization.

This paper provides an analysis of public sector investments in the colonization of the
Brazilian Amazon. "Homogenization" investments include land appropriation (mapping,
demarcation and legal entitlement) and road building. "Colonization" investments
include public and private settlement projects. "Complementation" investments include
local government, public utilities and cooperative institutions. Each of these activities
is described, measured and mapped. Estimates of their total combined cost are added to
the estimated private cost to settlers of migrating to the Amazon. Data come from field
surveys of settlers, local institutions, censures, and the main government agencies
involved in Amazon colonization. Nowadays, conservation of the Amazon must take into
account the large number of agents involved and the difficulties of coordination among
them.


Padoch, C., J. Chota Inuma, W. De Jong and J. Unruh. 1985
Amazonian Agroforestry: A Market Oriented System in Peru.

Most reports on indigenous agroforestry systems of the Amazon region have
described patterns employed by tribal groups almost exclusively for their own
subsistence. This article discusses a market-oriented cyclic agroforestry system
practiced by non-tribal "mestizo" farmers in Tamshiyacu, Peru. The system produces
charcoal, as well as annual, semi-perennial, and perennial crops for local consumption,
and for a regional market. The sale of these products provides a substantial cash income
for many farmers. The data presented demonstrate that Amazonian cyclic agroforestry
systems are capable of being commercially successful enterprises and of serving as
possible models for further agricultural development.


Parker, Eugene. 1985
The Amazon Caboclo: Historical and Contemporary Perspectives.

There is a wide body of literature available on the Indigenous tribes of the Amazon,
but surprisingly little written about the caboclos who make up a much larger percentage
of the Amazon population. This edited volume pulls together much of what is known about
the Amazon caboclo through chapters on their origins and history, mode of production,
contemporary economic transformation, and concepts of disease, health and therapy.
Included is a forward by Charles Wagley who defines the term caboclo and frames the
issues dealt with in this book.


Posey, D.A., and W. Balee (eds.). 1989
Resource Management in Amazonia: Indigenous and Folk Strategies.

This edited volume examines the resource use practices of eight tribal groups as well
as of the caboclos, non-tribal rural farmers, fishermen, and foragers. It shows how
these peoples, in a variety of habitats, have developed management practices that can
provide new insights for the conservation and wise use of these threatened ecosystems -
floodplain and upland forests, savannas, highlands, and white, black, and clear water







Abstracts


rivers. The book is a result of a 1985 symposium presented at the annual meeting of the
American Anthropological Association, and is divided into two sections: (1) Theoretical
approaches to resource management, and (2) Use, perception and manipulation of
resources.


Rocheleau, Dianne E. 1987
Women, Trees and Tenure: Implications for Agroforestry Research and
Development.

This article describes possible relationships between the fields of rural
development, agroforestry, and women's studies. Rocheleau emphasizes interaction
between practitioners, policy makers, and researchers to formulate a more adequate
policy for the 'client' population of women. In order to address the condition of women,
informed policy must take into account legal (political) factors which limit women's
access to the land and to trees, and organizational factors which affect women's
participation in decision-making about projects relating to their access to and control of
key resources relating to forest maintenance. The author concludes that only through
interdisciplinary research and implementation of policy will the communities be
effectively drawn into programs aimed at meeting the needs of these communities
(women, men and children) while also preserving the forest environment.


Roosevelt, Anna. 1990
Resource Management in Amazonia before the Conquest: Beyond
Ethnographic Projection.

Indigenous Amazonian resource management traditionally has been approached
through study of living peoples. However, the European Conquest transformed
indigenous lifeways, and so ethnographic societies may not be representative of
prehistoric ones. More direct evidence of prehistoric resource management exists in
numerous, well-preserved archaeological sites in the region. The sites contain
abundant, recoverable biological remains and structures of occupation that inform on
aspects of ancient subsistence, demography, social organization, and environment.
Because of a lag in the application of ecological archeology in the tropics, prehistoric
resource management has been investigated at only a few Amazonian sites. Existing
evidence indicates a long and substantial prehistoric occupation incorporating several
different stages of resource management. Prehistoric hunter-gatherers and
horticultural village societies occurring earlier in the sequence more closely resemble
current Amazonian Indians than do the late prehistoric chiefdoms. The author states that
future research that integrates archeology with ethnology and ethnohistory may improve
our understanding of the complex trajectory of resource management in Amazonia.


Salik, Jan. 1990
Ecological Basis of Amuesha Agriculture, Peruvian Upper Amazon.

The Amuesha slash-and-burn agricultural systems are adapted to the extremely high
rainfall and geologically diverse environment of the eastern slopes of the Andes in
Central Peru. These systems are timed to rainfall patterns and differ with soils of
seasonally flooded beaches, alluvial floodplains, and acid terraces and hills. Additional
systems are found on continually cropped lands and in permanent yard gardens.







Abstracts


Intercropping and staggered rotations are ubiquitous within cropping systems. High,
alluvial floodplains, for example, are planted with maize followed by cassava in
transition to plantains. Fruit trees are left uncut in a swidden or are planted under the
maturing plantains forming an agroforestry system in transition to an enriched and
utilized fallow. All stages include a great variety of interplanted, minor crops. An
extended Amuesha family simultaneously cultivates various fields at several stages using
different systems. Quantitative ecological description is employed here to distinguish
trends among variation, and is supplemented by informal interviews with Amuesha
families. The research goes beyond description in its orientation toward conservation of
a stable subsistence base, critical to the Amuesha indigenous economy. Determining the
components of this agricultural base is preliminary to any realistic conservation
strategy.


Sawyer, Donald Rolfe, Diana Sawyer. 1987
Malaria on the Amazon Frontier: Economic and Social Aspects of
Transmission and Control.

This pilot study was established as a reference base for a longitudinal study of the
human factors that affect the transmission and control of malaria in Rond6nia, Brazil.
Socio-economic and environmental factors were associated with the prevalence and
control of malaria. The preliminary findings state that the rain forest of Machadinho
provides a favorable environment for malaria transmission. There is a high density of
A. darling, the principal vector in the Amazon with 46.9 bites per hour and a high level
of infection. Morbidity is very high and mortality is relatively low. There are strong
socio-economic and environmental differentials in malaria prevalence. There are
intra-domestic differentials. Differences within households, especially by age and sex
suggest that there are individual differences in exposure.


Shaeff, Gary W. 1990
Igloos of Fire: Charcoal Production for Brazil's Programa Grande Carajds.

Charcoal production for industrial use in Brazil's Programa Grande CarajAs (PGC)
is expected to greatly affect the sociological, political, and ecological character of the
area. These aspects of the industry were examined to determine whether charcoal
production is, or can be modified to be, part of a program of sustainable, grassroots
development in the region. Because of the low prices currently and historically offered
on the international market for pig iron, its profitable production can only occur when
charcoal is used as a fuel source. The problem, however, is not the use of charcoal but
the mining of the native forest for fuelwood for charcoal production.
The current system of charcoal production in Pard, Brazil is socially, economically,
and environmentally predatory and in no way contributes to small-scale rural
development. Furthermore, because of economical and ecological constraints, alternate
methods of wood procurement such as large-scale reforestation projects to provide
fuelwood for charcoal production do not appear practical. Moreover, the current
methods of wood procurement, coupled with incentives for homesteaders to abandon
farming for full-time work in charcoal production threaten the livelihood of the local
rural population. However, if a profitable alternate to charcoal derived from the native
forest were available, the pig iron industry could continue operating without
jeopardizing the environment. The potential for small-scale agriculturalists engaging in







Abstracts


sustainable agroforestry to make charcoal could be a partial alternative to the current,
exploitive methods of fuelwood procurement and a supplement to farm incomes.


Townsend, Janet G. 1989
Gender and the Life Cycle in Land Settlement/Colonization.

With migration into areas on the frontier of settlement, women have lost much of
their access to economic activity and have become housewives on the farms, engaged
full-time and overtime in social and biological reproduction. Outside Latin America
there is evidence that this has occurred in planned and spontaneous settlement schemes in
Nigeria, Kenya, Zimbabwe and Sri Lanka. The article discusses the role of the life cycle
as a major structural component of patriarchal bargains. The author concludes that only
in the context of the life cycle in gender roles, migration and the exercise of power that
one can understand gender relations.

Vickers, William Taylor. 1976
Cultural Adaptation to Amazonian Habitats: The Siona-Secoya of Eastern
Ecuador.

This study investigates the subsistence ecology of the Siona-Secoya Indians of
northeastern Ecuador in light of the "tropical Forest Culture" paradigm in current use
by anthropologists. The organizational features of this Tropical Forest Complex are (1)
a tendency toward small settlements and a low overall population density; (2) frequent
movement of settlements; (3) endemic warfare and witchcraft; and (4) a low level of
sociopolitical cohesion characterized by autonomous village-level societies with
headmen.
Attempted explanations to account for the features of tropical forest culture fall into
two schools: (1) those seeking cultural historical, sociological, or political causes; and
(2) those seeking an economic or ecological cause. The present study argues that there
are no purely sociological causes of the tropical forest complex. Rather, the
organizational features are seen as functionally dependent aspects of a cultural system
adapted to the exploitation of the tropical forest environment with a technology based on
hunting, fishing, gathering, and shifting horticulture. The "ecological," school of
scholars is that they have tended to emphasize unifactorial causation to account for the
dynamics of tropical forest culture (e.g. soil depletion, unreliable horticulture,
competition for riverine resources, or game depletion).
The quantitative and qualitative data presented in this study of the Siona-Secoya
indicate that unifactorial explanations of the Tropical Forest Complex are overly
simplistic as ecological conditions are highly variable through time and space, and that
factors such as soil depletion, competition for land, and game depletion may all serve as
limiting factors in specific times and places. It is also argued that the social
organizations and symbolic systems of the Siona-Secoya are not mere epiphenomena or
"superstructure," but serve important regulatory functions in the overall ecological
adaptation of these people.







Abstracts


Wagley, Charles. 1964
Amazon Town: A Study of Man in the Tropics.

This classic book provides a detailed ethnographic account of the Brazilian Amazon
town of "It A" and its caboclo inhabitants. It addresses the issue of human adaptation to a
tropical environment, while examining life in an "economically marginal" area. The
caboclos, descendants of Amerindians and Portuguese settlers have learned to survive in
a rich but difficult environment by practicing forest extraction, subsistence
agriculture, and hunting and fishing.

Well, Connie. 1979
Morbidity, Mortality and Diet as Indicators of Physical and Economic
Adaptation among Bolivian Migrants.

Bolivian peasants are migrating from marginal farming areas in the highlands to
newly accessible settlement areas in the tropical lowlands. Local census health data and
a community nutrition survey indicate that the migrants have a better diet and
participate more in the market economy than do peasants in the highlands, but probably
at the expense of a higher toddler mortality rate among their children. Although the
settlers produce over half of their own food, they are not self-sufficient. Calorie
consumption in the research community met the estimated requirements of its residents.
Protein intake was considerably higher than estimated requirements. However, the
mortality rate for 1 to 4 year old children is apparently higher in the lowland
settlement area than in the highlands. The price the settlers are paying for economic
gains may include losing their young children.


Wesche, Rolf. 1985
The Transformation of Rural Caboclo Society upon Integration into
Brazil's Amazonian Frontier: A Study of Itacoatiara.

This article examines the transformation of rural caboclo society in the riverine
environment of the Middle Amazon as it is integrated into the Brazilian road network.
The period under observation, 1970-1980 follows the opening of the first road link
between Itacoatiara and Manaus in September 1965. Much of the information on which
this article is based derives from a survey conducted by an interdisciplinary research
team in 1981. This survey included a sample of 575 households (representing 6% of
the area population) and interviews with institutions with local offices as well as
significant private enterprises. The author concludes that throughout this
transformation, caboclo society has adapted to its changing environment rather than
taking an active role in controlling or shaping the direction of change. Further, he states
that development in Itacoatiara during the 1970s was misplaced. It should have centered
in the riverine environment where the caboclo still control much of the resource base,
emphasizing comprehensive and diversified management, combining commercial and
subsistence uses of the heterogeneous, complementary natural endowment which river,
varzea, and terra firme provide. This would, in part, compensate for the risks which
environmental vagaries, market distance and primary exports have entailed.







Abstracts


Wilson, John and A. Alicbusan-Schwab. 1991
Development Policies and Health: Farmers, Goldminers and Slums in the
Brazilian Amazon

This paper is part of the joint World Bank/World Health Organization initiative to
investigate relationships between development policies and health. Using the Brazilian
Amazon as a case study and the incidence of malaria transmission as an indicator of poor
health conditions, this paper describes how development policies may fail to achieve
improvements in the health status of poor households. Specific development policies (or
lack thereof) which have affected major human occupations in the Amazon region are
discussed in the context of their impacts on environment modification, concentration of
ownership of productive resources, and the ability of households to earn a living. The
major human occupations emphasized in this study include new agricultural settlements,
small-scale mining camps or "garimpos", and peri-urban areas which altogether have
been known as areas of highest malaria incidence in the region.
The main conclusion of this paper is that development policies in isolation will not
result in sustainable development unless they are accompanied by explicit
social/poverty alleviation objectives. This suggests that the health status of the poor
should be explicitly addressed in the design of development policies, if one were to
achieve a development process that is both equitable and economically sustainable.

