Front Matter
 Preliminary Article
 Why seek a new home in Florida...
 Northern Florida
 Central Florida
 Southern Florida

Group Title: The Florida colonist, or Settler's guide : answers to the question. "Where in Florida shall we locate?
Title: The Florida colonist, or Settler's guide
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00055213/00001
 Material Information
Title: The Florida colonist, or Settler's guide answers to the question "Where in Florida shall we locate?
Alternate Title: Settler's guide
Physical Description: 68 p. : ; 22 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Adams, John Sullivan, 1820-1876
Florida -- Commissioner of Lands and Immigration
Publisher: <s.n.>
Place of Publication: Jacksonville Fla
Publication Date: 1870
Subject: Agriculture -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Description and travel -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Economic conditions -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Statement of Responsibility: prepared by J.S. Adams.
General Note: Caption title.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00055213
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 002654356
oclc - 01816012
notis - ANC1398

Table of Contents
    Front Matter
        Page 2
    Preliminary Article
        Page 3
    Why seek a new home in Florida?
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
    Northern Florida
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
    Central Florida
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
    Southern Florida
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
Full Text

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.crop-PFruith-Atmntages of h lrel d
ill toprticufl aropior *Iafl
of sooa l diuhalse &!dU-heaow poitot
a-; eos M rd O ilroad-The didpodtt in of people toward asew-

jamIao is dinireid or a& mommre riod4hl, tending to lend
lu itureat to dNiOet lona- l.maL
Lbwrmaiam reeved will be add to and cited up with this pmph-
, mad thu in the ad a very perct hand-bo* -of lorkid will be s

Adadm -..nmnIanthM to
J. 8. AAMNU,
Cammi-louer of Iummradio, .
Jackaonvlle, as.

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~Moir of Uaion: Whatever mbe the valuable Inducements whlh
i oldai rf brthto im t must of courmbe- mlymbroqught to
aBnd noticeathrogh thepblicptea,a d as tbet ape m when a n
x t ad i m mayanrhr"wltthe lu)ant dejr to hblt itis
tl~~,h, mItl famt be mst th*a Aly tM podme.
aIn acuodauce, therbre, with our previous angaMt,I irope now
tmo Athanh a wsrlea of articles r the Union, in whihm or le in
idetail the various charcterstis .the Stte may b eti
atnttaion win be to describe the Stte menry, the flnll~tone,
v.tn the hct in rd to the bae, aO wtm, riir ,tnbr,
direach nownt oMcior o4f So itante as t as at
SWith reurece to the geeal chapter the whole Stat, I appshknd
aoeadifloulty in the preparation of mch artid as may be -abo nr-y
or ambi adeed, the arviou of Tery omlpet meao re am
fdr the treatment of these *tat of the topsi, aad now Ia t
*itoowlet ofes Iral tato h as tlr asiih e hanamphingmt
this part of the w8k i oM-p IstlM *t
gdflaent counties aad giu al lo s wil arise.
Peole ftom ablheAd n oen nt of the *MAi of sCoo to Jack-
s'o ta thevla te S Jeo ', naoe tlmaghae q tie blMfiar
a with itheabrtO ot portl Aof atadr is that iwaln resh of
A Ieyme of n ple on stamrmp aad down the Jowha'. amd e
tkm thk a a Iirplethewbole State, ad mol md m tuhrmrbI
wayta ilme B maot FlMrth A Owthe wole 4
SaadW id haet remained alaot etirl asowa n eto drar-
To oamtpthi le idmdes and to lv weLbe kowledg of oher
d beer port fiokn ofthe s8aes a eat re ofs the dein of these
aImlBrem i the work be well done, It wl be t ib ds ate
gt "tof thofhttal pad itoa dhea Por, ia
te n aikm athe i e that o to make up
theO ofthel drlolaM i ; maA fn t=he aeooaal pla

,w th .tho to w rm htw I .at

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opinion, b which they are willing to be governed in choosing a location
An earnest endeavor will be made, so far as the knowledge now in poe-
mSion, or that may be attained, will permit, to mak a showing of eac
different section of the State, which shall be manifestly fIir and impartal.
Permit me then, Mr. Editor, through your columns, to solicit the thought-
tlco-operation of intelligent men of all classes in each of the different
6unties and sections of the State. Allow me thus to urge upon all who
are willing to take some trouble for the sake of exhibiting in a fair light
the peculiar character, each of his own county or section, the desirability
of communicating with me as soon as may be, and furnishing me the &ct&
and statistic, that they may be embodied in a description of that locality.
Not only facts as to the surfce, soil, climate, and productions, but also,
the prices of lands, the kinds of timber, the wages of labor, access to
market, cost of clearing, health, water, and, special, facts as to crops that
may be cultivated and actually have been cultivated, with cost of cultiva-
tion and net proceeds, stating the amounts raised to the acre of the great
staples, cotton, corn, sugar, tobacco, sweet, and Irish potatoes, &c., &c.,
together with the prevalent disposition towards new-comers.
Articles embodying such information are most earnestly solicited from
After these papershall have been published here, it is proposed to pro-
cttre their ins"e in the paper elsewhere, so far as prccble, and then
to condome sadcollate than d publ them Ia pamphletformn that they
m% be ditrNitd .to all g for information in regard to the tate.
Whle, Kr. it is not pthuproposed that all the articles furnall
shall be o wih me, still, it s proposed that every article thus fur-
nished shall come to you, and through you to the public, with my official

In the interest of the State Breau of Immigration, it I proposed to give,
in condensed fbrm, an authentic sad perctly reliable statement of the act-
nal inducments to settler whih are offered by the 8tate of Florida.
In considertion of the shpaor advat which, n many important
particular, ti Soth s over the We t; of the mngratory clacter
oof large pertn f tpopJtion of the North nd West; of the coadi-
ton of sev l of tohe ries of Euope, unettled at preset, and with
ttle primal of iUprovement the i r mtr, large movement ofpopula-
tiea soothward may uouab be expected within the laert kw aye, and
to aMawer im Ite h qwttosm a will mat t occur to the mind of
men~~a aew hom in the Both, and Mnquies aboutthe pecdliari-
ties of ths Bbis the purpose of the foblowin pa e
AttentioaI edled In the di place to me of thgeneral characteris-
tics of the State, with the view ofrsubsquently going more into detail and
eslma g of padal localities.

These we '* section of the U at.pon the whole are enler
of aUo< sathel tate orf idda. eiVBli n th I co
and tIA mtM*r It is nrmteiNlthb t eith W w

A' .

S. .

Orleans on the West, or from Baltimore, Phildelphia, New York, and Bos-
ton on the East, or fta any of the Buropean ports. If the settler desire,
he may thus embark with all his household goods add furiture on a sal-
ing veeal, and wfthout trouble or change be landed within easy reach of
ids rtake home.
Connected likewise an the Wat through Columbus, and on the East
through Savannah ow a of railroads with the great system
of Southern and Wa ia'a*d Ea te railroads, Florida is also thus by
rail as easily and entirely accessible as any of the States of the West and
Within the lst twelve thstmore than six hundred vteels have b4p
loaded with lumber an d tM fthe Florida ports, and dspa ed to th
Eastern ports in this country, and to the various ports of Europe; and
coming here mostly in ballot, and easily adapted to the bing of pas-
mengern, and at light expense, they will promote immigration exenivel
when the inducements are lly known in other parts of this country and
the world.
The clhiate of Florida is not excelled by that of any of the United
States, and it may be doubted whether t can be equalled elsewhere in the
world. Located on the very border ofa the Sorrid se, and, therefore, so
zr as latitude alone is concerned, titled to ra*n aiag the hottest por-
tios of the Western continent, still her situation b Itween the Gulf of
Mexloo and the Atlantic is such that, owing to her pftlr ibrm, she Is
swept alternately by the winds of the stern and Western as, and
relieved from those burning heats with which she would otherwise be
scorched, and thus it happens that by the Joint Influences of latitude and
peculiar location she s relieved on the one hand from the rigors of the
winter climate of the Northern and Middle states, and on the other, from
the extreme heat with which not only the other Southern States, but in
the summer time the Northern States, are characterized.
While in winter the Northern and Middle States are covered with snow,
and frost penetrates the earth to the depth of several feet, and the leafless
trees wave their bare and skeleton atin the wintry wind, in Florida
most of the trees and shubs are in fl*s, and the winter gardens are
filled with vegetables in their most th.ti. .wth
In the Noren tates the rostof K ambr and December most ef-
fectually put a stop to all ricultural options, and the Lrmer is com-
pelled to ed his stock fbr H four to dx montband is h aelf confined
to the getting of flel and lumber, thus in one prtin of the year consum-
inga large portion of the result of his labor n the other.
IBut inlorlda, this very winter season better adapted to building,
clearing land, and the peribrmance of all necessary extra work on the
thrm. k
In the North all regular farming work is of necessity crowded into the
Sace of less than hal the year, while in Florida there i scarcely a single
day in the whole year that may not be devoted to purely agricultural
In some of the Northern States the mean average range of the ther-
maaMt ia the last two yes has been frm 8 deg. below wo to
90 l i1 a 71 a manym year, the range of the ther-
then a ws

atJi do raew nge of the thermometer
r yearsr, fom 18071 to cte:

119 46-i XL
K/92 24-5 B U


1sif. hi M 1e0. e5.L
XOXTHS. !- -- -- MAX.

l ..... .. .. I I ........

............. .....:: ............. W I M l n At7A.M.Jov.
.................... ...... ......r W W 30M,:mthe me
........ .... .. ...... ...... 7M ed g.
............. . .. I At 'A.X Nov.

Dee a r.......................... ...... W

Earliest fost in the five years, October 87, 189. Latest frost, April 28,
188. Latest frot in 18W, Febuary 14.
And to establish this matter of late beyond doubt, the following sum-
mary of observations, taken fom the Army meteorological Register" Is in-
troduced to show the equability of the climate of Florida, as compared
with that of other parts of the United States:

Ja blb. ar. .Arl May Jm Ju y Aug Sept Oct. Noy Dec.I Yr.

