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 First regional review, evaluation...
 Productivity of Malwian landrace...
 Personnel changes
 Project highlight
 On-farm trials workshop held
 Symposium held at PCCMCA meeti...






Title: PulseBeat
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00055226/00002
 Material Information
Title: PulseBeat
Uniform Title: PulseBeat (East Lansing, Mich.)
Alternate Title: Pulse beat
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Bean/Cowpea Collaborative Research Support Program
United States -- Agency for International Development
United States -- Board for International Food and Agricultural Development
Publisher: Michigan State University
Place of Publication: East Lansing Mich
Frequency: quarterly
regular
 Subjects
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: the Bean/Cowpea Collaborative Research Support Program (CRSP).
Numbering Peculiarities: Suspended winter-summer 1986.
General Note: Funded by USAID/BIFAD grant no. AID/DSAN-XXII-G-0261 through May 6, 1986, and by USAID/BIFAD grant no. DAN-1310-G-SS-6008-00 thereafter.
General Note: Description based on: Fall 1986; title from caption.
Funding: Electronic resources created as part of a prototype UF Institutional Repository and Faculty Papers project by the University of Florida.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00055226
Volume ID: VID00002
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 16894864
lccn - sn 89013302

Table of Contents
    First regional review, evaluation and planning meeting to be held
        Page 1
    Productivity of Malwian landrace dry beans under intercropping and drought conditions
        Page 1
    Personnel changes
        Page 2
    Project highlight
        Page 3
    On-farm trials workshop held
        Page 4
        Page 5
    Symposium held at PCCMCA meetings
        Page 6
Full Text












PuseBeat


The Bean/Cowpea
Collaborative
Research
Support Program
(CRSP) i

Winter 1988
Michigan State University


FIRST REGIONAL REVIEW, EVALUATION
AND PLANNING MEETING TO BE HELD


Each year the Board of Directors (BOD) of the
Bean/ Cowpea Collaborative Research Support Program
(CRSP) holds its winter meeting so as to overlap with
the CRSP External Evaluation Panel (EEP) review
meeting. The BOD takes this occasion to host its
annual meeting with the Institutional Representatives
(IRs) from the other US lead institutions. Thus, two of
the major objectives of the winter BOD meeting each
year are to (1) receive the EEP project evaluations and
generate any needed clarifications from them and
(2) subsequently share CRSP progress and needs with
the US IRs who are the administrators responsible for
institutionalization of the projects in the US. The IRs
are also responsible for making appropriate USDA and
university resources available for project use. The
grant requires the US institutions to contribute
non-federal resources at a minimal level of 25 percent
of the AID contribution.
This year the BOD has reviewed the role of
administrators from the Host Country (HC) institutions
and noted that while not specifically required to do so,
many are authorizing the use of substantial in-kind, and
sometimes monetary, resources for project work.
Others show no contributions in the annual budget
report but may in fact be making such contributions
without taking the time to document it. As we
organize for the next extension proposal (1989-92), the
BOD has agreed that, even though costly, it is just as
important to share progress and hear the interests and
concerns of administrators representing the projects'
I-HC units as those representing the US institutions.
Broadening the annual meeting to facilitate this need is
judged to be very important for successful long-term
collaborative research and training within the CRSP
community. The BOD and CRSP Management Office
(MO) are therefore attempting to organize the Annual
Meetings on a regional basis beginning in 1988 with the
LAC region. This new initiative fits well with related
long established policies of the Bean/Cowpea CRSP:
1. Bean/Cowpea CRSP Policy on US/HC Distribution
of Funds: Not less than 50 percent of USAID funds
for support of projects are to be spent in or
directly on behalf of Host Countries. In order:
a. To insure CRSP focus on the solution of HC
problems rather than on the maintenance of
existing research programs of US institutions
and
b. To nourish a climate of collaboration and
partnership between the US and HC Principal
Investigators (Pls).
See RREP page 3


