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 CRSP research develops a village...
 Prestigious awards earned by CRSP...
 Cuts in development hurt U.S. Agriculture...
 Integrating leaf and seed production...
 Starch gel electrophoresis as a...
 Personnel changes
 1987 bean/cowpea CRSP summer...
 Guatemala women in agriculture...
 Global plan and progress repor...
 From the desk of Russ Freed
 TC meeting held
 Bean/cowpea CRSP calendar


PETE FLAG IFAS PALMM



PulseBeat
ALL VOLUMES CITATION SEARCH THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00055226/00001
 Material Information
Title: PulseBeat
Uniform Title: PulseBeat (East Lansing, Mich.)
Portion of title: Pulse beat
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Bean/Cowpea Collaborative Research Support Program
United States -- Agency for International Development
United States -- Board for International Food and Agricultural Development
Publisher: Michigan State University
Place of Publication: East Lansing Mich
Creation Date: 1987
Frequency: quarterly
regular
 Subjects
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: the Bean/Cowpea Collaborative Research Support Program (CRSP).
Numbering Peculiarities: Suspended winter-summer 1986.
General Note: Funded by USAID/BIFAD grant no. AID/DSAN-XXII-G-0261 through May 6, 1986, and by USAID/BIFAD grant no. DAN-1310-G-SS-6008-00 thereafter.
General Note: Description based on: Fall 1986; title from caption.
Funding: Electronic resources created as part of a prototype UF Institutional Repository and Faculty Papers project by the University of Florida.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 16894864
lccn - sn 89013302
System ID: UF00055226:00001

Table of Contents
    CRSP research develops a village mill to process cowpea meal in Nigeria
        Page 1
    Prestigious awards earned by CRSP scientists
        Page 1
    Cuts in development hurt U.S. Agriculture training
        Page 1
    Integrating leaf and seed production strategies for cowpea
        Page 2
    Starch gel electrophoresis as a tool for plant genetics
        Page 3
    Personnel changes
        Page 3
    1987 bean/cowpea CRSP summer workshop
        Page 4
    Guatemala women in agriculture resource guide available
        Page 4
    Global plan and progress report
        Page 4
    From the desk of Russ Freed
        Page 4
        Page 5
    TC meeting held
        Page 6
    Bean/cowpea CRSP calendar
        Page 6
Full Text










PulseBeat


The Bean/Cowpea
Collaborative
Research
Support Program
(CRSP)


Winter/Spring 1987
Michigan State University


CRSP RESEARCH DEVELOPS A VILLAGE
MILL TO PROCESS COWPEA MEAL
IN NIGERIA
Kay H. McWatters,l
Dickson Nnanyelugo,2
Patrick 0. Ngoddy,3
and Manjeet S. Chinnanl

A major constraint which limits the wider use of
cowpeas in Nigeria and other West African countries is
the time and effort required to prepare them for food.
Popular dishes such as akara (fried cowpea paste) and
moin moin (steamed cowpea paste) utilize cowpeas in
the paste form as the principal ingredient in these
foods. The traditional method for preparing cowpea
paste in the home and marketplace is a manual process
which involves soaking peas in water, wet decortication
(seed coat removal) and wet milling. The processes
traditionally are done by pounding and whipping the
grain in a mortar with a pestle. Decortication and
milling are extremely labor-intensive and time-
consuming, and paste prepared by this traditional
process must be used within a short period of time to
avoid the possibility of microbial spoilage.


riuulcobnliy daiar lul balto


Technology developed by the CRSP project has
devised a village-scale process for making cowpea
meal, a convenience product to which the consumer
simply adds water to make the paste, eliminating the
former time-consuming and energy-demanding prepa-
ration. Meal processed by project technology produces
end products which compare favorably in appearance,
color and flavor to traditional paste products.
See MILL page 2


PRESTIGIOUS AWARDS EARNED
BY CRSP SCIENTISTS
Dr. Fred Bliss, Principal Investigator of the
Bean/Cowpea CRSP Brazil/University of Wisconsin
project, has received the prestigious ASSINSEL Grand
Prize for his breeding and genetic program on the
common bean. The award, which carries a prize of
5,000 Swiss francs, is only the third awarded by the
International Association of Plant Breeders for the
Protection of Plant Varieties (ASSINSEL) and the first
to a US scientist. Dr. Bliss is a professor of
horticulture at the University of Wisconsin and a
member of the National Plant Genetic Resources Board
(NPGRB).
Dr. Fred Bliss also was honored as a fellow in the
Crop Science Society of America at their annual
meeting in New Orleans in December 1986.
Dr. M. Wayne Adams, Principal Investigator of the
Bean/Cowpea CRSP Mexico/Michigan State University
and Malawi/MSU projects, was recently recognized by
the Michigan Crop Improvement Association. Dr.
Adams received the Association's Honorary Membership
award for his contribution to bean production in
Michigan. He has released nineteen bean varieties and
has authored more than sixty publications including one
book and three book chapters. He has supervised more
than sixty graduate students. Dr. Adams is a professor
of crop and soil sciences at Michigan State University; a
fellow of the American Society of Agronomy; and a
member of the Crop Science Society of America, the
Society for Study of Evolution, Sigma Xi, Sigma Delta
Chi and Alpha Zeta.


CUTS IN DEVELOPMENT HURT
U.S. AGRICULTURE TRAINING
Dr. P. W. Barnes-McConnell

The recent and repeated reductions in U.S.
government financial support for international
agricultural development, point up a dangerous trend.
Falling from among government's highest priorities,
agricultural research and training initiatives are being
seriously curtailed. As a result, this curtailment may
negatively impact not only agricultural development
important for developing countries, but critical
long-term contributions to U.S. agriculture as well.
Of special importance is the training component in
development projects. For example, in the first six
years of its existence, the Bean/Cowpea CRSP has
See CUTS page 5


FUNDED THROUGH USAID/BIFAD GRANT NO. DAN-1310-G-SS-6008-00














PulseBeat


The Bean/Cowpea
Collaborative
Research
Support Program
(CRSP)


Winter/Spring 1987
Michigan State University


CRSP RESEARCH DEVELOPS A VILLAGE
MILL TO PROCESS COWPEA MEAL
IN NIGERIA
Kay H. McWatters,l
Dickson Nnanyelugo,2
Patrick 0. Ngoddy,3
and Manjeet S. Chinnanl

A major constraint which limits the wider use of
cowpeas in Nigeria and other West African countries is
the time and effort required to prepare them for food.
Popular dishes such as akara (fried cowpea paste) and
moin moin (steamed cowpea paste) utilize cowpeas in
the paste form as the principal ingredient in these
foods. The traditional method for preparing cowpea
paste in the home and marketplace is a manual process
which involves soaking peas in water, wet decortication
(seed coat removal) and wet milling. The processes
traditionally are done by pounding and whipping the
grain in a mortar with a pestle. Decortication and
milling are extremely labor-intensive and time-
consuming, and paste prepared by this traditional
process must be used within a short period of time to
avoid the possibility of microbial spoilage.


riuulcobnliy daiar lul balto


Technology developed by the CRSP project has
devised a village-scale process for making cowpea
meal, a convenience product to which the consumer
simply adds water to make the paste, eliminating the
former time-consuming and energy-demanding prepa-
ration. Meal processed by project technology produces
end products which compare favorably in appearance,
color and flavor to traditional paste products.
See MILL page 2


