• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Title Page
 Letters
 Table of Contents
 Introduction
 Development of strategy for food...
 NCRE
 Maize
 Rice
 Sorghum and millet
 Testing and liaison unit
 Strengthening Cameroon cereal research...
 Cooperating institutions
 Acronyms and abbreviations
 Personnel
 Back Cover






Title: A new era for food crop research in Cameroon
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 Material Information
Title: A new era for food crop research in Cameroon
Physical Description: 36 p. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Publisher: United States Agency for International Development?
Place of Publication: Washington D.C.?
Publication Date: 1987?]
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Genre: non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: A cooperative project of the Cameroon Institute for Agronomic Research (IRA), International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA), and the United States Agency for International Development (USAID)
Funding: Electronic resources created as part of a prototype UF Institutional Repository and Faculty Papers project by the University of Florida.
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Resource Identifier: oclc - 19720012

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Title Page
        Page 1
    Letters
        Page 2
    Table of Contents
        Page 3
    Introduction
        Page 4-5
    Development of strategy for food crops
        Page 4-5
        Page 6
        Page 7
    NCRE
        Page 8-9
    Maize
        Page 10-11
        Page 12
        Page 13
    Rice
        Page 14-15
        Page 16
        Page 17
    Sorghum and millet
        Page 18-19
        Page 20
        Page 21
    Testing and liaison unit
        Page 22-23
        Page 24
        Page 25
    Strengthening Cameroon cereal research capability
        Page 26-27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
    Cooperating institutions
        Page 32
        Page 33
    Acronyms and abbreviations
        Page 34
    Personnel
        Page 35
        Page 36
    Back Cover
        Back Cover
Full Text







A
New Era
for
Food Crop
Research
in
Cameroon


A cooperative project of the
Cameroon Institute for
Agronomic Research (IRA)
International Institute of
Tropical Agriculture (IITA)
and the United States
Agency for International
Development (USAID)
Project No. 631-0013
November 1987











Assistance by USAID to
the agriculture sector
of Cameroon is a vital
input in the national develop-
ment strategy. The assistance
provided to the National
Cereals Research and Exten-
sion program of the Institute
for Agronomic Research is
especially valuable because it
is making available the best of
the world's agricultural tech-
nology through its linkage
with the International Insti-
tute of Tropical Agriculture
and the international agri-
cultural research centers. I
have noted with some pride
the professional growth of the
Cameroonian research staff
who have joined this project
and I look forward to their
becoming the scientists and
leaders of a dynamic and pro-
ductive agriculture sector.




rl
H. E. Paul Biva
President
Republic of Cameroon


T he National Cereal
Research and Extension
Project (NCRE) illus-
trates the successful partner-
ship and cooperation of the
Government of Cameroon and
the U.S. Agency for Interna-
tional Development (USAID).
NCRE has become a 15-year,
$70,000,000 project of the
Government of Cameroon to
which USAID has contributed
$43,000,000. This booklet
documents the impressive
results of the first five years.
The long-term commitment
is a historical one for USAID.
It demonstrates our determi-
nation to be a dependable,
long-term partner to a stable
and committed country. The
benefits of NCRE are twofold.
First, Cameroon is able to
strengthen its agricultural
research system to maintain
its policy of food self-reliance.
Second, the research results
are relevant and transferable
to neighboring countries,
which places Cameroon in a
leadership position in produc-


ing research which other
countries in the region can
use.
The NCRE project is com-
plemented by USAID assis-
tance to the University Center
of Dschang, which represents
the other arm of our support
to agriculture by strengthen-
ing agricultural education
faculties. USAID's long-term
commitment to food crop
research in Cameroon is
evident not only by funding
cereals research through
NCRE for fifteen years but
also by undertaking the
research project in tropical
roots and tubers.
I am impressed by the
accomplishments of the NCRE
project and congratulate the
Government of Cameroon's
Minister of Higher Education
and Scientific Research, the
Institute of Agronomic
Research and USAID/
Cameroon on their successful
collaboration in implementing
this research program.




M. Peter McPherson
Director
U.S. Agency for
International Development


LETTERS







[SCOENS


INTRODUCTION 4
Agricultural research in
Cameroon has a double
impact, once for Cameroon
and again for Africa as a
region, because Cameroon is
an agricultural research
producing country.

NCRE 8
The partnership and
cooperation of the
governments of Cameroon
and the United States,
through the NCRE project, is
a long-term commitment to
food security.

MAIZE 10
Maize variety development
intensified through the NCRE
project, benefitting from IRA's
previous ten years of
successful varietal
development work in both the
highlands and lowland
regions.
RICE 14
Many West and Central
African countries stand to
benefit from the rice research
underway in Cameroon,
especially those with similar
agro-climatic conditions.


SORGHUM & MILLET 18
Under low rainfall conditions
of the growing region for
sorghum and millet, higher
yielding varieties and
improved cultural practices
are essential to meet future
needs.

TESTING & LIAISON UNIT 22
Developing and maintaining
information channels between
farmers, researchers and
extension agents is essential
for research to have an impact
on agricultural growth.

COMMITMENT 26
NCRE is developing
knowledge and operational
approaches with national
scientists to enhance their
ability to identify problems,
analyze alternatives, and
formulate strategies that
achieve food security.

COOPERATING
INSTITUTIONS 32

ACRONYMS &
ABBREVIATIONS 34

PERSONNEL 35








Agricultural research in Cameroon
has a double impact, once
for Cameroon and again
for Africa as a region, because
Cameroon is an agricultural
research producing country.

Development Strategy for

Food Crops


In Cameroon's national
agricultural development
strategy, one of the specific
objectives set in the Fifth
Five-Year Plan (1981-1986) was
self-reliance in food
production. This objective is
further iterated in specific
priorities that have been
identified as areas of
concentration within the rural
sector, including improvement
of farmer productivity
through research efforts and
information availability.
Cameroon has been
virtually self-reliant in food
production even though public
investment has been directed
largely toward cash and
export crops in the past.
Nevertheless, analysts have
looked to the long term and
determined that food self-
sufficiency cannot be
assumed. Experience
elsewhere in West and Central
Africa is a grim reminder of
the tentative nature of food
production.


In recent years government
support for food crops
research has more than
doubled. Part of the reason
for the increased emphasis on
food crops is that Cameroon
has a population growth rate
of three percent or more. At
the same time its rural
population is declining due to
rural-urban migration and
aging. This trend can only
increase the need for food
production at a time when
there may be less capacity to
produce it. Approximately
two-thirds of Cameroon's 8.9
million people remain in the
rural areas of the country. By
the year 2000 only half of the
population is expected to
reside in rural areas.

The government of Cameroon,
conscious of the importance
of agriculture in the develop-
ment of a nation, has iden-
tified quality agronomic and
farming method research as a
key factor in the successful
implementation of the coun-
try's long-term food
production plan.








Agricultural research in Cameroon
has a double impact, once
for Cameroon and again
for Africa as a region, because
Cameroon is an agricultural
research producing country.

Development Strategy for

Food Crops


In Cameroon's national
agricultural development
strategy, one of the specific
objectives set in the Fifth
Five-Year Plan (1981-1986) was
self-reliance in food
production. This objective is
further iterated in specific
priorities that have been
identified as areas of
concentration within the rural
sector, including improvement
of farmer productivity
through research efforts and
information availability.
Cameroon has been
virtually self-reliant in food
production even though public
investment has been directed
largely toward cash and
export crops in the past.
Nevertheless, analysts have
looked to the long term and
determined that food self-
sufficiency cannot be
assumed. Experience
elsewhere in West and Central
Africa is a grim reminder of
the tentative nature of food
production.


In recent years government
support for food crops
research has more than
doubled. Part of the reason
for the increased emphasis on
food crops is that Cameroon
has a population growth rate
of three percent or more. At
the same time its rural
population is declining due to
rural-urban migration and
aging. This trend can only
increase the need for food
production at a time when
there may be less capacity to
produce it. Approximately
two-thirds of Cameroon's 8.9
million people remain in the
rural areas of the country. By
the year 2000 only half of the
population is expected to
reside in rural areas.