Wesatul, Mir..1er vi w& usaa &a a & was "A am am iS
W ..ft at.Y. 8f i M .W .a, &.m ma. a.mM a asB.a
P11= lma InPS F 440 46M IB8," .4 TM .5 RM 47.15 81M.,8 4.54

The above table shows the monthly and yearly meap of twenty years at
tS Agutne; of twenty-fve years at TampaBay; of fourteen yeas at
Key We of Uthirty-one years at West Point, and of thirty-five years at
Fort tSellne. While at thie latter point the mean annual variation in the
rane oftehermmeter is 50.64 deg., at St. Augustine it is but 28.87 deg.,
and at Key Wat bat 16.8 deg. .
While the hat in Florida Is not more intense during the summer months
than at time in all the Northern States, in winter the thermometer, in
Northern Florida even, rarely sinks to the feezig point
These figures, fom the most authentic sources, show conclusively that the
claim made oir the equability and desirability of Florida rests upon some-
thing more than an Imaginary basis.
But it is diult either by words or figures to convey an adequate idea
of the gratefhIness of the kindly and genial climate of Florida to one who
has become heartily tired of the ceaseless alternation of the extremes of
heat and cold expeirened in the Northern States of the Union.


In regard to health, Florida stands a the foremost States of the
UnmO. Tr more than bhal a ommtury tA. has been a commm
sand vwU-kown resort fr Itnvlids fom -v i on of the Union, ad
te t t locality anvery gniNnera

as flin'. IR

of Enterprise, on Lake Monroe; that of Gainesville and Ocala, in the inte-
rior; ofr iny the Northern part of Mi and arPm ola, tn West
Ftorlda, vario d t complatts, are dy eqal i not superior to
St Aug e In hselWhie.
Th has bee n a ide unaccountaby prevent in sane, portion of
the country that Florida s an unhealthy State and yet the common port
of thousands of invalids, who have been b tdy the Inlae of the
climate, the officiall reports of the military authrit, and the statutes
of the S. O8.en have conclusively de nstratethe genal bealthal-
nags of the State.
This hct appears strilngly from the fgures of the oausa in rebuewe
to the deaths foi pulmonary complamlnte dintdit ntS and the-
suits strike one more ibrcbly when it is coedded that this State br m
years ad been a very common place of resort br invalids.alcted with
all varieties of pulmonary diseases.
From the census of 160, it o found that the deaths fom ooumptla
in the various States of the Union during the year endg May 81st, 1 ,
whereas follows: In Maachusett, 1 in Mt; In Male, I in t ; l Ve-
mont, 1 In 404- in New York, 1 in 478; in PesylvaaI, 1 in 0; in
Ohio,1 in 679; in Oalibras, 1 In 787 in Virgin, 1 in 7W; in Indlmm
1 in 793; in Illinois, n 878; In Flid, in 1,447 Here positive evi-
dence of Ininitely more value than all theories or hypothees whatever.
nd in the ofcial report of Surgeon-General Iason appears the l-
lowng: Indeed, the statistic in a Bmre anMrate the iot that
thediseaes which result from malaria are of a moch midar type in te
pennsula of Florld tha n any other State in the Union. Their reoonds
show that the ratio of deaths to the number of cae of remittent fverhas
been much les than among the troops serving in any other portion of the
United States. In themiddle division of the United States the propor-
tio is one death to thirty-x cases of remittent kbvre; in the Norther
division, one to y-two; in the Southern division, one to fIty-or; in
Texas, one to sevnty-eight; in Calibnaa, one to one hundred and twan-
ty-two; in New Mexico, one to one hundred and brty-e lht; while in
Florida it is but one to two hundred and eighty-sven." And the Surgeon-
General goes on to sy:
"The general healthflanea ot many pars of Florida, particarly on its
coast, is proverbial. The average annl mortality of the whole peninmls
fom returns in thioce, is found to be 9 6-100 per cent. whie in the
other portions of the United States (previous to the war with Mexio) it
is 8 8-100 per cent
In short, it may be asserted without her of reftation, that Florida
possee a much more ageeable and salubrious climate than any other
State or Territory in the Union."
And in reference to the comparative character of the climate, Solon
IRo.) non, In a letterpublished n the New York Tribue, says: "As to
the salubrity of the mate, I lly believe its average equal to Indiana or
Illinois, and certainly no worse ibr immigrants from any of the Northern
States than Central New York was in its eary settlement for those who
went into Its forests from New gland. There are hee, as there, mi1-
matic localities, and localities where mosquitoes are as paeroms there
are in the montezuma marshes-no wore, and er no worse than I
have often und them at various points around New Yrk"
Where lands are swampy, or along rivers where bank are low, or have
been rectleared from a heavy growth of v tatlon, there will be a
lablty to tte aine kinds of fver with which other sections of the cowo-
try inri stated are aflicted ; blt It s easily dicernble ftrm the At-
ttio, and well known within the experience of very resident ppel-


cland of every dthe f the 8tats, tht al et the hy veMs a maa
Ityp, mane mcah Il. dMU tei, im in ahnoot mye ser tat
Wth common and proper care the health of immigrant to M sld Is I
uM s in any other mecti of the ooutry.

Absother arog aisdaemaent to imml o tbis State.Is found to the
comparative champne of a lt the lands within her bordsp.
'Mn Ra within the Statse me llb cfemo Ca U. sm landir1
eBL wg t to rtal.Btry la qaeathle apth 1BBb Ifores. Thwer
o toen of acem of Stet larids fberle at from $i1.9 to
And while it i true that the lands along the St.Johat'. sadln th vitit-
ibtautde o rer I" d aa d tovaLra iapbdao betoft 4pdto valmolufe,
XOAa atarn t of h --YId.11to r*u ha Vb be bwwt Ai r hen
0i p paim pe.ase rbW !d th ; but m nprovedrm an tliMe
pa of theb Stat cm enouht fbr no me than the cleriria
xadbiU over the Stab ae sasraterlWbt r called od old ," or old
clewaedbi thathave bhamo ru ly cuivauted, mad aArft nrb asuldo-
edbr sers, Tha& o el ari daM w tatedi the imea vicinity
of it aiuefhta l am OnWtmn sxch abidant meam* of
ren e w nt a, to mlke the restoretlon of iaem t to their wa al
taubr ad ore cnoteamB l thn the clargiof W er land a
san o fteMi yammy c .u be ot fr for hom to S.
Many o the me pct lands o the a*"e e1 xtla In ladml
tius or tracts, d it wedd be necetary to prabus lage =qmanT or
ld in order to obtain them on the moat resonaMe tru Bt thig s het
0-=0t0 a1o yaid o0lb400M bmrm by durchma amchw law tot.P-
pe ataa WW be ftuhlhd b the estba a cotlaiM of MWm,
ho wbao, by a poper dhalo of thee lands, may obtain seeh quan-
tiy ma he dekr s, and yet the comfort and couvenaence of all will Ie pro-
moted by their comnnmon location In the vicinity of each other.

Tbh biUllty wi which the greater portion of the tiabsle lands in Flor-
ida can be worked, harnisheb other very strong inducement to those who,
ilBk =img ,Bmqr e to In-c la agicultura punuitM.
a lo a bed d i vary much Ile
lbre than b required in the North. Wh ser ody, claysy, or loamy,
are much .more Wrble, ad movre ea ly led.
ztthMs ia the plowI0am the *tates bi'thei of

tO.-a, ose.fe.. T.. a b^o w eitD
wE&* aa ia tihe Northen tad EtemteW1teB cteb ha It6i

* .



The apparently mnotonoun and um rd level surhee of Nt
Falod, o Mrsa the tam e isopeh to of caai
is well calculated to e rise to of the Vene
of the State. Thear exhOenof of riverV; Jw -
eMag somap two mies In width 0br than 0oe hmied in d
mo le hand rollg hk vast cri r a se=' .or c6ilft-
so nearlylevelthat no or o10
within he view of one p nup and do he w e h f the
is one of the most s gular geographical ft relating to e whole coun-
But the artce of the remainder of the tats notto ged
what ia seen th ettume t. In V0t P i the
comi a of Leon, aedoen, and ny be
country, sometime gtl imdulat, a osetnsnes q
the his have no at elevation, and none rie into the
ual mountains And the same is true of portion of West Flord
these regloas the frequent spring, the rningstreams, and the be
varied ii are In sntrongand pleasant contrast to the monMnow leave
of the liet, mad the FtWoo~s" of the interior.
No one who has not een the middle counties of Florida can be alid to
have an adequate idea of the State.
While many portions of the State are exactly adapted to the pyiait of
what is called" regular rming," In the same way in which it ls iWowed
in the Northern Sares, still suh is the mldnesi of the climate that the
same "regular tfrm work" which, at the North, is necessarily otbfed to
be performed within the limit of six or seven months, in Florida may be
allowed the whole year for its transaction.
Thus the armer, instead of being crowded for time, and really, by the
shortages of the season, constrained to overwork, or work constantly and
hurriedly, may have the whole year r the performance of his necessary
labors, and of (~wrse can proceed more leiarely, and have vastly more
spare time to devote to other and congenial pursuts.
But while it a true that tbe regular rm work can. from the facilityy of
workithe soil, be mch more easily perfmed, it is likewise true that
the milhas of the climate allows the crops of vegetables and fruits,
oonomao to this and other Bates, to mature many weeks earHer thua at the
Norh, and allows the entivati of many drops that camt be oultvated
elsewhere; hee, an opportunity Is given r those d e to the
Swork of ord ,to ga thie m Ugher labor of
or -,* of legr Northeir markets, with a pros-
Sreturns than can be eaed a ordinary hlm rop
be seprmed a aoma t dsr t and e aresaae kiad of oul-
p. prospect of a rta md lorative return a can be re-
ther agrotural eaployent.
.',. wis aooR or0 V'aOWATWon.
J, ..
Tbe wIsteri e1 Sgbe a( hdas ay casems, e no p&por sgth set t
grea liNse. Wide ag may seemi the opportually of selection In the


Northern and Eastern States, it is narrow indeed, as compared with that
of mlrda. With very few exception that rows in ae otherStes
of the Union may well be grown nlorid, andto these a be added a
vey long list of productions, many of which can only be raised under cae-
flrotectlon, and some of which are unknown in the other Stats.
J ept In Central America, where the frequent mountabs, by difemraes
of elevio, give that variety of tempeature caused elsewhere by dir-
qea of latitude, the is probably no portn of the Northrn part of the
Western contingent giva so rs t and varied a list of actual and pos-
sble productions of value as the Wate of loi a.
Al oeais ofthe North, ex t whea, have been raised with great sc-
cess, and although in some olite ur crops of wheat have been made,
still this crop can hardly be said to have had a ir trial.
Without exception, all the vegetables that can be cultivated with success
in the North are raised with greater success and &cility here.
All the Northern fruits, apples, and some of the smaller fruits,
such as currants ad do wel in Florida, and dome of them,
peaches partiularly, tve y. Apples of very Mr quality have
een rad, and it i claimed that by prper care they may be succeeestlly
Swn; but it is probably true that teywill not do as well as farther to
Then, to these are to be added, as among the crops which seem pecu-
liarly adapted to the climate, and which grow with remarkable vigor,
rice, upland and lowland, peanuts or pindas, sweet potatoes, yams, cot-
ton, log and short, indigo, sugar cane, oranges, lemons, limes, citrons
guas, l isal hemp, arrow-root, and p egr te, and in the central
and southern prtions of the dtate, pineal, bananas, plantains, cassa-
vrs, coco-nut, paw-paws, various of the p alligator pears, and prob-
blycofee, while te can be raised throughout the 8tate.
Wonderful as such a list seems, comprling only the productions of a
single State, it evidently must present great attractions to all who, by a
more rigorous climate, have been constrained to confine themselves to a
more limited sphere of cultivation.