PRESTIGIOUS AWARDS EARNED
BY CRSP SCIENTISTS
Dr. Fred Bliss, Principal Investigator of the
Bean/Cowpea CRSP Brazil/University of Wisconsin
project, has received the prestigious ASSINSEL Grand
Prize for his breeding and genetic program on the
common bean. The award, which carries a prize of
5,000 Swiss francs, is only the third awarded by the
International Association of Plant Breeders for the
Protection of Plant Varieties (ASSINSEL) and the first
to a US scientist. Dr. Bliss is a professor of
horticulture at the University of Wisconsin and a
member of the National Plant Genetic Resources Board
(NPGRB).
Dr. Fred Bliss also was honored as a fellow in the
Crop Science Society of America at their annual
meeting in New Orleans in December 1986.
Dr. M. Wayne Adams, Principal Investigator of the
Bean/Cowpea CRSP Mexico/Michigan State University
and Malawi/MSU projects, was recently recognized by
the Michigan Crop Improvement Association. Dr.
Adams received the Association's Honorary Membership
award for his contribution to bean production in
Michigan. He has released nineteen bean varieties and
has authored more than sixty publications including one
book and three book chapters. He has supervised more
than sixty graduate students. Dr. Adams is a professor
of crop and soil sciences at Michigan State University; a
fellow of the American Society of Agronomy; and a
member of the Crop Science Society of America, the
Society for Study of Evolution, Sigma Xi, Sigma Delta
Chi and Alpha Zeta.


CUTS IN DEVELOPMENT HURT
U.S. AGRICULTURE TRAINING
Dr. P. W. Barnes-McConnell

The recent and repeated reductions in U.S.
government financial support for international
agricultural development, point up a dangerous trend.
Falling from among government's highest priorities,
agricultural research and training initiatives are being
seriously curtailed. As a result, this curtailment may
negatively impact not only agricultural development
important for developing countries, but critical
long-term contributions to U.S. agriculture as well.
Of special importance is the training component in
development projects. For example, in the first six
years of its existence, the Bean/Cowpea CRSP has
See CUTS page 5


FUNDED THROUGH USAID/BIFAD GRANT NO. DAN-1310-G-SS-6008-00














PulseBeat


The Bean/Cowpea
Collaborative
Research
Support Program
(CRSP)


Winter/Spring 1987
Michigan State University


CRSP RESEARCH DEVELOPS A VILLAGE
MILL TO PROCESS COWPEA MEAL
IN NIGERIA
Kay H. McWatters,l
Dickson Nnanyelugo,2
Patrick 0. Ngoddy,3
and Manjeet S. Chinnanl

A major constraint which limits the wider use of
cowpeas in Nigeria and other West African countries is
the time and effort required to prepare them for food.
Popular dishes such as akara (fried cowpea paste) and
moin moin (steamed cowpea paste) utilize cowpeas in
the paste form as the principal ingredient in these
foods. The traditional method for preparing cowpea
paste in the home and marketplace is a manual process
which involves soaking peas in water, wet decortication
(seed coat removal) and wet milling. The processes
traditionally are done by pounding and whipping the
grain in a mortar with a pestle. Decortication and
milling are extremely labor-intensive and time-
consuming, and paste prepared by this traditional
process must be used within a short period of time to
avoid the possibility of microbial spoilage.


riuulcobnliy daiar lul balto


Technology developed by the CRSP project has
devised a village-scale process for making cowpea
meal, a convenience product to which the consumer
simply adds water to make the paste, eliminating the
former time-consuming and energy-demanding prepa-
ration. Meal processed by project technology produces
end products which compare favorably in appearance,
color and flavor to traditional paste products.
See MILL page 2


PRESTIGIOUS AWARDS EARNED
BY CRSP SCIENTISTS
Dr. Fred Bliss, Principal Investigator of the
Bean/Cowpea CRSP Brazil/University of Wisconsin
project, has received the prestigious ASSINSEL Grand
Prize for his breeding and genetic program on the
common bean. The award, which carries a prize of
5,000 Swiss francs, is only the third awarded by the
International Association of Plant Breeders for the
Protection of Plant Varieties (ASSINSEL) and the first
to a US scientist. Dr. Bliss is a professor of
horticulture at the University of Wisconsin and a
member of the National Plant Genetic Resources Board
(NPGRB).
Dr. Fred Bliss also was honored as a fellow in the
Crop Science Society of America at their annual
meeting in New Orleans in December 1986.
Dr. M. Wayne Adams, Principal Investigator of the
Bean/Cowpea CRSP Mexico/Michigan State University
and Malawi/MSU projects, was recently recognized by
the Michigan Crop Improvement Association. Dr.
Adams received the Association's Honorary Membership
award for his contribution to bean production in
Michigan. He has released nineteen bean varieties and
has authored more than sixty publications including one
book and three book chapters. He has supervised more
than sixty graduate students. Dr. Adams is a professor
of crop and soil sciences at Michigan State University; a
fellow of the American Society of Agronomy; and a
member of the Crop Science Society of America, the
Society for Study of Evolution, Sigma Xi, Sigma Delta
Chi and Alpha Zeta.


CUTS IN DEVELOPMENT HURT
U.S. AGRICULTURE TRAINING
Dr. P. W. Barnes-McConnell

The recent and repeated reductions in U.S.
government financial support for international
agricultural development, point up a dangerous trend.
Falling from among government's highest priorities,
agricultural research and training initiatives are being
seriously curtailed. As a result, this curtailment may
negatively impact not only agricultural development
important for developing countries, but critical
long-term contributions to U.S. agriculture as well.
Of special importance is the training component in
development projects. For example, in the first six
years of its existence, the Bean/Cowpea CRSP has
See CUTS page 5


FUNDED THROUGH USAID/BIFAD GRANT NO. DAN-1310-G-SS-6008-00








Page2 Ben/CwpeaCRSPWiner/Sring19I


MILL from page 1

In order to field test and promote the
implementation of the new cowpea processing
technology and assess the impact of the product in a
community, plans were made to install a pilot mill in a
traditional Nigerian village. Ogbodu-Aba village was
selected because of its interest in and enthusiasm for
the proposed mill. The village has a population of about
4,000 and is located about 15 miles from the University
of Nigeria campus at Nsukka. During 1986, a 45-foot x
60-foot building was constructed with building
materials provided by the CRSP project, the University
of Nigeria, Ogbodu-Aba Community Development
Association and Mr. Igwe Okwor, traditional ruler of
the village. Labor to construct the building was
provided by the village residents. The building was
completed in November 1986. Processing equipment
was organized to be installed and commissioned in time
to process cowpeas from the 1986 harvest. The joint
effort of the CRSP and the community enabled the
facility to be constructed and equipped and has fostered
the development of a collegial working relationship
between the CRSP team and the residents of the village.
The Host Country team has engaged a food
technology graduate to train the mill staff of about six
people. Standard practices with respect to ownership
and management of supplies and equipment will be
followed during the course of the field test phase of the
project. Eventually, the mill will become the property
of the Ogbodu-Aba Development Union and will have a
Board of Directors chosen from among members of the
union. Since all families in the village are participating
members of the union, it was felt that this ownership
arrangement would be the most equitable.
Meal processing technology developed by the
project involves (1) wetting, (2) equilibrating, (3) drying,
(4) mechanical decortication, (5) aspiration and
(6) milling. Steps 1-3 effectively condition cowpeas
which have tightly adhering seed coats for efficient
decortication by mechanical means. Functional
properties such as water uptake, foam formation and
paste viscosity have a significant impact on end product
quality and have been found to be particularly sensitive
to extremes in heating and milling process conditions.
Process conditions which have been found to be
essential for retaining the desirable functional
characteristics of cowpea meal are mild rather than
high temperatures for drying and coarse rather than
fine milling.
A concrete tank with three compartments equipped
for decanting and drainage is important for the wetting
step. Drying facilities consist of a drying chamber
(8 feet x 3 feet x 3 feet) made of brick and wood and an
indirect air-heating system to be operated on solid
fuel. Heated air will be sucked through the heat
exchanger into a centrifugal fan inlet and then
discharged into the plenum of the drying bin. The
drying bin is provided in two self-contained
compartments to facilitate operational flexibility. The
heat exchange unit can be easily converted into a
compact liquid fuel-fired system if necessary. Other
items of processing equipment include an Engelberg
rice mill equipped with leather flails to accomplish the
decortication step, seed cleaner, hammer mill, scales
and a sealer for polyethylene bags.