The government of Cameroon,
conscious of the importance
of agriculture in the develop-
ment of a nation, has iden-
tified quality agronomic and
farming method research as a
key factor in the successful
implementation of the coun-
try's long-term food
production plan.







Agricultural Setting
Small-scale farmers
dominate in food crop
production, with most of
them farming one to three
hectares of land. The majority
of farming operations are
carried out by hand using
traditional cropping systems
and traditional crop varieties. -
A network of agricultural
production companies,
development societies,
cooperatives and regional
development authorities
constitutes a support
infrastructure for modern-
ization of many small farms.
Some of these organizations
are area- and crop-specific,
practice mechanized farming,
and utilize improved varieties
and agronomic practices.
Others are set up to assist
small-scale farmers, often with
minimal inputs.
Limited and uncertain rainfall reduces
Land Diversity agricultural potential in the Northern pro-
vinces. With less than 800mm distributed
Cameroon is a land of over less than 90 days, the Mayos (dry
rivers) run only seasonally. Farmer's risk
diverse climates, ranging from of crop failure in this part of Cameroon is
typical of Sahelian regions throughout
humid tropics on the west Africa.
coast of Africa to the Sahelian
zone in the Extreme North
Province. Rainfall in the
humid tropics can be as high
as 5000mm with 250 rain


The Institute of Agricultural
Research (IRA) has an exten-
sive network of research
centers and stations IRA Infrastructure and
throughout the country. This NCRE Research Sites
distribution ensures a
research capability in the DIRECTORATE
various agroclimatic zones and CENTERS
supports the government's STATIONS
policy of integrated A SUBSTATIONS
development.


Aging and rural-urban migration are
contributing to a decline in the rural
population, while the overall population
is growing at a rate of three percent or
more. This trend is reducing the capacity
for food production at a time when
greater production is needed.






days per year, while in the
Sahelian north total rainfall is
less than 800mm distributed
over a period of less than 90
days. In between these
extremes is a regular
succession of climatic zones
broken by intervening
mountains and plateau areas
which affect both temperature
and rainfall.
Soils in Cameroon are
highly variable in composition,
fertility and in their
geographic distribution. These
range from highly weathered
soils in the southern forest
with low nutrient holding
capacity to alfisols and
vertisols of the savanna, both
of moderate to high
productivity. There are also
soils of volcanic origin found
in Cameroon. These soils,
along with the sedimentary
materials of the flood plains
and deltas, tend to be the
most productive.
Logistical Challenge
This combination of
variation in soils and climate
created an enormous logistical
challenge for the NCRE
project. In order to establish
an effective research program
for each of the cereal units, it
was necessary to devise
multilocational testing for each
of the crops in all (or a
representative sample) of the
areas in which the crops were


Burning crop residues underground is a
traditional practice that gives good yields
the first year but destroys soil organic
matter and soil structure. Cereals
research can provide alternatives to tradi-
tional practices, such as this one which
is not recommended.

grown. In this respect, the
IRA network of research
centers and stations provided
an excellent staging ground
for cereals research and the
basis for the NCRE project to
strengthen the cereals research
program within the IRA
system. With this base of
operation and the complete
cooperation of IRA, the
NCRE project was able to get
off to a fast start and to
function effectively.
IRA
Under the Ministry of
Higher Education and
Scientific Research,
Cameroon's Institute for


Agronomic Research (IRA)
became the organization
through which the NCRE
project was implemented. IRA
has under its jurisdiction a
National Cereals Research
Program, one of 22 different
programs for agronomic
research in Cameroon.
In keeping with the
government's policy of
integrated development, IRA
works throughout the country.
There are research centers and
stations located in each agro-
climatic zone. Programs such
as IRAs cereals research
program join with these
centers and stations, as
appropriate, for research
across a range of agro-climatic
conditions and cropping or
farming systems.
Most of the cereal crops in
Cameroon are grown either as
mixed crops or in rotation
with other crops. Suitable
varieties and agronomic
practices in these cropping
systems require a multi-
disciplinary input. IRA cereals
researchers, working out of
different stations across zones,
are able to capitalize on the
expertise of their colleagues,
both on the NCRE team itself
and those in other IRA
research programs, to address
these added dimensions of
their research.








The partnership and cooperation
of the governments of Cameroon
and the United States,
through the NCRE project,
is a long-term commitment
to food security.

National Cereals
Research and Extension
Project (NCRE)


The National Cereals
Research and Extension
Project (NCRE) was
conceived and designed in the
late 1970s as a means to assist
the government of Cameroon
in achieving its long-term
food production goals for the
principal cereals: maize, rice,
sorghum and millet. The
strategy for NCRE to
contribute to Cameroon's
future needs was to fully
support the Cameroon cereals
research program with a
twofold mandate: first, to
strengthen Cameroon's
institutional capacity through
IRA for cereals research, with
special emphasis on training;
and second, to facilitate the
adaptation and transmission
of research results to farmers.
Funding
In its continued support to
agricultural development in
Cameroon, the United States
Agency for International


an international agricultural
research center already
engaged in collaboration with
Cameroon, IITAs ability to
provide competent,
experienced researchers and
its capacity for technical
backstopping were obvious
advantages over other
potential contractors.
The Research Team
Although the composition of
the NCRE team evolved
according to need during the
first phase of the project, it
began with a maize breeder,
maize agronomist, cereals
agronomist, rice breeder, rice
agronomist, sorghum and
millet breeder, agricultural
economist, extension
agronomist, a chief of party
and an administrative officer.
Members of this team were
assigned to various IRA
research centers and stations
throughout the country.
The Pieces Fit
Total integration of the
NCRE project into the
Cameroonian system has been
one of the most important
aspects contributing to its
success. Participating NCRE


Development (USAID) agreed
to participate in funding the
NCRE project and committed
$7.9 million toward its first
phase. The government of
Cameroon committed $6
million for this start-up
period. For the long-term
15-year timeframe for this
project, the government of
Cameroon and USAID have a
combined commitment of $70
million, $27 and $43 million,
respectively:
Technical Assistance
The International Institute
of Tropical Agriculture (IITA)
was contracted by USAID to
provide technical and material
assistance to the project. As

Most of the cereal crops
grown in Cameroon are grown
either as mixed crops or in
rotation with other crops. The
challenge for cereal resear-
chers is to identify superior
varieties and agronomic prac-
tices suitable to farmers in a
wide range of agroclimatic
conditions.


scientists are in fact a part of
the national system, with
research geared toward
solving problems of mutual
interest. This united effort has
introduced some novel aspects
into the national cereals
research program. For the
first time in IRA, a project
has worked to become a
bridge between research
stations, extension agents and
farmers. NCRE's Testing and
Liaison Unit offered a new
approach in bridging
traditional gaps between these
entities. Also for the first time
in IRA, there is a strategy
underway for institution
building on a long-term basis,
geared to strengthening the
system and its many
components through training
of personnel and building its
infrastructure.
Benefits
On the technical side,
NCRE benefits are evident in
project achievements
specifically focused on
problems or technologies that
have built on, strengthened
and improved cereals
agriculture in Cameroon. The
project's four major research
units (Maize, Rice, Sorghum
and Millet, and Testing and
Liaison) have achieved notable
success. Their success is a
large part of the story of the
National Cereals Research and
Extension Project.








Maize variety development
intensified through the NCRE
project, benefitting from IRA's
previous ten years of successful
varietal development work in both
the highlands and lowland
regions of Cameroon.


Potential for Increased

Maize Production


The NCRE Maize
Research Unit has
achieved successes in
both the highland and
lowland zones of Cameroon.
The Maize Improvement and
Breeding Program identified
new varieties that can yield
twice as much as the varieties
being used by farmers. For
the highlands, one superior
variety has been released to
complement improved
materials previously developed
and introduced by IRA. New
populations have also been
established which will be the
sources of future varieties. In
the lowlands, two superior
maize varieties have been
identified for the savanna and
forest areas.
A Promising Lowland Variety
The performance of
CMS-8501 (Cameroon Maize
Series, 1985, 1st release) at
several locations in the
lowland savanna of Northern


Cameroon is shown in Figure 1.
This higher yielding 90-day
variety is a direct product of
NCRE's maize improvement
program and its objective of
developing stable, high-
yielding varieties for the short
cropping season of the
Sudano-sahelian zone of
Cameroon.
Agronomic Findings
On the agronomic side, a
multitude of experiments have
been conducted ranging from
fertilizer and popluation trials
to residue management
practices. Some of the results
are striking. For example,
NCRE agronomists

Early maturing, streak resisting
maize varieties developed and
introduced to Cameroon by
IITA have made a special con-
tribution to the NCRE Maize
Research Unit and to the
farmers of Cameroon. Streak
is a yield-depressing disease
that threatens maize produc-
tion in Cameroon and
throughout much of Africa
where maize is grown.


