Citation
Guatemalan small farmer

Material Information

Title:
Guatemalan small farmer soil conservation regions I and V projects: final contract report
Place of Publication:
[Washington D.C.]
Publisher:
U.S. AID
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
28 p. : ill., map ; 28 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Soil conservation -- Guatemala ( lcsh )
Farms, Small -- Guatemala ( lcsh )
Genre:
federal government publication ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )

Notes

General Note:
Cover title.
General Note:
Comics in Spanish.
Funding:
Electronic resources created as part of a prototype UF Institutional Repository and Faculty Papers project by the University of Florida.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Jerome E. Arledge.

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University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
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The University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries respect the intellectual property rights of others and do not claim any copyright interest in this item. This item may be protected by copyright but is made available here under a claim of fair use (17 U.S.C. §107) for non-profit research and educational purposes. Users of this work have responsibility for determining copyright status prior to reusing, publishing or reproducing this item for purposes other than what is allowed by fair use or other copyright exemptions. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder. The Smathers Libraries would like to learn more about this item and invite individuals or organizations to contact Digital Services (UFDC@uflib.ufl.edu) with any additional information they can provide.
Resource Identifier:
08149812 ( OCLC )

Full Text
FINAL CONTRACT REPORT
1e
GUATEHALAN SHALL FARMER
-,Soil Conservation Regions I and V Project 520-T-026
A
by: Jerome E. Arledge, USDA/SCS Advisor
- -PASA AG- 233-1-77 -- -. USAID/0RD GUATEMALA Apo Miami 34024 -The Author: Mr. Arledge, effective June 29, 1980 has been reassigned as State Resource Conservationist, US Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service, US Courthouse and Federal Building, 100 S. Clinton Street Room 771, Syracuse, New York, 13202 Telephone Number:' (315) 423-5493 or 950-51494(FTS)
Guatemala
27 June, 1980 Guateala .**
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PROJECT AREA DESCRIPTION
Guatemala Is approximately the same size as the state of Tennessee. There
are 33 volcanoes varying in heights from 1,027 meters (3,369.4124 ft.) to
40220.36 meters (13,845.1026 ft.) above sea level, the highest point in all of
Central America. There is a six months' dry season (Nov.-April). The rainy season (may-Oct.) produces 230-5000 milimeters (9-196 inches) of rain usually
related to elevations above sea level.
The small farmers, (less than 10 hectares) Soil Conservation Highland
Project area varies from 600 meters (1,968.498 feet) to 4220.36 meters (13,845.
1026feet )above sea level.
Even though there is a 6 months' rainy season, only June, July, and August
equal or exceed-the evapo-transpiration.needs of the crops .produced. Corn is the basic diet with black beans providing the major portion of their protein.
Most of the' time the beans and corn are interplanted. Wheat is produced mainly
for a cash .crop as the Government has stabilized the price. Some bread is
consumed during the fiestas by the small farmers. Vegetable production is increasing where terracing and irrigation systems have been constructed. The soils of Guatemala are divided into nine groups (I), (2), and.. (3), three of which occur
in the soil conservation project area consisting'of 69 different soils (1).
The groups of Ando soils occur on rolling to hilly uplands on volcanic materials mostly volcanic ash, in the southern part of the project area. They have brown loamy surfaces and brown or yellowish brown sub-soils containing slightly more
clay than the surface soil. They are moderately fe-tile soils but are deficient
in phosphorus, and some minor elements. Ando soils are subject to severe erosion
and the unweathered volcanic ash is exposed in many-places. Most of the Ando
soils are forested, some are in pasture, with the balance being used intensively
for cultivated crops of corn, black beans, wheat and very few vegetables.
. In the northwest corner of -the area on the limestone ans-and hi ls,
* the soils are mainly Terra Rossas and Rendzinas. The Terra Rossas are red clays,
whereas the Rendzinas a're black or dark brown clays; both are shallow and, in contrast to like soils in other parts of the world, both have surfaces high in
organic matter. Throughout the area occupied by these soils are extensive areas
of karst--rugged limestone surfaces generally devoid of soils and with many sinkholes, TNdges, and peaks. Most of the Terra Rossas and Rendzinas are forested or in pasture but where depth of soil permits, cultivated crops and coffee are
grown. At least 70% of the area's mountains and steep slopes are dominantly
Lithosolic soils. These soils-have little potential for farming due to the shallowness to the underlying rock or steepness of slope. The farmers who
live in this area have to cultivate these steep poor lands to scratch out their living. Therefore, we as technicians have the obligation and responsibility to show them how to cultivate their steep lands and at the same time conserve their
soil and water resources.
14HATIS THE TRUE PROBLEM?
Guatemalan farmers have been exposed to Soil Conservation measures for
many years and maybe for centuries. Why, then haven't thousands of hectares
of adequate conservation measures been installed? Why haven't farmers learned from others who have applied conservation work? Could it be, because the conservation practices offered were designed too difficult? Host small farmers
In the highlands cannot read or write. Therefore when charts, tables or
designs "on paper" are presented, a "Mental Block" is. immediately formed because they know that they cannot read or understand the designs.