The mill installation represents an exciting
developmental stage of the CRSP project. With
successful implementation of project technology and
consumer acceptance of cowpea meal, utilization of
cowpeas is expected to increase. Increased
consumption of cowpeas--a major emphasis of the
CRSP Global Plan--will in turn improve the nutritional
status and general well-being of Nigerians and of
people in other developing countries in which cowpeas
are a significant dietary component.

IDepartment of Food Science, University of Georgia
College of Agriculture Experiment Station, Experiment,
GA 30212, USA
2Department of Home Science and Nutrition,
University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria
3Department of Food Science and Technology,
University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria


Fresh legume leaves for sale in marketplace in East Africa

INTEGRATING LEAF AND SEED
PRODUCTION STRATEGIES FOR COWPEA

Abstract of M.S. Thesis, Robert P. Barrett*
Department of Horticulture
(Presently Department of Forestry)
Michigan State University

Cowpea is eaten both as a grain legume and a leaf
vegetable in much of sub-Saharan Africa. Leaves are
available earlier than seeds and are often dried for
storage. On a dry weight basis, leaves have as much
protein as seeds and contain more vitamins and
minerals.
Although tolerance is lower after anthesis, minor
defoliation (one-third or less) during vegetative growth
rarely reduces seed yield because of rapid regrowth and
increased expansion and/or photosynthesis in remaining
leaves. Removing the lowest leaves, which are shaded
and have the least photosynthetic capacity due to age,
can increase seed yield.
Six African cowpea cultivars were grown in a
greenhouse at Michigan State University. Four were
developed in Nigeria for high seed yields (Tvu-3662,
Tvu-1948, Vita 5 and Vita 7) and two were landraces
from Botswana used for leaves and seeds (B-138 and
See LEAVES page 4


Page 2


Bean/Cowpea CRSP


Winter/Spring 1987








WInter/Spring 1987 Bean/Cowpea C Page 3


STARCH GEL ELECTROPHORESIS
AS A TOOL FOR PLANT GENETICS

Susan Morss Sprecher*
Department of Crop and Soil Sciences
Michigan State University

Genetic analysis using starch gel electrophoresis to
identify allelic differences between structural genes
coding for enzymes has been an accepted method in
biological studies since the middle of the 1960s (Shaw,
1965). It has become a standard tool for plant genetic
investigations because differences at the DNA level,
which produce variations in the amino acid content of
proteins and in their net electrical charge, can be
identified in certain enzymes. These DNA differences
are visualized by suspending proteins in a starch matrix
and exposing them to an electrical field. Differential
migration occurs when proteins are unequal in charge,
and the relative position of each of these isoenzyme
forms is revealed by developing the gel in a stain which
is specific for the activity of that enzyme (Tanksley
and Orton, 1983). In the Bean/Cowpea CRSP the
Malawi project has been using starch gel
electrophoresis since 1984 to analyze genetic diversity
in landraces of Phaseolus vulgaris. This technique has
also been successful in identifying interspecific crosses
between P. vulgaris and P. acutifolius produced by Dr.
Giles Waines' group at the University of
California-Riverside.
Allozymes, the term used to describe alleles at an
enzyme locus, have specific advantages over morpho-
logical markers for genetic analysis. For example, the
product of the gene being used as a marker is known--it
is the specific enzyme which catalyzes the reaction of
the activity stain. If two allozymes are present at the
same locus, both can be seen; and this co-dominance
allows heterozygotes to be identified (Shaw, 1965). In
addition, large numbers of plants can be screened
quickly for variation at several enzyme loci; there is a
minimum of morphological or physiological distortion
even when multiple isozyme markers are present in one
individual; and alleles at one locus can quickly be
distinguished from those at another (Brown, 1978).
Starch gel electrophoresis techniques are simple and
inexpensive compared to many other genetic analyses,
and a strong case can be made for having
electrophoresis capability in any plant genetics program.
Starch gel techniques have been applied
successfully to several legume species. The detailed
genetic map of pea, Pisum sativum, has made progress
because of the use of isozyme marker loci. Since
heterozygotes are readily identifiable by means of
co-dominant allozymes, electrophoresis has been used
to measure outcrossing in populations of faba bean
(Gates and Boulter, 1979) and to monitor levels of
heterozygosity in lines of winged bean (Morss,
unpublished). The ability to survey populations rapidly
allows genetic "fingerprinting" for cultivar
identification, such as Weeden's work on white-seeded
snap beans (1984). The dry bean breeding program at
Michigan State University is in the process of creating
isolines differentiated by allozymes to investigate their
linkage to plant architecture traits; changes in isozyme
allele frequency during recurrent selection are also
being monitored.


The equipment needed for starch electrophoresis is
relatively simple and inexpensive. Most researchers
build their own gel frames and electrolytic buffer trays
from plexiglass, following standard patterns or specific
designs for local conditions. Other requirements are
such standard items as a pH meter, refrigerator and
freezer space, power supplies, good quality distilled
water, magnetic stirrers, a bunsen burner and a balance
accurate to 10 milligrams. The chemicals required in
the buffers and enzyme-specific activity stains are a
recurring expense, and certain stains are relatively
costly on a per-use basis. However, this cost may be
weighed against the ease of using the particular stain
and the number of polymorphic loci revealed by it. It is
important to note that some of these chemicals are
toxic or carcinogenic, requiring care during use and
specialized disposal.
The techniques are not difficult, but a new worker
may require one to two months of practice to become
proficient in preparing buffers for the various systems,
cooking a consistently textured gel, grinding plant parts
and applying samples to the gel, slicing and staining
gels, and interpreting the results. The number of plants
which can be handled in any length of time depends on
how much equipment is available, and how many people
are on hand to prepare samples.
In P. vulgaris, analyses are most commonly done on
leaves, hypocotyls, roots and seeds. Roots may be
sampled as early as ten days from planting in a loose
medium such as sand or vermiculite. Leaves should be
half- to fully-expanded. Seeds are soaked for twelve
hours or more; and after a portion of the cotyledon is
removed for analysis, the rest of the seed may be
planted.
See ELECTROPHORESIS page 6



PERSONNEL CHANGES

INSTITUTIONAL REPRESENTATIVES--Dr. Dale
Vanderholm, Associate Dean of the Ag Research
Division, Institute of Agriculture and Natural
Resources, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, replaces
Dr. Roger Uhlinger as IR for UNL. Dr. Uhlinger has
relinquished his responsibilities as Chair of the
Department of Horticulture to return to teaching and
active research.
MANAGEMENT OFFICE--Ms. Carolyn Snow,
CRSP Administrative Officer, accepted a new position
as Michigan State University Travel Coordinator
effective February 1. MSU is presently implementing a
new program to provide improved travel services to
faculty and staff which Ms. Snow will coordinate. Our
new Administrative Officer is Ms. Sue Bengry, who has
been with the CRSP for some time. She is also the
coordinator for Pulse Beat. Our new Program
Secretary is Ms. Kit Machinchick, formerly with MSU's
Office of International Students and Scholars.
Recurring budget reductions have required
adjustments in the MO as well as in the projects.
Effective with these most recent personnel changes, no
staff member of the MO is employed 100 percent time
by the CRSP. Every effort is being made, nonetheless,
to maintain our traditional level and quality of services.