I MAIZE







determined that a single
application of fertilizer on
maize can double yields (see
Figure 2). Another finding is
the specificity of planting
dates for maize that can make
a three-tonne1 difference in
yield (see Figure 3). The main
objective of the maize
agronomy component is to
develop appropriate and
improved packages of cultural
practices for maize farmers.
Clearly, the kinds of results
these researchers are getting
can only have a positive
impact on maize production
in Cameroon.
These are but a few
examples of the Maize
Research Unit's successes and
are intended only to illustrate
the diversity and scope of
their work. Research
undertaken by this unit has
been massive in scope and
involved not only the NCRE
maize researchers but many
other organizations,
institutions and individuals.
Collaborating Institutions
Numerous internationally
known maize materials from
IITA, CIMMYT, national
maize improvement programs

Dramatic yield increases are
possible with maize In
Cameroon. NCRE researchers
have introduced an Improved
maize variety cabable of
increasing farmers' yields by
one tonne per hectare.
Agronomic research has
shown that a single
application of fertilizer can
double yields, and that
planting dates alone can make
a three-tonne difference in yields.


Maize Performance at Several
Locations of the Lowland
Savanna of Northern Cameroon
Grain Yield (T/Ha)


CMS-8501 90 DAYS U
TZPB 115 DAYS (MOST WIDELY USED) I


BERE PITOA SANGUERE TCHOLLIRE KAREWA GUIRING KISMATARI

Effects of Different Rates and Sources of Fertilizer on Maize
Grain Yield (T/Ha)


15-20-15-6-1


I -


control


18-46-0 7 A


200 300 Control 100


20-10-10


300 Control 100


A






in Africa, varieties previously
developed by IRA and local
varieties provided by farmers
were screened by the NCRE
Maize Research Unit.
Multilocational trials were
conducted throughout the IRA
network to determine which
maize materials grow best
and where. Collaboration in
this undertaking included ten
different IRA stations, plus
parastatals2 and rural
development projects including
SODECOTON (Cameroon

Effect of Planting Dates on (
Grain Yield (T/Ha)


Cotton Development
Company), MIDENO (North
West Development Authority),
SODEBLE (Wheat
Development Society/
Company) and CENEEMA
(National Center for Study
and Experimentation with
Agricultural Machinery).
Other collaborators included
the Ministry of Agriculture
and the World Bank's Center-
North project. Trials also
involved hundreds of farmers
throughout the provinces.

rain Yield


Broader Implications
Typical farm yields of maize
in Cameroon are about one
tonne per hectare, but NCRE
researchers consider that with
improved seed varieties,
improved cultural practices
and' fertilization, maize yields
of between 2.0 and 3.0 tonnes
per hectare are obtainable in
farmers' fields. Higher yields
will require a relatively
modest increase in production
costs, but they are within the
realm of possibility for
Cameroonian farmers. Maize
yields as high as 4.4 tonnes
per hectare have been attained
in on-farm trials under farmer
management.
Future Needs
At the present time
Cameroon is self-sufficient in
maize. This position may be
at risk as the rural population
declines and the overall
population increases since
maize is a staple food in
Cameroon.
Production constraints
related to low maize yields are
many, but include lack of
improved varieties adapted to
the various agro-climatic
zones and poor agronomic
practices. Cameroon's cereals
research program is
addressing these needs. The
NCRE project has made
notable contributions, but
much work remains to be
done if Cameroon is to
maintain self-sufficiency in
maize production.


'Yields are given in tonnes per hectar (i tonne = 1,000 kg). For comparison purposes "kilograms
per hectare" is approximately equal to "pounds per acre."
2Parastatals include rural development projects, agricultural production companies, cooperatives
and regional development authorities that are established or sanctioned by the government.









Many West and Central African
countries stand to benefit
from the rice research underway
in Cameroon, especially those
with similar agro-climatic
conditions.

Rice Holds Promise for
Cameroon


The NCRE Rice Research
Unit has made signifi-
cant contributions to the
rice production of this
country. Rice lines have been
developed through the efforts
of NCRE rice breeders that
have such a capacity for
production that they can triple
rice yields. Another
breakthrough has been the
introduction of low-
temperature tolerant varieties
(two such varieties are now
available to farmers). These
varieties can be widely grown
where altitude-related low
temperatures have historically
inhibited rice production.
Concentrating efforts in
developing high-yielding
varieties, the project's Rice
Research Unit has also
introduced two high-
producing varieties for north
central and western
Cameroon.
Better Procedures
Through agronomic trials,
the Rice Research Unit has


found that green manuring of
transplanted rice can increase
yields by up to 30 percent.
This is a low-input
technology, as the green
manure crop is grown on the
plots during the off-season
when the land is fallow.
Agronomic research has
also determined that puddling
before transplanting results in
a 50 percent increase in yield
over the yield obtained under
the local system of land
preparation (spading). Results
of three-year trials have
determined the optimum age
for seedling transplants of
short-duration cultivars is four
to five weeks, while longer-

Cold tolerant rice varieties
developed through NCRE not
only benefit Cameroonian
farmers but hold potential
elsewhere in Africa. Similar
agrocilmatic conditions in
Burundi and Rwanda, for
example, are in need of cold
tolerant rice varieties.
Cameroon's leadership in
developing these varieties is
an example of its ability to
produce research of broader
benefit to the region.


duration cultivars can be
transplanted at up to seven
weeks without appreciable
yield loss.
As examples of successful
research conducted on rice in
Cameroon, these contributions
of the Rice Research Unit
should be placed in context.
The examples given merely
represent a part of IRAs rice
research in north and western
Cameroon and serve to
illustrate some of the
successes this unit of the
NCRE team has achieved.
Rice Areas
The Rice Research Unit has
focused its research in
support of the priorities
placed on rice production by
the government of Cameroon.
This focus is on the
promotion of rice production
through intensive cultivation
in three major irrigated rice
development projects:
SODERIM (Society for the
Development of Rice in Mbo
Plain), UNVDA (Upper Nun
Valley Development
Authority), and SEMRY
(Society for the Expansion
and Modernization of Rice in
Yagoua). In keeping with
these priorities, the Rice
Research Unit was posted at
Dschang in the Western
Province, about 34 kilometers
from Mbo Plain and 150
kilometers from Ndop Plain
(see map).






Another area that is coming
into prominence for rice is
Karewa, in the Upper Benoue
Valley area, North Province.
Irrigation facilities are now
available in this region due to
the construction of Lagdo
Dam and the creation of a
large reservoir.
Irrigated Rice Development
NCRE's Rice Research Unit
has screened and tested
thousands of experimental rice
lines. Materials have come
from IITA, IRRI (International
Rice Research Institute), IRAT
(Institute de la Recherche
Agronomiques Tropicales et
des Cultures Vivrieres), and
from national programs of
India, China, Taiwan and Sri
Lanka.
Testing
Screening and testing has
been done under the different
ecological conditions of the
irrigated rice growing areas of
Cameroon. Scientists have
been evaluating these
materials for their high-yield
potential in combination with
resistance to blast, leaf scald,
brown spot lodging and cold
temperatures, which are the
major impediments to rice
production.
Dschang
The NCRE Rice Research
Unit, operating out of the


Ric
Prodi


IRA
condt
a dire
from
specify
rice g
naras


e Production Trend Ndop Plain
action (X 1000 tonnes)
At Ndop Plain, where
UNVDA is stationed, the 1100
meter altitude creates a low
temperature constraint. An
associated problem is the
severity of sheath rot and
grain discoloration. NCRE
researchers targeted their
research toward these
constraints. Several thousand
introductions were tested by
researchers collaborating from
NCRE, UNVDA and the
Cameroon Institute of
Agronomic Research. Multi-
year testing has proven IR
1975 7167-33-2-3 to be extremely
8 85 s95 table. In collaboration with
station in Dschang, UNVDA this variety has been
cts many trials that are identified as one likely to
t result of requests replace the standard variety
the parastatals desiring (TAINAN V) which has poor
ic information for their grain quality and is not
rowing operations. The acceptable to farmers (See
frlc it rrcirdn laion lahr Figure 4).