Witt, Sandra Marie. 1983
The Pharmacy, Health Care and Frontier Expansion in the Ecuadorian
Amazon.

The purpose of this study was to examine the role and function of the pharmacy and
the pharmacist in the process of frontier expansion in the Northeastern Ecuadorian
Amazon. Data .drawn from in- depth interviews with key informants provided
information on the process by which pharmacies are established on the frontier and the
role that the pharmacy plays in the overall health care delivery system. Data from a
number of towns provided comparative information on the role of the pharmacy in
different contexts. This study illuminated the variable role of the pharmacist as
intermediary between traditional and modern medical systems. The findings suggest that
in the beginning stages of frontier expansion, the pharmacy is often the only source of
modern medical resources, paving the way for fuller services as the frontier is
consolidated. During the later stages, the pharmacy continues to play na important role
in the provision of health services, since more institutional forms are frequently too
expensive or alienating to respond to the needs of some segments of the population.
Because of the unique intermediary role of the pharmacy it holds the potential for
bridging the gap between the different types of health care and hence contributing to the
availability of health resources to poor populations.







Abstracts 28


Wood, Charles H. and Jos6 Alberto Magno de Carvalho. 1988
The Demography of Inequality in Brazil.

This book examines how transformations in Brazil's social, economic and political
organization affect the demographic behavior of people who live in different parts of the
country and who occupy different positions in the social system. The authors review the
history of unequal development and document the concentration of income and land
ownership. Using data from the 1970 and 1980 censuses, they show how the Brazilian
style of economic growth unequally affected different population subgroups. Mortality
estimates for white and nonwhite people measure the consequences of racial inequality on
the life chances of children. Other chapters investigate rural out-migration, the impact
of Amazon colonization schemes on rural poverty, and the implications of differential
rates of population growth among rich and poor households for future patterns of
inequality and underemployment. The overall perspective places the concept of
inequality at the center of the study of demographic and structural change.





29





BIBLIOGRAPHY


The bibliography includes over 240 selected audio-
visual and written materials, books and research
papers, and project descriptions of relevance to
sustainable development and vulnerable populations
in Amazonia. Each listing includes author, title,
date and publisher, region of focus, discipline,
language, social group focus, and topic keywords
to describe the contents of each item.






* Denotes annotated material


Author
Date
Title


Publisher

Region

Institution


Bibliography


1989
Amaz6nia e Desordem Ecol6gica: Em Busca de Uma Reciprocidade de
Perspectivas na Sua Analise e Levantamento, Relat6rio do Primeiro Seminario.
Unpublished conference report

Brazil-Amazon


International Social Science Council


Interdisciplinary
Portuguese


Social aroup
Topics

Author
Date


Publisher

Region

Institution
19.ISA


Language
Social group


Topics





Author

Date



Publisher
1I..1.2





A.911.2i

Qj.12


11aklih


Region
Institution

Discipline

Language
Social aroup
Topics


conference, conservation, development, ecology


1989
Meio Ambiente.Aquiri, Caderno de Cultura, May 1, 1981


Brazil-Amazon-Acre


Fundagdo Cultural do Acre, Instituto do Meio Ambiente do Acre, Governo do
Estado do Acre, Brasil


Portuguese
caboclo
agrarian reform, caboclo, cattle production, colonization, conservation,
deforestation, development, economics, environmental impact, extractive
reserves, governmental impact, highway, ideology, land tenure, logging,
organization, policy, project, river, rubber tappers, subsistence strategies,
tropical forest, violence


* Aga Khan, Sadruddin, and Hassan bin Talal'

1990
The Vanishing Forest: The Human Consequences of Deforestation, A Report for
the Independent Commission on International Humanitarian Issues.


Zed Press, 57 Caledonian Road, London N1 9BU


Forestry
English


child care, conservation, deforestation, ecology, environmental impacts, forest
management, health, indigenous groups, migration, natural resources, nutrition,
planning, poverty, tropical forest, WID






* Denotes annotated material


Author

Date
Title




Publisher


Region


Bibliography


* Alcorn, Janis B.

1989
Process as Resource: The Traditional Agricultural Ideology of Bora and Huastec
Resource Management and its Implications for Research, Pp. 63-77, In Resource
Management in Amazonia: Indigenous and Folk Strategies. D.A. Posey and W.
Balbe, (eds.).

Scientific Publications Department, Volume 7, Advances in Economic Botany, The
New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, New York 10458

Amazon


Institution

Discipline


Social gro
Topics


Author

Date
Publisher


Publisher


Institution

Discipline
Language
Social group
Topics


Biology
English
Bora, Huastec
agriculture, ideology, indigenous knowledge, management, natural resources,
research, tropical forest


* Alcorn, Janis B.

1990
Indigenous Agroforestry Strategies Meeting Farmers' Needs, Pp.141-151, In
Alternatives to Deforestation: Steps Toward Sustainable Use of the Amazon Rain
Forest. Anthony B. Anderson, (ed.).

Columbia University Press, 562 West 113 Street, New York, New York 10025


Peru-Amazon, Mexico


Anthropology
English
Bora, Huastec
agroforestry, forest management, indigenous knowledge, social impact,
subsistence strategy


up2





* Denotes annotated material


Author
Datu
Title
AiIill


Publisher


Region
Institution


Bibliography


Alho, Cleber J. R.
1984
Fauna em Exting.o. Emog.o nio Basta! Revista Brasileira de Tecnologia
15(5):5-12
Brasileira de Tecnologia, Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento, Cientifico e
Tecnologico, Av., W-e, Norte Q 509-D, Brasilia, Brazil
Brazil-Amazon


Ecology, Interdisciplinary
Portuguese


conservation, deforestation, ecology, environmental impact, environmental
impact assessment, forest benefits, genetic resources, hunting, land use, natural
resources, policy, species extinction, tropical forest, wildlife.


Author Allegretti, Mary Helena


Date
nAi
niff1


Publisher

Region
Institution

Discipline
Lanauaae
Social group
"Tolpcs


1990
Extractive Reserves: An Alternative for Reconciling Development and
Environmental Conservation in Amazonia, Pp. 352-262, In Alternatives to
Deforestation: Steps Toward Sustainable Use of the Amazon Rain Forest.
Anthony B. Anderson, (ed.).
Columbia University Press, 562 West 113 St., New York, New York 10025

Brazil-Amazon


Anthropology, Political Science
English


brazil nut, conservation, development, extractive reserves, institutional
cooperation, management, natural resources, organization, palm, policy, rubber,
rubber tappers, sustainable production


Author Allegretti, Mary Helena


Social group
Topics






* Denotes annotated material


Author
Iate
Title


Region


Institution

Discipline
Language
Social group
Topics


Bibliography


Anderson, Anthony
1988
Use and Management of Native Forests Dominated by Acaf Palm (Euterpe Oleracea
Mart.) in the Amazon Estuary, Pp. 144-154.

The New York Botanical Garden, Scientific Publications Department, Bronx, NY
110458

Brazil-Amazon


Biology
English, Portuguese Abstract


agroforestry, ecology, economy, extraction, forest management, land use,
palms, tropical forest


Author
Date
Title

Publisher


Region

Institution


Anderson, Anthony, A. Gely, J. Strudwick, G.L. Sobel, M.G.C. Pinto
1985
Um Sistema Agroflorestal na Varzea do Estuario Amaz6nico (llha das Oncas,
Municipio de Barcarena, Estado do ParA). Acta Amaz6nica, Supl., 15(1-2)

Acta Amaz6nica, Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazonia, Estrada do Aleixo
1756, P.O. Box 478, Manaus 69000, Amazonas, Brazil
Brazil-Amazon


Botany
Portuguese, English Summary


Social group
Topics


Author


Publisher

Region


agroforestry, economy, extraction, floodplain, forest management, home
garden, land use, tropical forest


* Anderson, Anthony B.

1990
Deforestation in Amazonia: Dynamics, Causes, and Alternatives, Pp. 3-23, In
Alternatives to Deforestation: Steps Toward Sustainable Use of the Amazon Rain
Forest, Anthony B. Anderson, (ed.).

Columbia University Press, 562 West 113 Street, New York, NY 10025

Brazil-Amazon


Institution

Discipline
Language
Social group
Topics


Botany
English


agroforestry, deforestation, development, environmental impact, forest
management, government impact, land use, social impact, tropical forest





* Denotes annotated material


Bibliography


Author Anderson, Anthony B.

Date 1990
Title Extraction and Forest Management by Rural Inhabitants in the Amazon Estuary,
Pp. 65-85. In Alternatives to Deforestation: Steps Toward Sustainable Use of
the Amazon Rain Forest, Anthony B. Anderson, (ed.).
Publisher Columbia University Press, 562 West 113 St., New York, New York 10025

Reaion Brazil-Amazon
Institution

Discipline Botany, Agroforestry
Language English
Social group caboclo
Topics caboclo, case study, conservation, extraction, floodplain, forest management,
indigenous knowledge, sustainable production


Author
Date
Ila


Regialon

Institution

Discipline
Language
Social group
Topics


Anderson, Anthony B. and Darrell A. Posey
1989
Management of a Tropical Scrub Savanna by the Gorotire Kayap6 of Brazil, pp.
159-173. In Resource Management in Amazonia: Indigenous and Folk Strategies.
D.A. Posey and W. Balee, (eds.).
Scientific Publications Department, The New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, New
York 10458

Brazil-Amazon


Anthropology, Botany
English
Kayap6
ecology, forest benefits, forest management, indigenous knowledge, tropical
forest






* Denotes annotated material


Bibliography


Author Anderson, Anthony B., (ed.)


Title
Un&


Publisher

Region
Institution


1990
Alternatives to Deforestation: Steps Toward Sustainable Use of the Amazon Rain
Forest.
Columbia University Press, 562 West 113 Street, New York, New York 10025


Amazon


Interdisciplinary
English


Social group
Topics





Author
Date
Title
Ai.I1A


Region

Institution

Discipline
Language
Social group
Topics


agroforestry, agriculture, case study, cattle production, conservation,
development, deforestation, economy, economics, ecology, environmental
impact, extraction, extractive reserves, floodplain, forest management,
frontier, indigenous knowledge, intercropping, land use, logging, management,
market, natural resources, plantation forest, policy, population growth,

Anderson, Anthony; Darrell A. Posey
1987
Reforestamento Indigena, In Ciencia Hoje 6:31: 29-50

Ciencia Hoje, Av. Wenceslaw Braz 71, funds casa 27, 22.290, S.o Paulo, SP,
Brasil.

Brazil-Amazon


Portuguese
Kayap6
deforestation, ecology, forest management, indigenous groups, natural
resources, tropical region, WID





* Denotes annotated material


Author
Date
ilU



Publisher


Institution

Discipline
Language
Social group
Topics


Author
D.a.te


Bibliography


Anderson, Anthony, Edviges Marta loris
1991 (expected)
The Logic of Extraction: Resource Management and Income Generation by
Extractive Producers in the Amazon. In Conservation of Neotropical Forests:
Working with Traditional Resource Use. Kent H. Redford and Christine Padoch,
(eds.).

Columbia University Press, 562 W. 113 Street, New York, NY 10025

Brazil-Amazon


Botany, Anthropology
English
caboclos
case study, conservation, extraction, floodplain, forest management, income,
land use, management, natural resources, tropical forest

Antrobus, Peggy
1980
Hanover Street: An Experiment to Train Women in Welding and Carpentry
[Hanover Street: Un experiment de capacitaci6n femenina en soldadura y
carpinteria].

SEEDS, Ann Leonard, Editor, P.O. Box 3923, Grand Central Station, New York,
New York 10163


Caribbean, Jamaica


Institution

Discipline
Language
Social group
Toplcs


English, Spanish
Women
case study, gender,income, informal economy, project, sexual division of labor,
training, WID


Region






* Denotes annotated material


Author

Title
29&
IILLQ


Region
Institution


Topics



Author




Publisher


Institution

Discipline


Topics


Bibliography


Arag6n, Lufs E., Luc J.A. Mougeot, (eds.)
1986
Migraq6es Internas na Amaz6nia: Contribuiq6es Te6ricas e Metodol6gicas.

Universidade Federal do Pard, NOcleo de Altos Estudos AmazBnicos, Bel6m, Para,
Brazil

Brazil-Amazon
NAEA

geography, sociology
Portuguese


agriculture, cattle production, development, economy, extraction, frontier,
industrialization, labor, land tenure, migration, political economy, research,
rural development, rubber production, social impact, urban development


Armelagos, George; Thomas Leatherman, Mary Ryan, and Lynn Sibley
n.d.
Biocultural Synthesis in Medical Anthropology.