Winter/Spring 1987


Bean/Cowpea CRSP


Page 3








WInter/Spring 1987 Bean/Cowpea C Page 3


STARCH GEL ELECTROPHORESIS
AS A TOOL FOR PLANT GENETICS

Susan Morss Sprecher*
Department of Crop and Soil Sciences
Michigan State University

Genetic analysis using starch gel electrophoresis to
identify allelic differences between structural genes
coding for enzymes has been an accepted method in
biological studies since the middle of the 1960s (Shaw,
1965). It has become a standard tool for plant genetic
investigations because differences at the DNA level,
which produce variations in the amino acid content of
proteins and in their net electrical charge, can be
identified in certain enzymes. These DNA differences
are visualized by suspending proteins in a starch matrix
and exposing them to an electrical field. Differential
migration occurs when proteins are unequal in charge,
and the relative position of each of these isoenzyme
forms is revealed by developing the gel in a stain which
is specific for the activity of that enzyme (Tanksley
and Orton, 1983). In the Bean/Cowpea CRSP the
Malawi project has been using starch gel
electrophoresis since 1984 to analyze genetic diversity
in landraces of Phaseolus vulgaris. This technique has
also been successful in identifying interspecific crosses
between P. vulgaris and P. acutifolius produced by Dr.
Giles Waines' group at the University of
California-Riverside.
Allozymes, the term used to describe alleles at an
enzyme locus, have specific advantages over morpho-
logical markers for genetic analysis. For example, the
product of the gene being used as a marker is known--it
is the specific enzyme which catalyzes the reaction of
the activity stain. If two allozymes are present at the
same locus, both can be seen; and this co-dominance
allows heterozygotes to be identified (Shaw, 1965). In
addition, large numbers of plants can be screened
quickly for variation at several enzyme loci; there is a
minimum of morphological or physiological distortion
even when multiple isozyme markers are present in one
individual; and alleles at one locus can quickly be
distinguished from those at another (Brown, 1978).
Starch gel electrophoresis techniques are simple and
inexpensive compared to many other genetic analyses,
and a strong case can be made for having
electrophoresis capability in any plant genetics program.
Starch gel techniques have been applied
successfully to several legume species. The detailed
genetic map of pea, Pisum sativum, has made progress
because of the use of isozyme marker loci. Since
heterozygotes are readily identifiable by means of
co-dominant allozymes, electrophoresis has been used
to measure outcrossing in populations of faba bean
(Gates and Boulter, 1979) and to monitor levels of
heterozygosity in lines of winged bean (Morss,
unpublished). The ability to survey populations rapidly
allows genetic "fingerprinting" for cultivar
identification, such as Weeden's work on white-seeded
snap beans (1984). The dry bean breeding program at
Michigan State University is in the process of creating
isolines differentiated by allozymes to investigate their
linkage to plant architecture traits; changes in isozyme
allele frequency during recurrent selection are also
being monitored.


The equipment needed for starch electrophoresis is
relatively simple and inexpensive. Most researchers
build their own gel frames and electrolytic buffer trays
from plexiglass, following standard patterns or specific
designs for local conditions. Other requirements are
such standard items as a pH meter, refrigerator and
freezer space, power supplies, good quality distilled
water, magnetic stirrers, a bunsen burner and a balance
accurate to 10 milligrams. The chemicals required in
the buffers and enzyme-specific activity stains are a
recurring expense, and certain stains are relatively
costly on a per-use basis. However, this cost may be
weighed against the ease of using the particular stain
and the number of polymorphic loci revealed by it. It is
important to note that some of these chemicals are
toxic or carcinogenic, requiring care during use and
specialized disposal.
The techniques are not difficult, but a new worker
may require one to two months of practice to become
proficient in preparing buffers for the various systems,
cooking a consistently textured gel, grinding plant parts
and applying samples to the gel, slicing and staining
gels, and interpreting the results. The number of plants
which can be handled in any length of time depends on
how much equipment is available, and how many people
are on hand to prepare samples.
In P. vulgaris, analyses are most commonly done on
leaves, hypocotyls, roots and seeds. Roots may be
sampled as early as ten days from planting in a loose
medium such as sand or vermiculite. Leaves should be
half- to fully-expanded. Seeds are soaked for twelve
hours or more; and after a portion of the cotyledon is
removed for analysis, the rest of the seed may be
planted.
See ELECTROPHORESIS page 6



PERSONNEL CHANGES

INSTITUTIONAL REPRESENTATIVES--Dr. Dale
Vanderholm, Associate Dean of the Ag Research
Division, Institute of Agriculture and Natural
Resources, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, replaces
Dr. Roger Uhlinger as IR for UNL. Dr. Uhlinger has
relinquished his responsibilities as Chair of the
Department of Horticulture to return to teaching and
active research.
MANAGEMENT OFFICE--Ms. Carolyn Snow,
CRSP Administrative Officer, accepted a new position
as Michigan State University Travel Coordinator
effective February 1. MSU is presently implementing a
new program to provide improved travel services to
faculty and staff which Ms. Snow will coordinate. Our
new Administrative Officer is Ms. Sue Bengry, who has
been with the CRSP for some time. She is also the
coordinator for Pulse Beat. Our new Program
Secretary is Ms. Kit Machinchick, formerly with MSU's
Office of International Students and Scholars.
Recurring budget reductions have required
adjustments in the MO as well as in the projects.
Effective with these most recent personnel changes, no
staff member of the MO is employed 100 percent time
by the CRSP. Every effort is being made, nonetheless,
to maintain our traditional level and quality of services.


Winter/Spring 1987


Bean/Cowpea CRSP


Page 3









Page- _-' ~ n- r;2; 4--- B ean/-l--r~- ____ l ~ ~ lCow pea C R S W in er Sp in 19871- ~ I


LEAVES from page 2
B-162). Three methods for harvesting leaves at
flowering time, with and without apex removal at 28
days after planting, were compared. Defoliation levels
were 50-85 percent, depending on method and cultivar.
The experimental unit was a single plant. Leaf
harvest methods were: the control, with no leaves
removed; multiple harvest with weekly removal of one
or two leaves from each stem (the third and fourth fully
expanded leaves counted from the apex) starting at
thirty-five days and continuing for four-six weeks
depending on the cultivar; single harvest with removal
of all leaves from all stems down to the third or if
possible fourth fully expanded leaf at or soon after
anthesis for each cultivar (46-60 days after planting);
pruning, which was identical to the single harvest
except that it also removed the stem just below the
lowest leaf picked. Leaves on stems with only one or
two fully expanded leaves were not harvested under any
treatment.
In this greenhouse experiment, cultivars did not
react similarly to treatments, except for apex removal,
which increased leaf production and accelerated leaf
senescence. All methods of leaf harvest reduced seed
yield, mainly through fewer pods, but increased edible
dry weight when harvested leaves were added to seed
weights. The average edible dry weight yields were 136
percent, 118 percent and 104 percent of the control's
seed weight for multiple harvest, single harvest and
pruning, respectively. For Vita 7 with pinched apex, six
weekly harvests yielded 209 percent of the control.
Edible dry weight yield was higher in trailing
cultivars than in bushy cultivars. Otherwise, growth
habit and origin were not useful in predicting yield
levels or efficiency for leaf or seed production. The
two traditional cultivars from Botswana yielded about
the same seed weight and less edible dry weight than
the best of the cultivars from Nigeria.
Because of the greater food production and other
advantages for subsistence farmers, it appears that
intensive cultivation of cowpea for both leaves and
seeds will increase in importance as the population and
food requirements of Africa continue to grow.