.LLLr V pL rA, J .L.L J. L
and other inputs to support
the research. Results of these
trials are often incorporated
into recommendations that
parastatals make to their
farmers. Given promising
varieties, the parastatals are
prepared to move quickly into
their own seed production.
Each of the rice parastatals
is in a different agro-
ecological area. This has
meant that selection of rice
varieties and agronomic
investigations have been
varied and tailored to regional
needs.


Mbo Plain
The SODERIM project is
based at Mbo Plain in the
West Province. The area is
about 700 meters above sea
level and surrounded by
mountains. Rainfall is high
and light intensity is low
during the growing period.
These conditions contribute to
problems of neck blast and
leaf blast in rice.
Intensive collection and
screening by NCRE rice







scientists has identified a
number of genotypes suitable
for this location. All have
moderate resistance to blast
and their grain quality is
superior to that of the
mainstay variety, Tainan V.
These genotypes have been
provided to SODERIM for
their consideration and
potential release to farmers.
Upper Benoue Valley
Collaboration with
researchers at the Karewa
Experimental Farm has
identified several promising
genotypes for different
maturity rice groups suited to
this region. Cooperating with
NCRE since 1982, the Karewa
Experimental Farm is one of
the few experimental areas in
the country with irrigation
facilities and capabilities.
From the collaborative results
obtained on irrigated rice,
authorities concerned with the
development of the region
(Upper Benoue Valley) have
been convinced of the
potential for irrigated rice as a
viable crop. As a result, newly
proposed projects in this area
included rice as part of their
production scheme.
Future Considerations for
Rice
Although rice is a relatively
new crop in Cameroon, it is
of growing importance in
both the diet and the
economy of the country. The


Labor requirements tor transplanting rice
has been potentially reduced by 75-80
percent due to the efforts of NCRE Rice
Research Unit scientists. This modified
and adapted IRRI rice transplanter pro-
mises production efficiencies not
previously available to Cameroon's rice
farmers.

irrigated development projects
are having a profound effect
on production, which is
anticipated to reach 200,000
tonnes by the year 2000. The
SEMRY project alone already
produces more than 75
percent of the total rice
produced in Cameroon.
Effects
Rice production is having a
far-reaching effect in
contributing to the
Government's integrated
development plans. Ndop
town did not exist prior to the
rice project there. Ndop's
existence is an example of the
broader perspective of


development, where a
community grows and
revolves around agricultural
initiatives, bringing people,
homes, electricity, roads and
the attendant businesses and
services that accompany this
growth.
Technological Promise
Technology developed by
NCRE researchers contributes
directly to this growth and
development through
production efficiencies. For
example, NCRE scientists,
working with SODERIM and
UNVDA, adapted a rice
transplanter (designed by
IRRI) to ease the job of
transplanting. The equipment
was tested and demonstrated
at SODERIM and UNVDA
plots to cooperating farmers.
The transplanter, as modified,
reduces transplanting time
from 25-30 days to 6-8 days
for a farmer planting one
hectare of rice. It is expected
that the transplanter will be
widely adopted by rice
farmers over a large area.
Other developments, such as
the cold tolerant rice varieties
developed through NCRE, not
only benefit Cameroonian
farmers but hold potential
elsewhere. Similar agro-
climatic conditions in Burundi
and Rwanda, for example, are
in need of cold tolerant
varieties. Cameroon's
leadership in developing these
offers potential improvement
for other African nations.






ISORHM&MLE


Under low rainfall conditions
of the growing region for sorghum
and millet, higher yielding
varieties and improved cultural
practices are essential to meet
future needs.


Sorghum and Millet

Developments


The IRA Sorghum and
Millet Program has
benefitted considerably
through the incorporation of
NCRE activities, especially
through the Sorghum and
Millet Research Unit. Their
combined efforts were
directed toward establishing a
solid base for the national
program.
Significant advances have
been realized through the
identification of sorghum
variety S-35 as one suitable
for zones with annual rainfall
of less than 800 millimeters.
Promising lines have also
been identified (S-34 is an
example) where the rainfall
allows a 110 to 120-day
cropping period. Varieties
previously grown in these
zones have had low yields
because they were 160-day
varieties.
In addition, one pearl millet
cultivar, IKMV-8201, has been
identified as a short-cycle,
disease-tolerant cultivar that


has high yield potential
without the use of fertilizer.
Sorghum variety S-35
yielded 35 percent more than
the local check variety in
multi-locational trials over a
three-year period. Similarly,
in multi-locational, multi-year
trials with sorghum variety
S-34, 29 percent greater yields
were achieved over the exotic
check variety E35-1.
Introductions
Breeding materials of rainy
season sorghum and pearl
millet were introduced from
ICRISAT and its ongoing
programs in Africa, as well as
from Nigeria, Burkina Faso
and many other national

Sorghum and pearl millet are
the main cereal crops grown
in the semi-arid areas of nor-
thern Cameroon. They are not
only the staple foods, but
their stalks provide fodder,
fuel and shelter. This
dependency, coupled with a
harsh environment, con-
tributes to the inherent risk
that farmers face in the
region.


i~i(~
IG







programs. Muskwari (a
transplanted sorghum)
germplasm was collected from
various African countries by
the NCRE sorghum team. In
all, 824 accessions of rainy
season sorghum, 583
accessions of pearl millet and
142 accessions of Muskwari
sorghum were initially
screened and tested for their
potential in Cameroon.
Priorities
The primary aims of the
Sorghum and Millet Research
Unit are the breeding of
suitable cultivars of sorghum
and millet and the
development of production
systems that lead to higher
yields and great stability
across a range of
environments. Another
objective is the development of
suitable agronomic practices or
improved varieties.
As important as improved
varieties are, they cannot be
considered ready for farmer
use until agronomic research
has identified important
cultivation parameters for
their use. Sorghum and millet
agronomists experiment to
determine, for example, the
optimum planting dates, plant
population and fertilizer
requirements for each variety
in a particular agro-climatic
zone. This information is
critical to ensure a variety's
success.


White-grained sorghum varieties are
preferred, although yellow-grained
sorghum is important in some areas. All
sorghum is produced for consumption.
The white-grained varieties are mainly
prepared as a porridge or made into
'"ou-fou," a bread-like preparation.

Hybridization Program
Between 1981 and 1985, ten
staff members from IRA-
Maroua Research Station were
trained in hybridization
techniques. This training has
helped to bolster the national
hybridization program and is
an example of NCRE's
support to build capability in
Cameroon cereals research.
The hybridization program is
expanding its efforts with this
greater capability. In
generating Cameroon national
segregating materials, 120
crosses have been attempted
(local x local, local x exotic,
and exotic x exotic) and are
presently in the Fl, F2, F3
and F4 generations.