-2
OBJECTIVES:
The main objectives of Soil Conservation Project were:
1. Provide ADEQUATE, SIMPLE, EXCELLENT QUALITY, soil conservation practices
that could be passed on by word of mouth.
2. To eliminate runoff. (except the extreme storms).
3. Allow sufficient storage and time for infiltration to occur.
PROGRAM DEVELOPMENT
The Government of Guatemala with the help of an USAID loan developed a
Sol1 Conservation Program, considering the above objectives-. The highlands are divided into two regions, (see Project Hap). Guatemala was to appoint a threeman soil conservation-team for each region to set up and operate a pilot soil
conservation project. .
The Advisor arrived in Guatemala on January 27, 1977. The first Guatemalan
counterpart employee was not appointed urttll August of 1977.. The Advisor was
provided a vehicle to use throughout the project. Also gasoline and maintenance
was provided, however, many times with great difficulty involving heavy red tape.
The start of the project was very slow. The first conservation project was / -formed and construction began in March of 1978, even though all of the proper official Government signature approvals were not completed until May 19, 1978.
All soil conservation project construction had to be completed by June 30,
1978 which was the latest date that the crops could be planted. For all practical purposes the true soil conservation project work was not able to begin
until November or December of 1978, after the years crops were harvested. In the meantime, the Guatemalan teams were beginning to-take shape. Many of the
conservation principals were produced by the Advisor. However, the Guatemalan .--technicians.did not accept all of the Advisor's suggestions shown in the panphlet attached. Together the two regional teams and the Advisor developed .
ADEQUATE, SIMPLE, EXCELLENT QUALITY soil conservation practices and a program
to fit the needs of the Guatemalan small farmers.
Two hundred thousand (200,000) small farmers living in the 10.1 million
hectare area (25 million acres) cultivate, by hand, fields with slopes up to 80%. Various types of land acquisition eventually formed large land holders
on themore gentle slopes. This left the steep.highland soils for many of the small farmers who on the average farm less, than one-half of a hectare
(0.46 hectare or 1.15 acres).
The Universal Soil Loss Equation (8) shows that ona given R factor of
20, Sandy clay loam (2% organic matter). 150 foot length of slope occurring
on a 12% slope, corn with the residue removed, spring turn plowed conventionally. moderate production continuously followed, tilled up and down the slope
produces 6.49 tons per acre (16.03 tons per hectare) soil loss.
The same conditions only increasing the slope to 60% produces an estimated soil loss of 82.6 tons per acre 04.1 tons per hectare).
Increasing the R factor to 350 on 12% slope, with all other factors equal
to the above example, produces an estimated 113.58 tons per acre (280.64 tons per hectare). Now when only the sipe is increased to 60% and all other conditions remain the same it increases the soil loss to 1.45.5 tons per acre
(,571.8 tons per hectare. Under these kinds of conditions, the Guatemalan
technician's only logical adequate alternative is BENCH TERRACES. The percent
of slope is then 15T reversed back into the mountain and the length of the
slope. is less than two meter.s. Interpelation shows that this produces a aximum of 5.16 tons per acre (12.76 tons per hectare). Remember that the soil movement is only to the back of the terraces which is less than two
(D