*Research Supervisors: Dr. H. C. Bittenbender,
Assistant Professor, Department of Horticulture,
University of Hawaii at Manoa and Dr. Stanley K. Ries,
Professor, Department of Horticulture, Michigan State
University.
1987 BEAN/COWPEA
CRSP SUMMER WORKSHOP
The CRSP 1987 summer student workshop will deal
with on-farm testing. It will be held at the University
of Florida in Gainesville, Florida, July 8-11, 1987. The
workshop will address issues including design,
implementation and data interpretation. It will also
include a short case history highlighting WID concerns
and a one-day tour to view Florida agriculture. Drs.
Peter Hildebrand and Ken Buhr will be the lead
instructors. This should be a very interesting and
worthwhile workshop. The Technical Committee is
encouraging all Bean/Cowpea CRSP projects to send at
least one student. In addition, as space allows, other
CRSPs are invited to sponsor the participation of their
students.


GUATEMALA WOMEN IN AGRICULTURE
RESOURCE GUIDE AVAILABLE

The Guatemala Women in Agriculture Resource
Guide is now available from the CRSP Management
Office. This resource guide, prepared by Anne
Ferguson, the CRSP WID Specialist, and Marina Flores,
a researcher at the Institute of Nutrition of Central
America and Panama (INCAP) consists of four
sections. Section I presents an overview of the
small-farm sector in Guatemala, with attention paid
especially to the division of labor by gender. The
implications of this literature review for the two
Bean/Cowpea CRSP projects located in Guatemala are
considered in Section II. In Section Ill, a list of
organizations concerned with small-farm agricultural
development and women is presented. Section IV
consists of an annotated bibliography of recent social
science, nutrition and agricultural economics studies on
Guatemala.
Women in Agriculture Resource Guides have also
been prepared for Botswana and Cameroon. All three
resource guides are available from the CRSP
Management Office.


GLOBAL PLAN AND PROGRESS REPORT

The Bean/Cowpea CRSP Global Plan and Progress
Report is now available from the Management Office.
This report presents the Global Plan, which is the
framework upon which CRSP projects were designed,
and covers CRSP activities from September 30, 1980
through May 6, 1986, the original grant period. It also
highlights significant CRSP accomplishments. The
publication is available without charge.


FROM THE DESK OF RUSS FREED

On February 9-11, 1987, the "Plant Variety Release
Workshop" sponsored by the Michigan Agricultural
Experiment Station was held in Lansing, Michigan. The
workshop participants discussed policies and principles
that are involved in releasing improved plant
materials. Participants included plant breeders from
state experiment stations, the Federal government and
private companies; administrators from the private and
public sectors; and seed persons.
Some major issues discussed included (1) the
importance of germplasm exchange, (2) the use of
patents to promote utilization of new cultivars, (3) the
selling of cultivars to generate research funds, (4) the
payment of royalties to plant breeders, (5) the use of
various cultivar release mechanisms and (6) the role of
breeders in the public sector (State/Federal). With over
thirty-seven states represented, the workshop reviewed
these issues in detail.
Many of our CRSP projects deal with germplasm.
Most scientists recognize the importance of genetic
diversity and germplasm conservation. Each scientist
should have a system for testing and maintaining
germplasm. This system should be convenient for use
and information exchange as well as safe in terms of
long-term storage. Germplasm is a very important
resource of humankind (also animalkind).


Page 4


Bean/Cowpea CRSP


Winter/Spring 1987









Page- _-' ~ n- r;2; 4--- B ean/-l--r~- ____ l ~ ~ lCow pea C R S W in er Sp in 19871- ~ I


LEAVES from page 2
B-162). Three methods for harvesting leaves at
flowering time, with and without apex removal at 28
days after planting, were compared. Defoliation levels
were 50-85 percent, depending on method and cultivar.
The experimental unit was a single plant. Leaf
harvest methods were: the control, with no leaves
removed; multiple harvest with weekly removal of one
or two leaves from each stem (the third and fourth fully
expanded leaves counted from the apex) starting at
thirty-five days and continuing for four-six weeks
depending on the cultivar; single harvest with removal
of all leaves from all stems down to the third or if
possible fourth fully expanded leaf at or soon after
anthesis for each cultivar (46-60 days after planting);
pruning, which was identical to the single harvest
except that it also removed the stem just below the
lowest leaf picked. Leaves on stems with only one or
two fully expanded leaves were not harvested under any
treatment.
In this greenhouse experiment, cultivars did not
react similarly to treatments, except for apex removal,
which increased leaf production and accelerated leaf
senescence. All methods of leaf harvest reduced seed
yield, mainly through fewer pods, but increased edible
dry weight when harvested leaves were added to seed
weights. The average edible dry weight yields were 136
percent, 118 percent and 104 percent of the control's
seed weight for multiple harvest, single harvest and
pruning, respectively. For Vita 7 with pinched apex, six
weekly harvests yielded 209 percent of the control.
Edible dry weight yield was higher in trailing
cultivars than in bushy cultivars. Otherwise, growth
habit and origin were not useful in predicting yield
levels or efficiency for leaf or seed production. The
two traditional cultivars from Botswana yielded about
the same seed weight and less edible dry weight than
the best of the cultivars from Nigeria.
Because of the greater food production and other
advantages for subsistence farmers, it appears that
intensive cultivation of cowpea for both leaves and
seeds will increase in importance as the population and
food requirements of Africa continue to grow.

*Research Supervisors: Dr. H. C. Bittenbender,
Assistant Professor, Department of Horticulture,
University of Hawaii at Manoa and Dr. Stanley K. Ries,
Professor, Department of Horticulture, Michigan State
University.
1987 BEAN/COWPEA
CRSP SUMMER WORKSHOP
The CRSP 1987 summer student workshop will deal
with on-farm testing. It will be held at the University
of Florida in Gainesville, Florida, July 8-11, 1987. The
workshop will address issues including design,
implementation and data interpretation. It will also
include a short case history highlighting WID concerns
and a one-day tour to view Florida agriculture. Drs.
Peter Hildebrand and Ken Buhr will be the lead
instructors. This should be a very interesting and
worthwhile workshop. The Technical Committee is
encouraging all Bean/Cowpea CRSP projects to send at
least one student. In addition, as space allows, other
CRSPs are invited to sponsor the participation of their
students.


GUATEMALA WOMEN IN AGRICULTURE
RESOURCE GUIDE AVAILABLE

The Guatemala Women in Agriculture Resource
Guide is now available from the CRSP Management
Office. This resource guide, prepared by Anne
Ferguson, the CRSP WID Specialist, and Marina Flores,
a researcher at the Institute of Nutrition of Central
America and Panama (INCAP) consists of four
sections. Section I presents an overview of the
small-farm sector in Guatemala, with attention paid
especially to the division of labor by gender. The
implications of this literature review for the two
Bean/Cowpea CRSP projects located in Guatemala are
considered in Section II. In Section Ill, a list of
organizations concerned with small-farm agricultural
development and women is presented. Section IV
consists of an annotated bibliography of recent social
science, nutrition and agricultural economics studies on
Guatemala.
Women in Agriculture Resource Guides have also
been prepared for Botswana and Cameroon. All three
resource guides are available from the CRSP
Management Office.


