• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 From the editor
 Table of Contents
 Subjects and documents of special...
 Questions and answers about...
 Sample document citation and...
 Agriculture
 Sample document citation and...
 Development assistance
 Economics
 Education
 Health
 Nutrition
 Population
 Science and technology
 Social science
 Urban development
 Ordering instructions and...
 Contract/grant number index
 Geographical index
 Item cost index
 Personal author index
 Subject index
 Back Cover






Title: A.I.D. research and development abstracts
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE PAGE TEXT
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00055233/00001
 Material Information
Title: A.I.D. research and development abstracts
Alternate Title: AID research and development abstracts
ARDA
A.R.D.A
Physical Description: v. : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: United States -- Agency for International Development. -- Division of Documentation and Information
United States -- Agency for International Development. -- Bureau for Technical Assistance
Publisher: U.S. Agency for International Development (A.I.D.),.
Place of Publication: Washington D.C
Frequency: quarterly
regular
 Subjects
Subject: Economic development -- Abstracts -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Economic development -- Social aspects -- Abstracts -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Genre: federal government publication   ( marcgt )
abstract or summary   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
periodical   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Issuing Body: Vols. for 19 - issued by the Agency's Bureau for Technical Assistance; <Apr. 1979-> by the Division of Documentation and Information, Office of Development Information and Utilization, Bureau for Development Support.
General Note: Title from cover.
General Note: "TN-AAA."
General Note: Description based on: Vol. 6, no. 4 (Apr. 1979).
Funding: Electronic resources created as part of a prototype UF Institutional Repository and Faculty Papers project by the University of Florida.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00055233
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000007509
oclc - 01798797
notis - AAA8972
lccn - 75641358 //r81
issn - 0096-1507
 Related Items
Preceded by: A.I.D. research abstracts

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    From the editor
        Unnumbered ( 2 )
    Table of Contents
        Page i
    Subjects and documents of special interest
        Page ii
    Questions and answers about ARDA
        Page iii
        Page iv
        Page v
    Sample document citation and abstract
        Page vi
    Agriculture
        Page 1
        Developing an appropriate grain storage system
            Page 1
        Rice drying rates
            Page 1
        Farm mechanization, employment, and income in Nepal: Traditional and mechanized farming in Bara district
            Page 1
            Page 2
            Page 3
            Page 4
            Page 5
            Page 6
    Sample document citation and abstract
        Page 7
        Administration, management, distribution, and marketing
            Page 8
        Fertilizer
            Page 9
            Page 10
        Irrigation and water management
            Page 11
            Page 12
            Page 13
            Page 14
            Page 15
            Page 16
        Livestock production and range management
            Page 17
            Page 18
            Page 19
        Plant diseases and parasites
            Page 20
            Page 21
            Page 22
            Page 23
            Page 24
            Page 25
            Page 26
        Rural institutions and farmer organizations
            Page 27
    Development assistance
        Page 28
        General
            Page 28
        Women in development
            Page 29
            Page 30
            Page 31
            Page 32
    Economics
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
    Education
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
    Health
        Page 49
        General
            Page 49
            Page 50
        Diseases
            Page 51
            Page 52
    Nutrition
        Page 53
    Population
        Page 54
        General
            Page 54
            Page 55
        Family planning
            Page 56
            Page 57
            Page 58
            Page 59
            Page 60
    Science and technology
        Page 61
        General
            Page 61
        Energy
            Page 61
            Page 62
    Social science
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
    Urban development
        Page 67
    Ordering instructions and forms
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
    Contract/grant number index
        Page 79 (MULTIPLE)
    Geographical index
        Page 80
    Item cost index
        Page 81
    Personal author index
        Page 82
        Page 83
    Subject index
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
    Back Cover
        Back Cover 1
        Back Cover 2
Full Text


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FROM THE EDITOR

SGuayule, Parthenium argentatum
-The cover design for this issue of ARDA illustrates a little known,
but increasingly interesting plant guayLle. Guayule is a
c single-stemmed shrub normally reaching 2-3 feet in height with
A a crooked, brittle branches, grayish-green leaves,, and inconspicu-
ous yellow flowers on short slender stems. Although rather fragile
Sas a seedling, once established against competing growth, this
unusual plant's adjustment to varying soil moisture conditions is
remarkable. Following brief penods of rain, guayule will revive from
several years dormancy brought on by little or no rainfall. Guayule
can send down tap roots to depths of 20-30 feet and, where the
water table is more superficial, will concentra-e massive lateral
root systems between successive horizontal layers of clay and silt
typically found in desert sands.
Growing wild in the Southwestern United States and Central and
Northern Mexico. guayule originally became krown for its rubber
content which, ntriguingly. is increased during low moisture
conditions The rubber, resins, and other chemicals extracted
from this plant have been used over the centuries by Aztec Indians
to fashion rubber balls for games: later by Mexicans to fire
smelters and to heat bread ovens: by American, Mexican,
German. and English companies for commerce al exploitation; by
the United States in World War II when supplies from Southeast
Asia were cut off: and most recently as less expensive substitutes
for products normally refined from petroleum Involved at one time
or another in U.S. commercial development of guayule were such
captains of American industry as Thomas Edison. Bernard
Baruch. Meyer Guggenheim. and John D Rockefeller. Jr. In 1930,
a then-obscure Army Major. Dwight David E senhower, coau-
thored an exhaustive, investigative report which predicted annual
production of 160 million pounds of rubber and creation of a
strategic reserve of 250 million pounds from 400.000 acres.
During World War II. the U.S. Congress authorized 500.000 acres
for the Emergency Rubber Project of which :nly 32.000 were
planted during the life of the project. After just three and one-half
years of operation. data confirm that this sceled-down project
resulted in not only 3 million pounds of rubber during the war, but
also 21 million pounds in unharvested bushes tl-at were destroyed
in 1946 Today. using modern genetic engineering and production
technology, those original 400.000 acres would yield nearly 700
million pounds of rubber over a 3-year growing cycle and more
than a billion pounds with a 6-year growing cycle.
With a worldwide rubber market estimated at $14 billion for 1980,
the continuing escalation of petroleum cos s. the increased
demand for rubber products in developing nations as they
industrialize. the loss to settlement of marginal lands where
guayule grows best. and the yield increases possible through
modem technology other governments ma, soon follow the
United States and Mexico in appropriating financial, planning,
management. and production resources to develop guayule's
bounty
For additional information on guayule. see item numbers 012,
page 6. and 017. page 8

PHOTO CREDITS: A.I.D. photos, pp. 13. 18. 23. 47 49. 52, 53, 55, 56,
Inside Back Cover World Bank photos, pp. 3. 30 31. 43












TABLE OF CONTENTS


SUBJECTS AND DOCUMENTS OF SPECIAL INTEREST ...................
QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS ABOUT ARDA ............

SAMPLE DOCUMENT CITATION AND ABSTRACT ........................
ABSTRACTS OF R&D PUBLICATIONS BY
SUBJECT FIELDS Item Numbers
AGRICULTURE
A. General ................. ... ......................... 001-017
B. Administration, Management, Distribution, and Marketing .... 018-020
C. Fertilizer .................................... ...... 021-025
D. Irrigation and Water Management ......................... 026-039
E. Livestock Production and Range Management ............. 040-045
F Plant Diseases and Parasites ... ....................... 046-061
G. Rural Institutions and Farmer Organizations ................ 062
DEVELOPMENT ASSISTANCE
A G general ..................................... ......... 063-067
B. Women in Development .............................. 068-074
ECONOMICS .......... ... ................... ......... 075-093
EDUCATION ........................................... 094-109
HEALTH
A G general ................. ................... .... 110-114
B. Diseases ......... ....... .................. ..... 115-116
NUTRITIO N ........ ................................. 117
POPULATION
A. General ................... ................... .. 118-121
B. Family Planning ................ ...................... 122-132
SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
A. General ................ ....................... ..... 133
B. Energy ............. ............................... 134-137
SOCIAL SCIENCES ....................................... 138-147
URBAN DEVELOPMENT ........................... ........ 148-150
ORDERING INSTRUCTIONS AND FORMS
CONTRACT/GRANT NUMBER INDEX .............
CORPORATE AUTHOR INDEX .............................
GEOGRAPHICAL INDEX .......
ITEM COST INDEX.......
PERSONAL AUTHOR INDEX ...................
SUBJECT INDEX


Page
ii
iii-v

vi




1
8
9
11
17
20
27


ARDA is published quarterly by the United States Agency for International Development, Bureau for
Development Support, Office of Development Information and Utilization, Washington, D.C.
Administrator ........................... ... ........................M. PETER McPHERSON
Acting Assistant Administrator, Bureau for Development Support ............STEPHEN C. JOSEPH
Director, Office of Development Information and Utilization ....................... LIDA L. ALLEN
Chief, Division of Documentation and Information ..........................DAVID G. DONOVAN


8 'lull1'












SUBJECTS AND DOCUMENTS OF SPECIAL INTEREST


SUBJECTS OF SPECIAL INTEREST IN THIS ISSUE OF ARDA: ITEM NO.
Alternative Energy Resources ................... ........... .. .. .134-137
Desertification ..................................... ............ ..032
Fertilizer ....................................... ........ .021-025, 059, 062, 076
Plant Diseases ................ .................... ................. 046-061
Women in Development ....................................... 068-074, 093, 109
DOCUMENTS OF SPECIAL INTEREST IN THIS ISSUE OF ARDA:
Contribution of Renewable Resources and Energy Conservation
as Alternatives to Imported Oil in Developing Countries ... .................. 135
Guidelines for A.I.D.'s Regional Activities in Africa ................ ... ...... 066
Impact of Groundwater Development in Arid Lands: a Literature Review
and Annotated Bibliography .............................................. 033
Joint IGCC/IFRP East and Southeast Asia Seminar on Regional Fertility Research .130
Model of the Political Economy of Agricultural Credit: the Case of Bolivia ......... 091
Poor Rural Households, Technical Change, and Income Distribution
in Developing Countries: Insights from Asia ........... ...... ............. 138
Potentials and Pitfalls of Product Marketing through Small Farmer Groups .........099
Reference Compilation of Science and Technology Official Development
Assistance Furnished by A.I.D. for the Less Developed Countries ........... .. .133
Report on Potential Collaborative Industrial Enterprises in the Near East Region ... .077
Tsetse and Trypanosomiasis Control: A Strategy for the Future in Africa ........... 116
SERIES INCLUDED IN THIS ISSUE:
American Public Health Association
International Health Programs Monograph Series ...................... 113, 114
Colorado State University
Water Management Technical Reports ...................................033-039
Danfa Comprehensive Rural Health and Family Planning Project, Ghana,
Monograph Series ................... .. .............. 111, 112, 120, 125-127
International Livestock Centre for Africa Systems Study ............... .. 044, 045
International Rice Research Institute Research Paper Series ... .003-009, 025, 057, 058
Ivory Coast Educational Television Project ............. ........ .. ......... 094-103
Kansas State University Food and Feed Grain Institute
Grain Storage, Processing, and Marketing Research Reports ......... 001, 002, 018
Papers of the East-West Population Institute ..... 118, 119, 123, 124, 131, 132, 141, 147
Plant Disease Reporter ........... .... ...... .................. 051-053, 055, 056
Second International Conference on Rural Finance Research Issues .....059, 079-091
University of Minnesota,
Department of Agricultural and Applied Economics
Staff Papers Series ............................................ 015, 016
DOCUMENTS AVAILABLE IN SPANISH AND FRENCH:
Spanish: 031, 104, 105, 139
French: 148












QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS ABOUT ARDA


What is ARDA?


What is the goal of ARDA?

For whom is ARDA
published?

What materials are
abstracted in ARDA?

Who receives ARDA?


How are ARDA
publications ordered?



How can full texts of
titles abstracted in ARDA
be obtained?







Who may order materials
at no cost from ARDA?


What formats are
available for full texts?






To whom do I address
additional questions
regarding ARDA?


ARDA, "A.I.D. Research and Development Abstracts", is a quarterly abstract journal issued by the
Division of Documentation and Information, Office of Development Information and Utilization, Bureau
for Development Support.
The goal of ARDA is to transfer development and technical information to active practitioners in
development assistance.
ARDAs target audience is A.I.D. staff worldwide and selected key institutions in developing coun-
tries. Such institutions are government agencies, universities, libraries, research organizations, and
other public and private sector organizations.
ARDA presents abstracts of A.I.D.-funded current and less recent research studies, state-of-the-art
reports, sector analyses, special evaluations, and other documents which, taken together, describe
a broad spectrum of international development experience.
All major A.I.D. offices in AID/W and in the field receive ARDA regularly and automatically, along with
other information outputs.
Developing country recipients who have completed the "ARDA Questionnaire" signifying their interest in
the receipt of ARDA and other information outputs receive ARDA regularly (USAID Missions are
encouraged to ask counterpart institutions to write to the Editor of ARDA for the questionnaire or to send
the names and addresses of such institutions to the Editor of ARDA. Peace Corps Volunteers may also
ask the counterpart institutions in which they work to write for the questionnaire.)
Other institutions and individuals active in development assistance may also request the "ARDA
Questionnaire."
Send the completed order forms to:
A.I.D. R&D Report Distribution Center
PO. Box 353
Norfolk, VA 23501
U.S.A.
A series of order forms are supplied at the back of each issue of ARDA. These forms include instruc-
tions which explain how copies of materials in ARDA may be ordered, and they explain the limita-
tions on the number of titles and pages that may be ordered. Each order must carry the recipient code for
the institution and the publication number (PN) of titles ordered.
* The address label of each issue of ARDA carries the recipient code number for the institutional
recipient. The recipient code number now has 19 digits. The full code number must always be used on
the order forms.
* Immediately above each ARDA document title is a bar containing a 3-digit item number and an
8-character publication number (example: PN-AAH-497). The full PN number must also be included
with each order.
AID/W staff and USAID Missions may order an unlimited number of materials at no cost in either paper
or microfiche. Only A.I.D. staff may order paper copies of documents more than 300 pages long.
Developing country institutions on the authorized ARDA mailing list may order up to five paper copies at
no cost or they may order an unlimited amount of titles on microfiche. No developing country institution
can order the paper copy of documents more than 300 pages long. The first group of eight digits in the
recipient code number ends in "001" for developing country institutions which may order materials at no
cost.
Most titles included in ARDA may be acquired in paper copy All titles are available, however, on
negative diazo microfiche.
All USAID missions and developing country institutions with access to microfiche readers with 24x
magnification should order documents on microfiche.
USAID missions can build up complete microfiche libraries of A.I.D. publications by either subject
classification or by geographic region. Missions desiring more information on documents available to
them on microfiche or on microfiche equipment should write to the Editor of ARDA.
Please direct all correspondence and requests for further information to:
Editor of ARDA, DS/DIU/DI
Bureau for Development Support
Agency for International Development
Washington, D.C. 20523
U.S.A.












QUESTIONS ET REPONSES RELATIVE A ARDA


Qu'est-ce qu'ARDA?



Quel est I'objectif
d'ARDA?
A qul s'adresse ARDA?



Que contiennent les
resumes d'ARDA?


Qui regoit ARDA?










Comment commande-t-on
les publications d'ARDA?



Comment obtenir les
textes complete des titres
resumes dans ARDA?








Qui peut commander une
documentation a ARDA?







Sous quels formats sont
presents les textes
complete?


A qui dois-je adresser
des questions
supplementaires au
sujet d'ARDA?


ARDA, "A.I.D. Research and Development Abstracts" (Resumes sur la recherche et la develop-
pement de I'Agence pour le D6veloppement International), est une revue trimestrielle composer
de resumes publice par la Division de la Documentation et des Informations, Bureau des Informa-
tions sur le D6veloppement et leur Utilisation, Bureau pour le Soutien au Developpement.
ARDA cherche a transmettre les informations techniques et axees sur le developpement aux
technicians participant a I'assistance au developpement.
ARDA s'adresse au personnel d'A.I.D. dans le monde entier et aux institutions cl6s choisies, situ6es
dans les pays en developpement. Des institutions de ce genre sont des organismes publics, des
universities, des bibliotheques, des organizations de recherche, et autres organizations des secteurs
public et prive.
ARDA present des resumes d'etudes actuelles et moins recentes relatives a la recherche et
finances par A.I.D., des rapports faisant le point des connaisances actuelles, des analyses sec-
torielles, des evaluations particulieres, et d'autres documents qui, ensemble, decrivent un large
evantail de r6alisation dans le domaine du developpement international.
Tous les principaux bureaux d'A.I.D. dans le monde entier recoivent ARDA, regulierement et d'office, en
meme temps que d'autres rapports d'information.
Les destinataires qui resident dans les pays en d6veloppement et qui ont rempli le "Questionnaire
d'ARDA" prouvant ainsi leur desir de recevoir ARDA et d'autres rapports d'information les recoivent
regulierement. (On incite les missions de I'USAID a demander aux institutions homologues d'6crire au
redacteur d'ARDA pour se faire envoyer le questionnaire ou de faire parvenir les noms et addresses des
institutions en question au redacteur d'ARDA. Les voluntaires de Peace Corps peuvent egalement
demander aux institutions homologues ou ils travaillent d'ecrire pour demander le questionnaire.)
Les autres institutions et individus qui prennent une part active a I'assistance au developpement
peuvent egalement demander le "Questionnaire ARDA".
Veuillez envoyer les bulletins de command remplis a:
A.I.D. R&D Report Distribution Center
PO. Box 353
Norfolk, VA 23501
U.S.A.
On fournit au dos de chaque publication une serie de bulletins de command. Ces bulletins cou-
vrent les instructions concernant la command de copies de la documentation d'ARDA et ex-
pliquent les restrictions quant au nombre de titres et de pages qu'on peut commander. Chaque
bulletin de command doit porter la mention du code du destinataire et le numero de la publication (PN)
des titres commander.
* Le numero de code du destinataire quand il s'agit d'une institution est inscrit sur I'etiquette porte-
adresse fixee sur chaque publication. Le nombre code du ben6ficiare a maintenant 19 chiffres. Le
nombre code entier doit toujours etre utilise sur les bulletins de command.
* Juste au-dessus de chaque titre de document d'ARDA se trouve une case dans laquelle figure un
nombre de trois chiffres et un numero de publication de huit lettres et chiffres examplee: PN-AAH-497).
II y a lieu d'inclure tout I'indice du PN a chaque command.
Le personnel d'A.I.D./Washington et des Missions de I'USAID peuvent commander un nombre
illimite de documents gratuits, soit sur paper, soit sur microfiche. Les copies sur paper de docu-
ments de plus de 300 pages sont reservees uniquement au personnel d'A.I.D.
Les institutions des pays en developpement qui figurent sur le fichier d'adresses agr6e d'ARDA peuvent
commander un maximum de cinq copies gratuites ou une quantity illimitee de titres sur microfiche.
Aucune institution de pays en developpement ne peuvent commander des copies sur paper de
documents ayant plus de 300 pages. Le premier group de huit chiffres du nombre code du beneficiare
se termine par "001" en ce qui concern les institutions de pays en d6veloppement qui peuvent
commander une documentation gratuite.
On peut se procurer la majority des titres dans ARDA sur paper. Cependant, tous les titres sont
egalement disponibles sur microfiche diazo negative.
Les institutions des pays en developpement ayant access aux lecteurs de microfiche agrandisse-
ment 24x devraient commander les documents sur microfiche.
Veuillez envoyer toute correspondence et demands de plus amples renseignements a:
Editor of ARDA, DS/DIU/DI
Bureau for Development Support
Agency for International Development
Washington, D.C. 20523
U.S.A.












PREGUNTAS Y REPUESTAS SOBRE ARDA


iQue es ARDA?


iCual es el objective
de ARDA?
ZPara quien se
publia ARDA?


LQue materlales son
condensados en ARDA?

LQuien recibe ARDA?










LComo se piden las
publicaciones de ARDA?



6Como obtener textos
completes de titulos
sumarlados en ARDA?








6Quien puede pedir
material gratis de ARDA?






LQue formatos se pueden
obtener para textos
completes?


LA quien dlrljo yo
preguntas adlclonales
tocante a ARDA?


ARDA, "A.I.D. Research and Development Abstracts" (Sumarios de Investigaci6n y Desarrollo de
A.I.D.), es un peribdico trimestral publicado por la Division de Documentaci6n y Informacion, la Oficina
de Desarrollo Informaci6n y Utilizacion, el Despacho de Apoyo al Desarrollo.
El objective de ARDA es el de transmitir information t6cnica y de desarrollo a trabajadores activos
en asistencia de desarrollo.
La audiencia blanco de ARDA consta de los funcionarios de A.I.D. en el mundo entero y de los
instituciones claves seleccionadas en los pauses en desarrollo. Tales instituciones son agencies
de gobierno, universidades, bibliotecas, organizaciones de investigation y otras organizaciones del
sector public y privado.
ARDA present extractes de studios de investigation corrientes y menos recientes consolidados
por A.I.D., informes del estado del arte, analisises del sector, evaluaciones especiales, y otros
documents que, juntos, describan un espectro antlio de experiencia de desarrollo international.
Todas las oficinas principles de AID/Washington y del exterior reciben automatica y regularmente
ARDA, junto con otras producciones de informaci6n.
Los recipients de ARDA en los pauses en desarrollo que han Ilenado el cuestionario ARDA
demonstrando su interest en recibir ARDA y otras publicaciones informativas reciben ARDA
regularmente. (Se alienta a las misiones de USAID pedir a instituciones asociados soliciten el
cuestionario al editor de ARDA o envias los nombres y direcciones de tales instituciones al editor de
ARDA. Los voluntarios del Cuerpo de Paz pueden tambien pedir alas instituciones contraparte con las
que trabajan que escriban pidiendo el cuestionario.)
Otras instituciones y individuos activos en asistencia de desarrollo pueden tambien solicitar el
cuestionairo de ARDA.
Llene los formularios y envielos a:
A.I.D. R&D Report Distribution Center
PO. Box 353
Norfolk, Virginia 23501
U.S.A.
En la parte posterior de cada numero de ARDA se proporciona una series de formularios de
pedidos. Estos formularios incluyen instrucciones que explican como pedir copias de material en
ARDA y las limitaciones en el numero de titulos y paginas que se pueden pedir. Cada formulario de
pedido debe incluir el numero clave del recipient y el numero de publicacion (PN) de los titulos
solicitados.
La etiqueta con la direccion en cada numero de ARDA Ileva el numero clave de cada institucion
recipient. El numero clave del recipient tiene ahora 19 cifras. El numero clave entero debe usarse
siempre en los formularios de pedido.
Exactamente encima de cada titulo de documents ARDA hay una barra que contiene un numero de
item de 3 cifras y un numero de publication de 8 cifras (Ejemplo: PN-AAH-479). El nimero complete
de publication debe tambien ser incluido con cada pedido.
Los funcionarios de AID/W y las misiones de USAID pueden pedir un nimero ilimitado de material
libre de costo sea en papel o microfiche. S61o los funcionarios de A.I.D. pueden solicitar copias de
documents de mas de 300 paginas.
Las instituciones en paises en desarrollo autorizados en la lista de correo de ARDA pueden pedir hasta
cinco copias en papel libres de costo o pueden pedir una cantidad ilimitada de titulos en microfiche.
Ninguna institucion de pais en desarrollo puede pedir copias de documents de mas de 300 paginas.
El primer grupo de ocho cifras en el nimero clave del recipient terminal en "001" para las instituciones
en paises en desarrollo que pueden pedir material gratis.
La mayor parte de los titulos incluidos en ARDA puede obtenerse en copias de papel. Todos los
trtulos son sin embargo obtenibles en negative diazo microfiche.
Las instituciones de pauses en desarrollo con acceso a lectores de microfiche con ampliacion de
24x deben pedir documents en microfiche.
Sfrvase dirigir toda correspondencia y pedidos de mas informaci6n a:
Editor of ARDA, DS/DIU/DI
Bureau for Development Support
Agency for International Development
Washington, D.C. 20523
U.S.A.












SAMPLE DOCUMENT CITATION
AND ABSTRACT
Item number Publication number
Numero de I'article Numero de la publication
Numero de articulo 133 PN-AAH-900 Numero de publlcacion


A REFERENCE COMPILATION OF SCIENCE AND Title
Personal Author(s) TECHNOLOGY OFFICIAL DEVELOPMENT Titre
Auteur Individual ASSISTANCE FURNISHED BY A.I.D. FOR THE LESS Titulo
Autor Individuel DEVELOPED COUNTRIES (LDCs)
Reynolds, A.; Gaithwright, T
Corporate Author(s) Logical Technical Services Corporation.
Auteur Corporatif 1980, 88 p.
Autor de Corporacion
Author d Corporacin Prepared for the United Nations Conference on Science and Suppl
Technology for Development Nota


Document date and
page numbers
Date et nombre de
pages du document
Fecha y numero de
paginas del document


Abstract
Resume
Sumarlo


This research report, summarizing official development assis-
tance provided by A.I.D. to LDCs, was produced to meet the
needs of participants in the United Nations Conference on
Science and Technology for Development. It represents a
synthesis of A.I.D.'s economic assistance philosophy, which is
characterized by a two-fold thrust: (1) a "basic human needs"
approach to bilateral development assistance, which combines
the furthering of U.S. interests abroad with U.S. humanitarian
interest in that quarter of the world's population condemned to live
at a substandard level; and (2) a refocussing of A.I.D.'s assistance
to LDCs from sophisticated technology to light capital,
labor-intensive applications of scientific and technological
developments. The report concentrates on development
assistance in the fields of health, nutrition, and population; energy
and natural resources; employment, trade and industrialization,
and access to technology; food, climate, soil, and water; and
urbanization, transportation, and communication. In each case,
the relevant technologies and means of technology transfer are
discussed in conjunction with a statement of the development
problem addressed by these technologies and with illustrative
examples of A.I.D. programs. The report concludes that
comparatively little U.S. technology can be transferred to LDCs
without significant adaptation. The LDCs have become aware of
the need for technologies tailored to fit their resource endowments
and absorptive capacities, and stress is being placed on the
development of more appropriate technologies as well as on
devising policies and institutions permitting LDCs to make better
technological choices. An extensive subject index is included in


L this report.
Contract/grant
number or symbol AID/DSAN-C-0021
Numero ou symbol du Also available in F
contract/de la subvention
o simbolo de contract o
subvencion


931023200


rench: PN-AAG-000, 88 p.


Nota


/


When completing order forms at the end of this issue, be
certain to use the publication number.
N'oubliez pas de mentionner le numero de la publication
lorsquevous remplirez les bulletins de command au dos de
la present publication.
Al Ilenar una orden de pedido, asegurese de usar el num-
ero de publication.


ementary note
supplementaire
suplementaria


Project number
Numero du project
Numero de proyecto


J Foreign language
availability
Disponible en
]-- langues etrangeres
Disponible en
idiomas extranjeros












AGRICULTURE f


001 PN-AAG-989
DEVELOPING AN APPROPRIATE GRAIN STORAGE
SYSTEM
Anderson, D.G.
Kansas State University, Food and Feed Grain Institute.
1978, 50 p.
Prepared for the West African Community Workshop on Improved
Grain Storage
Grain storage problems in LDCs are becoming increasingly criti-
cal. This document discusses this subject by presenting a com-
puterized model for storage planning which was developed by
Kansas State University Since the model is complex, the docu-
ment's focus is on offering general guidelines in the areas of
storage facility size, location, type, and pricing. In regard to stor-
age size, areas must be able to handle possible import require-
ments and crop surpluses during low supply periods. Higher grain
volume can make large facilities feasible, which, due to econo-
mies of scale, can be very efficient. Improving transportation can
also reduce costs and therefore make large storage centers feasi-
ble. Temporary and dual facilities should be used during exces-
sive harvest periods and existing systems should be considered
when evaluating new system needs. Finally, an even grain flow
between producers and consumers can reduce storage needs.
Storage location should have access to least-cost modes of
transportation. Before selecting a location, storage and process-
ing costs at various sites should be compared and new facilities
should be meshed with existing structures. Local needs and stor-
age costs should be compared with the options of exchanging
grain with other localities that have different harvest periods. Sites
should be in areas where the climate is favorable and suitable for
commercial drying when this is needed. The placement of sites
near consumers can prevent shipping problems, yet a decentral-
ized system does diminish the advantages of attaining economies
of scale. When considering the facility types, long-term storage
sites require the installation of better grain protective measures
than do short-term systems, yet their receiving and loading areas
can be less efficient. Also, local building inputs should be used
and the facility must be matched with the rest of the system. The
design of multi-use facilities can reduce costs. Finally, pricing
policies must consider the values created by storage, transporta-
tion, and processing in order to promote timely and correct in-
vestments which will affect the entire system.
AID/ta-C-1162 931078600


002


PN-AAH-116


RICE DRYING RATES
Robayo, J.F; Pfost, H.B.
Kansas State University, Food and Feed Grain Institute.
1973, 40 p.
In Grain Storage, Processing, and Marketing, Research Report
No. 4
Rice is ordinarily harvested at moisture contents above safe stor-
age levels, so additional drying is usually necessary. Although a
great many studies have developed formulas for computing grain
drying rates, none has proven universally acceptable. This Mas-
ter's Thesis is the result of research to develop first an empirical
equation for drying a thin layer of rice, and second a mathematical
model capable of determining the effects of many drying param-
eters on the drying results. After a brief introduction, the thesis
begins with a review of the literature, concentrating specifically on
rice-drying terminology and fundamental concepts of drying (thin
layer and grain drying). Next, the experimental procedure is laid
out. The equation used for thin layer drying was developed by TL.
Thompson in his mathematical model of corn drying. The same
pattern was followed here, with the parameters changed and new
ones fitted for rice. The drying process was considered to be
divided into separate processes, including temperature equilib-
rium between the grain and air, moisture removal, and evaporative
cooling of the air and grain. Four drying tests were made with
temperatures from 100-130 F in order to obtain the different
parameters. This is followed by a comparison of predicted and
measured results. These are shown in graph and table form. A
brief discussion of the drying results concludes the thesis. The
major conclusion reached is that the temperature of the drying air
is the principal factor in the rate of drying. Appended to the thesis
is an 18-item bibliography (1936-72) of literature cited.
AID/csd-1588

003 PN-AAH-230
FARM MECHANIZATION, EMPLOYMENT, AND
INCOME IN NEPAL: TRADITIONAL AND MECHANIZED
FARMING IN BARA DISTRICT
Pudasaini, S.P
International Rice Research Institute (IRRI).
In IRRI Research Paper Series, No. 38
Farm mechanization (and specifically tractorization) in the devel-
oped countries has occurred primarily as a response to high and
rising wage rates. The recent spread of tractorization to countries
with low wage rates such as India, Pakistan, and Nepal raises two
sets of questions. First, what is the source of benefits that account
for the private profitability where wage rates are not high? Are
yields raised, does cropping intensity rise, or is the primary benefit
the replacement of animals? Second, does the tractor lead to
direct labor replacement or to a slow-down in the growth of labor
demand available from other innovations? This paper attempts to
answer these questions in the context of the Nepal Terai. A survey
of traditional and mechanized farms in Bara district was con-


ARDA Vol. 9, No. 1 February 1981












AGRICULTURE f


001 PN-AAG-989
DEVELOPING AN APPROPRIATE GRAIN STORAGE
SYSTEM
Anderson, D.G.
Kansas State University, Food and Feed Grain Institute.
1978, 50 p.
Prepared for the West African Community Workshop on Improved
Grain Storage
Grain storage problems in LDCs are becoming increasingly criti-
cal. This document discusses this subject by presenting a com-
puterized model for storage planning which was developed by
Kansas State University Since the model is complex, the docu-
ment's focus is on offering general guidelines in the areas of
storage facility size, location, type, and pricing. In regard to stor-
age size, areas must be able to handle possible import require-
ments and crop surpluses during low supply periods. Higher grain
volume can make large facilities feasible, which, due to econo-
mies of scale, can be very efficient. Improving transportation can
also reduce costs and therefore make large storage centers feasi-
ble. Temporary and dual facilities should be used during exces-
sive harvest periods and existing systems should be considered
when evaluating new system needs. Finally, an even grain flow
between producers and consumers can reduce storage needs.
Storage location should have access to least-cost modes of
transportation. Before selecting a location, storage and process-
ing costs at various sites should be compared and new facilities
should be meshed with existing structures. Local needs and stor-
age costs should be compared with the options of exchanging
grain with other localities that have different harvest periods. Sites
should be in areas where the climate is favorable and suitable for
commercial drying when this is needed. The placement of sites
near consumers can prevent shipping problems, yet a decentral-
ized system does diminish the advantages of attaining economies
of scale. When considering the facility types, long-term storage
sites require the installation of better grain protective measures
than do short-term systems, yet their receiving and loading areas
can be less efficient. Also, local building inputs should be used
and the facility must be matched with the rest of the system. The
design of multi-use facilities can reduce costs. Finally, pricing
policies must consider the values created by storage, transporta-
tion, and processing in order to promote timely and correct in-
vestments which will affect the entire system.
AID/ta-C-1162 931078600


002


PN-AAH-116


RICE DRYING RATES
Robayo, J.F; Pfost, H.B.
Kansas State University, Food and Feed Grain Institute.
1973, 40 p.
In Grain Storage, Processing, and Marketing, Research Report
No. 4
Rice is ordinarily harvested at moisture contents above safe stor-
age levels, so additional drying is usually necessary. Although a
great many studies have developed formulas for computing grain
drying rates, none has proven universally acceptable. This Mas-
ter's Thesis is the result of research to develop first an empirical
equation for drying a thin layer of rice, and second a mathematical
model capable of determining the effects of many drying param-
eters on the drying results. After a brief introduction, the thesis
begins with a review of the literature, concentrating specifically on
rice-drying terminology and fundamental concepts of drying (thin
layer and grain drying). Next, the experimental procedure is laid
out. The equation used for thin layer drying was developed by TL.
Thompson in his mathematical model of corn drying. The same
pattern was followed here, with the parameters changed and new
ones fitted for rice. The drying process was considered to be
divided into separate processes, including temperature equilib-
rium between the grain and air, moisture removal, and evaporative
cooling of the air and grain. Four drying tests were made with
temperatures from 100-130 F in order to obtain the different
parameters. This is followed by a comparison of predicted and
measured results. These are shown in graph and table form. A
brief discussion of the drying results concludes the thesis. The
major conclusion reached is that the temperature of the drying air
is the principal factor in the rate of drying. Appended to the thesis
is an 18-item bibliography (1936-72) of literature cited.
AID/csd-1588

003 PN-AAH-230
FARM MECHANIZATION, EMPLOYMENT, AND
INCOME IN NEPAL: TRADITIONAL AND MECHANIZED
FARMING IN BARA DISTRICT
Pudasaini, S.P
International Rice Research Institute (IRRI).
In IRRI Research Paper Series, No. 38
Farm mechanization (and specifically tractorization) in the devel-
oped countries has occurred primarily as a response to high and
rising wage rates. The recent spread of tractorization to countries
with low wage rates such as India, Pakistan, and Nepal raises two
sets of questions. First, what is the source of benefits that account
for the private profitability where wage rates are not high? Are
yields raised, does cropping intensity rise, or is the primary benefit
the replacement of animals? Second, does the tractor lead to
direct labor replacement or to a slow-down in the growth of labor
demand available from other innovations? This paper attempts to
answer these questions in the context of the Nepal Terai. A survey
of traditional and mechanized farms in Bara district was con-


ARDA Vol. 9, No. 1 February 1981












AGRICULTURE f


001 PN-AAG-989
DEVELOPING AN APPROPRIATE GRAIN STORAGE
SYSTEM
Anderson, D.G.
Kansas State University, Food and Feed Grain Institute.
1978, 50 p.
Prepared for the West African Community Workshop on Improved
Grain Storage
Grain storage problems in LDCs are becoming increasingly criti-
cal. This document discusses this subject by presenting a com-
puterized model for storage planning which was developed by
Kansas State University Since the model is complex, the docu-
ment's focus is on offering general guidelines in the areas of
storage facility size, location, type, and pricing. In regard to stor-
age size, areas must be able to handle possible import require-
ments and crop surpluses during low supply periods. Higher grain
volume can make large facilities feasible, which, due to econo-
mies of scale, can be very efficient. Improving transportation can
also reduce costs and therefore make large storage centers feasi-
ble. Temporary and dual facilities should be used during exces-
sive harvest periods and existing systems should be considered
when evaluating new system needs. Finally, an even grain flow
between producers and consumers can reduce storage needs.
Storage location should have access to least-cost modes of
transportation. Before selecting a location, storage and process-
ing costs at various sites should be compared and new facilities
should be meshed with existing structures. Local needs and stor-
age costs should be compared with the options of exchanging
grain with other localities that have different harvest periods. Sites
should be in areas where the climate is favorable and suitable for
commercial drying when this is needed. The placement of sites
near consumers can prevent shipping problems, yet a decentral-
ized system does diminish the advantages of attaining economies
of scale. When considering the facility types, long-term storage
sites require the installation of better grain protective measures
than do short-term systems, yet their receiving and loading areas
can be less efficient. Also, local building inputs should be used
and the facility must be matched with the rest of the system. The
design of multi-use facilities can reduce costs. Finally, pricing
policies must consider the values created by storage, transporta-
tion, and processing in order to promote timely and correct in-
vestments which will affect the entire system.
AID/ta-C-1162 931078600


002


PN-AAH-116


RICE DRYING RATES
Robayo, J.F; Pfost, H.B.
Kansas State University, Food and Feed Grain Institute.
1973, 40 p.
In Grain Storage, Processing, and Marketing, Research Report
No. 4
Rice is ordinarily harvested at moisture contents above safe stor-
age levels, so additional drying is usually necessary. Although a
great many studies have developed formulas for computing grain
drying rates, none has proven universally acceptable. This Mas-
ter's Thesis is the result of research to develop first an empirical
equation for drying a thin layer of rice, and second a mathematical
model capable of determining the effects of many drying param-
eters on the drying results. After a brief introduction, the thesis
begins with a review of the literature, concentrating specifically on
rice-drying terminology and fundamental concepts of drying (thin
layer and grain drying). Next, the experimental procedure is laid
out. The equation used for thin layer drying was developed by TL.
Thompson in his mathematical model of corn drying. The same
pattern was followed here, with the parameters changed and new
ones fitted for rice. The drying process was considered to be
divided into separate processes, including temperature equilib-
rium between the grain and air, moisture removal, and evaporative
cooling of the air and grain. Four drying tests were made with
temperatures from 100-130 F in order to obtain the different
parameters. This is followed by a comparison of predicted and
measured results. These are shown in graph and table form. A
brief discussion of the drying results concludes the thesis. The
major conclusion reached is that the temperature of the drying air
is the principal factor in the rate of drying. Appended to the thesis
is an 18-item bibliography (1936-72) of literature cited.
AID/csd-1588

003 PN-AAH-230
FARM MECHANIZATION, EMPLOYMENT, AND
INCOME IN NEPAL: TRADITIONAL AND MECHANIZED
FARMING IN BARA DISTRICT
Pudasaini, S.P
International Rice Research Institute (IRRI).
In IRRI Research Paper Series, No. 38
Farm mechanization (and specifically tractorization) in the devel-
oped countries has occurred primarily as a response to high and
rising wage rates. The recent spread of tractorization to countries
with low wage rates such as India, Pakistan, and Nepal raises two
sets of questions. First, what is the source of benefits that account
for the private profitability where wage rates are not high? Are
yields raised, does cropping intensity rise, or is the primary benefit
the replacement of animals? Second, does the tractor lead to
direct labor replacement or to a slow-down in the growth of labor
demand available from other innovations? This paper attempts to
answer these questions in the context of the Nepal Terai. A survey
of traditional and mechanized farms in Bara district was con-


ARDA Vol. 9, No. 1 February 1981












AGRICULTURE f


001 PN-AAG-989
DEVELOPING AN APPROPRIATE GRAIN STORAGE
SYSTEM
Anderson, D.G.
Kansas State University, Food and Feed Grain Institute.
1978, 50 p.
Prepared for the West African Community Workshop on Improved
Grain Storage
Grain storage problems in LDCs are becoming increasingly criti-
cal. This document discusses this subject by presenting a com-
puterized model for storage planning which was developed by
Kansas State University Since the model is complex, the docu-
ment's focus is on offering general guidelines in the areas of
storage facility size, location, type, and pricing. In regard to stor-
age size, areas must be able to handle possible import require-
ments and crop surpluses during low supply periods. Higher grain
volume can make large facilities feasible, which, due to econo-
mies of scale, can be very efficient. Improving transportation can
also reduce costs and therefore make large storage centers feasi-
ble. Temporary and dual facilities should be used during exces-
sive harvest periods and existing systems should be considered
when evaluating new system needs. Finally, an even grain flow
between producers and consumers can reduce storage needs.
Storage location should have access to least-cost modes of
transportation. Before selecting a location, storage and process-
ing costs at various sites should be compared and new facilities
should be meshed with existing structures. Local needs and stor-
age costs should be compared with the options of exchanging
grain with other localities that have different harvest periods. Sites
should be in areas where the climate is favorable and suitable for
commercial drying when this is needed. The placement of sites
near consumers can prevent shipping problems, yet a decentral-
ized system does diminish the advantages of attaining economies
of scale. When considering the facility types, long-term storage
sites require the installation of better grain protective measures
than do short-term systems, yet their receiving and loading areas
can be less efficient. Also, local building inputs should be used
and the facility must be matched with the rest of the system. The
design of multi-use facilities can reduce costs. Finally, pricing
policies must consider the values created by storage, transporta-
tion, and processing in order to promote timely and correct in-
vestments which will affect the entire system.
AID/ta-C-1162 931078600


002


PN-AAH-116


RICE DRYING RATES
Robayo, J.F; Pfost, H.B.
Kansas State University, Food and Feed Grain Institute.
1973, 40 p.
In Grain Storage, Processing, and Marketing, Research Report
No. 4
Rice is ordinarily harvested at moisture contents above safe stor-
age levels, so additional drying is usually necessary. Although a
great many studies have developed formulas for computing grain
drying rates, none has proven universally acceptable. This Mas-
ter's Thesis is the result of research to develop first an empirical
equation for drying a thin layer of rice, and second a mathematical
model capable of determining the effects of many drying param-
eters on the drying results. After a brief introduction, the thesis
begins with a review of the literature, concentrating specifically on
rice-drying terminology and fundamental concepts of drying (thin
layer and grain drying). Next, the experimental procedure is laid
out. The equation used for thin layer drying was developed by TL.
Thompson in his mathematical model of corn drying. The same
pattern was followed here, with the parameters changed and new
ones fitted for rice. The drying process was considered to be
divided into separate processes, including temperature equilib-
rium between the grain and air, moisture removal, and evaporative
cooling of the air and grain. Four drying tests were made with
temperatures from 100-130 F in order to obtain the different
parameters. This is followed by a comparison of predicted and
measured results. These are shown in graph and table form. A
brief discussion of the drying results concludes the thesis. The
major conclusion reached is that the temperature of the drying air
is the principal factor in the rate of drying. Appended to the thesis
is an 18-item bibliography (1936-72) of literature cited.
AID/csd-1588

003 PN-AAH-230
FARM MECHANIZATION, EMPLOYMENT, AND
INCOME IN NEPAL: TRADITIONAL AND MECHANIZED
FARMING IN BARA DISTRICT
Pudasaini, S.P
International Rice Research Institute (IRRI).
In IRRI Research Paper Series, No. 38
Farm mechanization (and specifically tractorization) in the devel-
oped countries has occurred primarily as a response to high and
rising wage rates. The recent spread of tractorization to countries
with low wage rates such as India, Pakistan, and Nepal raises two
sets of questions. First, what is the source of benefits that account
for the private profitability where wage rates are not high? Are
yields raised, does cropping intensity rise, or is the primary benefit
the replacement of animals? Second, does the tractor lead to
direct labor replacement or to a slow-down in the growth of labor
demand available from other innovations? This paper attempts to
answer these questions in the context of the Nepal Terai. A survey
of traditional and mechanized farms in Bara district was con-


ARDA Vol. 9, No. 1 February 1981












t AGRICULTURE


ducted to assess the impact of mechanization on cropping inten-
sity, income, employment, and efficiency. Production function
analysis was used to "control" all differences, at least in a statistical
sense. The results of the study were as follows: Cropping intensity,
yields, income, and employment were higher on mechanized than
on traditional farms. The much greater use of cash inputs and
higher education levels associated with mechanized farms, how-
ever, made it difficult to attribute yields and income effects solely to
machinery. Tractors could not be clearly linked with any on-farm
labor displacement and pumpsets were found to raise farm em-
ployment. Tractor ownership allowed large farms to achieve higher
cropping intensity through speedy and timely operations. In-
creased cropping intensity appeared to put a premium on timeli-
ness for large farms, but did not seem important for small units.
Tractorization permitted the farmers to nearly eliminate bullocks.
The highest levels of efficiency were achieved by pumpset-
owning and tractor-hiring farms rather than large tractor-owning
farms.
AID/DSAN-G-0083 931082600


004


PN-AAH-231


EVAPOTRANSPIRATION FROM RICE FIELDS
Tomar, VS.; O'Toole, J.C.
International Rice Research Institute (IRRI).
1979, 17 p.
In IRRI Research Paper Series, No. 34
Evapotranspiration is a primary component of the energy ex-
change function determining the production potential of crop
species and the distribution of natural vegetation. It is highly
correlated with net productivity. Realistic evapotranspiration esti-
mates are important to irrigation engineers, agronomists, and
others involved in agricultural planning. Although abundant data
have been accumulated on evapotranspiration in rice growing
countries, and the sciences of soil physics, plant physiology, and
micrometeorology are becoming increasingly exact and quantita-
tive, misunderstanding and misconceptions still abound. The
present paper, based on a review of available literature on evapo-
transpiration in the wetland rice crop in South and Southeast Asia,
describes evapotranspiration as a complex process affected pri-
marily by climatic conditions. The basic principles affecting trans-
piration, evapotranspiration, and the ratio of actual evapotranspi-
ration to open pan evaporation (ET-EP) in wetland rice culture are
reviewed. Large differences in daily as well as seasonal total
transpiration and evapotranspiration values exist for various loca-
tions in South and Southeast Asia. Crop transpiration rate is low at
the early stage of growth and increases almost linearly, reaching
3-4 mm/day at maximum tiller number stage and 5-7 mm/day at
heading time. Evapotranspiration also follows a similar trend for
maximum rate. The seasonal average evapotranspiration in wet-
land rice fields is in the range of 4-7 mm/day. Evapotranspiration
appears to vary with crop growth stage. The value of crop growth
coefficient factor (ET-EP) is 1.0 at transplanting, reaching about
1.1 at maximum tiller number stage and about 1.2 or higher at
flowering stage. A 1.15-1.2 ratio with open pan evaporation can be


used to estimate ET for a crop season. From this review of physical
and empirical information, a simple model is suggested to predict
evapotranspiration from wetland rice. The authors caution the
reader of the difficulty of interpreting the voluminous literature
because of the interaction of varying seasonal climatic patterns,
crop canopy development rates, and potential experimental and
technical errors.


AID/DSAN-G-0083


005


931082600


PN-AAH-233


GENETIC ANALYSIS OF TRAITS RELATED TO GRAIN
CHARACTERISTICS AND QUALITY IN TWO CROSSES
OF RICE
Soomrith, B.; Chang, TT; Jackson, B.R.
International Rice Research Institute (IRRI).
1979, 16 p.
In IRRI Research Paper Series, No. 35
The development of semidwarf rices has markedly upgraded the
yield potential of tropical rice. However, concurrent progress in
incorporating traits related to fine grain quality into semidwarfs
lags behind that for pest resistance and grain yield. This report
discusses research aimed at determining the mode of inheritance
and genotypic correlation on several characteristics of grain qual-
ity in crosses involving a semidwarf with the improved plant type
as well as with two tall Thai varieties with good grain quality for the
export market. Rice crosses IR648-3-1-2-3/GOW Ruang 88 and
IR648-3-1-2-3/Khao Pahk Maw 148 were studied to determine the
genetic components of five grain characteristics and plant type,
and the genotypic relationship between the two groups of char-
acteristics. Analysis of generation means indicated that the varia-
tion in 100-grain weight was largely due to additive gene effect.
Both additive and dominance effects were major contributors to
the variation in grain length and the ratio of grain length to width.
Variations in chalkiness score and alkali digestion index in IR648/
KPM148 were largely due to additive gene effect. In IR648/GR88,
both additive and dominance effects were important. For amylose
content, dominance effect appeared more important than additive
gene effect. Estimates of inheritability for grain length, length-
width ratio, alkali digestion index, chalkiness, and amylose con-
tent ranged from moderately high to high. In both crosses, grain
length exhibited a significant association with the degree of slen-
derness, low degree of chalkiness, low gelatinization temperature,
and high amylose content. The 100-grain weight was significantly
and positively correlated with grain length, translucency, and amy-
lose content. High amylose content was strongly correlated with
low gelatinization temperature. The different types of gene effects
controlling selected traits and the independence between the
yield component characters and grain characteristics found in this
study provide directions in formulating useful, effective, selection
procedures for specific traits or the combination of desired traits in
a breeding program. A list of 25 references (1952-73) is ap-
pended.