PRODUCTIVITY OF MALAWIAN LANDRACE
DRY BEANS UNDER INTERCROPPING
AND DROUGHT CONDITIONS
Alexander B. C. Mkandawire*
Department of Crop and Soil Sciences
Michigan State University
Malawi is a country of great ecological diversity.
The original bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) introductions,
brought more than 300 years ago, have evolved with
great morphological variation. The process of evolution
is greatly influenced by two environmental parameters;
namely, temperature and moisture. In Malawi, mois-
ture seems to exert greater influence on net primary
productivity than temperature. Studies were conducted
to better understand the role of Malawian landrace
bean components in bean crop productivity under
conditions of limited soil moisture. In one set of
experiments, limited moisture conditions were imposed
on the beans by intercropping them in the same row
with a more aggressive species [maize (Zea mays L.)],
which is a popular cropping system in Malawi. The
other set of experiments involved controlled drought in
field-simulated culture. The aim here was to observe
any genotypic variability in both Phaseolus and Vigna
species in water-use efficiency (WUE) under either
well-watered or drought conditions.


Beans in Malawi intercropped with maize
Intercropping beans and maize resulted in signif-
icantly lower soil moisture than when beans were grown
in monoculture stands. This resulted in significant
reductions in bean seed yields of some landraces under
the intercropping system. However, for other landraces
grown under the same system, there was no evidence of
reduction in seed yield. This indicates that some of
these landraces are adapted to such intercropping
stresses. Criteria for estimating relative drought
See MALAWI page 5


FUNDED THROUGH USAID/BIFAD GRANT NO. DAN-1310-G-SS-6008-00


I
















PuseBeat


The Bean/Cowpea
Collaborative
Research
Support Program
(CRSP) i

Winter 1988
Michigan State University


FIRST REGIONAL REVIEW, EVALUATION
AND PLANNING MEETING TO BE HELD


Each year the Board of Directors (BOD) of the
Bean/ Cowpea Collaborative Research Support Program
(CRSP) holds its winter meeting so as to overlap with
the CRSP External Evaluation Panel (EEP) review
meeting. The BOD takes this occasion to host its
annual meeting with the Institutional Representatives
(IRs) from the other US lead institutions. Thus, two of
the major objectives of the winter BOD meeting each
year are to (1) receive the EEP project evaluations and
generate any needed clarifications from them and
(2) subsequently share CRSP progress and needs with
the US IRs who are the administrators responsible for
institutionalization of the projects in the US. The IRs
are also responsible for making appropriate USDA and
university resources available for project use. The
grant requires the US institutions to contribute
non-federal resources at a minimal level of 25 percent
of the AID contribution.
This year the BOD has reviewed the role of
administrators from the Host Country (HC) institutions
and noted that while not specifically required to do so,
many are authorizing the use of substantial in-kind, and
sometimes monetary, resources for project work.
Others show no contributions in the annual budget
report but may in fact be making such contributions
without taking the time to document it. As we
organize for the next extension proposal (1989-92), the
BOD has agreed that, even though costly, it is just as
important to share progress and hear the interests and
concerns of administrators representing the projects'
I-HC units as those representing the US institutions.
Broadening the annual meeting to facilitate this need is
judged to be very important for successful long-term
collaborative research and training within the CRSP
community. The BOD and CRSP Management Office
(MO) are therefore attempting to organize the Annual
Meetings on a regional basis beginning in 1988 with the
LAC region. This new initiative fits well with related
long established policies of the Bean/Cowpea CRSP:
1. Bean/Cowpea CRSP Policy on US/HC Distribution
of Funds: Not less than 50 percent of USAID funds
for support of projects are to be spent in or
directly on behalf of Host Countries. In order:
a. To insure CRSP focus on the solution of HC
problems rather than on the maintenance of
existing research programs of US institutions
and
b. To nourish a climate of collaboration and
partnership between the US and HC Principal
Investigators (Pls).
See RREP page 3