- 3.meters away. The farmer does not actually-lose thli soil from his field.
Therefore, he can manage-this soil movement easily.
THE "KISS" METHOD
The highlands' 69 different kinds of soils, 80% slopes and high rate of
illiteracy forces the team members to adopt the '.KISS Method" (Keep It Simple
Sir)' to:
Develop their conservation planning guidelines;
* Educational Program;
* Soil Conservation designs, and
, Engineering equipment.
HELP ESTABLISH PRIORITIES
Almost everyone knows that erosion occurs, BUT HOW MUCH? The soil conservation team members use a sprinkler can to simulate rainfall over a demonstration box. Four fields are shown, proped up to a 30% slope. This helps the
farmers establish priorities on the four types of soil conservation measures
shown: bench terraces, contour planting, diversion ditches (Guatemalan style),
and no treatment. They can measure and compare:
- The amount of runoff and .
7 The amount of soil erosion which occurred as both are collected in four
bottles.
The use of mulch ts also demonstrated on the bench terraces. To date,
terracing has always been chosen by the farmers-as their preferred conservation practice.
" BASIC DATA NEEDED FOR CONSERVATION PLANNING
The proper-.use of Contour farming is a-very easy method which indicates
WHAT, WHEN, WHERE, and WHICH conservation practices are necessary. Certain crops cultivated in Latin America are hilled up (listed) during the process
of cultivation, fertilization and weeding. This habit of hilling, sometimes
over 30 cms. in height, provides an excellent opportunity" for the farmers
to plant on the contour with very little additional.work. In one or no more
than two years, a small farmer can contour plant all of his cultivatable fields.
Every ten meters, a farmer will mark a contour base line row, using his
"A'frame level, across his field. Parallel to this level base line, he then plants five parallel rows up hill and down hill. The unlevel. short rows are
fitted into the remaining spaces. The farmers' planting, cultivating and
killing each row forms many absorption ditches on the contour. Each row is
only expected to handle the rain that falls between each row.
CONTOUR PLANTING
The contour planting and killing up practice will eliminate 80-90 of
the erosion occurring on even the very steep volcanic mountainous soils. The following four factors allow the hilled-up contour farming practice to effectively control the erosion caused by water or cause failure:
Infiltration rate of the kind of soil.
Intensity.and duration of the rainfall.
* Steepness and length of the slope.
* The Human Factor (the exactness of the level rows and the height of
the hilling-up process.