AID/DSAN-G-0083


931082600


ARDA Vol. 9, No. 1 February 1981












AGRICULTURE


006


PN-AAH-234


DETERMINING SUPERIOR CROPPING PATTERNS
FOR SMALL FARMS IN A DRYLAND RICE
ENVIRONMENT, TEST OF A METHODOLOGY
Garrity, D.P; Harwood, R.R.; Zandstra, H.G.; Price, E.C.
International Rice Research Institute (IRRI).
1979,13 p.

In IRRI Research Paper Series, No. 33
Strategies for increasing farm productivity that focus on intro-
ducing technical changes within a single-crop enterprise are often
rejected by farmers because of unforeseen negative effects on
productivity or resource utilization. Cropping systems research
approaches the problem of fitting relevant technology into the
small farm operation by determining the effects of potential tech-
nical changes on the entire system. This paper discusses the
methodology for cropping systems research for dryland rice-
based systems in the Philippines. Test patterns are grown on a
portion of each cooperating farm under joint farmer-research team
management. This methodology involves the farmer as an active
participant in research activities. The farmer's participation in
pattern testing facilitates early detection of some of the constraints


to adoption at the farm level. The potential for increased crop
productivity was tested in the Batanga region where the predomi-
nant cropping pattern involves dryland rice followed by field corn.
In this program, alternative cropping was tested, including: follow-
ing rice with alternative field crops that may offer advantages over
corn; following rice with two crops to extend cropping further into
the dry season; and following rice with intercrop patterns to re-
place monoculture corn. Alternative crops included soybean,
peanut, mung bean, and cowpea. After 3 years of testing, it was
found that adoption of an improved corn variety could increase
productivity in the dryland rice-corn system studied. Soybean and
sorghum appeared to be outstanding alternative crops. However,
because neither is presently grown in the area, their adoption
would represent a substantial change in the system. New infra-
structural support, markets, and threshers would be required.
Intercropping of corn shows the potential of substantially raising
land productivity, but lack of labor appears to be a potential
constraint. Cropping patterns with three crops per year were
shown to be feasible and profitable. Thus, this field-testing pro-
gram showed many ways to increase land productivity for dryland
rice farmers. This paper has an attached bibliography of 11 ref-
erences (1972-76).


AID/DSAN-G-0083


931082600


Wnrkrs transnlant hlah-vleldlna varieties of rice In Banaladaeh.











t AGRICULTURE


007


PN-AAH-235


AN ANALYSIS OF THE LABOR-INTENSIVE
CONTINUOUS RICE PRODUCTION SYSTEM AT IRRI
Morooka, Y; Herdt, R.W.; Haws, L.D.
International Rice Research Institute (IRRI).
1979, 43 p.
In IRRI Research Paper Series, No. 29
In September 1976, the Department of Rice Production Training
and Research at the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI)
began a one-year study of the agronomic and economic feasibility
of a labor-intensive continuous rice production system (rice gar-
den system). This paper compares the IRRI system with conven-
tional production systems used in the Philippines. The comparison
is carried out in terms of production, land use, labor distribution,
water requirement, and the economics of the system (costs and
returns to labor and capital, forms and amounts of capital used,
and the cost of irrigation needed for highly intensive, small scale,
production systems). A 1-hectare field was divided into 40 plots of
250 square meters each and these were transplanted every other
day. Alternate plots were harvested on alternate days, 6 days a
week. Gains resulted from this turnaround so that four crops per
year were grown. During 1977, about 23 turnarounds per hectare
(t/ha) were harvested and three men were fully employed with a
relatively constant cash income flow, as compared with partial
employment for one man and 10 t/ha from the double-crop rice
system currently in use in the Philippines. The rice garden system
thus provides dramatic opportunities to increase labor earnings,
family income, and productivity of small rice farms. Specifically,
the rice garden system efficiently uses about twice as much labor,
uses land throughout the year, and produces three times that of
the conventional two-crop rice production systems. The system
also allows farmers to minimize damage caused by typhoon or
pest epidemics because the stage of growth is different for each
plot. Disadvantages are also cited. These are: (1) the possibility of
a greater stress on the plants causing possible breakdown of
disease resistance; (2) farmers without irrigation facilities could
not use the system year round; and (3) the small plot size leads to
labor intensity. A list of 13 references (1961-77) is appended.
AID/DSAN-G-0083 931082600

008 PN-AAH-236
ALIWALAS TO RICE GARDEN: A CASE STUDY OF THE
INTENSIFICATION OF RICE FARMING IN CAMARINES
SUR, PHILIPPINES
Morooka, Y.; Masicat, P; Cordova, V; Herdt, R.W.
International Rice Research Institute (IRRI).
1979, 25 p.
In IRRI Research Paper Series, No. 36
The continuous rice production system, or rice garden, was de-
veloped by The International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) as a
method of intensifying rice farming. This report examines how one
farmer in the Philippines developed this system, including the
settling of difficulties involved in adopting and managing the sys-


tem. This farmer is contrasted with two neighboring farmers using
less intensive systems. There is a private gravity irrigation system
available to all farmers which provides a year round water supply
Of the three farmers studied, two of them used staggered planting
systems while one used simultaneous planting in which the whole
paddy area is planted at once. Farmer A was the only one using
the continuous rice production system, which includes staggered
planting. Farmer B's application of current inputs was lower than
the total inputs of Farmer A. Almost all tasks were performed with
hired labor under traditional arrangements. Farmer C cultivated
his farm with simple equipment, but used current inputs at a higher
level than the total inputs of Farmer B. Farmer A had much higher
rice yields, but he also had a higher degree of farm management
problems. The most severe of these was the seasonality of labor
use on his farm. Competition for hired labor frequently occurred
among farmers because all labor-intensive practices occurred at
the same time. To maintain an appropriate number of hired labor-
ers for transplanting and harvesting, Farmer A made an arrange-
ment whereby transplanters received the right to participate in
harvesting and threshing, and to receive a one-eighth share of the
harvest. In addition, Farmer A paid cash to workers for transplant-
ing. The other two farmers used the traditional system of giving
laborers a portion of the harvest. Farmer A used a larger amount of
fertilizer than the others and this increased his yield He also used
specific pesticides for specific diseases, whereas the other farm-
ers used the same pesticides for all diseases. This seemed to
increase the health and yield of Farmer As crop. Farmer As
greater use of farm machinery decreased hand labor and in-
creased crop yield. A list of five references (1977-79) is ap-
pended.
AID/DSAN-G-0083 931082600

009 PN-AAH-237
CHANGES IN RICE HARVESTING SYSTEMS IN
CENTRAL LUZON AND LAGUNA
Kikuchi, M.; Cordova, V.G.; Marciano, E.B.; Hayami, Y
International Rice Research Institute (IRRI).
1979, 26 p.
In IRRI Research Paper Series, No. 31
Dramatic changes in rice harvesting and threshing arrangements
are occurring in the Philippines in response to growing population
pressures, land reform, improvements in irrigation systems, and
the introduction of modern rice varieties. Using data collected
from 100 farms, this study discusses the geographic and historical
changes in harvesting and threshing arrangements in Central
Luzon and Laguna, one of the country's major rice-producing
areas. Harvesting and threshing represent major employment op-
portunities for landless workers and for small farmers whose in-
comes from farming are insufficient to meet their subsistence
needs. After the harvest, production costs are deducted from the
output, and the residual is divided between the landlord and the
tenant, with harvest workers also receiving a significant share
because harvesting and threshing costs are usually the largest
items among production costs. In the Philippines, the crop is
usually cut by hand, but threshing methods vary from hand beating


ARDA Vol. 9, No. 1 February 1981













AGRICULTURE


to large mechanical threshers. The more mechanized the opera-
tion, the smaller the laborers' share of the harvesting cost. Interact-
ing with the choice of threshing technology are several contractual
arrangements. The choice of technology and contractual ar-
rangement depends partly on relative prices of capital and labor
and technical conditions; and partly on risk, such as that of insuffi-
cient labor at peak periods. Social and institutional environments
also weigh heavily on the harvesting and threshing technology.
The landlord-tenant relationship is an especially critical factor. In
the Central Region, this relationship is a paternalistic one, to the
benefit of both parties. Here, modern technology has taken a
foothold, and although most of the harvesting is still performed by
hand beating, small machines are used extensively for thresh-
ing. In the Central Luzon, where large haciendas and large
threshing machines were formerly the rule, haciendas have been
broken up into smaller farms. Since this has occurred, large
threshing machines are being replaced by either hand threshing
or small threshing machines. For harvesting, hand beating is the
rule. Appended is a list of 15 scientific references (1920-78).
AID/DSAN-G-0083 931082600

010 PN-AAH-423
SOME DIMENSIONS OF TRADITIONAL FARMING IN
SEMI-ARID TROPICAL INDIA
Jodha, N.S.
International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics
(ICRISAT).
1979, 31 p.
In Economics Program, Progress Report No. 4
To better understand the constraints and potentials of traditional
farming systems and to use this understanding to develop new
technology for semiarid agriculture, this paper examines the ra-
tionality behind some of the traditional farming practices. It is
based on studies conducted from 1975 to 1978 by the International
Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics of 30 small,
medium, and large farms in six villages in three agroclimatic zones
of peninsular India. Results of direct relevance to generating new
technology for semiarid tropical areas include the following: In the
deep Vertisol areas, the practice of fallowing land during the rainy
season and planting after the rainy season is important for small
farmers. In the largely rainfed areas, the traditional practice of
intercropping covers 35-73% of gross cropped area, while the
extent of intercropping declines with increases in irrigation, prac-
ticed mainly on larger farms. As revealed by the number of crop
mixtures (as high as 84 in a single village), traditional intercrop-
ping is highly complex, partly due to farmers' informal experimen-
tation with crops able to satisfy production and environmental
requirements. Hence, generation of low-cost technology for inter-
cropping may help the less prosperous farmer. In turn, it appears
that egalitarian objectives can be achieved through resources
allocated to intercropping technology rather than through insti-
tutional means. While developing new intercropping technology,
the many objectives of the farmer, such as profitability, employ-
ment, and subsistence, should be taken into account. Among
other requirements for integrated watershed-based technology,


large land areas are needed. However, land ownership and usage
patterns of traditional farming systems pose institutional con-
straints. Due to the lack of individually owned land parcels large
enough to constitute a composite miniwatershed, no alternative to
group action exists which can ensure management of land for
higher productivity and conservation on a watershed basis. To
induce such group action, however, watershed technology must
become highly profitable. For further reference, 21 entries (1963-
79) are provided.


AID/ta-G-1421


931097200


011 PN-AAH-424
INTERCROPPING IN TRADITIONAL FARMING
SYSTEMS
Jodha, N.S.
International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics
(ICRISAT).
1979, 22 p.
In Economics Program, Progress Report No. 3
Intercropping is a widely practiced farming system in many devel-
oping countries. Perhaps because of the complexity of intercrop-
ping, little research has been devoted to the subject, stifling the
development and spreading of new agricultural technology for
intercropping systems. This paper discusses only a few dimen-
sions of intercropping as practiced in six semiarid tropical villages
in India. Based on plotwise details of cropping patterns of sample
farmers during three agricultural years (1975-78), it highlights two
important features, having significant research and policy implica-
tions, of traditional intercropping systems. First, intercropping is
more important on small, rainfed farms than on large, irrigated
farms. Thus, any breakthrough in intercropping technology will be
of most use to the poor, small farmer. Secondly, the traditional
intercropping system is highly complex and diversified as indi-
cated by a multiplicity of combinations in crop mixtures, as well as
by its manifestation through a variety of other factors. From village
to village, mixtures involving two crops were popular but those
involving five to eight crops were not uncommon. Viewed from
their share in gross cropped area, the most important mixtures
were different in different villages. Farmers must satisfy both profit
and subsistence requirements which can be served simultane-
ously by raising high-value cash crops like cotton and groundnuts
and subsistence crops like sorghum and pigeonpea. The drought
resistance of crops and their suitability for maintaining soil fertility,
fodder requirements of farm animals, and the various soil contents
constitute other factors affecting farmer decisions on specific crop
mixtures. The author argues that the development of complicated
intercropping systems is unnecessary. The best strategy lies in
evolving a few simple intercropping systems which can satisfy
such key objectives as profitability and stability, while keeping in
mind labor use and soil fertility. These new systems should incor-
porate new agrobiological components, such as high-yield varie-
ties, as well as new knowledge about land and water manage-
ment. Ten bibliographic entries (1949-78) are included for further
reference.
AID/ta-G-1421 931097200


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f AGRICULTURE


012 PN-AAH-497
PROCEEDINGS OF THE INTERNATIONAL
CONFERENCE ON THE UTILIZATION OF GUAYULE,
TUCSON, ARIZONA, 1975
McGinnies, W.G.; Haase, E.F
University of Arizona.
1975, 180 p.
Guayule is a shrub resembling sagebrush which grows wild in
North-Central Mexico and nearby areas of the Big Bend region of
Southwest Texas. It is a source of rubber and resin. To fill the
demand for rubber during World War II, full-scale production and
harvest of guayule resulted in the extraction of three million pounds
of its rubber. In 1946, 21 million pounds of rubber were destroyed
unharvested, and production of guayule abandoned for as yet
unexplained political reasons. This report contains the proceed-
ings of the International Conference on the Utilization of Guayule,
held to apply knowledge gained from past guayule experimenta-
tion to some of the critical economic issues facing the United
States and the developing world, and to assist decisionmakers in
determining the merits of guayule as a source of domestic rubber.
Technical subjects presented include pre- and post-World War II
guayule production; the Emergency Rubber Project; seed treat-
ment and nurseries practices of 1942; field production and har-
vesting; propagation from cuttings; experimental plantings in Is-
rael; activities of the Continental Mexican Rubber Company;
guayule diseases; rubber extracting and processing; guayule
rubber utilization; deresination of guayule rubber; rubber produc-
tion activities in Mexico; physiology and chemistry of guayule;
soil-plant relationships; climatic relationships in the growth and
production of guayule; California, New Mexico, Texas, and Arizona
indicator plots; genetics and plant breeding; genetic and agro-
nomic research; market potential and economic production; and
retting. It was found that guayule production is readily mecha-
nized; its moisture and fertilizer requirements are relatively low;
guayule is physiologically ideal for genetic improvement; it is
susceptible to common controllable diseases found in many con-
ventional crops; and that its by-products wax, wood pulp, and
resin may become important. A list of conference particip-
ants concludes the report.
AID/ta-G-1111 931015900

013 PN-AAH-511
NEW LANDS PRODUCTIVITY IN EGYPT: TECHNICAL
AND ECONOMIC FEASIBILITY
Hesser, L.F.; Asmon, I.; Hedlund; F.F; Gotsch, C.; Kean, J.;
Leatham, W.; Parker, C.; Sparrow, G.B.; Stelly, R.; Sukkary, S.
Pacific Consultants.
1980, 214 p.
In Working Papers: PN-AAH-527, 288 p.
The Government of Egypt (GOE) has made heavy investments in
land reclamation over the past 25 years and maintains a strong
commitment to land reclamation. This study examines the techni-
cal and economic feasibility of land reclamation activities currently
being considered by the GOE. It was found that the soil, water, and


climate of many desert areas in Egypt are such that agriculture is
technically feasible if adequate management and support ser-
vices exist. The investment opportunities for individual farm units
are generally positive in that high returns on investments, which
are federally subsidized, are possible. The main economic dif-
ficulty in reclaiming new lands is the rising cost of energy. Where
water must be lifted more than 20 meters, costs as compared with
benefits do not appear economically feasible. Sprinkler irrigation
projects do not appear feasible for the same reason. On the whole,
large-scale reclamation of new lands can take place only at the
expense of foregone alternative investments. On the other hand,
rehabilitation of selected low-lying lands already reclaimed has a
good potential for being both technologically and economically
feasible. Nonetheless, a number of land reclamation opportunities
with potentially attractive rates of return do exist. Criteria for such
potential projects are as follows: (1) highest priority should be
given to rehabilitating already reclaimed lands in aeas where the
required water lift is low; (2) public sector investments in reclama-
tion of new lands should be oriented to reclamation projects in
low-lying lands or projects involving water lift of only a few meters;
(3) energy-saving irrigation methods should be used both in rec-
lamation and rehabilitation projects; and (4) joint ventures to test
for higher yields should be encouraged, as should reclamation
through homesteading. Priority topics should include: improved
agronomics, low-energy irrigation methods, rehabilitation of low-
lying, badly drained, resalinized soils, and alternative means of
organization for the operation and maintenance oT irrigation sys-
tems. A bibliography (21 items, 1972-79) and annexes are in-
cluded.
AID/ne-C-1645 263004200

014 PN-AAH-527
NEW LANDS PRODUCTIVITY IN EGYPT: TECHNICAL
AND ECONOMIC FEASIBILITY WORKING PAPERS
Pacific Consultants.
1980, 288 p.
In Working Papers 1-10, Main Report: PN-AAH-511, 214 p.
Land reclamation has recently captured the interest of govern-
ment officials in Egypt. Most new lands reclamation is being
accomplished in desert regions. This report contains nine working
papers which relate detailed backgrounds and descriptions of
previously performed feasibility studies. Topics which are in-
cluded in these working papers are: (1) crop budgets and farm
plans; (2) sociological considerations, Tahaddi: a case study; (3)
credit and input supply system; (4) marketing system; (5) prices;
(6) perspectives for fresh produce exports; (7) agricultural re-
search; (8) comparison of benefits of different agricultural proj-
ects; and (9) making technology the variable. Working paper one
details the types of crops currently grown in the new lands, the
effect of crop rotation, crop yields, the cropping pattern, and the
methodology used on graduate farms. The second working paper
discusses the meaning of the term, land reclamation, as it applies
to different peoples in Egypt who live on these reclaimed lands.
Tahaddi is the site of this case study and the working paper
includes discussion of the research methodology and results of


ARDA Vol. 9, No. 1 February 1981












AGRICULTURE


the research. Working paper three concerns farming cooperatives
in the Tahaddi area. Working paper four discusses market prices
and quotas, consumer cooperatives, producer organizations for
marketing, and training marketing personnel. Price policies are
the main subject of the fifth working paper. Working paper six
discusses seasonality of exports, tariffs, trade, and competition.
The seventh working paper presents conclusions and recom-
mendations on subjects relevant to Tahaddi as well as descrip-
tions of agricultural research institutions in Egypt. These include:
the Agricultural Research Center, the Soils and Water Research
Institute, the Desert Institute, the South Tahrir Company, the Ameri-
can University in Cairo, and the Academy of Science. Working
paper eight discusses returns on agricultural investments in the
new lands and agricultural improvements in the old lands. The
ninth working paper discusses irrigation technology in Tahaddi. A
21-item bibliography (1976-79) and a comparison of benefits of
agricultural products is appended.
AID/ne-C-1645 263004200

015 PN-AAH-565
SUBJECTIVE PRODUCTION FUNCTION
PARAMETERS AND RISK: WHEAT PRODUCTION IN
TUNISIA
Roe, T; Nygaard, D.
University of Minnesota, Department of Agricultural and Applied
Economics.
1979, 14 p.
In Staff Paper, pp. 79-43
The problems of resource allocation by farmers become acute
when the parameters of the underlying technology are not known
with certainty. The problems become even more acute if these
parameters vary in some complex manner, as in the case of wheat,
with yearly weather, soil moisture, disease, and other soil and
atmospheric conditions affecting plant growth. This paper ex-
plores these problems, by focusing on 125 farmers in Northern
Tunisia during the 1976-77 crop year. The farmers' holdings
ranged in size from 2 to 381 hectares (ha), with an average of 27 ha
planted in durum wheat. The authors maintain that Tunisian farm-
ers form subjective estimates of the parameters of the underlying
production function. To substantiate this thesis, each farmer was
interviewed twice during the crop year. The first interviews were
conducted at the time of seedbed preparation, with the farmers
providing estimates of their yield at harvest (given the current
available level of inputs and assuming that normal weather condi-
tions would prevail during the growing season). Each farmer was
interviewed again at harvest. The results suggest that the farmers
overestimated their yields, but that the cause of this overestimation
was unusually low rainfall. Otherwise, the farmers appeared to
correctly perceive the true parameters of their total possible out-
put. In addition, the farmers were generally found to be risk ad-
verse (in terms of allocating resources and adopting new high-
yielding varieties), when the source of the uncertainty was weather
and/or prices. The authors note that the mathematical method
used in this study is unique and appears to be a reasonable
approach to measuring and identifying the cause of allocative


error, risk, and the value of providing this information to farmers.
Previous researchers have relied on cost minimization or profit
maximization frameworks to determine the effects of risk and
uncertainty on resource allocation and the use of technology. The
conceptual framework employed in this study takes into consid-
eration both of these elements. A brief bibliography (13 English
titles and 1 French title, 1966-77) is included in the report.
AID/ta-BMA-5 931023600

016 PN-AAH-566
INSTITUTIONAL FACTORS AFFECTING THE
ADOPTION OF AGRICULTURAL SECTOR ANALYSIS
METHODOLOGY IN LDC'S
Klein, H.; Roe, T
University of Minnesota, Department of Agricultural and Applied
Economics.
1978, 20 p.
In Staff Paper, P78-10
Despite recent efforts to develop and apply agricultural sector
analysis (ASA) models in LDCs, data on the institutionalization of
ASA techniques within policymaking sectors remain lacking. This
document discusses the issues and constraints regarding such
institutionalization, as exemplified in the ASA model developed in
Tunisia. After a brief outline of the Tunisian model itself and a brief
review of the literature on the use of ASA methods in general, the
question of institutionalization of ASA methods in Tunisia is ex-
plained. Several general insights can be drawn from the Tunisian
experience. First, the models that are used must be understood by
the operating host officials and fall within their authority. This was
not entirely the case in Tunisia. In addition, further decomposition
of the ASA model would have yielded more utility. Also, data
should be collected through government channels so that any
updating of the model will not be constrained by the need to
allocate sources to obtain the new data. The analytical model
should be built upon a progression from field work up to model
coefficients. This is important for training and provides for consis-
tency checks. The model and selection of techniques should not
be beyond the capabilities of the implementing agents. The spe-
cification of time, space, and form dimension variables should be
related to the instruments and variables used by the host imple-
menting agency Dialog between builders and planners during the
preliminary stages can provide knowledge so that institutional
constraints and informational channels can be dealt with more
efficiently If ASA techniques cannot be applied to traditional struc-
tures, they must be closely linked with the decisionmaking authori-
ties. Finally, institutionalization problems appear to be related to
the resources, structure, and behavior of host country institutions.
The paper concludes by suggesting that these factors should be
kept in mind by ASA analysts if ASA methods are to exert an
important influence on policymaking. A bibliography includes 14
English titles (1972-76).
AID/ta-BMA-5 931023600


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AGRICULTURE


017 PN-AAH-568
GUAYULE: A RUBBER-PRODUCING SHRUB FOR
ARID AND SEMIARID REGIONS
McGinnies, W.G.; Haase, E.F
University of Arizona, Office of Arid Lands Studies.
1975, 273 p.
In Arid Lands Resource Information Paper No. 7
Guayule, the only species of the genus Parthenium known to
produce significant amounts of rubber, is a shrub native to the dry
lands of north central Mexico and the adjacent Big Bend area of
Texas, usually growing at an altitude between 2,000 and 6,000
feet. It is largely restricted to outwash slopes of calcareous soils in
regions having an annual rainfall of 10-15 inches, that occurs
principally in late spring and early autumn. Although guayule is
grown commercially in the U.S., extensive scientific research has
provided the necessary methods for its successful culture and for
rubber production elsewhere. This historical review of the cultiva-
tion of guayule in the U.S. was produced in order to aid in the
eventual establishment of guayule as a thriving commercial enter-
prise among Southwestern Indians and other peoples in arid and
semiarid zones. In 1930, an investigation undertaken by the War
Department underscored the interest of the U.S. government in
encouraging the domestic guayule industry in order to reduce
dependency upon foreign markets, provide a certain national
source of rubber in a grave emergency, and employ thousands of
American farmers and laborers. In response to the investigation,
federal legislation providing for the planting of guayule was
passed. This legislation and the subsequent research and opera-
tional investigations undertaken to optimize production are de-
scribed. Detailed attention is given to guayule agronomy, includ-
ing its ecology, seed and seed handling, nurseries, field practices,
insect and disease control, harvesting, and methods of extracting
rubber. Attached to the historical review is a bibliography pre-
pared primarily for participants in the International Conference on
the Utilization of Guayule, held to explore the state of knowledge
and available information on the guayule rubber plant from pre-
World War II days through recent developments and to deliber-
ate on the immediate and future economic potential of guayule.
The bibliography contains more than 900 entries (1900-73), for
which 225 brief annotations were prepared A number of unpub-
lished, but available, documents have been included to provide
as complete a bibliography as possible.
AID/ta-G-1111 931015900

018 PN-AAG-845
RECOMMENDED SUPPORT FOR GRAIN POLICY
DEVELOPMENT AND IMPLEMENTATION IN SRI
LANKA
Borsdorf, R.; Anderson, D.; Anderson, D.
Kansas State University.
1979, 136 p.
What are the problems currently hampering the development and
implementation of a rational grain policy in Sri Lanka? The present
study attempts to answer these questions in view of potential


USAID support. This study is divided into three sections. The initial
section focuses upon basic needs in marketing policy develop-
ment. Current policy is tilted towards political rather than economic
rationalization with mixed results. On the one hand the prolifera-
tion of government marketing agencies has cause a duplication
of marketing functions and a lack of policy coordination. On the
other, pricing policies aimed at increasing paddy production have
been successful, but the impact is uncertain, leaving future policy
without a clear direction. Major needs are in data collection and
analysis (including the institutionalization of this capability) and
coordination of data analysis with policy decisionraking. Prob-
lems and needs of the Paddy Marketing Board (PMB) are dis-
cussed next. The PMB's role is not clearly defined; its activities are
uncoordinated with the other agencies having paddy and rice
marketing responsibilities; and its organizational structure is defi-
cient in upper management personnel. While recent pricing poli-
cies directed by the PMB have been sound, its staff suffers from a
serious lack of data collection/analysis and management skills.
The PMB must refine its pricing system, direct more attention to
reserve stocks, and clarify its objectives. A third and final section
discusses the dryland farming sector. While production resources
sufficient to greatly expand dryland farming do exist, little is known
about the marketing institution's capability for handling increased
production. Also, little is known about the comparative production
advantages of Sri Lanka's crops or their marketing potential. A
study of cropping and marketing options must be made and the
procurement and sale of dryland crops must be clarified. Also,
consideration should be given to a modest price rise in coarse
grains and the expanded production of fingermillet and sesame.
Included in each of the above sections are specific recommenda-
tions for donor support. A 33-item bibliography (1969-79) is also
included.


AID/ta-C-1162 GTS


931078600


019 PN-AAH-063
POTENTIALS AND PITFALLS OF PRODUCT
MARKETING THROUGH SMALL FARMER GROUPS
Fox, R.
1978, 21 p.
In December 1978, a Central Treaty Organization (CENTO) semi-
nar was held in Lahore, Pakistan, on increasing the productive
capacity of small farmers. This report was prepared for and pre-
sented at this seminar. The author discusses programs to improve
the general marketing system as well as marketing through small
farmer groups. Food products, agricultural inputs, and rural con-
sumer goods are three markets identified as relevant to small-
scale producers. These programs involve changes in market
infrastructure, economic policy, and legal measures, such as the
construction of roads, the establishment of credit programs, and a
uniform system of grades, weights, and measures. Improvements
in the general marketing system are then applied to product
marketing through small farmer groups. Improved processing and
marketing through vertical integration, economies of scale, and
increased bargaining power of small farmers vis-a-vis middlemen
and processors are three economic arguments presented in sup-


ARDA Vol. 9, No. 1 February 1981












AGRICULTURE


port of product marketing through group action. However, the
report also describes difficulties in forming effective product mar-
keting groups, such as the small farmers' lack of capital and
organizational resources. Furthermore, government intervention
through farm-level price-fixing, as well as outside competition in
traditional marketing systems, limits the small farmers' gains. An
examination of these problems led the author to conclude that the
potential of product marketing through small farmer groups is
limited. The report concludes with recommendations for establish-
ing effective marketing programs through group action. For ex-
ample, economic success requires that local production and mar-
keting systems be considered in the design of group action pro-
grams. In addition, group action programs must be technically
feasible, distribute benefits equitably, and be accompanied by
complementary improvements in the general marketing system.
Included in the report is an appendix of supply and demand
graphs to illustrate the effects of improved product marketing on
food prices.
AID/ne-C-1578 290020000


020 PN-AAH-241
FORMULATION OF LINKAGES IN RURAL REGIONS
FOR PURPOSES OF REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT
RESEARCH
Applegate, M.J.; Badger, D.D.
Oklahoma State University.
1979, 98 p.
Techniques or tools to measure impacts of government programs
and projects on the lowest income groups in the LDCs are urgently
needed. An A.I.D. research project, for which this document is a
final report, addressed that need by attempting to identify linkages
among the rural poor, urban poor, and other sectors of the econ-
omy by means of a low-cost methodology study. Understanding
these linkages, which are defined as market transactions or flows
of goods and services among population segments, economic
sectors, and regional locations, is a prerequisite to any reliable
project analysis. The research project was specifically designed
to analyze the linkages of two rural LDC regions and to test
hypotheses pertaining to agricultural and regional development
emanating from differences in the extent and form of linkages.
Nicaragua was selected for study on the basis of a number of
considerations spelled out in the introduction to this report. The
methodology is discussed in the following section. Next, the re-
gions selected for analysis are described in terms of topography
and climate, vegetation and soils, agricultural and livestock activi-
ties, land use, highway and road network, and population charac-
teristics. Following this, the results and interpretation of data are
presented. Among the important differences noted by the authors
in the nature of linkages was that both consumers and producers
in the region where traditional agriculture is most common are apt
to depend upon counterparts in the local community in which they
reside, whereas those in regions characterized by a more sophis-
ticated agricultural technology tend to rely on purchases in the
regional center and outside the region. The authors concluded
that government programs such as construction of infrastructure


will have a relatively greater positive indirect impact on rural devel-
opment and on reducing poverty if carried out in areas in which the
linkages to a large regional center or to outside the region are not
well-developed. A list of six Spanish and English language refer-
ences cited, two questionnaires used, and the input-output matrix
are appended.
AID/ta-C-1427 931115700

021 PN-AAG-789
UTILIZATION OF PHOSPHATE ROCK IN TROPICAL
SOILS OF LATIN AMERICA
Fenster, W.E.; Leon, L.A.
International Fertilizer Development Center (IFDC); Centro Inter-
nacional de Agricultura Tropical (CIAT).
1978, 49 p.
The high cost of fertilizers, especially those containing high
amounts of phosphorus (P), is one of the main limiting factors in
increasing crop production in tropical Latin America. The direct
use of phosphate rock (PR) or of some of its low-input altered
products would seem to present a logical approach to overcom-
ing this constraint. This paper selectively reviews the literature on
soils and phosphorus fertilizer problems in tropical Latin America,
identifies objectives for further research, and outlines a research
program to meet those objectives. After a brief introduction, the
literature review is presented. The review is divided into the follow-
ing categories: (1) general P and soils review; (2) direct application
of PR to soils; (3) characterizing phosphate rocks; (4) greenhouse
and field investigations with PR; (5) greenhouse and field investi-
gations with partially acidulated PR; and (6) greenhouse and field
investigations with thermally altered PR. Next, the objectives of the
research proposal are spelled out. First, an evaluation of the
effectiveness of sources and methods of application of P fertilizers
on soils of tropical Latin America is needed. Second, the research
should determine the forms and availability of the reaction prod-
ucts of these fertilizers in soils as related to their initial and residual
effectiveness. Finally, criteria need to be established for applying
the results of the first two objectives to different soils and crops at
various locations by conducting field experiments on selected
soils throughout tropical Latin America. It is proposed that these
objectives be accomplished through interrelated and pertinent
laboratory, incubation, greenhouse, and field experiments. Cur-
rently, it is planned that the research will be carried out in Colom-
bia, Brazil, Peru, Ecuador and other countries as may be appro-
priate over a 7-10 year period. The final part of the paper presents
the reasoning and justification for the proposed research. Various
charts and graphs and a 51-item bibliography (1943-77) of En-
glish, Spanish, and Portuguese language references are also
included.


AID/ta-G-1218


931005400


ARDA Vol. 9, No. 1 February 1981












t AGRICULTURE


022 PN-AAG-790
MANAGEMENT OF PHOSPHORUS FERTILIZERS IN
ESTABLISHING AND MAINTAINING IMPROVED
PASTURES ON ACID, INFERTILE SOILS OF TROPICAL
LATIN AMERICA
Fenster, W.E.; Leon, L.A.
International Fertilizer Development Center, (IFDC); Centro Inter-
nacional de Agricultura Tropical (CIAT).
1978, 49 p.
The Oxisols and Ultisols (soil types) of tropical Latin America have
a high phosphorus fixation, so that substantial amounts of phos-
phorus must be added to satisfy the requirements of the soils and
of the plant species which grow in them. The extremely low levels
of both total and available phosphorus therefore create a major
problem in establishing and maintaining improved pastures on
these soils. Because of these constraints, along with the high unit
cost of phosphorus fertilizers, alternative methods of managing
improved pastures must be considered. This paper considers four
economical methods of improving forage production while still
satisfying the phosphorus requirements of the plant. These are: (1)
selection of plant species that will tolerate relatively low levels of
available soil phosphorus; (2) determining rates and placement of
phosphorus fertilizers to increase their efficiency, both initially and
residually; (3) use of cheaper and less soluble forms of phos-
phorus carriers; and (4) use of soil amendments to enhance the
availability of soil-applied phosphorus. After discussing each of
these methods, the authors conclude that long-term, comparative
studies need to be conducted with the various phosphate rocks
and their low-cost altered products to ascertain if it is feasible to
use them in deference to the more soluble but costly phosphorus
carriers. Further research is also recommended to determine the
effect of added amendments on the availability of applied phos-
phorus. When these problems have been researched, it should
then be possible to make relatively accurate phosphorus fertilizer
recommendations for any given pasture management scheme.
This will only be accomplished when both plant and soil phos-
phorus needs are better understood. A list of 11 references
(1964-78) in English and Spanish is appended.
AID/ta-G-1218 GTS 931005400


023 PN-AAG-791
THE BANGLADESH FERTILIZER SECTOR
Chuang, Y.H.; Hill, J.M.; Barnett, B.H.
International Fertilizer Development Center (IFDC).
1978, 57 p.
In Technical Bulletin IFDC-T-11
Despite a significant increase since its inception in 1952, current
fertilizer use in Bangladesh is far below the recommended rate;
and local production and distribution are inadequate to meet
domestic needs. This report analyzes current and potential prob-
lems of Bangladesh's fertilizer sector and recommends projects
and studies to solve them. To meet the challenge of the projected
rapid increase in fertilizer use and reduce the burden of govern-


ment and donor subsidies, the system's capabilities must be
better utilized through improved planning, organization, coordina-
tion, monitoring, communication, and information development
and exchange. Agricultural research and extension are fragment-
ed, resulting in duplicated efforts and inadequate financial, man-
power, and facility resources. Besides geographic and climatic
factors, fertilizer supply and use are affected by: (1) shortage and
irregular availability of fertilizer; (2) lack of coordination on all
levels; (3) low incentives for farmer usage; (4) poor communica-
tion systems; and (5) shortage or export of skilled extension,
technical, and management personnel. Also, as fertilizer use in-
creases, there will be additional needs for port, transportation,
handling, storage, marketing, and communications facilities.
Recommendations for solving current problems include conduct-
ing an organizational study of the entire fertilizer sector and of the
Bangladesh Agricultural Development Corp.; developing 5-year
supply and demand plans; implementing management training
programs; and studying incentives for fertilizer wholesalers, retail-
ers, and farmers. Recommendations for solving potential prob-
lems include indepth studies of: government subsidies; building
rather than leasing future warehouses; fertilizer use; future P205
supply strategy; private sector fertilizer wholesaling, handling,
and packaging; as well as development of a transportation and
warehousing model, and standard fertilizer specifications. A
demographic and geographic Bangladesh data list as well as a
direct fertilizer subsidy worksheet are appended.


AID/ta-G-1218 GTS


931005400


024 PN-AAG-793
WORLD FERTILIZER SITUATION AND OUTLOOK,
1978-85
Harris, G.T; Harre, E.A.
Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), International Fertilizer Devel-
opment Center (IFDC) and National Fertilizer Development Cen-
ter (NFDC).
1979, 27 p.
In Technical Bulletin IFDC-T-13, Updated version of World Fertilizer
Market Review and Outlook: PN-RAA-230
Recent increases in world food production are largely the result of
increased use of fertilizer in the world's primary agricultural re-
gions. The present report, a joint product of the International
Fertilizer Development Center (IFDC) and the National Fertilizer
Development Center of the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), up-
dates a 1974 TVA report. It reviews the current world fertilizer
situation and projects the 1978-85 world and regional supply/
demand for major fertilizer nutrients. Three types of fertilizer -
nitrogen, phosphate, and potash -are discussed in terms of world
capacity, production, consumption, supply/demand balances,
and regional supply/demand balances. The fertilizer industry is
characterized by a cyclical pattern of long periods of oversupply
and brief periods of shortages. The following projections were
made for 1977-85: (1) world fertilizer production will increase from
98 million nutrient (nitrogen, phosphate, and potash) metric tons
(m/mt) in 1977 to 141 m/mt in 1985, with anticipated production in
developing countries of 25% by 1985 as opposed to 10% in 1969;


ARDA Vol. 9, No. 1 February 1981












AGRICULTURE i


(2) fertilizer consumption will increase from 95 m/mt to over 135
m/mt, with an annual growth rate of 4.6% compared with 6.0% for
1969-77; (3) world ammonia capacity, already overbuilt, will in-
crease by 31 m/mt between 1978 and 1985; (4) nitrogen fertilizer
production will increase from 46 m/mt to 72 m/mt, while consump-
tion will increase from 45 m/mt to almost 67 m/mt, with no supply
shortage anticipated; (5) due to increases in livestock feeding
costs, nitrogen production will shift from traditional producers to
areas where low-cost natural gas is available; (6) phosphate fertil-
izer production will increase from 27 m/mt to 39 m/mt, with con-
sumption expanding from 26 m/mt to 37 m/mt; and (7) potash
fertilizer production will increase from 25 m/mt to 31 m/mt, while
consumption will increase from 23 m/mt to 32 m/mt, leading to a
possible shortage by 1985. The above projections are limited by
the unavailability of reliable data from China and the U.S.S.R., two
of the world's largest fertilizer producers and consumers. An over-
view of world fertilizer consumption, patterns of ownership, prices,
and a 13-item bibliography (1974-78) are appended.
AID/ta-G-1218 GTS 931005400
025 PN-AAH-228
DENITRIFICATION LOSS OF FERTILIZER NITROGEN
IN PADDY SOILS; ITS RECOGNITION AND IMPACT
Watanabe, I.; Mitsui, S.
International Rice Research Institute (IRRI).
1979, 12 p.
In IRRI Research Paper Series, No. 37
After a large nitrogen loss by denitrification in paddy soils was first
recognized in Japan in 1941, field studies to minimize this loss
were conducted both in Japan and in all rice-growing countries.
This paper outlines the history of these studies and their principal
results. The paper is divided in two parts. The first part presents an
historical review of Shioiri's discovery of the loss of surface-
applied nitrogen by denitrification in flooded rice soils and of the
consequent Japanese efforts to minimize this loss through deep
placement of nitrogen fertilizer. The historical succession of inno-
vations to make deep placement practical and acceptable to
farmers, such as deep placement of urea after transplanting or of
nitrogen at panicle formation stage, are noted. Also noted are the
forms and methods of mechanized deep placement, e.g., the use
of nitrogen, liquid ammonia, and liquid fertilizers; and the uses of
fertilizer applicators attached to engine-driven cultivators and of
band applicators of paste fertilizers attached to an engine-driven
transplanter. The second part of the report describes other interna-
tional and national efforts in these areas, such as deep placement
trials with ammonium sulfate, urea, and slow-release nitrogen
fertilizers at the International Rice Research Institute; and the joint
Food and Agriculture Organization/International Atomic Energy
Agency effort to form an international network of fertilizer trials for
wetland rice. Studies being undertaken in the tropics on ammonia
volatilization loss in association with high pH of floodwater due to
algal photosynthesis are summarized, and the implications of
recent research for tropical rice farmers (who are still generally
reluctant to adopt new methods of application) are discussed. A
30-item list of references (1935-79) is appended.
AID/DSAN-G-0083 931082600


026 PN-AAG-818
ESTIMATION OF CONSUMPTIVE USE OF WATER FOR
WHEAT UNDER OPTIMUM MANAGEMENT
CONDITIONS
Haidar, G.; Farooqi, M.A.; DeMooy, C.J.
Colorado State University.
1975, 37 p.
Conservation of existing irrigation supplies in Pakistan is becom-
ing more and more important as the demand for irrigation water
increases and new sources of supply become harder to find. One
of the objectives of the Mona Reclamation Experimental Project is
to develop new techniques for on-farm water management. This
report is part of that program. Currently, much water is wasted by
over-irrigation of crops. A large portion of this water could be
saved by applying the exact amount of irrigation water required.
Since wheat is one of the most important food crops in Pakistan, it
was chosen for study The test site consisted of a one-acrefield of
medium-to-fine-textured, non-saline, non-alkali soil. Final mois-
ture sampling was done at the time of the wheat harvest. The
samples were dried in an electric oven at 105C to constant
weight, and the moisture contents were calculated on a dry-
weight basis. The consumptive use of water was worked out by
two independent methods. The first consisted of gravimetric
measurement of soil moisture depletion, in which consumptive
use was measured by adding the water loss between soil sam-
plings i.e., before and after each irrigation, plus pan evapora-
tion for 3 days after each irrigation, plus rainfall, plus evapo-
transpiration for the days not otherwise accounted for. The sec-
ond method measured the total quantity of irrigation water ap-
plied during the growth period, plus or minus the difference in
soil moisture at sowing and harvest time. The study determined
that an appreciable amount of water can be saved, without a loss
in production, by using no more than 14 inches of water from
irrigation, rainfall, and moisture available in the soil. More com-
plete results, in terms of evapotranspiration, consumptive use,
and wheat yield, are also discussed. The authors note that the
study is still in progress, so that the findings should be used with
caution. The report includes numerous charts and a brief bibliog-
raphy (16 references, 1957-73).
AID/ta-C-1100 931048900

027 PN-AAG-847
IMPROVING IRRIGATION WATER MANAGEMENT ON
FARMS: ANNUAL TECHNICAL REPORT, 1978/79
Colorado State University Engineering Research Center.
1979, 650 p.
The irrigation system of Pakistan represents one of the largest
modern conveyance systems in the world and is a marvel of
engineering skill and technology There are, however, many prob-
lems concerning the farm-level portion of the system. This docu-
ment reports on the progress of Colorado State University (CSU),
contracted under an AID-funded project to assist the Pakistani
farmer operate and manage the water from the canal outlet
through the irrigated field. Among the most significant CSU ac-
complishments during this report year were: (1) continuation of


ARDA Vol.9, No. 1 February 1981












AGRICULTURE


field studies, including the watercourse cleaning and mainte-
nance research program; (2) completion of watercourse surveys,
including physical and socioeconomic aspects; (3) implementa-
tion and evaluation, in conjunction with USAID and the Govern-
ment of Pakistan (GOP), of the On-Farm Water Management Pilot
Project; (4) conducting preliminary field studies and seminars
regarding alternatives and the legal framework necessary for or-
ganizing farmers to improve on-farm water management prac-
tices; (5) preliminary development of training materials and train-
ing of Water Management Extension Officers for the pilot project;
(6) development of related research proposals; (7) completion of a
reconnaissance survey for identifying on-farm water management
constraints; (8) successful development of various improved
watercourse construction and control devices; (9) cooperative
research with the major agricultural research centers in Pakistan
pertaining to wheat, rice, cotton, and maize; and (10) development
of three major manuals (on problem identification, development of
solutions, and project implementation) for transferring the results
of this project to other LDCs. As a result of the wide dissemination
and utilization of research results, water management research
activities have been institutionalized, and the need for improved
water laws and codes and for strong incentives encouraging
development of farmer organizations for watercourse improve-
ment has been accented. Attached to the report are an annotated
list of project publications and 32 appendices describing the
results of research performed and evaluating the progress of
selected project activities in detail.
AID/ta-C-1411 931048900


028


PN-AAG-964


NORTHEAST RAINFED AGRICULTURAL
DEVELOPMENT PROJECT AN OPPORTUNITY
FRAMEWORK
University of Wisconsin.
1979, 97 p.
In Consulting Report No. 2
Exhaustion of the land frontier and the twin risks of crop failure due
to weather and price failure due to fluctuating world markets
require that new sources of income and productivity be found for
farmers in the predominantly rainfed areas of Northeast Thailand.
As part of a prefeasibility study for the Northeast Rainfed Agricul-
tural Development Project, this report outlines major strategic and
project intervention elements, together with key organizational
issues, for development of the region. An initial chapter describes
a simple model relating the roles of research, extension, institu-
tional change, and the concept of area development for increas-
ing rural income and productivity. Such increases are seen as
depending upon: (1) technological innovations and product/
income prices which raise the optimal production level and create
a gap which may be filled by farmers; (2) the acquisition of skills
and new practices, mainly through extension, to close the gap
between what is optimal and what is actual; and (3) institutional
changes which promote farmer access to new technology while
removing or reducing the risks to its employment. Individual ele-
ments of a rainfed agricultural project for the area are discussed


next, including systems for upland and paddy crops, water re-
source management, livestock, fisheries, land tenure, and market-
ing and processing of major agricultural products. Specific rec-
ommendations include improvement of paddy and crop produc-
tion through the use of azolla as a technique of biological fixation
and through the use of direct seeding of photoperiod insensitive
varieties timed to flower at the time of optimal soil moisture, and
development of appropriately fertilized groundnut as a soil build-
ing crop by upland farmers. Preproject activities are also dis-
cussed and those requiring immediate attention, such as site
selection and the need for accelerated research and field testing
of new production techniques, are pointed out. A final section
proposes an organizational and administrative framework for en-
suring effective project planning, programming, management,
and execution. Appended are 20 references on individual points
raised in the course of the report.
AID/DSAN-C-0060 493029200



029 PN-AAH-225
SOCIAL ANALYSIS OF POTABLE WATER PROGRAMS
Self, G.D.
1979, 78 p.
Few development projects have a greater potential for directly
benefiting the rural poor than water supply improvement projects.
The benefits which accrue from potable water projects include
improved water quality, quantity, accessibility, and reliability. This
paper considers the non-engineering aspects of such projects in
an effort to improve site selection and design. Three major issues
with regard to water projects are water quality and its proper
emphasis, the role of education, and water facilities maintenance.
Over the past few decades a wide array of diseases have been
grouped together as waterborne or water-related diseases. This
has unfortunately led to a misunderstanding of the relationship
between water and many infectious diseases. For example, it was
once doctrine that diarrhoeal disease was transmitted primarily
through water sources. However, recent research has found little
evidence to support this thesis. In fact, a number of studies have
shown decreases of diarrhoeal disease with increases in water
availability without regard to quality. These studies have also
recommended the inclusion of a community education compo-
nent in all potable water projects. Due to poor hygiene, water that
is perfectly safe at the tap is often polluted by the time of consump-
tion. Finally, it is maintenance that often determines the success or
failure of water projects. An estimated 35-50% of rural water
projects are not functioning 3-5 years later. For the most part,
developing countries have tended to emphasize construction,
with little thought given to future maintenance or recurrent ex-
penditures. This tendency has been buttressed by a similar lack of
attention from international donors. Overall, the author recom-
mends greater emphasis on social analysis (earlier in the project
planning stage than is now customary) as well as increased com-
munity participation in terms of planning, assignment of financial
responsibility (or in-kind services), and maintenance. Report in-
cludes an annotated bibliography (18 items, 1964-78), a brief


ARDA Vol. 9, No. 1 February 1981



































--c~
I. '- -



A safe,

report on A.I.D. experiences in water supply programs, and
checklists for social and sector analyses of potable water projects.
AID/ne-C-147-79-5

030 PN-AAH-329


I


DRYLAND AGRICULTURE IN WINTER PRECIPITATION
REGIONS OF THE WORLD: STATUS OF THE
TECHNICAL ART
Oregon State University, Office of International Agriculture.
1979, 218 p.
Nearly 600 million hectares of the world's arable crop lands are
considered semiarid to arid, receiving less than 500 mm of annual
precipitation. Despite the lack of rainfall, these zones are major
cereal crop producers as well as being home to approximately
450 million people. This document explores the problems and
potentials of dryland agriculture, specifically in the winter precipi-
tation regions of the world, which include Northern Africa, the
middle latitude dry climates of Eurasia (Iraq, Syria, most of Asiatic
Turkey, and the Iranian Plateau), and northwestern North America.
Drylands, however, are not exclusively cereal producing regions,
for farming in these regions generally includes livestock produc-
tion. Thus, it becomes critically important to clarify the underlying
physical and economic relationships between cereal and live-
stock production. For example, incidental forage production (crop
residues and weeds) constitutes an important source of feed for
livestock during periods when range forage is scarce. Further-
more, improved livestock production has a significant potential for
employing laborers during the off-seasons. Trade-offs and con-


readily available water supply Is a simple, but critical step In development.

flicts between cereal and livestock production must also be con-
sidered such as the fact that certain production techniques (i.e.,
clean fallowing) reduce forage for grazing. The authors recom-
mend that future development efforts stress both the interrelation-
ship between crop and livestock production and mitigation of
weather-related risks of dryland farming. Perhaps the single most
important aspect of dryland farming lies in this interrelationship of
interfaced livestock and dryland agriculture. Other topics covered
by the report include soil fertility, dryland farming equipment,
rangeland resources, range animals, and grazing management.
Bibliographies follow each section of the report, with most of the
references dating from the mid-1960's through the 1970's. Numer-
ous tables and charts depicting incomes, production levels,
prices and average rainfall in the various dryland regions are
provided.