Unpublished manuscript, request from Dr. George Armelagos, University of
Florida, Department of Anthropology, 1350 Turlington Hall, Gainesville, FL


University of Florida

Anthropology
English


ecology, environmental impact, health, ideology, morbidity and mortality,
nutrition, social impact, social organization


* Ashby, Jacqueline and Stella G6mez

1985
Women, Agriculture, and Rural Development in Latin America.


Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical (CIAT), Apartado A6reo 6713, Cali,
Colombia


Institution


Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical (CIAT)


English


Social group
Topics


agriculture, appropriate technology, bibliography, development,
commercialization, economics, gender, rural development, sexual division of
labor, WIA, WID


Publisher





* Denotes annotated material


Author


Ilila
Publisher

Region

Institution


Author


Title


Publisher


Reiaon


Institution

Discipline
Language
Social group


Bibliography


Bal6e, William
1988
Indigenous Adaptation to Amazonian Palm Forests. Principes 32:2: 47-54.

Principes, International Palm Society, Inc., Box 368, Lawrence, KS 66044

Brazil-Amazon


Anthropology
English
arawete, asurini, guajA
ecology, indigenous group, palm, secondary forest, slash and burn agriculture


* Bal6e, William and Anne G6ly

1989
Managed Forest Sucession in Amazonia: The Ka'apor Case, Pp. 129-159. In
Resource Management in Amazonia: Indigenous and Folk Strategies. D.A. Posey
and W. Balde, (eds.).

Scientific Publications Department,The New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, New
York 10458

Brazil-Amazon


Botany
English
Ka'apor
forest management, succession, tropical forest, slash-and-burn cultivation,
indigenous knowledge, home garden, ecology, environmental impact, sustainable
production


* Barroso, Carmen

1982
Mulher, Sociedade e Estado no Brasil.


Publisher

Region

Institution

Discipline
Language


Editor Brasiliense,01223 R. General Jardim, 160, Sdo Paulo, Brasil

Brazil
UNICEF

Sociology
Portuguese


Social group Women
Topics child care, cooperation, development, education, gender, government impact,
health, institutional labor,legislation, organization, politics, religious
institution, reproduction


Author

Date
Title


Social group
Topics






* Denotes annotated material


Author
Date
Diii


Region


Bibliography


Bay, Christian
1988
Human Rights on the Periphery: No Room in the Ark for the Yanomami?, In
Bodley, J.H., (ed.), Tribal Peoples and Development Issues.

Mayfield Publishing Co., 1240 Villa Street, Mt. View, CA 94041


Amazon


Institution


Social aro
Topics

Author

Date
Title

Publisher

Realon


Institution

Discipline
Language
Social group
Topics


Anthropology
English
Yanomamo
development, human rights, indigenous group, indigenous rights


* Becker, Bertha K.

1982
Geopolitica da Amaz6nia: A Nova Fronteira de Recursos.


Zahar Editores, Caixa Postal 207, (ZC-00), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

Brazil-Amazon


Geography
Portuguese


agriculture, cattle production, development, frontier, government impact,
industrialization, labor, land tenure, migration, policy, political economy,
project, social impact, theoretical discussion, urban development


* Bedoya Garland, Eduardo

1987
Las Estrategias Productivas Familiares y el Deterioro Ambiental en la Selva Alta,
document presentado al Seminario sobre "Poblacion, Resursos y Medio
Ambiente"organizado por el Programa Latinoamericano de Actividades en
Poblaci6n.


Publisher


Region

Institution

Discipline


Centre de Investigaci6n y Promoci6n Amaz6nica (CIPA), Av. Ricardo Palma 666 -
D, Lima, Peru, (Telf. 46-4823)

Peru-Amazon


Anthropology


a Spanish
roup
agriculture, appropriate technology, environmental impact, extension, gender,
household, population growth, survival strategies, technology, tropical region


PDiii
'ilf


>up





* Denotes annotated material


Author




Publisher


Region

Instltutlor

Discipline
Language
Social gro
Topics



Author

Date
Title

Publisher


Region
EIkig i

Pulisher


Institution

Discipline
Language
Social group
Topics

Author
Date
DIlIA
hun


Realon

Institution

Discipline
Language
Social group
Topics


Bibliography


* Biery-Hamilton, Gay M.

1987
Coping with Change: The Impact of the Tucuruf Dam on an Amazonian Community

InterLibrary Loan, M.A. Thesis, University of Florida, Library West, Room 235,
Gainesville, FL 32611

Brazil-Amazon

n University of Florida

Anthropology
English

Up
agrarian reform, case study, class, colonization, culture change, dam,
development, government impact, grassroots, highway, land tenure,
organization, policy, river, resettlement, social impact, subsistence strategy


Boischio, Ana Amelia, Carlos E.A. Coimbra Junior, Ari Miguel Teixeira Ott,
Ricardo Ventura Santos
1988
Inquerito Parasitologico em Rondonia (Brasil) Visando A Deteccao de casos
autoctones de esquistossomose, In Revista Saude POblica, 22:1:78.

Revista Saude Publica, Universidade de Sao Paulo
Faculdade de Saude Publica, Av., Dr. Arnaldo 715, Sao Paulo, Brazil
Brazil-Rond6nia


Portuguese


health, tropical region

Bonilla, Elssy
1990
Poor, Female, and Working in Latin America, Inter-American Development Bank,
December 1990, Pp. 4-7.




Inter-American Development Bank, Washington, D.C.


English
Women
agriculture, development, gender, industrialization, labor, poverty, sexual
division of labor, WID, WIA






* Denotes annotated material


Bibliography


Author


Publisher


Region
Institution

Discipline


Social gro
Topics


Author
Date

I she
Publisher


Institution

Discipline


Boom, Brian M.
1989
Use of Plant Resources by the Chacobo, Pp. 78-96. In Resource Management in
Amazonia: Indigenous and Folk Strategies. D.A. Posey and W. Balee, (eds.).

Scientific Publications Department, The New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, New
York 10458

Bolivia-Amazon


Anthropology, Botany
English
Chacobo
ethnobotany, forest benefits, indigenous knowledge, social organization, tropical
forest


* Brito Franco, Heliana, and Maria de Fatima Mendes Leal

1990
As Criangas da Amaz6nia: Um Futuro Ameagado


UNICEF, UNAMAZ (Associaa&o de Universidades Amaz6nicas), Universidade
Federal do Pard (UFPA), Bel6m, Para, Brazil

Bolivia-Amazon, Brazil-Amazon, Colombia-Amazon, Ecuador-Amazon,
UNICEF


Interdisciplinary
Portuguese, Spanish, English


agriculture, child care, child labor, demography, development, drug traffic,
ecology, economy, education, ethnicity, governmental impacts, health,
household, indigenous knowledge, indigenous policy, indigenous rights,
institutional cooperation, kinship, labor, management, morbidity and mortality,
nutrition, organization, planning, policy, poverty, social organization, UNICEF,


Topics


Mup





* Denotes annotated material Bibliography


Author
Date



Publisher


Region
Institution

Discipline
Language
Social group
Topics


Brokensha, David, and Alfonso Peter Castro
1984
Fuelwood, Agro-forestry, and Natural Resource Management: The Development
Significance of Land Tenure and Other Resource Management/Utilization Systems.
Institute for Development Anthropology, 99 Collier Street, P.O. Box 2207,
Binghamton, New York 13902


Institute for Development Anthropology, Agency for International Development

Anthropology, Forestry
English


agroforestry, ecology, environmental impact, fuelwood, governmental impact,
land tenure, management, natural resources, policy, social impact, tropical
region, tropical forest


Author
Date



Publisher


Region

Institution

Discipline
Language
Social group
Topics


Brooks, E.
1974
Frontiers of Ethnic Conflict in the Brazilian Amazon, International Journal of
Environmental Studies, Vol. 7, Pp. 63-74.

International Journal of Environmental Studies, Gordon and Breach Science Pubs.,
Ltd., P.O. Box 197, London, WC2E 9PX, England

Brazil-Amazon


Anthropology
English


ethnicity, frontier, governmental impact, indigenous group, policy, population
growth


Author *

Date



Publisher

Region

Institution

Discipline
Language
Social group
Topics


Brown, Nigel

1990
Mercury Pollution with Specific Reference to the Amazon Basin. A report
submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the MSc degree.

University of London, Centre for Environmental Technology, London, England

Brazil-Amazon
University of London

Chemistry
English
Garimpeiros
extraction, garimpeiros, health, mining, nutrient cycling, pollution, technology,
tropical region






* Denotes annotated material


Author
Date


Publisher


Bibliography


Bruce, Judith
1982
Cooperativas de Vendedoras de los Mercados: Dan Pr6stamos a las Mujeres

SEEDS #3, Ann Leonard, Editor, SEEDS, P.O. Box 3923, GRand Central Station,
New York, New York 10163


Region




Lnaguage
Social grouD
Topics

Author
Iate
Title
1111i


Region

Institution

Discipline
Lanauaae
Social group
Topics


Economics
Spanish
Women
case study, cooperatives, credit, gender, income, market, project, WID

Bunker, Stephen G.
1980
Barreiras BurocrAticas e Institucionais a Modernizac&o: O Caso da Amaz6nia.
Pesq. Plan. Econ. Rio de Janeiro, 10(2):555-600.
Pesq. Plan. Econ., Av. President Antonio Carlos 51, 13 andar, 20020 Rio de
Janeiro, Brazil

Brazil-Amazon


Sociology
Portuguese


cattle production, colonization, credit, economics, economy, governmental
impact, highway, land tenure, policy, project, rural development, theoretical
discussion





* Denotes annotated material


Author

Date



Publisher


Bibliography


* Bunker, Stephen G.

1982
Os programs de Cr6dito e a Desintegrag.o N.o-intencional das Economicas
Extrativas de Exportag~ o no M6dio Amazonas do Pard, Pesq. Plan. Econ., Rio de
Janeiro, 12(1): 231-260, April.

Pesq. Plan. Econ., Av. President Antonio Carlos 51, 13 andar, 20020 Rio de
Janeiro, Brazil


Region

Institution

Discipline
Lanauaae
Social group
Topics


Author
Date
Title
IEill n
Publisher

Region
Institution

Discipline
Language
Social group
Topics


Brazil-Amazon


Sociology
Portuguese


agriculture, cattle production, credit, deforestation, economics, environmental
impact, extraction, deforestation, development, government impact, policy,
project, social impact


Bussfeld, Barbara
1986
Against the Illusion of Omnipotence.

Women and Ecology Congress






English
Women
agroforestry, conservation, WID


Author Butler, John R.

Date 1985
Title Land, Gold, and Farmers: Agricultural Colonization and Frontier Expansion in the
Brazilian Amazon.


Publisher

Region

Institution

Discipline
Language
Social group
Topics


University Microfilms, 300 North Zeeb Rd., Ann Arbor, MI 48106-1346

Brazil-Amazon
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Florida

Anthropology
English


agriculture, case study, colonization, credit, development, economy, frontier,
health, labor, land tenure, land use, mining, market, migration, project, social
organization, subsistence strategy






* Denotes annotated material


Author
Date
Pla

Publisher


ReAgion


Bibliography


Campbell, Connie
1989
Community Mobilization and Education for Conservation: A Case Study of the
Rubber Tappers in Acre, Brazil, LatinAmericanist 24:2:2-7

Latin Americanist, University of Florida, 319 Grinter Hall, Gainesville, FL
32609

Brazil-Amazon


Institution

Discipline
Language
Social group


University of Florida

Anthropology
English
rubber tappers


cattle ranching, development, education, environmental impacts, hunting,
markets, migration, natural resources, politics, religious institutions, rubber
tappers, social organization, tropical region


Author

Date
Title


Publisher


Realon

Institution

Discipline
Lanauaae
Social gro


Author
Date


Publish

Region


Institution

Discipline
Language


* Campbell, Constance Elaine

1990
The Role of a Popular Education Project in Mobilizing a Rural Community: A Case
Study of the Rubber Tappers of Acre, Brazil.
Masters Thesis University of Florida, Inter-Library Loan, Library West, Room
235, Gainesville, FL 32611

Brazil-Amazon-Acre

n University of Florida

Anthropology
English, Portuguese
up Rubber Tappers, Women
agrarian reform, case study, cooperatives, demography, economics, education,
grassroots, household, income, non-governmental organizations, organization,
peasants, research, rubber tappers, rural development, social organization,
subsistence strategies, sustainable production, WID


Castner, James L.
1987
Insects: A Natural Resource for Amazonia.

r Unpublished draft

Amazon


Entomology, Nematology
English


indigenous group, insects, market, natural resources


Topics






* Denotes

Author
Date
Tile

Publisher


Realon

Institution

Discipline

Language
Social group


Topics


Author
Date

Title

Published


Region


Bibliography
annotated material B ography

Castri, F. di and M. Hadley
1980
Research and Training for Ecologically-Sound Development: Problems,
Challenges and Strategies

Tropical Ecology and Development, Department of Botany, Banaras Hindu
University, Varanasi 221005, India




Ecology
English


development, ecology, economics, interdisciplinary, methodology, natural
resources, planning, research

Caughman, Susan and Mariam N'diaye Thiam
1982
The Markala Cooperative: A New Approach to Traditional Economic Roles.

r SEEDS, #5, Ann Leonard, Editor, SEEDS, P.O. Box 3923, Grand Central Station,
New YOrk, New York 10163

Mali


Institute

Disclplli
Lanauag
Social g
Topics


Author
Date
Tie

Publlshe

Region

Institute

Disciplil
Language
Social g
Topics


on

ne
e English
group Women
case study, cooperative, economy, gender, household, income, project, sexual
division of labor, WIA, WID

CEDEPLAR
1981
SaOde na Fronteira Amaz6nica.

r Draft, proposal

Brazil-Amazon
on CEDEPLAR


Portuguese


evaluation, health, mining, research, social impact, tropical region


rruIM






* Denotes annotated material


Author
Date
Titla
ILtb








Language
Social group
Topics

Author
Date
Title

Publisher

Region

Institution

Discipline
Language
Social group
Topics




Author
Date
Title

Publisher


Region

Institution

Discipline
Language
Social group
Topics


Bibliography


CEDEPLAR
1985
Projeto: Saide na Fronteira Amazonica: 2s Relat6rio T4cnico-Cientifico.