PRODUCTIVITY OF MALAWIAN LANDRACE
DRY BEANS UNDER INTERCROPPING
AND DROUGHT CONDITIONS
Alexander B. C. Mkandawire*
Department of Crop and Soil Sciences
Michigan State University
Malawi is a country of great ecological diversity.
The original bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) introductions,
brought more than 300 years ago, have evolved with
great morphological variation. The process of evolution
is greatly influenced by two environmental parameters;
namely, temperature and moisture. In Malawi, mois-
ture seems to exert greater influence on net primary
productivity than temperature. Studies were conducted
to better understand the role of Malawian landrace
bean components in bean crop productivity under
conditions of limited soil moisture. In one set of
experiments, limited moisture conditions were imposed
on the beans by intercropping them in the same row
with a more aggressive species [maize (Zea mays L.)],
which is a popular cropping system in Malawi. The
other set of experiments involved controlled drought in
field-simulated culture. The aim here was to observe
any genotypic variability in both Phaseolus and Vigna
species in water-use efficiency (WUE) under either
well-watered or drought conditions.


Beans in Malawi intercropped with maize
Intercropping beans and maize resulted in signif-
icantly lower soil moisture than when beans were grown
in monoculture stands. This resulted in significant
reductions in bean seed yields of some landraces under
the intercropping system. However, for other landraces
grown under the same system, there was no evidence of
reduction in seed yield. This indicates that some of
these landraces are adapted to such intercropping
stresses. Criteria for estimating relative drought
See MALAWI page 5


FUNDED THROUGH USAID/BIFAD GRANT NO. DAN-1310-G-SS-6008-00


I









PERSONNEL CHANGES


INSTITUTIONAL REPRESENTATIVES:
Dr. Edwin B. Oyer, Director of the International
Agriculture Program at Cornell University (1982-87),
retired to half-time status in December 1987. Dr. E.
Walter Coward, Jr., the new Director of the Inter-
national Agriculture Program, will replace Dr. Oyer as
IR for Cornell and will serve the final year of Dr.
Oyer's term on the CRSP Board of Directors. In
addition to working with Dr. Coward, Dr. Oyer will be
consulting and writing in the field of agricultural
research management. He plans to continue his
activities in both international development and
vegetable crops.
Dr. Oyer has numerous research and extension
publications in both plant physiology and international
development and has been very active in international
and domestic research areas. In addition to serving on
the Board of Directors for the Bean/Cowpea CRSP and
the Tropsoils CRSP, he has made many other important
contributions to Title XII activities, some of which will
have long-term implications for all CRSPs.
BOARD OF DIRECTORS:
Due to the recent change in the length of service
on the Board of Directors from two to three years, no
members were scheduled to rotate off this year.
Dr. Richard L. Lower, Associate Dean of the Col-
lege of Agriculture and Life Sciences at the University
of Wisconsin, was re-elected chairperson and Dr. Lee
Sommers, Chair of the Agronomy Department at
Colorado State University, was elected secretary for
FY 88, replacing Dr. Oyer who served as secretary for
the previous two years.
TECHNICAL COMMITTEE:
Completing their terms on the Technical
Committee (TC) as of September 30, 1987 were
Dr. Richard Chalfant of the Department of Entomology
at the University of Georgia and Dr. Barry Swanson of
the Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition
at Washington State University. New members for FY
88 are Dr. Larry Beuchat of the Department of Food
Science at the University of Georgia and Dr. Matt
Silbernagel of USDA and the Department of Plant
Pathology at Washington State University.
Dr. Aart van Schoonhoven, formerly Head of the
Bean Program at CIAT and CIAT's permanent
representative on the CRSP Technical Committee, has
taken a new position as Director of Research at the
International Center for Agricultural Research in Dry
Areas (ICARDA) located in Aleppo, Syria. Dr. van
Schoonhoven participated in the planning of the CRSP
and served a very important liaison role between CIAT
and the CRSP, helping to strengthen the comple-
mentarity of the work of the International Centers and
the CRSP. Through his cooperation, many Host
Country sites support joint CRSP/CIAT on-farm trials
and field research efforts which are advancing common
goals.
Dr. Douglas Pachico replaces Dr. van Schoonhoven
both as Head of CIAT's Bean Program and as CIAT's
representative on the TC.
Dr. A. E. Hall of the Department of Botany and
Plant Sciences at the University of California-Riverside