GLOBAL PLAN AND PROGRESS REPORT

The Bean/Cowpea CRSP Global Plan and Progress
Report is now available from the Management Office.
This report presents the Global Plan, which is the
framework upon which CRSP projects were designed,
and covers CRSP activities from September 30, 1980
through May 6, 1986, the original grant period. It also
highlights significant CRSP accomplishments. The
publication is available without charge.


FROM THE DESK OF RUSS FREED

On February 9-11, 1987, the "Plant Variety Release
Workshop" sponsored by the Michigan Agricultural
Experiment Station was held in Lansing, Michigan. The
workshop participants discussed policies and principles
that are involved in releasing improved plant
materials. Participants included plant breeders from
state experiment stations, the Federal government and
private companies; administrators from the private and
public sectors; and seed persons.
Some major issues discussed included (1) the
importance of germplasm exchange, (2) the use of
patents to promote utilization of new cultivars, (3) the
selling of cultivars to generate research funds, (4) the
payment of royalties to plant breeders, (5) the use of
various cultivar release mechanisms and (6) the role of
breeders in the public sector (State/Federal). With over
thirty-seven states represented, the workshop reviewed
these issues in detail.
Many of our CRSP projects deal with germplasm.
Most scientists recognize the importance of genetic
diversity and germplasm conservation. Each scientist
should have a system for testing and maintaining
germplasm. This system should be convenient for use
and information exchange as well as safe in terms of
long-term storage. Germplasm is a very important
resource of humankind (also animalkind).


Page 4


Bean/Cowpea CRSP


Winter/Spring 1987









Page- _-' ~ n- r;2; 4--- B ean/-l--r~- ____ l ~ ~ lCow pea C R S W in er Sp in 19871- ~ I


LEAVES from page 2
B-162). Three methods for harvesting leaves at
flowering time, with and without apex removal at 28
days after planting, were compared. Defoliation levels
were 50-85 percent, depending on method and cultivar.
The experimental unit was a single plant. Leaf
harvest methods were: the control, with no leaves
removed; multiple harvest with weekly removal of one
or two leaves from each stem (the third and fourth fully
expanded leaves counted from the apex) starting at
thirty-five days and continuing for four-six weeks
depending on the cultivar; single harvest with removal
of all leaves from all stems down to the third or if
possible fourth fully expanded leaf at or soon after
anthesis for each cultivar (46-60 days after planting);
pruning, which was identical to the single harvest
except that it also removed the stem just below the
lowest leaf picked. Leaves on stems with only one or
two fully expanded leaves were not harvested under any
treatment.
In this greenhouse experiment, cultivars did not
react similarly to treatments, except for apex removal,
which increased leaf production and accelerated leaf
senescence. All methods of leaf harvest reduced seed
yield, mainly through fewer pods, but increased edible
dry weight when harvested leaves were added to seed
weights. The average edible dry weight yields were 136
percent, 118 percent and 104 percent of the control's
seed weight for multiple harvest, single harvest and
pruning, respectively. For Vita 7 with pinched apex, six
weekly harvests yielded 209 percent of the control.
Edible dry weight yield was higher in trailing
cultivars than in bushy cultivars. Otherwise, growth
habit and origin were not useful in predicting yield
levels or efficiency for leaf or seed production. The
two traditional cultivars from Botswana yielded about
the same seed weight and less edible dry weight than
the best of the cultivars from Nigeria.
Because of the greater food production and other
advantages for subsistence farmers, it appears that
intensive cultivation of cowpea for both leaves and
seeds will increase in importance as the population and
food requirements of Africa continue to grow.

*Research Supervisors: Dr. H. C. Bittenbender,
Assistant Professor, Department of Horticulture,
University of Hawaii at Manoa and Dr. Stanley K. Ries,
Professor, Department of Horticulture, Michigan State
University.
1987 BEAN/COWPEA
CRSP SUMMER WORKSHOP
The CRSP 1987 summer student workshop will deal
with on-farm testing. It will be held at the University
of Florida in Gainesville, Florida, July 8-11, 1987. The
workshop will address issues including design,
implementation and data interpretation. It will also
include a short case history highlighting WID concerns
and a one-day tour to view Florida agriculture. Drs.
Peter Hildebrand and Ken Buhr will be the lead
instructors. This should be a very interesting and
worthwhile workshop. The Technical Committee is
encouraging all Bean/Cowpea CRSP projects to send at
least one student. In addition, as space allows, other
CRSPs are invited to sponsor the participation of their
students.


GUATEMALA WOMEN IN AGRICULTURE
RESOURCE GUIDE AVAILABLE

The Guatemala Women in Agriculture Resource
Guide is now available from the CRSP Management
Office. This resource guide, prepared by Anne
Ferguson, the CRSP WID Specialist, and Marina Flores,
a researcher at the Institute of Nutrition of Central
America and Panama (INCAP) consists of four
sections. Section I presents an overview of the
small-farm sector in Guatemala, with attention paid
especially to the division of labor by gender. The
implications of this literature review for the two
Bean/Cowpea CRSP projects located in Guatemala are
considered in Section II. In Section Ill, a list of
organizations concerned with small-farm agricultural
development and women is presented. Section IV
consists of an annotated bibliography of recent social
science, nutrition and agricultural economics studies on
Guatemala.
Women in Agriculture Resource Guides have also
been prepared for Botswana and Cameroon. All three
resource guides are available from the CRSP
Management Office.


GLOBAL PLAN AND PROGRESS REPORT

The Bean/Cowpea CRSP Global Plan and Progress
Report is now available from the Management Office.
This report presents the Global Plan, which is the
framework upon which CRSP projects were designed,
and covers CRSP activities from September 30, 1980
through May 6, 1986, the original grant period. It also
highlights significant CRSP accomplishments. The
publication is available without charge.


FROM THE DESK OF RUSS FREED

On February 9-11, 1987, the "Plant Variety Release
Workshop" sponsored by the Michigan Agricultural
Experiment Station was held in Lansing, Michigan. The
workshop participants discussed policies and principles
that are involved in releasing improved plant
materials. Participants included plant breeders from
state experiment stations, the Federal government and
private companies; administrators from the private and
public sectors; and seed persons.
Some major issues discussed included (1) the
importance of germplasm exchange, (2) the use of
patents to promote utilization of new cultivars, (3) the
selling of cultivars to generate research funds, (4) the
payment of royalties to plant breeders, (5) the use of
various cultivar release mechanisms and (6) the role of
breeders in the public sector (State/Federal). With over
thirty-seven states represented, the workshop reviewed
these issues in detail.
Many of our CRSP projects deal with germplasm.
Most scientists recognize the importance of genetic
diversity and germplasm conservation. Each scientist
should have a system for testing and maintaining
germplasm. This system should be convenient for use
and information exchange as well as safe in terms of
long-term storage. Germplasm is a very important
resource of humankind (also animalkind).