Draft

Brazil-Amazon
CEDEPLAR


Portuguese


evaluation, health, mining, research, social impact, tropical region

Centro de lnvestigaci6n y Promoci6n Amaz6nica (CIPA)
1986
Desarrollo Amaz6nico: Una Perspectiva Latinoamericana, CIPA: Lima, Peru

CIPA, Av. Ricardo Palma 666 D, Lima, Peru (Telf. 46-4823)

Amazon
CIPA

Anthropology
Spanish
Yabarana, Ye'kuana, Piaroa, Yanomami
agricultural expansion, agriculture, colonization, conservation, development,
drug traffic, ethnobotany, ethnography, forest management, frontier, highway,
indigenous knowledge, indigenous rights, industrialization, management,
migration, natural resource, transportation, tropical forest, tropical region

Chen, Marty
1983
The Working Women's Forum: Organizing for Credit and Change

SEEDS #6, Ann Leonard, Editor, P.O. Box 3923, Grand Central Station, New
York, New York 10163

India


Anthropology
English
Women


case study, credit, gender, income, labor, project, sexual division of labor, WID





* Denotes annotated material


Author
Date
DAIw



Publisher


Region

Institution

Discipline
Language
Social group
Topics


Author


Date



Publisher


Region


Bibliography


Chen, Marty
1984
Developing Non-craft Employment for Women in Bangladesh
[Creaci6n de empleos distintos de las artesanias para las mujeres de Bangladesh].
SEEDS #7, Ann Leonard, Editor, P.O. Box 3923, Grand Central Station, New
YOrk, New York 10163
India




English, Spanish
Women
case study, development, economy, gender, labor, market, project, training,
WID


* Chernela, Janet M.

1989
Managing Rivers of Hunger: The Tukano of Brazil, Pp. 238-248. In Resource
Management in Amazonia: Indigenous and Folk Strategies. D.A. Posey and W.
Balee, (eds.).
Scientific Publications Department, The New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, New
York 10458

Brazil-Amazon


Institution


Discipline
Lanauaae
Social gro
Topics


Author
Date



Publisher

Region

Instltutlor


Anthropology
English
Tukano
agriculture, ecology, fishing, floodplain, forest management, management,
nutrition, river, tropical forest


* Cleary, David

1990
Anatomy of the Amazon Gold Rush.

University of Iowa Press, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52246

Brazil-Amazon

n


Discipline
Language
Social group
Topics


Anthropology
English
Garimpeiros
case study, economics, economy, environmental impact, ideology, labor,
migration, mining, politics, pollution, social impact, social structure


up





* Denotes annotated material


Author

Date
Title

Publisher


Institution

Discipline
Language
Social grouD
Topics


Author
Date
Title


Region


Bibliography


Cleary, David

1991
The Brazilian Rainforest: Politics, Finance, Mining and the Environment, Special
Report No. 2100
The Economist Intelligence Unit, 40 Duke Street, London W1A 1DW

Brazil-Amazon
The Economist Intelligence Unit

Economy
English
Garimpeiro
agriculture, agricultural expansion, agrarian reform, agroforestry, cattle
production, conservation, debt for nature, ecology, economics, energy,
environmental impact, forest benefits, governmental impact, health, highway,
indigenous groups, indigenous policy, mining, military, policy, political economy,
poverty, social impact, technology, tropical forest


Clement, Charles R., Ana Maria Arias de Guerrero
1980
Bibliografia Parcialmente Antotada Sobre Pejibaye (Bactris Gasipaes H.B.K.).

r Unpublished draft disseminated by the Biblioteca Conmemorativa Orton,
Turrialba, Costa Rica

Amazon


Institution

Discipline
Language
Social group
Topics


Agroforestry, Biology, Botany
Portuguese


agriculture, agroforestry, bibliography, conservation, genetic resources,
indigenous knowledge, palm, tropical region


Author
Date




Publisher


Region
Institution

Discipline


Clement, Charles R., Jorge E. Mora Urpf
1987
Pejibaye Palm (Bactris gasiaes, Arecaceae): Multi-use Potential for the
Lowland Humid Tropics, In Economic Botany, 41(2):302-311
New York Botanical Garden, Scientific Publications Department, Bronx, NY
10458
Amazon


Agroforestry, Biology, Botany
English


agroforestry, economics, genetic resources, palm, research, tropical region


Topics






* Denotes annotated material


Author
Date
QIIft
Ij i


Publisher

Region

Institution

Discipline
Language
Social group
Topics


Author





Publisher


Bibliography


Collins, Jane
1981
Kinship and Seasonal Migration Among the Aymara of Southern Peru: Human
Adaptation to Energy Scarcity
University Microfilms, 300 North Zeeb Rd., Ann Arbor, MI 48106 1346

Peru-Amazon
Unpublished dissertation, University of Florida

Anthropology
English


agriculture, ecology, energy, environmental impact, ethnicity, gender,
household, kinship, land tenure, land use, migration, natural resources, nutrition,
reproduction, social impact, social organization, subsistence production, survival
strategies, tropical forest


* Collins, Jane

1986
Smallholder Settlement of Tropical South America: The Social Causes of
Ecological Destruction, In Human Organization 45:1-10.

Human Organization, Society for Applied Anthropology, Box 24083, Oklahoma
City, OK 73124-0084


Amazon


Institution

Discipline Anthropology
Language English
Social grouD
Topics colonization, decision making, ecology, environmental impacts, extraction,
nutrient cycling, social impact, tropical forest, tropical region






* Denotes annotated material


IDat
2i"
I1111


Publisher


Bibliography


Collins, Jane L.
1991
Women and the Environment: Social Reproduction and Sustainable Development.
In Press, Women in Development Annual, Volume II, Rita Gallin & Anne Ferguson,
(eds.)

Westview Press, 5500 Central Avenue, Boulder, Colorado 80301


Institution

Discipline
Language
Social group
Topics


Author
Date


Publisher


Anthropology
English
Women
development, environmental impact, gender, organization, reproduction,
sustainable production, WID


Community Forestry Unit, FAO


Publications List, FAO (bibliography of available material).

FAO Forestry Studies, FAO of the United Nations, UNIPUB, 4611 F Assembly
Drive, Lanham, MD 20706-4391


Region


Community Forestry Unit, FAO


Discipline
Language
Social group
Topics


Author
Date



Publisher

Region
Institution

Discipline
Language
Social group
Topics


Forestry
English


bibliography, extension, education, forest management, forestry, information
resources, management, nutrition, technology, WID


Cultural Survival
1986
Children: The Battleground of Change.

Cultural Survival, 11 Divinity Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02138


Cultural Survival

Anthropology
English
Children
child labor, child care, development, discrimination, education, health, human
rights, indigenous rights, legislation, migration, military, nutrition, refugees,
resettlement, urban development





* Denotes annotated material


Author

DAII
Date


Publisher


Bibliography


* Cultural Survival Quarterly

1984
Women in a Changing World, Cultural Survival, 8(2), Summer.

Cultural Survival, 11 Divinity Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02138


Institution

Discipline
Language
Social aroup


Cultural Survival

Anthropology
English
Agta, Anuak, Awa, Mbuti, T'Boli, Women, Yemeni,


agriculture, culture change, deforestation, development, economy, education,
extraction, gender, government impacts, health, household, housework, human
rights, hunting, indigenous group, labor, market, migration, opposition,
organization, policies, resettlement, rural development, social impact,
subsistence strategy, violence


Date
II.q


Publisher


Institution

Discipline
Language
Social group
Topics


Cultural Survival Quarterly/Extracta
1985
La Mujer y el Cambio.

Centro de Investigaci6n y Promoci6n Amaz6nica (CIPA), Avenida Ricardo Palma
666 D, Lima Peri (Telf. 46-4823)

Peru-Amazon, Ecuador, Chile
CIPA

Anthropology
Spanish
Ashaninka, Quichua, Women, Xavante
child care, development, gender, health, industrialization, labor, market,
migration, nutrition, reproduction, sexual division of labor, WIA, WID


Author
DatI


Publisher


Region

Institution

Discipline
Language
Social group
Topics


D'Emilio, Anna Lucia
1987
La Mujer Indfgena: Educaci6n y Participaci6n en los Procesos de Cambio, In
Revista Arinsana, #6/7:5-36.

Revista de la Cooperaci6n Internacional en Areas Indigenas de Am6rica Latina,
Apdo 51088, 1050 A Caracas, Venezuela
Peru-Amazon


Anthropology
Spanish
Women
culture change, development, education, gender, reproduction, sexual division of
labor, training, WIA, WID






* Denotes annotated material


Author
Date


Publisher

Region
Institution


Social group
Topics


Author
Date
lggff


Region


Institution


Bibliography


Daly, Douglas
1990
Extractive Reserves: A Great New Hope, In Garden November/December.

Garden Society, New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, NY 10458

Brazil-Amazon


English
Rubber tappers
brazil nut, conservation, ecology, environmental impact, extractive reserves,
governmental impact, rubber production, rubber tappers, tropical region


Davis, Shelton
1985
The Ayoreode-Zapaco Communal Sawmill: Social Forestry in Eastern Bolivia,
Grassroots Development, Pp. 2-9.

L Inter-American Foundation, Grasssroots Development, 1515 Wilson Blvd.,
Rosslyn, VA 22209
Bolivia-Amazon


Inter-American Foundation


3n Anthropology
e English
Su Ayoreode-Zapaco
ecology, economics, economy, logging, social impact, sustainable production,
tropical forest


Author *


Deere, Carmen Diana and Magdalena Le6n, eds.


Date
nnil


Publisher

Region
Institution

Discipline


1987
Rural Women and State Policy: Feminist Perspectives on Latin American
Agricultural Development
Westview Press, 5500 Central Avenue, Boulder, Colorado

Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Mexico,


Anthropology, Economics, Sociology


Language English
Social group Women
Topics agrarian reform, agricultural expansion, agriculture, commercialization,
cooperatives, decision making, development, gender, governmental impact,
household, income, migration, policy, private sector, organization reproduction,
sexual division of labor, subsistence strategy, survival strategies, theory, WIA,
WID





* Denotes annotated material


Author
Date
PULU


Bibliography


Denevan, William M., Christine Padoch, (eds.)
1988
Introduction: The Bora Agroforestry Project, Pp. 1-7, In Swidden-Fallow
Agroforestry in the Peruvian Amazon, William M. Denevan and Christine Padoch,
(eds.).

Allen Press, Inc., P.O. Box 368, Lawrence, KS 66044


Region

Institution

Discipline
Language
Social group
Topics


Author


Title

Publisher

Region


Institution

Discipline
Lanauaae
Social group


Amazon


Agroforestry
English
Bora
agroforestry, cultivation, indigenous knowledge, project, slash-and-burn
cultivation, tropical forest


* Denslow, Julie Sloan, Christine Padoch, (eds.)

1988
People of the Tropical Rain Forest

Smithsonian Institutution, L'Enfant Plaza, Rm 2100, Washington, D.C. 20560

Amazon


Smithsonian Institution


Anthropology, Botany, Ecology, Environmental Studies, Interdisciplinary
English
Caboclo, Hmong, Kayap6, Kuikuru, Lacandon Maya, Lua, Yanomamo


agriculture, cattle production, conservation, culture change, deforestation,
economics, environmental impact, extraction, floodplain, forest management,
government impact, highway, indigenous group, indigenous rights, logging,
migration, mining, natural resources, policy, plantation forest, project, rubber
production, social organization, social impact, slash-and-burn agriculture,






* Denotes annotated material Bibliography


Author
Date
Title

Publisher

Region

Institution

Discipline
Lanauaae
Social group
Topics


Author
Dhat
Title

Publisher


Region
Institution

Discipline
Lanauaae
Social group
Toilcs


Dewey, Kathryn G.
1981
Nutritional Consequences of the Transformation from Subsistence to Commercial
Agriculture in Tabasco, Mexico, In Human Ecology 9:2:151-187.
Human Ecology, Plenum Press, 233 Spring Street, New York, NY 10013

Mexico


Anthropology
English


agricultural expansion, agriculture, cattle production, commercialization,
economy, food, land tenure, nutrition, rural development, subsistence strategy,
survival strategies, sustainable production


Dhamiaja, Jasleen
1981
Women and Handicrafts; Myth and Reality.
[Mujeres y Artesanias: Mito y Realidad].
SEEDS # 4, Ann Leonard, editor, P.O. Box 3923, Grand Central Station, New
York, New York, 101163




Anthropology
Spanish, English
Women
case study, credit, development, grassroots, income, labor, market, training,
WID


Author Dounce, Teresa Valdivia


Tite Derechos Indigenas, Mujeres y Discriminaci6n en America Latina.