was re-elected chairperson for FY 88, and Dr. James R.
Steadman of the Department of Plant Pathology at the
University of Nebraska-Lincoln was re-elected
secretary.
EXTERNAL EVALUATION PANEL:
Rotating off the External Evaluation Panel (EEP)
this year are Dr. Charlotte Roderuck, Director of the
World Food Institute at Iowa State University, and
Dr. Antonio M. Pinchinat, Regional Specialist in
Generation and Transfer of Technology for the
Inter-American Institute for Cooperation on
Agriculture (IICA), at St. Lucia, West Indies.
Dr. Roderuck is a food scientist with extensive
international research experience. Dr. Pinchinat, a
bean breeder, has made important contributions to bean
improvement programs throughout Latin America.
These scientists have played significant roles in the
evolution of the CRSP over the last six years. The
CRSP community is grateful for their contributions.
The new members on the EEP are Dr. Edna
McBreen and Dr. Ken Rachie. Dr. McBreen is
Associate Director for International Programs at the
State University of New York in Albany. Her areas of
expertise are agricultural, home economics and adult
education; training; and extension. She worked as a
consultant to the Agriculture and Rural Development
Office of the Africa Bureau, AID/Washington, respon-
sible for research concerning the status of Faculties of
Agriculture in selected African universities. She has
also contributed to agricultural education and women in
development in planning regional training programs for
the Africa Bureau. One of her recent assignments has
been with the USAID Mission in Malawi, the location of
one of the CRSP projects.
Dr. Rachie is a distinguished agricultural research
administrator, plant breeder and agronomist. He served
the Rockefeller Foundation for nearly 30 years on
assignments to Mexico, Colombia, India, Ethiopia,
Uganda and Nigeria. His major research contributions
include development and release of the first hybrid
sorghums and millets and establishment of world
collections of these crops in India; collecting and
breeding of tropical food legumes in West Africa; and
developing elite strains of cowpeas and pigeon peas at
IITA in Ibadan, Nigeria. He has also worked as an
agricultural research administrator at IITA and at
CIAT. Dr. Rachie is currently a private consultant and
Senior Associate for Winrock International.
PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATORS:
Botswana/Colorado State University
Dr. Jack de Mooy, professor of agronomy at CSU
and US Principal Investigator (PI), retired September 1,
1987. He has been very active in international
agronomy in Algeria, Australia, France, Indonesia, the
Netherlands, Nigeria, Pakistan, Senegal and Tanzania
in addition to Botswana.
Dr. de Mooy received the Interdisciplinary
Environmental Research Award from CSU in 1978 and
the Outstanding Educator of the Year Award from the
CSU Agronomy Club in 1978-79.
Since the beginning of this CRSP, Dr. de Mooy has
provided outstanding technical support and leadership.
His contributions to CRSP cowpea research were
See PERSONNEL page 5


Page 2


Bean/Cowpea CRSP


Winter 1988








Winter 1988BenCpeCRPae3


RREP from page 1
The distribution policy is to be applied to the total
project budget exclusive of all indirect costs.
2. Bean/Cowpea CRSP Policy on Training: The
Bean/Cowpea CRSP has as a major goal the
strengthening of HC nationals, a critical resource
necessary for successful long-term research. To
achieve this goal, CRSP projects are to give
emphasis to the training of HC persons over the
training of US persons. This policy adopts a HC
priority rather than US exclusion and refers to both
short-term training and graduate education.
3. Bean/Cowpea CRSP Policy on Participation of
Non-CRSP Developing Countries: Whereas the
Bean/Cowpea CRSP has institution building and
strengthening as a major goal, the BOD endorses
the concept of CRSP Host Countries inviting
scientists, representing limited-resource nations in
CRSP regions of the world, to participate in HC
collaborative research and training efforts which
may provide mutual benefits.
4. Bean/Cowpea CRSP Policy on Contributions by HC
Institutions: While not specifically mandated as in
the case of US institutions, contributions from
participating HC institutions are encouraged and
are seen as strengthening the collaborative nature
of the CRSP. In-kind contributions and indirect
costs or overhead are among the contributions
considered appropriate.
In line with these policies and the recent BOD
decision, invitations have been extended to LAC-region
HC administrators directly responsible for CRSP
projects to attend our first Regional Review,
Evaluation and Planning Meeting (RREP). AID Mission
ADOs in the region have also been encouraged to
attend, with special encouragement to ADOs from
countries where we have projects. It is our intent that
US and HC administrator teams will be convened to
develop strategies for strengthening CRSP research,
training and long-term impact related to bean and
cowpea production and consumption.
The first RREP meeting will be held in San Jos6,
Costa Rica at the Corobici Hotel from February 25
through 27, 1988. The BOD and Management Office of
the Bean/Cowpea CRSP anticipate a lively and most
productive meeting which will generate ideas,
information and documentation important for the
upcoming extension period.