Research Collaboration
The SAFGRAD3 project has
worked very closely with IRA
researchers in the northern
provinces of Cameroon.
SAFGRAD has collaborated as
the operational research
component of the NCRE
Sorghum and Millet Research
Unit, testing improved
varieties and agronomic
practices in farmers' fields.
The SAFGRAD project has
also assumed responsibility
for studying the agronomic
and economic implications of
new recommendations.
Feedback on farmers' results,
concerns and problems are an
important contribution of this
research team. The SAFGRAD
project, for example,
conducted on-farm tests at 88
sites during 1984 alone,
confirming the productive
capacity of the NCRE-tested
sorghum variety S-35. These
trials, conducted at the farm
level, yielded 85 percent
higher than the farmers' local
check variety.
ICRISAT (International
Crops Research Institute for
the Semi-Arid Tropics) has
played an integral role in
strengthening millet and
sorghum research in
Cameroon. Working closely
with NCRE scientists,
ICRISAT has provided and
helped screen an extensive
3SAFGRAD stands for Semi-Arid Food Grain
Research and Development.







collection of germplasm in the
search for varieties suitable for
the northern provinces of
Cameroon. Relations have
been fortified by the Sorghum
and Millet Research Unit's
annual participation in
ICRISAT's in-house review.
Results of the Cameroon
national sorghum and millet
breeding program are
presented as a regular part of
the review itinerary.
Reciprocally, ICRISAT
participates in NCRE's annual
review and planning
meetings.
ICRISAT'S Genetic
Resources Unit has
collaborated with the NCRE
Sorghum and Millet Research
Unit to evaluate 1,827 lines of
Cameroon local sorghum
germplasm, collecting data on
morphological, taxonomic and
agronomic traits. After
computer analysis at ICRISAT
headquarters, a detailed
classification of the Cameroon
germplasm will be published.
ICRISAT has also collaborated
with IRA in a similar way
with Cameroon millet
germplasm, collecting and
cataloguing data for storage
and retrieval.
SODECOTON is a primary
mover of agricultural
technology in the northern
region of Cameroon. This
parastatal organization works
directly with NCRE
researchers in identifying


Red-grained sorghum varieties are exten-
sively grown in the three ecological
zones of the sorghum-growing areas of
northern Cameroon. Red-grained
varieties are mainly used for making "Bili-
Bill," a local beer.

research needs, collaborating
in research trials, and
evaluating research results.
NCRE researchers and, more
broadly, IRA scientists serve
as part of the research arm of
SODECOTON, whose
mandate for rural
development includes cereals
production. IRA and
SODECOTON interface
through a specific written
protocol agreement that
elaborates how the joint
research will be conducted.
Annual meetings between
IRA researchers and
SODECOTON scientists and
administrators establish
research targets, including
those specific to cereals
research.


The NCRE Sorghum and
Millet Research Unit also
collaborates with two other
development agencies, SEMRY
and AGRILAGDO (Karewa
Experimental Farm), with the
Ministry of Agriculture, the
World Bank's Center-North
Project and with independent
small-scale farmers throughout
the region.
Implications for Sorghum
and Millet
Considerable unfilled
potential exists for sorghum
and millet in Cameroon.
Yields in the north average
about 800 kilograms per
hectare, but NCRE researchers
consider that with improved
seed varieties, improved
cultural practices and
fertilization, sorghum and
millet yields of 1.2 tonnes are
obtainable. Sorghum yields of
six tonnes per hectare have
been achieved on
demonstration plots.
Given the low rainfall and
uncertain rainfall conditions
of the growing region for
sorghum and millet, higher
yielding varieties available for
these conditions are essential
to lessen farmers' risk of crop
failure. Although Cameroon is
self-sufficient in both sorghum
and millet production, an
annual increase in yield of
approximately seven percent
will be required over the next
decade to maintain this
self-sufficiency.








Developing and maintaining
information channels between
farmers, researchers and extension
agents is essential for research
to have an impact on
agricultural growth.

Developing Linkages
Between Researchers,
Extension Workers and
Farmers


D developing linkages
between researchers,
extension workers and
farmers is an explicit objective
of the NCRE Testing and
Liaison Unit. It is also
charged with transmitting
agronomic research results to
extension agencies, with
transmiting farmer's problems
to NCRE researchers and
with considering some of the
economic and social
consequences of agronomic
research.
Early Mandate
During the first three years
of the project, the Training
and Liaison Unit concentrated
its efforts on short-term
training, surveys to identify
biological and socio-economic
constraints to production, the
design and implementation of
verification trials, and
establishing "pre-extension"


field demonstrations. These
efforts were geared toward
establishing linkages with the
extension service, parastatal
agencies and other
development projects.
Technology testing, primarily
of IRAs improved maize and
rice varieties, became a
significant function of the
Testing and Liaison Unit.
Expanded Scope
The unit later broadened its
perspective to incorporate an
on-farm research
methodology. Exploratory and

Minikit trials, developed by the
Testing and Liaison Unit of the
NCRE, contain all of the
materials necessary to con-
duct an on-farm trial: seed,
fertilizer, a string calibrated for
planting distance, as well as
instructions and a user
response form. The TLU has
distributed more than 1100
such kits to participating
extension workers and
farmers.


formal surveys became the
modus operandi. On-farm trials
were designed with
consideration given to the
survey findings. These trials,
initially managed by
researchers, were eventually
managed by researchers and
farmers, by extension workers
and farmers, or by farmers
themselves. The North West
and West Provinces were
divided into broadly-defined
recommendation domains,
based primarily on altitude,
rainfall, general soil fertility
and common maize-based
cropping patterns.
Mutual Support
The Testing and Liaison
Unit (TLU) has worked closely
with maize and rice researchers
and has contributed to their
programs by testing their
materials and agronomic
practices. Maize packages, for
example, have been developed
for different locales, specifying
appropriate varieties and
fertilizer applications for
increased yields. In
collaboration with the NCRE
Rice Research Unit, improved
irrigated rice varieties and
moderate fertilizer applications
have been identified for two
zones in the North West
Province. These regimes can
provide a yield increase of at
least one tonne per hectare
more than the improved
varieties already being grown


in these zones. TLU
verification and on-farm trials
have helped to move proven
materials from the research
station into the hands of
farmers.
Training Extension Workers
Following its early mandate
for training, the TLU held
three two-week courses in
methods of on-farm systems
research for Ministry of
Agriculture (MINAGRI) field
demonstrators and parastatal
extension agents. In all, 110
extension workers participated
in these courses. Course
objectives were: to familiarize
participants with basic
principles of food crop
production; to teach how to
work with farmers in
extending improved methods
of crop production; to instruct
in carrying out basic socio-
economic surveys; and to
offer training in how to
conduct on-farm research
trials. Collaboration with
MINAGRI in training
continued until the MIDENO
(North West Development
Authority) organization
assumed responsibility for
training. With these linkages
established, however, all three
organizations continued to be
supportive of each other's
programs.
Collaboration in Training
NCRE researchers with the
Testing and Liaison Unit have
also cooperated with IRA







Bambui Station scientists,
MIDENO's Training and
Demonstration Center staff,
senior extension staff and
Provincial Delegate for
Agriculture technicians in
conducting training. This
training has included topics
related to the cropping
calendar in participants' work
areas, laying out on-farm
trials, and the use of new
varieties and agronomic
research trials.
North West Province
Development
MIDENO was created in
1981 as an integrated rural
development institution for the
North West Province. While
its mandate includes many
and varied development
initiatives, IRA and NCRE
interface directly with
MIDENO's Extension and
Adaptive Research Programs.
These programs represent
innovative concepts of
agricultural development in
support of small-scale farmers.
Through a broadly based
linkage between farmers, the
Extension Service and the
investigative resource of IRA
(including NCRE), there is a
capability in the North West
Province to address the
technical difficulties and
production potential of the
region's agriculture.


Through maize trials the TLU has
succeeded in defining promising maize
technologies that can already be extended
to farmers in specific ecological zones.
These include the identification of
improved maize varieties and economic
rates of fertilizer application.

NCRE and MIDENO
What has been established
through MIDENO is a system
that works with various
sectors involved in agricultural
development. New
technological information is
provided by NCRE to feed
through this system. A major
role of MIDENO's Adaptive
Research Program is to
complement the work of
NCRE in providing the
Extension Service with
information relevant to
farming conditions and
farmers' circumstances in the
province.
On-farm trials are
conducted at MIDENO's nine
Training and Demonstration
Centers. Trials are designed to
test appropriate varieties and
agronomic practices developed


by NCRE. Once the best
potential varieties and
agronomic practices have been
identified, they can be
recommended to replace
traditional varieties and
practices.
In working with MIDENO,
IRA has assumed
responsibility for variety
development and applied
agronomic research with
maize. On-farm testing and
economic assessment is
handled by the Testing and
Liaison Unit of NCRE, and
adaptive research is conducted
by the Provincial Delegation
for Agriculture. Extension of
recommendations is the
prerogative of the Extension
Service.
Broader Perspectives
Smallholder farmers in
Cameroon encounter many
food crop production
constraints. At the same time,
farmers typically make
efficient use of the resources
at their disposal. Their
cropping systems and
cropping patterns have
evolved over generations of
trial-and-error research of
their own.
What researchers can do,
and an important role that a

NCRE researchers and techni-
cians carefully record quan-
titative factors at harvest, in
this case of maize. TLU
verification and on-farm trials
have helped to move proven
materials and methods from
the research station into the
hands of farmers.