Publisher Centro de Investigaci6n y Promoci6n Amaz6nica (CIPA), Temas Amaz6nicos,
Avenida Ricardo Palma 666 D, Lima, Peru (Telf. 46-4823).

Region Amazon
Institution Centro de Investigaci6n y Promoci6n Amaz6nica

Discipline Anthropology
Lanauaae Spanish
Social group Women
Topics discrimination, ethnicity, gender, human rights, indigenous rights





* Denotes annotated material


Author
Date


Publisher

Region


Language
Social group
Topics


Author
Date



Publisher


Reiaon

Institution


Bibliography


Dradi, Maria Pia
1987
La Mujer Chayahuita: ,Un Destino de Marginaci6n?

Institute Nacional de Planificaci6n, o Fundaci6n Friederich Ebert, Lima, Peru

Peru Amazon
Institute Nacional de Planificaci6n Fundaci6n Friedrich Ebert

Anthropology
Spanish
Chayahuita, Women
development, gender,informal economy, labor, indigenous knowledge, sexual
division of labor, tropical region, WIA, WID

Drummond, Jose A.
1988
Ocupa9go da Amaz6nia, Conservagdo da Natureza e Crescimento Populacional
(Algumas Consideragoes sobre a Fronteira no Brasil).
Paper presented at the working group "Ecologia, Politica e Sociedade" in the XII
Encontro Anual da ANPOCS, Oct. 1988, Aguas de Sao Pedro, S.o Paulo.
Brazil-Amazon


Political Science


Portuguese


conference, conservation, contraception, demography, development, ecology,
economics, extractive reserves, frontier, population growth, poverty, social
impact


* Dubois, Jean C.L.

1990
Secondary Forests as a Land-Use Resource in Frontier Zones of Amazonia, Pp.
183-194. In Alternatives to Deforestation: Steps Toward Sustainable Use of the
Amazon Rain Forest. Anthony B. Anderson, (ed.).

Columbia University Press, 562 West 113 St., New York, New York 10025

Amazon


Institution

Discipline


Topics


Agroforestry, Forestry
English


agroforestry, frontier, forest management, indigenous knowledge, land use,
secondary forest, social impact


Language
Social gro
Topics



Author

Date
TiUe



Publisher

Region


>up






* Denotes annotated material


Author


Publisher


Region
Institution


Discipline
Language
Social gro
Topics



Author

Date
T.tle


Publisher


Realon

Institution


Discipline
Language
Social group
Topics


Bibliography


Dufour, Darna
1990
Use of Tropical Rainforests by Native Amazonians, Bioscience 40:9:652-659.

BioScience, American Institute of Biological Sciences, 730 11th Street, N.W.,
Washington, D.C. 200011-4584


Anthropology
English


agriculture, ecology, ethnography, forest management, hunting, indigenous
groups, indigenous knowledge, indigenous policy, subsistence agriculture,
sustainable production, tropical region


* Dufour, Darna L.

1989
Diet and Nutritional Status of Amazonian Peoples.


Unpublished manuscript prepared for symposium # 109 "Amazonian Synthesis:
An Integration of disciplines, Paradigms, and Methodologies," June 2-10, 1989,

Amazon
Wenner-Gren Foundation for Anthropological Research and International
Symposium

Anthropology
English
Cuibas, Curripacos, Guanhibos, Jivaro, Mekranoti, Piaroas, Piapocos, Shipibo,
case study, cultivation, culture change, health, indigenous group, nutrition,
slash-and-burn


Author


Publisher


Institution

Discipline


Topics


Emmi, Marflia Ferreira
1985
Estrutura Fundiaria e Poder Local: O Caso de MarabA.

Universidade Federal do Para, NOcleo de Altos Estudos Amaz6nicas, Curso
International de Mestrado em Planejamento do Desenvolvimento, Belem, Para,

Brazil-Amazon
Universidade Federal do Par&

Political Science
Portuguese


brazil nut, culture change, economics, extraction, forest benefits, governmental
impacts, ideology, organization, politics,, power, social impact, tropical region


up





* Denotes annotated material


Author
Date
Title
Publisher
Publisher


Region
Institution

Discipline
Language
Social group
Topics

Author
Date
Title

Publisher


Region

Institution


Discipline
Language
Social gro
Topics

Author


Title
I~p12


Region

Institution

Discipline

Language
Social group
Topics


Bibliography


Everett, Jane
1989
The Global Empowerment of Women

AWID, Office of Women's Programs, 10 Sandy Hall, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg,
VA 24061


Association for Women in Development

Anthropology, Political Science, Women's Studies
English
Women
conference, economics, education, grassroots, organization, politics, WIA, WID

FAO
1985
Tree Growing by Rural People, FAO Forestry Paper 64.

FAO Forestry Studies, FAO of the United Nations, c/o UNIPUB, 4611-F Assembly
Drive, Lanham, MD 20706-4391


FAO

Agroforestry
English


agroforestry, gender, rural development, WIA


* Fearnside, Philip M.

1983
Land-use Trends in the Brazilian Amazon Region as Factors in Accelerating
Deforestation, Environmental Conservation, 10(2): 141-48.

Environmental Conservation, Elsevier Sequoia, S.A., Box 564, CH-1001,
Lausanne, Switzerland, Telf 021-207381


Brazil-Amazon


Ecology
English


agriculture, cattle production, cocoa, colonization, deforestation, development,
highway, land use, palms, pepper, rubber, tropical forest


Lup






* Denotes annotated material


Bibliography


Author
Date
2.Ii
111A


Publisher

Region

Institution

Discipline
Language
Social group
Topics


Feamside, Philip M.
1990
Predominant Land Uses in Brazilian Amazonia., Pp. 233-251. In Alternatives to
Deforestation: Steps Toward Sustainable Use of the Amazon Rain Forest.
Anthony B. Anderson, (ed.).
Columbia University Press, 562 West 113 St., New York, NY 10025

Brazil-Amazon


Ecology
English


agriculture, cattle production, climate change, economics, environmental impact,
extraction, floodplain, government impact, land tenure, land use, logging, policy,
slash-and-burn cultivation, soil fertility, sustainable production


Fearnside, Philip M.

1986/87
Derrubada da Floresta e Rogagem de Crescimento Secundario em Projetos de
Colonizag.o na Amaz6nia Brasileira e a sua Relag.o a Capacidade de Suporte
Humano, Acta Amazonica, 16/17(no. unico): 123-141.

C Acta Amazbnica, Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amaz6nia, Estrada do Aleixo
1756, P.O. Box 478, Manaus 69000, Amazonas, Brazil.
Brazil-Amazon


Institution

Discipline
Language
Social group
Topics


Ecology
Portuguese


agriculture, colonization, deforestation, ecology, highway, policy, project,
slash-and-burn cultivation, tropical forest


Author

Date
Diii
Ilu'


Region





* Denotes annotated material Bibliography

Author Fearnside, Phillip
Data 1989
Title Extractive Reserves in Brazilian Amazonia: An Opportunity to Maintain Tropical
Rain Forest Under Sustainable Use, In Bioscience 39:6:387-393.
Publisher Bioscience, American Institute of Biological Sciences, 730 11th Street, N.W.,
Washington, D.C. 20001-4584
Region Brazil-Amazon


Institution

Discipline
Language
Social group


Topics


Author




Published


Realon
Instltuti

Disciplin
Language
Social g
Topics


Anthropology
English


agriculture, conservation, deforestation, ecology, extraction, extractive
reserves, forest maintenance, logging, rubber production, rubber tappers,
sustainable development, tropical forest, tropical region

Fleming-Moran, Millicent
1975
The Folk View of Natural Causation and Disease in Brazil and its Relation to
Traditional Curing Practices.
r Masters Thesis, University of Florida, InterLibrary Loan, Library West, Room
235, Gainesville, FL 32611
Brazil
on University of Florida

e Anthropology
e English


roup


ethnobotany, ethnography, health, indigenous knowledge, nutrition, tropical
region






* Denotes annotated material


Author
Date
Title



Publisher


Region

Institution

Discipline
Language
Social group
Topics


Author
Date


Publisher

Region

Institution

Discipline
Lanauaae
Social group
Topics

Author *
Aate



Publisher

Region

Institution

Discipline
Language
Social aroup
Topics


Bibliography


Frechione, John, Darrell A. Posey and Luiz Francelino da Silva
1989
The Perception of Ecological Zones and Natural Resources in the Brazilian
Amazon: An Ethnoecology of Lake Coari, Pp. 260-282. In Resource Management
in Amazonia: Indigenous and Folk Strategies. D.A. Posey and W. Balbe, (eds.).

Scientific Publications Department, The New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, New
York 10458

Brazil-Amazon


Anthropology
English, abstract in Portuguese
Caboclo
caboclo, ecology, natural resources, tropical forest, indigenous knowledge,
subsistence strategy


Fricke, Peter
1989
Amerindian Health Survey in the Polonoroeste and Carajas Region.

Unpublished manuscript

Brazil


Anthropology, Interdisciplinary
English


health, indigenous knowledge, nutrition, project, sanitation, water

Fundagdo Carlos Chagas

1979
Mulher Brasileira: Bibliografia Anotada.

Editora Brasilense, 01223 Rua General Jardim, 160, Sao Paulo, Brasil

Brazil




Portuguese
Women
bibliography, case study, child care, ethnicity, gender, housework, household,
labor, organization, politics, reproduction, research, sexual division of labor,
WID





* Denotes annotated material


Bibliography


Author FundaGio Carlos Chagas


Publatsher


Publisher


Discipline
Language


Social gro
Tolpics


Author

Date
Title


1981
Mulher Brasileira: Bibliografia Anotada 2.

Editora Brasilense, 01223 R. general jardim, 160, Sdo Paulo, Brasil

Brazil


Portuguese
Women
education, gender, ideology, information resources, labor, legislation,
subsistence strategy


* Gennino, Angela

1990
Amazonia: Voices from the Rainforest: A Resource and Action Guide.


Publisher


Region

Institution

Discipline
Language
Social group


Topics


Rainforest Action Network and the Amazonia Film Project, 301 Broadway Suite
A, San Francisco, CA 94133,

Amazon


Rainforest Action Network


English


agrarian reform, agriculture, cattle production, coca, colonization, dam,
deforestation, ecology, energy, environmental impact, extraction, government
impact, indigenous group, institutional cooperation, land tenure, logging,
military, mining, opposition, organization, planning, policy, pollution, project,
rubber tappers, social impact, tropical forest, tropical region, violence


up






* Denotes annotated material


Author






Publisher


Bibliography


* Gistelinck, Frans


1988
Carajas Usinas e Favelas.


Grdfica Minerva Ltda. S.o Luis, Maranh.o, Brazil


Amazon, Brazil-Maranhio


Discipline
Lanauaae
Social group
Topics


Anthropology, Sociology
Portuguese


charcoal, commercialization, conservation, deforestation, development, fuel
source, industrialization, labor, mining, over-exploitation, planning, policy,
private sector, social impacts


Author


Publisher

Region

Institution

Discipline
Language
Social group
Topics


Author
Date

Title

Publisher

Region

Institution


G6mez-Pompa, Arturo and Andrea Kaus
1990
Traditional Management of Tropical Forests in Mexico, Pp. 43-64. In
Alternatives to Deforestation: Steps Toward Sustainable Use of the Amazon Rain
Forest, Anthony B. Anderson, (ed.).

Columbia University Press, 562 West 113 St., New York, NY 10025

Mexico


Forestry
English


agriculture, agroforestry, forest management, management, natural resources,
succession, sustainable production, tropical forest

Goodland, Robert
1982
Tribal Peoples and Economic Development: Human Ecological Considerations.

International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD)

Brazil-Amazon
World Bank


English


culture change, environmental impact, ethnicity, health, indigenous groups,
indigenous policy, indigenous knowledge, land tenure, land use, legislation,
peasants, social organization, tropical region, World Bank


Topics






* Denotes annotated material


Author
Date





Publisher

Region

Institution

Discipline
Language
Social group
Topics


Author *

Date


Publisher

Realon

Institution

Discipline
Language
Social group
Topics


Author




Publisher


Region

Institution

Discipline
Language
Social group
Topics


Bibliography


Graaf, N.R. and R.L.H. Poels
1990
The Celos Management System: A Polycyclic Method for Sustained Timber
Production in South American Rain Forest, Pp. 116-127. In Alternatives to
Deforestation: Steps Toward Sustainable Use of the Amazon Rain Forest,
Anthony B. Anderson, (ed.).