OF SPECIAL NOTE


Congratulations to Dr. Anne K. Vidaver, Head of
the Department 6f Plant Pathology, University of
Nebraska-Lincoln (UNL), and an Investigator for the
Dominican Republic/UNL/Coyne project, who recently
completed her term as the second woman president of
the American Phytopathological Society. She officially
turned over the gavel at the Society's annual meeting in
Cincinnati, Ohio, August 2-6, 1987.
She had previously served the Society in several
other capacities, including member and Chair, Bacteri-
See VIDAVER page 4


PROJECT HIGHLIGHT
CAMEROON/UNIVERSITY OF GEORGIA/CHALFANT


Dr. Richard Chalfant, an entomologist at the
University of Georgia at Tifton, has completed his
CRSP project begun at the initiation of the CRSP. The
project research, concerning management of cowpea
insect pests in the field, generated important outcomes
for agriculture in Cameroon. Dr. Chalfant worked
closely with the AID Mission in establishing the project
with Cameroon's Institute of Agricultural Research
(IRA). As the father of the Cameroon/CRSP linkage,
he identified Dr. Moffi Ta'Ama to lead the field
research there. The two scientists were able to
establish an excellent working relationship with the IRA
leadership.


Dr. Richard B. Chalfant
US Principal Investigator


With Dr. Chalfant as Principal Investigator, the
small team identified advanced cowpea lines from IITA
which were screened in multiple locations around the
country under grower conditions. One of these,
TVX3236, was shown to be especially well-adapted
(insect resistant, early maturing and high yielding) when
grown in monoculture under high density conditions and,
as a result of their efforts, was very well accepted by
the farmers. In addition, a local cultivar, VYA, was
found at one site. VYA proved to be very well adapted
to low energy, low plant density conditions and gave a
reasonable yield when intercropped with sorghum, a
major cropping practice in the region.
The Government of Cameroon and the USAID
Mission acknowledged with appreciation the work of Dr.
Chalfant and the University of Georgia which
"contributed to the achievement of important project
objectives in research and training." Dr. Chalfant has
also served on the CRSP Technical Committee. The
CRSP is indebted to him for the role he has played in
its development.


Bean/Cowpea CRSP


Page 3


Winter 1988








Pae4 en/ope RS ine 18


FROM THE DIRECTOR'S DESK

For the first time in the ten-year history of Title
XII of the Foreign Assistance Act, the legislation under
which the Collaborative Research Support Programs
(CRSPs) were spawned, the CRSP Directors as a group
participated as observers in Centers Week
October 26-30, 1987. Centers Week is the time when
the member International Agricultural Research
Centers (IARCs) of the Consultative Group for
International Agriculture Research (CGIAR) come
together to review with the donor countries the
progress of their efforts and to identify goals for the
future. This long overdue CRSP/IARC coming-together
moves forward a process begun earlier when individual
CRSPs invited the IARCs doing related research to
contribute to CRSP operations in various ways. The
informal exchange of germplasm, methodologies and
research findings among CRSP and IARC scientists has
been going on for some time and proved a firm
foundation for the development of the formal
relationships. The interactions generated are perceived
by both organizations as mechanisms for avoiding
duplication and for keeping each organization "on the
cutting edge" of science. Between the Bean/Cowpea
CRSP, CIAT and IITA, productive relationships are built
on the following:
1. The heads of the legume programs of CIAT and
IITA are members of the Bean/Cowpea CRSP
Technical Committee.
2. Scientists from these two IARCs have taken
sabbatical leaves to study with senior scientists at
CRSP institutions and CRSP scientists have spent
sabbaticals at CIAT and IITA.
3. CRSP graduate students and trainees have included
work at the IARCs in their programs.
4. CIAT and IITA scientists exchange germplasm,
methodologies and research findings with CRSP
scientists on a regular basis.
5. The two groups cooperate in on-farm research and
testing of each others' materials.
6. Together, the CRSP and the IARCs sponsor
professional activities open to all scientists
working in similar areas.
Thus, it was an appropriate step forward when the
CRSPs were welcomed as Centers Week observers. The
meeting further opened up new possibilities for
professional exchange and joint research.