Testing and Liaison Unit can
perform, is identify
constraints to production that
cannot be addressed using
resources presently available to
the farmer, and then
investigate the possible
solutions to provide the
necessary resources. For
example, if maize streak virus
becomes a serious problem in
a particular area, it is unlikely
that farmers will have access
to maize varieties that are
resistant to this virus. The
researcher can not only
identify the constraint (maize
streak virus) but can also
provide varieties having
resistance to this disease.
The importance of
developing and maintaining
information channels between
farmers, researchers and
extension agents cannot be
overrated. The concept of TLU
is fully in concert with these
important linkages. The
NCRE Phase I Evaluation
Report recognized the
potential of this approach:
". .. the TLU concept holds
promise to be a significant
breakthrough in research
management especially in
regard to organizational
structure and to research
entity function. Whether the
TLU will realize its promise
depends on certain other
aspects of management, and
only time will test the
viability and durability of
the concept."


~'lil !~.. ;-~
-







I COMMITMENT


NCRE is developing knowledge
and operational approaches
with national scientists to enhance
their ability to identify problems,
analyze alternatives, and
formulate strategies that achieve
food security.


Strengthening Cameroon
Cereal Research
Capability


C ereals research is more
ambitious than it used
Sto be in Cameroon. It
has a focus on the problems
of farmers. It is national in
scope and tied to the
international technology
network, while attuned to the
diverse requirements of agro-
climatic variablity in the
different regions of the
country. It is generating
technologies and
methodologies that are
suitable and affordable to
farmers. This research is
effective because of its
effective integration in the
national system. IRA, IITA
and USAID can be credited
with long-term support to the
process of institution-building
and strengthening Cameroon
cereals research capability, but
the true strength of the
national cereals research
program is in its people.


Professional Improvement
Cameroon scientists,
researchers and technicians
have strengthened their
capacity to address research
needs for food production
through professional
improvement. This has been
facilitated through NCRE
support to training in three
ways: on-the-job training;
"in-service" training (through
short courses offered by
international agricultural
institutes); and degree-related
training. Training is a
comprehensive and integral
part of the NCRE project,
helping to strengthen the

Monitoring tours and project
evaluations have strengthened
the working relationships of
the government of Cameroon,
IITA and USAID. They have
also contributed to the plan-
ning process in project in-
itiatives and research
direction.






Cameroon cereals research
capability. Emphasis has been
on the development of human
resources as a strategy for
building IRAs capacity to
sustain an effective national
cereals research program.
Types of Training
On-the-job training
provided by NCRE scientists
is not only geared to project
counterparts but also to
technicians and field
recorders. Each of the NCRE
research units has on-the-job
training as part of their
mandate.
In-service training,
primarily for technicians, has
also been available to IRA
researchers. It is more
formalized, usually offered
through one of the
international agricultural
research centers, and ranges
from two weeks to six months
in duration. IITA has offered
a number of technical short
courses which IRA personnel
have attended. Other short
courses have been offered by
IRRI, CIMMYT and ICRISAT.
Another form of in-service
training has been IRA
scientists with higher degrees
serving as visiting scientists at

"Learning by doing" is a con-
cept that describes on-the-job
training, as researchers and
technicians coordinate their
efforts in establishing field
trials. This concept also
describes the product or
results of the research effort,
identifying technologies and
methodologies suitable for
farmers.






international agricultural
research centers such as IITA
and CIMMYT. More than 30
technicians have participated
in in-service training through
the NCRE project.
Degree-related training has
broadened and strengthened
the expertise of Cameroon's
cereals research program.
Promising scientists have
received training in various
disciplines according to
program needs. This training
at the B.Sc., M.Sc. and Ph.D.
levels, has involved 13
Cameroonians in the
following fields: maize, rice
and sorghum breeding, grain
storage, and in cereals
and extension agronomy.
Annual Reporting and
Planning
Professional improvement is
a fundamental part of
building institutional capacity.
As research competence
increases it is reflected in
program planning and
execution. This is most
evident, perhaps, in the
annual IRA Cereals and
Farming Systems Programmes
Planning Meetings. These
meetings bring together more
than 100 national and
international scientists and
researchers to present their
research results and plan the
following year's research
activities. These meetings are
attended by all of the IRA


In-service training usually includes a
component on data analysis.

cereals program researchers,
along with researchers from
other IRA programs, IRA
Chiefs of Stations,
representatives of seed
production organizations,
development organizations,
extension, and from various
international and other donor
projects and research centers.
The NCRE project initiated
these annual program
planning meetings and IRA
has enthusiastically adopted
them.
Participation
Those who have attended
the planning meetings since
they began in 1982 observe a
marked change in
participation over the years.
In the beginning, IITA
scientists and other expatriate
researchers often presented
the reports and led the
discussions during their
sessions. While the
Cameroonian counterparts


actively participated in the
process, they did not
necessarily assume program
leadership. Over a four-year
period, these roles were
reversing. By 1985
Cameroonian researchers were
increasingly presenting the
reports and otherwise
assuming leadership in the
reporting and planning
process. They had also
gradually assumed
responsibility for organizing
these meetings.
IRA's Institutional
Management
The NCRE project
demonstrates the importance
of institutional management
in project achievement. From
the sheer logistics of initiating
a complex project such as
NCRE to the program
planning and execution of
project initiatives, IRA has
provided strong management.
NCRE has been fortunate in
this regard and has proven
the potential of a project to
strengthen the host institution
when management is skillful
in exploiting that potential.
Commitment to
Infrastructure
NCRE represented a major
expansion of the IRA
program in cereals research.






A significant commitment was
required of IRA both for
offices and research facilities
throughout the provinces. IRA
and USAID funds were
committed to supplement
these facilities with some new
construction as needs arose.
IITA handled procurement of
research equipment and
supplies through their budget
for such basic items as scales,
seed counters, sellers, and
moisture meters. Some large
equipment was also secured
through the project, including
threshers for both the Rice
and Sorghum and Millet
Research Units, laboratory
analysis equipment for the
IRA stations in Bambui and
Dschang, and three tractors
for the Nkolbisson, Maroua
and Bambui IRA Stations.
Technical Assistance
IITAs role in providing
technical assistance has been
pivotal. Not only has the
research staff been highly
qualified, it has been
motivated in conducting its
research and in working with
national researchers. IITA
scientists have shown a
serious commitment to
excellence in their research,
service to farmers and
building the cereals research
program in Cameroon.
IITA brought to NCRE an
international dimension in
more than one respect. An
obvious one is the institution's


Farmer field days have proved to be a powerful tool for researchers and extension
workers. As many as 2000 farmers have attended a single farmer field day sponsored
by NCRE in collaboration with local and regional agricultural organizations.


relationship to its sister centers
in the international
agricultural research center
system. This affiliation
accounted for early input from
other international centers into
cereals research in Cameroon.
It has fostered good working
relationships between the
national cereals research
programs in Cameroon and
created a network between
IRA and international center
scientists.
Another international
dimension gained through
IITA was its access to a world
stock of germplasm. With
such tremendous diversity in
agro-climatic conditions in
Cameroon, literally thousands
of plant materials were
provided by or secured
through IITA for screening.


Varietal selection and
development has been a long
process, but a successful one.
NCRE has identified maize,
for example, adapted to the
three ecological zones and
suited to local production and
market requirements. As
another example, IITAs maize
germplasm has provided
streak resistance, badly
needed by Cameroon's maize
farmers. These materials are
critical for the continuing
varietal development of
Cameroon's cereals research
program.
A third important
dimension that has been
evident through IITAs
participation in the NCRE
project is its experience in
African farming systems and
crop improvement. This
expertise has provided
excellent backstop capability
for technical assistance.


