Visitors to Florida have hitherto found so much inconvenience and ex-
pense attending a Journey through Middle Florida to the western portion
of the State, that very few strgers have made a personal inspection of
amyother than the extreme easter portion ofthe State.
The magnificent river St John's, avigable for sea steamers one hun-
ded miles to Platka, and lbr river steamers more than one hundred miles
athir to Sinlse, on ke Mooroe, and b r a still slaer cla of
stamers usp to aaey, has made traveig so e and compr-
t ysoer p that strangers have confined thr travel abst exclu-
aesly the extreme eastern artof the State. Of the rrcler andwaore
vuid .m. and tsoil of Mile and Wetern Florida, not more than one
ia hudred of those who spend the wintrs in Florida have had ade-
E the characteristically sandy soil of Eatern Florida has been sup-
posed to htaty Idloadtve of the so at whole State. Thus many
adsPY ta in I ard to the soil of th te have originated.
's thsile ISen4M aMia sWa1 of time tae otrs,
ie ti *M-I. s sadtrtyso -m ) ov-arit pi timber, but ram or


less underlaid with clay or marl, and intenpened, to a greater or less ex-
test, with what ae caed hammocks," or land covered with a growth
of hard-wood.
But as one proceeds westward, along the northern boundary of the
State, the character of the soil changes m sand to loam, and then to a
strong clay soil until in the counties of Leon, adeden, ;ad Jackdon, the
larer prt of the soil is composed of a strong and rather heavy cday.
Then taking a stretch of land in the northern ter of counties, extenig
from Madison to Jackson, adclrive, and thenoe down to the lf and ex-
tending along the Gulf coast fom Liberty to Hrnando, and Including
umpter, Marion, Alachu, Levy, and other counties, one can ind almost
every conceivable vat of adapd to the growth of nearly every
crop that may be selected~ Here ly, in the counties above mentioned,
with whose character strangers are mot entire ancquanted, is the
very cream and lower of the State.
An accurate and somewhat detailed account of the various soils in the
State is of so much interest to Incoming settlers, that a description drawn
with some care and published in a former pamphlet is here inserted :
Pine lands (ptch and yellow pine) form the baks of Florida. These
lands are usuy divided into three classes, denoting first, second, and third
rate pine lands.
That which is denominated first rate pine land" in Florida has noth-
ing analogous to it in any of the other States. Its sure l covered for
several inches deep with a dark vegetable mould, beneath which, to the
depth of several feet, is a chocolat-colored sandy loam, mixed, for the
most part, with limestonepebbles and resting on a substratum of marl,
clay, or limestone rock. The fbrtilty and durability of this description of
land may be estimated fom the well-known itct that it has on the Upper
8uwanmee, and in several other districts, yielded, during iurteen years
of succemive cultivation, without the aid of manure, four hundred pounds
of Sea Island cotton to the acre. These lands are still as productive as
ever, so that the limit of their durability is yet unknown.
The "second rate pine" lands, which form the largest proportion of
Florida, are all productive. These lands afford fine natural paturag
they are heavily timbered with the beat species of pitch and yellow pie
they are, for the most part, hi, rolling healthy, and well watered. They
are generally based upon mar, clay, or limestone. They will produce for
several years without the aid of manure, and when cow-penned they wil
yield two thousand pounds of the best quality of sugar to the acre, or about
three hundred pounds of Sea Iland cotton. They will, besides, when
property cultivated, produce the finest Cuba tobacco, oranges, lemons,
limes, apd vari other tropical productions, which m must i any Instan-
ces render them more valuable than the best bottom lands in the more
northern states.
Even the lands of the "third rate," or most inferior class, are by no
means worthless under the cellmate of lorida. This class of lands maybe
divided into two orders; the one comparing high rolling sadystr
which are sp sly covered with a stunted growth. of "b1oJek amd
ine ; the r nembracng low, flat, sam regio, which iae equent-
ly studded with "by gls," amn are coam fAly Imnd d, but which
are covered with luxuriant vegetation, and, vey gnm ally, with valuable
timber. The former of these, It now soertaed, owain to their cloa-
re soil, am wll adapted to the growth of the al h-mp, which is a
valuable biol prodcn. This plant, (the Agave iu ) and the
Agave mp, also known a the agt the p a
cmtury pbM 4 have both been iataodaied ili, d sy and
grow great pelbction on the poorest mde at the country. A ese



erve tr chiefsupport from the atmosphere, they wll like tLe
.ii r p'hat, M preserve their vitality for many months when left oat
of the groun.
a arcely to t duld, that Utep d order ot tL third rate
S'lI heedMl, is w1ftr Tbhea lands aomrd a
a elent a for cattlebea h valuable for their imber and
storms whiF they wr procbw^. ,
%ss one Iffllm e In the to of i lltva tl la
thels one ralhttretintseopu of ods wh"t no other
cotdatry i the nited Stt p s,a gum secoritl
to the health of its Inabitant. It h tih tha i e w .Iad t h W
the beas of the country and wbich are lot evheallyt 1 hy,
nerly peery where studde at intervals of a tw maris awi haMusne
ads of t richest quality. These iM ae (lplent e eBa sY-
osed, low wet lands ; they never require dhyl or fk ; tb
o extent from twenty acres to forty tho dce, ad will pro y
av= about 800 acre each. Hence1 the hMt have it every w e
in owner to select residencedin tnMe lands, at such on
distance bo0n the hammnocs as will eam them to cultivate the
without endangerag their health it should so happen that any of the
hammocks proved to be s healthy than the pine woods.
Experience in Florida hasw sat torly shown that residences only half
a mile distant ftmn cultivated hammocks are entirely exempt ftoa mala-
rial dkeaus, and dbat the noea who cultivate these hammocks, and re-
tire at aight to land sdenc, maintain perAct healt. Indeed 1iis
found that d in the hammock ves are oelly per
helthyfter e bee a few ears cleared. Newly learned
are soaatanes ed with the devop t of more or s malaria In
Florkie the diseases which result from clearings are, as I stated
my rmer letter generally of the mildest type, (simple intermittmt gtver;)
while I nearly A the Southern States they are most frequently of a ever
grde of blious &ver.
The topogaphical nature here noted, namy, a e ntesperon of
rlkh hanu s k urrouniided by highdry pte woods, is
an dva Whtage h no other ta the ai on ;ad Florid forms
in this aqpect a sIg contrast with LobasR, and Texas,
whbee sur Mad cotton are summrrounded by vast alluvial
r s l, sject to frequent Inda so tha It Is Impossible to obtain,
wtn many miles of them, a healthy readence.
It would seem paradoxical that he material diseases of East Florida
(abon t does n rich hammock lands, and exposed to a lUe
sn), s be of a mch ildedr o than thoe which
in ore latitudes. Tat suh, however, is the hot, 4hereaibl
no doubt; Ibr this &ct is proved by a egte of evidence, (eid
over more than twenty ears) wch it i po ble to reaH. It sl
gesteu In ezpuMmake or tMhi h, that the irin w t i
eaMi ftdlte etones, ase through an STeag of
*41 amervteet d d up behe I' I a I

bleyl. 'I a s s
altsi eI isnssr 1ibat mou upr is 11-
Jkj^Ub^te^^ IYII PYT^W^U^^ WYJ J&Aj^^^jMK^^^JB&u>j^^ ^ ^
-IMV-Wf aiYwSSSO au S, OSQU-j lhVBum

(O R4uTi.ER'( S .UIbk.

The lands which in Florida are, par ezrndei denominated "rich
lands," ae first, tie swamp lands ;" second the low hapnock lands ;"
thir, the hammoehN;" and fourth, the nirt-ratuepte, oak, and
hIs ory la ."
Th'e swanp lands are, unquestionably the most durably rich lands in
the country. They are the most recently formed lands, and are still an-
nually receiving additions to their u e. They a e lttrinlolly the
most valuable lands in Florida, being as as the lhaumooks, a more
durable. They are eviend tl rWan ddofrector t. l
deoelts of vegleable dert, Ac., ws hed' in rm tme ilietd h er
lads. Dil is esa Me to an of them In the reparatlos fbr
succeessfl cultiaio. Po y prepared, howe er, their Inexhaustible
fertlity sustains it moesio of the most eh com with astonish-
lng vigor. The great yield of sugar ever a nlorid was pro-
dooed on this d riptn of land, viz.: four hogSheads peare. That this
qumntity was prodnued n Dummitt' plantation, near New mra, is a
t wel known-to those conversant with sugar pleat ing a Florida.
Sugar cane is here instanced as a measure of the fbrthy of the ail, be-
cae it is one of the most exhausting crops known, and generally wn
without rest or rotation. It is not, hover, a air crtrn by wic to
judge of the relative fertility of lands situated in different climates, tar we
fnd on the richest lands in Louisana the crop of sgar per acre is not
more than ase hgshead, or about half that of Eat Florida
This great dirity i the product of those countries Is accounted for,
not by y any t in the lands of Lousiana or Texas, but by the act
that the eirly i miom s of fost in both these States renderit necesary to
cut the cane in October, which is long before it has reached maturity
while in East Flord it is permitted to stand, without far of ftst, til
December, o till such time as it is lly matured. It is well known that
it "tassels" in Est Florida, and t never does so In either Louislans or
Texas. When cane tassels" It is evidence of ts having reached fll ma-
tity. In consequence of the heavy outlay of capital required in the pre-
paeion of this desciption of land for otvao and fr the teCllty of
obtera-niamock land, which requires h o dlhug nor draining, swamp
land but little sought after by peioae e aged plant
or4a, and there is now at least a million cres t be
depot of this land vacant i the country, which can be ered at less
than two dollars per acre. Vast bodies of t lie convenient to navigate
and railways, and oubt will soon be asu ar with aridit as soon
as the ar planters of Louisiana d Texasbeme armed o its char-
acter and othe many advantage which sugar pleating Florida presents
over any other State In the Union.
LeowA ainu-Ia e, Which from the fact of their partaking of the nature
of hammou a and swamp, and sometimes termed mwma a are not infb-
rior to swamp lands in hrtility, but perhaps are not quite as durable.
They are nearly always level, or nearly so, and have a so f greater te-
nacity than that of the high hammocks. Some dheI g is Anecesary in
many of them. The soil In them is away deep Tee lands are also
estrTely well adapted to the the h of the am, ashsbeen well atteted
by the any plantations which ere brmerly i operation here on this
dieripdon of lad These i not nearly so large proportion of low ham-
moeke:there is of swamp lands.
5! lA*nu x &rp the lands in the greatest repute in Florida. These
diffrtes t low haumnoeks in hand i gnrlly
ptasbtr 'on tisdalelntt ftr a wfcPtt oi'f a nne n-Htbf
i8nM aiy1x %oslia lolaw* In many m pb&*,twoNtd P, N^