VIDAVER from page 3
ology Committee, 1968-70 and 1975-77; Ad-hoc
Committee on Recombinant DNA, 1975; Special
Committee on Status of Women, 1980-82; Program
Committee, 1980-83, 1984-85; Long-Range Planning
Committee, 1980-83; Necrology Committee, 1980-83;
Secretary, 1980-83; Executive Committee, 1980-83;
Vice President, 1984-85; and President-elect, 1985-86.
Dr. Vidaver is a Fellow of the American Asso-
ciation for the Advancement of Science and the APS.
Her particular field of research is the characterization
of plasmids, bacteriphages and bacteriocins of
phytopathogenic bacteria and the biology and control of
phytopathogenic bacteria.


CRSP BIBLIOGRAPHY

A project-by-project bibliography of the published
works, oral presentations and workshops organized by
the projects of the Bean/Cowpea CRSP from 1981
through 1987 is now available from the Management
Office. Bibliography: Publications; Proceedings,
Presentations and Workshops is available without
charge.

ON-FARM TRIALS WORKSHOP HELD

The University of Florida and the Farming Systems
Support Project conducted a short course on the design
and analysis of on-farm trials July 7-12, 1987. Twenty
participants from the Bean/Cowpea and INTSORMIL
CRSPs included thirteen from Africa, five from the US
and two from Latin America. The goal of the short
course was to provide participants with the necessary
skills to interpret the results of on-farm trials from the
point of view of biophysical factors, intra-household
considerations and other socio-economic criteria.


Participants at session of workshop


Principal instructors were Dr. Peter Hildebrand,
Dr. Ken Buhr and Dr. Susan Poats; Ms. Lisette Walecka
was the planner/facilitator. Other University of
Florida personnel included Mr. John Russell, Dr. Chris
Andrew, Dr. Tito French and Mr. John Lichte. The
short course reviewed the following items:
1. Rationale for on-farm research and the philosophy
behind the methodology
2. Difficulties inherent with traditional ANOVA
concepts
3. Modified stability analysis
4. Multi-location testing
5. Economic and biological criteria in designing and
evaluating on-farm trials
6. Gender and household analysis
7. Risk associated with on-farm trials
The successful short course concluded with a tour
of Northern Florida. The participants had considerable
experience with analyzing data using the modified
stability analysis on calculators. Some computer acti-
vities (MSTAT) were also included. This course
provided an excellent opportunity for the participants
to see how on-farm trials are an integral part of the
research programs.