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If the farmer will contour-farm his entire farm, he can very easily use this system as a planning Indicator of where and when to start building his level bench terraces. When the Contour rows begin to fail (break and erode) due to one or any combination of the four factors mentioned above, then this 'is his indicator that a more adequate conservation practice is required.
LEVEL BENCH TERRACES
The farmer, remembering that he must stop the velocity of water and store the water until it soaks into the soil, knows that he must start constructing his terraces a few rows uphill from where his contour rows have broken during the heavy rains. This approach provides flexibility and allows the small illiterate farmer: to adequately plan high quality bench terraces required for his farm, only where they are needed.
Guatemalan farmers have proven to themselves that level bench tCrraces produce the most adequate erosion control and the greatest immediate economic return on their invested time. In 1978 and 1979, 274 farmers in Region I tested the production results comparing their traditional faming method (no conservation treatment), with their newly constructed level bench terraces. A few farmers reported a decrease in production on terraces. However, the AVERAGE JNCREASE IN PRODUCTION, the first year produced inediate economic returns. /
Amazingly, terraced land increased first yepr harvest yields (planted on less land). Again, 274 farmers reported that on the average their production yields increased in 1979 as follows:
.1. Corn: 141% increase 2.Potatoes: 98% 3. Beans: 95% 4. Wheat 81%
These results were compared with their traditional planting methods during the same year.
Remember that each terrace is only asked to absorb all pf the rain that falls on itself. An adequately designed and constructed terrace is exactly
level along the front edge of the terrace and the base of the slope. The cultivated bench must be inclined into the mountain enough to store and soak in the rainfall that lands on each terrace. The amount of unlevelness depends on the kind of soil. The entire backslope of each terrace must be protected by planting grasses, perennial plants, or with a rock wall. See the illustration shown in the attached Soil Conservation Pamphlet. Napiergrass (Pennisetum purpureum) commonly called Merker, Elephant or Carter grass (5) and
(Setaria geniculata) (6) are the major grasses used from sea level up to 2,200 meters (7,217 ft. f.a.s.J). Orchard grass (Dactylis glomerata) a coolseason grass is effective up to the highest cultivated elevations in Guatemala (4,220 meters or 13,845 feet above sea level). Local production tests show, that all three grasses equally produce 8-10 tons of forage per hectare. for the'highest protein content, harvest of the grasses occurs 4 times during the growing season (every 45 days). Cattle feed, compost and mulch materials comprise the major uses of these grasses. Of course any of the hundreds of other grasses or perennial plants that are found in Guatemala, that provide slope and vegetative barrier protection are acceptable. The Guatemalan farmers have also devised a method to save the topsoil without double digging, as shown in the attached pamphlet.
IS IT POSSIBLE TO INCREASE OUR AREA OF PRODUCTIVE LAND?
The Guatemalans are, in fact, increasing their land area by means of
terracing. When the slope.is 304, the farmer increases his productive acreage by 25%. In other words, for every four hectares of bench terraces, the




farmer constructs, he gains the fifth hectare of land. These terraces require almost triple the present labor, but once constructed, maintenance is very minimum. Flatter slopes result in less than 25t increase; however steeper land when terraced produces more than a 25% increased area. The reverse of the theory, "A straight line between two points is the shortest distance" produces the increased acreage. Grasses used for livestock feed or cut for mulch materials are seeded on the steep terrace slopes. The farmer could not sacrifice any of his land to plant grasses before terracing. Yes, it is true, that less land is available for planting the cultivated crops. Also the amount of seed and fertilizer must be reduced to prevent lodging.
FARMERS HAKE THEIR OWN ENGINEERING LEVEL
Three strong corn stalks, native hemp material used for tying and a rock are the only materials needed to build an adequate engineering level. The team members teach the farmers how to construct, calibrate and use his level, as Illustrated in the Soil Conservation Pamphlet attached. Then any farmer can survey, design, construct by hand, with a large hoe and check his construction with enough perfection to store and allow sufficient time for Infiltration of the rainfall.
USE OF ORGANIC MATTER ..
Tropical'soils burn up organic matter very rapidly. Decomposition of organic matter in the tropics, presents a serious problem by tying up the available plant nutrients, when it is incorporated into the soil. Therefore, the following is recommended for all crops which will- stand mulching:
Composting requires too much labor and management;. Therefore let's process plant food an easier way.
* Gather all of the organic materials that are available and place them on top of the soil and around the plants, as mulch. The mulch must be thick enough to prevent weed growth and conserve moisture. This Method will prevent the tying up of the available-nutrients that are-in the soils, because no interaction takes place.
* The native earth-worms will come to the moist surface and process
the wet organic matter into rich plant food for the farmer's crops (9). Charles Darwin identified more than 1600 varieties of earthworms. in the world. (7).
* Also, the high intensity rains will soak through the mulch and into the soil rapidly, without causing erosion.
LONG-TERM RETURNS? '"
Most people say that "Soil Conservation work takes many years to see the results." Maybe the conservation measures offered earlier were only partially conserving their soil and other resources. Therefore, these
-measures could not produce enough immediate visible results. -"
At the end of Advisor's contractual time, the Guatemalan Soil Conservation 520-T-026 project has successfully become a Grass Roots project, that is from the small farmer upwards clear to the Minister of Agriculture. The Regional Chiefs are so pleased with the project results that they have assigned, loaned, and/or trained 35 technicians in Region I and 28 techniclans in Region V. Many of the two Regions' 150 Prootor Aar~cola. are trained also, and are. in charge of over 100 communiLies who have small and sme large groups of small farmers constructing soil conservation practices In the highlands of Guatemala. More than 550 Guatemalan farmers constructed over 230 hectares of terraces by hand with a large hoe, in 1978 and 1979.