aging n most cases on a substratum of clay, marl, or limestone. It will be
readily understood by any one at all acquainted with agriculture that such
a sal, in such a climate as Florida, must be extremely ptdutive. This
soil scarcely ever suffer fom too much wet; nor does drought act it in
the same degree as other lands. High hammock land produce, with but
little labor or cultivation, all the crops of the country in an eminent de-
SSuch lands have no tendency to break up in heavy m s nor are
invested with pericious weeds or grades Their extr nayr-
y and productivene may be es d by the Bct that, inl vral well
nown instances In Marion county, three hogheads of sugar have been
made per acre on this description of land, ter it had been in cultivation
six years, in succemive crops of corn, without the aid of manure.
To sum up its advantages, it requires no other prepa on than clearing
and plowing to fit it at once for the greatest posible production of any
kind of crop adapted to the climate. In tu vorable seasons it is mon
more certain to produce a good crop than other kind of land, fom the fct
that it is less affected by exclusively dry or wet weather. It can be culti-
vated with much lo labor than y other lands, being remarkably ml-
low, and its vicinity is eneraly high and healthy. These reasons are
Bluelent to entitle t to the estimation in which it is held over all other
The frst-rte p oak, and hikoy lands are found in pretty extensive
bodies n many part of the ae particular Marin, and Her-
nando counties. From the At that those lands can be cleared at much
less expense th tbhe swmp and hammock lands, they have heretordwe
been prerred byth small planters, and have proved remarkably produo-
There me, besides the lands already noticed, extensive tracts of savanna
lands, which poxmate in character, textmu of the soil ad period
and de of tion to the swmp lands, dirng omly in being desti-
tute of timber. ome of these lands re, however, extemly poor.
Ptohtaby thl e bodies of rich hammok land n East Florid are
to bea h d in y, A Marion, Herado, and Sumter counties.
There are in evy st ome not less than one hundred thousmd
ars of the very bedsn of sugar lands; and there i but a mal
proportion ay of the Ae counties here cited, that will not prodc re-
amo atlve crops of Be Island and short staple cotton, without the aid of
The lahds on ths St Joh's river, taken as a whole, are not as frtie as
in sme other seedoms of the State There ar however thoumlds of
sa e of zrlA hau k hand within a mile a the rive, whik e as yet aM
unbroken brt, and the phne lads are uch better than the av e of
the whole State. Bis, there is an abund ne of mack on theb of
the river and trta whih Amilhes a mus t exoasot brlmr.
Naa isha swe alseasiy obtained, aad have bea nd with
vicrhBs|slflaitA ed NMai-

a d se aI wsti ee Ys- are by r the
buans t r #asbot tr S io0ws a to-0 rn Wave be at-
se n ueastaed. eis 14 M is elaei a e at
duldi d. In iVi~rar6 r~




a per acre private putiee, by whom it is mtly held t the present
me The MaRailoead runs through It, aBd it wil no doWo become,
atan eqrdly oe of the garden spots of the State. The ringof the
hamoks, however, .i expamive, and, In every now country, we may
expect to see the lad more lightly timbered fst brought into cultiva-
In'your ouplement to the Union, giving an accountof the dogi of the
e Society, is an announment that the executive com-
mittee have desired Hon, J. J. Finley to prepare and read to the next
meg oft soh ety, an article on the capscty of Florida fr the succes-
ful cul on of the sugar cae.
No topic of greater practical and immediate importance can possibly be
brought to the attention of the rmers and planters of the State; br much
as has been sid ad written upon the matter of cane culture in Florida,
the real value of this crop andfall adaptation of our State tolts suemnu
cul vatiion, a as yet unknown to most of our own people, and fully ap-
prmiated by &w.
In the pamphlet prepared for the State are statement that cae can be
grown on almost any of the soils of the State, on some, of course, mare
succefllly than others; that n &r the greater portion of the tate It
rattoon, or qrp fu rom the old roots,and so d not febveral year
require pl tn that t produce more largely moree easily culti-
vated in orida any other State, no exciptig Loosima; that
8 Is of sugar and 8O gallons of molasses havebeen rald to the acre,
Doul have oaeloally arisen a to the correctness of these statements,
and opimon expressed that t eyrt have been e gerad, or, other-
.we, everybody would imms iato i Mpr-ne culture.
It my be sted that the batnentb of the pemphet ll eptte of
abundset verification, and are caLfPlly ml& to61 omserbl within
the libto of oartaied facc; and in order to show the agpultural Im-
por s of the cltre of came the people o lora, it may be well to
gie some aoooat r what has benm doe aSa tared by autheatic ac-
counts eom am of undoubted chaesa ad versty.
Gemnrlaad paper ead b re te Ptam County Ag&ritu-
ral Socv, : It is a daciamane ats f a d come occur-
MnOe wh a a r00 aad over to be recalled fom the prdnes of uar
and aisH s mad fdm the cm emna onm are moaly of our coman
1Judge Dol mt h m ioae hmamne l,aad In another S1 and
notheo spea oS of brrt wof made tohe Iaer n Qds-
da etacoml i ombein o Ofls flIside.
atl mrat Ma Maron, ANa4-h Iwmaoues, and aom -
th make 000 Iba. of sr r perasn aran nga orM E-
tim. AccounOte x firSmdo y G avK she K dMO Mea f of
ar sthe actual prodant per tes.asl mlaps inla 1M n that
-g, tman an average o I toa acre. This, at Iftos.
Ptp w i m e average prodais pear .
T P l eMr arrw wl at ev_ o& "-a uo
w--'lY r C'd Io ^iy--- MI-ss sswewrB hr somemu
an isrin *IDnow Pe seV a M I, pI Pounds of ar.l
L Wt Mm ldd r a of saper a e sbee ds ma to tah rI

filabit groiws o a ms a swd wet he Int l W waga fd5lat a


grown to the height of seventeen tbet. There it matures, tasuels, and pro-
.eM are mll ions ot acre in our Stats that can and will produce e ly
two sbhouad poml ds of sugar to the eare; and many of our omat irtdn-
M plant firmly believe that their Jands fertilized will -rom a
quality of sugar than can be rad on the black, so-ced gar
lands." An actual trial proves that a compost of muck or marl is the bet
possible fertilizer for the sugar cane.
Good cultivation will accomplish wonders with cane. It is known that
one imall planter near Plcolata, during the past year, with no help except
hb own litle boy, made fom two acres of land fbrty barrels of sugar and
five hundred gallons of syrup.
Well cultivated, one acre of fair land will produce from twenty-five to
thirty-five thousand canes. Seed cane has been sold in Jacksonville, with-
in a week, at thirty-five dollars per thousand.
Why do not more men go htto cane culture ?
There are several answers to this very natural question:
first, The real value of this crop, and the perfect adaptation to it of our
soil and climate, have not been ay known.
Second, There has heretoibre been a difficulty in procuring seed.
Third, There has prevailed an opinion that, though profitable when
cultivated on a large scale, requiring much capital, it would not pay the
small cultivator having limited means.
Fourth, Until latterly, the machinery necessary for expressing the Juice
and manMuacturlag the sugar has been very expensive, not within the
reach of small tttes.
All these ob .I are rapidly disppearin, and more sensible and lt-
ter funded ophons are beginning to prevail.
And now at last mechanical ingenuity has come to our aid, and many
varieties of ur mills and evaporators are offered to those who desre to
go into the 1ing and manu&cture sugar.
A cursory section of the various mln now presented to the choice of
the sugr planter will coaninee my one that now, at least, the exove-
nes o t e ssay machinery need not deter any from sugar plating.
Deeply int te in the extension of r plan our State
bU mg Wthat'Plorids can easly become e sgarState of the Union, ad
fBly aware that a wrong idea of the great expense of the nece m-
chiery has operated a a bug-bear to deter man from entering upD this
exceedingl proftable culture, I deem it entIrly proper to call th atten-
tion of all ot planters, and all those who are heatatlg to embark I the
cultivation of sgat cane, to the great variety of sugar mills now ttred
by the merchants of our city. 4
Mills can be seen here that have ground one hundred gallons in twenty-
one minutes, ad are sold at SI.
here are ml of all te and adapted to the wants of any indvidal
p ter, or those of a neighborhood, and varying In price. fromni 1 to
I laspection of these mills will be fll of interest to the practical
ad as well to him who would brly edPtnfate the kpacityand
dl on of lmoria to tae cultlvatih of t., C
J. S. A., Com'r.
14 addition t ttiteRaerial lArmpstion, in aWrd to Florida, now easily