Page 4


Bean/Cowpea CRSP


Winter 1988








Winter 1988 Bean/Cowpea CRSP Page 5


PERSONNEL from page 2
acknowledged repeatedly by the AID administrators and
scientists who reviewed the work of his team in
Botswana. The CRSP has been well served by his
competence, dedication and commitment in solving
critical food production problems among underserved
populations.
Dr. Mark Brick, associate professor of agronomy at
CSU, has assumed the role of US PI for the project. Dr.
Brick is leader of the dry bean breeding program at
CSU.
Ms. Mmasera Manthe is the new Host Country (HC)
PI of the Botswana project and is the first woman to
assume that post in a CRSP Host Country. Ms. Manthe
recently completed her M.S. in the Department of
Agronomy at CSU and has now returned to the
Department of Agricultural Research of the
Government of Botswana.
Brazil/University of Wisconsin/Bliss
Dr. Donald J. Hagedorn, bean and pea plant
pathologist, retired in June 1987 after thirty-nine years
on the faculty of the University of Wisconsin (UWI). He
was the original US PI for one of the Brazil projects.
His achievements include the development and
release of three pea cultivars, fourteen pea breeding
lines and nine bean breeding lines; the development of
techniques to aid the bean and pea seed and processing
industries; and the development of a screening method-
ology for rust, common bacterial blight, anthracnose
and angular leaf spot in beans. With 315 publications to
his credit, including a definitive monograph on virus
diseases of peas, he is recognized as a world authority
on legume viruses.
Among the many awards Dr. Hagedorn received
during his career are the AAAS Campbell Award, the
Ciba-Geigy Award, an Honorary Doctor of Science from
the University of Idaho, the Fellow Award from the
American Phytopathological Society, the Forty-Niner
Service Award, the Meritorius Service Award from both
the National Pea Improvement Association and the
Bean Improvement Cooperative and the Wisconsin
Academy of Sciences Arts and Letters Citation.
Dr. Josias Correa de Faria, plant pathologist at
EMBRAPA/CNPAF and Co-HC PI with this CRSP
project, will spend a year at UWI, doing research on
bean golden mosaic virus (BGMV) in association with
Dr. Douglas Maxwell, Chair of UWI's Department of
Plant Pathology and Co-US PI.
Dr. Maria Jos6 de Oliveira Zimmermann will serve
as Co-HC PI in Dr. Faria's absence and will continue
the ongoing research on BGMV. She has program
responsibilities for plant breeding at EMBRAPA/
CNPAF and has served as leader for the Brazilian
National Bean Program.
Cameroon/Purdue University
Dr. Larry Murdock, entomology professor at
Purdue University, joins the CRSP as the US PI for the
new Cameroon seed storage initiative. Mr. Zachee Boli
continues as HC PI in Cameroon working with Dr. Moffi
Ta'Ama, principal field scientist, and Mr. Georges
Ntoukam, who recently returned after completing his
M.S. in entomology at the University of Georgia. Dr.
Murdock is the coordinator and co-founder of RIISP
(Research Initiative: Insects of Stored Pulses), a


multi-disciplinary research team at Purdue, whose goal
is to benefit subsistence farmers in developing coun-
tries through research on cowpeas and common bean.
The objectives of this new research initiative are
(1) to improve cowpea storage technologies for low
resource farmers, (2) to develop and improve screening
methods for resistance to storage insects, (3) to iden-
tify Vigna germplasm with resistance to storage insects
and 4) to delineate mechanisms and the nature of
resistance to storage insects.
MANAGEMENT OFFICE:
Ms. Kit Machinchick, former Program Secretary,
has left the CRSP and moved to the Kellogg Interna-
tional Fellowship Program in the College of Human
Medicine at MSU. Ms. Annette McGarey has joined us
as the new Program Secretary. She comes to us highly
recommended by her associates in the MSU Psychology
Department where she worked for several years.



MALAWI from page 1
tolerance substantiated this observation. Most of the
landraces that were adapted showed higher leaf
diffusive resistances. Combined over all experiments,
under stress conditions, economic yield was signif-
icantly and positively (r=0.242) associated with leaf
diffusive resistance but significantly and negatively
(r=-0.472; r=-0.243) associated with leaf transpiration
and leaf temperature, respectively. However, from
data combined from one intercropping and one WUE
experiment, no significant relationship was obtained
between total biological yield and either leaf moisture
retention capacity (LMRC) or specific leaf weight
(SLW) under stress conditions. And there was no
significant relationship between LMRC and SLW.
Genetic variability exists among Phaseolus and
Vigna species in their WUE and drought tolerance.
Agronomically, Vigna species performed similarly to
Phaseolus species although they were expected to show
higher water-use efficiency and drought tolerance. In
one of the two WUE experiments, the Malawian land-
races significantly increased their WUE under drought
such that they yielded equally well under drought as
under well-watered conditions. The Malawian landrace
component 5 (Katolika) proved to be a drought tolerant
genotype in three years.
The genetic variability in the Malawian component
landraces in drought tolerance suggests that the mix-
tures planted by farmers in Malawi are comprised of
both higher yielding but probably susceptible and the
lower yielding but drought tolerant components. This
provides one explanation of why Malawian farmers grow
bean mixtures. They may want to maximize seed yields
during good years by planting landraces of higher
yielding potential while at the same time minimizing
yield losses, in the event of a drought, by including
drought tolerant landrace components.