All structures withstood the rainy seasn well, which included four hurricanes back to back (31 days and nights of constant rain).
SUMMARY
If simple soil conservation designs can be passed on from farmer to
farmer by word of mouth, the Guatemalans hope that this conservation approach will spread like a grass fire. Some of the visible results of the program to date are:
* Increased the farmer's productive area.
* Introduced new crops, grasses, as cattle feed or mulch material..
* Farmer saved energy by cultivating less land area.
* Farmer used less fertilizer and seed.
* Increased crop yields substantially .
* Increased the farmers' income.
* Improved the structure of'the soil .
* Increased retention of soil moisture.
* Helped provide a better ecological balance.
The Guatemalan 520-T-026 Soil Conservation Project's Philosophy, Methodology, and-Soil Conservation practices recommended for controling Sand-preserving their nation's soil, water, and other natural resources are explained and illustrated in their Soil Conservation pamphlet attached. It is recommended that this pamphlet be used as a training tool for all employees of the agencies within the agricultural sector, schools, universities, etc.
REFERENCES CITED
1. Simmons, C.S. "Soil and Agriculture Conditions in Guatemala." Carib. Common.
Dept. Soil Conf. 1950, 218-221 HAL. .56-09 503
2. Wheeting, Lawrence "Some Observations on the Soils of the Pacific Slope
of Guatemala." 1939 Proc. 6th Pacific Sci. Cong., San Francisco. vol.
4, pp. 885-889, NAL. 330.9 P194
3. Senis..S. (editor) "Excursion Guide Book for Guatemala" 1967 annual
meeting, Geological Society of Amer., 71 pp. illus., maps, 1967.
Cuatemala Geological Bulletin No. 4 USGA G (381) in 7gb.
4. Simmons, Charles S., TSrano T., Jos6 Manual, Pinto Z., Jose Humberto "Clasificaci6n de Reconocimiento de los Suelos de la Rep(blic de Cuatemala." 1000 pp. Institute Agropecuario Nacional, Servicio
Cooperativo Inter-Americano de Agricultura, Hinisterio de Agricultura,
Guatcmala.




5.United States Department of Agriculture, GRASS, the Yearbook of
Agriculture, 194.8. Superintendent of Documents, Washington, D.C.
6. Mlarto E. KONINCK, GRAJIINEAS, Editorial Universitaria, Universidad
de San Carlos de Guatemala, 1973 Coleccl6n Aula Voli~men 3 5208 ABC.
5c. -6-73 Impreso No. 975
7.Thomas J1. Barrett, Harnessing The Earthworm,, 1950, Bruce Humphries
Inc. Boston, Mass.
8.Authored by a Committee of Scientist of Agricultural Research
Service, USDA: B.A. Stewart, B.A. lWoolhiser, 14.1. 1Iischmeier,
J.H. Caro, 14.1. Frere, "Control of Water Pollution from Cropland"
Volumes I & 1I.
9. "Mayor 'es Cosechas Empleando la Lombriz Coqueta Roja."1
Autor: Ingeniero, Agr6nomo, Jerome E. Arledge, Especialista en
Conservaci6n de Suelos y Agua. Empleado par Depto. de Agricultura de los EE.UU.; Servicio de Conservaci6n de Suelas. El Folleto fue publicado por: Ministerio de Agricultura, Sector P~blico Agricola,
Direcci6n General de Servicios Agrtcolas, Regi6n I,OIGESA.
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