An effort was nade to provide fully for this anticipated and natural, d-
mand by securing from intelligent citizens of each coas wellU-oatrdied
an reliable descriptions of their own localities. But the attempt wa oay
patally successful; for while this request for statistical and other inflas-
ton was most courteously and ably responded to in some instances, as will
appear from the following pages, still, from very many counties, no Ye-
sponse whatever Ias as yet been made.
Hence, while hoping to receive such responses for use in a future edition, it
has been necessary to group together various contest, nearly alike in charc-
teristics, and apply to a complete group, so Ar as practical, the descrfp-
tions of counties rom which local descriptions have been received, so ar
as they are typical of the entire group.
Florida is usually describedas composed of East Florida, or that portion
of the State between the Atlantic and the Suwannee River comprising the
whole of the peninsula; Middle Florida, extending fom the Swannee to
the Apalachicola; and West Florida, comprising he territory west of the
last named river. This division, suggested probably by the existence of the
distinctly-marked natural boundaries finished by the'rivers named, may
be well enough for the purposes of a general description; but a diffrent
division suggests itself, as better adapted to the purpose of an agricultural
description of different sections, whose characteristic productions would
be determined in the main by their special climatic conditions.
Accordingly, in attempting to'give that sort of practical information
thwould be serviceable to actual settlers, and best enable them to make
satisactory locations, a different mode of territorial division will be adopt-
ed and, for the purpose of properly grouping the counties with speia
reirence to those climatic conditions which control and determine their
vegetable p actions, the State will be included in the three divisions of
Northern, Cntral, and Southern Florida.
Northern Florida will be considered as constituted from all the lands
lying northof thepallel of 80 deg. N. latitude; the territory included be-
tween the paurllel of and80deg. N. latitude illbe rtled Central Flori-
da- and al south of 8deg. willbeconsidered as cempodug South Florida.
hus apportioned, a general account of each dvion be given, ac-
companied by such local descriptions of the different counties as I have
been able to procure, and refrence will be made to Individuals in the sev-
eral counties, from whom farther and more particular information can be

Northern Florida extends from the Atlantle Ocean, on the east, to Per-
dido river, on the west, a distance of three hundred and seventy-fve
d and has an average breadth of some rty-4ve miles, and is com-
of the counties of Escambis, Santa Wa, ,Walton, W ng ,
oes, Jackson, Calhoun, Gadsden, Liberty, Leon, l JWahnn
Madson, Taylor, Hamilton, Suwannee, Colinbi, Btkeri Bradf N
aDual, Clay, and the northern part of St. John's onty.
The climate ef this section as a whole, may be said to be mild, vergig
qppq warm. All extremes of temperature are essentlly modified by the
pret nce of daily winds om the ocean or Gulf of exico. The et
em portion, probIbly'from the influence of the Gulf Stream, has a mider
and *aore cginb le climate than that west of the Swanuee, and in W
tersualhlbt fram the cold noriher and northiisa that o n
vanl. But dhmoq the whole aec'tion, oqU i the climate, that l
though iae r etwo M thad Mti t.h corof a,
themoTmeter er1y8ddom tIf below 85 feF. t the 1rinter, or ri=' IbA


a~umerm. There are occasional frots, but during four-bflft of
the prevalent temperature is that of the mfilda Indian
SrO a orida vaies from the somewhat tne ad
and WesteOn Florida to the man tin
M i hands of die portion, and gives a much widdet d r
than is common sOt ppoee4 although extreme eleatfoire
etre wanting. May strange, who only make a personal iapection
afe t. Johns and go of the tamMene of Ihe
the l the andthe b moment
ofhe stress, ifl flatn the valley or t. Mary's aee and aOe-
what apd stream, inlceaed between pictureqe Mbl and h i banks in
e midit a rich A d iartile territory. The same is also true of the Sn-
rB the Chbpoa, and other rvtra .
Haamilton county O the eat, and Holmes on the west, the inter-
Nmpdate section Ia uaulatg, ad in some parts quite broken; many por-
tlsofJackon, Gadaa,ad Leon counties, in particular, bearing
fbir surface a strm raMbnaona to the hle hlly portlos of
a*, New York, and lew b ad; and thu Is i alrded in Northern -
id a variety of wahoe, of sandy plains and "flatwoods," or an
a ohl vle4p n which the diverse tastes of dflbrent indi-
vuul can be
The so of are aa varied a is the surhce. To the
inl ad .ll, with a .aoel varying In depth, of
Valt i sofri re anm y whue the later are
In or Iect$= conaon called 'idl

iryad tais k and putuMb

lod 3beofM as nb o the note,
a ano14 ode,
lis o- and aorhoe of th de counties on tMI aef,
the pamUWrt coolmis of Ohe Omf, this dtL- h
l betto adapted than ether of the otheft to what Is
oritawr ftning" ao oootndttlnbd fom plnting" n olud.
Heoe ie a ater divrsity fd crop uaallynlaedhtheNorth-
an ad :ill W6 EInh thee other alNlos.
as, Instead oodf f a lingC. rpn as Is

to be orn, cotton, lotlaj'oi'ts,
e nulrlh~rh

b BErTTLeB's GUIDE. 19
ida than those produced in Liberty, Calhoun, Wakulla, uni Washington
counties and the world can show no better oranges than the best rabed
in tdrlte*
A wiidwlkoeTo is remarkabl ll w In Iad4itt to tbe n-
r c.teae Blaeu c ata, ,i Ba O'
ie multitode of smaller uie, he the wole g
dirny mpplewd with springs, while good waier is easiy obtob in
we11sw or it expienw.
The timber ofthe rgieo is abundant. The supplies of ptine d -
are appant inehausutlble ; while ickory, oak, ah, cedar, = =ad
red-bay ate foUmd everywhere.
Game and fish arefbnd everywhere in good supply. On the coast, Oys-
term and turtle abound. They are both abundant and good on the east
coast; but theoysters of St. Andrew's Bay, on the west, are not surpased
for ie and flavor, and are abnadant.
So much will suffce bfor a gept of Northern Florida, as a
whole, and for more particular nrmatio, reference is made to the local
descriptions of Jackson, Wakulla, Gdadedn, Leon, Clay, Suwamnee, Madi-
son, and Columbia counties, which are msbjoined.

CRAWOrDViLLE, Fla., July 16, 18.
Hon. J. 8. AnDAs:
Sm: I did not see nor hear of your circular of the Uh of Novbr,
lOI8 ataIxecevd or amphlirtjtafag the .uxtnrd aw of

I good aa ra to write tIa bewtg youtteh-
m bo'ouidpe eastward by Taylor ooatya worhward
r wanitwestward by ths nam rwad; sItwd
b ay ad te GoltofMoxioo. from theea tcmabeudc ry
to the wester,it near brty miles, and fron the northern boundary to
the sothran, itiaft= MMue to *tWbix ty-Wbd oo hra
T.64 popl64ion ofaboot br hxmdd,two biwokd *rt o
omare wte, and two hande da t we -atty wo hOalkr .MO
'qAMn tide I oebbig, and gaotfldLatsas trem thatteo
iWfrd a the m dste of Wakulla eomay is at or near the ean-
ta of those omty, mad of aste n It is afi e loWaUti oUy
The water pIre d o ealtgood. It has a

Y,=mten mtb WasasOas.
ftrc as a t Reirs irllalw 4dInI ilt nW


also level, but more elevated, and beautifully intermixed with alteSate
secteM of pine, oak, and ailkory and hammock. Thegretr pties of
the ula in s n this division of the county. The Wremsra d I
Sdeaendig, and decidedly udelathg, with alternatoms of piney
wpds and bays, and the bays generally have greater altitude than the
pt woods, and are, therefore, s eptible of easy and thorough drAinage.
In 1860, at my instance, Dr. Daniel Lee visited two of the most noted of
those bay-one for the excess of sand in the soil and the other for the
seemingly total destitution of and therein-selected samples of bay earth,
and subjected them to a rigid chemical analysis, and reported to me the
following results:
IA one hundred parts of the sandy bay soil I found of
Oifl eombntu ble substance, .................. ................... ............ 08
Minae l matter,........... ....................................................... 90.14
"The last named contained,
lllca and alllcatesaa .a.......... ....... ..............................
Alumina, (the b is of lay,)............................................. ........ 2.
Ox de of I ................. .... ...... .. ................................ .. .4S
Chlorde o L me ................................................................. .9
Sulphateof U ,................................................................ im
Salphate of ............ ........................................ .08
Chloride of Ptai and Soda, hophte of Lime, and lows............... .

This soil has an exce of -ad, and is deficient in alumina or clay, and
the compounds f lri, whlh reader clay either red or blue. But as the
vepb matter is boh deep and abundant, it wll produce well. There
is lack of llme n any of the bys. There is very little dUbrence in the
surte and sbsol of te rich bay. Much of the vegetable matter is thor-
ouhly rotted, ad eceedingly 'ne humus. When thorogly dried, it
ha great power of im ibng moisture from the atmoqhe(r very -
gpMopi) Driedt at the temperature of 913 degree, 1O0 grams careful
bount pgae l rar of Inombnstible ashes and earthy matter; 10
g-aof this contained:
aLU clw JMlscaSCmte),. ..................... .. .............................
m .... ......... .. ...................................... .. 8
O0x M M .:................... ............. ......... ......... .. .......... ... A
o..hib.Me.et ............................ .. ............. ...... ...
Pram l= a msad Pha ................................................. .0
Ara lo e..................................................... .....................