AID/ta-G-1221 211(d)


931016200


031 PN-AAH-332
ASSESSMENT OF IRRIGATION ACTIVITIES IN
BOLIVIA
Harvatin, J.R.
Devres, Inc.
1980, 53 p.
The use of irrigation in Bolivia is very inefficient. Although approxi-
mately two-thirds of the nation's population is engaged in agricul-
ture, production remains at a low level. Traditional production
methods, poor management, and lack of capital are primary ob-
stacles to improved productivity. The author of this report made


ARDA Vol. 9, No. 1 February 1981












AGRICULTURE


onsite visits to irrigation projects throughout Bolivia, interviewing
local farmers as well as project personnel. Irrigation has often had
disastrous long-term effects in terms of crop yields and soil ero-
sion. Impinging on the capability of many of these lands to sustain
irrigation are such factors as steep slopes, soils susceptible to
erosion, shallow soils, limited moisture-holding capacity, rocky
soil, salinity, threat of waterlogging, frequent flooding, and adverse
climate. Nevertheless, there are strong indications that, with the
use of modern soil conservation technology, Bolivian agriculture
could significantly benefit from irrigation. Steep slopes can be
benched, terraced, and corrugated for close-growing crops, etc.
However, land capability should be carefully considered in the
future selection of irrigated projects. Data should be collected on
streamflow, surficial storage, and underground waters. Realistic
and meaningful cost/benefit studies should be prepared for all
projects. Overall, there is a critical lack of trained personnel, tools,
and equipment for current irrigation activities. The author recom-
mends that a concentrated effort be made to intensify the Gov-
ernment of Bolivia's (GOB) education and extension services,
focusing on basic farm management, production techniques, irri-
gative water management, and soil conservation. The frequent
use of irrigation water contaminated with raw sewage poses a
significant health hazard. The GOB should be encouraged to
implement meaningful water laws. Current irrigation activities are
being carried out by several different institutions. These institu-
tions should be consolidated, and an effective irrigation authority
established to provide national policy and administrative and
technical direction.
AID/SOD/PDC-C-0223 511000001
Also available in Spanish: PN-AAH-333, 44 p.

032 PN-AAH-422
THE PROCESSES OF DESERTIFICATION AND THE
CHOICE OF INTERVENTIONS
Jodha, N.S.
International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics
(ICRISAT).
1979, 18 p.
In Economics Program, Progress Report No. 2
The arid zone of Rajasthan currently accounts for nearly 63% of
the tropical arid areas in India, and is expanding. This paper,
published by the International Crops Research Institute for the
Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT), examines the process of desertifica-
tion in that zone. This process includes the loss of top soils,
submersion of fertile lands under shifting sand dunes, appear-
ance of saline wastelands, drying of dug wells or increased salinity
of well waters, replacement of superior perennial grasses by in-
ferior species, reduced crop productivity, and the eventual outmi-
gration of people and animals. This region's primary resource is
grazing land, with only a few areas capable of sustained cropping.
As a result, a system of mixed farming (crop and livestock produc-
tion) has evolved and is increasing. However, this increase in
mixed farming has led to the cultivation of lands suited only to
natural grasses and to the overstocking of fast-shrinking grazing
spaces. A lessening of the physical and market isolation of the


region (primarily through road construction) has accelerated the
adoption of mixed farming with two major implications: First,
while making possible immediate assistance to inhabitants during
periods of drought, every intervention (however well-intentioned)
has sowed the seeds for a further, more serious crisis by increas-
ing pressure on the resource base without strengthening the base
itself; secondly, increased access to markets has spurred farmers
to continue over-cultivation of nearly exhausted lands. In addition,
land reforms of the 1950's inadvertently contributed to the de-
sertification of the region by abolishing feudal taxes and penalties
for the use of some lands and by placing more areas under
cultivation. Reversal of this resource-exploitation process should
begin by neutralizing the factors listed above both through the
use of technology (stabilization of shifting sand dunes, reseeding,
construction of ridges and contour trenching, creation of shelter-
belts and microwind breaks, and instituting moisture-conservation
measures) and the adoption of tax incentives and disincentives to
encourage conservation. A bibliography of 25 entries is ap-
pended (1964-78).
AID/ta-G-1421 931097200

033 PN-AAH-500
THE IMPACT OF GROUNDWATER DEVELOPMENT IN
ARID LANDS: A LITERATURE REVIEW AND
ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY
Keith, S.J.
Arizona University, Office of Arid Lands Studies.
1977, 149 p.
In Arid Lands Resource Information Paper No. 10
As groundwater development is increasing, it is imperative to
anticipate the cultural impacts of its development. This paper
reviews the literature on the physical and socioeconomic effects of
groundwater development in arid lands and presents a related
annotated bibliography of 188 entries (1935-77). As a whole, this
literature only scratches the surface of its topic. The author notes
that most of it addresses only the negative physical impacts, and
disregards the socioeconomic and beneficial aspects of ground-
water development. Literature on the environmental effects of
groundwater development describes the use of groundwater for
irrigation and livestock production and the response of the
aquifer to groundwater pumping. The latter includes topical dis-
cussions of the impact of wells on spring and groundwater flow,
vegetation, drainage, groundwater quality, and topography. In
regard to the socioeconomic impact of groundwater develop-
ment on health and cultures, two case studies are presented.
That of the Papago Indian illustrates the cultural and subsequent
environmental changes occurring when an assured ground-
water supply is developed within an area of previous water
scarcity, inhabited by a nomadic people. In the case of Pakistan,
it is demonstrated that groundwater development can play an
important role in the economies of arid, developing countries. In
general, groundwater development can cause considerable en-
vironmental and social change. The former includes deteriora-
tion of groundwater quality; subsidence, fissuring, and faulting of
the land surface; changes in erosional regimes; destruction of


ARDA Vol. 9, No. 1 February 1981












AGRICULTURE


vegetation; and decline of spring and stream flows. Cultural
changes are most dramatic when groundwater development is
undertaken in nomadic economies. Both the physical and socio-
economic impacts of groundwater development depend ulti-
mately, however, upon the amount and rate of water withdrawal,
and are influenced by the cultural-institutional setting which dic-
tates the response to groundwater development, how water is
used, what is permissible, and what is economic.
AID/ta-G-1111 211(d) 931015900

034 PN-AAH-588
EVALUATION AND IMPROVEMENT OF IRRIGATION
SYSTEMS
Peri, G.; Skogerboe, G.V.
Colorado State University, Engineering Research Center.
1979, 99 p.
In Water Management Technical Report No. 49A
Inefficiencies in water delivery and irrigation practices in LDC
farming may lead to lower yield per unit of area and per unit of
water, less total area irrigated, and detrimental environmental
effects, as well as to lower returns from the irrigated crops. This
report suggests a comprehensive procedure for evaluating and
improving LDC irrigation systems. The procedure is based on the
analysis of the performances of the system for an individual appli-
cation (a single episode of applying water), along with the irriga-
tion management regime (intervals and depths of application),
resulting in an analysis of the whole irrigation season. The report
follows a similar format. Performance evaluation of an individual
irrigation application is based on the water distribution profile after
irrigation. Efficiencies and coefficients that describe the irrigation
are derived directly from the water distribution profile. Based on
these efficiencies, the irrigation performance can be determined
and classified into the appropriate performance categories. The
seasonal irrigation regime parameters can be determined on the
basis of given yield functions and yield and irrigation costs, so that
desirable levels of application intervals and depths can be ob-
tained. The overall irrigation season can therefore be quantified by
parameters affecting the water distribution profile (distribution
uniformity and delivery, deep percolation, and storage effi-
ciencies) and by those influencing the extent of the irrigation
season (marginal water costs, yield-water economic relations,
crop water use efficiency, and yield per unit of area). In addition,
environmental and economic inputs are important in quantifying
the overall and seasonal levels of performance. Although the
levels of these parameters can all be directly determined for
evaluating overall crop yield performance, the performance of the
irrigation regime and of the individual application should be con-
sidered for improvement decisions. A list of 61 Water Management
Technical Reports available from Colorado State University and a
bibliography of seven references specific to this report (1967-78)
are included.
AID/ta-C-1411 931048900


035 PN-AAH-589
EVALUATION AND IMPROVEMENT OF BASIN
IRRIGATION
Peri, G.; Skogerboe, G.V; Norum, D.I.
Colorado State University, Engineering Research Center.
1979, 199 p.
In Water Management Technical Report No. 49B
Surface irrigation methods can be classified into two major
groups, flood irrigation and furrow irrigation. Flood irrigation meth-
ods differ because of slope, discharge, and field size (basin,
border strip, border ditch, etc.). This report outlines a procedure
for the design and evaluation of basin irrigation systems. The first
section describes the general characteristics of basin irrigation,
showing the interactions between the various basin characteris-
tics, and the operational, management, and performance param-
eters. The second chapter presents a field evaluation of water
distribution patterns for basins where water distribution is irregular.
Possible methods for estimating the distribution pattern and
evaluating irrigation performance include direct field depth esti-
mations, recession pattern measurement, the excess application
method, and the ponded water method. Theoretical water distribu-
tion models, which are the subject of the third chapter, can be
developed and used only for regular basins with certain character-
istics. A general model is discussed by considering the various
functions upon which it must be based (infiltration, advance, re-
cession). A simplified model applicable to both level and sloped
basins is also presented. These models allow the prediction of the
water distribution and water performance, but some field tests are
still necessary for control purposes. The fourth chapter deals with
the use of water distribution models for improving irrigation. Meth-
ods differ for regular and irregular basins. Various case studies are
presented here for improving irrigation performance in regular
basins, utilizing the results of the simplified model. The final chap-
ter presents the method for improving basin irrigation by land
preparation, which becomes necessary with irregular basins. Ap-
pended to the report are a field evaluation of the infiltration equa-
tion for basin irrigation, a list of 61 Water Management Technical
Reports available from Colorado State University, and a bibli-
ography of 33 references specific to this report (1946-78).
AID/ta-C-1411 931048900

036 PN-AAH-590
EVALUATION AND IMPROVEMENT OF BORDER
IRRIGATION
Peri, G.; Norum, D.I.; Skogerboe, G.V.
Colorado State University, Engineering Research Center.
1979, 121 p.
In Water Management Technical Report No. 49C
Border irrigation is a method of controlled surface flooding involv-
ing a rectangular field bounded by dikes along its longer dimen-
sion to restrict the lateral flow of water. This report is concerned
with the evaluation and improvement of the graded border type in
which there is a gentle and uniform slope in the direction of


ARDA Vol. 9, No. 1 February 1981












AGRICULTURE


irrigation. The general characteristics of border irrigation are dealt
with first, including the water distribution pattern and the general
relationships between the border irrigation results and operating
conditions. The second chapter deals with evaluation of border
irrigation based on field tests. This requires the estimation of the
infiltration equation and the advance and recession for specific
inlet stream and border parameters (slope, length, surface). Shut-
off time and inlet stream size give the total quantity of water
delivered into the border, evaluation of the quantity of water ab-
sorbed requires measurement of the runoff, and determination of
the water quantities in terms of depths requires the measurement
of the dimensions of the border. A lengthy description of how this
data is utilized in such evaluations is included. The third chapter
deals with the improvement of border irrigation performance by
field tests. Improvement of irrigation performance is related to
changes in inlet unit stream size, cutoff time, and length of the
border, since changing the slopes, surface roughness, and infiltra-
tion is generally impractical. The last chapter deals with theoretical
border irrigation models which allow evaluation and improvement
of irrigation performance requiring only limited amounts of prelim-
inary field work. The input data required for the several different
models available include infiltration data; border slope, length,
and surface roughness; inlet stream size; and cutoff time. These
models are described, as are the processes for applying them. A
list of 18 available border irrigation models, a bibliography of 20
references specific to this report (1965-79), and a list of 61 Water
Management Technical Reports available from Colorado State
University are also included.
AID/ta-C-1411 931048900

037 PN-AAH-591
IRRIGATION AND HONOR: CULTURAL IMPEDIMENTS
TO THE IMPROVEMENT OF LOCAL LEVEL WATER
MANAGEMENT IN PUNJAB, PAKISTAN
Merrey, D.J.
Colorado State University Engineering Research Center.
1979, 61 p.
In Water Management Technical Report No. 53
Inadequate organization of irrigation water users is now recog-
nized as the major constraint to improving on-farm water man-
agement in Pakistan. This report, based on a detailed study of one
village, describes a major theme in Punjabi culture- the concept
of "izzat", meaning honor or reputation, and how this relates to
irrigation. After a brief introductory section, a summary of the
sociological findings of the village study is presented. The central
mobilizing social unit at the village and watercourse level is the
"biraderi" (brotherhood). Communities characterized by two (or
more) large biraderis of agriculturalists of about equal size and
power will exhibit a greater tendency toward polarization, and
therefore will be more difficult to organize for collective projects.
The third section contains a discussion of the concept of culture,
and how the rules and standards of a group of people may affect
the success of a newly implemented form of organization. Next, a
case study of an experimental attempt at carrying out village-level
watercourse improvement in Pakistan is presented. The concept


of izzat and its implications for establishing local level organiza-
tions are then explained. The concern for preserving or increasing
one's izzat, or reducing others' izzat, generates conflict and com-
petition among people and discourages cooperation. Given the
sociocultural characteristics summed up in the concept of izzat
that seem to prevent rural Punjabis from organizing and cooper-
ating, a three-pronged strategy is suggested in an attempt to
foster badly needed local watercourse improvement and mainte-
nance initiatives: (1) establish legal and administrative mecha-
nisms to facilitate organization; (2) build in rewards to attract
farmers to organize and then maintain cooperative watercourse
efforts; and (3) apply sanctions to individuals and groups who
sabotage organizational efforts and to local communities who lag
behind in such organization. A list of 61 Water Management Tech-
nical Reports available from Colorado State University and a 33-
item bibliography of references specific to this report (1963-79)
are included.


AID/ta-C-1411


931048900


038 PN-AAH-592
ORGANIZATIONAL PROBLEMS AND THEIR
CONSEQUENCES ON IMPROVED WATERCOURSES
IN PUNJAB
Mirza, A.H.; Merrey, D.J.
Colorado State University, Engineering Research Center.
1979, 207 p.
In Water Management Technical Report No. 55
Based on an intensive survey of 10 improved watercourses in
Punjab, Pakistan, this study shows the inadequacy of present
forms of social organization of watercourses for ensuring their
adequate maintenance. The first chapter discusses the study's
objectives, its theoretical background, and the hypotheses guid-
ing the research. Chapter two presents basic sociological back-
ground data on ten sample watercourses and proposes criteria for
predicting the likelihood of success of an improvement project on
particular watercourses. Chapter three discusses the process of
watercourse improvement, including conflict and cooperation pat-
terns, functioning of "watercourse committees", relationships
among farmers and On-Farm Water Management(OFWM) Pilot
Project personnel, participation of shareholders in the project,
and farmers' perceptions of the effects of improvement. Chapter
four focuses on the quality of watercourse maintenance and how
this is affected by various sociological characteristics of the wa-
tercourse, while chapter five discusses sample farmers' reactions
to the idea of establishing Water User Organizations. The final
chapter summarizes the study's findings, discusses their implica-
tions, and makes recommendations both for immediate use by the
OFWM Project and for further research in actively organizing
experimental water user organizations. The study suggests the
following sociological characteristics as conducive to good wa-
tercourse maintenance: (1) a large percentage of landholdings in
the 6.5-25 acre range; (2) relatively equal distribution of power
and influence among a large number of farmers on the water-
course; (3) relatively high levels of institutional services available;
(4) previous history of cooperation; and (5) a small number of


ARDA Vol. 9, No. 1 February 1981












AGRICULTURE


watercourse shareholders. The authors encourage the OFWM
personnel to strive for maximum possible farmer participation in
the project and to try out new ideas in water management. A
design for further research is also outlined. A list of 64 Water
Management Technical Reports available from Colorado State
University and a 20-item bibliography specific to this report
(1965-79) are also included.
AID/ta-C-1411 931048900

039 PN-AAH-593
OPTIMIZATION OF LENGTHS OF ALTERNATIVE
WATERCOURSE IMPROVEMENT PROGRAMS
Reuss, J.O.
Colorado State University, Engineering Research Center.
1980, 61 p.
In Water Management Technical Report No. 57
In Pakistan, some 80,000 watercourses serving over 30 million
acres operate on a fixed rotation basis in which water is delivered
for a fixed time to successive outlet points along the channel.
Heavy losses of water occur along these channels, and this has
been identified as a major Pakistani development problem. This
report puts forth a sound theoretical basis and develops computa-
tional methods for choosing between the alternative methods of
construction or improvement of such watercourse systems. This
task is made difficult by the fact that various sections of these
systems will have vastly different use times, and these differences
in utilization markedly affect the benefits derived from lining or
other improvements on any particular section. After a brief intro-
ductory section, four theoretical considerations for evaluating al-
ternatives (the linear loss assumption, nonlinear loss assumptions,
the branched watercourse case, and distribution of benefits) are
presented. The factors considered in the analyses as controlling
the selection of an improvement or construction method include
the annual cost per unit length, the expected water loss associ-
ated with each alternative, and the value of the water. Computa-
tional methods are developed for determining the optimum points
for changing lining methods, and for quantifying benefits of im-
provement accruing to users throughout the system. The main
body of the text concludes with discussion of these theoretical
considerations and conclusions. The first major conclusion is that,
depending on use time, net benefits are generally maximized
when different construction methods, such as concrete lining and
earthen improvements, are applied to various sections. Secondly,
the major beneficiaries to improvement of high use sections are
the downstream users that may be located on reaches where high
cost improvements may not be economically feasible. A list of 66
Water Management Technical Reports available from Colorado
State University and an 8-item bibliography of references specific
to this report (1974-79) are also included.
AID/ta-C-1411 931048900


040 PD-AAC-100
EVALUATION OF THE KENYA NATIONAL RANGE AND
RANCH DEVELOPMENT PROJECT
Axinn, G. H.; Birkhead, J. W.; Sudholt, A. W.
Devres, Inc.
1979, 179 p.
A multidonor project designed to increase the quantity and quality
of livestock production in Kenya was initiated in 1974. This in-
depth study evaluates the A.I.D. portion of that project. The multi-
donor project was designed to develop ranches, feedlots, range-
lands, and wildlife areas, as well as to expand market facilities and
provide technical services and training. A.I.D. financing was lim-
ited to equipment and support services for rangeland devel-
opment, cattle purchases for the ranching program, and a meat
processing feasibility study. After an introduction concerning the
project purpose and history and the evaluation strategy, the report
continues with a detailed discussion of the project's design and
component parts. Subsequent sections evaluate the effective-
ness and appropriateness of A.I.D. inputs and the progress
achieved in the livestock marketing area. Next, the environmental
impact and sociological effects of the project are discussed.
Finally, a review of current planning and some thoughts for the
future are included. The evaluation team found that although some
project achievements have been outstanding, they often fell short
of unrealistic project goals. Especially disconcerting were the
unrealistically short time frame allowed for goals to be reached
and the absence from the plans of contingency provisions in the
event of a drought. Among the positive project consequences
were the sensitivization of technicians, financiers, planners, and
international donors to the realities of a fragile environment and the
reduction of friction between tribal clans. Some 39 recommenda-
tions were made concerning general project design and strategy;
economic, ecological, and sociological considerations; and proj-
ect implementation, including the interesting conclusion that, al-
though the expansion of cattle production over the short run
should be fostered by permitting cattle prices to rise, it is not in the
long-term interest of the people of Kenya to increase present
livestock numbers. An executive summary, 17 annexes, and an
89-item bibliography (1961-79) are also included.
AID/AFR-C-1558 615015700

041 PN-AAG-756
EVALUATION OF THE PRODUCTIVITIES OF MAURE
AND PEUL CATTLE BREEDS AT THE SAHELIAN
STATION, NIONO, MALI
International Livestock Center for Africa (ILCA).
1978, 110 p.
In ILCA Monograph No. 1
From 1966 to 1975, the Sahelian Station at Niono, Mali, maintained
substantial herds of two typical African breeds of Zebu cattle, the
Maure and the Peul, together with their crosses, in order to collect
comparative data in the areas noted below. This report is an
analysis of these data performed by the International Livestock
Centerfor Africa. The animals were kept for milk and meat produc-


ARDA Vol. 9, No. 1 February 1981


































Masal livestock graze on Tanzania's rangelands.

tion and for draft purposes. They were maintained by improved
management practices such as supplementary feeding, con-
trolled breeding, and veterinary care. An introduction describes
the animal production system at Niono, together with the prepara-
tion of the data for analysis and the analytical method used.
Research results are then presented in regard to reproductive
performance and productivity; milk yield and composition; mortal-
ity; body weight; maternal ability; and linear measurements. No
breed differences are found in terms of age at first calving, the
calving interval, butterfat levels, and mortality rates. The Maure
and the Maure/Peul crossbreed are 13% superior to the Peul in
annual total milk yield. Breed differences in growth rates suggest
that Maure and Maure/Peul crossbreed dams provide a 7% supe-
rior maternal environment as compared with Peul dams. Cow
productivity estimates indicate that the average cow produces
418 kg milk/year; 0.68 of a weaner calf weighing 54.4 kg; and 47.4
kg of its own final live weight. Over its 10-year lifetime, each cow
produces 2,717 kg milk; 4.4 weaner calves weighing 354 kg; and
308 kg of disposable body weight. The Maure is 13% superior to
the Peul in cow productivity, and the Maure/Peul crossbreed is 2%
superior to the Maure. Analysis results are compared with related
data of known production systems in African environments com-
parable to that of Niono. Initial results have pinpointed many gaps
in individual trait values, but further research is needed to fill gaps
before productivity comparisons can be meaningfully construc-
ted. Appended is a 40-item bibliography of English, French, and
German language report-related titles (1947-76).
AID/ta-G-1497 931031100


042 PN-AAH-219
SWINE PRODUCTION SYSTEMS: AN EXPLORATORY
ANALYSIS OF RESEARCH PROBLEMS AND
ALTERNATIVES IN SELECTED COUNTRIES OF
TROPICAL LATIN AMERICA
Nores, G.A.; Gomez, G.
Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical (CIAT).
1979, 33 p.
Swine production in Latin America is very inefficient. While the
swine population in that region represents 11% of the world's total,
it actually produces only 4.6% of that total. The region's low pro-
ductivity has been attributed to a group of interrelated factors, the
most critical of which is generally agreed to be the lack of quality
feed for efficient swine nutrition. The present study was under-
taken to explore this hypothesis and to determine if and what types
of research and training programs would help to alleviate the
problem. Representative examples of swine production systems
in Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Guatemala, and Paraguay were
selected for study Analysis of swine production and of per capital
production of energy and protein sources revealed that during
1960-76 there was no apparent improvement in swine productiv-
ity and that this low productivity is attributable to the low availabil-
ity of feedstuffs (absolute deficit) and the relatively low availabil-
ity of protein (relative protein deficit vs. calories) available for
swine nutrition. In addition, analysis of swine production systems
revealed that swine production in these countries is for the most
part closely linked to the overall farm systems of which these
operations form a part. Recommended are: (1) further research
on the characteristics of the most relevant production systems in
terms of the availability of and access to production factors,
including management capacity for incorporating new technol-
ogy, the opportunity cost of their resources, and the role of swine
activities within the farm systems; (2) development and adapta-
tion of technology applicable to the small production strategy;
(3) research on the development of high quality protein sources


ARDA Vol. 9, No. 1 February 1981












AGRICULTURE


(maize and sorghum), grain legumes (soybeans, cowpeas, and
peanuts) and forage legumes specifically adapted to the re-
gion's environment; and (4) evaluation of the performance of
native breeds and cross-breeds under the subfeeding condi-
tions prevalent in existing production systems. The training of
professionals to strengthen swine research and development
programs at the regional level is also recommended. Fourteen
pages of illustrative tables and charts accompany the report.
AID/DSAN-G-0076 931086500


043


PN-AAH-238


REPORT OF THE WORKSHOP ON PASTORALISM
AND AFRICAN LIVESTOCK DEVELOPMENT,
HARPERS FERRY, WEST VIRGINIA, 1979
Institute for Development Anthropology (IDA).
1979, 86 p.
During three days in September 1979, the AID-sponsored Work-
shop on Pastoralism and African Livestock Development was held
in Harpers Ferry, West Virginia, attracting some 80 participants
from a variety of countries, organizations, and specialties. This
group examined the principal social, economic, and environ-
mental assumptions which underlie livestock sector interventions
in semiarid regions of Africa. The positions advanced in this report
emerged from the discussions and presentations at this work-
shop. The report begins with a section on conclusions. There was
a general consensus at the workshop that, if livestock sector
programs and projects are to have favorable and beneficial im-
pacts on producer populations, national wealth, and environ-
mental conditions, they must be reoriented to make them more
compatible with the social, economic, and environmental realities
of African arid and semiarid pastoral regions. A set of general
principles were generated which may serve as a tentative guide
for action in this area: (1) quantitative data relating to pastoral
systems are notoriously unreliable; (2) management units for de-
velopment interventions in the livestock sector should be small-
scale and based on existing cultural-ecological systems; (3) vari-
ous kinds of mobility are both crisis-survival mechanisms and
effective strategies for long-term exploitation of the range; (4)
semiarid rangelands can experience considerable biological and
climatic stress without necessarily resulting in long-term degrada-
tion; (5) the prime emphasis on livestock sector interventions at
this time should be to support the subsistence base of pastoral
herding rather than to use commercial activities; and (6) monitor-
ing and evaluation should be made integral components of every
program and project in the livestock sector. Included in the report
are summaries of the workshop discussions, which covered:
range degradation and productivity, program and project objec-
tives, institution building, marketing, case studies, and implica-
tions for policy, programs, and project design. Appendices listing
the participants, outlining the agenda, and indicating the result of
a participant questionnaire distributed in advance are also in-
cluded.
AID/otr-G-1741 930004700


044


PN-AAH-563


SMALL RUMINANT PRODUCTION IN THE HUMID
TROPICS
International Livestock Center for Africa (ILCA).
1979, 127 p.
In ILCA Systems Study, No. 3
In 1978, the International Livestock Center for Africa conducted an
extensive literature review and a survey mission to four West
African countries Ivory Coast, Ghana, Togo, and Nigeria -
concerning small ruminant production in the tropics. The main
constraint on the production of these animals is the high incidence
of disease, although veterinary knowledge and treatment have
already been developed which could substantially alleviate this
problem. Therefore, this study focuses on the more effective ap-
plication of existing knowledge to traditional production systems.
The study begins with a background section, describing the cli-
mate and ecology, population and livestock numbers, and crop
and livestock production in the tropics of West and Central Africa.
Information concerning the genetic resources and production
parameters of breeds of dwarf sheep and goats in these areas is
then presented, along with strategies for genetic improvement.
Next, the reproductive performance of sheep and goats is dis-
cussed, followed by a treatment of animal nutrition and tropical
forages. The latter section concludes with an estimate of potential
livestock production based on tropical pastures. The fifth chapter
examines fodder production in the region, since intensified fodder
production systems will be required as improved management
and disease control increases the number of small ruminants. The
sixth section discusses a substantial resource for supplementary
livestock feeding, namely the abundant and varied agroindustrial
byproducts present. Chapter seven deals with housing to protect
the animals from rainfall and heat. Animal health is treated next, in
terms of different diseases, parasitic infestations, and other animal
health problems. Following this, the wider economic considera-
tions involved in goat and sheep production in the humid zone are
discussed. The economic efficiency of small ruminant production
is considered from the perspective of the individual farmer and of
the national economy. Finally, proposals for further research are
summarized. An appendix of livestock data and a 223-item
(1942-79) bibliography of French and English language refer-


ences are also included.
AID/DSAN-C-0081


045


931031100


PN-AAH-564


LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION IN THE SUBHUMID ZONE
OF WEST AFRICA: A REGIONAL REVIEW
International Livestock Center for Africa (ILCA).
1979, 184 p.
In ILCA Systems Study, No. 2
The subhumid zone of West Africa, which includes portions of
Senegal, Guinea-Bissau, Guinea, Sierra Leone, Mali, Ivory Coast,
Upper Volta, Ghana, Togo, Benin, Nigeria, and Cameroon, repre-
sents a valuable agricultural resource. The zone's abundant grass


ARDA Vol. 9, No. 1 February 1981












AGRICULTURE


cover provides a rich potential for forage and grain production, but
remains underexploited, with a relatively low human and livestock
population. The zone's most important climatic feature is its total
annual mean rainfall, which ranges from 1,000 to 18,000 mm. Thus,
rainfall in this zone tends to be more reliable and the ecosystem
less fragile than in the arid areas to the north, where large-scale
cattle production has traditionally been focused. If the risk of
trypanosomiasis can be reduced or removed, livestock produc-
tion could be substantially increased. This report is based on the
results of a symposium held in Kaduna, Nigeria in March 1979,
cosponsored by the International Livestock Center forAfrica and
the National Animal Production Research Institute. Major topics
discussed in the report include the zone's environmental features,
its primary livestock producers (the Fulani pastoralists), fodder
resources and management, livestock resources and manage-
ment, animal health, tsetse-transmitted trypanosomiasis, land use
and development strategies, and future research. Two types of
development are envisaged for this zone. On arable land, mixed
farming systems could be developed, integrating livestock and
crop production; in areas which are too dry (or otherwise unsuit-
able for cropping), livestock production would continue to be
based primarily on natural pastures, with a gradually increasing
emphasis on meat production. Future research should emphasize
the monitoring of rangeland vegetation, basic information on the
livestock production system of the pastoralists, information on
sheep and goat production, efforts to determine the effects of
subacute trypanosomiasis, as well as a precise demarcation of
tsetse populations. A 31-page bibliography is provided (1900-77).
A significant number of the publications are in French.
AID/DSAN-G-0081 931031100

046 PN-AAG-678
COLORIMETRIC ENZYME-LINKED
IMMUNOSORBENT ASSAY FOR THE IDENTIFICATION
OF STRAINS OF "RHIZOBIUM" IN CULTURE AND IN
THE NODULES OF LENTILS
Berger, J.A.; May, S.N.; Berger, L.R.; Bohlool, B.B.
United States Department of Agriculture, Science and Education
Administration.
1979, 5 p.
In Applied and Environmental Microbiology, Vol. 37, No. 3, 1979,
pp. 642-646
An indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) has
been developed to identify strains of Rhizobium in culture and
lentil nodules. This paper describes this colorimetric method,
which was developed to meet the need for serological assays
which are rapid and do not require elaborate or expensive equip-
ment. After a general overview of the research accomplished, the
materials and methods used to develop the ELISA are described.
Basically, the test uses strain-specific rabbit antisera, sheep anti-
rabbit globulin (SARG) conjugated to alkaline phosphates, culture
and root bacteria, and immunofluorescent staining methods. In
the ELISA tests bacteria from either culture or nodule, are first
coated with a specific rabbit anti-Rhizobium serum and then with
sheep anti-rabbit antibodies covalently linked to alkaline phos-


phates. A chromogenic substrate is then applied to the antibody
smear, and the color is measured after a period of incubation. The
amount of colored product is proportional to the amount of enzyme
present, which in turn is indirectly related to the quantity of antigen
on the slide. The ELISA is endowed with the specificity of antigen-
antibody reactions and the sensitivity of enzyme-catalyzed reac-
tions. Initial problems were encountered with the SARG conjugate
adsorbing nonspecifically to rhizobial cells, but this was coun-
tered by pretreatment of the cells with bovine gamma globulin. The
specificity of the ELISA was not lost when nodules, together with
their bacterial content, were subjected to freezing or boiling. In
cases where only a few strains of Rhizobium are to be studied, a
faster, less sensitive direct ELISA may be used. Finally, the impor-
tance of this development is discussed. In every case, complete
agreement was obtained between the ELISA tests and direct
immunofluorescence tests used for confirmation. The former,
therefore, enjoys the specificity of the latter, without requiring large
amounts of antisera, microscopes, and a large central laboratory.
Appended to the paper is an 11-item bibliography (1964-77) of
literature cited.
PA/AG/TAB-610-9-76 931061000

047 PN-AAG-828
DEVELOPMENTS IN THE CONTROL OF POTATO
VIRUSES: REPORT OF THE CIP PLANNING
CONFERENCE, LIMA, PERU, NOV. 14-18, 1977
International Potato Center (CIP).
1977, 190 p.
The International Potato Center (CIP) is a non-profit research
institution established by agreement with the Government of Peru
and dedicated to developing and disseminating knowledge on
use of the potato as a basic food. This report presents the proceed-
ings of the fourteenth planning conference on developments in the
control of potato virus diseases, held at CIP in Lima, Peru, 11/14-
18/77. Eighteen international experts attended the conference to
assist in developing a 5-year plan of action, including identification
of priorities, for potato virus research. Sixteen papers written by
conference participants concerning virus resistance, virus prop-
erties, virus testing, antiserum production, histological staining
methods, methods for breeding virus resistant potatoes, virus
detection, and plant virology, are presented. Major recommenda-
tions included the following: (1) breeding for resistance should
have the highest priority in attempting to control potato virus
diseases; (2) since reliance on the outcome of one testing proce-
dure creates unacceptable risk, different and complementary
methods like serology, electron microscopy, and the study of
indicator plants, should be utilized; (3) the greatest research effort
must be directed to improving and applying new developments;
(4) potato virus research should include vector research and
should focus on the use of botanical seed to produce crops on a
farm scale; (5) pilot tests are needed to evaluate the use of cross
protection as a short-term temporary solution to PLRV and PVX-
PVY infection-related problems, the possible importance of DNA
sequences in Solanum species complimentary to PSTV-RNA, and
the possibilities of hybridization of Solanum etuberosum to make


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AGRICULTURE


use of PLRV immunity present in this species; (6) additional green-
house facilities with environmental control possibilities should be
provided for testing programs; (7) a 5-year review of the tentative
status of the serologist is needed; and (8) high priority work can be
accomplished only by a group of approximately five competent
researchers. A list of conference participants, their prioritized
recommendations, and the conference's agenda are included.
AID/ta-G-1271 931097300

048 PN-AAH-207
IMPORTANT DISEASES AND PESTS OF BEAN
("PHASEOLUS VULGARIS"), LIMA BEAN
("PHASEOLUS LUNATUS") AND PIGEON PEAS
("CAJANUS CAJAN") IN AFRICA
Kaiser, W.J.
United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research
Service.
1976, 6 p.
In African Journal of Plant Protection, Vol. 1, pp. 97-102
Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus), and
pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) are important food crops which pro-
vide a major source of protein in the diets of inhabitants of coun-
tries of Africa south of the Sahara. Diseases and pests contribute
to erratic, low yields and the general poor quality of these legumes
in the region. This study identifies important diseases and pests
affecting those legumes together with known control methods.
Beans are planted in an estimated 1,500,000 hectares in eastern
Africa with an average yield of 500-750 kilograms per hectare.
Numerous diseases affect beans in Africa including anthracnose,
rust, angular leaf spot, halo blight, common bacterial and fuscous
blight, and common mosaic virus. Insects are also a hazard. Most
of these diseases are transmitted by seed, except rust which is
transmitted by wet, humid weather conditions. Effective controls
include the use of pathogen-free seed, crop rotation, disease-
resistant varieties, and application of chemicals. Lima beans are
infected by many of the diseases which plague beans as well as
by Ascochyta phaseolorum which affects foliage. Also, white fly-
transmitted viruses are problematic. These viruses can be con-
trolled by planting of clean seed and chemical application. Pigeon
peas are a drought-resistant crop cultivated on soils of low fertility.
Important diseases of this crop are wilt, rust, powdery mildew, and
nematodes as well as foliage, stem, root, and seed diseases.
White fly- and mite-transmitted viruses are also a problem. Pests,
such as the American bollworm and cowpea bruchids, are the
most important factor limiting the yield and quality of pigeon peas
in Africa. These can be controlled by applying insecticides. The
report includes various references to books and articles on pests
and diseases. A 38-reference bibliography covering the period
1939-75 is appended.
PA/RA(AJ)-03-00 RES


049 PN-AAH-208
NOTES ON EAST AFRICAN PLANT VIRUS DISEASES:
II. ALFALFA MOSAIC VIRUS
Kaiser, W.J.; Robertson, D.G.
United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research
Service.
1976, 8 p.
In East African Agricultural and Forestry Journal Vol. 42, No. 1,
pp. 47-54
Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV) was isolated from naturally infected
lucerne (alfalfa) in Tanzania and potato in Kenya. This was the first
record of AMV from East Africa. This article reports on the isolation
methods used and on follow-up studies conducted to investigate
the virus' properties, including host range and transmission meth-
ods. Plants were grown in steam sterilized soil in glasshouses at
15-25 C. Insects were controlled by use of 20% Vapona resin
strips and pesticide sprays with wide spectrum insecticides. The
lucerne isolate was maintained in Nicotiana clevelandii gray and
the potato isolate in Nicotiania tabacum "White Burley". Sap from
systematically infected leaves was used for host range, physical
property, purification and serological studies. Host range studies
were made by manual inoculation with sap extracted from AMV
infected leaf tissue. The leaves of the test plants were previously
dusted with carborandum, and rinsed with water immediately after
inoculation. Plants that did not develop symptoms were tested for
latent infection by back inoculation to bean cv. Long Tom. Physical
properties were determined with crude infective sap of N. cleve-
landii and clarified sap of N. tabacum for the lucerne and potato
isolates. Vector transmission studies were conducted using Aphis
craccivora Koch, Macroisphum euphorbiae and Myzus persicae
Sulz. These were starved for two hours and then given test feed-
ings. Plants were then immediately sprayed with an aphicide.
Leaves of N. clevelandii systematically infected with the lucerne
isolate were homogenized in phosphate buffer, and centrifuged,
made into pellets, and centrifuged again in the phosphate buffer.
This was done to purify the virus. An antiserum was prepared by
injecting rabbits intravenously with a partially-purified lucerne iso-
late and later with an intramuscular injection. A few days later they
were injected again. Rabbits were bled 28 days later. Results of
this study were that the lucerne isolate affected plants in 29 genera
from 7 families while the potato isolate infected 27 genera in 7
families. An 8-item bibliography (1956-76) is appended.


PA/RA(AJ)-03-00 RES


618065700


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t AGRICULTURE

050 PN-AAH-209 051 PN-AAH-210
INSECT TRANSMISSION OF PATHOGENIC A "PHYTOPHTHORA" STEM CANKER DISEASE OF
XANTHOMONADS TO BEAN AND COWPEA IN PIGEON PEA IN PUERTO RICO
PUERTO RICO Kaiser, W.J.; Melendez, PL.
Kaiser, W.J.; Vakili, N.G. United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research
United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service.
Service. 1978, 3 p.
1978, 7 p. In Plant Disease Reporter, Vol. 62, No. 3, pp. 240-242
In Phytopathology, Vol. 68, pp. 1057-1063
In Phytopathology, Vol. 68, pp 10571063 Pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) is the most important food legume
Bacterial blight of bean and cowpea caused by three pathogenic cultivated in Puerto Rico. An important industry has developed
xanthomonads Xanthomonas phaseoli (Xp), X. phaseoli var. around this crop to provide fresh, frozen, and canned pigeon peas
fuscans (Xpf), and X. phaseoli f. sp. vignicola (Xpv) are often for local and export markets. Starting in 1973, a new stem canker
important plant diseases during the rainy season in Puerto Rico. disease of pigeon pea caused by Phytophthora parasitica was
Because bacterial blight lesions on these two plants are frequently observed in experimental and commercial plantings at several
associated with insect-feeding injuries, this study was initiated to locations in Puerto Rico. This article reports on this new disease.
determine whether insects were in fact partly responsible for the The pathogen induced necrotic and often depressed lesions on
dissemination and transmission of the pathogens. After a brief main stems, branches, and petioles of pigeon pea plants. Foliage
introduction, the study materials and methods are outlined. Both above cankers usually wilted and died. Isolates of P parasitica
healthy and bacterial blight-infected bean leaves with insect injur- from eggplant, pigeon pea, and tomato were pathogenic to pig-
ies were collected from experimental plantings. Bacterial isola- eon pea stems in laboratory and greenhouse inoculation trials
tions were made from blight lesions associated with insect dam- described in this article. Optimum temperature for growth of the
age, from those not associated with insect damage, from insect- isolates on V-8 juice agar was 300 C. In laboratory studies, isolates
feeding injuries without bacterial blight symptoms, and from insect infected pigeon pea stem pieces at temperatures of 15-30 C, with
washings. The test plants were then inoculated, insect-feeding an optimum of 25-30 C. Wounding of stem tissues favored infec-
tests conducted, and the survival of Xanthomonas isolates tested. tion by all isolates. In greenhouse inoculation studies with five
Most insect-feeding damageto bean and cowpea appeared to be isolates of the pathogen, no infection occurred in 8 days in the
caused by two beetles, Cerotoma ruficornis and Diaprepes ab- absence of wounding. Pigeon pea isolates were more virulent to
breviata, and infection of the test plants by pathogenic xantho- pigeon peas in laboratory and greenhouse inoculation trials than
monads took place at the feeding sites of naturally-infested bee- were isolates from eggplant and tomato. In discussing the results
ties. Infection also resulted when these and two other insect spe- of these trials, the authors comment that it is not known whether
cies were artificially infested with different bacterial isolates. How- sources of resistance to P parasitica occur in pigeon pea. If the
ever, no infection occurred after 48 hours when the beetles were canker disease becomes more widespread and damaging in
infested and transferred at daily intervals to healthy test plants. Puerto Rico, it may be necessary to screen the pigeon pea germ-
Feeding injuries caused by infested beetles on noninoculated plasm collection maintained by the University of Puerto Rico to
leaves or by noninfested beetles on inoculated leaves greatly locate sources of resistance to the pathogen that can be used in a
enhanced blight lesion development. Bean blight bacteria were breeding program to develop new commercially acceptable,
isolated from fresh feces of beetles which had fed on infected disease-resistant varieties.
bean leaves. Several xanthomonads survived for periods up to 19 PA/RA(AJ)-03-00 RES
days on the bodies of live or dead beetles. A concluding section
discusses these results. The study confirms that different insect 0 P-A -
052 PN-AAH-211
species are vectors of bean blight bacteria, with C. ruficornis
being identified as the predominant vector under field conditions TWO BACTERIAL DISEASES OF COWPEA IN EAST
in Puerto Rico. An 11-item bibliography of literature cited (1957-75) AFRICA
is appended. Kaiser, W.J.; Ramos, A.H.
PA/RA(AJ)-03-00 RES United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research
Service.
1979, 5 p.
In Plant Disease Reporter, Vol. 63, No. 4, pp. 304-308
Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) is one of several legumes that are
cultivated as a human food crop in East Africa, particularly in the
warmer, lower elevation areas around Lake Victoria and along the
East African Coast. Numerous diseases and pests affect the
cowpea, contributing significantly to their low yields and poor
quality wherever they are grown in Africa. Of the diseases affect-


ARDA Vol. 9, No. 1 February 1981





































ing cowpeas in Africa, the least appears to be known of those
caused by bacteria. In East Africa, the authors of this document
have observed cowpeas infected by two seedborne xantho-
monads that produced distinct and different disease symptoms
on the foliage. These symptoms, bacteriological tests, and patho-
genicity of the xanthomonads, as well as a description of collec-
tion and processing methods of pathogen cultures are presented
in this report. The bacteria causing cowpea bacterial blight (CBB)
and cowpea bacterial pustule (CBP) were indistinguishable in
cultural, morphological, and physiological properties, and in their
pathogenicity to different legume species. Both infected several
Phaseolus and Vigna species. Isolates of.CBB and CBP could be
differentiated only by the symptoms that they produced on cow-
pea foliage. Both bacteria are considered to be strains of a mem-
ber of the Xanthomonas campestris group. East African isolates of
CBB and CBP could be differentiated from the bacterium causing
fuscous blight of bean X. phaseoli. var. fuscans (Xpf) by their
pathogenicity to bean and cowpea. The CBB and CBP pathogens
were pathogenic to both bean and cowpea, whereas Xpf was
pathogenic to bean only Literature cited at the conclusion of the
report includes 16 entries (1963-78).
PA/RA(AJ)-03-00 RES 618065700


053


PN-AAH-212


USE OF TISSUE CULTURE AND THERMOTHERAPY
TO FREE EAST AFRICAN CASSAVA CULTIVARS OF
AFRICAN CASSAVA MOSAIC AND CASSAVA BROWN
STREAK DISEASES
Kaiser, W.J.; Teemba, L.R.
United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research
Service.
1979, 5 p.


Cowpeas are examined for disease.

important disease affecting cassava is African Cassava Mosaic
(ACMD). Cassava brown streak disease (CBSD) is another impor-
tant disease of the cassava. This study presents results of re-
search undertaken to develop methods to free cassava from
ACMD and CBSD, using meristem-tip culture and thermotherapy
The etiology of AMD is unknown, but evidence suggests that it is a
virus. It is transmissible by grafting, white flies, and mechanical
inoculation. ACMD induces leaf distortion on both old and young
leaves. CBSD causes rod shaped and isometric particles on the
leaves of cassava plants and affects only mature leaves. To devel-
op the methodology used in the research, stakes of cassava were
cut into sections with at least four nodes. The upper, exposed end
of each stake was sealed with wax and the stakes were planted
into a steam-sterilized mixture of sand and soil and placed in a
room under optimum conditions for growing. Meristems were
excised from the plants every few days. Shoots were surface-
sterilized and then placed into agar culture mediums in test tubes;
heat treatment was given to some plants before excision of meri-
stems. Regenerated plants were indexed for ACMD and CBSD at
various intervals during the course of these studies. All regener-
ated plants were cut back and stem pieces were rooted and
observed for disease symptoms. Callus tissue began forming on
the basal portions of excised meristems within4-5 days and shoot
differentiation started in 14-15 days. Regenerated plants were
transferred from culture tubes to sand in less than 60 days. Heat
treatment of cassava plants before excision of meristems signifi-
cantly increased the proportion of ACMD- and CBSD-free plants.
All regenerated plants that remained symptom free were multi-
plied with rapid propagation techniques. A 14-item bibliography
covering the period 1938-78 is appended.


PA/RA(AJ)-03-00 RES


618065700


In Plant Disease Reporter, Vol. 63, No. 9, pp. 780-784
Cassava is an important food crop in East Africa and the most


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I1












t AGRICULTURE


054 PN-AAH-213
LEAF-SCORCH DISEASE OF SUGARCANE IN KENYA
CAUSED BY A NEW SPECIES OF "LEPTOSPHAERIA"
Kaiser, W.J.; Ndimande, B.N.; Hawksworth, D.L.
United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research
Service.
1979, 14 p.
In Mycologia, Vol. 71, No. 3, pp. 479-492
Kenya's sugarcane production is threatened by a new foliar dis-
ease caused by Leptosphaeria bicolor. This document discusses
this pathogen, its life cycle, distribution, taxonomy, morphology,
cultural characteristics and pathogenicity. In Kenya, over 50
sugarcane fields were surveyed and the disease was located only
in the Western Province. The initial disease symptoms appear on
sugarcane leaf blades as small, red-to-dark-brown spots, charac-
teristically surrounded by a brownish-yellow halo. The spots even-
tually turn reddish and may enlarge. The centers of the older
lesions are straw colored and surrounded by a reddish margin. In
severe cases, most of the leaf lamina becomes scorched. Both the
perfect and the imperfect (Stagonospora) stages of the pathogen
developed in pure cultures initiated from single ascospores. L.
bicolor varied in mycelial growth, pycnidial formation, and conidial
production. Maximum mycelial growth occurred on the oatmeal
agar (OA). Pycnidial formation was most apparent on OA and malt
agar. Optimum temperature for mycelial growth on potato dex-
trose agar was 270 C. The perfect state of L. bicolor did not
develop in the nutrient media, but formed within 10-15 days on a
natural water-agar medium containing autoclaved sugarcane-leaf
pieces. In controlled inoculation studies, L. bicolor was patho-
genic to the sugarcane leaves of varieties Co421, Co775, H37/
1933, and NCo 376. It is recommended that if the disease be-
comes widespread, the most practical control measure would be
to screen sugarcane varieties for resistance to the pathogen. Little
is known about the environmental factors which favor infection,
spread, and survival of L. bicolor under field conditions. Investiga-
tions of this kind would be helpful in explaining why disease
severity appears to increase during the dry season and whether
reservoir hosts are important in overseasoning of the pathogen.
The perfect state in the disease cycle also requires further exami-
nation. A bibliography containing 12 sources (1950-77) written in
English, German, and French is included.
PA/RA(AJ)-03-00 RES 618065700

055 PN-AAH-214
NATURAL INFECTION OF COWPEA AND MUNG BEAN
BY ALFALFA MOSAIC VIRUS IN IRAN
Kaiser, W.J.
United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research
Service.
1979, 5 p.
In Plant Disease Reporter, Vol. 63, No. 5, pp. 414-418
Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) and mung bean (Vigna radiata) are
two of several food legumes grown in Iran for human consumption.


Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV) is frequently encountered as a patho-
gen of these legumes in Iran. This article reports on a study
initiated to describe the diseases of cowpea and mung bean
caused by AMV and to investigate various properties of the virus.
After a brief introduction, the study's methods and materials are
outlined. Test tissue was derived from naturally infected cowpea
and mung bean plants collected in various regions from 1966-
71 as well as from plants grown in a greenhouse setting. Isolates of
AMV were separated from other viruses and maintained in alfalfa,
cowpea, or tobacco. Host range inoculation trals and insect
transmission studies were carried out using standard procedures.
Next, the results of the study are presented. Cowpea and mung
bean plants naturally infected with AMV were typically stunted,
and their foliage exhibited yellow mosaic (calico) symptoms, as
did the pods of some infected cowpea accessions. The incidence
of AMV in cowpea and mung bean plantings was usually less than
10%. Inoculation of cowpea in the field with AMV strains from
cowpea or alfalfa at the full-bloom and pre-bloom stages reduced
seed yields about 15% and 50%, respectively No mortality of
infected plants was observed in these studies. The virus was
transmitted by the pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum) in a stylet-
borne (noncirculative) manner from AMV-infected alfalfa and
cowpea to healthy cowpea. Seeds harvested from naturally or
artificially infected cowpeas apparently did not transmit the virus.
No resistance to AMV was detected among 56 cowpea lines
inoculated with cowpea yellowing isolate under greenhouse con-
ditions. A final section contains a discussion of these results.
Cowpea and mung bean plants infected with yellowing strains of
AMV invariably were found to be growing near alfalfa plantings.
Cowpea fields were generally more severely affected by AMV than
mung bean plantings, and the disease of mung bean caused by
AMV appears to have had limited effect on agriculture in Iran. A
7-item bibliography of literature cited (1968-75) is appended.
PA/RA(AJ)-03-00 RES

056 PN-AAH-215
OCCURRENCE OF TOMATO BLACK RING VIRUS IN
POTATO CULTIVAR ANETT IN KENYA
Kaiser, W.J.; Bock, K.R.; Guthrie, E.J.; Meredith, G.
United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research
Service.
1978, 5 p.
In Plant Disease Reporter, Vol. 62, No. 12, pp. 1088-1092
In the last 10 years, tubers of numerous potato lines have been
introduced into Kenya for testing, with the aim of increasing potato
production through breeding and selection of varieties resistant to
important diseases, particularly late blight, bacterial wilt, and vi-
ruses. This article reports on a study to assess the relationship ot
the Anett isolate of the tomato black ring virus (TBRV) to other
nepoviruses and to investigate the biological and physiological
properties of the virus. After a brief introduction, the study's mate-
rials and methods are outlined. An isolate of TRBV from Anett
potato collected at the Grasslands Research Station, Marindas,
was used in all host range, seed and vector transmission, and
serological studies. Next, the results of these studies are pre-


ARDA Vol. 9, No. 1 February 1981












AGRICULTURE


sented. The Anett isolate was serologically related to the beet
ringspot virus group of TBRV. It did not react with antiserum to the
type (tomato) strain of TBRV or to antisera of tobacco ringspot,
tomato ringspot, or raspberry ringspot viruses. The host range of
the Anett isolate was extensive and the virus was seedborne in
several artificially inoculated food crops and weed hosts. The virus
was not transmitted by aphids or the nematode Longidorus laevi-
capitatus, which occurs in soils of the potato-growing regions of
Kenya. The article concludes with a discussion of these results.
This is the first published report of TBRV on the African continent,
and it seems likely that TBRV was introduced into Kenya in virus-
infected Anett potato tubers. This illustrates the ease with which
new and potentially dangerous pathogens, like TBRV, can be
introduced into new areas when special precautions are not taken.
The importance of strict observance of quarantine in importations
of potatoes is thus emphasized. An 11-item bibliography of litera-
ture cited (1957-77) is appended.
PA/RA(AJ)-03-00 RES 618065700

057 PN-AAH-229
STUDY ON KRESEK (WILT) OF THE RICE BACTERIAL
BLIGHT SYNDROME
Mew, TW.; Vera Cruz, C.M.; Reyes, R.C.; Zaragoza, B.A.
International Rice Research Institute (IRRI).
1979, 10 p.
In IRRI Research Paper Series, No. 39
Bacterial blight caused by Xanthomas oryzae has three symp-
toms: leaf blight, kresek (wilt), and pale yellow. Kresek was first
reported in 1950 in Indonesia and was assumed to be a new
disease. In 1964, Goto, working at the International Rice Research
Institute (IRRI), identified the causal bacterium as X. oryzae and
confirmed that kresek is a symptom of the bacterial blight syn-
drome. Since then, kresek has been recognized in the Philippines,
Malaysia, India, and Sri Lanka. Recent information from China and
Korea indicates that kresek, while common in tropical Asia, is not
restricted to the tropics. Early research has not succeeded in
clarifying fully the pathological relationships between the three
symptoms of the bacterial blight syndrome. The present paper
reports on research undertaken at IRRI on kresek infection, meth-
ods of inoculation, and the relationship between varietal resis-
tance to leaf blight and to kresek. Two strains of X. oryzae, the leaf
blight strain PXO61 and the kresek strain PX082, were used
throughout the experiments. Pure cultures of the two strains were
maintained and used on agar slants of potato or peptone sucrose
medium (PSA) at -10 C. Inoculum of each strain was prepared on
PSAfrom 72-h-old cultures. Kresek symptom of the bacterial blight
syndrome developed on rice seedlings when they were inocu-
lated by leaf-clipping or root-dipping. Kresek resulted with less
frequency when older plants were infected with leaf blight. The
pale yellow symptom was found to be a secondary effect of either
leaf blight or kresek. The older the plants, the lower the percentage
of kresek induced by root dip. There were varietal differences to
kresek infection. IR1545 was as susceptible as IR8 from 9 to 16
days after sowing (DS), but only a minimum incidence of kresek
was induced at 32 DS. Varieties such as IR20 and IR1545 are


resistant to leaf blight but as susceptible as IR8 to kresek. Dipping
seedling roots in zinc solution before transplanting reduced the
incidence of kresek. The results suggest that varietal response to
kresek infection may be different fromthat of leaf blight infection. A
14-item list of Japanese and English language literature cited
(1950-79) is appended.
AID/DSAN-G-0083 931082600

058 PN-AAH-232
VARIATION IN VARIETAL REACTION TO RICE
TUNGRO DISEASE: POSSIBLE CAUSES
Ling, K.C.
International Rice Research Institute (IRRI).
1979, 9 p.
In IRRI Research Paper Series, No. 32
Field tests have revealed that different rice varieties vary in their
reaction to rice tungro disease. In 1975, for example, eight va-
rieties showed three groups of reaction resistant, intermediate,
and susceptible in different locations at different times. To
investigate the causes of this variation, a Rice Tungro Virus (RTV)
Collaborative Project involving seven collaborators in five coun-
tries was initiated in 1978. This project emphasizes experiments to
determine variation caused by biotypes of RTV vectors or RTV
strains. The present paper discusses causes of variation in varietal
reaction to rice tungro disease other than those under study by the
RTV Project. The variation may be due to mechanical errors, e.g.,
a variety shows a reaction in the field, but is noted differently in a
notebook or publication. Causes of such errors are negligence in
handling test materials, misidentification of the disease, difference
in ability to score the reaction, and insufficient replicates (number
of test plants per entry, number of replicates in a test, and number
of repeated tests). The latter is especially important because the
standard evaluation system for varietal resistance to tungro dis-
ease is based on the percentage of infected plants. Another cause
of variation in varietal resistance is the difference in the field
reactions of rice varieties. Such differences are caused by the
existence of different biotypes of tungro vectors or strains among
locations or tests, and variation in tungro disease pressure to the
variety in the tests. Causes of the first type, that is, mechanical
errors, are controllable and can be minimized or reduced through
greater effort. Causes due to differences in varietal field reactions
can be minimized by conducting repeated tests and computing
an average reaction. The report concludes by noting that the
vectors and strains currently under investigation by the RTV proj-
ect may differ among locations, in which case a variety that is
constantly resistant in a location or region would at least be useful
in reducing tungro disease incidence in that location or region. An
8-item bibliography (1968-79) is appended.
AID/DSAN-G-0083 931082600


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059 PN-AAH-348
THE IMPACT OF CREDIT, PRICES, TECHNOLOGY,
AND EXTENSION ON FERTILIZER DEMAND IN
RAINFED AREAS IN THE PHILIPPINES
David, C.C.; Gascon, FB.; Barker, R.
Ohio State University Department of Agricultural Economics and
Rural Sociology.
1979, 23 p.
Prepared for the Second International Conference on Rural Fi-
nance Research Issues, Paper No. 3
Most attempts to identify the impact of credit on fertilizer use in the
Philippines have failed to separate the impact of credit from that of
other factors such as price, technology, and extension. Such
studies have also focused on irrigated farms, even though 75% of
the country's rice lands are unirrigated. This document attempts to
separate quantitatively the various factors affecting fertilizer use in
the country's rainfed areas (related to the Rainfed-Upland Rice
Project [RURP]). A conceptual model for analyzing the roles of
these factors is presented first. Next, empirical estimates of ferti-
lizer demand functions are given to calculate the impact of each
factor on changes in fertilizer use between 1971 and 1977. This
information is based upon a study of the RURP and the Masagana
99 Program (M99) in Bulacan and Nueva Ecija conducted by the
International Rice Research Institute (IRRI). Constraints to fertilizer
use showed the following relationships: (1) fertilizer demand was
higher for farmers able to borrow from low-cost sources, while a
lack of liquidity, the inability to borrow, or a high credit cost inhibited
demand; (2) financial standing in relation to farm size and tenure
also affected demand, but so did fertilizer prices (by lessening
demand) and the increased growing of short-term modern va-
rieties which increased demand; and (3) extension (demonstra-
tion plots) facilitated borrowing from formal sources which also
increased fertilizer use. This study indicated that prices, fertilizer
productivity due to modern crop varieties, and extension were
found to be relatively more important than credit in accounting for
variations in fertilizer consumption during this period. Estimates
of credit significance in 1974 were difficult to interpret because of
the tighter linkage of extension and subsidies to credit and
fertilizer price. The authors concluded by noting the limitations of
their study for price policy analysis. A bibliography containing
eight sources (1975-79) is included.
AID/ta-BMA-7 931116900

060 PN-AAH-585
AN ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY OF CHICKPEA
DISEASES 1915-1976
Nene, Y.L.; Mengistu, A; Sinclair, J.B.; Royse, D.J.
International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics
(ICRISAT).
1978, 49 p.
In Information Bulletin No. 1
Chickpea (Cicer arietinum) is a native Asian plant species grown
as a pulse crop throughout tropical and subtropical Asia, northern


Africa, southern Europe, Central America, and the southern U.S. It
is a major source of protein for millions of people, especially in
developing countries in the Eastern Hemisphere. About 11 million
hectares of chick peas are cultivated annually around the world,
with subsistence farmers of semiarid India producing more than
75% of the crop. This bibliography endeavors to provide a com-
plete working file of the literature concerned with chickpea dis-
eases and to assist in the identification of fungal and bacterial
microorganisms associated with chickpea seeds. It is intended
especially for scientists in the developing world who do not have
ready access to large and well-stocked scientific libraries. The
bibliography contains 331 citations, and is based on a literature
search (1915-76) that ended with the December 1976 issues of
Biological Abstracts, Phytopathology, Plant Disease Reporter, and
Review of Plant Pathology, and the December 1975 issue of Indian
Phytopathology. In order to gather as much information as pos-
sible, papers from conferences, and symposia have been in-
cluded. Each citation is accompanied by either an abstract or
annotation prepared by the original author or derived from Bio-
logical Abstracts and Review of Plant Pathology (Review of Ap-
plied Mycology). Most papers are printed in English. Foreign
language publications include French, Spanish, German, Rus-
sian, Spanish, Hindi, Italian, Farsi, Portuguese, Turkish, Hebrew,
Japanese, and Romanian, with the language of the publication,
excluding English, indicated after the title. Concluding the bibliog-
raphy is an index divided into five sections according to the causal
agent of the disease: fungi, bacteria, viruses, nematodes, and
phanerogamic parasite. Additional indices deal with seed-borne
diseases, chemical control, and miscellaneous topics.


AID/ta-G-1499


931097200


061 PN-AAH-586
PROCEEDINGS OF THE INTERNATIONAL
WORKSHOP ON THE CASSAVA MEALYBUG
"PHENACOCCUS MANIHOTI" MAT-FERR.
("PSEUDOCOCCIDAE"), ZAIRE, 1977
International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA)
1978, 90 p.
The International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA), Nigeria,
and the Department of Agriculture, Zaire, cosponsored an interna-
tional workshop on the Cassava Mealybug, Phenacoccus Mani-
hoti Mat-Ferr (Pseudococcidae) in Zaire, June 26-29,1977. This
report of the workshop proceedings includes an opening paper
and eight technical papers, each accompanied by references.
The opening paper addresses IITAs role in tropical agriculture,
with special emphasis on the Zaire program. The technical papers
concern observations, biology, taxonomy, ecology, and pest man-
agement of the cassava mealybug, and its incidence in the Peo-
ple's Republic of Congo, as well as on manioc (Manihotesculenta)
in Bas-Zaire. A summary of workshop discussions and recom-
mendations are included. These cover the origin and distribution
of the mealybug; its development; the damage it inflicts; ways of
controlling it culturally, chemically, and biologically; and hostplant
resistance. In Africa, the cassava mealybug is of the American
type and was probably introduced by the transfer of vegetative


ARDA Vol. 9, No. 1 February 1981












AGRICULTURE


manioc materials. Phenacoccus gossypii has been reported in
Brazil and Colombia. There may be similarities between the feed-
ing activity of the sugarcane and the cassava mealybug. It is
suspected, however, that the appearance of short internodes, cell
enlargement, and distortion in cassava may be due to the intro-
duction of a toxin or growth inhibitor. Comparisons of infested and
mealybug-free plants show no yield differences, but there are
varietal differences depending on the nature of leafsheets. Com-
parisons of insecticide-treated and untreated plots show no yield
differences. In searching for resistance, differences among geno-
types must be assumed. Research on biological control of the
mealybug should include a search for and evaluation of natural
enemies in the mealybug's country of origin, and introduction of
promising species into the subject country. Recommended con-
trol strategies include cultural, chemical, and quarantine pest
management programs and research emphasizing breeding for
hostplant resistance and biological control. A list of workshop
participants is included.
AID/ta-G-1491 931030900

062 PN-AAG-785
THE POTENTIAL FOR REGIONAL COOPERATION IN
FERTILIZER: A METHODOLOGY STUDY
Foster, TH.; Livingston, O.W.; Stangel, PJ.
International Fertilizer Development Center (IFDC).
1976, 56 p.
In Technical Bulletin IFDC-T-2
Due to world fertilizer market instability and the importance of
fertilizer as a strategic policy tool, the members of the Association
of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), composed of Indonesia,


Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand, plan to devise
a policy to develop adequate, dependable, low-cost fertilizer
supply alternatives. Under consideration is an expanded fertilizer
production policy utilizing the concepts of economic cooperation
and regional integration. The present document, a joint product of
the International Fertilizer Development Center (IFDC) and IBRD,
provides a preliminary methodological study of the potential bene-
fits of this policy. The study used a mathematical programming
model to determine the investment, production, importation, and
transportation patterns that minimize the costs of meeting
ASEAN's 1985 fertilizer requirements. This included the selection
of plant sites and sizes, feed stocks, product mix, and transporta-
tion patterns most appropriate for varying degrees of economic
cooperation. Results indicate that although the region's fertilizer
production capacity is not expected to meet 1985 regional re-
quirements, regional cooperation would lead to substantial eco-
nomic benefit for all ASEAN members. Urea and monoammonium
phosphate comprise the region's optimal product mix. The advan-
tage of Indonesia in ammonia and urea production and of the
Philippines in phosphate production will dominate regional indus-
try adjustments to the anticipated 1985 supply/demand situation.
An expanded analysis is recommended to determine the optimal
timing of investment between 1978 and 1985 for a larger number of
regional economic integration and trade relationships. Additional
recommendations include studies of parameterization, alternative
transportation and distribution systems, carnallite deposits, and
constraints to regional cooperation. A 13-item bibliography
(1974-75) and illustrative statistical tables are appended.
AID/ta-G-1218 GTS 931005400


ARDA Vol. 9, No. 1 February 1981












111i'1 DEVELOPMENT ASSISTANCE


063 PN-AAH-317
ADMINISTRATIVE REFORM IN PORTUGAL: AN
ASSESSMENT OF THE CRISIS IN PUBLIC
MANAGEMENT WITH RECOMMENDATIONS FOR
ACTION
Macy, J.; Gallas, N.; Hobgood, H.; Post, A.; Sherwood, F
United States Agency for International Development, Develop-
ment Support Bureau, Office of Rural Development.
1979, 151 p.
That the financial management of the Portuguese Government
requires immediate and serious attention is the crux of this report
prepared by five senior U.S. public administrative consultants. The
consultants report that Government estimates of revenue are fre-
quently incorrect, resulting in too high expenditures and large
deficits. Budgets are formulated without regard to the goods and
services they are to accomplish. Six basic actions are recom-
mended: (1) strengthen the management capacity of the Office of
the Prime Minister; (2) improve all aspects of financial manage-
ment from the planning of investments and budgeting of expendi-
tures through the auditing of accounts and evaluation of perfor-
mance; (3) reallocate authority to regional, district, and local au-
thorities for more expeditious decisionmaking and delivery of ser-
vices; (4) give special attention to the agriculture and rural devel-
opment sector; (5) accelerate the preparation of all necessary
policy, organizational, and procedural changes to effect adminis-
trative reforms in manpower planning, personnel administration,
and labor management relations; and (6) mobilize existing re-
sources and design new institutions for the training of managers at
all levels. This report consists of an overview report, followed by
five supporting papers on financial management; decentraliza-
tion, deconcentration, and devolution; rural development; per-
sonnel policies, manpower development and management train-
ing; and public enterprise management.
DS/RAD 1500001


064


PN-AAH-318


GOVERNMENT AND ADMINISTRATION IN THE
YEMEN ARAB REPUBLIC
Gable, R.W.
United States Agency for International Development, Develop-
ment Support Bureau, Office of Rural Development.
1979, 167 p.
Prior to the revolution of 1962, the administration of Yemen was a
living fossil a patrimonial system of theocratic and highly per-
sonal rule by an Iman, with virtually unlimited power. Yemen lacked
not only a civil service system, but public services as well. The
government now employs more than 30,000 persons, and the
number is rapidly growing. While the system is not based on merit,
neither does it seem to encourage some of the more outrageous
abuses of patronage. The most serious problem is an overall lack
of experience, education, and training among the civil servants.
This report, intended as a "primer" on public administration in the
Yemen Arab Republic, is based on a visit to the capital city of
Sana, November 27 to December 14, 1974. Over 40 persons


employed by, or knowledgeable about, the Yemeni Government
were interviewed. A substantial history and cultural review is
provided in the report, covering the revolution of 1962, and
political and administrative developments since that time. The
structure of government, traditional sources of revenue, religious
rivalries, and traditional legal systems are outlined. In addition,
the author examines the pro's and con's of :op-down and
bottom-up development strategies, and concludes that neither
alone is likely to be effective. The following actions are recom-
mended: (1) develop the institutional capacity to stimulate, as-
sist, and sustain rural development; (2) develop the institutional
capacity to train administrators and managers; (3) assist se-
lected ministries to deliver services to rural dwellers; and (4)
improve the capacity of the central government to collect and
allocate available resources (both foreign and domestic) so that
the above activities can take place. A brief bib iography is in-
cluded in the report (19 entries, 1915-79).
DS/RAD

065 PN-AAH-493
EXPATRIATE PROFESSIONALS AS INTERNATIONAL
CONSULTANTS
Stepanek, J.E.; Ivory, M.
United States Agency for International Development, Technical
Assistance Bureau, Office of Science and Technology
1979, 72 p.
The permanent migration of professionals from LDCs is a problem
of growing concern to countries worldwide as it creates a deficit of
intellectual leadership in the LDCs. This "brain drain" can also
occur when the educated are attracted to urban centers from rural
areas within their own country This report reviews the major find-
ings of recent literature on the problem and recommends a means
of returning expatriate professionals residing in the U.S. to their
native country as short-term volunteer consultants. The financial
loss to LDCs through education investment in professionals who
migrate is substantial and their loss in terms of managerial, entre-
preneurial and decisionmaking skills is even greater. Of all the
expatriate professionals now living in developed countries, about
half (250,000) live in the U.S. These include engineers, technolo-
gists, natural scientists, and others who could contribute to eco-
nomic growth in their native countries. On the basis of results of an
experimental program between the Government of Turkey and the
U.N. Development program, this report recommends an action
program through which expatriates residing in the U.S. would be
encouraged and assisted in transferring technology appropriate
to the needs of their home countries. Besides being a practical
approach to the brain drain problem, such a program would
support employment-creating projects for the poor majority and
provide a cost-effective substitute for traditional technical assis-
tance. Under this program, LDCs would receive a package of
benefits, including repeat visits, continuing services from the U.S.,
and the chance that expatriates will return permanently. For initial
implementation of the program, it is recommended that: (1)
autonomous organizations be established in participating LDCs
with links to government, business, and others seeking volunteer


ARDA Vol. 9, No. 1 February 1981












111i'1 DEVELOPMENT ASSISTANCE


063 PN-AAH-317
ADMINISTRATIVE REFORM IN PORTUGAL: AN
ASSESSMENT OF THE CRISIS IN PUBLIC
MANAGEMENT WITH RECOMMENDATIONS FOR
ACTION
Macy, J.; Gallas, N.; Hobgood, H.; Post, A.; Sherwood, F
United States Agency for International Development, Develop-
ment Support Bureau, Office of Rural Development.
1979, 151 p.
That the financial management of the Portuguese Government
requires immediate and serious attention is the crux of this report
prepared by five senior U.S. public administrative consultants. The
consultants report that Government estimates of revenue are fre-
quently incorrect, resulting in too high expenditures and large
deficits. Budgets are formulated without regard to the goods and
services they are to accomplish. Six basic actions are recom-
mended: (1) strengthen the management capacity of the Office of
the Prime Minister; (2) improve all aspects of financial manage-
ment from the planning of investments and budgeting of expendi-
tures through the auditing of accounts and evaluation of perfor-
mance; (3) reallocate authority to regional, district, and local au-
thorities for more expeditious decisionmaking and delivery of ser-
vices; (4) give special attention to the agriculture and rural devel-
opment sector; (5) accelerate the preparation of all necessary
policy, organizational, and procedural changes to effect adminis-
trative reforms in manpower planning, personnel administration,
and labor management relations; and (6) mobilize existing re-
sources and design new institutions for the training of managers at
all levels. This report consists of an overview report, followed by
five supporting papers on financial management; decentraliza-
tion, deconcentration, and devolution; rural development; per-
sonnel policies, manpower development and management train-
ing; and public enterprise management.
DS/RAD 1500001


064


PN-AAH-318


GOVERNMENT AND ADMINISTRATION IN THE
YEMEN ARAB REPUBLIC
Gable, R.W.
United States Agency for International Development, Develop-
ment Support Bureau, Office of Rural Development.
1979, 167 p.
Prior to the revolution of 1962, the administration of Yemen was a
living fossil a patrimonial system of theocratic and highly per-
sonal rule by an Iman, with virtually unlimited power. Yemen lacked
not only a civil service system, but public services as well. The
government now employs more than 30,000 persons, and the
number is rapidly growing. While the system is not based on merit,
neither does it seem to encourage some of the more outrageous
abuses of patronage. The most serious problem is an overall lack
of experience, education, and training among the civil servants.
This report, intended as a "primer" on public administration in the
Yemen Arab Republic, is based on a visit to the capital city of
Sana, November 27 to December 14, 1974. Over 40 persons


employed by, or knowledgeable about, the Yemeni Government
were interviewed. A substantial history and cultural review is
provided in the report, covering the revolution of 1962, and
political and administrative developments since that time. The
structure of government, traditional sources of revenue, religious
rivalries, and traditional legal systems are outlined. In addition,
the author examines the pro's and con's of :op-down and
bottom-up development strategies, and concludes that neither
alone is likely to be effective. The following actions are recom-
mended: (1) develop the institutional capacity to stimulate, as-
sist, and sustain rural development; (2) develop the institutional
capacity to train administrators and managers; (3) assist se-
lected ministries to deliver services to rural dwellers; and (4)
improve the capacity of the central government to collect and
allocate available resources (both foreign and domestic) so that
the above activities can take place. A brief bib iography is in-
cluded in the report (19 entries, 1915-79).
DS/RAD

065 PN-AAH-493
EXPATRIATE PROFESSIONALS AS INTERNATIONAL
CONSULTANTS
Stepanek, J.E.; Ivory, M.
United States Agency for International Development, Technical
Assistance Bureau, Office of Science and Technology
1979, 72 p.
The permanent migration of professionals from LDCs is a problem
of growing concern to countries worldwide as it creates a deficit of
intellectual leadership in the LDCs. This "brain drain" can also
occur when the educated are attracted to urban centers from rural
areas within their own country This report reviews the major find-
ings of recent literature on the problem and recommends a means
of returning expatriate professionals residing in the U.S. to their
native country as short-term volunteer consultants. The financial
loss to LDCs through education investment in professionals who
migrate is substantial and their loss in terms of managerial, entre-
preneurial and decisionmaking skills is even greater. Of all the
expatriate professionals now living in developed countries, about
half (250,000) live in the U.S. These include engineers, technolo-
gists, natural scientists, and others who could contribute to eco-
nomic growth in their native countries. On the basis of results of an
experimental program between the Government of Turkey and the
U.N. Development program, this report recommends an action
program through which expatriates residing in the U.S. would be
encouraged and assisted in transferring technology appropriate
to the needs of their home countries. Besides being a practical
approach to the brain drain problem, such a program would
support employment-creating projects for the poor majority and
provide a cost-effective substitute for traditional technical assis-
tance. Under this program, LDCs would receive a package of
benefits, including repeat visits, continuing services from the U.S.,
and the chance that expatriates will return permanently. For initial
implementation of the program, it is recommended that: (1)
autonomous organizations be established in participating LDCs
with links to government, business, and others seeking volunteer


ARDA Vol. 9, No. 1 February 1981












DEVELOPMENT ASSISTANCE 1iii1


services; (2) a cooperating U.S. private organization be identified
and that this organization be formed between International Execu-
tive Service Corps and Volunteers in Technical Assistance; (3) four
LDCs be invited to participate initially; and (4) expatriate asso-
ciations in the U.S. be encouraged to participate. This report
includes a 12-item bibliography (1966-78) and four appendices.
TA/OST


066


PN-AAH-502


GUIDELINES FOR AID'S REGIONAL ACTIVITIES IN
AFRICA
Belcher, M.S.
1980, 72 p.
All A.I.D. regional projects should be consistent with one or more
of the following principles: (1) cooperation among two or more
countries is essential to success; (2) the project strengthens and
increases inter-country cooperation; (3) a regional project is more
efficient for administrative purposes; (4) project activities are ex-
perimental and promote exchange of experience; and 5) it is more
convenient to group a series of small country activities under a
single "umbrella" project. These are some of the main findings of a
study to develop a strategy for A.I.D.'s African regional develop-
ment (AFR/RA) program. The author notes, however, that many of
the present umbrella projects neglect opportunities for exchange
of experience and also that, despite excellent opportunities, food
and agriculture projects account for only about 12% of A.I.D.'s total
regional efforts. It is recommended that A.I.D. support to African
regional organizations be based on the degree of genuine African
support, the extent of real regional activity, effectiveness, receptiv-
ity to A.I.D. assistance and cooperation, concern for basic human
needs, cooperation with other organizations, and support by other
donors. Nine principal types of activity are found appropriate for
regional projects. These include participant and in-country train-
ing, student and faculty exchanges, attacks on pests and dis-
eases, cooperative research, middle level technical training, dis-
tance learning, documentation collection and dissemination, and
experimental approaches to common problems. Especially rec-
ommended areas of research are family planning; common tropi-
cal disease problems; common ecologically-based problems of
crops, cattle, and soils; land tenure and use; and the effective use
of mass-media for education. Technical training in repair and
maintenance for transportation and communications activities is
urged, and planners are admonished not to ignore urbanization
and increasing underemployment and unemployment. The paper
concludes by reviewing the AFR/RA program in various functional
areas against these guidelines and assessing future development
needs which might be met on a regional basis. Various appen-
dices and a 45-item bibliography (1970-80) are included.
AID/afr-C-1554 698013500


067 PN-AAH-598
EAST AND SOUTHEAST ASIA: A BIBLIOGRAPHY
University of Wisconsin, Land Tenure Center (LTC).
1979, 122 p.
In LTC Training and Methods Series, No. 14, Suppl. 2
As materials dealing with East Asia are extensive in the Land
Tenure Center Library at the University of Wisconsin, a bibliog-
raphy has been compiled listing those references. This present
document is a supplement to that bibliography. Approximately
1,500 citations (1954-78) are entered for Asia, Central Asia, East
Asia, China, Hong Kong, Japan, Korea, People's Republic of
Korea, Republic of Korea, Macao, and Taiwan. Common subject
headings listed under Asia, China, Hong Kong, Japan, Republic
of Korea, and Taiwan include agriculture, economy, labor and
employment, and land tenure and reform. Subject headings listed
for Central Asia (Mongolia, Russian Central Asia, and Tibet) per-
tain generally to economies, industrial development, and social
change. References for Korea deal with its political division, agri-
cultural development, and land systems, ownership, and distribu-
tion. Other subject headings include communes and collectives;
foreign aid and relations; industry and labor; politics and govern-
ment; population and family planning; science and technology;
social conditions; trade; women; technological change; food and
foodgrains; reclamation; rural and community development; cities
and towns; cooperatives; and credit, finance and taxation. With
the occasional exception of documents written in the French,
German, and Spanish languages, the references are published in
English.
AID/csd-2263 211(d) 931011100


068
STATUS OF WOMEN, SRI LANKA
Colombo University, Sri Lanka.


PN-AAH-143


Constitutional rights, coeducation, and other advances have not
yet dispelled the low cultural value assigned to women in Sri Lanka
and other South/Southeast Asian countries. This report, initiated
by a group of women from Colombo University, consists of eight
studies profiling the status of women in terms of sociocultural
factors, demographics, law, creative arts and the mass media,
education, economics, political participation and decisionmaking,
and health and nutrition. It is based on national-level surveys and
official statistics, supplemented by field studies. The field studies
were carried out in three rural areas representative of the nation's
major ethnic groups (the Sinhala, Tamil, and Muslims) and in a
mixed-population urban area. The studies highlight discriminatory
practices and attitudes that bedevil the progress of women in Sri
Lanka. One survey showed a majority of employers (78.6%) en-
dorsing both sex-based job differentiation and male preference in
job recruitment (60.7%). Although greater numbers of women are
seeking higher education, patterns of enrollment reflect cultural
attitudes which favor the teaching and medical professions for
women and reserve technology as a male field. Such sex dispari-
ties are even greater in vocational education programs. In addi-
tion, stereotyped images of women as portrayed in popular nov-


ARDA Vol. 9, No. 1 February 1981




























Ci


Women participate n racy training n Bangladesh.
Women participate In literacy training In Bangladesh.


etc.), projects which bolster the organization and programs of
local women and their communities, those related to the upbring-
ing of children, and projects that enhance the competence or
desirability of wives and homemakers. The significance behind
these projects is that they are based upon accepted roles for
women. Two bibliographies are provided, an annotated bibliog-
raphy covering women in development in general (77 entries,
1964-77), and a bibliography of materials on women in the Near
East (141 entries, 1970-76). The second bibliography is not anno-
tated and lists 25 titles in French.


AID/ne-147-77-2


298003500


A woman physician examines a young patient In Calcutta.

els, films, and advertising (i.e., as weak and passive or danger-
ously seductive) are documented and discussed. As a result of
these studies, recommendations were formulated to serve as the
basis for a much-needed national plan to improve the status of
women. Among the actions recommended are: (1) the introduction
of legislation to bring personal law in line with general law in those
areas in which women suffer disabilities for example, divorce
under Muslim law and women's rights to contract and dispose of
property under Thesawalamai law; (2) sponsorship of
consciousness-raising programs to help question the legitimacy
of present cultural and ideological beliefs pertaining to women;
and (3) removal of regulations and administrative practices that
conflict with the principle of equal employment opportunities for
women. Bibliographies follow each section of the report.
PPC/WID

069 PN-AAH-309
INTEGRATING WOMEN INTO NATIONAL ECONOMIES:
PROGRAMMING CONSIDERATIONS WITH SPECIAL
REFERENCE TO THE NEAR EAST
Van Dusen, R.A.
1977, 72 p.
Although literature on women's role in development goes back at
least a decade, it is still a fugitive literature, with more than half not
published except in-house. This document presents an overview
of the literature and issues pertaining to women in development,
particularly in the Islamic Near East. Regarding that region more
than any other, it is the feeling of development personnel that
virtually nothing is known about women's roles, and that little can
be done to bring women into the economic mainstream. Four
major hypotheses or assumptions regarding women in develop-
ment are examined in this report: (1) that the literature on women in
development is not policy-oriented; (2) that the obstacles to reach-
ing women are almost insurmountable; (3) that little is known about
Near Eastern women, and that is the way the Near Eastern gov-
ernments want it; and (4) that women in the Near East do not work
and do not want to work. The author suggests four types of
projects for women which are most likely to succeed income-
producing activities (rural industries, handicrafts, cooperatives,


AID/csd-2263 211(d)


931011100


ARDA Vol. 9, No. 1 February 1981


~U,
~~O~C~ ;~i*a


L


070 PN-AAH-331
WOMEN IN RURAL DEVELOPMENT: A
BIBLIOGRAPHY
Phillips, B.
University of Wisconsin, Land Tenure Center (LTC).
1979, 48 p.
In LTC Training and Methods Series, No. 29
What are the roles currently played by women in rural develop-
ment? The present bibliography provides a wide range of source
materials to answer this question. A first section consists of entries
relating to the developing world in general. Later sections are
grouped by region and include Africa, Asia, Europe, Latin
America, the Near East, and the United States. Most of these
materials were published in the 1970's. A large number of Spanish,
and some French titles, appear. Unfortunately, no introduction
detailing the origin of the bibliography or its usefulness is pro-
vided.






























Women labor In a rice paddy In Sri Lanka.


071 PN-AAH-437
A STUDY ON THE STATUS OF KOREAN WOMEN IN
NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT
Kim, O.Y; Lee, K.
Sookmyung Women's University.
1977, 88 p.
Since the advent of the women's liberation movement in the United
States and Europe in the 1960s, and the U.N. proclamation of 1975
as International Women's Year, several studies concerning the
status of women in Korea have been conducted. These studies,
however, have failed to examine the role of Korean women in
national development and the degree to which they participate in
the decisionmaking process. This study examines both of these
issues, and is therefore both innovative and valuable. An introduc-
tory chapter provides a brief literature review on the historical,
political, legal, educational, and socioeconomic status of Korean
women, and the research methodology of the present study. Sev-
eral variables are examined: age, education, duration of marriage,
.onomic status, consciousness of discrimination and women's
status, and residence. A random sample of 866 Korean women
from Seoul and six rural areas was drawn to test the hypothesis
that Korean women will perform more effective roles in national
development as they become more involved in decisionmaking.
Chapter two presents the study's theoretical framework by review-
ing the improvement of women's status in light of feminist ideolo-
gies, changing sex roles, and the economic contribution of work-
ing women; and defines the concepts of status, power, authority,
and role. Chapter three examines demographic, educational, and
socioeconomic indicators of women's status, postulating that as
women' age, education, marital longevity, urban proximity, eco-
nomic status, and consciousness of their status and of discrimina-
tion increase, so does their participation and power in the decision
making process. In the final chapters, the above postulations are
verified, thus confirming the study's central hypothesis regarding
women's potential role in national development. Further research
is suggested with additional indicators of religion, occupation, and
family system. A study comparing this project's findings with the
findings of similar projects in other countries, as well as a study of
Korean men's views toward women's status, are also recom-


mended. Footnotes and a 50-item bibliography (1956-77) are
appended.


AID-498-WID-3-T


489024900


072 PN-AAH-579
WOMEN IN A DEVELOPING ECONOMY: A WEST
AFRICAN CASE STUDY
Spencer, D.S.C.
Michigan State University, Department of Agricultural Economics.
1979, 69 p.
The role women play in the economic development process and
the benefits they derive therefrom are of concern to donor agen-
cies and policymakers. This monograph presents a case study of
the role of women in the rural economy of Sierra Leone. A series of
detailed surveys were conducted of both farm and non-farm
households in Sierra Leone; these included sampling and record-
ing of farm-level activities, migration patterns, fishing, small-scale
industry, and the role of women in household decisionmaking.
Households were visited twice a week for at least 12 months.
Detailed analyses of these surveys resulted in general conclu-
sions. Women play an important role in agriculture and contribute
at least 40% of the total labor input. Agricultural development
projects which stress mechanization tend to have an adverse
affect on the female work load as they increase the amount of land
available for planting, weeding and harvesting which are the
woman's primary functions in agriculture. It has been found that
women play a small role in small-scale industrial activities in both
rural and urban areas with the exception of the gara industry which
is dominated by women. The survey indicated that, on the whole,
wage rates are lower for women than for men in both rural and
urban areas. It was also found that women play a minor role in
agricultural decisionmaking, but an important role in household
decisionmaking as well as in decisions relating to the borrowing of
money. Finally, it was discovered that women share equally in the
proceeds of the sales of cash crops as well as in the profits derived
from retail trade. This study indicates that while there is no need to
develop special agricultural policies for women in Sierra Leone,
government should ensure that profitable female-dominated ac-
tivities are encouraged. Also, help in the form of extension advice


ARDA Vol 9, No.1 February 1981












IrIiP DEVELOPMENT ASSISTANCE


is needed to raise incomes in the low-income, female-dominated
activities. The government should ensure that its tariff and macro-
economic policies do not discriminate against female-dominated
enterprises. A 30-item bibliography (1952-79) and survey forms
are appended.
AID/afr-C-1364 931000100


073


PN-AAH-601


SOCIAL CHANGE AND RURAL WOMEN:
POSSIBILITIES OF PARTICIPATION
Adnan, S.; Islam, R.
University of Wisconsin, Land Tenure Center (LTC).
1979, 21 p.
In LTC Reprint No. 137; prepared for a seminar on The Role of
Women in Socioeconomic Development in Bangladesh
The women of rural Bangladesh live in a world of both real and
symbolic seclusion: they are second-class citizens because of
political, economic, social, and legal bondage. The rural culture is
male dominated to an extreme degree. Polygamy, seclusion (pur-
dah), universal distrust of feminine emancipation, and flouting of
the Family Law Ordinance are practiced. This report discusses the
role of women in rural Bangladesh and suggests methods of
improving their situation. The status and emancipation of women
rests on their relation to the means of production and their conse-
quent roles in production organization, including that of the
family-based production unit which is present in the rural econ-
omy. Lack of organization and consciousness regarding these
factors have kept women in a depressed status. The actual and
potential contribution of women to the rural economy is stagger-
ing. Most of the women spend their productive time working in the
home and caring for their children, or performing menial tasks
such as fetching water and dehusking rice. If some of this time
could be saved through the advent of simple technologies such as
communal running water and use of dehusking machines, much
of the women's time could be spent in productive work outside the
home. Day care centers, which would be needed in such an
eventuality, could easily be provided. Women also need to be
educated to carry out some degree of production outside the
home. While potential levels of available skilled female labor are
high, this potential is not, in reality, very encouraging given the high
overall unemployment rate in Bangladesh's villages. A possible
solution is the development of policies to promote industrial labor
by men so that women could engage in those agricultural activities
for which they are as capable as men. However, before attempting
to change the status of women in Bangladesh, planners must
constantly remind themselves that there are extremely conserva-
tive social and religious forces in these villages which will strive to
undermine any change in the social status of women. A bibliog-
raphy of 19 references (1974-76) is appended.
AID/csd-2263 211(d) 931011100


074 PN-AAH-603
ZINACANTECO WOMEN: PREDICTION FOR CHANGE
IN A MEXICAN VILLAGE
Hogan, J.; Tienda, M.
University of Wisconsin, Land Tenure Center (LTC).
1979, 23 p.
In LTC Paper No. 120
Recent studies on the changing roles of women have focused on
the impact of modernization upon their traditional activity This
case study argues the thesis that the ability of the Zinacantecos
(Mexican Indians) to mitigate the potentially destabilizing forces of
modernization rests to some extent on how their women, who have
been secluded from these forces, manage to maintain their tradi-
tional life-style. The old social and institutional arrangements that
inhibit women's activity are considered first. The authors then
suggest how the ecological imbalances stemming from popula-
tion growth might undermine the ability of the Zinacantecos to
maintain traditional cultural and ethnic identity. For the Zinacan-
tecos, land use defines the social organization. Due to the narrow
resource base available from their own farmlands, Zinacanteco
men must move into lowland farming and wage labor, which
increases their contact with the Mexican ladino culture and the
need for Spanish language skills. This increases individual wealth
and can alter traditional living arrangements after marriage, as
well as the ceremonial foundation of Zinacantan society, the
wealth-based cargo system. Presently, the cargo system is be-
coming overloaded by excessive applications. Women, on the
other hand, are confined to domestic duties and are buffered from
external influences by their husbands. The home is the bastion of
ethnic identity and women remain the guardians of that identity
Their roles are dictated by Zinacantan institutions and ritualized
life style. Increasing contact with the ladino environment, however,
may begin to force women to go outside the home, attend school,
learn Spanish, adopt ladino dress, and participate in activities
formerly reserved to men. This would require a redefinition of the
traditional social image of women. In the long run, such a strategy
may be preferable to that of maintaining the old culture by isolating
women into their traditional roles. Indeed, the stress placed on the
system by increasing population growth may make maintenance
of the old culture self-defeating. A bibliography of 15 English
sources (1965-77) is included.
AID/csd-2263 211(d) 931011100


ARDA Vol. 9, No. 1 February 1981












ECONOMICSNP


075 PN-AAG-784
THE USE OF ECONOMIC MODELS IN EVALUATING
THE IMPACT OF RURAL DEVELOPMENT AND
INCOME REDISTRIBUTION PROGRAMSIN THE LDC'S
Applegate, M.J.
1975, 86 p.
In Faculty Working Paper No. 38
Whether rural development results in a redistribution of income in
favor of the poor is an unresolved question in the development
literature. This study approaches this question by analyzing the
use of existing economic models to evaluate the impact of rural
development and allied income redistribution programs in LDCs.
In part one, two-sector models of economic dualism are dis-
cussed in regard to their implications for improving income dis-
tribution between agricultural and nonagricultural sectors and for
agricultural development policy. These models, and especially
that of Mellor-Lele, imply that as technology stimulates agricultural
growth and the increased agricultural output that results is con-
sumed by agricultural labor, there will occur a decrease in market-
ble surplus which decreases employment opportunities in the
nonagricultural sector. What is needed, therefore, is a balanced-
growth strategy emphasizing both agricultural development
through technology and investment in the nonagricultural sector.
In part two, the use of quantitative techniques to measure the
effects of changes in the size distribution of income is examined.
The total impact as reflected by the savings and demand effects
on relative factor intensities due to changes in the composition of
demand are discussed. The author recommends that migration to
the urban sector can improve the marginal productivity of labor, so
industrialization should be encouraged. To prevent an income gap
between rural and urban areas from occurring, an agricultural
development program should also be implemented. In part three,
some recent attempts to measure the effects of technology and of
various inputs, such as credit and technical assistance, are ana-
lyzed. Increased technological inputs increase farmer options in
selecting low-cost production methods. The final section presents
a dynamic multisectoral model of Guatemala used for measuring
the effects both of technological change in the traditional agricul-
tural sector and of a proposed land reform program. A bibliog-
raphy containing 40 titles (1954-74) in both English and Spanish is
also included.
AID/ta-BMA-2 931113402

076 PN-AAG-787
FERTILIZER MIXING PLANT FEASIBILITY STUDY
Frederick, M.T; Smith, R.T
1978, 94 p.
In August 1978, USAID/Bolivia requested that the International
Fertilizer Development Center (IFDC) prepare a feasibility study
for a fertilizer mixing plant in Bolivia. Emphasis was to be placed
on an analysis of existing and potential fertilizer demand among
small farmers. This document presents that study After an over-
view of the Bolivian climate, soil, and crop production, current
exploitation of Bolivia's major fertilizer raw materials is described.