Farmer participation in on-farm trails has helped to move research information onto
the farm while serving to feed information on farmer's problems back to researchers.
Tested technologies provide extension workers varieties and methods they can


Research and Extension
The interface of research
and extension, so often
ignored, has been of special
interest to NCRE researchers
in Cameroon. Their
commitment to conduct
effective research is dependent
on a continual feedback on
prevailing technologies,
farmers' constraints and the
performance of recommended
technologies in farmers' fields.
From a practical standpoint
this has made a
research/extension interface an
imperative.
The Testing and Liaison
Unit of NCRE is novel in this
regard. Because IRA
management has determined
to provide the structure, staff
and resources, this unit of
NCRE exists to ensure a
research/extension interface.
Technologies generated
through research are tested in
on-farm trials under extension
and farmer management. This


provides a critical and
practical assessment of
technologies at the farm level.
It is at this level that the TLU
gives exposure to research
findings while extension
workers and farmers are able
to verify the suitability and
adaptability of those findings.
IRA's Relations with National
Organizations
Cameroon has a wide range
of agencies which serve the
producers of almost all food
and cash crops. Each of them
looks to IRA to serve as its
research and development
arm. Some are powerful and
energetic and press hard on
IRA for technological support.
Some wait for IRA to deliver
its technology to them, and
others receive support at a
level between the two
extremes. Through its 22
programs, IRA is doing a


remarkable job serving a
variety of organizations across
Cameroon's crop spectrum.
Implications of Sustained
Support
The food production
problems in Africa are well
known. In addition to
restraints posed by an
unfriendly ecology, farmers in
many countries have also
labored under inadequate
support from their
governmental institutions.
Cameroon farmers face the
general situation imposed by
the harsh environment, but
through IRA they have the
support of a research
institution to help them with
technologies needed in the
diverse ecologies. Cereals
research in Cameroon has
year by year intensified its
efforts and grown to serve the
farmer better. This is due to
sound management in IRA,
supported by a stable
government and reasonable
policies. Indications are that
the institutional evolution will
continue and will be
accompanied by development
of the complementary
institutions needed for
agricultural growth. This
institutional evolution is
encouraging indeed for
Cameroon, and since it
involves decisions and actions
available to any nation, it may
be encouraging for Africa in
general.







I... COOPETIN INITUTIONS


The Institute of Agronomic
Research (IRA) is one of
the five specialized
research institutes in the
Ministry of Higher Education
and Scientific Research.
Created in 1974, its operational
structures comprise six
research Centers, 16 Stations
and 29 Antennas spread
throughout the diverse
ecological areas of Cameroon.
Presently, IRA employs about
170 researchers ranging from
M.Sc. to Ph.D. degree
holders.
Twenty-two research
programs, both in cash and
food crops, are being
implemented by IRA.
Eight of them are food
crops oriented, namely:
Cereals, roots and tubers,
legumes, vegetable crops,
plantains, fruits, bananas and
pinneapples.
The Cereals and Farming
Systems research programme
do have more than 40
scientists working in cereals
improvement, agronomy, plant
protection, pre-extension and
farming systems. Their results
are passed on to users
through collaboration with the
Ministry of Agriculture and
government parastatal
organizations like
SODECOTON, UCCAO,
MIDENO, UNVDA,
SODERIM, SEMRY etc ...
In order to effectively carry
out its assigned role of
increasing food crops
production and productivity
in Cameroon, IRA collaborates
with many international
Research Centers.


For cereals research, this
collaboration is very active
with IITA, CIMMYT, IRAT,
WARDA, IRRI as well as
regional organizations like
SAFGRAD.
Research funding of IRA
comes mainly from Cameroon
Government. But IRA
entertains a very active
technical cooperation with
many agencies. The USAID is
one of these, through projects
like NCRE, Bean and Cowpea
CRSP and Roots and Tubers.
Others are CIRAD, ORSTOM,
UNDP, FAO, IDRC, the World
Bank and Gatsby Charitable
Foundation.


Research
Collaboration
Matrix


Established in July 1967 as
the first major African
link in an integrated
network of international
research and training centers
located throughout the
developing regions of the
world, the International
Institute of Tropical
Agriculture (IITA) is an
autonomous, nonprofit
corporation with headquarters
on a 1,000-hectare
experimental farm at Ibadan,
Nigeria, in close proximity to
the University of Ibadan. Its
location facilitates research in
three ecological zones of
Nigeria-humid forest,






f .' fff~ /
-0
6/ 6/ 0 480


IRA Centers and Stations
MAROUA X X X X X x
o_________________ x x x x __
N]OXBE X X X X
DSCHANG X X X X X X
BAMBUI X X X X X X X
EKONA X X X
NKOLBISSON X X X
FOUMNBOT X
BARONBIKANG X
DOUALA X
IRA Antennae
KOUSSERI X X X X
GUEL4LE X X X X
MAG A X X X X
1AGOUA X X
MAKEBI X X
TCHATrBAU l X X
%VOUNALOUM X X
SOUCOUNDOU X X X X
SANGUERE X X X
F]GNOLE X X_ N_
CHO LLLRE X X X
NDOCK xX X
STOUBORO X X X X
SANTA x x X
BABULNGO X X X X X X _
SANTCHOU x X X
SLYSOKA x
BANGANGTE X
BERTOUA X X
BERE X X X X








transitional, and savanna -
and these zones are
representative of climate and
soil conditions in many areas
of Africa. In addition,
research is conducted in many
areas of Africa in cooperation
with regional and national
programs.
The "geographic mandate" of
IITA includes the humid and
subhumid tropical regions of
the world, but the Institute
concentrates its research and
training activities primarily on
the needs of sub-Saharan
African countries. The central
objective, in cooperation with
national programs, is to
undertake research to increase
food production, employment,
and income in those


countries. A food crisis in
many of them has been
building up over the years as
rapid population growth,
drought, and lagging
agricultural production have
brought about a chronic food
deficit.
Four out of five of the
research programs of IITA are
crop centered: Grain Legume
Improvement, Maize
Research, Rice Research, and
Root and Tuber Improvement.
The fifth is the Farming
Systems Program.

The United States Agency
for International
Development (USAID)
provides foreign aid on behalf
of the U.S. Government. It is


0

0r 4


C,
C-
Ci
0
C-
N
0~~~~


KJSMATARI .X X
MBANG MBIRNI X \ X
Cooperating Organizations
SEMRY_ X \ X x \ X
UNVDA X X X x X
SODERIMN\ X X
AGRILACDO x X X X X X
MIDEVIV X X X ,
SODEBLE
Bjigm Rice Pro: __t X
Project SEMENCIER \ X X
SODECOTON X X X X "
ENSA X ____
MIDENO \
MOA Seed Pnrduction \ X
UCCAO \ \
HVADA\ x
MINACR] X
Pneit Centre Nord X X \
VCEP x X
MAISCAM \ X X
PVOs \ \ X X \ _
International Bodies
LUSSD x x X X X X \ \
IIT\\ \ X\ \ \ \
CIMMYT X__
SCIRAD tIRAT. GERDAD) X X
SAFGRAD \ \ \x
CIAT X
IRRI X X
CRSP X X
WARDDA. \X


0


committed to helping
developing countries in their
efforts to meet basic human
needs-to overcome the
problems of hunger, illiteracy,
disease and early death.
USAID provides assistance
through grants and loans
which are used to support
development projects and
programs of governments,
private institutions and
international organizations.
These programs seek to raise
income, eliminate hunger,
raise health levels, eradicate
illiteracy and/or ease
unmanageable population
pressures. USAID operates
worldwide in some 55
countries.
In Cameroon, USAID has
been assisting in the sectors
of agriculture, public health,
education and human
resources since 1961. USAID
supports Cameroon's goal of
food self-sufficiency by
helping the Institute of
Agronomic Research's work in
improving productivity of
grains. In education and
human resources, USAID
supports programs to
modernize Cameroon's
primary education system and
to train persons to be modern
managers in development
fields. In health, USAID's
programs offer assistance in
training better qualified health
workers. A project is being
designed that will improve
health care specifically to
children and mothers. USAID
also finances students to
pursue development-related
graduate studies in the U.S.
Since 1961, USAID has
provided almost $270 million
to assist Cameroon's
development efforts.