"As in a bank of roten corn stalksor wheat straw, there is an excess of
vt mtti ba t lb y and possbly It may take some time to
redwe it to a kynadUMk. It is an mn- ly rich bay."
oJe is a nafl of the Statp of New York, was for may di-
tor 0 S4i aind ai was, at the otime of fani y

L ha tavae tosufw4a
aftiens or ath |t l a of hprf a
kaIW atr that are sie at pew_ 6h i.ee ,s f P is

There is no lack of rivers and creeks with sufficient fll and calibre to drive
machinery. There are seven grit mills and one sw mill in the county,
six of which are water mills, and three of them m within two miles of
Crawfordvflle. Lumber is worth fifteen dollars per thousand fet, and
corn meal one dollar per bushel at the mill. Every section of the county
is bountihlly supplied with either branches, small lakes, or ponds ~fr stock.
For drinking, the citizens generally usewell water,a bw spring, and fewer
still, cistern. The drinking water, in some sections, is arctd by rotten
limestone; in other setions it is only slightly impr ted with lime,
hut mainly, it is entirely free from lime, cool and sweet The wells are
ftom twelve to twenty-five feet deep. Two hands can dig and curb a well
in two days.
Grazing is good throughout the county, especially in the eastern and
western divisions, and on the gulf coast. Stoc of all kinds does well,
and cattle and hogs especially are remarkable for their precocity. It is not
unusual for heifer of two years to have calves. Bear and deer are abun-
dant in remote and solitary recesses, and turkeys, fxes, oons, cat, &c.,
are in every man's plantation. The woods abound with wild honey. Do-
mesticated bees are profitable. Bee stands are worth one dollar each;
honey sixty cents a gallon.
It costs a good deal to clear hammock land, and int little to clear pine;
but I am not advised as to the actual cost of either. There is cleared land
enough in this county for the present. Wakulla county is covered almost
entirely by what is known as the Forbes' Purchase," so there is very little
government land in the county, and that little is of very little account
The superabundance of timber contiguous to any suitable place to build,
and the cheapnese of labor, would enable one to build a comlbrtable log
house for one hundred dollars. A cart-load of lghtwood will reduce a
cart-load of oyster shells to lime, and lime and sd well mixed, wet with
water, moulded into proper shape, and dried in the sunshine, make good
brick. A few clay brick kn-dried, are necessary fbr the hearth and back
-perhaps seventy-five to the chimaey.he e lime and snd brick will en-
dure unto the end in the body and ftmnel of a chimney.
I have yet to see the man who will acknowledge that he lives at a sickly
place; but intermittent and remittent fevers are not strangers in some lo-
calities, even in Wakulla county. But the county, all in all, is certainly
healthy, and the acclimated citizens ejoy almost uninterrupted health.
Mositoes are numerous only on the g coast, and alongthelmeof the riv-
ers. I have not had occasion to put up my mosquito bars bfr years. Gasts
and feas annoy a little in the spring, but disappear on the approach of
summer. Not many sakes.
Aside from the equinoctial winds incident to all tropical climates, this
county is less liable to storms than any with which I am acquainted.
Mr. A. P. Tully, a gentleman of the highest integrity, reports that he
produced last yer, from one re and t hree-hth aeuraty measured
thirteen hundred and twaty pounds of dry sugar, and ive hundred and
twenty-fve gallons f syrupof f; sweet ptoes fur hundred and fty
bushes per acre; of corn frm old land witoam re, sa an average of the
entire only a action short of twenty bushely aer Mr. Tullys
platami s wtinonemile of lCw~b rdM ie. o X.Bmswell pro-
dued on his plantaion, four miles Cn r Nome yeat sdae,
from one Imnave se re il aeres of natural hd, (not a be of mau
was usd,) aehand t al of shrt staple coatUO, B g ta e h a
dred sdatlr wemgtyv o per btel; ora per ar
witha coel t e atwo bouags to be true. Bit
these raaltib ttr afaage.
For the wat of enterprise or frems a cofuolng oomfldnce In toe '6
pacity of the native sol, the planters of Wakull have not manared their


ik notwitltanding mines of muck and marl, acceeble nt-
i&, abound in every emotion of the con. The planters Aus st
W aores in cultivation, and the pouod be, or glo edper
"aro and, therefore I o ot say with eitees nd certamuch
the native lands will prode per acre, but the following will approximate
it: Of short-staple cotton, fom two to Afive hundred ponds f lint per
acre; of long-staplesrom one to three hundred pounds; of corn, fam ten
tofty buhels; of sweet potato, from three to five hundred bushels;
of pin from forty to eighty bushels; of syrup, from three hundred to
four hundred and fty gallons; of rice from thirty to ffty bushels (rough.)
Bye, oats, and Irish potatoes pay well cow peas, chu, &c., firt-rate;
melons, (water and musk) pumpkins, andll garden vegetaleare produced
in mueh.proAuion, and to such perfection, and with so little attention, that
its impoeslble to re them. Figpluos, pomegranates, and peaches
am produced to ; apples, only so-o; orange trees require pro-
tetion from the cold only a few years. There are some small sweet-or-
e groves n the county that bear astonishingly.
Lbor is abundant, andcan be obtained at fom fls to seventy-five cents
peday, or from ten to twelve dollars per month, with ratios. Good arm
homes and mules are worth rom one hundred to two hundred dollars
each; sbockcattlk five to six dollars per head; stock hos, two dol-
lar; hemp two dlarS ad oat, one dollar and twentyl-ve cents.
Ig troets 0aflad in ll aee tions, much of thn very rich, with
improvemantpa tuhea, an purchased at from two to ve dollars per
acre. In s m locatiesaore or les desrable lands, wih improemnts,
can be puchmed almost at puraser's own pre.
Prior to 181M, was a lucrative avocation in this eCot and
thOe ph a o a d, akA. t, c n to=-
Onahand an"chip anddipo 'k= =1 0 Wbkh wil
a oot two sundrfed bpr of cde
td two delia per brl tobacco too, wa ra eauneratfve
3akled tobaosoft and good as ay ever gpoduced in
tMI or n Cubs, was produ in this dy, wiSre thee are now
r lu an n ofon thousds e of hanmO utd to its o.
a ~cultivation of tobso do notol witheth
of cotaheW aop, batt itis shOt Im to sid the fdder fomla
rop of om without t obamc. h hundred pods of
-peeiet tobsoo is a goavsrage per acre.
I believe there i not a vineyaI in the county; but a single aomppoengw

TalfiiiorltM- s, t6,ftosiseA t n tons of
id at a reabively noiaul expense.


Fisheries are established all along on the g coast, and fom more tha
one of them I have seen one hundred barely (two hundred nd fifty mul-
let to the barrel) of mullet captured at a'&M, with sa ab not exceeding
two hundred yards in length, and manned by le than a dosen men. Mul-
let areworth ten dollars per barrel on te beah. bTink of itI One
thousand dollars at haul. Mullet "run," In smonm's phIr
schools near the shore fom the flt of October to the ofembr,
and ten or twelve hands, with seine and boat, ean apte fve hundred to
one thousand barrels within the brie f prdof gwesks. About aw-
half the mullet have yellow roe, whh are in great demand at a higher
price per barrel than the mullet. RadIo. mlet oaly a pcked; ad
mullet heads, by balling, yield an oil equal toJMad r fin fish, and so-
perior to any other grease for leather. The entire glf coast is ridged with
The Newport Sulphur springs are worthy of cooderaton. Before the
war, scores of invalds resorted to these wai0s, amay of whom wer en-
tirely restored to health long lost, and nany.more were graAy imprea d.
These waters are preentie of debility, the merunner of dropsy, ast of
physical disorganiatons generally; and curative of dyspepsia, rheam-
tism, neuralgia, etc.
There an some interesting places br sale in the vickty of these hgs
prlngsand those who may dire to take look athemas re
D .al add, a peer to Forida d am of the mo mar
aeN citis in the omnty. Mr.Kd rels at Newprt Wi
Spring ha a puff (good onse, toyem r a t other
inW-klls oity te memumke for ra tofiiil Trae l
rp ten mile from Or dtflle, near Mor James W. i eal-
d am oar _lht of the gul The waters of this spring an aid to be-
a panoaa for diaolO dlarrhCesa.
S nd ow, lr. Admia, L com dsdraduM ofe the ndoemansta rimey um.
ied in this mning mm unmm~an some of whleh a the Intrim a
o the a ite of their lathe h am l ofA timber, C,
aid mea, ad the cheap... of r, lty of la me
sad reute =artl tt to the Oatal, uiaeusli. with ie
.dM tre-s ofIh *d oyartgfea traanrm, hea l dl
arches, society, dvil and socalt, Waklas coaty b the mMiagte
LIst, not ea, I am pema oalya d with e y whi_ am ia he
county, and e is ot a more lwi-i tand U1ion-ltBlpglopl I
mny OMYof any State, in the Uonin 010 of Itt theM P
ofWa Then rwe claims whodee assr OrWbamwrfle tE e
immumlsoe aneighokod, who Mhot travly Om both sides dwing *,
late war, other who redied uah the Mtter ead to ght on either die,
ot' er, salL who were pearu te d a temprom fttir l r mapposed droo-
tly1 to tiMlra S all u v ae sad am hanrdoy. I an see no na-
son pwhy Norther a man shldnoter at houein Wakl coaty. All
uprlht and honorable Immigrants who may come to this county for he
purpop of making i their boMam ad C o t n the deeopm t of
Cit nsO cwil receive the onu abi aBhe alise
rgr nyll. have made ir my buism I to inqaubr Mard ibtm
Iw of the county o how* wo-s BWeahWmamaMiu-R
a&i0yob to alls aoh lS th i hawd
Youms,., fee w. mall--



This county is a northern border county, between the Georgia line on
the north and Liberty county on the south, and between the Ocklockonee
and Aplachicola rivers, its i entire being in latitude 80.80 north. The sur-
floe of the whole county is :, mewhat undulating and broken, exhibiting
frequent hills and vales; and running streams, andgies a variety of scenery
la1er than is found on the ocean or gulf coasts. The soil is of excellent
quality, generally based upon a strong red clay which often crops out upon
esurle. In the best pine, and the oak and hickory lands, this
clay suboil very generally exists within one or two feet from the surface ,
and probably on this account such lands have an unusual pern :nence
of fertilty, and a longer continued responsiveness to fertilization ,uan is
common. The hammock lands, where the subsoil is more remote. .re of
a liCter character, and though perhaps more productive at first, iar, not
as rating. There is less waste and uncultivable land in this county than
in almost any county in the State.
Clay, muck and mud abound throughout the county, giving amipl as-
rance of unlin supplies of natural fertilizers, and the value of these
reso es is now only beginning to be appreciated.
The forest growth s of gret variety, but the yellow and pitch pine, sult-
ablebr fencing and millau purposes, very largely prevail. The oak
ridges furnish the finest supply of red and black oak, post oak, hickory and
do a1 ,the hammok abound in the white, Spanish and badet
magnolia, bay, walnut and cherry, and almost every other de-
criptio of fe-growth that can be named. The pine forests besides
rnlsahng an ample supply of fencing and -building material, afford hin
summer pasturage for the live stock, and the hammocks and branches are
equally bene~al in that respect in the winter.
Owing to the undulating sure of the country the lands in this county
weranever vey attractive to that class of immints known as large
cott plantere and hence the county was settled up by men of moder-
atm sa and o industrious habit. This circumstance has stamped upn
the population more the character of" farmers" than of planter." Wth
this characteristic they have always produced their own supplies of provi-
aims ; and prior to the close of the late war, it was a matter of rare occur-
rence, that either meat or brad was Imported from abroad. The same
spirit of independence is still observable in the tone and bearing of the
agricultural population of the county, and though cramped in their present
means, and saurlIg under the great change which has so suddenly and
unexpected occurred in the system of labor, it is a cheering augury, that
they are y confirming to their altered circumstances, and fist retura-
iag to their fier thrift In a word, the soll, climate, and habits of the
population afford all the essential elements of a successMt farming coqpmu-
a pett thorough knowledge of the average productivenes of the
ao, e om mare of opinion tat to the number of acres planted in
ootto, a lMos r of ths 8tategve a morn tidoy rlt. Ad it
ms e o that f the oded te ISlea or logt
haad *Sareid ryathe e was thich =
"one stM i as the op ibow 0at t*M W
a. ft respect. Aof our nt es a i&ly
. ihm i~taiil l bre that 'elfbrport ottofu r tiands iiaasr
that ssm~ slcteed sd. a tre 1 ordue& Mwhich f s