Next, the nation's infrastructure and its influence upon the farming
sector are outlined, followed by a discussion of the present lack of
an indigenous fertilizer industry and of future fertilizer manufac-
turing plans. Succeeding sections treat community development
programs, extension services, current fertilizer patterns and con-
sumption, the lack of soil testing facilities, the marketing and
distribution of fertilizer, and the economic returns resulting from
fertilizer. The IFDC draws several conclusions from their findings.
The Bolivian campesino is well informed in the use and economic
benefits of fertilizers. The potato growers in altiplano and Cocha-
bamba are particularly sophisticated in their approach to crop
fertilization. High fertilizer prices can be attributed to the pricing
policies of the dealers, the imbalance of supply and demand, the
lack of integrated government fertilizer programs and of importa-
tion controls on dealers, and the absence of preferential treatment
for fertilizer imports. The resulting high prices and unavailability of
fertilizer has inhibited demand. Costs can be decreased by em-
ploying money-saving business tactics and negotiation methods
when importing fertilizer. An integrated agricultural program
through a central agency would also be beneficial. The IFDC
recommends a 6-phase program which moves from the importa-
tion of bagged fertilizers into a mixed system of bulk handling,
blending, and bagging with future incorporation of indigenously
produced fertilizers. Within this system, good business practices
are essential. Tables and maps are presented throughout this
document. A bibliography of 52 English and Spanish sources
(1967-78) is included.
AID-511-165T
077 PN-AAG-997
REPORT ON POTENTIAL COLLABORATIVE
INDUSTRIAL ENTERPRISES IN THE NEAR EAST
REGION
Nathan Associates, Inc.
1979, 94 p.
Preservation of peaceful coexistence in the Near East may de-
pend largely on the development of economic and financial ties
between public and private business entities in Israel and its
neighbors. In this connection, the present paper studies the poten-
tial of, and determines criteria for, collaborative industrial enter-
prises (CIEs) in the region. An overview of the status of industry in
the Near East, focusing on unutilized or underutilized resources,
marketing capabilities, and the potential effect of additional capi-
tal inputs, is first presented, followed by detailed accounts of
industry in the economies of Egypt, Israel, Gaza, the West Bank,
Jordan, Syria, and Lebanon. This review leads to the conclusion
that considerable economic benefit could accrue to participants
in CIEs. The nature and possibility of CIEs between these coun-
tries is then discussed and certain possibilities identified. Since
the governments of the region control the ownership and oper-
ation of large construction and manufacturing enterprises, the
possibilities for joint ownership and management would seem
more likely for small- to medium-sized firms in the private sector.
Despite constraints due to inadequate infrastructure, shortage of
investment funds, limited natural resources, and competition from
foreign markets, CIEs can be successful in the region if: (1) enter-


ARDA Vol 9, No. 1 February 1981












GNPECONOMICS


prises are carefully selected for availability of complementary
inputs and products of high value and export potential; (2) sup-
porting institutions, such as industrial parks in free trade zones
near borders and special financial agencies to provide investment
funds, are established in advance; (3) third parties participate,
particularly in providing investment capital, as well as technical
and other assistance; (4) governments of participating countries
provide investment incentives and expedite necessary pro-
cesses; (5) adequate infrastructure, such as communication and
transportation facilities, and, even more importantly, skilled and
experienced management, are available. A list of the most promis-
ing industrial subsectors for potential CIE's is included.
AID/afr-C-1134 GTS


078


PN-AAH-310


COOPERATIVES, INITIATIVE, PARTICIPATION AND
SOCIO-ECONOMIC CHANGE IN THE SAHEL
Derman, B.
Michigan State University, Department of Agricultural Economics.
1978, 77 p.
Are the Sahelian peasants and herders, who have resisted change
and refused to become market-oriented, irrational? Some theorists
of development have reached that conclusion. Others take the
viewpoint that there are a variety of paths to development, and that
one should expect to find greater variability in the responses of
rural peoples. The author of this report aligns himself with the latter
viewpoint, emphasizing that the Sahel has never been an un-
changing area. In fact, indigenous initiative is just as characteristic
of the Sahel as stability and tradition. Examples include the intro-
duction of new products such as the kola nut into the Central
Sudan by the Wangara merchants, the spread of pastoralism, and
the development of gardens by West Africans to meet the demand
of Europeans for a variety of vegetables. In addition, the report
focuses on the role of cooperatives and the degree of local partici-
pation generated by them. Experiences in Senegal, Mali, and
Niger are related through quotations from a number of studies. The
author concludes that cooperatives have not promoted the goal of
increased equality and participation of the poor instead, the
hold of existing political and economic structures upon the poor
has been intensified. The report includes footnotes and a bibliog-
raphy (129 entries, 1952-78).
AID/afr-C-1260 625092600


079


PN-AAH-347


A REVIEW OF EMPIRICAL STUDIES OF DEMAND FOR
AGRICULTURAL LOANS
David, C.C.; Meyer, R.L.
Ohio State University, Department of Agricultural Economics and
Rural Sociology
1979, 38 p.
Prepared for the Second International Conference on Rural Fi-
nance Research Issues, Paper No. 2
Loan demand within LDCs is a growing economic activity and
therefore merits greater understanding. This document is a review
of recent loan demand studies from two perspectives: those con-
cerned with loan demand projections; and those that quantify loan
relationships. In part one of the review, a conceptual model is used
to identify the commonly used factors which affect loan demand.
Borrowing costs, investment options, and time consumption pref-
erences are identified as the principle factors affecting farm-
household demand. Technical improvements, high farm prices,
greater factor endowments, and investment opportunities gen-
erally raise demand. Prices and technical changes which raise
input levels or improve resource utilization will lower demand
because they can be financed from increased savings. The au-
thors contend that loan demand in LDCs should be based upon an
interdependent production and consumption model. Farm pro-
duction borrowing is the difference between desired investment
levels and savings, while household consumption borrowing is the
difference between present income and desired consumption.
Savings are linked to income levels and investment options. In part
two, loan projection studies are reviewed. In most LDCs, projec-
tions consist of calculating average production costs and then
subtracting self-financing estimates and external funding. These
proportions are judgemental and estimates are usually incon-
sistent with actual borrowing figures. Another method utilizes in-
vestments and historical capital inflows, yet most LDCs lack the
required data for this kind of approach. Furthermore, this model is
inappropriate for use in rapidly developing countries. It is recom-
mended that structural relationships be clarified and that data on
loan supply and demand functions be collected for improving
these studies. Part three reviews economic and mathematical
programming studies which determine loan demand relation-
ships. Econometric studies use loan demand functions and derive
demand elasticities from estimated profit functions to clarify these
relationships. Mathematical programming studies analyze opti-
mum enterprise mix, resource use, and farm income under simu-
lated conditions. Only a few studies regarding LDCs have been
done in this field. Forty-three bibliographic items (1966-78) are
included.
AID/ta-BMA-7 931116900


ARDA Vol. 9, No. 1 February 1981












ECONOMICS NP


080 PN-AAH-350
BARRIERS TO FINANCIAL REFORM
Vogel, R.C.
Ohio State University, Department of Agricultural Economics and
Rural Sociology.
1979, 31 p.
Prepared for the Second International Conference on Rural Fi-
nance Research Issues, Paper, No. 5
Despite widespread agreement that rural financial reforms are
needed in LDCs, arguments against the possibility of implement-
ing such reforms are often heard. Four common arguments, all
illustrative of existing barriers to financial reform, are analyzed
here. One argument contends that reform would bankrupt many
financial institutions. Raising interest rates to competitive market
levels, particularly in LDCs experiencing rapid inflation, would
force these institutions to pay higher short-term rates on deposits.
Since rates on long-term loans could not be altered until after they
mature, institutions would be caught in a financial crisis. The
optimal control theory, which places ceilings upon loan and de-
posit rates and on monetary expansion, could be used to eliminate
this problem, but is considered too complex to operate within
LDCs. Raising rates on outstanding long-term loans is the best
option, but its legality is questionable. This first argument is not
considered strong because most institutions do not have their
assets in long-term commitments. A second and better argument
asserts that preferential loan rates for farmers are needed to
compensate for other market distortions, such as low food prices
and tariff barriers. But this viewpoint is weak also, because loans
of this nature have concentrated on assisting wealthy farmers and
not the majority of small farmers who need it. Also, the technical
and infrastructural changes required to improve farming stan-
dards will not be influenced by these loan benefits. A third argu-
ment is that stabilization programs would be hurt over the short
term by higher interest rates. Inflation could be reduced, but
different sectors of production would be constrained. Both this
argument and the final one, which considers the linkage between
financial reforms and international economic policies, are stronger
than those that precede and therefore need further investigation.
The final argument is especially complex, since raising rates
stimulates capital inflows which runs counter to economic objec-
tives by raising the exchange rate and altering the balance of
payments. A bibliography (1967-77) of nine English and Spanish
sources is included.
AID/ta-BMA-7 931116900


081 PN-AAH-352
FINANCING THE BEGINNING FARMER: TOWARDS
MORE REALISTIC FARM PURCHASE LOAN
REPAYMENT ARRANGEMENTS
McClatchy, D.
Ohio State University, Department of Agricultural Economics and
Rural Sociology.
1979, 42 p.


Prepared for the Second International Conference on Rural Fi-
nance Research Issues, Paper No. 7
Increasing capital requirements are causing a financial entry
problem for beginning farmers purchasing land. This paper
suggests a solution to this problem by identifying the underlying
reason for it. Two sides to the financial problem facing young
farmers are distinguished. There is the structural side, namely
the continuing increase in the capital value of farms in real dollar
terms. Attempts by financial institutions to solve this part of the
problem by making more farm real estate mortgage credit avail-
able have met with meager response from farmers. The reason
for this, in the author's view, is that nothing has been done about
the other, institutional, side of the problem: the general require-
ment that farm mortgage loans be serviced by annual or even
more frequent payments so that the loan can be fully retired
within 20-30 years, in short, by the time farmers are ready to
retire. Thus, farmers can borrow only what they can repay within
a farming lifetime. The author considers this difficulty one of
timing; specifically, an inconsistency between the timing of the
economic returns to the farm purchase investment through capi-
tal gains and the annual net rental income, and the required
schedule for repaying the mortgage credit available to finance
this investment. In short, loan repayments eat up capital gains. A
review of empirical evidence over the last two decades suggests
that the timing of capital gains makes such gains totally unsuit-
able for servicing conventional farm real estate mortgage loans.
Thus, the average farmer is only justified in borrowing more than
half of the farm purchase price to the extent he is willing to
contribute some of his normal labor and management return and
other income towards servicing a larger loan. It is concluded that
the most promising solution to the entry problem (without re-
course to subsidies) lies in incorporating more flexibility into the
terms and conditions of repaying farm mortgage loans. Several
policy alternatives are noted, as is the need for research into their
potential impacts and institutional drawbacks. Illustrative tables
and charts, footnotes, a 26-item bibliography (1954-78), and two
technical appendices are included.
AID/ta-BMA-7 931116900

082 PN-AAH-353
IDENTIFYING FUTURE FARM TRANSFER CREDIT
REQUIREMENTS: A CANADIAN STUDY
Tung, F Jones, W.D.
Ohio State University, Department of Agricultural Economics and
Rural Sociology
1979, 20 p.
Prepared for the Second International Conference on Rural Fi-
nance Research Issues, Paper No. 8
Canada's farming sector is becoming increasingly dependent on
credit as a source of investment and operating capital. This paper
projects 1981 credit requirements for the transfer of farm real estate
and examines the implications of this projection for the agricultural
sector. In the first of three sections, the components that determine
farm transfer credit needs are discussed, followed in the second
section by a description of the forecasting model used by the


ARDA Vol. 9, No. 1 February 1981












NP ECONOMICS


authors. The third section presents the forecasted results derived
from the model together with their implications. Transfer credit
needs were determined by the number and size of transfers
regarding both new and expanding farmers. These figures were
then calculated along with the prices of real estate. Internal financ-
ing was subtracted from total funding transfer requirements to
determine credit demand. The forecasting model is composed of
three elements: transition probabilities, the number of possible
entrants during the project period, and farm size. Forecasts indi-
cate an increase of transfer capital and credit requirements of 4%
over the 1976-81 period. Farm transfer estimates for the 1976-81
period shows a reduction of farmland expansion and an increase
in new farm entrants. The authors suggest three possible implica-
tions of these projections. First, that a majority of Canadian farms
are reaching their maximum viable size, given their present tech-
nological levels. Second, that a limited supply of real estate is
available for current expansion needs. Finally, that alternative
means of entering the farm industry, such as part-time farming, are
attracting more individuals into the industry. Increases in capital
and credit requirements indicate that new farmers will find it diffi-
cult to meet equity requirements for loans on farm land. Raising
farm values will mean that new farmers will need increasing finan-
cial assistance. This may result in the formation of farm coopera-
tives or tenant farming. The cost of using capital will also increase,
affecting the industry's market position and the need for govern-
ment support. Two appendices containing data sources and sta-
tistics are also included.
AID/ta-BMA-7 931116900

083 PN-AAH-354
SECTORAL DEMAND FOR CREDIT AND CREDIT
POLICY (CHILE)
Cuevas, C.C.
Ohio State University, Department of Agricultural Economics and
Rural Sociology.
1979, 14 p.
Prepared for the Second International Conference on Rural Fi-
nance Research Issues, Paper No. 9
In Chile, the use of agricultural credit has not aided sectoral
development. This document analyzes the causes of this problem
by discussing the behavior of agricultural credit for the period
1965-77, with particular emphasis on the period 1974-77; and by
comparing sector credit demand with credit supply and the gap
between the two, as well as the form in which credit is supplied. In
Chile, institutional credit supplied for operational and investment
needs by commercial banks, specifically the Banco del Estado,
has been the farmer's main source for loans. Since 1965, opera-
tional loans have averaged 80% of the total demand. Investment
loans have been smaller, peaking at 25%. In 1976, operational
credit was linked to the consumer price index and the real rates
assessed to cover farming input costs and social security pay-
ments averaged 16% per annum. Wages and salaries had to be
funded from the farmer's own resources or from regular banking
facilities which commanded high interest rates. Even though in-
vestment credit rates are presently between 10-16%, this credit is


seldom accessed by small farmers because of the heavy col-
lateral guarantees that are required. For this reason, total farming
investment has been low. Since 1974, farming protection has
increased relative to other sectors, yet the profitability of the tradi-
tional farms is low and therefore must be funded from other
sources. Traditional crops account for 80% of the cultivated land in
Chile and profits are low. If resources were reallocated into cattle or
fruit farming, rates of return would increase. Traditional farmers
have not altered their methods because this would require an
investment, with collateral requirements, that they could not ob-
tain. Foreign competition and credit policies have deterred farm-
ers from using credit, from purchasing farming inputs, and from
pursuing labor-intensive activities. As a result, operational credit
demand between 1976 and 1977 was 40% above actual borrow-
ing. Foreign credit restrictions have been reduced, which will
provide added funds and lower rates. Measures to provide state
guarantees for farmers in need might enable more farmers to
acquire loans.


AID/ta-BMA-7


931116900


084 PN-AAH-355
OPTIMAL FUNDING STRATEGIES FOR FINANCIAL
COOPERATIVES
Tauer, L. Boehljie, M.
Ohio State University, Department of Agricultural Economics and
Rural Sociology.
1979, 32 p.
Prepared for the Second International Conference on Rural Fi-
nance Research Issues, Paper No. 10
The cooperative Farm Credit System (FCS) was established with
the purpose of improving the income and well-being of U.S. farm-
ers and ranchers by providing a source of sound, adequate, and
constructive credit. As a member of the FCS, a district Federal
Intermediate Credit Bank (FICB) serves as the intermediary be-
tween national sources of money and local Production Credit
Associations (PCAs) and other qualified financial institutions with-
in that district. The objective of this study was to develop a liability
management model to aid in the debt management decisions of a
FICB. In this instance, the model was applied to the debt selection
process faced by the Omaha, Nebraska FICB. The analysis was
structured to determine the optimal borrowing activities that would
minimize the expected cost of credit at various levels of cost
variance. In addition, optimal (in terms of minimum cost at various
levels of cost-risk) maturity distribution and time issuance of debt
instruments were determined for a multiperiod planning horizon. A
planning horizon of 3 years (1979-81) was chosen -- permitting an
analysis of the impact of sequential funding with discount notes,
and 6- and 9-month bonds. Longer-term bonds would have
required a substantially longer planning horizon. With the use of an
inventory model, it was possible to estimate the optimal bond
purchases for the selected time period given an estimate of prob-
able demand, cost of bonds, cost inventory (funds) deficits, and
return from excess inventory balances. Analysis revealed that
extensive use of both long-term bonds and discount notes is
called for. The 6- and 9-month bonds are very similar with


ARDA Vol. 9, No. 1 February 1981












ECONOMICS GNP


regard to expected costs, variance-covariance and duration. It
therefore appears that they are good substitutes for each other,
depending upon funding needs of the bank and relative costs. The
authors conclude that this model is a useful day-to-day manage-
ment aid in analyzing liability structures. A bibliography is in-
cluded (17 entries, 1959-79).
AID/ta-BMA-7 931116900

085 PN-AAH-356
MOBILIZATION OF RURAL SAVINGS: THE CASE OF
THE SUDANESE SAVINGS BANK
Auri, A. Mottura, P.
Ohio State University, Department of Agricultural Economics and
Rural Sociology.
1979, 22 p.
Prepared for the Second International Conference on Rural Fi-
nance Research Issues, Paper No. 11
The Sudanese Savings Bank (SSB) was established in 1974 to
promote Sudanese socioeconomic development. Various as-
pects of its institutional growth are discussed in this document.
Overall SSB deposits have grown due to local government and
Central Bank support, branch evening hours, trained and locally
known staff, and rural location and lending policies. Deposit
growth is seasonal, decreasing during July and August. Both
savings and investments accounts provide benefits not available
in commercial banks. Savings accounts have grown since 1975,
due to an 8% rate of return, a low opening account requirement
fee, a policy allowing unlimited withdrawals, and the savings box
concept. These deposits have been attractive to middle- and
upper-income savers, particularly in individual accounts. Time
deposit 12-month investment accounts with a 9% interest rate are
also offered, and while not as successful as anticipated, they are
growing in popularity. Lack of success could be due to the psy-
chology of local savers and the fact that the account only offers a
1% increase over normal deposits. Data on SSB current accounts,
which are the same as offered elsewhere, are mixed. On the whole,
it appears that the SSB is specializing as a savings deposit collec-
tor as intended. Innovations used by the SSB include night ser-
vice, savings stamps, certificates of value, publicity programs,
and the Mobil Unit Service (MU). The MU, which is discussed in
some detail, has opened 12.3% of the total deposits and collected
0.27% of SSB's balances. This is below expectations. Further, MU
attempts to increase investment and current accounts have not
succeeded. Uncertainty surrounding the MU exists, because
funds are frequently unavailable as compared with normal de-
posits. In conclusion, the SSB has done well during its initial
period, encouraging customers with no previous banking expe-
rience to use its facilities. High MU costs are balanced by its
research and promotional activities, noninterest bearing deposits
are low, and liquidity requirements may inhibit an increase in
loan-to-deposit ratio.


AID/ta-BMA-7


086 PN-AAH-357
THE FUNDING PROBLEM IN RURAL DEVELOPMENT
BANKS WITH EMPIRICAL REFERENCE TO THE
JAMAICA DEVELOPMENT BANK
Bourne, C.; Graham, D.H.
Ohio State University, Department of Agricultural Economics and
Rural Sociology.
1979, 22 p.
Prepared for the Second International Conference of Rural Fi-
nance Research Issues, Paper No. 12
The funding problem confronting Rural Development Banks
(RDBs) has been neglected by contemporary analysts. This docu-
ment studies the funding of these banks with empirical reference
to the Jamaican Development Bank (JDB), in order to explain their
credit operations and to identify those factors that determine fi-
nancial growth. This paper is divided into four sections. The first
describes the main sources of RDB funding, while the second
examines their short-term implications. The third section outlines
bank inflows over the long-term, while the last examines three
ways of relieving bank funding problems. RDBs are very depen-
dent on local governments and external agencies such as the
World Bank for their funding. Local private institutions and loan
repayments to RDBs have not been significant. Between 1970 and
1977, the JDB, for example, received 23.6% of its funding from
external sources and 52.4% from its own Government. The condi-
tions imposed by these two main lending bodies are restrictive.
Foreign restrictions include: (1) forbidding RDBs from conducting
any working capital loans; (2) defining target groups for their
loans; and (3) maintaining a preference for single crop, long
gestation projects. These measures are biased towards large
farmers and force other borrowers to rely upon internal financing
over the short term, which decreases their liquidity Interest rate
policies which RDBs must repay and exchange rate exposure also
jeopardize their efficiency. Government source loans are directed,
on the other hand, towards small farmers and require conces-
sional interest rates that compromise distributive equity and create
high per-unit administrative costs. Also, these loans have short
maturities which reduce the loanable capital of RDBs. RDBs are
therefore not free to select individual projects which best suit their
own lending ability. Because both sources also pose a long-term
danger that they can and will be reduced, funding sources should
therefore be broadened. Three possibilities that are briefly dis-
cussed are deposit mobilization, bond issues, and earmarked
taxes. The first two are preferred, yet they must be instituted early
and RDBs must demonstrate a financial program which engen-
ders confidence to attract these funds. A bibliography of eight
sources (1971-78) is included.
AID/ta-BMA-7 931116900


931116900


ARDA Vol. 9, No. 1 February 1981











GNP ECONOMICS


087


PN-AAH-358


INTEREST RATE, TRANSACTION COSTS,AND
FINANCIAL INNOVATIONS
Bhatt, V.V
Ohio State University, Department of Agricultural Economics and
Rural Sociology.
1979, 42 p.
Prepared for the Second International Conference on Rural Fi-
nance Research Issues, Paper No. 13
Fragmentation of the capital market that is, the phenomena of
different markets for different "products" as it occurs in the
LDCs is generally attributed to high interest rates. The crucial
variable in determining these rates is transaction costs (both
administrative costs and default risk). Financial innovations
(changes in production and consumption functions, introduction
of new goods and services, changes in organization and market
forms, etc.) reduce these costs and thus lower interest rates. The
economic history of Europe and the United States is a progression
of such innovations the most recent of which is U.S. department
store banking. Should LDCs pass through the same stages of
financial development or should they adapt existing structures to
their own specific needs? The author suggests the latter, with the
remainder of the document describing the evolution of a credit
market in the State of Haryana in India and the innovation of the
Syndicate Bank of India. In 1964, the State of Haryana was one of
the three states in India to adopt new high-yielding seeds. As a
result, wheat production per acre almost doubled in less than a
decade. Traditionally, agricultural credit in that state had been
provided by local traders, who purchased the farmer's surplus
output. However, with the new prosperity, medium-sized farmers
were able to use their surplus profits for lending to small farmers,
driving the traders out of business with lower interest rates (15-
25% per annum vs. 30-40%). The reason for the farmers' success
was smaller transaction costs they were simply better able to
appraise the income potential of the small farmers. The Syndicate
Bank of India is the story of a small bank seizing an area of banking
(servicing small- and medium-sized enterprises in the provinces)
considered unprofitable by the nation's larger, urban establish-
ments, and introducing new "products" and processes to make it
profitable. With these examples, the author emphasizes the need
to move away from the usual discussion of interest rates based on
"factless theorizing" and the macro approach to monetary and
banking analysis. Footnotes and statistical charts are included in
the report.


AID/ta-BMA-7


931116900


088 PN-AAH-359
BANKING INNOVATIONS IN INDIA: A CASE OF GROUP
LENDING FOR AGRICULTURE
Desai, B.M.
Ohio State University, Department of Agricultural Economics and
Rural Sociology.
1979, 31 p.


Prepared for the Second International Conference on Rural Fi-
nance Research Issues, Paper No. 14
In order to increase the flow of agricultural credit to small farmers,
many banks in India have introduced the innovation of group
lending. The present paper reports on a limited pilot study of group
lending by one bank branch in India. The study was undertaken to
develop an analytical framework to determine equilibrium
(supply=demand) conditions under which group lending can be
considered an innovation, and to provide empirical evidence on
the potential advantages or disadvantages of this innovation.
Potential advantages and disadvantages of group lending for
both supply and demand are distinguished. Examples of advan-
tages are lowered transaction costs for both borrowers and lend-
ers. Examples of potential disadvantages are increased costs of
forming groups in reference to supply, and loss of individual dis-
cretion in regard to demand. Two analytical models one with, the
other without potential disadvantages, are constructed, and nec-
essary and sufficient conditions for considering group lending an
innovation are distinguished. A necessary condition is that the net
demand or supply shift is greater than zero. A sufficient condition
is that when the combined shift in both supply and demand is
greater than zero, the net demand shift is greater than the net
supply shift, or vice versa. From the cases studied, it is concluded
that for group lending to be an innovation, both necessary and
sufficient conditions must be justified simultaneously. It is further
concluded that when the combined net shift in supply and de-
mand is less than zero because of decreased supply, it is critical
for banks to mobilize as large a demand advantage as possible.
When, however, the combined shift is less than zero due to de-
creased demand, then an enlargement of the supply advantage is
called for. These conclusions are considered valid as long as
interest rates are kept flexible, rather than rigid. On the empirical
level, data showed that group lending has a potential for both
demand and supply advantage, the latter due to lower default risk.
This conclusion is due to the fact that distance and technology
factors accounted for a large proportion of differences between
group and mortgage borrowers.
AID/ta-BMA-7 931116900

089 PN-AAH-360
INNOVATIVE SMALL FARMER CREDIT IN NICARAGUA
Tinnermeier, R.L.; Gonzalez-Vega, C.
Ohio State University, Department of Agricultural Economics and
Rural Sociology.
1979, 31 p.
Prepared for the Second International Conference on Rural Fi-
nance Research Issues, Paper No. 15
Credit has been a major component of agricultural and rural
development in LDCs. This document reviews the innovative
steps taken in Nicaragua by the Institute For Campesino Devel-
opment (INVIERNO) to provide credit for low-income farmers.
INVIERNO provides a set of integrated services directed towards
local needs by dispatching teams composed of an agricultural
technician (AGROMOC), an input and marketing specialist
(CREDOMERC), and a community specialist, to the local Devel-


ARDA Vol. 9, No. 1 February 1981












ECONOMICS NP


opment Center (CEDE). Much of INVIERNO's success has been
due to cutting loan costs. In the field, AGROMOCs personally
ascertain the needs of local residents and distribute loan applica-
tions accordingly. Applications are processed electronically,
which reduces administrative costs, reduces human error, and
releases CEDE personnel for other duties. Computerization, while
helpful, does create problems between stations involving com-
munication, data transfer, and coordinating data activities. IN-
VIERNO also introduced the policy of granting credit for 5-year
periods which has cut costs, since annual applications are avoid-
ed and single accounts are kept for each borrower rather than
having an account for each loan operation. Group lending may
further reduce costs. Considerable emphasis has also been
placed on raising small farmer incomes through the adoption of
new technology Various technical packages are offered by the
AGROMOCs to farmers depending upon the farmer's knowledge
of credit for purchasing modern inputs. INVIERNO has been able
to pursue these policies due to the quality of its management
system. A competitive salary scale, liberal fringe benefits, and
effective selection system have been instrumental in establishing
a competent staff. Planning has a high priority, which keeps goals
and approaches clear and up to date. Department and Division
heads keep track of project activities and objectives, and internal
and external INVIERNO evaluations are made regularly. IN-
VIERNO has coordinated its services with other agencies to ex-
pand its outreach. In all of its programs, credit is supplied first and
other services are provided accordingly A bibliography of 28
English and Spanish language sources (1973-78) is included.
AID/ta-BMA-7 931116900

090 PN-AAH-361
THE IMPACT OF RURAL CREDIT ON PRODUCTION
AND INCOME DISTRIBUTION
Sayad, J.
Ohio State University, Department of Agricultural Economics and
Rural Sociology.
1979, 33 p.
Prepared for the Second International Conference on Rural Fi-
nance Research Issues, Paper No. 18
Many LDCs have used rural credit as an incentive to promote
investments in their agricultural sectors. Using examples from
Brazil, this paper analyzes the effectiveness of these policies and
their impact on income distribution. First, the institutional and
economic environment of Brazil is outlined and then a model is
presented through which rural credit is analyzed. Next, the impact
of these credit programs on income distribution is discussed.
Empirical evidence and a summary of results conclude this report.
In Brazil, agriculture is considered a high priority and economic
policy continues to rely upon subsidized interest rates to induce
farming investment. Brazilian officials contend that this policy
allows them to control domestic prices over the short term, while
simultaneously improving the growth outlook for the farming sec-
tor, which will attract private investment. The author suggest that this
is an incorrect approach. He claims that borrowers will always
allocate their investment resources in those areas where the high-


est rates of return are available. Farmers will accept these conces-
sionary loans, but they will transfer a maximum amount of their
investment funds to the most profitable enterprises. Due to import
controls, which increase farm input costs, and price controls, the
agricultural sector does not always promise the highest return. The
substitution effect for alternate investments must also be consid-
ered. Here the effectiveness of credit policies in determining
where investments will be directed depends upon such borrower
characteristics as farm size or profitability. Credit programs in
Brazil might be more effective if higher financial transaction costs,
which would inhibit the attractiveness of alternative investments,
were established. Concerning income distribution, the author con-
tends that commercial banks prefer to supply a larger share of
rural credit to borrowers that represent the smallest possible risk.
These are also individuals who have the lowest transaction costs
for alternative investing. Therefore, the wealthy large farmers
benefit the most from these policies, which in fact increase income
disparities. A bibliography of 14 English- and Spanish-language
sources (1956-79) is appended.
AID/ta-BMA-7 931116900

091 PN-AAH-362
A MODEL OF THE POLITICAL ECONOMY OF
AGRICULTURAL CREDIT: THE CASE OF BOLIVIA
Ladman, J.R.; Tinnermeier, R.L.
Ohio State University, ,Department of Agricultural Economics and
Rural Sociologyd Rural Sociology.
1979, 41 p.
Prepared for the Second International Conference on Rural Fi-
nance Research Issues, Paper No. 19
Agricultural credit has traditionally been the cornerstone of most
agricultural development programs in LDCs. This document con-
tends that although these programs are economically oriented,
they are also used as an instrument for consolidating political
support. A model of the political economy of agricultural credit is
examined and applied to Bolivia. Conclusions and policy implica-
tions are then drawn. The model demonstrates that under typical
LDC conditions of direct government control of financial institu-
tions, concessionary interest rates, defaulting, and inflation, credit
is used for both economic and political reasons. The Bolivian case
clearly illustrates this point, especially during the period between
1970 and 1978 following a military coup supported primarily by
the private business and large commercial farming sectors of
Santa Cruz. Following the coup, concessionary agricultural
credit to this area rapidly increased. The Agricultural Bank of
Bolivia (BAB) increased its loans to this region to a level five times
greater than that existing during the 1960's. The Bank's conces-
sionary rates in 1973 were 15% below rates charged for other
commercial loans. This situation was not new for the BAB. Since
1942, it has been assaulted by foreign critics charging that
political loans had harmed the Bank's financial standing. In an
attempt to alleviate this problem, the BAB has been reorganized
four times. Finally, in 1979, the BAB was declared bankrupt due to
loan defaulting, with 80% of the delinquencies coming from the
Santa Cruz region. After 1976, another bank, the State Bank


ARDA Vo 9, No. 1 February 1981











GP ECONOMICS


(BDE), which had been directing 60% of its loans towards agri-
culture, attempted to eliminate political lending from its activities.
Both banks are government controlled. Foreign donors have
contributed to the bank by promulgating concessionary interest
rates and by covering bank losses caused by defaulting. De-
creasing defaults through legal means is the best way to correct
this problem, since raising rates has major political costs. A
bibliography of 18 Spanish and English language sources
(1966-79) is included.
AID/ta-BMA-7 931116900

092 PN-AAH-421
HUMAN LABOR USE IN EXISTING AND
PROSPECTIVE TECHNOLOGIES OF THE SEMI-ARID
TROPICS OF PENINSULAR INDIA
Ghodake, R.D.; Ryan, J.G.; Sarin, R.
International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics
(ICRISAT).
1978, 69 p.
In Economics Program, Progress Report No. 1
Labor is a key resource in the developing world especially in the
semiarid tropical (SAT) regions, where more than 500 million poor
eke out a living. The purpose of this study was to determine the
effect of newly developed land, water, and crop management
technologies on existing labor patterns in a SAT region, in this case
peninsular India. ICRISAT (International Crops Research Institute
for the Semi-Arid Tropics) based its study on six villages, detailing
the use of family and hired labor by 30 farmers in each village.
Interviews were conducted every 2-3 weeks throughout 1975-76.
The sample households were selected using stratified random
sampling, with small, medium, and large farms represented
equally Topics covered in this report include labor patterns and
the size of the farm, composition of labor (male/female, family/
hired workers), seasonality of labor use, regional labor patterns,
and labor patterns with the introduction of watershed-based tech-
nologies. For the most part, there was found to be an inverse
relationship between farm size and total labor use (family and
hired) per unit of land. Increased labor use by small landholders
may be accounted for in one or more of three ways: (1) an increase
in the intensity of cropping; (2) adoption of a more labor-intensive
cropping pattern; and (3) greater use of labor per hectare under
individual crops. There was a positive correlation between hired
labor and farm size. With increasing prosperity, many members of
wealthy families tended to drop out of the labor force particu-
larly women and children. Nevertheless, the extent of labor hired
by small farmers was by no means insignificant. Authors conclude
that the area's existing irrigation systems (tank and well) have
tremendous employment-creating potential, and that the introduc-
tion of new technologies would result in competition for labor at
strategic times in crop-growing seasons. Report includes a bibli-
ography (43 publications, 1956-78).


AID/ta-G-1421


093 PN-AAH-490
JOBS FOR WOMEN IN RURAL INDUSTRY AND
SERVICES
Dixon, R.B.
1979, 58 p.
Prepared for an Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) Reform
and Rural Development
Increasing landlessness, in combination with other economic and
demographic forces such as increased mechanization and de-
clines in farm size and productivity, has created a compelling need
in most LDCs to expand nonagricultural employment in rural
areas. Since women are more vulnerable to land eviction, earn
less, and are more likely to be unemployed than men, rural devel-
opment and agrarian reform policies are needed to design sup-
port systems to raise the productivity of female labor; to transform
subsistence activities into income-generating ones and to create
new employment opportunities for women. This paper provides
statistics on female labor in 56 countries and proposes strategies
for mobilizing rural women for employment. Women constitute
20% or less of the paid labor force in 20 of the 56 countries; as low
as 4-5% in some countries. This underrepresentation perpetuates
their economic and social dependency and retards development.
Strategies for expanding nonagricultural employment for rural
women are twofold: (1) national measures to promote investments
in rural areas, encourage rural economics diversification, and
correct other economic imbalances undermining rural develop-
ment; and (2) grass roots measures to organize employment for
rural women in nonagricultural production, sales, service, and
administrative/professional positions. The report concludes with a
6-step strategy to create employment for rural women: (1) identify
groups of women who most need income-generating employ-
ment; (2) define the range of women's economic activities with a
view toward raising their output and income-generating capacity;
(3) locate indigenous social networks around which they could be
mobilized; (4) establish sources of credit, technical assistance,
and training; (5) determine technological needs to reduce domes-
tic burdens; and (6) identify and overcome other cultural and
structural obstacles that deny women control over the products of
their labor. Footnotes and a 103-item bibliography (1965-79) are
appended.
AID/otr-147-79-52


931097200


ARDA Vol. 9, No. 1 February 1981












EDUCATION "'-3


094 PN-AAG-831
THE IMPACT OF 25 TELEVISION PROGRAMS ON
"WATER", PRODUCED AND BROADCAST BY THE
IVORIAN OUT-OF-SCHOOL EDUCATION PROJECT
Lenglet, F
1976, 108 p.
Supplemented by PN-AAG-832
In an attempt to help villages of the Ivory Coast deal with the water
supply problem, especially during the dry season, the Ivorian
Out-of-School Education Department (OSED) broadcast a series
of 25 TV programs on water and related issues during the period
November 1974 to December 1975. This report evaluates the
reach and impact of these programs, which constitute one ele-
ment of a massive Ivorian Government information and education
campaign on hygienic and sanitary measures and the use of
drinking water. After a brief introduction, the research design and
the evaluation methodology are outlined. Next, a discussion of the
content of the 25 water programs, their development, and their
outreach is presented. The programs dealt with the basic prob-
lems of water supply, quality, and pollution, the relationship be-
tween contaminated water and disease, and the various possibili-
ties and means to obtain safe(r) drinking water. Three types of
objectives were pursued by these programs and by discussion
sessions led by local animators following each broadcast: (1)
sensitization and information; (2) understanding and learning; (3)
incitement to action. The water programs reached a considerable
audience varying from 3,500 to 31,200 spectators per program.
Following this, the impact of the program is discussed. The water
programs created awareness of problems related to water and of
solutions for the issue of a safe water supply. It is certain that
people acquired new knowledge about health practices and
started implementing them. The major obstacles to a real impact
of the "water series" lie in the lack of local organization, the lack of
access to material and organizational resources at the local level,
the lack of cooperation of the administrative authorities, the lack of
communication support, and the strength of traditional customs
and beliefs. Finally, a summary and conclusions are presented.
The authors recommend that the number of communal actions
proposed in the TV programs be limited; that appropriate minis-
tries, agencies, and private organizations cooperate more actively
in program preparation and follow-up; and that the OSED promote
the creation of local Tele-Clubs as a nucleus of development
actions.


AID/afr-C-1158


095 PN-AAG-832
VISITS TO TWENTY-THREE VILLAGES TO
DETERMINE THE IMPACT OF THE WATER SERIES
PRODUCED BY THE OUT-OF-SCHOOL TV
DEPARTMENT
Grant, S. Pierre, S.T
1975, 97 p.
Supplemented by PN-AAG-831
In an attempt to help villages of the Ivory Coast deal with the water
supply problem, especially during the dry season, the Ivorian
Out-of-School Education Department (OSED) broadcast a series
of 25 TV programs on water and related issues during the period
November 1974 to December 1975. This report analyzes how the
school animators, who run the adult educational television (ETV)
discussions, and villagers react to such series broadcasts. The
water programs represented the first Ivorian adult ETV series. Both
mailed questionnaires and interviews with animators and selected
villagers in 23 villages were used in the analysis. Major problems
relating to the programs include the lack of lighting and space in
the animation classrooms; the lack of understanding of program
contents; irregularities of the broadcasts (due mainly to frequent
animator reassignments, long technical breakdowns, and modifi-
cation of broadcast times and program subjects); failure of the
animators to adequately communicate program times to the vil-
lagers; the practice of viewing ETV programs outside of the anima-
tion sessions, thus missing the ensuing discussion which is sup-
posed to promote learning and related community or personal
action; lack of ethnic balance in the programs; lack of relevance in
ETV topics; the lack of pay for animators; the lack of interest in ETV
on the part of village leaders; the lack of village visits by OSED
staff; cultural/traditional barriers making the school teacher a very
ineffective and inappropriate animator; and lack of cooperation of
the appropriate government agencies in program preparation and
follow-up. Suggestions for improving these situations are included
in each case. Recommendations were made to the OSED in 11
different areas, including assisting villagers in contacting appro-
priate government agencies and offices; performing field demon-
strations to augment the TV programs; furnishing kerosene lamps
to animators; maintaining a stricter schedule for broadcast dates
and times; obtaining a more equitable distribution regarding the
ethnic group and language of the program actors; and respond-
ing more quickly and more satisfactorily to questions asked by the
spectators and animators.


698038300 AID/afr-C-1158


698038300


ARDA Vo. 9, No. 1 February 1981












'"f EDUCATION


096 PN-AAG-833
"TELE POUR TOUS" IN RURAL IVORY COAST:
AUDIENCE, IMPACT, PERCEPTIONS, REPORT OF
TWO SURVEYS CONDUCTED IN JANUARY AND
APRIL 1977
Etaix, M.; Lenglet, F
1977, 250 p.
The Ministry of Primary and Television Education of the Ivory Coast
produces a series of nonformal education broadcasts entitled
"Tele pour Tous" (TV for Everyone TPT). This report discusses
the results of two surveys designed to assess the impact of TPT
programs on rural audiences. After initial chapters explaining the
research objectives, outlining the survey methodologies, and de-
scribing the characteristics of the sample villages and individual
respondents, the central issues of TV watching in general and TPT
viewing in particular are discussed. At present, only about 10% of
the rural adult population is exposed to the TPT programs, and a
large number of these TV/TPT spectators are likely to be more
interested in general TV programs than in the TPT programming.
The surveys showed that there is no significant regular TPT view-
ing audience and that even when the village schools are open,
have TV sets, and attract villagers to the TPT programs, little of the
discussion (animation) which is supposed to follow such pro-
gramming is adequately conducted. The animation sessions are
characterized by a formal primary school pedagogy which does
not induce collective decisionmaking or action. This last point
forms a partial explanation for the lack of impact discussed in
chapter six. Important characteristics of TPT broadcasts which
positively influence viewer sensitization are (1) relevancy for the
potential audience; (2) attractive form with which the spectator
can identify; and (3) a large number of broadcasts and/or reruns in
a sequential order. However, data show that even with sensitiza-
tion, few actions ever result from watching and discussing TPT
programs. Chapter seven discusses the fact that almost all of the
TV/TPT spectators have a positive attitude toward TV as a medium
of instruction. Finally, the authors conclude that the Ivorian educa-
tional television project works, though minimally and inefficiently.
Eleven recommendations are made on reorganizing TPT pro-
gramming, increasing interest in TPT, and reorganizing the recep-
tion structure. Thirteen appendices on various project-related top-
ics and a 29-item bibliography of French- and English-language
references (1966-77) are included.
AID/afr-C-1158 698038300

097 PN-AAG-834
RURAL ADULT EDUCATION AND THE ROLE OF MASS
MEDIA: A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF FOUR
PROJECTS
Lenglet, F; McAnany, E.G.
1977, 66 p.
Many rural adult education projects use modern mass media as
an important component. This paper is a follow-up to an effort to
assist decisionmakers in the Ivory Coast in evaluating the Out of
School (nonformal) Educational Television (OSTV) program. This


paper compares the OSTV program with the Radio Study Cam-
paigns (RSCs) in Tanzania, the Radio Schools of Santa Maria
(RSMs) in the Dominican Republic, and the Nonformal Education
Module in Guatemala. The paper begins with a short examina-
tion of the external or social benefit of rural education pro-
grams in general (as opposed to the internal benefit to the individ-
ual participants) and the reasons why programs wi-h mass com-
munication elements have received so much attention within the
LDCs. The authors contend that the extension of ecucation/infor-
mation/communication systems must be understood as a form of
state intervention which is not only development oriented, but also
political and ideological. The next section provides brief descrip-
tions of each project and a comparative analysis of tiese projects
based on seven categories: objectives; organizat on; selection
and training of personnel and recruitment of participants; uses of
media technology; feedback and evaluation systems; effects and
impact; and internal and external constraints. In terms of internal
effectiveness, the authors classify the four projects in terms of the
proportion of their target group reached and the impact of the
programs on their audience. They consider external effectiveness
to be a more important consideration, however, since all four
projects are intended to attain other than immediate educational or
informational objectives. The Tanzanian RSCs serve to create a
permanent state of ideological awareness and mobilization to
combat the causes of unemployment. The Ivorian OSTV's indirect
political effect is judged to be more important than its direct
educational effect. The Dominican RSM's external effects could
be negative, increasing both the likelihood of a rural "brain drain"
and of exacerbated urban unemployment and downward pres-
sure on urban wages. A 44-item bibliography of English-, French-,
and Spanish-language references (1967-77) is included.
AID/afr-C-1158 698038300


098


PN-AAG-835


THE RECEPTION AND ANIMATION OF
OUT-OF-SCHOOL EDUCATIONAL TELEVISION
PROGRAMS IN THE IVORY COAST: A CAST STUDY OF
FOUR VILLAGES
Beneveniste, A.
43 p.
Rural animation, as a global approach to development, neces-
sarily includes the three successive states of informing the public,
educating the public, and organizing the public for action. This
report represents an English summary of a French-language study
to describe qualitatively the global animation process as applied
in the Ivory Coast. It is based on four village case studies, and
assesses public awareness of, opinions about, and reception of
the Ivorian "Tele pour Tous" (TV for Everyone TPT) nonformal
education broadcasts and their degree of congruence with the
sociocultural realities of each village. After a general introduction
to rural animation in the Ivory Coast and a discussion of the study's
methodology, case studies of four "animated" villages are pre-
sented. In each case, discussion is structured around four main
areas: the flow of information in the village about the TPT broad-
casts; the external and internal factors influencing public interest


ARDA Vol. 9, No. 1 February 1981










































A rural "animator" reinforces Instructional TV lessons to Ivory Coast school children.


and attendance; the typical operation of a single TPT broadcast;
and the comprehension and acceptance of the broadcast mes-
sages. According to the results of the survey, it is probably safe to
say that less than 5% of the total population in these four villages
had ever seen a TPT broadcast and that, in general, those who
had been spectators have no social or political power in their
villages. In all four villages observed, there was very little orga-
nized effort to make sure that the villagers knew about the occur-
rence of the TPT broadcasts and understood the scope and
reasons for this program of nonformal education. The use of
schools as a locale for the meetings and the use of school teach-
ers as animators insured the failure of the program as a model of
community activation for innovation or development, as teachers
in the rural regions are seen as having no influence on matters
external to the school. The author concludes that such broadcasts
will remain but a marginal force in the task of rural animation until
such time as they reach those in the village who have the social or
political power needed to make decisions or initiate activities.
AID/afr-C-1158 698038300


099


PN-AAG-836


COST ANALYSIS OF NON-FORMAL ETV SYSTEMS: A
CASE STUDY OF THE "EXTRA-SCOLAIRE" SYSTEM
IN THE IVORY COAST
Klees, S.J.
1977, 127 p.
The Extra/Scolaire (E/S) educational television (ETV) system of the
Ivory Coast produces television programming dealing with a wide


variety of topics concerning agriculture, politics, economics, and
culture, directed primarily toward rural adult audiences. This
paper summarizes and analyzes the societal costs incurred by the
E/S system. An introductory section presents the assumptions and
limitations of the "opportunity cost" approach to cost analysis and
describes the structure of the E/S system, the context in which it
operates, and the extent to which it is utilized. The second section
provides a specific estimation of the costs of the various E/S
system components: administration, program production, pro-
gram transmission, support materials production and distribution,
program reception, and system evaluation. The estimate is based
on data for the 1975-76 operating year, including amortized start-
up and capital costs. Costs are estimated under two broad alter-
native assumptions reflecting in part the difference between build-
ing upon existing formal school system ETV capabilities (the
Ivorian case) and starting from scratch (the international audience
perspective). Aspects of the E/S system which may entail social
costs not captured by monetary price measures are also consid-
ered. Section three translates this annualized cost description of
the E/S system into cost function terms in order to view the poten-
tial cost impact of various policy decisions. The authors found the
marginal costs of expanding the proportion of repeated broad-
casts, the training given to animators (discussion-leaders), the
production of support materials, and the evaluation effort to be low
relative to total costs. They recommend that such options be
pursued if they are deemed to yield significant social benefits. The
authors conclude by indicating that some observers view the
Ivorian E/S system as a straightforward provision of useful informa-
tion to rural adults, while others question whether its passive
instructional mode and lack of an integrated accompanying infra-


ARDA Vol.9, No.1 February 1981












EDUCATION


structure can really aid in Ivorian rural development. Various ap-
pendices and a 35-item bibliography of French- and English-
language references (1966-77) are included.
AID/afr-C-1158 698038300

100 PN-AAG-837
AN ADMINISTRATIVE HISTORY OF OUT-OF-SCHOOL
EDUCATIONAL TELEVISION IN THE IVORY COAST
Grant, S.
1977, 104 p.
The Out-of-School (nonformal) Television (OSTV) program of the
Ivory Coast is producing a series of educational broadcasts enti-
tled "Tele Pour Tous" (TV for Everyone TPT). This study ex-
amines the basic organization, management, and evolution of the
department producing the TPT broadcasts. An initial chapter de-
scribes the methodology of this study, and mentions five similar
studies which might interest the reader. Basic background infor-
mation on the TPT project is presented in chapter two, with sec-
tions on target audiences; general program objectives and poli-
cies; film production, transmission, and reception; content and
type of TV programs produced; collaboration with government
agencies; and financing. Chapter three, which contains the re-
port's principal analysis, examines in detail six key decisions
regarding the OSTV program and their consequences. Conclu-
sions consequent upon this analysis are presented in the fourth
chapter as follows: (1) It has been an uphill battle to place and
maintain the out-of-school department in prominent national visi-
bility. (2) Collaboration with other development institutions in de-
signing, producing, and promoting out-of-school films has shown
many indications of breaking down. (3) and (4) Both the use of
television as the principal communications medium and the
practice of broadcasting in the French language have de-
creased the potential reach and impact of adult education ef-
forts, neither usage allowing programs to reach directly their
main target audience the mass of poor rural farmers. (5)
Teachers turned out to be disappointingly ineffective discus-
sion-leaders (animators). (6) Most of the key positions in the
department are still occupied by French advisors, with the train-
ing of Ivorians at higher administration levels having proven
unsatisfactory. The authors also mention that, although TPT is
now a well-known program, it is accepted more as entertainment
than as an intrinsically valuable means of educating the popu-
lace. Finally, an attempt is made to place the out-of-school pro-
gram within the context of recently enunciated national planning
strategies. Various appendices and a 37-item bibliography of
French- and English-language references (1967-77) are also
included.
AID/afr-C-1158 698038300


101 PN-AAG-838
A COST ANALYSIS ON INSTRUCTIONAL TELEVISION
IN THE IVORY COAST
Klees, S.J.; Jamison, D.T
1976, 70 p.
In an effort to improve the quality and relevance of primary school-
ing, the Ivory Coast has initiated extensive educational reform
involving heavy reliance on a system of instructional television
(ITV) and a substantial effort to improve the training of classroom
teachers. This paper provides a detailed cost analysis of the ITV
component of the Ivorian educational reform. The Ivorian ITV
system began broadcasting to the first grade in 1971, reaching
about 21,000 students. Expanding geographically as well as by
grade level, the 1976 program will reach about400,000 students in
grades 1-6. Plans for 1980 call for all schools in the nation to utilize
the ITV system with a projected enrollment of almost 700,000 stu-
dents, each viewing a total of about 190 hours of program-
ming annually Total project expenditures for 1976 will run about $10
million (in 1972 U.S. dollars), increasing to about $15 million by
1991. As a result of substantial foreign aid, the Ivorian Government
paid only about one-half of the project costs in 1976 a percentage
which will increase rapidly until 1981 when the Ivory Coast is
expected to assume complete system financing. In total costs, the
Ivorian system is perhaps the most expensive of any reasonably
similar effort. Part of this is due to relatively high production costs,
but much more important factors are the high costs of reception
system power (given the general lack of electrification, about 85%
of the classroom TV receivers operate on expensive battery
power) and maintenance. On a unit cost basis, however, the
Ivorian ITV system costs fall to a reasonable level in comparison
with other ITV projects. Both cost figures are about 70% higher
than estimates obtained by a UNESCO technician at the start of
the project. The authors conclude that, while the system is rather
expensive, significant economies of scale can be achieved if the
system expands as planned. Presently, no sound basis for evalu-
ating the pedagogical, social, or economic worth of the investment
in Ivorian educational reform exists. A brief section on the marginal
costs of system expansion and a 19-item list of French and English
language references (1969-76) are included,
AID/afr-C-1158 698038300

102 PN-AAG-839
ETV PROGRAM PRODUCTION IN THE IVORY COAST
Evans, S.; Klees, S.J.
1976, 82 p.
In 1971, the Ivory Coast implemented a nationwide educational
system reform designed to improve the reach and quality of edu-
cational offerings. A primary component of this reform is the inten-
sive utilization of educational television (ETV) in primary schools.
This report evaluates the Ivory Coast's system of ETV program
production. Plans for broadcast and production output from the
ETV Complex in Bouake have been consistently more ambitious
than achievements Comparing planning documents to actual
results indicates that the system is presently operating at only 60%


ARDA Vol. 9, No. 1 February 1981












EDUCATION


efficiency. The long run average production costs are estimated
under three different assumptions, one representing the present
situation and the others positing efficiency improvements. In any
case, the Ivorian project seems relatively expensive when com-
pared with other projects, although the large actual and projected
student enrollments reduce the per student costs to reasonable
levels. The different stages in the process of program production
and the interactions between the three principal actors in the
process the producer, the printed support materials writer, and
the director are described in detail. This forms an essential
background to the consideration of four key program production
issues. The system lacks sufficient organization and planning to
ensure that even the most straightforward necessities of program
production are accomplished. There has been inadequate train-
ing of Ivorians to take over the management and operation of the
ETV Complex, planned for 1980. Efforts to set up a feedback and
evaluation system have been impeded by the heavy demands of
the production schedule. The fourth issue, film versus videotape,
is nonproblematic, but is included for the benefit of other LDCs.
The authors conclude that the basic ingredients for a good ETV
program production system are in place, and now that the initial
coverage of the full six grades of primary school is almost com-
plete, more time should be devoted to making improvements in
the efficiency with which the system operates before the system is
further expanded. A 20-item bibliography of French- and English-
language references (1967-76) is included.
AID/afr-C-1158 698038300

103 PN-AAG-840
POST-PRIMARY OPTIONS IN THE IVORY COAST
Daniere, A.; Orivel, F
1977, 164 p.
The post-primary education (PPE) system in the Ivory Coast faces
a considerable challenge: the country already has one of the
world's highest expenditures on education as a percentage of
GNP and enrollment will increase by some 300-500% by 1990.
This study is intended to assist Ivorian authorities in the planning of
PPE over the next decade. It is divided into two parts, the first
projecting social outcomes of alternative scopes and contents of
PPE, and the second considering alternative options in the tech-
nology of PPE. Part one begins with an analysis of the impact of
alternative patterns of secondary student flow on social outcomes
of interest. Curriculum options in complementary education (in-
tended for all eligible students not enrolled in secondary schools)
are then examined. Following this, the scheduling of access to
PPE, including the control of repetitions, is discussed. Finally,
some problems concerning the transition of pupils educated in TV
primary schools to secondary schools are treated. Part two intro-
duces the technological options available in the provision of sec-
ondary and complementary education, with concentration on tra-
ditional and media technologies of institutional, community, and
extension education. Based on the three different classes of op-
tions discussed above (those specifying alternative PPE chan-
nels, those affecting the student flow through PPE, and those
affecting the efficiency and cost of providing PPE), a restricted set
of policy options is identified, each made up of vectors of one


compatible option from each of the three classes. The final chapter
projects public expenditures for these various PPE policies. The
study concludes that the resource mobilization required to meet
PPE enrollment objectives will strain Ivorian capabilities, irrespec-
tive of its financial implications, and urges the choice of policy to
be limited to the less expensive options. Other recommendations
include that parallel entries into the first cycle of secondary edu-
cation be reduced or rationalized, that equivalent admission rules
be imposed on pupils of traditional and TV primary systems, and
that substantial repetitions be allowed in preparing for the PPE
entrance examination.
AID/afr-C-1158 698038300


104 PN-AAH-021
LEARNING RESOURCE CENTER ECONOMIC
ANALYSIS: A TRAINING MODULE
Blair, P.; Swett, F
San Jose State University.
1978, 93 p.
LDC educational planners are currently examining the economic
feasibility of developing and/or utilizing learning resource centers
(LRCs) for community-based education programs. This manual
shows how and when to apply four common methods of economic
analysis (benefit/cost comparison, cost-effectiveness, cost-
efficiency, and cost-utility estimation) for this purpose. It is pre-
pared in workbook format, with illustrative examples and exercises
to demonstrate the use of these analytical techniques in situations
commonly faced in the field. The manual is specifically designed
to enable the user to: (1) select the appropriate analytical tool; (2)
obtain the needed data; (3) carry out the calculations; (4) utilize the
results and implications to make recommendations to LRC deci-
sionmakers; (5) convey the study's limitations; and (6) indicate the
scope for improvement through implementing the recommenda-
tions resulting from the analysis. First, LRC project costs (inputs)
and benefits (outputs) are distinguished and identified. The impor-
tance of subjective perceptions is noted and a distinction is drawn
between monetary (dollar) and non-monetary (psychic) costs and
benefits. A sample LRC cost/benefit balance sheet is provided
and is discussed in relation to such a center's scale of operation.
There follows a discussion on selecting the appropriate analytical
approach based on the nature of the expected benefits. The
differences between the four methods is briefly stated and these
are reinforced with several short exercises. This information is
expanded upon in a subsequent section, where specific eco-
nomic analyses of LRCs are presented utilizing each of the four
methods, where appropriate. In each case, the text is liberally
supplemented with exercises to encourage active reader partici-
pation. The manual concludes with a brief epilogue concerning
the economic analysis "uncertainty principle", pointing out that
only two of the three factors of time, money, and accomplishment
can be accurately specified in advance of the completion of any
project. A 6-item glossary of vocabulary is appended.
AID/la-G-1169 598057300
Also available in Spanish: PN-AAH-022, 97 p.