Page 4


Bean/Cowpea CRSP


Winter/Spring 1987









Page- _-' ~ n- r;2; 4--- B ean/-l--r~- ____ l ~ ~ lCow pea C R S W in er Sp in 19871- ~ I


LEAVES from page 2
B-162). Three methods for harvesting leaves at
flowering time, with and without apex removal at 28
days after planting, were compared. Defoliation levels
were 50-85 percent, depending on method and cultivar.
The experimental unit was a single plant. Leaf
harvest methods were: the control, with no leaves
removed; multiple harvest with weekly removal of one
or two leaves from each stem (the third and fourth fully
expanded leaves counted from the apex) starting at
thirty-five days and continuing for four-six weeks
depending on the cultivar; single harvest with removal
of all leaves from all stems down to the third or if
possible fourth fully expanded leaf at or soon after
anthesis for each cultivar (46-60 days after planting);
pruning, which was identical to the single harvest
except that it also removed the stem just below the
lowest leaf picked. Leaves on stems with only one or
two fully expanded leaves were not harvested under any
treatment.
In this greenhouse experiment, cultivars did not
react similarly to treatments, except for apex removal,
which increased leaf production and accelerated leaf
senescence. All methods of leaf harvest reduced seed
yield, mainly through fewer pods, but increased edible
dry weight when harvested leaves were added to seed
weights. The average edible dry weight yields were 136
percent, 118 percent and 104 percent of the control's
seed weight for multiple harvest, single harvest and
pruning, respectively. For Vita 7 with pinched apex, six
weekly harvests yielded 209 percent of the control.
Edible dry weight yield was higher in trailing
cultivars than in bushy cultivars. Otherwise, growth
habit and origin were not useful in predicting yield
levels or efficiency for leaf or seed production. The
two traditional cultivars from Botswana yielded about
the same seed weight and less edible dry weight than
the best of the cultivars from Nigeria.
Because of the greater food production and other
advantages for subsistence farmers, it appears that
intensive cultivation of cowpea for both leaves and
seeds will increase in importance as the population and
food requirements of Africa continue to grow.

*Research Supervisors: Dr. H. C. Bittenbender,
Assistant Professor, Department of Horticulture,
University of Hawaii at Manoa and Dr. Stanley K. Ries,
Professor, Department of Horticulture, Michigan State
University.
1987 BEAN/COWPEA
CRSP SUMMER WORKSHOP
The CRSP 1987 summer student workshop will deal
with on-farm testing. It will be held at the University
of Florida in Gainesville, Florida, July 8-11, 1987. The
workshop will address issues including design,
implementation and data interpretation. It will also
include a short case history highlighting WID concerns
and a one-day tour to view Florida agriculture. Drs.
Peter Hildebrand and Ken Buhr will be the lead
instructors. This should be a very interesting and
worthwhile workshop. The Technical Committee is
encouraging all Bean/Cowpea CRSP projects to send at
least one student. In addition, as space allows, other
CRSPs are invited to sponsor the participation of their
students.


GUATEMALA WOMEN IN AGRICULTURE
RESOURCE GUIDE AVAILABLE

The Guatemala Women in Agriculture Resource
Guide is now available from the CRSP Management
Office. This resource guide, prepared by Anne
Ferguson, the CRSP WID Specialist, and Marina Flores,
a researcher at the Institute of Nutrition of Central
America and Panama (INCAP) consists of four
sections. Section I presents an overview of the
small-farm sector in Guatemala, with attention paid
especially to the division of labor by gender. The
implications of this literature review for the two
Bean/Cowpea CRSP projects located in Guatemala are
considered in Section II. In Section Ill, a list of
organizations concerned with small-farm agricultural
development and women is presented. Section IV
consists of an annotated bibliography of recent social
science, nutrition and agricultural economics studies on
Guatemala.
Women in Agriculture Resource Guides have also
been prepared for Botswana and Cameroon. All three
resource guides are available from the CRSP
Management Office.


GLOBAL PLAN AND PROGRESS REPORT

The Bean/Cowpea CRSP Global Plan and Progress
Report is now available from the Management Office.
This report presents the Global Plan, which is the
framework upon which CRSP projects were designed,
and covers CRSP activities from September 30, 1980
through May 6, 1986, the original grant period. It also
highlights significant CRSP accomplishments. The
publication is available without charge.


FROM THE DESK OF RUSS FREED

On February 9-11, 1987, the "Plant Variety Release
Workshop" sponsored by the Michigan Agricultural
Experiment Station was held in Lansing, Michigan. The
workshop participants discussed policies and principles
that are involved in releasing improved plant
materials. Participants included plant breeders from
state experiment stations, the Federal government and
private companies; administrators from the private and
public sectors; and seed persons.
Some major issues discussed included (1) the
importance of germplasm exchange, (2) the use of
patents to promote utilization of new cultivars, (3) the
selling of cultivars to generate research funds, (4) the
payment of royalties to plant breeders, (5) the use of
various cultivar release mechanisms and (6) the role of
breeders in the public sector (State/Federal). With over
thirty-seven states represented, the workshop reviewed
these issues in detail.
Many of our CRSP projects deal with germplasm.
Most scientists recognize the importance of genetic
diversity and germplasm conservation. Each scientist
should have a system for testing and maintaining
germplasm. This system should be convenient for use
and information exchange as well as safe in terms of
long-term storage. Germplasm is a very important
resource of humankind (also animalkind).


Page 4


Bean/Cowpea CRSP


Winter/Spring 1987










CUTS from page I


generated 90 degrees. Of these, 56 (24 females and 32
males) were from Host Countries (HC) and 34 (12
females and 22 males) were from the U.S. While it is
widely acknowledged that the training for HC nationals
is the most important for achievement of development
goals, few people understand the potential value of U.S.
students trained in development programs.
The last Pulse Beat contained an article on genetic
diversity in cowpeas in Botswana by a CRSP U.S.
student, generated from her Master's thesis. The
present edition has other such articles (subsequent
editions will also feature articles from the research of
HC nationals studying under CRSP sponsorship). These
students, and the many others like them, are unique
among U.S. students of agriculture. Through (1) their
academic training in close collaboration with HC
colleagues, (2) their field experiences in the countries
of these colleagues and (3) their research problems
which focus on constraints specific to HC settings,
these students will be significant professional resources
in future J.S. international agricultural interests.
Many writers are underscoring the importance of
the international context for agriculture in the years
ahead. From the international interchange of genetic
material to the products of sophisticated new high-level
technology, these students will begin their careers as
already functioning members of the international
networks, experienced in international research
methods.


American agriculture of the future will desperately
need these young men and women, young people with
relaxed intercultural savvy and cross-national
friendships, established early in their joint training,
with the future leaders of other countries. In later
years as they become the agricultural professors for
other students, U.S. as well as non-U.S., or take on
leadership positions in international industries, the
importance of the investment will be clear. Yet it is
especially these opportunities that will be the
casualties from cutbacks in development funding.
Eventually there will be similar implications for the
training of HC nationals and, within both U. S. and HC
groups, for the training of women. Embarking on a
three-to-five-year graduate degree program requires a
financial commitment that can no longer be assured.
More than one project has had to face the issue of how
existing training commitments seriously erode project
dollars available for research, research which
incidentally also forms the basis for the U.S. and HC
students' training programs.
U.S. lawmakers should understand that funds for
international agricultural development also support the
training need of U.S. agriculture. Decisions to reduce
such funds need to be made with full knowledge of
these implications. Whatever the future funding
availability, support for international agricultural
development should definitely have top priority.