Columbia University Press, 562 West 113 St., New York, NY 10025

Amazon


Forestry
English


environmental impact, forest management, land use, logging, social impact,
tropical forest


Hahner, June E.

1981
A Mulher Brasileira e Suas Lutas Sociais e Politicas: 1850-1937.

Editora Brasilense, 01042 Rua Bario de Itapetininga, 93, Slo Paulo, Brasil

Brasil


History
Portuguese
Women
gender, history, organization, politics, WID


Hall, Eve
1988
The Port Sudan Small Scale Enterprise Program.

SEEDS #11, Ann Leonard, Editor, P.O. Box 3923, Grand Central Station, New
York, NY 10163

Africa, Sudan




English
Women
case study, credit, development, gender, income, informal sector, market,
project, refugee, training, WID





Bibliography
* Denotes annotated material Bibliography

Author Hartman, Frederick, Mar Dowd Hartman, Susan Poats, Margaret Humphreys, Roy
Miller, and Steven Alexander
Date 1984
Title Impact of a Community-Based Intervention of Health and Nutrition Status in the
Central Amazon of Brazil, In Journal of Tropical Pediatrics, 30:30-36.

Publisher Journal of Tropical Pediatrics, Oxford Journals, Pinkhill House, Southfield Rd.,
Eynsham, Oxford, OX8 1JJ, England
Region Brazil-Amazon


Institution

Discipline
Language
Social group
Topics


English


child care, colonization, ecology, gender, health, morbidity and mortality,
nutrition, project, tropical region


Author Hartshorn, Gary S.

Date 1990
Tite Natural Forest Management by the Yanesha Forestry Cooperative in Peruvian
Amazonia, Pp. 128-138. In Alternatives to Deforestation: Steps Toward
Sustainable Use of the Amazon Rain Forest. Anthony B. Anderson, (ed.).
Publisher Columbia University Press, 562 West 113 St., New York, NY 10025

Region Peru-Amazon

Institution

Discipline Anthropology, Forestry
Lanauaae English
Social group Yanesha
Topics economics, forest management, indigenous group, institutional cooperation,
logging, sustainable production, tropical forest





* Denotes annotated material Bibliography 66

Author H6bette, Jean, Rosa Acevedo

Date 1979
Title Colonizaq&o Para Quem?

Publisher Universidade Federal do Para, NOcleo de Altos Estudos Amaz8nics, Sdrie Pesquisa
Ano 1, No. 1, Belem, Pard, Brazil
Region Brazil-Amazon
Institution NAEA, UFPa

Discipline Sociology
Language Portuguese
Social group
Topics agrarian reform, agriculture, cattle production, class, colonization,
development, economy, frontier, government impact, highway, ideology, land
tenure, migration, policy, political economy, project, rural development, social
impact

Author Hecht, S. B., A. B. Anderson, and P. May

Date 1988
Title The Subsidy from Nature: Shifting Cultivation, Successional Palm Forests, and
Rural Development, In Human Organization, Vol 47: 1: 25-35.
Publisher Human Organization, Society for Applied Anthropology, Box 24083, Oklahoma
City, OK 73124-0084
Realon Brazil-Amazon
Institution

Discipline Anthropology
Lanauaae English
Social group Peasants
Topics agriculture, agroforestry, case study, commercialization, development,
economics, extraction, food, forest management, household, informal economy,
labor, natural resources, palms, rural development, sexual division of labor,
slash-and-burn, succession, tropical forest, WID






* Denotes annotated material


Bibliography


Author Hecht, Susanna, Alexander Cockburn


1989
The Fate of the Forest: Developers, Destroyers and Defenders of the Amazon.


Date
-Ra
*[1IIg


Verso, 29 West 35th Street, New York, NY 10001-2291

Brazil-Amazon


Institution

Discipline
Language
Social group
Topics


Author

Date
Title

Publisher


Region


Institution

Discipline
Lanauaae
Social group


Anthropology, history
English
caboclo
brazil nut, cattle production, conservation, deforestation, ecology, economics,
environmental impact, extraction, forest plantation, government impact,
highway, land tenure, logging, mining, natural resources, organization,
opposition, pollution, social impact, rubber, rubber production, tropical forest,
violence


* Hecht, Susanna B.

1985
Environment, Development and Politics: Capital Accumulation and the Livestock
Sector in Eastern Amazonia, In World Development, 3(6):663-684.
World Development Pergamon Press, Journals Division, Maxwell House, Fairview
Park, Elmsford, NY 10523
Brazil-Amazon


Geography
English


cattle production, deforestation, development, ecology, economics,
environmental impact, government impact, land management, land tenure,
political economy, policy, politics, rural development, soil fertility,
technology, theoretical discussion, tropical forest


Topics





* Denotes annotated material


Author

Date
TRitl


Realon


Discipline


Author
Data




Publisher


Bibliography


* Hecht, Susanna B. and Darrell A. Posey

1989
Preliminary Results on Soil Management Techniques of the Kayap6 Indians, Pp.
174-188. In Resource Management in Amazonia: Indigenous and Folk Strategies.
D.A. Posey and W. Balee, (eds.).

Scientific Publications Department, The New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, New
York 10458

Brazil-Amazon
n Museu Goeldi


Anthropology, Geography


g English
gp Kayap6
agriculture, indigenous knowledge, management, slash-and-burn cultivation, soil
fertility, tropical forest


Hecht, Susanna B., and Darrell A. Posey
1990
Indigenous Soil Management in the Latin American Tropics: Some Implications for
the Amazon Basin, In Mark J. Plotkin, Ed., Ethnobiology: Implications and
Applications. Part D., Natural Resource Management.
Museu Paraense Emflio Goeldi, Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Cientifico e
Tecnologico, Caixa Postal 399, Bel6m, Para, Brasil


Region


Museu Goeldi


Discipline
Lanauaae
Social group
ToRics


Anthropology
English
Kayap6
agriculture, forest management, genetic diversity, indigenous knowledge,
indigenous rights, land use, natural resource, soil fertility, sustainable
production, tropical forest, tropical region






* Denotes annotated material


Date


Bibliography


* Hecht, Susanna B., Richard B. Norgaard and Giorgio Possio

1988
The Economics of Cattle Ranching in Eastern Amazonia, Interciencia
13:5:233-240.

Interciencia, Assn., Apdo 51842, Caracas 1050A, Venezuela, Telf. (582)
92-3224

Brazil-Amazon


Institution

Discipline
Language
Social group
Topics


Author

Fate



Publisher

Region


Institution

Discipline
Language
Social group
Topics


Anthropology, economics
English


cattle production, credit, deforestation, economics, economy, environmental
impacts, extraction, extractive reserves, livestock, policy, technology, tropical
forest, tropical region,


* Hecht, Susanna B., Stephen Schwartzman

1988
The Good the Bad and the Ugly: Amazonian Extraction, Colonist Agriculture, and
Livestock in Comparative Perspective.
Unpublished Draft

Brazil-Amazon


Geography
English


cattle production, colonization, deforestation, extraction, livestock, rubber
tappers, sustainable production


Author








Institution
Publisher


Reaion

Institution


Hemming, John, (ed.)
1985
Change in the Amazon Basin, Vol. 1: Man's Impact on Forests and Rivers.

Manchester University Press, 51 Washington Street, Dover, N. Hampshire
03820

Amazon


Forestry
English
Bora, Tupi, Omagua,
agroforestry, culture change, deforestation, development, ecology, economics,
economy, environmental impact, ethnobotany, floodplain, indigenous groups,
rubber production, rubber tappers,


Social group
Topics






* Denotes annotated material


Bibliography


Author Hemming, John, (ed.)

Date 1985
Title The Frontier After A Decade of Colonization: Change in the Amazon Basin, Vol. 2.

Publisher Manchester University Press, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PI, United
Kingdom

Realon Amazon

Institution

Discipline Anthropology, Political Science, Sociology, History
Language English
Social gro.u Aguaruna, Amuesha, Amahuaca, Campa, Conibo, Kotiria, Machiguenga, Palcazu,
Topics agriculture, caboclo, case study, colonization, credit, culture change,
demography, development, economics,environmental impact, fishing, floodplain,
frontier, government impact, health, indigenous group, land tenure, migration,
mining, nutrition, population growth, planning, policy, political economy, politics,
project, religious institution, rural development, social impact, social


Author
Date

TIUl

Publisher


Region

Institution

Discipline
Language
Social group
Topics


Author
Date


Publisher

Region

Institution

Discipline

Languaae
Social group
Topics


Hern, Warren
1976
Knowledge and Use of Herbal Contraceptives in a Peruvian Amazon Village, Human
Organization 35:1:9-19.
Human Organization, Society for Applied Anthropology, Box 24083, Oklahoma
City, OK 73124 0084
Peru-Amazon


Anthropology
English
Shipibo
contraception, fertility, health, indigenous knowledge, population growth,
reproduction


Hern, Warren M.
1977
High Fertility in a Peruvian Amazon Indian Village, Human Ecology 5:4:355-368.

Human Ecology, Plenum Press, 233 Spring Street, New York, NY 10013

Peru-Amazon


Anthropology
English
Shipibo
culture change, fertility, indigenous knowledge, health, reproduction






* Denotes annotated material


Author


Publisher


Region

Institution

Discipline
Language
Social group
Topics


Bibliography


Hiraoka, Mario
1985
Cash Cropping, Wage Labor, and Urbanward Migrations: Changing Flooldplain
Subsistence in the Peruvian Amazon, In E. Parker, ed., Studies in Third World
Societies, 32:199-243.

Studies in Third World Societies, Department of Anthropology College of William
and Mary, Williamsburg, VA 23185

Peru-Amazon


English


agriculture, commercialization, demography, development, economics, economy,
education, fishing, floodplain, forest management, hunting, labor, migration,
natural resources, nutrition, subsistence strategies, technology, tropical forest


Author
Date
Title



Publisher

Reiaon
Institution

Discipline
Lanaguaae
Social group
Topics


Author
Date
Title

Publisher

Region
Institution


Social group


Hiraoka, Mario
1991 (expected)
Caboclo and Ribereto Resource Management in Amazonia: A Review. In
Conservation of Neotropical Forests: Working with Traditional Resource Use.
Kent H. Redford and Christine Padoch, (eds.).
Columbia University Press, 562 West 113 Street, New York, NY 10025

Amazon


Anthropology
English
caboclos
agriculture, agroforestry, caboclo, extraction, fishing, floodplain, forest
management, hunting, land use, natural resources, tropical forest


Hoskins, Marilyn
1981
Women in Forestry for Local Community Development: A Programming Guide. In
Invisible Farmers: Women and the Crisis in Agriculture.

Office of Women in Development, AID, Washington, D. C.


SAID


Forestry
English
Women


agroforestry, development, forestry, gender, policy, WIA






* Denotes annotated material


Author
Date

ItleA
Publisher


Realon

Institution

Discipline
Language
Social group
Topics


Bibliography


Hoskins, Marilyn
1983
Rural Women, Forest Outputs and Forestry Projects.

FAO Forestry Studies, FAO of the United Nations, UNIPUB, 4611-F Assembly
Drive, Lanham, MD 20706 4391


FAO

Anthropology
English
Women
agriculture, agroforestry, development, forest products, forest management,
gender, household, policy WIA, WID


Author
Aate
AMq
Iljt
Title

Publisher


Region

Institution

Discipline
Language
Social group
Topics


Author


Title

Publisher


Region

Institution

Discipline
Language
Social group
Topics


Huss-Ashmore, Rebecca and Francis E. Johnston
1985
Bioanthropological Research in Developing Countries, Annual Review of
Anthropology 14:475-528.
Annual Review of Anthropology, 4139 El Camino Way, Box 10139, Palo Alto, CA
94306-0897


Anthropology, Interdisciplinary
English


child care, development, fertility, health, methodology, nutrition, policy,
population growth, research

International Work Group for Indigenous Affairs
1990
Indigenous Women on the Move, Document 66.

International Work Group for Indigenous Affairs (IWGIA), Frederiksholms Kanal
4A, 1220 Copenhagen K, Denmark

Peru, North America


Anthropology
English
Aymara, Hopi, Kalinga, Igorot, Navajo, Saami
education, health, indigenous groups, indigenous policy, social organization,
tropical region






* Denotes annotated material


Author
Date
Ttle

Publisher

Region

Institution

Discipline


Author
Date
Title
Ij1U


Publisher


Institution

Discipline
Language
Social group
Topics


Bibliography


Irvine, Dominique
1987
Regional Resource Management Among the Runa Indians: The Threats of and
Alternatives to Deforestation in the Ecuadorian Amazon.

Unpublished manuscript

Ecuador-Amazon
Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute

Anthropology
English
Runa
agroforestry, deforestation, forest management, impact, indigenous knowledge,
land use, management, natural resources, rural development, slash-and-burn
cultivation, social agriculture, tropical forest


Irvine, Dominique
1989
Succession Management and Resource Distribution in an Amazonian Rain Forest,
Pp. 223-237. In Resource Management in Amazonia: Indigenous and Folk
Strategies. D.A. Posey and W. BalBe, (eds.).