ARDA Vol. 9, No. 1 February 1981











EDUCATION


105 PN-AAH-026
RESOURCE INVENTORY FOR LEARNING RESOURCE
CENTER-BASED COMMUNITY EDUCATION
SYSTEMS: SIMPLIFIED INDEX ADAPTED FOR JUNE
1979
Ofiesh Associates, Inc.
1979, 188 p.
In 1976, A.I.D. initiated a project to implement a model learning
resource center (LRC) for use in community based education
systems (BCES) in Latin America. The resource inventory pro-
vided in the present document is designed to serve as a model of a
materials filing and retrieval system for use by LRC-BCES adminis-
trators in locating and obtaining teaching/learning materials for
community education programs in rural Latin American locations.
Approximately 800 entries offer brief descriptions of books, work-
books, textbooks, guides, films, cassettes, and records. Based
upon the needs assessment and feedback from potential users,
this list of written and audiovisual materials covers 74 subject
areas pertaining to health, home and personal care, agriculture
and forestry, crop production and marketing, animal husbandry,
organization and management, construction, education, and
technical trades. The materials, dating from 1952 to 1977, are
either in English or Spanish, and some are in both languages. All
entries were carefully evaluated. Materials finally accepted were
judged on the basis of six criteria: (1) subject matter; (2) suitability
to the knowledge level of the target audience; (3) language; (4)
reasonability of cost; (5) availability; and (6) uniqueness (not a
duplicate of other materials). The names and mailing addresses of
376 distributors in the U.S., Latin America, and Spain are listed.
AID/la-G-1169 598057300
Also available in English and Spanish: PN-AAH-025,307 p.; Span-
ish: PN-AAH-027, 143 p.

106 PN-AAH-142
TRAINING INSTITUTIONS OFFERING
COMMUNICATIONS COURSES TO DEVELOPING
COUNTRY PERSONNEL
Moulton, J.; Spain, P.
Stanford University, Institute for Communication Research.
1978, 350 p.
In anticipation of an increasing demand for training in develop-
ment communications and educational technology for personnel
from developing countries, A.I.D. commissioned an overview of
U.S. and European institutions offering graduate training in these
areas. This document presents this overview in two volumes.
Information provided in these volumes goes beyond that generally
available in university catalogues. Course orientations and faculty
backgrounds particularly germane to developing country needs
are highlighted, although no judgement is made regarding the
quality of course offerings. Emphasis is placed on training in
broadcasting and in social science approaches to communica-
tion and development. Journalism training or training in the engi-
neering aspects of communications are excluded. Volume one is
an annotated listing of 70 institutions that either presently offer, or


have the potential to offer, communication for development train-
ing. Institutions are listed in three categories, namely, U.S. univer-
sities, U.S. non-academic institutions, and Canadian and Western
European organizations. Each institution is described briefly in
terms of programs relevant to this survey, faculty and student
activities, and interest expressed in further cooperation with A.I.D.
Volume two provides detailed descriptions of 15 of the U.S. univer-
sities listed in volume one. The history, staff experience, and
student body composition are discussed for the following univer-
sities: Cornell, Florida State, Texas, Wisconsin, Michigan State,
San Francisco State, Stanford, Syracuse, Indiana, Chicago, Ha-
waii, Massachusetts, Pittsburgh, Southern California; and the
East-West Communications Institute in Hawaii. These universities
provide graduate training in development communications, with
emphasis on such areas as research and policy planning, elec-
tronic media, and instructional technology Both volumes are part
of an A.I.D. series of studies on the use of education technology
and communications for development.
AID/ta-C-1472
107 PN-AAH-186
BASIC EDUCATION IN EGYPT: REPORT OF THE JOINT
EGYPTIAN-AMERICAN SURVEY TEAM
Human Resources Management, Inc.; Joint Egyptian-American
Survey Team.
1979, 273 p.
A joint Egyptian-American team conducted a 3-month survey to
identify the strengths and weaknesses of Egypt's educational
system. This document, the result of that survey, describes the
history, infrastructure, administration, and finance of Egypt's edu-
cational system in 11 technical reports. The inherent social, eco-
nomic, and geographical differences among Egyptian families are
discussed. These socio-economic disparities are prevalent in all
levels of Egypt's formal educational system. The low enrollment
and high dropout rate in Egyptian schools, and the illiteracy
among a major proportion of Egypt's population are also dis-
cussed. Supplementary school services have not been able to
rectify this problem, as indicated by reports on special education,
nutrition, and health services. Improvements in these areas would
further tax the physical and financial resources of the educa-
tional system. Several reports indicate severe shortages in text-
books, equipment, buildings and trained teachers. The estab-
lishment and operation of Egypt's schools is the responsibility of
the Ministry of Education (MOE). A report on the organization and
functions of MOE reveals deficiencies in the Ministry's educational
planning, policy formation and research capabilities. A final tech-
nical report discusses Egypt's budgetary process, with particular
attention given to educational finance. Allocation, structural, and
technical constraints within the educational budget are examined.
Strategies designed to address problem areas are suggested and
programs requiring external sources and expertise are listed.
School enrollment and curriculum statistics, planned activities of
the National Council for Education Research, and a list of survey
team members are included. The authors recommend that when
evaluating budgetary and program decisions a cost-benefit
and/or an internal rate of return approach should be used, but only


ARDA Vol. 9, No. 1 February 1981











EDUCATION

after existing data and data handling systems are improved. In the
short term, MOE should set up a performance budgeting system
to measure the effectiveness of ongoing programs. Over the long-
term, a nationwide school finance plan, using a scientific equaliza-
tion formula, would equalize educational opportunities throughout
Egypt.
AID/afr-C-1198 263000500

108 PN-AAH-368
THE BRAZIL CHEMISTRY PROGRAM: AN
INTERNATIONAL EXPERIMENT IN SCIENCE
EDUCATION
National Academy of Sciences, National Research Council, Board
on Science and Technology for International Development.
1979, 27 p.
The National Research Council of Brazil and the U.S. National
Academy of Sciences (USNAS) carried out a 7-year experimental
program in postgraduate research and teaching in chemistry. The
objectives of the program were to develop a Brazilian research
capability in certain key fields of chemistry and to stimulate long-
term cooperative research collaboration in chemistry between
Brazilian and American scientists. In this document, the USNAS
assesses the program, which proved truly cooperative both in
spirit and in fact. Professors and institutions and joint projects were
established in various fields at the University of Rio de Janiero and
at the University of Sao Paulo. The objectives of the program were
met, but with qualifications. Many graduate degrees (76 in all),
both on the Masters and Ph.D. levels, were awarded as a result of
this project. Brazilian research capability was developed in most
of the target fields of chemistry and most of the projects have
continued since the formal end of the program. New methods of
teaching, learning, and addressing scientific problems were de- -.
veloped and a valuable international dimension was acquired.
The program also served a valuable purpose in stimulating grea-
ter exchange and cooperation among faculty members of the host
chemistry departments. Although large numbers were not in-
volved, the program mechanism enabled a group of young .,
American chemists to become involved in Brazil's scientific work.
Some problems did exist, however. The project terminated abrupt- A student pact the technqu of cheml research.
ly, causing disruptions in ongoing projects. A gradual phaseout
might have been preferable. In addition, Brazilian support for
research and teaching in chemistry has dwindled in the last few
years and this has caused difficulty in supporting ongoing ex-
change between scientists. Lessons learned from this experiment
include the following: (1) strong educational institutions should be
the focal points for graduate teaching and research; (2) host
country commitment needs to be strong and long-range; and (3)
programs should be linked to national development needs.
AID/ta-C-1433 931122300


ARDA Vol. 9, No. 1 February 191












EDUCATION


109 PN-AAH-604
THE COMPARATIVE FUNCTIONALITY OF FORMAL
AND NON-FORMAL EDUCATION FOR WOMEN: FINAL
REPORT
Derryck, V.L.
1979, 194 p.
With limited resources and competing priorities, development and
education planners are debating which educational mode (formal
or nonformal) will assure the greatest benefits to women in LDCs in
terms of increased incomes, greater control over their lives, and
more influence in community and familial decisionmaking. The
nonformal system offers short-term, flexible, and inexpensive train-
ing in basic literacy, numeracy, and job skills, but it is plagued by
lack of status and specific linkages to available employment op-
portunities. Though formal education has years of tradition and
prestige behind it, it is costly, diminishing in quality, and inacces-
sible to the vast majority of the rural poor. This final report presents
the findings of a study to determine which educational mode is
more functional for accelerating the integration of LDC women into
development efforts. First, the study's parameters, terms, and
definitions are briefly described. Next, a historical view of Ameri-


can and colonial African education is provided to determine its
relevance to the developing world. The education models indi-
cated that female education benefits national development. Lit-
erate women contribute to development by participating in the
labor force, molding attitudinal development in children, and by
being members of an informed electorate. An overview of the
current status of women in formal and nonformal education reveals
that women face discrimination in education in terms of access,
enrollments, and career guidance. A renewed emphasis on fe-
male literacy is advocated. Political constraints to equal economic
opportunity in female education are identified and the prospects
for change within the near future appear to be small. The major
suggested recommendation is the strong encouragement of for-
mal education for females aged 6-14 and nonformal skills training
for those over age 14. Conclusions are drawn that women should
be educated because: (1) an illiterate population hampers devel-
opment; (2) it is costly and counterproductive not to educate them;
(3) increased education causes decreased fertility; and (4) it is
politically advisable. Footnotes and an 88-item bibliography
(1957-78) are appended.
AID/otr-147-78-14


ARDA Vol. 9, No. 1 February 1981











HEALTH I


110 PN-AAG-986
HEALTH CARE TRAINING MANUAL FOR THE
VILLAGE HEALTH PROMOTER: INSTRUCTOR'S
MANUAL
Project Concern International.
1978, 238 p.
Trainee's manual: PN-AAG-987, 342 p.
Rural health aide programs are one of the most cost-efficient
means utilized by LDC governments to improve the health condi-
tions in the rural areas of their country. This manual was developed
to assist instructors in training volunteer village health promoters. It
begins with a few general tips for the instructor and then presents
36 short training units on how to treat the most common illnesses
and methods for preventing many of them. Each unit is structured
similarly, with a statement of its objectives, suggested activities,
review questions concerning a preceding lesson, sources for
further information concerning the topic at hand, and specific
suggestions for the instructor. Some sections also contain short
plays, audio-tutorials, and filmstrips to reinforce the message
presented. The instructor's manual is divided into two parts, the
first outlining the 26-unit basic training course for village health
promoters, and the second presenting 10 suggested units for
additional training. The basic course contains units on: what
causes sickness; keeping clean; sanitation; teaching the village
about health; food; introduction to health problems; diarrhea; fe-
ver; colds; cough; ear problems; malaria; conjunctivitis; impetigo;
ringworm; abscesses and boils; open sores and wounds; burns;
toothache; constipation; worms; scabies; venereal disease; con-
clusion to health problems; and clinics for children under 5 years
of age. The additional training units cover: fractures and shock;
injections and immunization; tuberculosis; measels; whooping
cough; family planning; leprosy; hepatitis; tetanus; and rabies.


Four appendices contain lists of: (1) teaching suggestions; (2)
audiovisual aids (and distributors); (3) newsletters which regularly
contain useful information on low-cost teaching aids and articles
on new developments in education, health, sanitation, agriculture,
etc.; and (4) a list of resource books written in English, Spanish, or
French.


AID/pha-G-1101


932007000


111 PN-AAH-262
CONDUCTING A RURAL HEALTH SURVEY:
EXPERIENCE FROM THE VILLAGE HEALTH SURVEY,
DANFA PROJECT, GHANA
Belcher, D.W.; Wurapa, FK.; Nicholas, D.D.; Kpedekpo, G.M.K.;
Ofosu-Amaah, S.; Derban, L.K.A.; Asante, R.O.
University of California at Los Angeles, School of Public Health;
University of Ghana Medical School.
1975, 81 p.
Danfa Comprehensive Rural Health and Family Planning Project,
Ghana, Monograph Series No. 9
Health surveys of rural populations are valuable in determining
health needs, planning useful health programs, and supplement-
ing misleading health statistics. The literature on methods used to
plan such surveys, however, is scarce. In an effort to remedy this
situation, this report outlines the steps used to plan and pretest a
longitudinal health survey conducted as part of the Danfa Com-
prehensive Rural Health and Family Planning Project in Ghana.
The survey was conducted, in three cycles at two year intervals, in
20 randomly selected villages. Major steps in planning the health
survey were setting objectives, organizing the survey, and prepar-
ing background materials. Extensive protests were carried out in
order to test survey methodology, become acquainted with the
study population, and provide team training under field condi-

A rural health aide vaccinates village children against disease.











HEALTH I


110 PN-AAG-986
HEALTH CARE TRAINING MANUAL FOR THE
VILLAGE HEALTH PROMOTER: INSTRUCTOR'S
MANUAL
Project Concern International.
1978, 238 p.
Trainee's manual: PN-AAG-987, 342 p.
Rural health aide programs are one of the most cost-efficient
means utilized by LDC governments to improve the health condi-
tions in the rural areas of their country. This manual was developed
to assist instructors in training volunteer village health promoters. It
begins with a few general tips for the instructor and then presents
36 short training units on how to treat the most common illnesses
and methods for preventing many of them. Each unit is structured
similarly, with a statement of its objectives, suggested activities,
review questions concerning a preceding lesson, sources for
further information concerning the topic at hand, and specific
suggestions for the instructor. Some sections also contain short
plays, audio-tutorials, and filmstrips to reinforce the message
presented. The instructor's manual is divided into two parts, the
first outlining the 26-unit basic training course for village health
promoters, and the second presenting 10 suggested units for
additional training. The basic course contains units on: what
causes sickness; keeping clean; sanitation; teaching the village
about health; food; introduction to health problems; diarrhea; fe-
ver; colds; cough; ear problems; malaria; conjunctivitis; impetigo;
ringworm; abscesses and boils; open sores and wounds; burns;
toothache; constipation; worms; scabies; venereal disease; con-
clusion to health problems; and clinics for children under 5 years
of age. The additional training units cover: fractures and shock;
injections and immunization; tuberculosis; measels; whooping
cough; family planning; leprosy; hepatitis; tetanus; and rabies.


Four appendices contain lists of: (1) teaching suggestions; (2)
audiovisual aids (and distributors); (3) newsletters which regularly
contain useful information on low-cost teaching aids and articles
on new developments in education, health, sanitation, agriculture,
etc.; and (4) a list of resource books written in English, Spanish, or
French.


AID/pha-G-1101


932007000


111 PN-AAH-262
CONDUCTING A RURAL HEALTH SURVEY:
EXPERIENCE FROM THE VILLAGE HEALTH SURVEY,
DANFA PROJECT, GHANA
Belcher, D.W.; Wurapa, FK.; Nicholas, D.D.; Kpedekpo, G.M.K.;
Ofosu-Amaah, S.; Derban, L.K.A.; Asante, R.O.
University of California at Los Angeles, School of Public Health;
University of Ghana Medical School.
1975, 81 p.
Danfa Comprehensive Rural Health and Family Planning Project,
Ghana, Monograph Series No. 9
Health surveys of rural populations are valuable in determining
health needs, planning useful health programs, and supplement-
ing misleading health statistics. The literature on methods used to
plan such surveys, however, is scarce. In an effort to remedy this
situation, this report outlines the steps used to plan and pretest a
longitudinal health survey conducted as part of the Danfa Com-
prehensive Rural Health and Family Planning Project in Ghana.
The survey was conducted, in three cycles at two year intervals, in
20 randomly selected villages. Major steps in planning the health
survey were setting objectives, organizing the survey, and prepar-
ing background materials. Extensive protests were carried out in
order to test survey methodology, become acquainted with the
study population, and provide team training under field condi-

A rural health aide vaccinates village children against disease.












HEALTH


tions. In addition, a staged series of communications were aimed
at community members and officials in order to obtain a high
response rate to the survey. These initial efforts were successful:
97.5% of the sample population participated in the survey. The
survey clinic operated in four areas: (1) logistics, including order-
ing of supplies and record forms, and providing for transportation;
(2) arrangement of clinic stations in conjunction with community
leaders; (3) registration and medical examination of study sub-
jects; and (4) collection of the completed examination forms and
termination of the clinics. Concluding that the health survey out-
lined in the present report is replicable in other developing coun-
tries, the survey team makes a series of recommendations on how
to adapt the survey to meet regional and national health informa-
tion needs. A list of 25 references on health, nutrition, and popula-
tion in Africa is appended, as well as the 1975 Village Health
Survey interviewer instructions, and examination procedures and
forms.
AID/CM/afr-IDA-73-14 641005500

112 PN-AAH-270
EXPERIENCE IN SELECTING, TRAINING, AND
SUPERVISING INTERVIEWERS IN A RURAL HEALTH
PROJECT: DANFA PROJECT, GHANA
Belcher, D.W.; Wurapa, FK.; Lourie, I.M.; Kwabia, K.; Avle, S.K.
University of California at Los Angeles, School of Public Health;
University of Ghana Medical School.
1976, 30 p.
Danfa Comprehensive Rural Health and Family Planning Project,
Ghana, Monograph Series No. 11
Several monograph papers have been written to inform con-
cerned U.S. and African agencies of experience gained from the
Danfa Comprehensive Rural Health and Family Planning Project, a
project designed to demonstrate and test new low-cost health
delivery systems in Ghana. This paper describes the recruiting
and training of five classes of interviewers over a 20-month period
(1970-71), when baseline studies were conducted for the project.
The initial training provided to eight Ghana national census staff
members did not carefully develop their interviewing skills, nor did
recruiting procedures adequately determine the interviewer's lan-
guage proficiency or competence. Project managers diagnosed
these problems and revised the training program accordingly. It
was found that language proficiency was not tested; that the
course consisted of classroom instruction with minimal field prac-
tice under close supervision; that the interviewer's performance
levels, attitudes toward work, and acceptable behavior toward the
village, were not examined; and that the project staff failed to
evaluate the incoming enumeration data on a daily basis. Rem-
edies for the training program are discussed in terms of improved
recruiting and selection practices of interviewer trainees, (job
qualifications, work benefits offered, and screening), subsequent
revision of the training course, in-service training, and evaluation
of training courses. Discussions of these remedies more fully detail
the following recommendations of the authors: (1) Course super-
visors should be exposed to field conditions and should conduct
household interviews in the same communities where trainees will


be working. (2) Trainees should be held in a probationary status
until their work is acceptable. (3) By increasing the amount of
course time spent in the field, clearly defined instructional objec-
tives for interviewing can be developed and feedback provided to
the trainee of his progress toward becoming a skilled interviewer.
Ten references (1960-73) are cited at the conclusion of the report.
Also included are sample forms for student evaluation of lectures,
supervisor evaluation of trainee performance, and the individual
field interviewer's evaluation record.


AID/CM/afr-IDA-73-14


641005500

PN-AAH-595


PLANNING PHARMACEUTICALS FOR PRIMARY
HEALTH CARE: THE SUPPLY AND UTILIZATION OF
DRUGS IN THE THIRD WORLD
Gish, O.; Feller, L.L.
American Public Health Association (APHA).
1979, 147 p.
In APHA International Health Programs Monograph Series, No. 2
The importance of the supply and use of pharmaceuticals for
primary health care in LDCs has been relatively neglected in the
general health literature. This monograph lessens this deficiency
by analyzing supply conditions, procurement planning, and drug
utilization systems in the Third World. Many LDCs have little or no
nationally-based drug industry and thus little control over drug
production and prices. Production has largely fallen into the hands
of a few transnational pharmaceutical companies who often are
unwilling to set up production in LDCs, thus contributing to a lack
of indigenous drug production. Because drugs must then be
imported, they become prohibitively expensive. TD alleviate this
situation, countries should procure information on the extent to
which leading firms are cornering the market; pass legislation to
control advertising and abusive practices; and promote national
drug self-sufficiency, quality control, local packaging of drugs,
and, most important of all, close cooperation between industrial
and health planners. National procurement planning is usually
unavailable. The first step in establishing such planning should be
the creation of a formulary of quality, safe, and cost-effective drugs
reflecting national therapeutic needs. Centralized, bulk procure-
ment is suggested, as is the use of the World Health Organization's
International Nonproprietary Names. Dispensing of drugs in LDCs
is also a problem due to the lack of graduate pharmacists and
misinformation of health workers regarding the correct use and
cost of formulary drugs and the hazards they present to patients.
Drug use systems must therefore be developed through edu-
cation of physicians, pharmacy and health workers, as well as the
general public; establishment of standardized prescribing from
limited formularies and of national drug classification systems and
central delivery units; and increases in the number of pharmacy
workers (as distinct from graduate pharmacists). This report con-
tains annexes concerning abuses in the patient licensing agree-
ments and regulatory practices in selected countries; a list of
essential drugs; a glossary of terms and a 14-item bibliography
(1970-78).


AID/ta-C-1320


931097100


ARDA Vol. 9, No. 1 February 1981












HEALTH I


TRAINING AND USE OF AUXILIARY HE
WORKERS: LESSONS FROM DEVELOP
COUNTRIES
Storms, D.M.
American Public Health Association (APHA).
1979, 146 p.
In APHA International Health Programs Monogra,
As the use of auxiliary health workers (AHW) in
health services to LDC communities grows, d
program elements for particular settings need to
monograph, jointly developed by the America
Association and A.I.D.'s Office of Health, draws
tions from knowledgeable AHWs in various LDCs
for use by health planners as a practical source
design, manage, and evaluate auxiliary based
and to plan, implement, and evaluate programs ti
AHWs. An introduction describes generic issues
management of auxiliary-based health services
village-level programs and community participate
chapters concern health program design and
development, and describe alternative strategy
countries to develop their own resources for impr
delivery To function effectively, auxiliaries need a
which includes government, community, and pri
mitment and resources. Once a funding basis a
budget exist, program planning should begin wit
of the health needs, resources, and resource rec
an administrative framework and program speci
services, job analysis, and compensation should
and resource requirements, legal sanctions, and
tion schedule should be established. The fou
scribes the recruitment, final selection, and tr
emphasizing recruitment and selection criteria ar
training curricula and methods. The fifth chapter
gram implementation, including deployment of
munity mobilization, program management, and
and continuing education of auxiliaries. Finally
uation and the evaluation of AHWs are descri
bibliography (1934-79), divided according to th
monograph, is appended.
AID/ta-C-1320


PN-AAH-596 115 PN-AAH-203
ALTH METHODS OF MALARIA VECTOR CONTROL: A STATE
>ING OF THE ART LITERATURE REVIEW
Davis, R.; Blevins, G.
United States Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Of-
fice of International Health.
1979, 145 p.
oh Series, No. 3 During the period May to October 1978, the Office of International
expanding basic Health of the U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare
lata on effective was involved in the preparation of a draft study entitled "Malaria
be shared. This Vector Control: A Review". The study was undertaken in response
in Public Health to the appearance of resistance to DDT and other insecticides
s upon contribu- among anopheline mosquitoes, the carriers of malaria. The pres-
and is designed ent document, a state-of-the-art literature review, represents the
book on ways to final revised version of the October 1978 study, and attempts to
health services, summarize new and old information on all forms of malaria vector
o recruit and train control. It includes both those forms presently in use or under
in the design and development, and those which were largely displaced with the
vith emphasis on postwar advent of DDT house spraying. After an introduction
ion. The next two describing the study's objectives and scope (restricted to techno-
support systems logical control methods), the report begins with a concise sum-
ies for assisting mary of what is known about residual house spraying with the
oved health care insecticides currently in use or under trial. A detailed description of
support system the non-spraying measures in past and present use, as well as
vate sector com- those currently under development follows. Each technology is
nd an approved reviewed from the standpoint of efficacy, feasibility under field
h an assessment conditions, environmental acceptability, and costs. An effort is
uirements. Next, made to outline the requirements for planning, organizing, and
fications such as evaluating vector control campaigns. Finally, a list of possible
d be developed; research topics in vector control methods is included for the
an implementa- benefit of prospective researchers and sources of research funds.
irth chapter de- These are grouped into five general categories: (1) past and
gaining of AHWs, current measures against adult mosquitoes; (2) past and current
nd methods, and antilarval measures; (3) past and current combined measures; (4)
er concerns pro- biological control methods currently under development; and (5)
the AHWs, com- planning, organization, and evaluation. Included in the report are
I the supervision sections on World Health Organization estimates of vector control
, program eval- costs and on the acute toxicity of pesticides used in malaria
bed. A 313-item control. A bibliography of some 450 references (1938-79) is ap-
e sections of the ended.
RS/HEW-01-74 GTS
931097100


ARDA Vol. 9, No. 1 February 1981












T HEALTH


116 PN-AAH-531
TSETSE AND TRYPANOSOMIASIS CONTROL: A
STRATEGY FOR THE FUTURE IN AFRICA
Interafrican Bureau for Animal Resources
1979, 60 p.
Twenty-two species of tsetse fly and at least six species of try-
panosomes are known to transmit sleeping sickness to man and
trypanosomiasis to livestock, especially on the African continent.
Out of desire to control tsetse vectors in furtherance of African
development, a task force of experts from African and interna-
tional donor agencies and institutions was organized to provide
counsel to A.I.D. on appropriate research and action. This report
presents their findings and recommendations. The first sections
briefly describe the tsetse fly and its habits, including feeding and
reproductive behavior, and the mechanism of trypanosome
transmission; and trypanosomiasis in animals, its socioeconomic
impact, and human sleeping sickness. The task force proposes
the development of effective national and regional programs for
tsetse and trypanosomiasis control through improved field and
research capability to eradicate these insects. To this end, the task
force presents 13 recommendations. Studies on the biology, ecol-


The Itsete fly, carrier of trypanosomlasis (sleeping sickness).
; *'...


ogy, behavior, and vectoral capacity of tsetse should be intensi-
fied. Concerned countries should be supported in preparing pro-
grams designed to implement national policy on tsetse and try-
panosomiasis control. Projects that are both designed to control or
eradicate the diseases and that involve the development of new
land areas should be closely integrated with planned land devel-
opment and current agricultural practices, but with careful con-
sideration of cost-benefit ratios. It is strongly recommended that
national multidisciplinary tsetse/trypanosomiasis units be estab-
lished in each country where trypanosomiasis is endemic. Bilat-
eral agencies should support training and provide basic diag-
nostic tools to improve present medical surveillance. Research
should be continued on selective uses of existing insecticides
which do not damage the environment. More effective, less persis-
tent insecticides, as well as other methods of control, should be
developed. Academic institutions and others should intensify
studies to find more effective and less toxic drugs to treat sleeping
sickness and trypanosomiasis. Other recommendations are also
included. Twenty references (1970-79) are cited for further read-
ing.


AID-698-001-T


698013500


V ''
W4h-.-~i7 5
~- :












NUTRITION

117 PN-AAG-984
WHOLE SOYBEAN FOODS FOR HOME AND VILLAGE
USE
Nelson, A.I.; Steinberg, M.P; Wei, L.S.
University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.
1978, 31 p.
Commercial processing of whole soybeans, a high-protein, low-
cost food source, must be simplified if soy products are to have
wide applicability as a food source for the undernourished of
developing countries. This document contains five papers that
develop concepts, methods, and processes for home use of the
whole soybean for human food consumption. The first paper
discusses the home preparation of whole soybeans. To remove
the soybean's objectionable flavor and to enhance food value, the
lipoxygenase enzyme is inactivated and antinutritional factors are
eliminated through the boiling of soybeans in water to which
sodium bicarbonate (baking soda) has been added. This cooking
process is then applied to a variety of home preparations to
produce flavorful and highly nutritional soy products. The next
paper describes four methods for home preparation of soy milk, a
viable substitute for people who are intolerant or allergic to cow's
milk. In each method, raw soybeans are moistened and heated
before being ground into a slurry to avoid objectionable flavor. Soy
milk prepared from whole beans is considered superior to similar
products prepared from cracked beans and full-fat soy flour. A
simple recommended procedure for the home preparation of soy ,
milk is described in the paper. The third paper examines the
hydration and tenderization of cooked soybeans to which cereals
or vegetables are added. This nutritious combination, containing
50% whole soybeans, requires less cooking time and is used to
produce convenient breakfast foods and fried patty-meat substi- /
tutes. The fourth paper discusses the development of prototype,
processed food products derived from whole soybeans such as a
canned soybean-chicken product and dried soybean-fruit wean-
ling food for children. The final paper considers the yield, price,
and protein content of five Indian dais (pulses). A processing
scheme is described to develop soybean dal similar to the indi-
genous dais at a competitive price. Brief bibliographies (33 in
total, 1943-76) follow each paper.
AID/ta-C-1294 931056000
A high-protein cornlsoyalmilk blend provided under the Food for
Peace program supplements this child's diet.


ARDA Vol. 9, No. 1 February 1981













POPULATION


118 PN-AAH-253
INFANT AND CHILD MORTALITY IN THAILAND:
LEVELS, TRENDS, AND DIFFERENTIALS AS
DERIVED THROUGH INDIRECT ESTIMATION
TECHNIQUES
Knodel, J.: Chamratrithirong, A.
East-West Center, East-West Population Institute.
1978, 46 p.
Papers of the East-West Population Institute, No. 57
Using indirect estimation techniques, infant and child mortality
trends and differentials can be derived from survey and census
data which show the proportion dead among children ever born.
These indirect techniques are particularly valuable when registra-
tion data are deficient. Although mortality may be understated by
these techniques, trends appear to be reasonable and consistent
with those independently calculated. This study employs such
indirect techniques to examine national, regional, and urban/rural
levels and trends as well as socioeconomic differentials in infant
and child mortality in Thailand. Infant mortality in Thailand appears
to be declining at all levels. Moderate regional mortality differ-
ences exist, however. Mortality conditions appear to be worse in
the north and northeast than in the south and Central regions.
Infant mortality is lowest in the central region and highest in the
north. These differentials, however, are of questionable validity
since the south is culturally more distinct from Thailand's other
regions and may have a different level of reporting accuracy. They
may also reflect peculiarities of the data rather than an actual
trend. Child mortality is substantially lower in the urban sector than
in the rural sector. The average life expectancy of a child born in
Bangkok is almost 14 years longer than that of a child born in the
countryside. This urban advantage is due to higher socioeco-
nomic levels and easier access to superior health services. Sub-
stantial socioeconomic differences in infant and child mortality
exist. There is a sharp inverse relationship between both the
mother's level of educational and occupational attainment and
child mortality, and a positive correlation between working mothers
and child mortality. There is no significant relationship between
religious affiliation and child mortality. It is evident that children of
the higher socioeconomic strata enjoy more favored mortality
levels than those of lower socioeconomic position. Documentation
of such differences should help to guide a national health policy to
extend the favorable conditions which reduce mortality to a
broader spectrum of the population. A 17-item bibliography
(1966-78) is appended.
AID/pha-G-1058

119 PN-AAH-255
DEMOGRAPHIC RESEARCH IN JAPAN, 1955-70: A
SURVEY AND SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY
Matsumoto, Y.S.
Hawaii University School of Public Health.
1974, 81 p.
Papers of the East-West Population Institute, No. 30
During the decade following World War II, demographic research


in Japan focused on the problem of excess population. During the
postwar period, Japan experienced the inevitable baby boom, at
the same time the nation's death rate was rapidly declining as a
result of public health programs The difference between in-
creased fertility and reduced mortality resulted in the highest
population growth rates, from natural increase, in Japan's history.
By 1955, the necessity of restricting population growth had be-
come obvious to the Japanese. Having experienced this postwar
baby boom in the midst of a depressed economic situation, cou-
ples were strongly motivated to limit their families in order to realize
their aspirations for a better life. Thus, it was people, not the
government, who first took steps to restrict family ize. This docu-
ment consists of an overview of indigenous demographic re-
search in Japan during the period 1955-70, followed by a selected
bibliography of works by Japanese authors. Topics covered in the
overview section include a discussion of research institutions,
recent trends in demographic research, demographic studies,
fertility, mortality, population and the economy, and the past and

future in terms of demographics. The author notes that population
growth in Japan is essentially under control, with an annual rate of
natural increase stabilized at about 1.1 % per year. With an increas-
ingly educated, affluent, and urbanized population, Japan ranks
among the world's most highly industrialized nations. Japan's
demographic concerns now relate to regional imbalances, man-
power deficiencies, and social welfare. For this reason, the focus
of demographic research is shifting from the national population
as a whole to specific segments of the population. The biblio-
graphic section of the report is preceded by a subject index and
includes 373 entries.


AID/csd-3310


931095200


120 PN-AAH-268
SOME RESULTS AND PROBLEMS ON THE
ESTIMATION OF VITAL RATES IN A RURAL AFRICAN
SETTING VIA MULTIPLE METHODS
Kpedekpo, G.M.K.; Wurapa, F.K.; Lourie, I.M.; Neumann, A.K.;
Belcher, D.W.
University of California at Los Angeles, School of Public Health;
University of Ghana Medical School.
1975, 33 p.
Danfa Comprehensive Rural Health and Family Planning Project,
Ghana, Monograph Series, No. 4
Effective management of a public health program requires the
compilation of detailed demographic information on age, sex,
mortality, cause of death, etc. This paper is one of a series con-
cerning vital events registration and baseline demographic sur-
veys conducted for the Danfa Rural Health and Family Planning
Project in Ghana. Specifically, it presents the results of a recent
experiment on the collection and analysis of data on births and
deaths using the well-known Chandrasekhar-Deming multi-
approach method. The site of the study was located 10-50 miles
from Accra, an area with approximately 50,000 rural inhabitants.
First, baseline data were gathered on age, sex, family relationship,
education, religion, ethnic group, and pregnancy status. Follow-
up surveys were carried out at 6-month intervals in order to in-


ARDA Vol. 9, No. 1 February 1981













POPULATION


118 PN-AAH-253
INFANT AND CHILD MORTALITY IN THAILAND:
LEVELS, TRENDS, AND DIFFERENTIALS AS
DERIVED THROUGH INDIRECT ESTIMATION
TECHNIQUES
Knodel, J.: Chamratrithirong, A.
East-West Center, East-West Population Institute.
1978, 46 p.
Papers of the East-West Population Institute, No. 57
Using indirect estimation techniques, infant and child mortality
trends and differentials can be derived from survey and census
data which show the proportion dead among children ever born.
These indirect techniques are particularly valuable when registra-
tion data are deficient. Although mortality may be understated by
these techniques, trends appear to be reasonable and consistent
with those independently calculated. This study employs such
indirect techniques to examine national, regional, and urban/rural
levels and trends as well as socioeconomic differentials in infant
and child mortality in Thailand. Infant mortality in Thailand appears
to be declining at all levels. Moderate regional mortality differ-
ences exist, however. Mortality conditions appear to be worse in
the north and northeast than in the south and Central regions.
Infant mortality is lowest in the central region and highest in the
north. These differentials, however, are of questionable validity
since the south is culturally more distinct from Thailand's other
regions and may have a different level of reporting accuracy. They
may also reflect peculiarities of the data rather than an actual
trend. Child mortality is substantially lower in the urban sector than
in the rural sector. The average life expectancy of a child born in
Bangkok is almost 14 years longer than that of a child born in the
countryside. This urban advantage is due to higher socioeco-
nomic levels and easier access to superior health services. Sub-
stantial socioeconomic differences in infant and child mortality
exist. There is a sharp inverse relationship between both the
mother's level of educational and occupational attainment and
child mortality, and a positive correlation between working mothers
and child mortality. There is no significant relationship between
religious affiliation and child mortality. It is evident that children of
the higher socioeconomic strata enjoy more favored mortality
levels than those of lower socioeconomic position. Documentation
of such differences should help to guide a national health policy to
extend the favorable conditions which reduce mortality to a
broader spectrum of the population. A 17-item bibliography
(1966-78) is appended.
AID/pha-G-1058

119 PN-AAH-255
DEMOGRAPHIC RESEARCH IN JAPAN, 1955-70: A
SURVEY AND SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY
Matsumoto, Y.S.
Hawaii University School of Public Health.
1974, 81 p.
Papers of the East-West Population Institute, No. 30
During the decade following World War II, demographic research


in Japan focused on the problem of excess population. During the
postwar period, Japan experienced the inevitable baby boom, at
the same time the nation's death rate was rapidly declining as a
result of public health programs The difference between in-
creased fertility and reduced mortality resulted in the highest
population growth rates, from natural increase, in Japan's history.
By 1955, the necessity of restricting population growth had be-
come obvious to the Japanese. Having experienced this postwar
baby boom in the midst of a depressed economic situation, cou-
ples were strongly motivated to limit their families in order to realize
their aspirations for a better life. Thus, it was people, not the
government, who first took steps to restrict family ize. This docu-
ment consists of an overview of indigenous demographic re-
search in Japan during the period 1955-70, followed by a selected
bibliography of works by Japanese authors. Topics covered in the
overview section include a discussion of research institutions,
recent trends in demographic research, demographic studies,
fertility, mortality, population and the economy, and the past and

future in terms of demographics. The author notes that population
growth in Japan is essentially under control, with an annual rate of
natural increase stabilized at about 1.1 % per year. With an increas-
ingly educated, affluent, and urbanized population, Japan ranks
among the world's most highly industrialized nations. Japan's
demographic concerns now relate to regional imbalances, man-
power deficiencies, and social welfare. For this reason, the focus
of demographic research is shifting from the national population
as a whole to specific segments of the population. The biblio-
graphic section of the report is preceded by a subject index and
includes 373 entries.


AID/csd-3310


931095200


120 PN-AAH-268
SOME RESULTS AND PROBLEMS ON THE
ESTIMATION OF VITAL RATES IN A RURAL AFRICAN
SETTING VIA MULTIPLE METHODS
Kpedekpo, G.M.K.; Wurapa, F.K.; Lourie, I.M.; Neumann, A.K.;
Belcher, D.W.
University of California at Los Angeles, School of Public Health;
University of Ghana Medical School.
1975, 33 p.
Danfa Comprehensive Rural Health and Family Planning Project,
Ghana, Monograph Series, No. 4
Effective management of a public health program requires the
compilation of detailed demographic information on age, sex,
mortality, cause of death, etc. This paper is one of a series con-
cerning vital events registration and baseline demographic sur-
veys conducted for the Danfa Rural Health and Family Planning
Project in Ghana. Specifically, it presents the results of a recent
experiment on the collection and analysis of data on births and
deaths using the well-known Chandrasekhar-Deming multi-
approach method. The site of the study was located 10-50 miles
from Accra, an area with approximately 50,000 rural inhabitants.
First, baseline data were gathered on age, sex, family relationship,
education, religion, ethnic group, and pregnancy status. Follow-
up surveys were carried out at 6-month intervals in order to in-


ARDA Vol. 9, No. 1 February 1981










































Congestion in Cacutta.
Con gestlon In Calcutta.


crease the matching and accuracy of data on births, deaths, and
migration. In designing their experiment, project personnel at-
tempted to overcome the major difficulty of accounting for three
broad classes of events inherent in any registration or survey.
These classes of events include: (1) those that occur in the sample
area to usual residents; (2) those that occur to residents when they
are away from the area; and (3) those that occur to visitors to the
sample area. A number of variables were selected for the match-
ing of vital events: the house number, the name of the child/
deceased, the sex of the child/deceased, date of birth/death,
place of birth/death (and residential status), name of the mother
(for births), and age at death for the deceased. Problems arose
due to differences in receiving and recording information on
names, and because of the large number of items to be compared
and verified. In addition, problems involving memory lapse, mobil-
ity of individuals and households, and other factors suggest that
some uniform method should be developed so that matching can
be done with greater accuracy In addition, the manual matching
operations used in this experiment were time-consuming and
delayed publication of results. Data from the registration and
surveys are presented in tabular form and are discussed in the
text.
AID/CM/afr-IDA-73-14 641005500


121 PN-AAH-323
ON THE END OF THE POPULATION EXPLOSION
Demeny, P
Population Council.
1979, 38 p.
In Center for Policy Studies Working Paper No. 39
Today any interested customer can choose among an impressive
variety of population forecasts. One such forecast by Donald J.
Bogue and Amy Ong Tsui foresees zero world population growth
by the year 2000. This paper examines that prediction. Bogue and
Tsui, respectively, are Director and Assistant Director of the Com-
munity and Family Study Center, a well-known research and train-
ing organization at the University of Chicago. Their forecast merits
special attention because it exemplifies some problems in meth-
ods and interpretations prevalent in contemporary population lit-
erature. According to the author, Tsui and Bogue's assessment of
recent fertility declines must be viewed with skepticism. That birth
rates have been declining in countries comprising the majority of
the world's population is a fact established beyond reasonable
doubt. However, it is doubtful that the declines postulated for key
developing countries (China, Indonesia, and Egypt) were as large,
or even nearly as large, as the two authors claim. The same
applies to the contention that key South Asian countries (India,
Pakistan, and Bangladesh) may have entered a stage of accel-
erating fertility decline, or that the majority of African countries
have experienced appreciable fertility decreases. Caution is also
warranted regarding Tsui and Bogue's estimates of future fertility


ARDA Vol. 9, No. 1 February 1981












POPULATION


trends. Their central thesis focuses on family planning as the prime
explanation of both already observed (1968-75) and future fertility
declines. The main prop for that thesis was multiple regression
analysis. However, the validity of a causal interpretation of numeri-
cal findings in a regression analysis is dependent on the validity of
the relationship of the variables in question. Tsui and Bogue as-
sumed the validity of the relationship posited in their model, and
proceeded directly to computing the regressions and interpreting
results. This is acceptable practice only if the computation in
question rests on well established theory, or if the direction of the
causal relationships are sufficiently evident without further argu-
ment. Report includes footnotes and a listing of all papers issued
by the Center for Policy Studies in 1977 and 1978.
AID/pha-C-1199 932063200

122 PN-AAH-250
A COMPILATION OF AGE-SPECIFIC FERTILITY
RATES FOR DEVELOPING COUNTRIES
United States Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census.
1979, 158 p.
In International Research Document No. 7
To interpret fertility levels and patterns for a given country, it is
useful to examine a consistent set of fertility data. This publication
presents a compilation of age-specific and total fertility rates for
126 LDCs of Africa, Asia, Latin America, and Oceania. Rates are
shown either directly, as derived from vital registration systems,
surveys, or censuses, or as adjusted by various techniques, par-
ticularly the Brass fertility technique. The data are compiled as part
of an ongoing program of the International Demographic Data
Center (IDDC), Population Division, U.S. Bureau of the Census
(BOC), to maintain a comprehensive data base containing demo-
graphic information on LDCs. Selected data from this data base,
including the rates shown in this report, are regularly provided to
A.I.D. and are used by the IDDC staff as a starting point in estab-
lishing a consistent set of data for selected countries. The data in
this publication are not evaluated and do not represent estimates
made nor condoned by the BOC. (For evaluated data, users may
refer to the BOC's other publications, Country Demographic Pro-
files and World Population.) Data are presented chronologically in
tabular form. Corresponding notes are labeled by the year of
reference of the data. In cases, however, where particular cen-
suses or surveys have yielded retrospective rates for a series of
years in the past (and it is useful to examine these rates in a block
rather than interspersed with rates from other sources) these rates
are presented in tabular form by source, rather than in chrono-
logical order. In all instances, the type of data collection system
(survey, census, vital registration), source of the data, and/or
method used in estimating or adjusting the rates are cited in the
annotation which follows each table. The data cover the period
from 1960 to 1979, although rates for earlier years are often
included for countries that lack recent information. In most cases,
only national data are presented, but rates are shown for rural or
urban areas, particular geographic regions, and ethnic or religious
groups in cases where national data are scant or nonexistent.