*Advisory Committee:
Dr. M. Wayne Adams, Chairman
Dr. J. D. Kelly
Dr. C. E. Cress
Dr. A. R. Putnam


Bean/Cowpea CRSP


Page 5


Winter 1988








Page 6 Bean/Cowpea CRSP Winter 1988


SYMPOSIUM HELD AT PCCMCA MEETINGS

A symposium on breeding for higher yields in beans
was held in conjunction with the 33rd Annual PCCMCA
Meeting in Guatemala City. Bean scientists from
Central, South and North America discussed approaches
to breeding for higher yields. The Symposium was co-
sponsored by ICTA, CIAT and the Bean/Cowpea CRSP.
The eight papers presented were:
(1) "Morpho-Physiological Characterization of Early
Genotypes in Common Beans" by R. Rodriquez,
S. Colin and S. Beebe
(2) "Strategies at CIAT for Increasing Yield Potential
of Common Beans--Finishing the Domestication
Process" by J. White
(3) "The Role of Architecture, Crop Physiology and
Recurrent Selection in Ideotype Breeding for Yield
in Dry Beans" by M. Adams and J. Kelly
(4) "Early Generation Selection for High Yield in
Beans Using Physiology Components of Yield as
Selection Criteria" by P. Masaya, J. White,
D. Wallace and R. Rodriguez
(5) "Yield System Analysis for Improving Efficiency of
Breeding for Higher Yield" by D. Wallace,
P. Masaya, K. Yourstone and B. Scully
(6) "Yield Potential of Climbing Beans" by R. Lepiz
(7) "Heritabilities and Phenotypic Correlations for
Seed Yield and Yield Components of Bean Popu-
lations Derived from Crosses between Determi-
nate and Indeterminate Genotypes" by M. Solano,
J. Beaver and F. Saladin
(8) "Bean Modeling" by Gerrit Hoogenboom
A publication containing all the above papers ex-
cept the "Bean Modeling" paper was distributed to those
attending the session. There was lively discussion
throughout the sessions. Although there was no general
consensus about what is needed to break the yield pla-
teau in beans, some general comments are listed below:
(1) There is a positive correlation between biomass
and grain yield.
(2) Early maturing types tend to be more efficient.



Bean/Cowpea Collaborative Research Support Program
200 Center for International Programs
Michigan State University
East Lansing, MI 48824, USA
Telephone: (517) 355-4693 Telex: 263359 CRSP UR


Type III beans are the highest yielding type.
Very little work has been done on Type IV beans.
Seed weight biomass, day to flowering and
maturity are important selection criteria.
Recurrent selection is important when breeding for
high yield. Criteria can include those mentioned in
item 5 as well as yield per day or a particular
archetype.


BEAN/COWPEA CRSP CALENDAR


1988
Jan. 28-29


TC review of extension proposals


Feb. 21-26 EEP Triennial Review

Feb. 25-26 BOD Meeting

Feb. 25-26 Regional Review, Evaluation and
Planning Meeting, San Jos6, Costa Rica


April

Aug. 15


Nov. 1

Dec. 15


AID Triennal Management Review

Extension proposal review by
BIFAD/Sector Council

Approval by AID Administrator due

Funded PIOT due


NON-PROFITORGANIZATION
U.S. Postage
PAID
East Lansing, Michigan
PERMIT NO. 21


Your comments on current articles and suggestions for
future issues are encouraged. Please direct them to
Ms. Sue Bengry, Pulse Beat Coordinator, Bean/Cowpea
CRSP, 200 International Center, Michigan State Uni-
versity, East Lansing, MI 48824.


Page 6


Bean/Cowpea CRSP


Winter 1988




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