Scientific Publications Department, The New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, New
York 10458


Ecuador-Amazon


Anthropology
English, abstract in Spanish
Runa
agroforestry, forest management, indigenous knowledge, management, natural
resources, succession, tropical forest


Author
Date
Title

Publisher

Region

Institution

Discipline
Language
Social grouo
Topics


Jackson, Jean E.
1984
The Impact of the State on Small Scale Societies.

Unpublished manuscript

Amazon


Anthropology
English
Tukanoan
culture change, development, ecology, economics, governmental impacts, health,
health, nutrition, subsistence strategies, survival strategies, theoretical
discussion





* Denotes annotated material


Author


T.ilI


Bibliography


Jacobson, Harold K.
1990
A Framework for Research on the Human Dimensions of Global Environmental
Change.
International Social Science Council and UNESCO, UNIPUB, 4611-F Assembly
Drive, Lanham, MD 20706 4391


Institution


UNESCO


English


Social group
Topics




Author
Date

Title


Publisher


Institution

Discipline
Lanauaae
Social group
Topics


agriculture, climate change, conservation energy, environmental impact,fuel
source, governmental impact, institutional cooperation, management,
methodology, natural resources, planning, pollution, policy, research, social
impact, technology, UNESCO

Johnson, Allen
1989
How the Machiguenga Manage Resources: Conservation or Exploitation of
Nature?, Pp. 213-222. In Resource Management in Amazonia: Indigenous and
Folk Strategies. D.A. Posey and W. Bal6e, (eds.).

Scientific Publications Department, The New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, New
York 10458


Peru-Amazon


Anthropology
English
Machiguenga
conservation, ecology, ideology, indigenous knowledge, management, natural
resources, tropical forest






* Denotes annotated material


Author

Date
Title


Publisher


Region

Institution

Discipline
Language
Social group
Topics


Bibliography


Kahn, Francis

1990
Diversidad de las Palmeras Nativas de la Amazonia y su Implicaci6n en el Manejo
de Bosques.

Unpublished manuscript from the Reuni6n Internacional "Experiencias para el
Desarrollo Sostenido de la Amazonia"

Peru-Amazon
ORSTOM

Biology
Spanish


conference, conservation, ecology, forest management, palms, tropical forest


Author
Date
Title

Publisher

Region

Institution

Discipline

Language
Social group
Topics


Kassab, Pedro
1980
Medicine, Natalidade e Planejamento Familiar, Pp.14-28. In Problemas
Brasileiros: Revista mensal de cultural, Ano XVII, No. 190, August 1980.

Problems Brasileiros

Brazil


Medicine
Portuguese


abortion, child care, contraception, demography, family planning, gender, health,
household, reproduction


Author
Date
Tiet

Publisher


Region

Institution

Discipline
Lanauaae
Social group
Topics


Kelly, Arlene Marie
1975
The Xingu and Jose Porfirio.

Masters Thesis, University of Florida, Interlibrary Loan, Library West, Room
235, Gainesville, FL 32611

Brazil-Amazon
University of Florida

History
English


colonization, commercialization, economy, environmental impact, rubber
tappers, social impact






* Denotes annotated material


Bibliography


Kitamura, Paulo Choji


Date
IlBA


Alternatives Para a Pesquisa Agricola e Sua ArticulagSo com a Extens.o Rural na
Amazbnia Brasileira.


Publisher

Region

Institution

Discipline
Language
Social group
Topics


Unpublished Draft

Brazil-Amazon
Embrapa


Agriculture
Portuguese


agricultural research and development, institutional cooperation


Kneerim, Jill
1980
Village Women Organize: The Mraru Bus Service.

SEEDS, Ann Leonard, Editor, P.O. Box 3923, Grand Central Station, New York,
New York 10163


Institution

Discipline


Social gro
Topics

Author

Date


Publisher


Institution

Discipline
Language


Anthropology
English
Women
grassroots, social organization, transportation, WID


* Kohlhepp, Gerd; and Achim Schrader, (eds.)

1987
Homem e Natureza na Amaz6nia/Hombre y Naturaleza en la Amazonia.

Simp6sio Internacional e Interdisciplinar, Blaubeuren 1986, Tubinger
Geographische Studien, Holderlinstrabe 12, D-7400 Tubingen

Amazon


Geographisches Institut der Universitat Tubingen,


Portuguese, Spanish


agriculture, cattle production, colonization, conservation, culture change, dam,
development, ecology, environmental impact, ethnobotany, extraction,
floodplain, frontier, government impact, indigenous knowledge, indigenous
policy, land tenure, migration, mining, planning, plantation forest,project,
social impact, soil fertility, tropical forest, violence


Author
Date



Publisher


Topics


lUP






* Denotes annotated material


Author


Publisher
Publisher


Bibliography


Kroeger, Alex; Francoise Barbira Freedman
1984
Cambio Cultural y Salud.

Mundo Shuar, Ediciones Apya-Yala, Casilla 8513, Quito, Ecuador


Region

Institution

Discipline
Languaoe
Social group
IORIGSA


Author
Date


Publisher

Region

Institution


Language
Social group
Topics



Author

















Topics
League


Ecuador-Amazon


Anthropology
Spanish
Women, Children
child care, culture change, demography, ecology, health, nutrition, reproduction,
WIA, WID


Lavinas, Lena, Coordinator
1987
Mulher Rural: Identidades na Pesquisa e na Luta Politica

Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil

Brazil-Amazon
Ford Foundation, FINEP, MIRAD, MINAGRI, MINC, CNDM, EMBRATER


Portuguese
Women
agrarian reform, agriculture, demography, development, education, fertility,
gender, household, ideology, labor, WIA, sexual division of labor, social
organization, WID

Lehti, K.K.
1990
Breast milk folic acid and zinc concentrations of lactating, low socio-economic,
Amazonian women and the effect of age and parity on the same two nutrients, in
European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 44:675-680.

European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, John Libbey and Co., Ltd. 13 Smiths Yard,
Summerly St., London, SW 18 HR, England

Brazil Amazon


English
Women
health, poverty, reproduction, WID, tropical region






* Denotes

Author
Date
Iiai

Publisher

Region

Institution

Discipline
Language
Social group
Topics


*




r



on


Author


lDat

Published

Region

Instltutl

Disciplir
Lanauaag
Social g
Topics


Author

Date


Publlshe


Region

Instltuti

Disciplin
Languaag
Social g
Topics


Bibliography
annotated material Bibliography

Leon, Kirai de
1986
Andar Andino: Testimonio de Mujeres del Sector Forestal

Penguin editors, Manuel Montt 2534, Santiago, Chile

Chile




Spanish


agroforestry, forest management, gender, household, labor, sexual division of
labor, WIA, WID


Leon, Magdalena, and Carmen Diana Deere

1986
La Mujer y la Polltica Agraria en Am6rica Latina

Siglo Veintiuno Editores, Av. 3a 17-73, primer piso, Bogota, D.E., Colombia

Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Mexico,


ne Anthropology, Economics, Sociology
e Spanish
roup Women
agrarian reform, agricultural expansion, agriculture, commercialization,
cooperatives, decision making, development, gender, governmental impact,
household, income, migration, policy, private sector, organization reproduction,
sexual division of labor, subsistence strategy, survival strategies, theory, WIA,
WID

Lisansky, Judith

1979
Women in the Brazilian Frontier. Latinamericanist 15:1:1-3.

r Latin Americanist, University of Florida, Center for Latin American Studies, 319
Grinter Hall, Gainesvile, FL 32611
Brazil

on University of Florida

e Anthropology
S English
.rou Women
colonization, development, economics, frontier, gender, household, land use, land
tenure, migration, peasant, sexual division of labor, tropical region, WIA, WID






* Denotes annotated material


Author
Date

Ila
Publisher

Region

Institution


Social group
To2ics


Date
Mq12


Region


Bibliography


Lisansky, Judith
1990
Migrants to Amazonia: Spontaneous Colonization in the Brazilian Frontier.

Westview Press, 5500 Central Avenue, Boulder, CO 80301


Brazil-Amazon


Anthropology
English


agriculture, cattle ranching, colonization, cultural change, development,
frontier, gender, household, labor, market, migration, policy, survival
strategies, tropical region, WID


Loureiro, Violeta

1987
Mis6ria da Ascens.o Social: Capitalismo e Pequena Produqdo na Amaz6nia.

r Editora Marco Zero, R. Inacio Pereira da Rocha, 273, Pinheiros, Sao Paulo, Brazil

Brazil-Amazon


Institution


Anthropology
Portuguese


Social grouD
Topics



Author *

Date
DL.1
Lii1i


Publisher


Institution

Discipline
Language
Social group
Topics


agriculture, cattle production, colonization, commercialization, culture change,
development, economy, education, fishing, frontier, land tenure, migration,
poverty, political economy, rural development, social impact, tropical region

Loureiro, Violeta Refkalefsky

1985
Os Parceiros do Mar: Natureza e Conflito Social na Pesca da Amaz6nia.

Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Cientffico e Technol6gico, Museu Paraense
Emilio Goeldi, Caixa Postal 399, Bel6m, Park, Brasil


Brazil-Amazon


Anthropology
Portuguese
Caboclo
agriculture, caboclo, case study, commercialization, culture change,
development, economy, fishing, labor, market, natural resources, organization,
opposition, social organization, social impact, subsistence strategy, technology,






* Denotes annotated material


Author

Date
IU
Publisher

Region

Institutlo

Discipline
Language
Social aro
Topics




Author
DiLl


Publisher


Region

Institution


Bibliography


* Magee, Pennie L.

1990
"The Water is Our Land:" Peasants of the River Tocantins, Brazilian Amazonia.

University Microfilms, 300 North Zeeb Rd., Ann Arbor, MI 48106-1346

Brazil-Amazon

n Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Florida

Anthropology
English

up Caboclos
agriculture, caboclo, case study, culture change, dam, development, ecology,
economy, environmental impact, extraction, fishing, floodplain, household,
ideology, labor, logging, natural resources, organization, policy, religious
institution, river, social impact, subsistence strategies, tropical forest


Majisu, L. and R. Labelle
1982
A Selected Bibliography of Agroforestry.

International Council for Research in Agroforestry (ICRAF), P. 0. Box 30677,
Nairobi, Kenya


International Council for Research in Agroforestry (ICRAF)

Agroforestry
English


agroforestry, bibliography, tropical forest


n


Discipline
Language
Social gro
Topics

Author

Date
.1.q


Realon
Institutloi


Discipline
Language
Social group
Toi1cs


* Major, Michael, Carlos E. Reiche, and Thomas McKenzie

1989
Participaci6n de la Mujer en la Reforestaci6n de Hojancha, Costa Rica,
Silvoenergia 29 : 1-4.

Proyecto Cultivo de Arboles de uso multiple, CATIE ROCAP 596-0117,
Turrialba, Costa Rica

Costa Rica
n CATIE


Spanish
Women
deforestation, forest management, FSR/E, gender, labor, tropical region, WIA,
WID


up






* Denotes annotated material


Author

Date
Title

Publisher


Bibliography


* Martinello, Pedro

1988
A "Batalha da Borracha" na Segunda Guerra Mundial e Suas ConsequBncias para o
Vale Amaz6nico.

Universidade Federal do Acre, S6rie "C" Estudos e Pequisas, Pro-Reitoria de
Pesquisa e Pos Graduaq&o, Campus Universitario, BR 364, KM 04, 63,900 Rio


Relgon

Institution

Discipline

Language
Social group
Topics


Brazil-Amazon
Universidade Federal do Acre

History
Portuguese


colonization, class, extraction, labor, migration, policy, political economy,
rubber production, rubber tappers, social impact, violence


Author
Date
Title

Publisher


Region
Institution

Discipline
Language
Social group
Topics


Author
Date
Title



Publisher

Region

Institution


MaOes, Maria Angelica Motta
1977
A SujeiqAo Feminina: Um Estudo Sobre o Status das Mulheres numa Comunidade
Amaz6nica.

Unpublished thesis, NAEA, Universidade Federal Do Pard, Belem, Para, Brazil

Brazil-Amazon
Nucleo de Altos Estudos Amaz6nicos

Anthropology
Portuguese
women
agriculture, culture change, extraction, fishing, gender, natural resources,
social impact, social organization

May, Peter
1990
A Tragedy of the Non-Commons: Recent Developments in the Babaqu Palm Based
Industries in Maranh&o, Brazil, In Forests, Trees and People, Newsletter,
December 11:23-27.


Brazil-Amazon


Discipline
Language
Social group
Topics


English


appropriate technology, common property, development, forest management,
palm, rural development, tropical forest






* Denotes annotated material


Author

Date
Title

Publisher


Bibliography


* May, Peter H., A.B. Anders, M. M. Balick, J. M. F. Frazao

1984
Subsistence Benefits from the Babassu Palm (Orbianva martiana). Economic
Botany, 39(2):113-129.

Economic Botany, New York Botanical Garden, Scientific Publications Dept.,
Bronx, NY 10458


Brazil-Northeast


Agricultural economics, botany
English


extraction, economy, forest benefits, palms, slash-and-burn agriculture,
subsistence, reforestation, rural development, technology


Language
Social gro
Topics


Author

Date
Title
QA1A
Iu


* McBride, Jenness E.