RS/COM/BUCEN-03-78


123 PN-AAH-251
SPATIAL FERTILITY ANALYSIS IN A LIMITED DATA
SITUATION: THE CASE OF PAKISTAN
Fuller, G.; Khan, M.M.
East-West Center, East-West Population Institute.
1978, 25 p.
Papers of the East-West Population Institute, No 56
Fertility rates are generally explained by analysts in terms of so-
cioeconomic variables. This paper, published by the East-West
Population Institute, analyzes fertility data from Pakistan as a test
case to argue the benefits of an aereal or spatial analysis of fertility
data to explain linkages left unexplained by socioeconomic analy-
sis. The spatial approach is based on the assumption that linkages
between fertility and socioeconomic characteristics vary system-
atically over space. On the basis of this assumption, inferences
can be drawn about these linkages when data are incomplete or
limited, as is particularly true in Pakistan. Basically, inferences are
drawn, though with less accuracy, in much the same way that
topographic maps are created. (In mapmaking, direct measure-
ments of elevation are made at only a few points, with the geog-
rapher interpolating between the observation points.) In the pres-
ent study, district level data from 1951 and 1961 censuses were
used to construct fertility trend surfaces in three orders. First-
order (planar) surfaces indicated that, in general, fertility is highest
in the northwest and lowest in the southeast. While second-order
surfaces add little beyond this, third-order surfaces, which are the
most accurate of all, reveal lower fertility in the south, east, and
northeast, thus modifying (without negating) the northwest-
southeast generalization revealed in the lower-order surfaces.
Positive residuals (exceptions) from third-order surfaces can have
a practical value for program planners faced with strategic
choices in regard to fund allocation. For example, t can be inferred
from 1951 residuals that high fertility districts probably possess
abnormal linkages between socioeconomic variables and that
resource allocation in these areas would have a higher probability
of success. Similarly, the shape and pattern of 1961 residuals
indicates that economic development along the Indus River Valley
may be responsible for increased fertility rates, implying a stra-
tegic response such as including fertility costs in the costs of
development projects. The study concludes with suggestions for
improving spatial methodology A 16-item bibliography (1959-78)
is appended.
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124 PN-AAH-252
REGRESSION ESTIMATES OF CHANGES IN
FERTILITY, 1955-60 TO 1965-75, FOR MOST MAJOR
NATIONS AND TERRITORIES
Palmore, J.A.
East-West Center, East-West Population Institute.
1978, 64 p.
Papers of the East-West Population Institute, No. 58
Since the registration of births is inadequate worldwide, knowl-
edge of world fertility trends must be based on estimates using
alternative data sources. Using data from the 1970 round of cen-
suses, this paper updates and revises regression equations pro-
posed by Bogue and Palmore in 1964 and summarizes fertility
changes for most major nations and territories. Using census and
vital registration data, regression equations for estimating direct
fertility measures (the total fertility rate and age-specific fertility
rates) from indirect fertility measures (the child/woman ratio) were
calculated. These equations were used subsequently to estimate
the direct fertility measures for countries lacking good vital statis-
tics. Employing the above methods, the paper estimates trends in
fertility for the LDCs for the periods 1955-60 and 1965-75. Data are
presented in the following four tables: (1) regression estimates for
major countries and territories of national crude birth rates and
total fertility rates for 1955-60, crude birth rates for 1970-75, and
average annual percentages of change in fertility rates; (2) num-
ber of countries experiencing increased or decreased fertility
rates (1955-60 to most recent census year for which data were
available); (3) percentage distribution of estimated crude birth
rates for 163 countries (most recent census year for which data
were available); and (4) regression estimates of national crude
birth rates, total fertility rates, and age-specific fertility rates for
most recent census year available (major countries and terri-
tories). The probable margins of error and other limitations in the
regression procedures are also discussed. The results support the
contention that most of the countries reduced theirfertility between
1955-60 and 1965-75. Despite these declines, however, fertility
rates for much of the world remained very high as of the latest
census. The fertility transition is, at best, only at the beginning
stages for many countries. Illustrative tables, regression equa-
tions, and a 20-item bibliography (1949-78) are appended.
AID/pha-G-1058

125 PN-AAH-258
ESTIMATES OF INDICES OF FERTILITY FROM
REGISTRATION DATA
Kpedekpo, G.M.K.; Nicholas, D.D.; Ofosu-Ammah, S.; Wurapa,
FK.; Belcher, D.W.
University of California at Los Angeles, School of Public Health;
University of Ghana Medical School.
1975, 46 p.
Danfa Comprehensive Rural Health and Family Planning Project,
Ghana, Monograph Series No. 3
Despite efforts to improve the registration of vital events in devel-
oping countries, it is likely that available demographic data in


these nations will be seriously defective for a long time to come. It
is therefore necessary to obtain as much profit as possible from
existing data. This paper attempts to derive indices of fertility using
data obtained from vital events registration and baseline demo-
graphic surveys conducted under the Danfa Rural Health project
in Ghana. (The project included a longitudinal study of approxi-
mately 50,000 rural inhabitants, 10-50 miles from Accra.) The
author, following Brass's method, proposes that the most effective
way to extend existing registration data is to collect further informa-
tion on the maternity history of mothers (i.e., the number of children
ever born and the number surviving) at the time of registration or
notification of birth. Using such baseline data, several indices of
observed and estimated fertility are demonstrated. These relate to
the average number of children per mother, the average number
of children per woman, age-specific fertility rates, total fertility
rates, gross reproduction rates, relative age-specific fertility rates,
age-specific order birth rates, crude birth rates, general fertility
ratios, and child/woman ratios. In addition, age patterns are ana-
lyzed in order to classify age-specific fertility rates according to
different patterns, and to study the age structure of fertility in the
project area. Lotka's analysis of stable population relationships
has shown that the higher the intensity of fertility (the mean number
of children per woman), the higher the rates of increase; also, the
lowerthe mean age at motherhood, the higherthe rate of increase.
From this it can be concluded that population policy must aim not
only at reducing the average number of children per mother, but
also at increasing the mean age of motherhood as well. Report
includes a very brief bibliography (nine items, 1939-73) and nu-
merous tables illustrating the various data and findings.
AID/CM/afr-IDA-73-14 641005500

126 PN-AAH-259
AN ANALYSIS OF THE POPULATION SIZE, AGE/SEX
DISTRIBUTION
Kpedekpo, G.M.K.; Lourie, I.M.; Wurapa, FK.; Belcher, D.W.;
Neumann, A.K.
University of California at Los Angeles, School of Public Health;
University of Ghana Medical School.
1975, 42 p.
Danfa Comprehensive Rural Health and Family Planning Project,
Ghana, Monograph Series, No. 6
Several monograph papers have been written to inform con-
cerned U.S. and African agencies of experience gained from the
Danfa Comprehensive Rural Health and Family Planning Project, a
project designed to demonstrate and test new low-cost health
delivery systems in Ghana. As part of the project's research com-
ponent, this paper analyzes population size and the age/sex
distribution of the project's four study areas. In addition to these
areas, information was sought on ethnic composition, religion,
occupation, literacy, and level of education. The methods used to
measure these variables, as well as the difficulties involved in this
use, are discussed in each section of the report. The population
was enumerated in three ways: de jure (permanent residents,
whether present or away), de facto (those actually present), and
comprehensive (the combination of the two). Depending on the


ARDA Vol. 9, No. 1 February 1981












POPULATION


method of enumeration, the total population of all four areas
ranges from 47,655 to 50,127. In individual enumerations, the de
jure enumerated population was always less than the de facto
enumerated population. The geographic distribution of the popu-
lation, as well as the distribution by residential status, indicates
that population differences result from the estimated number of
visitors and absent residents. The age of those under 15 com-
puted by de jure enumeration ranged from 46.2% to 48.3%, while
the proportion of the total population aged 65 and above ranged
from 4.2% to 6.0%. The percentages under 15 and over 65 are
similar by both de facto and comprehensive enumeration. Age/
sex pyramids indicate a population with a low median age of 17, a
very small proportion of elderly persons, and a combination of
high birth and death rates. The median age for females is consis-
tently higher than that of males. Child/woman ratios give evidence
of high fertility in some areas, but fertility may be falling in others.
As many of those interviewed were illiterate, the accuracy of age
reporting and the Myer's procedure used to correct possible
distortions are discussed. Tables illustrating these data are pro-
vided throughout the report. Four entries (1972-74) are cited for
further reference.
AID/CM/afr-IDA-73-14 641005500

127 PN-AAH-260
AN ANALYSIS OF MARITAL STATUS, EDUCATION,
ETHNIC, RELIGIOUS, AND OCCUPATIONAL
COMPOSITION
Kpedekpo, G.M.K.; Wurapa, FK.; Belcher, D.W.; Neumann, A.K.;
Lourie, I.M.
University of California at Los Angeles, School of Public Health;
University of Ghana Medical School.
1975, 40 p.
Danfa Comprehensive Rural Health and Family Planning Project,
Monograph Series, No. 7
Several monograph papers have been written to inform con-
cerned U.S. and African agencies of experience gained from the
Danfa Comprehensive Rural Health and Family Planning Project, a
project designed to demonstrate and test new low-cost health
delivery systems in Ghana. As part of the research component of
the project, this report describes selected social and economic
variables for marriage, education, ethnic, religious, and occupa-
tion characteristics of the population in the project's four study
areas. These study areas, comprising 50,000 rural inhabitants
living 10-50 miles for Accra, are defined by the type of
health service administered (comprehensive, health education,
family planning, and standard). The pattern of marriage is surpris-
ingly similar in all four areas: age at marriage for both males and
females was estimated at 23.7, 23.4, 22.6, and 23.9 years for
areas one, two, three, and four and five respectively. There does
exist a differential in the male and female ages at marriage, but this
differential is essentially the same in all areas. There is consider-
able differential among the educational and literacy levels from
one project area to another, with area one in the favoured position
relative to the other three areas. With respect to ethnic composi-
tion, all project areas show significant variations in the proportion


of the population who are Akwapim, Ewe, or non-Ghanaian. In
addition, areas two and three have a large number of residents
who follow traditional religious practices. Although the major oc-
cupation of persons economically active in all four project areas is
farming and other agricultural activities, the proportion employed
in farming in each area does not vary greatly Several graphs and
charts are provided to illustrate the data. Four entries (1953, 1968)
are cited for further reference.
AID/CM/afr-IDA-73-14 641005500

128 PN-AAH-475
A CHECKLIST FOR EVALUATIVE OVERVIEWS OF
FAMILY PLANNING PROGRAM ACTIVITIES
Reynolds, J.
Columbia University, International Institute for Study of Human
Reproduction.
1973, 20 p.
In Manuals for Evaluation of Family Planning and Population Pro-
grams, No. 6
Program evaluations should be objective, systematic, compre-
hensive, and useful. That is, they should be objective in the selec-
tion of topics; systematic in approach; inclusive of all studies of
program activities; and establish a link between evaluation and
planning. Family planning program evaluations do not always
satisfy these criteria. Current family planning evaluations are fre-
quently limited to clinic service statistics and Knowledge-
Attitude-Practice sample surveys. To remedy these lapses, this
report outlines the essential components of a comprehensive
evaluation of family planning program activities. To be useful,
evaluations should include the following: need for family planning
services; description of quantity and quality of services; identifica-
tion of factors that facilitate or impede acceptance of services;
analysis of data gaps; listing and bibliography of research and
evaluation studies underway or reported; summaries of apparent
strengths and weaknesses of program activities; and recom-
mendations for research and future evaluations. An overview of
needs, operation, processes, resources, and evaluations, should
be provided, as well as a checklist of program planning, oper-
ation, and evaluation elements. The report includes a checklist to
be submitted when evaluating family planning programs.
AID/csd-2479 GTS

129 PN-AAH-476
THE IMPACT OF FAMILY PLANNING PROGRAMS ON
FERTILITY RATES: A CASE STUDY OF FOUR
NATIONS
Teachman, J.; Bogue, D.J.; Londono, J.; Hogan, D.
University of Chicago, Community and Family Study Center.
1979, 62 p.
Documentation that family planning programs are capable of
inducing major and rapid decline in fertility is still quite scarce. This
monograph tests hypotheses linking family planning programs to
changes in fertility by assembling data for four specific LDCs. The
first chapter sets out a methodology for measuring the impact of


ARDA Vol. 9, No. 1 February 1981












POPULATION


family planning programs on birth rates. Two packaged computer
programs (PROJTARG and TABRAP) are used for calculating the
contraceptive protection (number of new acceptors) that must
have been attained in the test area in order to have resulted in the
observed fertility rate reduction. The proportion of protection pro-
vided by inside-program as compared with outside-program
sources is then estimated to the maximum extent possible. With
this information, the net proportion of total contraceptive protec-
tion provided by the organized family planning program can be
determined under differing assumptions about the substitutability
of contraceptives (the number of acceptors who would have used
other methods if the formal program had not existed). This model
is then applied to four countries Colombia (treated on both a
national and a state-by-state level), Thailand, Indonesia, and Ko-
rea. These four countries have all sponsored vigorous family plan-
ning programs since at least 1970. Each of these family planning
programs is shown to have been the major source of contracep-
tive protection by which observed fertility declines have been
achieved. Presentation of the Colombian example includes a de-
tailed discussion of the use of various demographic techniques to
obtain consistent estimates of fertility levels and contraceptive
usage. In the Indonesian case, the impact of the family planning
program is not judged by comparing contraception provided by
the program against required contraception, as reliable data
needed for the computer programs was not available. A births-
averted procedure was used instead. The studies in the Thai and
Korean cases also suggest that government support for family
planning programs is crucial. Sizable (15-25 items) reference
bibliographies are included after each chapter.
AID/pha-C-1108 932061900


130 PN-AAH-605
JOINT IGCC/IFRP EAST AND SOUTH EAST ASIA
SEMINAR ON REGIONAL FERTILITY RESEARCH,
BANGKOK, THAILAND, 1979
International Fertility Research Program (IFRP).
1979, 219 p.
A joint Inter-Governmental Coordinating Committee (IGCC)/lnter-
national Fertility Research Program (IFRP) seminar on regional
fertility research was held in Bangkok, Thailand, July 18-20,
1979. The seminar was attended by a total of 48 participants and
resource persons and 11 observers, representing 10 countries of
East and Southeast Asia: Indonesia, Malaysia, Nepal, the Philip-
pines, Singapore, Thailand, Hong Kong, Japan, Korea, and Tai-
wan. Its objectives were three-fold: (1) to provide a forum for
exchange among health/fertility professionals of experiences
and research either completed or ongoing in the participating
countries; (2) to enhance their awareness of IFRP's activities;
and (3) to help define regional needs in contraceptive safety
research, introduction and transfer of new technology, and ma-
ternity health research. This report of the seminar summarizes its
proceedings and group sessions, and contains the text of 29
papers nine country papers (Thailand excluded) and twenty
professional documents. The latter describe primary health care
delivery systems; studies of Depo Provera; risks and benefits of


contraception; sterilization camps; outreach systems; clinic
management; use of traditional birth attendants; effects of
steroidal contraceptives (oral pills) on Asians; maternity care
monitoring; acceptability of family planning in Malaysia and In-
donesia; and incidence and follow-up of trophoblastic diseases
(moles). This document is a valuable resource for use by fertility/
family planning professionals in Asian countries since it contains
detailed research findings, references, and lists of previous sur-
veys and research studies as well as ongoing projects. A roster
of seminar participants, observers, support staff, steering com-
mittee, and resource persons is appended.
AID/pha-C-1172 932053700

131 PN-AAH-614
OWN-CHILDREN ESTIMATES OF FERTILITY FOR
THAILAND BASED ON THE 1970 CENSUS
Retherford, R.D.; Pejaranonda, C.; Cho, L.; Arnold, F
East-West Center, East-West Population Institute.
1979, 59 p.
In Papers of the East-West Population Institute, No. 63
Accurate estimates of Thailand's birthrate levels and trends are
needed to monitor the Thai government's large-scale family plan-
ning program and to ensure the efficient operation and optimal
allocation of family planning funds among the country's different
geographic areas. This paper, employing data from the 1970
census, provides own-children estimates of fertility levels, trends,
and differentials for Thailand over the 1960s decade. These esti-
mates appear broadly consistent with other published estimates.
Total fertility for the country declined slightly from about 6.5 to 6.2
children per woman between 1960 and 1969. All four regions of
the country North, Northeast, Central, and South showed
total fertility rates between six and seven children per wom-
an for 1960-64. By 1965-69 total fertility rates had fallen by
slightly over half a child in the North and Central regions, remained
almost unchanged in the South, and increased slightly in the
Northeast. Levels and trends differed greatly between rural and
urban areas. Rural total fertility declined slightly from about 6.7 in
1960-64 to about 6.5 by 1965-69. Urban total fertility, which was
about 1.5 children lower than rural total fertility in 1960-64, fell
substantially from 5.0 to 4.0 children by 1965-69. Among rural
women, those with no education slightly raised their fertility be-
tween 1960 and 1969, while those with primary education
slightly reduced their fertility. Rural women with more than a pri-
mary education showed a substantial fertility decline, but they
were too small a proportion of all rural women to affect overall rural
fertility. Among urban women, fertility declined considerably in all
educational strata. Age at marriage changed little over the 1960s,
so that trends in marital fertility closely paralleled trends in overall
fertility. Estimates by occupation showed slight fertility decline
among rural farmers and miners, with total fertility close to seven
children per woman; and large fertility declines among urban
professional, technical, and administrative workers, with total fertil-
ity between two and three children per woman. Illustrative tables
and a 41-item bibliography (1940-79) are appended.


AID/DSPE-C-0002


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QW POPULATION


132 PN-AAH-615
SOCIOECONOMIC AND CULTURAL ASPECTS OF
MARRIAGE AND FERTILITY IN URBAN PAKISTAN
Karim, M.S.
East-West Center, East-West Population Institute.
1979, 32 p.
In Papers of the East-West Population Institute, No. 63
Historically, a well-established inverse relationship between a
woman age at marriage and her fertility has existed worldwide.
Female age at marriage has important implications for the study of
fertility, because the length of the female reproductive period is
largely determined by the age at which a woman marries. Little
research has been done on the relationship between age at mar-
riage and fertility in Pakistan. Furthermore, most of the studies
concerning this relationship have ignored its social and cultural
aspects. Using data from the 1968-69 Pakistan National Impact
Survey of 1,114 currently married urban women aged 15-44, this
paper relates the fertility of urban Pakistani women to their ages at
marriage and identifies influential sociocultural and economic fac-
tors. The religious support given to universal and early marriage,
segregation of the sexes, taboos against premarital sex, limited


contraceptive use, and a large-family norm contribute to the low
mean age at marriage and high fertility of Pakistani women. Mean
age at marriage reported by this sample was low (16), although
among younger women it was higher (17.5). Mear fertility among
those aged 35-44 was 6.7 births, but it was 29% lower among
women who married at age 19 or later than among those married at
age 16 or earlier, even though women who had postponed mar-
riage reproduced faster. Cumulative fertility differentials were
found among ethnic groups, socioeconomic groups, and residen-
tial groups who married at younger and older ages. Duration of
marriage and first pregnancy interval were important predictors of
the inverse relationship between age at marriage and cumulative
fertility. With duration of marriage controlled, cumulative fertility
was 14% lower among late-marrying women than among those
who had married early; with first pregnancy interval controlled,
cumulative fertility was 32% lower among late-marrying women.
Since parents consider daughters as liabilities and, therefore,
mate them at an early age, raising the legal female age at marriage
from 16 to 19 must be accompanied by basic changes in women's
socioeconomic roles if a fertility decline is to take place in Pakistan.
A 25-item bibliography (1954-79) is appended.


AID/DSPE-C-0002


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SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY


133 PN-AAH-900
A REFERENCE COMPILATION OF SCIENCE AND
TECHNOLOGY OFFICIAL DEVELOPMENT
ASSISTANCE FURNISHED BY A.I.D. FOR THE LESS
DEVELOPED COUNTRIES (LDCs)
Reynolds, A.; Gaithwright, T
Logical Technical Services Corporation.
1980, 88 p.
Prepared for the United Nations Conference on Science and
Technology for Development
This research report, summarizing official development assis-
tance provided by A.I.D. to LDCs, was produced to meet the
needs of participants in the United Nations Conference on Sci-
ence and Technology for Development. It represents a synthesis
of A.I.D.'s economic assistance philosophy, which is character-
ized by a twofold thrust: (1) a "basic human needs" approach to
bilateral development assistance, which combines the furthering
of U.S. interests abroad with U.S. humanitarian interest in that
quarter of the world's population condemned to live at a substan-
dard level; and (2) a refocussing of A.I.D.'s assistance to LDCs
from sophisticated technology to light-capital, labor-intensive ap-
plications of scientific and technological developments. The re-
port concentrates on development assistance in the fields of
health, nutrition, and population; energy and natural resources;
employment, trade and industrialization, and access to technol-
ogy; food, climate, soil, and water; and urbanization, transporta-
tion, and communication. In each case, the relevant technologies
and means of technology transfer are discussed in conjunction
with a statement of the development problem addressed by these
technologies and with illustrative examples of A.I.D. programs.
The report concludes that comparatively little U.S. technology can
be transferred to LDCs without significant adaptation. The LDCs
have become aware of the need for technologies tailored to fit their
resource endowments and absorptive capacities, and stress is
being placed on the development of more appropriate technol-
ogies as well as on devising policies and institutions permitting
LDCs to make better technological choices. An extensive subject
index is included in this report.
AID/DSAN-C-0021 931023200


134 PN-AAH-218
MOROCCO ENERGY STUDY
Jacobs, A.B.; Farber, E.B.; Gordon, M.; Izbickas, V; Melby, E.D.K.;
Westerfield, J.D.
United States Agency for International Development, Develop-
ment Support Bureau, Office of Energy
1978, 67 p.
In November 1978, a team of six U.S. energy specialists assisted
the Government of Morocco (GOM) in defining energy policies to
further economic development and reduce Moroccan depen-
dence on foreign oil. This report presents the team's findings and
the conclusions drawn therefrom. Three areas were reviewed:
shale oil development, with emphasis on in situ retorting; hydro-


electric production; and nonconventional energy sources. Oil
shale represents Morocco's largest potential indigenous energy
source. Its development is essential if imported fuels, which cur-
rently cover 80% of the nation's needs, are to be reduced over the
long term. Confirmed resources within the Atlas mountains have
the potential for delivering up to 22 million barrels of oil annually,
the national consumption level in 1976. However, such problems
as the ultimate use of the oil, the disposal of ash, provisions for
water, and the reduction of sulphur content, have not been ad-
dressed. Recommendations focus on the need for a comparative
analysis of alternative exploitation methods and for in situ field
tests. Studies on hydroelectric power conclude that decentraliza-
tion may be more economical than major project initiatives, such
as at Tarfaya, where costs are estimated to be five times greater
than the present national average. Systems studies for improved
use of existing plants and for devising more economical uses of
salt are recommended. In the area of nonconventional energy, the
team endorses the GOM's proposed solar center and recom-
mends increased training and planning development to clarify
organizational structure and objectives. Along with biomass stud-
ies, the establishment of projects in a decentralized pattern is also
suggested. To insure that future GOM energy investments do not
detract from those in other sectors, energy development on a
regional rather than national level is advocated. The report con-
cludes with recommendations for A.I.D. assistance to the GOM in
areas of renewable energy sources and shale oil development
which would reduce the need for nuclear development. A bibliog-
raphy of French-language resource materials (1972-78) is ap-
pended.
DS/EY

135 PN-AAH-389
THE CONTRIBUTION OF RENEWABLE RESOURCES
AND ENERGY CONSERVATION AS ALTERNATIVES TO
IMPORTED OIL IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES
Palmedo, PF; Baldwin, P
Energy/Development International.
1980, 187 p.
LDC's (non-OPEC) now account for 15% of the world oil demand.
This demand is expected to grow from the current eight million
barrels per day (MBD) to 20-25 MBD in the year 2000. This paper
addresses the role of renewable energy sources and conservation
in meeting the future energy demands of developing countries. It
appears possible that renewable energy sources (biomass, solar,
wind, small-scale hydro, and geothermal) could reduce that de-
mand 8-15%. Of these sources, it is solar energy which appears to
have the greatest potential in reducing oil demand. Possible ap-
plications include solar/thermal for water heating in industry and in
commercial and residential buildings; solar/electric (central), in-
volving large land areas of collectors, a tall receiving tower, special
boilers, and turbogenerators; and solar/electric (decentralized),
using photovoltaics for irrigation, village street lighting, public
buildings, and residences. It is estimated that 10-20% of the LDC
oil demand could be reduced through conservation. A lack of
trained personnel and of institutions capable of developing and


ARDA Vol. 9, No. 1 February 1981












SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY


133 PN-AAH-900
A REFERENCE COMPILATION OF SCIENCE AND
TECHNOLOGY OFFICIAL DEVELOPMENT
ASSISTANCE FURNISHED BY A.I.D. FOR THE LESS
DEVELOPED COUNTRIES (LDCs)
Reynolds, A.; Gaithwright, T
Logical Technical Services Corporation.
1980, 88 p.
Prepared for the United Nations Conference on Science and
Technology for Development
This research report, summarizing official development assis-
tance provided by A.I.D. to LDCs, was produced to meet the
needs of participants in the United Nations Conference on Sci-
ence and Technology for Development. It represents a synthesis
of A.I.D.'s economic assistance philosophy, which is character-
ized by a twofold thrust: (1) a "basic human needs" approach to
bilateral development assistance, which combines the furthering
of U.S. interests abroad with U.S. humanitarian interest in that
quarter of the world's population condemned to live at a substan-
dard level; and (2) a refocussing of A.I.D.'s assistance to LDCs
from sophisticated technology to light-capital, labor-intensive ap-
plications of scientific and technological developments. The re-
port concentrates on development assistance in the fields of
health, nutrition, and population; energy and natural resources;
employment, trade and industrialization, and access to technol-
ogy; food, climate, soil, and water; and urbanization, transporta-
tion, and communication. In each case, the relevant technologies
and means of technology transfer are discussed in conjunction
with a statement of the development problem addressed by these
technologies and with illustrative examples of A.I.D. programs.
The report concludes that comparatively little U.S. technology can
be transferred to LDCs without significant adaptation. The LDCs
have become aware of the need for technologies tailored to fit their
resource endowments and absorptive capacities, and stress is
being placed on the development of more appropriate technol-
ogies as well as on devising policies and institutions permitting
LDCs to make better technological choices. An extensive subject
index is included in this report.
AID/DSAN-C-0021 931023200


134 PN-AAH-218
MOROCCO ENERGY STUDY
Jacobs, A.B.; Farber, E.B.; Gordon, M.; Izbickas, V; Melby, E.D.K.;
Westerfield, J.D.
United States Agency for International Development, Develop-
ment Support Bureau, Office of Energy
1978, 67 p.
In November 1978, a team of six U.S. energy specialists assisted
the Government of Morocco (GOM) in defining energy policies to
further economic development and reduce Moroccan depen-
dence on foreign oil. This report presents the team's findings and
the conclusions drawn therefrom. Three areas were reviewed:
shale oil development, with emphasis on in situ retorting; hydro-


electric production; and nonconventional energy sources. Oil
shale represents Morocco's largest potential indigenous energy
source. Its development is essential if imported fuels, which cur-
rently cover 80% of the nation's needs, are to be reduced over the
long term. Confirmed resources within the Atlas mountains have
the potential for delivering up to 22 million barrels of oil annually,
the national consumption level in 1976. However, such problems
as the ultimate use of the oil, the disposal of ash, provisions for
water, and the reduction of sulphur content, have not been ad-
dressed. Recommendations focus on the need for a comparative
analysis of alternative exploitation methods and for in situ field
tests. Studies on hydroelectric power conclude that decentraliza-
tion may be more economical than major project initiatives, such
as at Tarfaya, where costs are estimated to be five times greater
than the present national average. Systems studies for improved
use of existing plants and for devising more economical uses of
salt are recommended. In the area of nonconventional energy, the
team endorses the GOM's proposed solar center and recom-
mends increased training and planning development to clarify
organizational structure and objectives. Along with biomass stud-
ies, the establishment of projects in a decentralized pattern is also
suggested. To insure that future GOM energy investments do not
detract from those in other sectors, energy development on a
regional rather than national level is advocated. The report con-
cludes with recommendations for A.I.D. assistance to the GOM in
areas of renewable energy sources and shale oil development
which would reduce the need for nuclear development. A bibliog-
raphy of French-language resource materials (1972-78) is ap-
pended.
DS/EY

135 PN-AAH-389
THE CONTRIBUTION OF RENEWABLE RESOURCES
AND ENERGY CONSERVATION AS ALTERNATIVES TO
IMPORTED OIL IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES
Palmedo, PF; Baldwin, P
Energy/Development International.
1980, 187 p.
LDC's (non-OPEC) now account for 15% of the world oil demand.
This demand is expected to grow from the current eight million
barrels per day (MBD) to 20-25 MBD in the year 2000. This paper
addresses the role of renewable energy sources and conservation
in meeting the future energy demands of developing countries. It
appears possible that renewable energy sources (biomass, solar,
wind, small-scale hydro, and geothermal) could reduce that de-
mand 8-15%. Of these sources, it is solar energy which appears to
have the greatest potential in reducing oil demand. Possible ap-
plications include solar/thermal for water heating in industry and in
commercial and residential buildings; solar/electric (central), in-
volving large land areas of collectors, a tall receiving tower, special
boilers, and turbogenerators; and solar/electric (decentralized),
using photovoltaics for irrigation, village street lighting, public
buildings, and residences. It is estimated that 10-20% of the LDC
oil demand could be reduced through conservation. A lack of
trained personnel and of institutions capable of developing and


ARDA Vol. 9, No. 1 February 1981












SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY


133 PN-AAH-900
A REFERENCE COMPILATION OF SCIENCE AND
TECHNOLOGY OFFICIAL DEVELOPMENT
ASSISTANCE FURNISHED BY A.I.D. FOR THE LESS
DEVELOPED COUNTRIES (LDCs)
Reynolds, A.; Gaithwright, T
Logical Technical Services Corporation.
1980, 88 p.
Prepared for the United Nations Conference on Science and
Technology for Development
This research report, summarizing official development assis-
tance provided by A.I.D. to LDCs, was produced to meet the
needs of participants in the United Nations Conference on Sci-
ence and Technology for Development. It represents a synthesis
of A.I.D.'s economic assistance philosophy, which is character-
ized by a twofold thrust: (1) a "basic human needs" approach to
bilateral development assistance, which combines the furthering
of U.S. interests abroad with U.S. humanitarian interest in that
quarter of the world's population condemned to live at a substan-
dard level; and (2) a refocussing of A.I.D.'s assistance to LDCs
from sophisticated technology to light-capital, labor-intensive ap-
plications of scientific and technological developments. The re-
port concentrates on development assistance in the fields of
health, nutrition, and population; energy and natural resources;
employment, trade and industrialization, and access to technol-
ogy; food, climate, soil, and water; and urbanization, transporta-
tion, and communication. In each case, the relevant technologies
and means of technology transfer are discussed in conjunction
with a statement of the development problem addressed by these
technologies and with illustrative examples of A.I.D. programs.
The report concludes that comparatively little U.S. technology can
be transferred to LDCs without significant adaptation. The LDCs
have become aware of the need for technologies tailored to fit their
resource endowments and absorptive capacities, and stress is
being placed on the development of more appropriate technol-
ogies as well as on devising policies and institutions permitting
LDCs to make better technological choices. An extensive subject
index is included in this report.
AID/DSAN-C-0021 931023200


134 PN-AAH-218
MOROCCO ENERGY STUDY
Jacobs, A.B.; Farber, E.B.; Gordon, M.; Izbickas, V; Melby, E.D.K.;
Westerfield, J.D.
United States Agency for International Development, Develop-
ment Support Bureau, Office of Energy
1978, 67 p.
In November 1978, a team of six U.S. energy specialists assisted
the Government of Morocco (GOM) in defining energy policies to
further economic development and reduce Moroccan depen-
dence on foreign oil. This report presents the team's findings and
the conclusions drawn therefrom. Three areas were reviewed:
shale oil development, with emphasis on in situ retorting; hydro-


electric production; and nonconventional energy sources. Oil
shale represents Morocco's largest potential indigenous energy
source. Its development is essential if imported fuels, which cur-
rently cover 80% of the nation's needs, are to be reduced over the
long term. Confirmed resources within the Atlas mountains have
the potential for delivering up to 22 million barrels of oil annually,
the national consumption level in 1976. However, such problems
as the ultimate use of the oil, the disposal of ash, provisions for
water, and the reduction of sulphur content, have not been ad-
dressed. Recommendations focus on the need for a comparative
analysis of alternative exploitation methods and for in situ field
tests. Studies on hydroelectric power conclude that decentraliza-
tion may be more economical than major project initiatives, such
as at Tarfaya, where costs are estimated to be five times greater
than the present national average. Systems studies for improved
use of existing plants and for devising more economical uses of
salt are recommended. In the area of nonconventional energy, the
team endorses the GOM's proposed solar center and recom-
mends increased training and planning development to clarify
organizational structure and objectives. Along with biomass stud-
ies, the establishment of projects in a decentralized pattern is also
suggested. To insure that future GOM energy investments do not
detract from those in other sectors, energy development on a
regional rather than national level is advocated. The report con-
cludes with recommendations for A.I.D. assistance to the GOM in
areas of renewable energy sources and shale oil development
which would reduce the need for nuclear development. A bibliog-
raphy of French-language resource materials (1972-78) is ap-
pended.
DS/EY

135 PN-AAH-389
THE CONTRIBUTION OF RENEWABLE RESOURCES
AND ENERGY CONSERVATION AS ALTERNATIVES TO
IMPORTED OIL IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES
Palmedo, PF; Baldwin, P
Energy/Development International.
1980, 187 p.
LDC's (non-OPEC) now account for 15% of the world oil demand.
This demand is expected to grow from the current eight million
barrels per day (MBD) to 20-25 MBD in the year 2000. This paper
addresses the role of renewable energy sources and conservation
in meeting the future energy demands of developing countries. It
appears possible that renewable energy sources (biomass, solar,
wind, small-scale hydro, and geothermal) could reduce that de-
mand 8-15%. Of these sources, it is solar energy which appears to
have the greatest potential in reducing oil demand. Possible ap-
plications include solar/thermal for water heating in industry and in
commercial and residential buildings; solar/electric (central), in-
volving large land areas of collectors, a tall receiving tower, special
boilers, and turbogenerators; and solar/electric (decentralized),
using photovoltaics for irrigation, village street lighting, public
buildings, and residences. It is estimated that 10-20% of the LDC
oil demand could be reduced through conservation. A lack of
trained personnel and of institutions capable of developing and


ARDA Vol. 9, No. 1 February 1981












4 SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY


maintaining small-scale renewable energy systems are the princi-
pal obstacles to the utilization of these new energy sources. In
addition, LDC governmental and private sector policymakers
have maintained a cautious attitude regarding renewable energy
sources primarily due to their perception of the industrialized
nations urging such sources upon LDCs without according them a
high priority in their own nations. Another constraint to the use of
renewable energy sources is the fact that the major lending and
research institutions assisting developing countries are oriented to
large-scale, capital-intensive technologies. Authors conclude that
the nontechnical constraints to renewable and energy conserva-
tion strategies are the most formidable. They recommend that the
U.S. and other industrialized nations step up their technical, eco-
nomic, and institutional assistance in the development of these
energy sources.
AID/SOD/PDC-C-0301 931000300
136 PN-AAH-499
SOLAR ENERGY, WATER, AND INDUSTRIAL
SYSTEMS IN ARID LANDS: TECHNOECOLOGICAL
OVERVIEW AND ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY
Duffield, C.
University of Arizona, Office of Arid Lands Studies.
1978, 163 p.
In Arid Lands Resource Information Paper No. 12
Solar energy technology is quickly coming to the forefront of
existing and new energy systems. This paper provides an over-
view of solar energy technology, examining solar energy at the
level of industrial ecosystems or technoecosystems, and the rela-
tionships of these systems to the arid lands of the world. The paper
presents technoecology as a useful approach for understanding,
designing, and managing solar-powered industrial systems and
as capable of providing a basis for coherent, comprehensive,
successful solar energy research and development strategy The
paper also discusses why solar-based civilizations may soon be a
part of our world and makes projections about when they may
arrive and what they may be like. Past, present, and future interac-
tions of sunlight, water, and technoecosystems in arid lands are
examined. This is done through a series of analogies comparing
solar energy technoecosystems to biological ecosystems. These
analogies include evolution, succession, symbiosis, niches, com-
petition, optical concentration, and other phenomena which occur
in both the industrial and biological worlds. Solar collectors are
discussed as analogous to plants in design, organization, and arid
adaptations. Photovoltaic solar cells are considered analogous to
chloroplasts, but without the latter's need for water. In addition, the
cost effectiveness of solar cells over the next few decades in


relation to fossil fuels is discussed. The paper discusses, as one of
its main themes, that within a few decades, solar power will re-
place fossil fuel power. Solar technologies for water processing
are reviewed. Recommendations include: the need for effective
international cooperation, development of cheap solar cells, and
nurturing of a new solar consciousness. Attached to this techno-
logical overview is a 125-item, supplementary reference bibliog-
raphy (1965-78). An extensive annotated bibliography of 100 ref-
erences (1966-77) is also appended.
AID/ta-G-1111 211(d) 931015900

137 PN-AAH-629
TUNISIA ENERGY STUDY: A COOPERATIVE
PROGRAM IN ALTERNATIVE ENERGY RESOURCES
AND TECHNOLOGIES
Gorden, M.; Westfield, J.D.
Development Sciences, Inc..
1978, 25 p.
In October 1978, a team from the United States went to Tunisia to
determine the preparedness of the Government of Tunisia (GOT)
for a cooperative program in alternative energy resources and
technologies. This project discusses coordination of alternative
energy resources and technologies between the U.S. and Tunisia.
The willingness of the GOT to act on these issues was evident and
was displayed through the assembling of data and in processed
data sets. A coordinated plan for fossil fuels is in place. A financial
mechanism which is ideally suited for stimulating alternative en-

ergy technology is also in place. In regard to resource mobiliza-
tion, although ample resources such as sun and wind exist,
knowledge of appropriate technologies is limited. The major
weakness in meeting the criteria applied lies in a lack of familiarity
with the range of technologies of renewable energy. Training in
these technologies through both "hands-on" and some formal
presentation is needed. Recommendations for this plan include
the following: (1) a program of in-country training, education by
experience in alternative energy; (2) collaboration by the U.S. and
Tunisia's Ministry of Agriculture in the design of a project to use
alternative energy technologies in rural energy settings; (3) provi-
sion of a short-term U.S. specialist in central solar electricity gen-
eration; (4) assistance by A.I.D. to the Ministry of Energy in design-
ing a study on alternative uses of organic material. and (5) organi-
zation of a technical trade or sales seminar on alternative energy
technologies. A list of participants in this study as well as an
11-item bibliography in French and English which covers the pe-
riod 1977-78 are appended.
AID/DSAN-C-0059 298003500


ARDA Vol. 9, No. 1 February 1981












SOCIAL SCIENCE


138 PN-AAG-936
POOR RURAL HOUSEHOLDS, TECHNICAL CHANGE,
AND INCOME DISTRIBUTION IN DEVELOPING
COUNTRIES: INSIGHTS FROM ASIA
Sisler, D.G.; Colman, D.R.
Cornell University, Department of Agricultural Economics.
1979, 321 p.
In Agricultural and Economics Research 79-13
Although the population of Asia is immense, its land mass vast,
and its agriculture varied, one factor, rice, serves as a common
denominator for this disparate group of nations and people. This
report, concentrating on wetland rice production, assesses how
the adoption of improved agricultural technology has influenced
agricultural production and income distribution on small Asian
farms. Asian rice yields have increased significantly over the past
decade through use of modern varieties, fertilizers, agricultural
chemicals, and water management techniques. Concern is in-
creasing, however, as to the way in which the benefits have been
distributed among rural families. The report begins with an over-
view of the research and study areas, and continues with discus-
sions of patterns of household income, production systems, and
household time allocation and labor market operation. A final
section summarizes the findings and draws some conclusions
and policy implications. It was found that mechanical technology
and herbicides are not indispensable complements to the central
"Green Revolution" components of modern varieties, fertilizer, and
irrigation; and being substitutes for labor, they have no significant
place in the production systems of labor-abundant small farms.
Even though the new rice technology has had a significant positive
impact on rice yields, output, and, to a lesser extent, employment
in South and Southeast Asian countries, there is still much room for
progress. Farmers have been highly receptive to the new seed-
fertilizer technology and are very capable of perceiving what is to
their economic advantage. The constraints causing farmers to
underemploy resources were found to be largely outside their
control, but susceptible to policy action. Another policy-related
item is the direct influence of political intervention in the factor
markets (e.g., target rice yields which exceed the economic opti-
mum) on economic returns from adopting technology. A 24-item
constraints bibliography (1965-78) and a 44-item general bibliog-
raphy (1962-79) are appended.
AID/ta-C-1327 RES 931059400


139 PN-AAH-023
COMMUNITY ADVISORY GROUP DEVELOPMENT
FOR LATIN AMERICAN RURAL COMMUNITIES:
TRAINING OF ADVISORY GROUP FACILITATORS
TRAINING MANUAL
Johnson, Gary L.
San Jose State University.
1978, 127 p.
A community advisory group (CAG) is a self-help group of citizens
who serve as intermediaries between rural citizenry and formal


organizational structures to bring together the human resource
potentials within communities and the sociopolitical resources
available at regional, state, and national levels. CAGs assess
individual and community needs and promote self-development,
community education and development, and national develop-
ment. Without CAGs or other intermediaries, lower socioeconomic
and rural populations, lacking formal education and formal group
organizational structures, would remain dependent and subser-
vient to outside controls. This training manual contains instruc-
tional methods used to train both CAG facilitators and members.
The learning components, objectives, and activities of four instruc-
tional units are provided. Unit one, a basic communication unit,
discusses one- and two-way communication, human transac-
tions, and self-awareness. The purpose of this communication unit
is to acquaint community members with the CAGs potential for
personal, social, and economic development. Units two and three,
concerning group membership dynamics and group leadership
dynamics, describe the interpersonal skills needed by facilitators
and members to function in a CAG. These skills include: identify-
ing individual and community needs, learning to communicate in
CAGs, and decisionmaking. The fourth instructional unit provides
a basic understanding of CAG structure and methods. Topics
discussed include the origin of CAGs, a survey to determine
community needs, the participation of local organizations to pro-
mote CAGs, and the selection of CAG members. Each unit con-
cludes with several related "experience activities", which are
group exercises to be led by the facilitator. Because the rural
campesino population of Latin America is largely illiterate, this
manual relies on oral instruction. The manual is available in both
English- and Spanish-language versions.
AID/la-G-1169 598057300
Also available in Spanish: PN-AAH-024, 160 p.

140 PN-AAH-226
A SELECT ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY OF SOCIAL
SCIENCE MATERIALS FOR UGANDA, FOLLOWED BY
AN EXPANDED BIBLIOGRAPHY
Hoben, S.J.
1979, 57 p.
Literature about the social sciences can be very beneficial to
personnel working on development projects. This document con-
tains a selected annotated bibliography and an expanded bibliog-
raphy in order to identify available clearly written, nontechnical
publications in the social sciences that will assist USAID person-
nel and contractors in planning and implementing development
programs in Uganda. The selected annotated bibliography em-
bodies three main headings. The first covers history, politics, and
socioeconomic settings. Within the historical section, sources dat-
ing from pre-colonial times up to the rise and fall of Amin are
included. The political section covers literature on both national
and local political institutions and the ideological trends that are
now influencing political developments in Uganda. The final sec-
tion covers socioeconomic references that discuss some of the
nation's 5-year economic plans. The second main section covers
ethnic and regional background material. In particular, anthro-


ARDA Vol. 9, No. 1 February 1981












I SOCIAL SCIENCE


pological studies are cited and specific ethnic and regional
groups are investigated. The last section covers social aspects of
development topics relevant to Uganda, such as agriculture, edu-
cation, health, women, and transportation. The expanded bibliog-
raphy then follows, containing references to books, selected pri-
marily from the social science field and published between 1969
and 1979, that relate to USAID development concerns in Uganda.
A list of additional information resources is appended.
AFR/EA

141 PN-AAH-254
THE VALUE OF CHILDREN IN ASIA AND THE UNITED
STATES: COMPARATIVE PERSPECTIVES
Fawcett, J.T; Arnold, F; Bulatao, R A.; Buripakdi, C.; Chung, B.J.;
Iritani, T; Lee, S.J.; Wu, T
East-West Center, East-West Population Institute.
1974, 74 p.
Papers of the East-West Population Institute, No. 32
How can the value of children be assessed? Although the task is
difficult, research on the value of children is needed to better
understand the determinants of human fertility and to suggest
guidelines for fertility regulation policies. In this study, designed to
provide knowledge of how different cultures perceive satisfactions
and costs of children, the value of children is defined as twofold:
positive values, or satisfactions, and negative values, or costs.
Positive values include emotional benefits, economic benefits and
security, self-enrichment and development, identification with
children, and family cohesiveness and continuity; negative values
include emotional costs, economic costs, restrictions or opportu-
nity costs, physical demands, and family costs. Comparative find-
ings from six countries are reported: Japan, Korea, China (Taiwan),
the Philippines, Thailand, and the U.S. (Hawaii). For each country,
results of three contrasting socioeconomic groups are analyzed:
urban middle class, urban lower class, and rural. Results are
based on interviews with 2,500 young couples having at least one
child. About 360 couples were interviewed in each of the Asian
countries, 557 in Hawaii to permit comparison of Caucasian,
Japanese, and Filipino ethnic groups. Cross-culturally, child-
rearing is an activity characterized by ambivalence, but with bene-
fits outweighing costs. Findings reveal a contrast between emo-
tional benefits of having children emphasized by the urban middle
class, and economic benefits emphasized by rural respondents,
with the urban lower class falling between the two. Economic costs
of children are of importance even to the more affluent middle
class, although they are less concerned about financial costs than
are other socioeconomic groups. The urban lower class show the
most concern about costs. Population policy implications of the
findings are discussed. Authors suggest that policy recommenda-
tions be made in a country-specific context with sociocultural
factors considered. Suggested policies include old age pensions,
parent education programs, large family taxation, etc. Descriptive
tables and a 6-item (1968-74) bibliography are appended.
AID/pha-G-1058


142 PN-AAH-273
COMMUNICATIONS PROTESTING
Bertrand, J.T
University of Chicago, Community and Family Study Center.
1978, 149 p.
In Media Monograph Series, No. 6
The majority of social development programs around the world
stand to benefit from communicating their activities through the
mass media. Most program administrators will invest in communi-
cation that will effectively reach a target population but will avoid
squandering limited resources on costly productions that create
negative results in the field. Through protesting, the reaction of a
group of individuals to a communication can be measured, result-
ing in the possibility of diffusing the most acceptable, most appro-
priate communication possible. In a "how-to" format, this mono-
graph presents suggestions for pretest designs for radio and
television spot announcements, posters, pamphlets, and movies,
as well as techniques in initially designing, conducting, and ana-
lyzing the results of the pretest. For any type of mecia, protests are
designed to identify those messages which are potentially most
effective, namely, which are: most attractive and gain the most
attention; most easily understood; most acceptable and least
likely to create a negative reaction; best at creating the feeling of
self-involvement with the topic; and most persuasive. The protests
presented in this pamphlet all adhere to the following criteria: they
are economical; they require no special protesting equipment or
test facilities; they can be carried out by people with limited
research training; most are appropriate for use in developing
countries with nonliterate populations; and they y eld results that
can be hand tabulated for rapid feedback to the communications
staff. Personnel who should be involved in this activity include the
director of the organization (to ensure that the pretest is being
implemented in ways which will improve the communications
program) and members of the research division (to objectively
evaluate the pretest results). When a separate research division is
not available, the communication staff itself may evaluate the
pretest; however, the persons who designed the pretest should
neither conduct the pretest nor tabulate the results. At the conclu-
sion of the monograph, the author provides four sources (1968,
1973, 1975) for further reference.


AID/csd-3314


931095800


143 PN-AAH-469
MARGUI-WANDALA DIVISION (NORTH CAMEROON):
AN ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY
Nkwi, PN.; Kamanda, B.; Nassourou, S.
Yaounde University, Department of Sociology
1979, 81 p.
The present situation of the ethnically diverse peoples of the
Margui-Wandala Division of Cameroon can only be understood in
the light of their past history These ethnic groups may be divided
into two broad categories on the basis of the predominant factor of
religious affiliation: an influential Moslem minority, and the Kirdi, or


ARDA Vol. 9, No. 1 February 1981












SOCIAL SCIENCE


pagan, majority. The latter is a farming people of animist belief who
have been forced to take refuge in mountain villages by historical
vicissitudes. There they have remained cut off from the outside
world and from change, while surviving harsh conditions in adapt-
ing to the natural environment. Their persistence in living in iso-
lated areas has caused great problems of conscience for the
Government of Cameroon, which is doing everything possible to
bring these people to the plains and to the benefits of moderniza-
tion. Ethnic values are firmly ingrained, however, as is the fear of
the consequences of transportation to the plains. This annotated
bibliography on the history and characteristics of the Kirdi peo-
ples, as well as of the Moslem, has been prepared for those
involved in assisting these people in the process of development.
The bibliography has been compiled in three parts. The first part
gives a general summary of central themes covered by the au-
thors including: historical background, populations, social struc-
ture, kinship structure, habitation, marriage, religious beliefs,
political organization, agriculture, and migration and resettlement.
The second part presents each bibliographic entry with a brief
annotation. The third section discusses works which were unable
to be annotated. The bibliography consists of 60 entries, (1951-
79) mostly in French with a few in English, 49 of which are anno-
tated.