Participants of the 5th Annual Bean Researchers Workshop held 9-11 September 1986 in Morogoro, Tanzania. This CRSP-sponsored workshop, hosted by
the Sokoine University of Agriculture Bean/Cowpea CRSP team, was attended by about 60 people, including representatives from CIAT-SADCC bean pro-
grams in Botswana, Ethiopia, Kenya, Lesotho, Mozambique, Tanzania, Uganda, the US and Zambia.


Winter/Spring 1987


Bean/Cowpea CRSP


Page 5








Pae Bean/Cowpea C~--* -eJr~= .~-mt R SPn WitrS rin 1987


ELECTROPHORESIS from page 3

In the course of the CRSP Malawi project, we have
found that the isozyme polymorphism present in P.
vulgaris is correlated closely to the domestication
history of this species. Large- and small-seeded types,
coming respectively from the Andean and Central
American centers of domestication, consistently differ
in alleles at certain isozyme loci. Electrophoretic
analysis has shown that a complete array of types
representing genetic recombination between these two
major germplasm pools is not present in Malawi. By
using isozyme analysis, it would be possible to produce
and monitor the performance of such recombinant types
in the Malawian environment and to find out whether
such recombinations of gene blocks have untapped
potential. An allozyme found to mark the tropical
black bean germplasm has not been seen in the
Malawian landrace lines being analyzed, and it may be
inferred that the disease resistance and yield
advantages of the tropical black types are still
available for introgression into Malawian lines.

*Research Supervisor: Dr. M. Wayne Adams, Professor,
Crop and Soil Sciences, Michigan State University.

References
Brown, A. H. D. 1978. Isozymes, Plant Population
Genetic Structure and Genetic Conservation. Theor.
Appl. Genet. 52:145-157.

Gates, P. and D. Boulter. 1979. The Use of Seed
Isoenzymes as an Aid to the Breeding of Field Beans
(Vicia faba L.) New Phytol. 83:783-791.

Shaw, C. R. 1965. Electrophoretic Variation in
Enzymes. Science 141:936:942.

Tanksley, S. D. and T. J. Orton. 1983. Isozymes in
Plant Genetics and Breeding: Part A and B.
Amsterdam: Elsevier.

Weeden, N. F. 1984. Distinguishing Among White
Seeded Bean Cultivars by Means of Allozyme
Genotypes. Euphytica 33:199-208.



Bean/Cowpea Collaborative Research Support Program
200 Center for International Program
Michigan State University
East Lansing, MI 48824, USA
Telephone: (517) 355-4693 Telex: 263359 CRSP UR


TC MEETING HELD

The Technical Committee met in East Lansing,
January 8-10 to discuss technical progress regarding
1987 project workplans and budgets. Those present
included Drs. Tony Hall (chairperson), Jim Steadman
(secretary), Barry Swanson, Dick Chalfant, Wayne
Adams, Porfirio Masaya and Shiv Singh. The TC
approved ex-officio membership on the TC for the
CRSP WID Specialist. It also reviewed the Purdue
proposal and recommended approval of Purdue's
participation in developing research on seed storage in
the CRSP.
Prior to a meeting with the External Evaluation
Panel, the TC had an indepth review of each of the
CRSP projects. They considered the scientific
accomplishments and the subsequent impact of projects'
findings. The next TC meeting will be in Riverside,
California, on June 25-27 at which time they will
discuss the 1988 workplans and budgets.



BEAN/COWPEA CRSP CALENDAR


May 15


DUE IN MANAGEMENT OFFICE FROM
US PIs--
FY 88 Work Plan
Quarterly Training Reports through
June 1987
Estimated Budget for FY 88
WID/Social Science Planning Request
Revised Log Frame


June 25-27 Technical
Riverside, CA


July 7 and
July 24


Committee Meeting,


Board of Directors Conference Calls


July 8-11. Bean/Cowpea CRSP Summer Student
Workshop, Gainesville, FL

Sept. 22-23 Board of Directors Meeting, Washington,
DC


NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATION
U.S. Postage
PAID
East Lansing, Michigan
PERMIT NO. 21


Page 6


Bean/Cowpea CRSP


Winter/Spring 1987








Pae Bean/Cowpea C~--* -eJr~= .~-mt R SPn WitrS rin 1987


ELECTROPHORESIS from page 3

In the course of the CRSP Malawi project, we have
found that the isozyme polymorphism present in P.
vulgaris is correlated closely to the domestication
history of this species. Large- and small-seeded types,
coming respectively from the Andean and Central
American centers of domestication, consistently differ
in alleles at certain isozyme loci. Electrophoretic
analysis has shown that a complete array of types
representing genetic recombination between these two
major germplasm pools is not present in Malawi. By
using isozyme analysis, it would be possible to produce
and monitor the performance of such recombinant types
in the Malawian environment and to find out whether
such recombinations of gene blocks have untapped
potential. An allozyme found to mark the tropical
black bean germplasm has not been seen in the
Malawian landrace lines being analyzed, and it may be
inferred that the disease resistance and yield
advantages of the tropical black types are still
available for introgression into Malawian lines.

*Research Supervisor: Dr. M. Wayne Adams, Professor,
Crop and Soil Sciences, Michigan State University.

References
Brown, A. H. D. 1978. Isozymes, Plant Population
Genetic Structure and Genetic Conservation. Theor.
Appl. Genet. 52:145-157.

Gates, P. and D. Boulter. 1979. The Use of Seed
Isoenzymes as an Aid to the Breeding of Field Beans
(Vicia faba L.) New Phytol. 83:783-791.

Shaw, C. R. 1965. Electrophoretic Variation in
Enzymes. Science 141:936:942.

Tanksley, S. D. and T. J. Orton. 1983. Isozymes in
Plant Genetics and Breeding: Part A and B.
Amsterdam: Elsevier.

Weeden, N. F. 1984. Distinguishing Among White
Seeded Bean Cultivars by Means of Allozyme
Genotypes. Euphytica 33:199-208.



Bean/Cowpea Collaborative Research Support Program
200 Center for International Program
Michigan State University
East Lansing, MI 48824, USA
Telephone: (517) 355-4693 Telex: 263359 CRSP UR


TC MEETING HELD

The Technical Committee met in East Lansing,
January 8-10 to discuss technical progress regarding
1987 project workplans and budgets. Those present
included Drs. Tony Hall (chairperson), Jim Steadman
(secretary), Barry Swanson, Dick Chalfant, Wayne
Adams, Porfirio Masaya and Shiv Singh. The TC
approved ex-officio membership on the TC for the
CRSP WID Specialist. It also reviewed the Purdue
proposal and recommended approval of Purdue's
participation in developing research on seed storage in
the CRSP.
Prior to a meeting with the External Evaluation
Panel, the TC had an indepth review of each of the
CRSP projects. They considered the scientific
accomplishments and the subsequent impact of projects'
findings. The next TC meeting will be in Riverside,
California, on June 25-27 at which time they will
discuss the 1988 workplans and budgets.



BEAN/COWPEA CRSP CALENDAR


May 15


DUE IN MANAGEMENT OFFICE FROM
US PIs--
FY 88 Work Plan
Quarterly Training Reports through
June 1987
Estimated Budget for FY 88
WID/Social Science Planning Request
Revised Log Frame


June 25-27 Technical
Riverside, CA


July 7 and
July 24


Committee Meeting,


Board of Directors Conference Calls


July 8-11. Bean/Cowpea CRSP Summer Student
Workshop, Gainesville, FL

Sept. 22-23 Board of Directors Meeting, Washington,
DC


NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATION
U.S. Postage
PAID
East Lansing, Michigan
PERMIT NO. 21


Page 6


Bean/Cowpea CRSP


Winter/Spring 1987