1988
Women and Agroforestry: Traditional Roles and New Directions for Development
a Review of the Literature with and Annotated Bibliography.


Publisher

Region

Institution

Discipline
Language
Social group
Tolpics


Author
Date


Unpublished document


University of Florida


English


agroforestry, bibliography, development, fuelwood, gender, household,
management, natural resources, planning, policy

Melgaco, S.B., Francis, D.G., Barros, E. de V. and J.T.L. Tibbaut
1981
Variaveis Individuais e Estruturais Associadas com uma Cultura Inovadora, o
Milho, no Estado do Amazonas, Revista Ceres, 28(155):8-18

Revista Ceres, Universidade Federal de Vicosa, 36570 Vicosa, Minas Gerais,
Brazil, tel 031-899-2136


Region


Institution

Discipline
Language


Brazil-Amazon


Extension
Portuguese


agriculture, agricultural research and development, corn, evaluation, extension,
FSR/E, research, rural development, survival strategies, technology, tropical
region


up






* Denotes annotated material


Author
Date
DIa"
lilif


Bibliography


Menegola, Ivone Andreattta, Bruce Albert
1990
Situaq~o Sanitaria dos Yanomami do Papiu: Relat6rio No. I (Periodo de 17/han. a
15/fev. de 1990).


Publisher

Region

Institution

Discipline
Language
Social group
Topics


Unpublished draft

Brazil-Amazon


Medicine, Anthropology
Portuguese
Yanomami
health, indigenous group, mining, social impact


Author Miller, Linda


Date

Title


Region

Institution

Discipline
Language
Social group
Topics


Author
Date
Title

Publisher

Region
Institution


Discipline
Language
Social group
Topics


1982
Schools, Community, and Change: The Role of Educators in the Development of
Muitaspedras.

University Microfilms, 300 North Zeeb Rd., Ann Arbor, MI 48106-1346.

Brazil-Amazon
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Florida

Anthropology
English


development, education, frontier, ideology, migration, social impact, tropical
region

Millikan, Brent
1984
Diagn6stico de dez Niucleos Urbanos de Apoio Rural: Avaliagdo do
PDRI-RO/POLONOROESTE

Fundaq&o Instituto de Pesquisas Econ6micos (FIPE)

Brazil-Amazon


Interdisciplinary
Portuguese
Colonos
agriculture, agrarian reform, agricultural expansion, case study, cattle
production, colonization, development, economics, education, evaluation,
extension, frontier, governmental impact, health, highway, housing,
interdisciplinary, land tenure, land use, livestock, migration, organization,
planning, policy, project, resettlement, rural development, social impact, social






* Denotes annotated material


Author
Date


Publisher


Realon

Institution

Discipline
Language
Social group
Topics


Bibliography


Molnar, Augusta
1987
Forest Conservation in Nepal: Encouraging Women's Participation.

SEEDS #10, Ann Leonard, Editor, P.O. Box 3923, Grand Central Station, New
York, NY 10163

India, Nepal


English
Women
appropriate technology, case study, conservation, forest management, gender,
project, training, WIA, WID


Author


Date
ILUia


Publisher

Realon

Institution

Discipline
Language
Social group
Topics


Monosowski, Elizabeth

1990
The Case of Tucurui Dam in Brazilian Amazonia: Institutional Capacities for
Assessing Impacts and Trade-offs of Large Hydro Power Dams in the Tropics and
Subtropics

Unpublished manuscript

Brazil Amazon


ELETROBRAS


English


dam, development, energy, environmental impact, environmental impact
assessment, institutional cooperation, planning, policy, project, social impact,
tropical region






* Denotes annotated material


Author
Date
TAJ&


Publisher


Region

Institution

Discipline
Languaae
Social group
Topics





Author
Date



Publisher

Region

Institution

Discipline
Language
Social group


Topics


Bibliography


Moran, Emilio F.


Estrat6gias de Sobreviv6ncia: O Uso de Recursos ao Longo da Rodovia
Transamaz6nica, Acta Amazonica 7(3):363-379

Acta Amazonica, Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazonia, Estrada do Aleixo
1756, P.O. Box 478, Manaus 69000, Amazonas, Brazil

Brazil-Amazon
Indiana University, Bloomington (USA)

Anthropology, Ecology, Interdisciplinary
Portuguese
colonos
agriculture, agricultural research and development, case study, colonization,
culture change, development, ecology, economy, extraction, fishing, forest
benefits, frontier, highway, hunting, intercropping, land tenure, land use,
livestock, migration, natural resources, palm, planning, project, slash-and-burn
cultivation, social impact, soil fertility, subsistence strategy, survival

Moran, Emilio F.
1975
Pioneer Farmers of the Transamazon Highway: Adaptation and Agricultural
Production in the Lowland Tropics.

University Microfilms, 300 North Zeeb Rd., Ann Arbor, MI 48106-1346

Brazil-Amazon
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Florida


Anthropology
English


agriculture, case study, colonization, credit, development, economics,
evaluation, frontier, government impact, highway, land tenure, market,
migration, project, rural development, social change, social impact, soil
fertility, subsistence strategies, tropical forest





Bibliography 86
Denotes annotated material

Author Moran, Emilio F.
Date 1979
itle An Energetics View of Manioc Cultivation in the Amazon, Pp. 111-123. In
Peasants, Primitives, and Proletariats, D. Browman and R. Schwarz, (eds.).
Publisher Mouton Press, Division of Walter de Guyter, Inc., 200 Saw Mill River Rd.,
Hawthorne, NY 10532
Realon Brazil Amazon
Institution

Discipline Anthropology
Language English
Social group
ToIics agriculture, economics, energy, ethnography, manioc, tropical region

Author Moran, Emilio F.
Date 1984
Title Colonization in the Transamazon and Rond6nia, Pp. 285-306, In Frontier
Expansion in Amazonia, M. Schmink and C. Wood (eds.).
Publisher University of Florida Press, 15 NW 15th Street, Gainesville, FL 32611

Region Brazil-Amazon
Institution

Discipline Anthropology, Interdisciplinary
Language English
Social group
Topics agriculture, agrarian reform, case study, colonization, ecology, environmental
impact, evaluation, forest benefits, frontier, governmental impact, highway,
land use, migration, natural resources, planning, project, rural development,
social impact, subsistence strategy, tropical forest






* Denotes annotated material


Author
Date




Publisher


Institution

Discipline
Language
Social groug
Topics


Bibliography


Moran, Emilio F.
1989
Models of Native and Folk Adaptation in the Amazon, Pp. 22-29. In Resource
Management in Amazonia: Indigenous and Folk Strategies. D.A. Posey and W.
Balee, (eds.).

The New York Botanical Garden, Scientific Publications Dept., Bronx, New York
10458

Amazon


Anthropology
English


agriculture, ecology, environmental impact, floodplain, indigenous knowledge,
labor, manioc, nutrition, population growth, soil fertility, theoretical
discussion, tropical forest


Author

PAU
Dat





Publisher


ReInstitution
Institution


Social group
Topics


Moran, Emilio, William Denevan, Christine Padoch, Julie Denslow, Christopher
Uhl, William T. Vickers, et. al.,
1984
Indigenous Agroforestry in the Amazon: Bora Indian Management of Swidden
Fallows, Decline of Subsistence Life Style in San Carlos de Rio Negro, The Faunal
Components of Lowland South American Hunting Kills, New Information on Kayapo
Agriculture, Non-Dietary Modifiers of nutritional status in tropical forest
rn' ilatinnce rf \/% no7illla
Interciencia Special Issue on Human Ecology in the Amazon, Interciencia, Assn.,
Apdo. 511842, Caracas 1050A, Venezuela

Amazon


Anthropology, Agroforestry
English, Spanish, Portuguese
Andoke, Bora, Campa, Kalapalo, Kayap6, Shuar, Witoto
agriculture, agroforestry, colonization, development, ecology, environmental
impact, indigenous groups, nutrition, planning, policy, subsistence strategies,
tropical forest, tropical region






* Denotes annotated material


Author
Date


Institution

Discipline
Languaae
Social group
Topics


Author
Date
DlaI
IiWii


Institution

Discipline
Language
Social group


Bibliography


Murray, Gerald F.
1984
The Wood Tree as a Peasant Cash-crop: An Anthropological Strategy for the
Domestication of Energy, Pp. 141-160, In Today and Tomorrow: An
Interdisciplinary Study. Charles Foster and Alan Waldman, (eds.).

University Press of America, 4720 Boston Way, Lanham, MD 20706

Haiti


Agroforestry, Anthropology
English


economy, methodology, planning, reforestation, rural development


Murray, Gerald F.
1986
Haitian Peasant Agroforestry Outreach: An Anthropological Chronicle, Pp.
193-226, In Politics, Projects, and Peasants: Institutional Development in
Haiti, D.W. Brinkerhoff and J.C. Garcia-Zamor, (eds.)

[ Praeger Press, 88 Post Road, West, Box 5007, Westport, CT 06881

Haiti


Anthropology
English


deforestation, economy, environmental impact, methodology, planning, policy,
reforestation, rural development, social impact

Myers, Norman
1984
The Primary Source: Tropical Forests and Our Future.


Publisher

Region

Institution


Topics


W.W. Norton and Company, Inc., 500 5th Avenue, New York, NY 10110

Amazon


Forestry
English


agroforestry, cattle production, climate change, conservation, deforestation,
ecology, environmental impact, food, forest benefits, forest management,
fuelwood, genetic resources, indigenous knowledge, industrialization, logging,
natural resources, reforestation, secondary forest, tropical forest, tropical
region


Topics


Date






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Author


Title


Region


Institution

Discipline
Language
Social group
Top2cs


Bibliography


Nacimento, M. J. Mota
1983
Acumulagao Capitalista e Opressdo Camponesa: A Unidade da Diversidade (Sul do
Pard).
Disserta9go de Mestrado, Universidade Federal do Pard, NOcleo de Altos Estudos
Amazbnicas, Curso Internacional de Mestrado em Planejamento do

Brazil-Amazon


Anthropology, Economics, Social Science
Portuguese


agriculture, agricultural expansion, case study, cattle production, colonization,
credit, culture change, demography, development, economics, economy,
extraction, frontier, income, informal economy, labor, land tenure, land use,
livestock, natural resources, political economy, rural development, social
impact, tropical region


Author
Date


Relgon
Institution

Discipline


NACLA: Report on the Americas
1989
War in the Amazon.
Articles by Darrell A. Posey, Manuela Carneiro da Cunha, Susanna B. Hecht,
Stephen G. Bunker. NACLA: Report on the Americas, Vol. XXII, No. 1, May 1989.
North American Congress on Latin America, 475 Riverside Drive, Room 454,
New York, NY 10115
Brazil-Amazon
NACLA


Anthropology, Sociology, Geography
English


iroup Kayap6
cattle production, conservation, dam, deforestation, development, economics,
government impact, indigenous group, indigenous rights, land use, land tenure,
mining, organization, opposition, policy, project, rubber tappers, tropical
region






* Denotes annotated material


Author


Title



Realon

Institution

Discipline
Language
Social group
Topics



Author
IDat
Title




Publisher

Region

Institution


Language
Social group
Topics

Author
Date
I2AU









Institution

Discipline
Language
Social group
Topics


Bibliography


Nasser, Nassaro Antonio de Souza
1982
Tribes that Endured: Four Brazilian Cases.

University Microfilms, 300 North Zeeb Rd., Ann Arbor, MI 48106-1346

Brazil-Amazon
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Florida

Anthropology
English
Tukano, Mundurucu, Tenetehara, TuxA
colonization, commercialization, economy, education, ethnography,
environmental impact, governmental impact, indigenous groups, indigenous
knowledge, labor, nutrition, population growth, tropical region

Nations, James D.
1991 (expected)
Xateros, Chicleros, and Pimenteros: Harvesting Renewable Tropical Forest
Resources In the Guatemalan Peten. In Conservation of Neotropical Forests:
Working with Traditional Resource Use. Kent H. Redford and Christine Padoch,
(eds.).

Columbia University Press, 562 W 113 Street, New York, NY 10025

Guatemala


Botany
English
Xateros, Chicleros, Pimenteros
conservation, extraction, natural resources, palms, project, tropical forest

Nepstad, Daniel, Christopher Uhl and E. Adilson Serrio
1990
Surmounting Barriers to Forest Regeneration in Abandoned, Highly Degraded
Pastures: A Case Study from Paragominas, Para, Brazil, Pp. 215-230. In
Alternatives to Deforestation: Steps Toward Sustainable Use of the Amazon Rain
Forest. Anthony B. Anderson, (ed.).

Columbia University Press, 562 West 113 St., New York, New York 10025

Brazil-Amazon-ParA


Forestry, Agronomy
English


cattle production, environmental impact, reforestation




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