144 PN-AAH-473
THE SOCIOLOGY AND POLITICAL ECONOMY OF THE
SAHEL: AN ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY
Horowitz, M.M.; Lewis, J.V.
Institute for Development Anthropology (IDA).
1979, 35 p.
Prepared for the Workshop on Social Analysis of Development
Programs and Projects
Development officers and contractor personnel who work with
programs in the Sahel can benefit from using this 171-item (1912-
78) annotated bibliography on the Sahel's sociology and political
economy. The bibliography was prepared to assist these person-
nel in the identification, design, implementation, and assessment
of socially sound programs and projects which both benefit rural
low-income Sahelian populations and are based on their needs,
interests, and participation. Widely available monographic mate-
rial is stressed. First, those bibliographic materials and studies
which are general or regional in nature are listed, followed by
alphabetical listings by country, namely: Cape Verde and
Guinea-Bissau, Chad, Gambia, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Senegal,
and Upper Volta. French and English language entries are in-
cluded. Periodical literature, most "social soundness analyses"
prepared for A.I.D. project papers, and items produced under
A.I.D. research grants and contracts are omitted, since these
materials are widely distributed in the region and are easily avail-
able from the A.I.D. Research Center. The authors recommend
that Missions subscribe to those journals which are rich in perti-
nent development material, such as Etudes Rurales, African Envi-
ronment, and Africa.
AID/afr-C-1469


145 PN-AAH-474
AN ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY OF THE
SOCIOLOGY AND POLITICAL ECONOMY OF
SOMALIA, SUDAN, AND TANZANIA
Fleuret, P; Jama, M.A.; Laitin, D.; Murdock, M.S.; Thomas, G.L.
1979, 17 p.
Development officers and contractor personnel who work with
programs in Somalia, Sudan, and Tanzania can profit from using
this annotated bibliography of the sociology and political econ-
omy of these countries. The bibliography was prepared to assist
these personnel in the identification, design, implementation, and
assessment of socially sound programs and projects of benefit to
rural low-income populations. The selections are based on the
needs, interests, and participation of this target group. Mono-
graphic material is stressed. The bibliography contains 62 entries
arranged by country with entries in English, Italian and French.
Most bibliographic items are accompanied by abstracts and
cover the period 1962-79.
AID/afr-C-1504

146 PN-AAH-530
INDIVIDUAL, FAMILY AND VILLAGE LITERACY IN
DEVELOPMENT
Nesman, E.G.; Rich, TA.; Green, S.E.
South Florida University
1980, 161 p.
Based on data from the Basic Village Education Project in Guate-
mala
Literacy has long been considered the key to the adoption of
modern agricultural practices by traditional farmers. Past studies
undertaken to confirm this assumption have focused solely on the
individual. The purpose of this study is to expand that focus to
include both the family and the village in determining the relation-
ship between literacy and the adoption of modern agriculture
practices. Data for this study were obtained from A.I.D.'s Basic
Village Education Project in which 1,300 farmers and their
families were profited. Major findings include the following: (1)
Membership in a highly literate family is related to the increased
use of modern agricultural practices regardless of whether the
farmer is literate himself. (2) The relationship between family lit-
eracy and the adoption of modern agricultural practices was not
dependent upon the age of the farmer, the size of the farmer's
holdings, or general living conditions. (3) Membership in a literate
village is not consistently related to the use of modern agricultural
practices. For example, the relationship did not hold true for farm-
ers living in the Indian Highlands demonstrating that the influ-
ence of literacy can be mitigated by cultural factors. (4) In contrast
to family literacy, individual literacy has no measurable relationship
to the increased use of modern agricultural practices. In conclu-
sion, the current study indicated that while individual literacy has no
consistent relationship to change in agricultural practices among
traditional farmers, family literacy does indeed seem to be an
important factor. Report includes a bibliography (58 items, 1933-
78) and appendices (interview questions, scoring procedures, a


ARDA Vol. 9, No. 1 February 1981





$ SOCIAL SCIENCE

list of items comprising the agricultural practice index, a listing of
materials used in the field validation study, a cross-tabulation of
literacy by school attendance, and profiles of literate farmers,
families, and villages).
AID/DSPE-C-0040 931000100; 520022800

147 PN-AAH-613
FURTHER EVIDENCE OF THE TRANSITION IN THE
VALUE OF CHILDREN
Bulatao, R.A.
East-West Center, East-West Population Institute.
1979, 92 p.
In Papers of the East-West Population Institute, No. 60-B
Why are successive generations of parents having fewer and
fewer children? Demographic studies have noted this transition
from high to low fertility rates and are attempting to answer this
question. This paper argues that a central reason for the fertility
decline is a set of changes in parents' perceptions of specific
values and disvalues attached to children. Children become less
valuable in one sense, but they also become valued for different
reasons and the burdens they impose on parents are altered both
quantitatively and qualitatively Taken collectively, these changes
have been labeled "the transition in the value of children," a theory
which attempts to explain long-term changes in fertility levels that
accompany modernization. First, the theory and past literature,
which was limited to seven Asian and two Western countries, are
briefly reviewed. New evidence from countries in Africa, Latin
America, Europe, Asia, and Oceania are presented in the re-
mainder of the paper in an attempt to confirm the theory. Thus, to
supplement the evidence of this transition from nine countries
reported in a previous paper (Bulatao, 1979), data from an addi-
tional 14 countries are considered in this paper. Cross-national
comparisons are made among values and disvalues attached to
children. The new data reinforce the previous findings. Conclu-
sions drawn were that the fertility transition is due to vanishing
economic roles for children; a rise in the aspirations people have
for their lives; disinterest in being financially and physically bur-
dened by children; emergence of the conjugal family with its
rewarding parent/child interactions yet marital strains; weakening
cultural props for high fertility in terms of social benefits and
overpopulation; and infant mortality reduction. The transition in the
value of children is seen as a dual process of liberation. First,
children are liberated from premature death and from having to
work, and are awarded a special protected status; then, parents
are liberated from the burden of caring for many children and can
claim personal fulfillment as a right. Illustrative tables and a 32-
item bibliography of Danish and English titles covering the years
1967-79 are appended.
AID/DSPE-C-0002 932064800


ARDA Vol. 9, No. 1 February 1961


I % rr1 9
Caring for the future a woman awaits family planning counseling In
Pakistan.












URBAN DEVELOPMENT


148 PN-AAG-801
MAURITANIA: SHELTER SECTOR ASSESSMENT
Perta, J.; Fourcade, R.; Hammam, S.; Light, FD.
1979, 176 p.
The shifting of one-third of Mauritania's population within 12 years
(1965-77) from a nomadic lifestyle to one of rural/urban settlement
altered the societal structure, economy, and settlement patterns.
To assist the Government of Mauritania (GOM) in assessing its
shelter sector, a team of consultants examined shelter population
characteristics, dimensions of shelter problems, and shelter de-
livery system components. Recommendations to improve shelter
delivery system effectiveness include: (1) removing economic con-
straints and encouraging system expansion; (2) improving the
capabilities of shelter institutions; (3) adopting a spatial develop-
ment planning policy to stabilize resettlement groups; (4) subdi-
viding and allocating land to grant tenure to low-income families to
enable them to construct permanent units; (5) avoiding high costs
and family disruptions accompanying extensive relocation; (6)
recapturing costs of extending public fountains systems into low-
income areas; (7) designating specific refuse disposal areas; (8)
promoting pit latrines for human waste disposal and self-help
construction programs; (9) encouraging the production and use of
local building materials; (10) mobilizing family savings directed to
shelter financing; and (11) raising monthly payments on construc-
tion units to ensure that the GOM construction agency can prevent
potential bankruptcy. A 64-item bibliography (1974-78) of English-
and French-language titles is included, as are analyses tables.
AID/otr-C-1453 912046800
Also available in French: PN-AAG-802, 157 p.

149 PN-AAH-119
GUIDELINES FOR URBAN AND REGIONAL
ANALYSIS: TYPES OF ANALYSES APPLICABLE TO
A.I.D. ACTIVITIES
Rhoda, R.E.
United States Agency for International Development, Technical
Assistance Bureau, Office of Urban Development.
1976, 110 p.
Careful analysis of the developmental context and anticipated
impacts of prospective projects is essential in successful devel-
opment efforts. This report describes types of urban and regional
analyses relevant to A.I.D. activities. While not intended to be a
"how-to" manual, the report presents guidelines to assist field
missions in formulating, justifying, and designing urban and re-
gional projects and programs. It is noted that the type and level of
analysis to be implemented depend upon the country situation,
development assistance strategy, and types of projects antici-
pated. Ten types of analyses, of varying degrees of complexity, are
discussed and include those of national policies of urban and
regional development; the distribution and characteristics of the
poor; the distribution of development and underdevelopment; the
system of central place service centers; migration; key urban-rural
linkages; urban administration and the delivery of essential ser-
vices; urban employment and functions; and social analysis of the


urban poor. Each section provides a brief description of the type of
analysis, its relevance to A.I.D. activities, typical questions ad-
dressed by the assessment, sources of data, and references
(1955, 1964-66) for further information. Three applications of the
analyses to project development are presented: to establish
network centers for regional development; to improve the well-
being of slum residents in the capital city; and to increase em-
ployment in an intermediate-sized city.
TA/UD

150 PN-AAH-491
KENYA SHELTER SECTOR STUDY AND A.I.D.'S
EXPERIENCE
Jorgensen, N.O.
United States Agency for International Development.
1979, 247 p.
In Kenya, the need for improved rural and urban housing devel-
opments has become critical. This study, conducted in 1979 by
A.I.D., examines this need in three sectors of the country and is
supplemented by an evaluation of A.I.D.'s experience in urban
shelter, housing finance, and rural shelter. In regard to the urban
shelter sector, the authors note recent encouraging changes.
Foreign donors, such as A.I.D., the World Bank, the Common-
wealth Department Corporation, and the European Develop-
ment Fund, have channelled more of their resources toward
improving Kenya's urban housing needs. Major projects have
been moved away from Nairobi to upcountry towns where they
are needed. Public agencies have altered their shelter designs
so that they conform more to current needs. Finally, the institu-
tional capacity of shelter delivery agencies has been strength-
ened. The authors recommend that urban shelter study pro-
grams be set up immediately; that target groups for the housing
agencies be clarified; that emphasis be placed upon private
sector construction; and that all assistance encourage self-
reliance. Within its housing finance sector, Kenya does have a
good financial infrastructure and the growth of credit and saving
societies has been encouraging. Also, contributions made to-
wards voluntary support projects have been increasing. On the
other hand, because the banking system has favored the urban
sector, it must place more emphasis in the future on promoting
rural projects. In addition, the Central Bank must extend its credit
services towards housing financial institutions. The Government,
which has done well in raising revenue, can increase its sources
by raising revenue from import duties and income taxes. Local
authorities have not done as well and their procedures for collect-
ing property taxes and housing revenues should be reviewed. In
the rural sector, Kenya has shown little interest in the past in rural
development and the current development plan should help.
The National Housing Corporation's rural housing loan and the
role of the provincial housing officers must be strengthened.
Building materials should be decontrolled and related infrastruc-
ture facilities improved. A bibliography of 27 items (1966-78) is
included.
DS/H


ARDA Vol. 9, No. 1 February 1981






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ARDA Vol. 9, No. 1 February 1981








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ARDA Vol. 9, No. 1 February 1981








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ARDA Vol. 9, No. 1 February 1981






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(1) (2) (3)
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ARDA Vol.9, No.1 February 1981






(1)
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(2)
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(3)
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ARDA Vol. 9, No. 1 February 1981











Air Mail Order to:



How to Order:


PREPAID ORDER FORM
A.I.D. R & D Report Distribution Center
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TN-AAA-031


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ARDA Vol. 9, No. 1 February 1981


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(3) (5) (6) (7) (8)
Publication Author's First 3 to 5 Quantity Total
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Paper Microfiche U.S. Funds
PN-

PN-

PN-

PN-

PN-

PN-

PN-

PN-

PN-

PN-

PN-

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ARDA Vol. 9, No. 1 February 1981


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AID 590-2 (7-74)


ARDA Vol.9, No.1 February 1981





NO. AUTHOR FIRST THREE TO FIVE WORDS OF DOCUMENT TITLE PAPER FICHE

PN-

PN-

PN-

PN-

PN-

PN-

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PN-

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PN-

PN-

PN-


PN-

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III. MAILING ADDRESS

EXAMPLES OF MAILING ADDRESSES OFFICE OR BUREAU
1. AID/W: Office of Agriculture (TA/AGR)
Mr. John Doe ATTENTION
Agency for International Development
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ORGANIZATION OR AGENCY NAME
2. USAID's: Program Office
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Washington, D.C. 20523 ROOM NO., BLDG., APO., OR STREET ADDRESS
3. Non-AID: Librarian
Irrigation Research Institute CITY STATE OR COUNTRY ZIP CODE
The Mall
Lahore, Pakistan


AID 590-2 (7-74) BACK


ARDA Vol. 9, No. 1 February 1981










CORPORATE AUTHOR INDEX


Item No. Name


A F R /E A ................... ................... ..... 14 0
A ID -498-W ID-3-T ................ .. .. . ....... 071
AID-511-165-T . .... .. .. .. .. .......... ..... 076
AID-698-001-T ..... .... ................. ....... 116
AID/afr-C-1134 ................ ....... .............. .077
A ID/afr-C -1158 ................... .............. . 094-103
AID/afr-C-1198 .... ....... ............... .. .. 107
A ID/afr-C -1260 ................... .. ............... ..... 078
AID/afr-C-1364 ......................... ............ ....... .072
A ID /afr-C -1469 .................................. .. .. 144
AID/afr-C-1504 ............. . ......................... 145
A ID /afr-C -1554 ......................... .. .................. 066
AID/afr-C-1558 .................... ............. ..... 040
AID/CM/afr-IDA-73-14 ................. .... 111, 112, 120, 125-127
AID/csd-1588 ............................ ........ ..002
AID/csd-2263 211(d) ........................... 067, 070, 073, 074
AID/csd-2479 GTS ............................... ... 128
AID/csd-3310 ......... ...... ................ .119
AID/csd-3314 ... ............... ....... ............. .142
AID/DSAN-C-0021 ................... .. ............... .. 133
AID/DSAN-C-0059 .............. ..... .............. .. .137
AID/DSAN-C-0060 .................. ........................ 028
AID/DSAN-C-0081 ....................................... 044, 045
AID/DSAN-G -0076 ...................................... ... 042
AID/DSAN-G-0083 ..................... 003-009, 025, 057, 058
AID/DSPE-C-0002 ........................................ 131, 132
AID/DSPE-C-0040 ....................................... 146, 147
AID/la-G-1169 ......................... ..... .104,105, 139
AID/ne-147-77-2 .. .... ........... .......... ... .. 069
AID/ne-C-147-79-5 .................. ....... ........... 029
A ID /ne-C -1578 ............... ......... ........ .. . 019
AID/ne-C-1645 .............................. .. ..... 013, 014
AID/otr-147-78-14 ........................ .............. ...109
AID/otr-147-79-52 ..................................... .... 093
AID/otr-C-1453 .... ........... ....... ........... .. .. ...148
A ID/otr-G -1741 ................... ....... ................... 043
AID/pha-C-1108 ............. ......... ......... .129
AID/pha-C-1172 ......... ...................... ...130
AID/pha-C-1199 .... ........................... ......... 121
AID/pha-G-1058 .............. ............. 118, 123, 124, 141
AID/pha-G-1101 ... .......... ...... ............... 1 10
AID/SOD/PDC-0301 ................. .................... .. 135
AID/SOD/PDC-C-0223 ............... ... . ...... ... 031
AID/ta-BM A-2 ...................................... .. ..... 075
AID/ta-BMA-5 ....... ...... .. .. .. ......... . 015, 016
AID/ta-BMA-7 ........ ...... ................... 059, 079-091
AID/ta-C-1100 ................... ...................... .. 026

A ID /ta-C -1294 ................................... . 117
AID/ta-C-1320 .......................................... 113,114
AID/ta-C-1327 RES ................ ........................ 138
AID/ta-C-1411 .................. .. ....... .027, 034-039
AID/ta-C-1427 ................... ......... . . 020
AID/ta-C-1433 ............. .. .. . . ........ 108
AID/ta-C-1472 ..................................... .. 106
AID/ta-G-1111 211(d) ..................... ........012, 017, 033, 136
AID/ta-G-1218 GTS ................................... 021-024, 062
AID/ta-G-1221 211(d) ...................................... 030
A ID /ta-G -1271 ............................................... 04 7
AID/ta-G-1421 . ................ ........ .010, 011, 032, 092
AID/ta-G -1491 ..... ...... ... .. ................. 061
A ID /ta-G -1497 ...................... .. .................. 041
AID/ta-G-1499 ................ ........ .................. 060
D S/EY ............. ...... ....... ................... ......... 134
D S /H .. ... .. .. ... .... .. .. .. ... .. .. .. .. .. .. .15 0
DS/RAD .................... ................. 063, 064
PA/AG/TAB-610-9-76 .............................................046
PA/RA(AJ)-03-00 RES ............................. 048-056
PPC/WID ................. .................. .068
RS/COM/BUCEN-03-78 ................ .. ................. 122
RS/HEW-01-74 .............. ........................... .115
TA/OST .... ...... ........................... 065
TA/UD .............. .......... ...... .............. ... 149


Item No.


Academy for Educational Development, Inc. ............... 094-103
American Public Health Association ...................... 113, 114
Arizona University
Office of Arid Lands Studies ......................017, 033, 136
California, University of, Los Angeles
School of Public Health .................... 111, 112, 120, 125-127
Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical ............ 021, 022, 042
Chicago University
Community and Family Study Center .....................129, 142
Columbia University, International Institute
for Study of Human Reproduction ............................128
Colombo University, Sri Lanka .............................. 068
Colorado State University ..................................... 026
Engineering Research Center ................... 027, 034-039
Cornell University
Department of Agricultural Economics ................... 138
Development Sciences Inc. ........................ .........137
Devres, Inc............ .. ................ 031, 040
East-West Center, East West
Population Institute .............. 095, 118, 123, 124, 131, 132, 141
Energy/Development International ................ ........... 135
Ghana Medical School ......................111, 112, 120, 125-127
Hawaii University, School of Public Health ................... .... 119
Human Resources Management, Inc. ........................... 107
Illinois, University of, Urbana-Champaign ....................... 117
Institute for Development Anthropology ................ .043, 144, 145
Interafrican Bureau for Animal Resources .....................116
International Conference on the
Utilization of Guayule ............................. .012
International Crops Research Institute
for the Semi-Arid Tropics ................. 010, 011, 032, 060, 092
International Fertility Research Program ......................130
International Fertilizer
Development Centre .........................021-024, 062, 076
International Institute of Tropical Agriculture .................... 061
International Livestock Center for Africa ............... 041, 044, 045
International Potato Center ................... ............... 047
International Rice Research Institute.......... 003-009, 025, 057, 058
Joint Egyptian-American Survey Team ............. ...... ... 107
Kansas State University
Food and Feed Grain Institute ........ .............001, 002, 018
Logical Technical Services Corp. ......... .... ................ 133
Michigan State University
Department of Agricultural Economics ................... 072, 078
Minnesota University
Department of Agricultural and Applied Economics 015, 016
Nathan Associates ...................... ........ ..077
National Academy of Sciences
National Research Council, Board on Science and
Technology for International Development ................... 108
National Savings and Loan League .......................... 148
Ofiesh Associates, Inc. ................................... 105
Ohio State University ......................... .. ...... .075
Department of Agricultural Economics
and Rural Sociology ................ ........ 059, 079-091
Oklahoma State University ............ ........... ........ .020
Oregon State University
Office of International Agriculture .............................030


ARDA Vol 9, No. 1 February 1981


CONTRACT/GRANT INDEX


Contract/Grant No.










Pacific Consultants ................ ........ .. .. 013, 014
Population Council ............ ............. .121
Project Concern International ............. .. ....... .. .. .. 110
San Jose State University ......... .. .. ....... .104, 139
Sookmyung Women's University, Republic of Korea ...... ........ 071
South Florida University ........... ... ......... .. ..... .146
Stanford University
Institute for Communication Research .......... ...... 094-103, 106
U.S. Agency for International Development
DS/Office of Energy ......... .. .... .. ..... 134
DS/Office of Housing ......... ................... 150
DS/Office of Rural Development
and Development Administration .... ......... .... 063, 064
TA/Office of Science and Technology ....... ......... .....065
TA/Office of Urban Development ........ ........ ...... 149
U.S. Department of Agriculture ................................ 046
Agricultural Research Service ..... .... 048-056
U.S. Department of Commerce
Bureau of the Census ....................... 122
U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare
Office of International Health ......... .......... 115
Wisconsin University
Land Tenure Center .............. ....... ...067, 070, 073, 074
Regional Planning and Area Development Project .......... .. .028
Yaounde University, Cameroon
Department of Sociology ......... ......... ........... 143


GEOGRAPHICAL INDEX


Country/Region


Item No.


Africa ..... ...... .. ... 041, 043, 048, 066, 116
Africa, East ....... ..... 049, 052, 053
A frica, Sahel .................... ........... 041, 078, 144
Africa, West ......... .. ... ... .. ........ 045, 072
A sia ......... ...... .......... ... 13 8 14 1
Asia, East .......... ..... ... 067, 130
Asia, Southeast ........ ......... .. ... .004, 062, 067, 130
A sia, Southw est ........... .. .......................... 019
Bangladesh ............... .... 023, 073
Bolivia .......... .. 031, 076, 091
B ra zil ........ ......... ........ .. .. ...... 0 90 108
Cam eroon ........ ................ ............ ......143
C a nad a .............. .. .. ....... ........... .... ... 082
C h ile .......... ............................ ........... .. 0 8 3
Colom bia . ..... .......... .................... .129
Egypt .... .. . ....... 013, 014, 107
Ghana ....... .......... 111, 112, 120, 125-127
Guatemala ..... ...... 075, 146
India .................... .. 011, 032, 087, 088, 092
Indonesia .... . . ... 129
Iran .. ........... ....... ....... 055
Ivory Coast ....... ....... ... . 094-103
Jamaica ........... .................. ......... 086
Japan .................................. ... 025, 119
Kenya .. ...... .. .............. ..... .040, 054, 056, 071, 150
Korea, Republic of ................. ........ .......... .. .129
Latin America .. .......... .. 021, 022, 042, 104, 105, 139
M a li ............... ..... .. ........... 04 1
M a u rita n ia . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 8
Mexico ......... ....... ............. ......... .. 074
Morocco ..... ......... ......... .......... 134
N ear East .............. .............................. 069 077
N epal ..... ......... ......... ....... ..... .. ... 003
N icaragua ....... ............... ...... 020, 089
Pakistan ........ .019, 026, 027, 034-039, 123, 132
Portugal .......... .. .. .. 063
Peru ........... ......... 04 7
Philippines ............................ . . 005-009, 059
Puerto Rico ....... ........ ......... .. . 050, 051
Sahel .... .......... .. 041, 078, 144
Som alia ..... ... . .... . 145
Sri Lanka ... ....... ......... .. ..... .. ...... 018, 068
S u d a n .................................. ........0 8 5 14 5
Tanzania ................... ............... ................ 145
Thailand .... ........ ........ .. 028, 118, 129-131
Tunisia .... ...... .......... .015, 016, 137
Uganda .... .............. .... .... .... .140
U united States ................................ 012, 084, 128, 141
U pper Volta ...... ......... ....... .... .. ... .... .... .. 001
Worldwide .......... ... 001, 002, 012, 016, 017, 019, 024, 029
030, 033, 044, 046, 047, 057, 058, 060
061, 065, 070, 075, 079-081, 087, 090
093, 106, 109, 110, 113-115, 117, 121
122, 124, 133, 135, 136, 142, 147, 149
Yemen Arab Republic ... .................. .. 064
Zaire ... ............ ..... .. .061


ARDA Vol. 9, No. 1 February 1981


Corporate Author


Item No.










ITEM COST INDEX Item
Number


Item Control
Number Number
Agriculture
A. General
001 PN-AAG-989
002 PN-AAH-116
003 PN-AAH-230
004 PN-AAH-231
005 PN-AAH-233
006 PN-AAH-234
007 PN-AAH-235
008 PN-AAH-236
009 PN-AAH-237
010 PN-AAH-423
011 PN-AAH-424
012 PN-AAH-497
013 PN-AAH-511
014 PN-AAH-527
015 PN-AAH-565
016 PN-AAH-566
017 PN-AAH-568
B. Administration, Management,
018 PN-AAG-845
019 PN-AAH-063
020 PN-AAH-241
C. Fertilizer
021 PN-AAG-789
022 PN-AAG-790
023 PN-AAG-791
024 PN-AAG-793
025 PN-AAH-228
D. Irrigation and Water Manager
026 PN-AAG-818
027 PN-AAG-847
028 PN-AAG-964
029 PN-AAH-225
030 PN-AAH-329
031 PN-AAH-332
032 PN-AAH-422
033 PN-AAH-500
034 PN-AAH-588
035 PN-AAH-589
036 PN-AAH-590
037 PN-AAH-591
038 PN-AAH-592
039 PN-AAH-593
E. Livestock Production and Rat
040 PD-AAC-100
041 PN-AAG-756
042 PN-AAH-219
043 PN-AAH-238
044 PN-AAH-563
045 PN-AAH-564
F Plant Diseases and Parasites
046 PN-AAG-678
047 PN-AAG-828
048 PN-AAH-207
049 PN-AAH-208
050 PN-AAH-209
051 PN-AAH-210
052 PN-AAH-211
053 PN-AAH-212
054 PN-AAH-213
055 PN-AAH-214
056 PN-AAH-215
057 PN-AAH-229
058 PN-AAH-232
059 PN-AAH-348
060 PN-AAH-585
061 PN-AAH-586


Paper
Reproduction
Cost C
$0.13/page


Microfiche
Duplication
Cost
$1.08/fiche


6.50
5.20
1.43
2.21
2.08
1.69
5.59
3.25
3.38
4.03
2.86
23.40
27.82
37.44
1.82
2.60
35.49
Distribution and Marketing
17.68
2.73
12.74


nent













nge


6.37
6.37
7.41
3.51
1.56
t
4.81
84.50
12.61
10.14
28.34
6.89
2.34
19.37
12.87
25.87
15.73
7.93
21.91
7.93
Management
23.27
14.30
4.29
11.18
16.51
23.92


0.65
24.70
0.78
1.04
0.91
0.39
0.65
0.65
1.82
0.65
0.65
1.30
1.17
2.99
6.37
11.70


G. Rural Institutions and Farmer Organizations
062 PN-AAG-785 7.28
Development Administration
A. General
063 PN-AAH-317 19.63
064 PN-AAH-318 21.71
065 PN-AAH-493 9.36
066 PN-AAH-502 9.36
067 PN-AAH-598 15.86
B. Women In Development
068 PN-AAH-143 88.40
069 PN-AAH-309 9.36
070 PN-AAH-331 6.24
071 PN-AAH-437 11.44
072 PN-AAH-579 8.97
073 PN-AAH-601 2.73
074 PN-AAH-603 2.99
Economics
075 PN-AAG-784 11.18
076 PN-AAG-787 12.22
077 PN-AAG-997 12.22
078 PN-AAH-310 10.01
079 PN-AAH-347 4.94
080 PN-AAH-350 4.03
081 PN-AAH-352 5.46
082 PN-AAH-353 2.60
083 PN-AAH-354 1.82
084 PN-AAH-355 4.16
085 PN-AAH-356 2.86
086 PN-AAH-357 2.86
087 PN-AAH-358 5.46
088 PN-AAH-359 4.03
089 PN-AAH-360 4.03
090 PN-AAH-361 4.29
091 PN-AAH-362 5.33
092 PN-AAH-421 8.97
093 PN-AAH-490 7.54
Education
094 PN-AAG-831 14.04
095 PN-AAG-832 12.61
096 PN-AAG-833 32.50
097 PN-AAG-834 8.58
098 PN-AAG-835 5.59
099 PN-AAG-836 16.51
100 PN-AAG-837 13.52
101 PN-AAG-838 9.10
102 PN-AAG-839 10.66
103 PN-AAG-840 21.32
104 PN-AAH-021 12.09
105 PN-AAH-026 24.44
106 PN-AAH-142 45.50
107 PN-AAH-186 35.49
108 PN-AAH-368 3.51
109 PN-AAH-604 25.22
Health
A. General
110 PN-AAG-986 30.94
111 PN-AAH-262 10.53
112 PN-AAH-270 3.90
113 PN-AAH-595 19.11
114 PN-AAH-596 18.98
B. Diseases
115 PN-AAH-203 18.85
116 PN-AAH-531 7.80
Nutrition
117 PN-AAG-984 4.03


ARDA Vol. 9, No. 1 February 1981


Control
Number


Paper
Reproduction
Cost @
$0.13/page


Microfiche
Duplication
Cost @
$1.08/fiche









Paper Microfiche
Reproduction Duplication
Cost @ Cost @
$0.13/page $1.08/fiche


PERSONAL AUTHOR INDEX


Population
A. General
118 PN-AAH-253
119 PN-AAH-255
120 PN-AAH-268
121 PN-AAH-323
B. Family Planning
122 PN-AAH-250
123 PN-AAH-251
124 PN-AAH-252
125 PN-AAH-258
126 PN-AAH-259
127 PN-AAH-260
128 PN-AAH-475
129 PN-AAH-476
130 PN-AAH-605
131 PN-AAH-614
132 PN-AAH-615
Science and Technology
A. General
133 PN-AAH-900
B. Energy
134 PN-AAH-218
135 PN-AAH-389
136 PN-AAH-499
137 PN-AAH-629
Social Studies
138 PN-AAG-936
139 PN-AAH-023
140 PN-AAH-226
141 PN-AAH-254
142 PN-AAH-273
143 PN-AAH-469
144 PN-AAH-473
145 PN-AAH-474
146 PN-AAH-530
147 PN-AAH-613
Urban Development
148 PN-AAG-801
149 PN-AAH-119
150 PN-AAH-491


Name


5.98
10.53
4.29
4.94


20.54
3.25
8.32
5.98
5.46
5.20
2.60
21.06
28.47
7.67
4.16



11.44


8.71
24.31
21.19
3.25


41.73
16.51
7.41
9.62
19.37
10.53
4.55
2.21
20.93
11.96


22.88
14.30
32.11


Item No.


Adnan, S. ... .. .. .. ..... .. ... .073
Anderson, D ......... ......... ......... .... .. .... 018
Anderson, D. .. ......... .... ....... .. ........ .018
A nd erson, D .G ................ .................. ...... 001
Applegate, M.J. ................ ................ ... .020, 075
A rnold F ............ ... ................. ... 131,141
A sa nte R .O ........................ ......... .. ...... ... 111
Asm on, I .................... ................... .... 013
Avle, S.K ................... .............. .112
Axinn, G .H ............... . ..... ..... ....... 040
Badger, D .D ......... . . ......... .. . 020
Baldw in, P .. .. ......... .................. .135
Barker, R. ..................... ................ .. 059
Barnett, B .H ....... .............. ... ... ........... .. 023
Belcher, D .W ............... ............ 111, 112, 120, 125-127
Belcher, M.S. ............. ... .......... ................ 066
Beneveniste, A. .................. ...................... 098
Berger, J.A. ............... ..... .. .......... .....046
Berger, L.R ................. ....... ... ... .. ......... 046
Bertrand, J.T ......... ...................... .. ...... ...... 142
Bhatt, VV. ...... ..................... ...........087
B irkhead J ............ ................ ... ... . 040
B la ir, P . . . ... .. . . .. . . . . 10 4
Blevins, G ................... .......................... .. .. .115
B o c h K .R .. .. .. ..... .. .. ... .. ... .. .. .. .. .. .. 0 5 6
Bogue, D .J ........... ........... .... ..... ......... 129
Bohlool, B.B. ................... ................ . 046
Borsdorf, R .................. ................. .. .018
Bourne, C. ................................... .... ..... 086
Bulatao, R.A. ...................................... ... 141, 147
Buripakdi, C .. .... .. .. ........ ....... .... 141
Chang, TT ......... ....... ...... . . .005
C ho, L.J. ................... .............. ....... .131
C huang Y H ........ .... .. ...... .... . . .023
Chung, B.J .................. ... .. ............ ....... .141
Colman, D.R. ................ ........ ... ...... . 138
Cordova, V. .......... .. .... .... . 008, 009
Cuevas, C.C ................. ........ ..... .. .... .083
Daniere, A ................... ............. ...... ........... 103
David, C.C ........ ................... .................. 059, 079
Davis, R .......... .. ... ............ .. 115
Demeny, P ....... .. ....... ........... ........ ...... .. .121
DeMooy, C.J. ................ .......... ....... ........ .026
Derban, L.K.A ................... ................... .. .... .111
D e rm an B .............................. ........ 0 78
D erryck, V L....................................... ....... 109
Desai, B.M .......... .... ........ ... .. ...... .... ...... 088
Dixon, R.B.............. ........ ... ... .. 093
D uffie ld C ............. .............. ..... ........ 136
Etaix, M ...................................... ......... .096
Evans, S. ................. ... .......... .. ......... .. 102
Farber, E.B. ......... .. ........ .. ................1. 134
Farooqi, M.A .......... .................... .... .. .. .026
Fawcett, J.T. ........ .. ......... .... .......... 141
Feller, L.L ......................... ....... .113
Fenster, W .E ................. ......... .. .. .. .. 021, 022
Fleuret, P ............. ............................ 145
Foster, TH. ......... .......... .......062
Fourcade, R. .......... ... ... ........ ... .... 148
Fo x, R ............ ...... ......... ..... ............. 0 19
Fred erick, M .T ... ..... ................................. ... 0 76
F u lle r, G ..... ................. .. ...... .... .. 12 3
Gable, R.W ........ ........ .. ................. .064
Gallas, N ............... .. ................... ... 063
Garrity D.R .... ...................................... 006
G ascon, F B .............. ...... .... ............ 059
G hodake, R.D. ....... ... .. ... ........ ..... ... 092
G ish, O ................... ............... ......... .. 13
Gomez, G. ................ .. ... .. ... .......... 042
Gonzalez-Vega, C ..................... ...... .. .. 089
Gordon, M .................. ......... .. ... ......... 134, 137
Gotsch, C. .... ............................ ......... 013
Graham, D.H. ........ ..... .. ........... ...... 086
G ra nt, S ................... ....................... ...... 0 95 100
G reen, S.E ........ .................. ........ ......... 146
Guthrie, E.J................... ....... .. ..... .... ..... 056
Haase, E.F .......... .. ... .......... .........012, 017
Haidar, G. ...... ........ ...... ... ......... 026
H am m an, S ................... ................. ......... 148


ARDA Vol. 9, No. 1 February 1981


Item
Number


Control
Number








Item No.
Harre, E.A ........................... ........ .024
Harris, G.T.. ....... .......... 024
H a rvatin J .F ..................................... .. .... 0 3 1
Harwood, R.R. .............. ................ .. 006
Hawksworth, D.L ......... ..... ......... ....... 054
Haws, L.D ........................... ......................007
Hayam i, Y_ ...................... .......... .009
H ed lund F F .......................... ......... .. 013
H erdt, R .W ............. ......................... 007, 008
H e sse r, L .F ... .. .. ... .. .. ... .. ... .. .. .. .. .. ... .. 0 13
H ill, J.M .................................. 023
Hoban, S.J ............................... 140
Hobgood, H ................................. ............ 063
H o g a n D ......... .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 12 9
Hogan, J. ........ 074
Horowitz, M .M ...................................... ..... 144
Irita n i, T . . . . . . . . . .. . 1 4 1
Islam R. ......... .................... 073
Ivory, M ................... ................. .. 065
Izbickas, V. ................ ..... ................ .134
Jackson, B.R. .......................... 005
Jacobs, A.B ........................................... ... 134
Jama, M.A............ ... ...... ...... .. ....... 145
Jamison, D.T. .................. .... ..... ..... ......... 101
Jodha, N.S ............. ................... 010, 011, 032
Johnson, G.L .................. .......... ..139
Jones, W.D. ............................ ........ ........ 082
Jorgensen, N.O. ...................... ..... ... 150
Kahn, M .M .......................... ............. ..... .. 123
Kaiser, W .J. ............ .. ......... .......... 048-056
K a m a nd a B ................ ................................ 143
Karim, M.S. ......... .... .. .. ... ... ........132
K e a n J ................. ................ ........... 0 13
Keith, S.J.................... ................... 033
K ikuchi, M .. .................. ......... ........... 009
Kim O.Y ............................................... .. 071
K lees, S .J ..................................... .. 099, 101, 102
K lein, H ................. .. 016
Knodel, J ................ .... ............ ... .......... 118
Kpedekpo, G.M.K. ............ ..... ............111, 120, 125-127
Kwabia, K. .......... ..... ........ .......... ... 112
Ladman, J.R ................ ........ ........ 091
L a itin D ......... ... ... .... .... .. .. .. .. . .. .. 14 5
Leatham W ......... .... .............. .... .013
Lee, K ................... .......... ............. ....... 071
Lee, S.J. ........................ ... ........... 141
Lenglet, F ...................................... 094, 096, 097
Leon, L.A ................... .............. .......... 021, 022
Lewis, J.V. ..... ... ... ........ .144
Light, FD. .................. ......... ... ......... 148
L in g K .C ...................................... ......... 0 5 8
Livingston, O.W. ...................... ....................062
Londono, J. ................... ............................ 129
Lourie, I.M ................... .. .112, 120, 126, 127
Macy, J ................ .......... .. .. ........ 063
M arciano, E.B. ......... .. ... .. ...... ......... .. 009
Masicat, P ................ ............ ...... .........008
Matsumoto, YS ............... .......... ..... ......... 119
Mauri, A. ................ .... ... .... .... ......... 085
M ay, S.N .................. .... ................ ........ .. .046
McAnany, E.G. ............. .. .. ....... .. ......... 097
M cC latchy, D .......... .. .. ................. .. 081
McGinnies, W .G .................................... .. 012, 017
M elby, E .P.K ........... .. ............... ......... .. 134
M elendez, PL ........................... ......... .. 051
Mengistu, A. ................................... ...... ....... 060
Meredith, G .............................................. 056
Merrey, D.J................. ........... ........ 037, 038
Mew, TW ............ ...... ....... .. .......... 057
Meyer, R.L. ......... ... ........ .. ....... ........079
M irza A .H ... ................ ................... ......... 038
M itsui, S ................ ... ................ .......... 025
M orooka, Y ............................ ... ... 007, 008
Mottura, P ................ ................... ........ 085
Moulton, J ................. ............ ...... .......... 106
Murdock, M.S. ................................... ..........145


Item No.
Nassourou, S ....... ..... .... ...... ......... 143
Ndimande, B.N. ...................................... .... 054
Nelson, A.I ..... ............................ .......... 117
Nene, YL. . . . .. 060
Nesman, E.G .. .................. ...... 146
Neumann, A.K ............. ......... 120, 126, 127
Nicholas, D.D. .... . ..... . .... 111, 125
N kw i, R N .......... ............. .............. .... 14 3
N o res, G .A ................... .............................. ... 042
Norum D .I. ................... ............ .. .. 035, 036
Nygaard, D. ..................... ... ........... ..015
Ofosu-Ammah, S. ...................................... 111, 125
O riv e l, F . . . . . . .. . . . . 10 3
O 'Too le, J.C ....... .. ................................ 004
Pa lm ed o, P F .............................R.... .......... 135
Palm o re, J.A ............................................ .. 124
Parker, C ................... .................. ... ...... 013
Pejeranonda, C .................. ......... ........ ....... 131
P e ri, G .............................................. 0 3 4 -0 3 6
Perta, J. ................... ................... .......... 148
P hillip s, B ................... ............................ 0 70
Pierre, S.T .............................................. .. 095
Post, A ......... ..... ................ .. .............. 063
Price, E .C ........ .......... ....... .......... 006
Pudasaini, S .P ......... . . . .. ........ ... 003
Ram os, A.H. ........ ....... ...... ................ ........052
R ethe rfo rd R .D .................. .............. ......... 13 1
Reuss, J.O ................... ................... ......... 039
Reyes, R.C ..... .......... ................... ...... .057
R e y n o ld s J .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ... .. .. .. .. .. .12 8
Rhoda, R.E. ................... ................... ....... .. 149
R ic h T A .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ....... ... .. ... 14 6
Robayo, J.F .................... ..... .. .... .. ........... 002
Robertson, D.G. ............. ... ....................... 049
Roe, T ...... .. ..... .. .. .... .. .. .............. 015, 016
R oyse D .J. ................ ................... ....... ... 060
Ryan, J.G. ................... ............................. 092
Sarin, R ................... ......... .......... 092
Sayad, J. ................... ........ ........... . ... .090
Se lf, G .D .......... .... .. .... .... ....... ......... 029
Sherw ood F ........... ..... ... ........ ........063
S inc la ir, J .B .................................... ....... ... 0 6 0
S isler, D .G ...... ....... ............... .. .. ......... 138
Skogerboe, G.V ...... .. ..... ... ... .... ... 034-036
Smith, R.T .................. ................... ......... 076
Soomrith, B. ............. ...... ....... .......... 005
S pa in P ......... . ...... ... ............ .. 106
Sparrow, G.B .. . . ................. ... 013
Spencer, D.S.C. .......................... ........... .... 072
Stangel, J. ................... ................... ..........062
Steinberg, M .P ................... .... ............ ... .117
Stelly R. ................... ................... .............. 013
Stepanek, J.E. ................... ................... ......... 065
Storms, D.M. ........ ................... ..... ........ .114
Sudholt, A.W ...... ................ ........... .......040
Sukkary, S. ........... ... ........... .... ........... 013
Swett, F ......... ....... ... ... .................. 104
Tauer, L. ................... ...................... ...... 084
Teachman, J. ............................. ........ ........ .129
Teemba, L.R. ................. ........... .......... 053
Thom as, G .L. ................... ................. .......... .145
Tienda, M .............. .......... .... ... .. ............ 074
Tinnermeier, R.L. ...................................... 089, 091
Tomar, VS. ................... .......... ......... .......... 004
Tung, FL. ............ ............. ...... ........... 082
Vakili, N .G .................. ... ..... ........ ........... 050
Van Dusen, R.A. ................... .......................... 069
Vera Cruz, C.M. ........ .... ................ ....... 057
Vogel, R .C ........ ..... . .. ....... ................ 080
Watanabe, I. ......... ..... .... .. ...... .......... 025
W e i, L .S ........................... ............. ......... 117
Westfield, J.D. ................. ............... 134, 137
W u, TS.............. ............ .. .. .. ........ 141
Wurupa, FK. ................. ............. 111, 112, 120, 125-127
Zandstra, H.G. .......... ....... ... .. .......... ..... 006
Zaragosa, B.A. .........................................057


ARDA Vol. 9, No. 1 February 1981











SUBJECT INDEX


Item No.


ADMINISTRATIVE REFORM
in Portugal ....... .............. 063
AFRICA
C hildrearing in . ....... ..... .. .... 147
Food plants of the South Sahara ............... .. .048
Livestock production in ... ......................... 043
Regional develop ent in ................................ 066
Status of wom en in ........................... ... 070
Trypanosom iasis control in .............................. 045, 116
Tsetse fly control in .... ... ... .... ......... .. 045, 116
AGRICULTURAL BANK OF BOLIVIA ......................... 091
AGRICULTURAL CREDIT ........... 014, 059, 081, 084, 086, 090
(see also RURAL DEVELOPMENT BANKS)
Demand for ................... ................ 083
for Farm real estate ....... ............... .. .. 082
Forecasting m odel ....... .. ......... .. ... 082
Group lending ........... ........... ............... .088
Loans ........ .......... ................ 079, 081, 083, 084
in Nicaragua ......... .................. ....... 089
and Policies ......... .......... ... ...... .... .083
Political lending ................... .................. 091
Supply of .............. ....................... .. .... 083
AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT ....................... 020
AGRICULTURAL PRACTICES
A alternative cropping ...................................... 006
Cropping Systems ..... ........... 006
Intercropping ................... ................. 006, 010, 011
Intercropping technology .... . ................ 011
AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
in Pakistan .................. . .... ........ .019
Rice ........ ......... ............... ............ 138
AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH .. ...................... 023, 027
and Evapotranspiration ....... .... .............. .... 004
AGRICULTURAL TECHNOLOGY ......... ................. 014
and Rural development economics ....... ......... ... 075, 092
AGRICULTURE
in Arid lands .. ........... ............. 013, 014, 030, 033, 136
Dryland ........ ... ......... ... .006, 018, 030, 032
Extension activities ......... ............. 023, 028, 031
Livestock marketing ...... .. ........... ... ... .040
Livestock production .... ............. 030, 032, 040-042, 045
in Africa .... ............................. .. ......043
diseases affecting ...... ................. 045
measures of.......... ............. ................. 041
Labor-intensive ............................. ..... ... 007, 008
M marketing ... ....... ............... ..... 014, 018, 019
M odels ................... ... ..... .. .... ......... 015
Productivity ....... 004, 006, 011, 013, 014, 019, 021, 028, 031, 041
Rainfed ........ ................ ............ 028, 048, 059
Range management ............. .............030, 040, 043
Resource allocation in ....... .. .............. ...... 014, 015
Sector analysis models ............... .............. 016
in Semiarid lands ................... .010-012, 017, 030, 032, 043
Small ruminant production ..... .................. .044, 045
factors affecting .. ........... .. ..................... 044
Traditional ........... 003, 010, 011, 020, 028, 044, 075, 146
Tropical .. ....... ......... .. . . 061, 005
W etland ............................... .. .. 004 025
W omen's role in Sierra Leone ...................... ... 072
ALFALFA
V irus diseases of ...................................... 049
ALFALFA MOSAIC VIRUS
in Plant disease ......... ................... .... .. 049, 055
ALTERNATE ENERGY RESOURCES
in M o ro c c o .. .. .. .. .. ... .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .... .. ... .13 4
U.S.-Tunisia program s .. ................... .......... 137
ANIMATORS
in Rural communications ....... .................. ....... 139
ANOPHELINE MOSQUITOES
see MALARIA
ASIA
Childrearing in ............. .............. .. ..141, 147
Im proved rice technology in ............... ............... .138
Status of women in ............................. ........ 070
ASSOCIATION OF SE. ASIAN NATIONS (ASEAN)
Development of fertilizer programs ................... ........ 062
AZOLLA
and Biological fixation ..... ................... ......... .028


B

BACTERIA
in Disease
of beans ........
of cowpeas .. ... .
o f ric e ....... .. .. .
BANCO DEL ESTADO (CHILE)
Farm loans ......... .
BANGLADESH
Fertilizer use in ........ .
Status of women in ... ....
BANKING
(see also ECONOMICS, AGRICULTURAL CREDIT)
Agricultural Bank of Bolivia ..... ..... .... .....
Banco del Estado . ..........................
Federal Intermediate Credit Bank ...................
G roup lending ........... .
Jamaican Development Bank .. ... .... ..
State Bank of Bolivia .......... .
Sudanese Savings Bank ............... ..... .. .
BASIC HUMAN NEEDS PROGRAM
in A fric a . . . . . . .
and Development assistance ... .. .
BEANS
D diseases of ... ..... . .
BENIN
Livestock production in ...........
BIO M ASS EN ERG Y ..................................
BOLIVIA
Agricultural Bank of ... ...... ... ... .. ..
Fertilizer dem and in .. .. ..... .........
Irrigation in .. ......
State Bank of ...... ...
Sw ine production in .. ......................
BRAZIL
Experimental teaching in chemistry .. .. ..........
National Research Council .......................
Rural credit in .. ... .
Soil enrichment ........


C


Item No.


........050
. 050, 052
........057

........ 083

........ 023
....... 073


. .... 091
........ 083
. .... 084
....... 088
.086
.. 091
........ 085

........066
S..... .133

..048, 050

045
....... 135

........ 09 1
........ 076
....... 031
. .... .091
........ 042

.. .108
. .108
... 090
S. 021


Item No.


CAMEROON
Ethnic studies on .................. ..... .. ..... 143
Kirdi and Moslems in the Margui-Wandala Division ........... 143
Livestock production .......... ....... ... 045
CANADA
Agricultural real estate ....... ......... ........ 082
CAPE VERDE
Sociology and political economy of ........... ....... 144
CAPITAL MARKET FORMATION ................. ....... 087
CASSAVA
effects of Mealybug on ........................ .. . .. 061
Virus diseases of ......... .......... ....... 053
CASSAVA MEALYBUG
Research on .................... .......... ......... 061
CENTRAL TREATY ORGANIZATION (CENTO) ....... ......... 019
CHAD
Sociology and political economy of ............. ....... ... 144
CHEMISTRY
Experimental teaching in chemistry .. .. .......... .. .. 108
US.-Brazil collaboration in ... ..... .... ..... 108
CHICKPEAS
Diseases of ................... .. ....... ..... ... 060
CHILDREARING
Cross-cultural attitudes toward ... ......... .. .. 141, 147
Econom ic costs of .......................... ...... 141
CHILE
Agricultural credit ............................ ....... 083
Agricultural sector in ................... ............... 083
COLOMBIA
Fam ily p planning in ................... .................. .. .129
Soil enrichm ent in ................ . . 021
Swine production in ............ . .042
COLORADO STATE UNIVERSITY
Irrigation studies. ..... .. ............... . 027, 035-039
COMMUNICATIONS .............. ... ........... .......... 133
(see also EDUCATIONAL TELEVISION, MASS MEDIAi
Broadcasting training ................ ........... ....... 106
Graduate education in .................... .......... 106
Message protesting ..... .......................... 142
Rural animators ........ .... ............................. 139
Training for developing country personnel ................... 106


ARDA Vol. 9, No. 1 February 1981




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