length and strength is not excelled by that produced in any other section
of the State.
But the most distinguishing trait in the agriculture of Gadsden county
prior to the war, was the great attention which was given to the cultiva-
tion of the Cuba tobacco. This culture was nagurated by a worthy
gentleman by the name of John Smith, who emigrated fm Virginia ad
settled in the vicinity of Quincy about the yar 1MV. His extraordinary so-
cess soon induced others to go into the culture, and in the course ofa hw
years, the Cuba tobacco became a staple product of the county, second
only, if at all, to cotton. For a number of years immediately preceding
the war, the production of this staple within the limits of the county aver-
aged from three to four thousand boxes of four hundred pounds each an-
nually, and readily commanded on the plantations in cm, from twenty-
five to fifty cents per pound. The purchases were enrally made by
agents of German houses, sent out from New York andBrmen
The pindar or ground-nut has always been suooeasury cultivated in
this county, but only as food for swine. The tdiousness of gathering,
and the fact that the gathering season comes on at a time when we are
most closely pressd by the picking of cotton, has heretoire prevented it
from being dpted as a maet crop. There is no doubt, however, that
if made a spiaty, and resort be hadto improved implements for gthering,
it could be made one of the most remunerative crops that could be grown.
The results in the State of North Carolina fhlly attest the correctness of
this opinion, and in point of soil and climate we certainly have the advan-
tage. But Gadsden county does not rely alone upon her field crops" for
restoration to her former prosperity. A new business has been recently
Inaugurated, that of" gadenig," and If the experiments of the past season
afford any indication of the future, she has in that enterprise a most flat-
tering promise of success. One of the first shipmentsof gardenpeas that
reached New York the past season was sent from the vicinity of Quincy
and the remuneration is well calculated to excite and stimulate the enter-
prise of our citizens the coming season. On the same parallel with the
cities of Jacksonville and St. Augustine, with a soil &r superior in produc-
tiveness, and with direct and speedy railroad communication, there is no
reason why this county may not enter into aucces compete in this
line of business It is an establUhed ct, that cabbage sad all the root
crop are raised in as high perlfctio n Florida as in any pat of the
United States, and a farther advantage i that all of these products, with
the exception of the Irish potato, may bepermitted to remain in the ground
during the entire winter, without sufnui g any material jury frm the
cold. It Is also an established fct, demonstrated by actual shipmets
made daring the past season, that vegetables shipped by ilrmod rm
Quy have been delivered in New York on the fourth day after being
The public have been educated to believe that the successful sng of
the orange i confined exclusively to the banks of the river St John'(the
admittedpride of our State,) and to the country adoent thereto; lut It re-
quires o a visit to the palachcola river, t wee body of
Garden county, to dispel the lusion. The largest saud t oranges
that the committee have ever seen or t we traded on the beaks of
that river. The sameness of latitude, ad as gat of asoil,
give to tha local advantages whch cae s be ignored. the
dose of the wr great attention Is bdalg pd to the plating.of
the sweet oq!M sa to the improv niut sd Rexta on Ra t e
grows he hiMngsrad and fh m aOQ- p ciedbly i.t.a,
rethmd Ihr toveooe are in aetanktM B l dir kaomwihi
that wayn UiU are now engaged Ia *g e altve
C Z~~ Uy e*'~


sweet orange on the banks of that river, and it is a fact worthy ofbeing
noted, that the insect heretofore so destrctive to the groves in other ec-
tios of the State, have never been known to infest the trees hi that local-
i. This may be asoounted for from the &ct that the soil is of unsurpas-
sd ertlity, which keeps the trees in a healthy and growing condition and
raiders them invulerable to the attacks of the much dreaded enemy.
The river communication with Columbus, Georgia, affords an ample out-
let for all the oranges that can be grown on the banks of the Apalachicola
Another source to which we look with confidence fbr a restoration to
our former prosperity, is the cultivation of the ppeon ape. This
is no tried experiment in this county. The neiborhoodf Pleas-
ant, situated about twelve miles west of Quincy, ha been engaged in the
cultivation of thi grape ir may yeas, and now produces a rine which
is pronounced by good udge to be equal to the best of the CalifornIa pro-
ductions, and iar super to the great bulk of foreign mportationa, which
are imposed upon u asthe pure Juie of the p. Our people are now
aroused upon the o et and in the ourse of arew years Gadden county
will be as celebrated for the productions of wine as she has heretofore been
for that of the Ouba tobacco.
Of the provision crops, the Indian corn, or maize i the great staple, and
is ch y relied upon as food both fbr man and beast. In consequenceof
the eagth of our summers, the climate is not as propitious for the
prodatio of large ldas in more northern latitudes; there s no def-
th le ear, but fbr the reson above stated, att dis
t as to be Sv tqth talt s to gard g int the frin ofthel eves,
he bard is tdfi aton of ta nabe of hls to the ce. Upon
Appropriated to the production of this cereal, (aale it
ret h ,) fhe twelve to Mefta bushels to the acre
a 'average crop, though pmon fit-rate bottom lands,
a forty to sixty bpeb re not uneqieso y ul ea la t
Sto theoom come the various varieties of the sweet potato.t t is
d th man ad beast, and Is of get valne on every well
Splantaton or hrn, as great reliefto the esaetona
oCeib. Itisof esy r rieqir leaswork thian r aoB
app, am the yield is grter than tb of anyomr crop platd When
yaey attended to, and upon stale oiom two to three hundred
=b to te acre nay be confideay relied upon. The sweet potato may
be propaated y plating short pdes of the vie a late as the mouth of
Aast, r t ltot on of the cotton crop has been trminatd, and
wt ne ploughn g and propito a nvariably afords S1e rooting
for the hogp in the ll o the year. Indeed, the most of the pork made in
the county is ttened in the potato fields.
The oow or flId pea is another valuable auxiliary to the psovslma crop.
Iis esteemed a te .o mw by every Judicious and pr- t ter, as
f is the main tslace fbr attning up the stock Is the year.
Al op iqa aus am speaalapoptiac of ad so aso production,
a ih asdwanrmhe betUen the hDa or ro wd ats, witt in-
sl the-o'latter. Ne do8es It I any spedal or
IS Is a vkwmw- atM64 aad d 0ag g i al she
,"f Airth-r. r to AIL.

*W as MW t Vr pof oats or rye.



grain flourishes finel ih this climate, and as it delits in moisture, is
usay cultivated on a. which are too wet fti ootth or 6oro.
The l uoand emnate of ths county is well adapted to Se prodution of
oas and rye. Both of thee ras have always been cultivated with sue-
om and the former, espelfy, is much reled upon bfr the support ofthe
Steam. Upon the lay soils, wheat has been tried with satisfct
bt, but in consequence ofthe lack of flourlag mls, has never been r-
lied upon as a crop, except by a few. With proper aculites to convert the
grain into good flour, a stimulus would be given to the production of this
valuable gain, which would soon render the citizens of the county entirely
independent on tha score.
ugat cane is also a staple provision crop, is of easy culture, grows lux-
uiatly on good land, and the process of converting into sugar and s p
aso simple that but little experience Is required to rode a good ar-
ticle. Except in a few instances, it has never been cultivated as a market
crop, but it I of rare occurrence that any plantation does not produce an
abundant supply fbr domestic use.


The blde of the Indian corn is the chief reliance for foraging the
horses and cattle of the plantation, though large quantities ofha a
there on many plantatils. The hay ths watered cots the ia-
or of caing and curing. The gss fom which t is ad (the "crab"
al ow ot") a spontaneom gowh, which vegetate after the crop
f ranhas received the t ploah or the oatsor e have been hr-
vetd. The hay from these ae soft and plle, very nutrio,
and e l to any imported arti. Any land broken p thn e prng, and
aw harrowed, will odoe tno e to three tons of hy to the sre, ad
may be t twi nd often thte daring the sum r and hL What I
tre of Gdsdenm c ty equay apples to every pt of lorida Our the-
oretical agorh lturlsts have a- cedM theirbr n and eaautdi quir
to dlsr a Mgra htly adap 6 to the so aiddllt abo athe Both, ne
we have at our vey doors, a a to our ealvated roptogn s,
de lr whio h is Mry equal to the velvely "blue grass' of ata y
and hr superior to the hah "Timothy" of the north for having pur-
Under the stimulus whih is beiag given by the establsent of eagr-
cultural aociations to the development of new ds the day is not ds-
tant when the shipment of hay to the south will be about as proftable as
"carrying coals to New Castle."
We have never suffered any inconvenience from the lack of pasturag.
The grasses bebre mentioned afibrd an abundant supply during the sum-
merand hAl and the elds from which the provision crops have been saved,
with the reed branches, whish abound hSevery pat of the county
a sufficiency for winter and sprit. It is hMad byeao l sae-
rtmu Vtt the mnmer p Isstuge isga iango iq libn bre M up and
throwing the soil p.reviW to the rn g the g .u This simulate
the growth and serves to keep down te weeds.