I AC M & A VAT


Karewa
Experimental
Farm
Agency for
International
Development
(United
States)


CENEEMA Centre
National
d'Etudes et
d'Experi-
mentation du
Machinisme
Agricole
CIMMYT International
Center for
Maize and
Wheat
Improvement


CIAT


CIP


CIRAD







CRSP


ENSA



FAO


FEMEC


FONADER


International
Center for
Tropical
Agriculture
Centro Inter-
national de la
Papa
Centre de
Cooperation
International
en Recherche
Agronomique
pour le
Developpe
ment
Collaborative
Research Sup-
port Program
National
Advanced
School for
Agriculture
Food,
Agricultural
Organisation
Cameroon
Evangelical
Mission
National Fund
for Rural
Development


AGRILAGDO


AID


GERDAT






ICRISAT





IDRC



IITA



IRA


IRAT




IRRI


ITA


MAISCAM Cameroon
Maize Farm
MIDENO North West
Development
Authority
MIDEVIV Seed and
Food Development
Authority


MINAGRI

NCRE


Ministry of
Agriculture
National
Cereals
Research and
Extension
Project


Groupment
d'Etudes et de
Recherches
pour le
Development de
'Agronomic
Tropical.
International
Crops
Research In-
stitute for the
Semi-Arid
Tropics
International
Research
Development
Center
International
Institute of
Tripical
Agriculture
Agricultural
Research
Institute
Institute de
Recherche
Agronomique
Tropicale et de
Culture Vivrieres
International
Rice Research
Institute
Institute of
Agricultural
Techniques


PVOs


RTC



SAFGRAD



SEMRY





SOCAPALM


SODEBLE


SODECOTON


SODERIM



UCCAO




UNVDA



SAID



WADA


WARDA


Private Volun-
tary
Organizations
Rural Training
Center,
Mfonta,
Bambui
Semi Arid
Food Grain
Research and
Development
Company for
the Expansion
and Moder-
nization of
Rice Produc-
tion in Yagoua
Palm Oil
Development
Company
Society for the
Development
of Wheat
Society for the
Development
of Cotton
Society for the
Development
of Rice in
Mbo Plain
Union
Central des
Cooperatives
Agricoles de
l'Ouest
Upper Nun
Valley
Development
Authority
United States
Agency for
International
Development
Wum Area
Development
Authority
West African
Rice
Development
Association










The national counterparts who served in the NCRE Project are as follows:
Name Position Location
Dr. Jacob A. Ayuk-Takem Maize Breeder & Bambui, Yaounde,
NCRE Coordinator Nkolbisson
Dr. Charles The Maize Breeder Nkolbisson
Dr. Jean Tonye Maize Agronomist Nkolbisson
Dr. Julius Takow Rice Agronomist Dschang
Ms. Pauline Zekeng Extension Agronomist Bambui
Mrs. Regine Aroga Entomologist Nkolbisson
Mr. Ngoko Plant Pathologist Bambui
Mr. Mart Samatana Socio-Economist Bambui
Mr. Titus Nga Ngoumou Cereals Agronomist Garoua
Mr. Jupiter Ndjeunga Socio-Economist Nkolbisson
Mrs. Christine Poubom Extension Agronomist Ekona
Mr. Manfred Besong Agricultural Economist Ekona
Mr. Richard Kenga Sorghum Agronomist Marowa
Mr. Anatole Mbeng Ebete Cereals Agronomist Garoua
Mr. Jacob Eta-Ndu Maize Breeder Bambui
Mr. Francois Meppe Extension Agronomist Bambui
Mr. Ezechiel Passam Administrative Assistant Nkolbisson
Mr. Cletus Asanga Entomologist Dschang
Mr. Fabien Jeutong Rice Breeder Dschang
Mr. Bernard Soneh Cereals Agronomist Ekona
Mr. J-B. Zangue Cheuka Maize Breeder Nkolbisson
Mr. Claude Nankam Plant Pathologist Bambui
Mr. Edward Ngong-Nassah Extension Agronomist Bambui
Mr. Andre Djonnewa Sorghum Breeder Maroua
Mr. Martin Ngueguim Extension Agronomist Bambui
Mr. Celicard Zonkeng Maize Breeder Nkolbisson


The following national support staff served in the project:


Name
Mr. Mathias Tsabgou Tonfack
Mrs. Grace N. Tima
Mr. Jean-Claude Wafo
Mrs. Mirabelle Karawa
Mr. Thaddeus Ngwa
Mr. Anthony Foraukon
Mr. Abbas Abba
Mr. Andre Ossombe
Mr. Salomon Ebandan
Mr. Martin Nguimatsa
Mr. Michel Douanla
Mr. Joseph Mbo
Mr. Dieudonne S. Sezine
Mr. Madgaji
Mr. Jean-Claude Ngongang Nono
Mrs. Esther Teke
Mr. Ferdinand Boyomo


Position
Agricultural Technician
Agricultural Technician
Agricultural Technician
Agricultural Technician
Agricultural Technician
Field Recorder
Field Recorder
Agricultural Technician
Agricultural Technician
Agricultural Technician
Agricultural Technician
Field Observer
Field Observer
Field Observer
Agricultural Technician
Agricultural Technician
Agricultural Technician


Location
Bambui
Bambui
Bambui
Bambui
Bambui
Bambui
Bambui
Dschang
Santchou
Santchou
Santchou
Santchou
Dschang
Maroua
Nkolbisson
Nkolbisson
Nkolbisson






Mr. Emmanuel Bouambi
Mr. Michael Njume
Mr. Anatole Hounwa


Listed below are the technical person]
Name
Dr. Emmanuel A. Atayi


Dr. Thomas G. Hart
Mr. Daniel C. Goodman
Dr. Jay Chung
Dr. Animesh C. Roy
Dr. D. Janakiram
Dr. Henri Talleyrand
Dr. Om Dangi
Dr. Joseph Kikafunda-Twine
Mr. Dermot McHugh
Dr. Leslie Everett
Mr. Toby Chamberlain
Mr. Scott A. Welch
Dr. Laures T. Empig

USAID personnel associated with
James Williams
Ronald Levin
Jay Johnson
Herbert Miller
Eric Witt
William Litwiller
John Balis
Richard Goldman
Larry Dominessy
Raymond Rifenburg

Samuel Scott

Abdel Moustafa
William Judy
Edward Egbemba


Agricultural Technician
Agricultural Technician
Agricultural Technician

nel who served in the NCRE I
Position
Agricultural Economist and
Deputy Chief of Party,
(became Chief of Party
during Phase I)
Chief of Party
Administrative Officer
Maize Breeder
Rice Agronomist
Rice Breeder
Cereals Agronomist
Sorghum and Millet Breeder
Extension Agronomist
Agricultural Economist
Maize Breeder
Administrative Officer
Administrative Officer
Maize Breeder


NCRE from 1980-1987:
Mission Director
Mission Director
Mission Director
Acting Director
Agr. Development Officer
Agr. Development Officer
Agr. Development Officer
Deputy ADO
Deputy ADO
Project Development
Officer
Project Development
Officer
Project Officer
Project Officer
Assistant Project Officer


Nkolbisson
Nkolbisson
Ntui


projectt from 1981-1985:
Location
Bambui


Nkolbisson
Nkolbisson
Nkolbisson
Dschang
Dschang
Garoua
Maroua
Bambui
Bambui
Bambui
Nkolbisson
Nkolbisson
Nkolbisson


1/80-11/80
12/80-9/84
6/85-Present
9/84-6/85
9/76-8/82
3/82-12/85
4/86-Present
10/7 8-9/82
9/82-9/86

11/78-6/82

10/82-Present
9/81-12/84
5/85-Present
12/83-Present


The views expressed herein are those of the author, Steve Kearl,
and not necessarily those of the government of the Republic of
Cameroon or of the United States Agency for International
Development.
Graphic design by Ron Stephens.




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