ti s now being to the ntroduotion of a greater variety of fruits,


and we are confident that in the course of a few years, apples, pears, and
cherries will be as common as peaches,
The smaller fruits or berries, such as the straw and raspberries, are also
cultivated to great perfection, and the dew and blackberry grow sponta-
neously and in great abundance in every part of the county. Indeed, we
see no reason why the cranberry, the gooseberry, and the currant may not
be cultivated with equal success, and we confidently look forward to the
time, not far distant, when these delicious and highly prized ftuits will be
abundantly supplied.
The climate of this county, and indeed of the entire State, is far more
equable than is to be found in higher latitudes. Your committee are not
prepared to give the average range of the thermometer throughout the
year, but they confidently assert that while the formation of Ice i of com-
paratively rare occurrence, the maximum of heat is far below that expe-
rienced in New York, Ohio, and the New England States. Your com-
mittee have no recollection of ever having seen the thermometer rise to
100 degrees.. The attention of one of the committee was especially called
to this matter by the reports from those States during the present season,
and at no time did either of three instruments consulted register above
99 degrees, and that only on one day. It is true that our warm weather
extends over a much longer period of time than in the States rther
north, but the Intensity ofheat is never so great as with them, and we
are entirely eempted from the sultrinew of atmosphere to which they aro
subjected. Even in what is esteemed the hted rm," we are always
relieved during some portion of the day, and almost invariably at nig
by the cooling influence of refreshing breezes. This is doubtless attribu-
table to our goaphical position, which gives us the advantage of both the
Atlantic anaGf influences. As approrate to the subject now under
conaderation, it is a &ft worthy of note that r m as yor committee are
Informed, a case of sun-stroke" has never occurred in the county, nor
has an instane of Rabes "or lydrophobla" ever been known.
To ourgeographical position may also be attributed our peculiar ex-
emption fom what is usually denominated the dry" and wet" season.
It is true that we occasionally suffer from drought, and sometimes from
excess of rain, but these occurrences are not periodical, and cannot be
anticipated with any degree of certainty. It is seldom that the growing
crops are very materially injured by either the one or the other.


Is bounded on the north by the Alabama line, on the eat by the Chat-
tahoochee and Apalachiola rivers, on the south by Washbton and Cal-
hoon counties; embroaig an area of thirty or more towhip of land, di-
verlfed and varied In quality by location; somewbat n lting, tred-
Ing to the water-shed, being bout thirty iales tam east to west, and fbrty
f ro north to south. The arable lands have abutrat4m of lime at vr,
riom dAea n tihe t hei and. ed as swamp, hmnaook ad
pt";: asQ n*Mand Uta ibedm ie tom the strmm of water s t -

bay; these lands are stiff and require heavier cultivation. They are con-
sideredntermediate between the swamp and pine. pine lands are
l eht, easily cultivated and deesrsble ; soil, loam, sand and lime timbered
lonk-lesaid pine with oak runner, hickory, buckeye and apapw un-
degrowt. Lime s an gredient in all these, also in lands of dismilar
characteristics though of the sane nature and clam not described, to which
all are main indebted obr their fertility and long endurance. Coarse
sand abounds in the soil of some of the lands with the same substrata, but
they do not yield well without extensive culture. The lands are level,
though the surface is formed so as to prevent the accumulation of stagnant
water or large open ponds without outlet.
The Chipola river rises in several large springs in Alabanu, flows south
nearly through the centre of the county, and empties into the Apalachicola
river, or what is known as the "Dead Lakes." This is the mi drain or
water shed of the county, except on northwest, west, and southwest, the wa-
ter of which flows west and southwest into Choctawhatchle river or St. An-
drew's bay. The former river is navigable for boats carrying two hundred
bales of cotton, and is susceptible of steam navigation by a moderate out-
lay. The eastern portion of the county is ftiniihlied with fatalities of trans-
portation by the rivers, forming a boundary line. Drinking water is ob-
tained from wells at various depths and is mnore or less impregnated with
lime, as some large springs find vent to the surface through figures in
limestone. Water is obtained in some localities on and near the surface,
which is more or lees divested of lime. Wood is abundant and easy of ac-
cess for any and all purposes. A lime rock of stone Is found in many
places near the surface, which is used fbr building chimneys, underpinning
houses, furnaces, etc.; it is easily worked.
The atmosphere is more or less humid from the fact of the close prox-
imity to the Gulf of Mexico, which ifty miles distant, and the same cause
gives rise to the diural ca spelly in the summer months. The
summers are long, with the ermmer occasionally as high as ninety-
six degrees; the nights, however, re cool and pleasant. In winter the
thermometer recedes as low as eighteen degrees, lly about forty de-
grees Fahreneit The l s generous and ylds readily to the growth of
any of the cereals except wheat and rye, which are unertn. Cotton,
sugar-cane, and tobacco are relied upon br exr on, to which may be
added the peat, pa nal hrsl, d other prod o suitable to the cli-
mate. All kinds vegetables except those requiring a low temperature
yield abundantly. The mall fruits may also be raided with nacea. The
apple and pear soe s ut well, but the climate is not congenial. The
orange rows ad ogh above ts proper i oao ly
ldsal rop which is equal in flavor and excellence to utOme of Ouba.
The peach grow well and its a dantly of fine siee and flavor. The
scuppernong ape s in its true element, and excellent wine is annually
made from fruit, which elicited high comendatons fho cnmolearsu,
and created an interest in its cultivating that will lead to the most promis-
ing results. The only care neceay to a e cattle and hos to a ex-
tent is to provide agakt sf ; the climate bingo amld a to relieve
from the neoaity of shelter and providing food during the winter.
The mot desirable lands have been entered or title other b cquired.
The pri, however is so small comparatively, that migrants wold pre-
fer ndI cleated with more or less iprovement The wete and south-
westear Qotr the comty are sel ttled-beretofr being a
cattle It shavuytimbered wfth pile, and abundaing I nutritious
or cqunt dilra bt little fha after parts of the ftate
in t Oane Nota t peoplehave attdand* giwst ag, asd ctd-
meam to the manor born" are as well developed a in any country. The

prominent symptom of disease is fever ; but it yields readily to medicine,
pnMo n ica d ircmspection
Ow lqolalqm the county hlu not been settled as rd a some
raii toh' State of f lew rit in evqr d e 222kex I.t. Q
P-t0orcom lca1 tion by ra -b se d- t- e
overoome sopn by an extension to '
Now is the time for persons ldeir home to vipit
thi country. id can be boI nt any at
The people re oeed and wel-
come good and ridustrious people, coe ere they miy.

Your letter of the 16th instant has been received, and I hasten to gfve
you a desrition of Clay county and its proddute. It Is about twenty-
t miles om north to south, and tweaty-tf6 miles from east to west.
Te surftce is genray level; the hght part is on the west aide, nar
Kiagsbs L e Thecounty is well watered; good water ise pro-
cmdyThere are ten or more good sites on the t
s4eans in thcounty. It is healthy, with te exception of two or thee
l Iton and tby are confined to a small trct each. The court-hoe
isat Webster, wch is nearly in the aeno of county. Threw s a
good aool-hqae within a quarter of a mine the court hoau a
good hu wthiabout a me and a half of rme. Thesr' rebur
or ive mrc slltrge1good th the coun. Is one eUin
Of a bm Indithirhl* le'I'tB

stSae be attetd at, t i nf W ha nneome

tw o


on SZTrrTL GUIDE. 81

parts of the State. Grapes are very little cultivated In this county; where
they ae, t appear to coapure well with other ctton of m Stte.
atden< v with Aew dzerptoaio gnw wle here b wihr. Vines
of all ndo wel here early in the p sand thefm pa t of summer.
Rice produces well on the low grounds-hm twenty ts t=rty b ehls eto
the acre. Peach orchards on te lasy groeds do wet the quality and
quantity compare well with any part of he State. Sweet, sor, and biter
sweet oranges r well where they have be cultiated. Pm of S-
rious kinder e wel in this county. Iu* tee pmattoa'" win do
well near he navigable stresi where t rIt s deeap.. he
ont s healthy r stock of al kinds. of al sort do well.
Blacerries, whortleberries, mulberries are fibn in abundance in the
woods and eld Arrow-root, comva, and nym produce well In ths
county.- Irih potatoes grow well on or hami k lands, and average
one hundred an t bushls to the acre. The people of Cly county.
with lw exception, are friendly to ne co. ms.
I am, very respectlly, yours, BUDD .



locapias rcraplly nearly a central position nla
l by w e taer, being bounded by It
id south neary.
logdially, i the terty fo mtion, rating on what
hm mtI. I maary l In the undualat, fulfoe
Imstaob e crop oa o which quattuof good
is IB coaomp vly a mew country. Durin the war
Ian. um ke ae, 'f t mwe
>>di n'teML we%, i-m in im m a w
it1kB a" wlwIfo- Mpado wm pebrhaedt ia


such is the goodness and abundance of its fruits and the number of its va-
rieties, that it may be grown here, as In parts of Southern Europe, In so
great an abundance that it may become the "providence of the poor."
Semi-tropical fruit can, with care, be grown here. There are orange
trees in this neighborhood which have been bearing good fuit for some
years past; also, the shaddock, of fine, large size. We are more exposed
to fost than on the St. John's, or on the southern coast districts, and some-
times the young trees are killed by the fost. Old trees and ripe, or well
matured wood of the orange tree successfully resist the effects of frort.
Grapes. Florida is certainly the home of the Scuppernong grape. It
grows and produces with certainty, annually, fine crops of fuit of the best
quality, and both vine and fruit have sofar been entirely free from any dis-
ease whatever, or depredations from insects. We think the Scuppernong
should be extensively planted for a certain and reliable crop. Last win-
ter the writer planted at Wellborn nearly one thousand grape vines; about
half were rooted vines, of one year's growth, and the balance cuttings.
The varieties, Catawba and Isabella." Half were planted on hammock
soil, and the other half on pine land; top soil from a rich hammock was
hauled and filled in with those planted on pine land. The vines grew nearly
one hundred per cent. more than they do in one season in the Western
States. ,
So far as we are advised, the cultivation of the Catawba and other vari-
cties of grapes for wine in the States, has not as yet been fairly tested. It
is the opinion of the writer that the celebrated Mission Grape," which
has been so successfully cultivated for wine in California, should be pro-
cured and extensively planted in Florida, from the fact that in many places
the Catawba, (our best wine grape,) fbr the last few years has been Inuch
injured by mildew. There are ive varieties of grapes, which, by experi-
ment careftfly made by B. N. Bugbey, of Natoma Vineyard, El Dorado
County, California, have been selected from many other varieties as the
very best for future cultivation, valuing them in the order named, the first
being the best, viz.: Black Zinfindel, Red Traminer, White Maalp- Ver-
delho, and Los Angeles. By planting those varieties of the vine best
adapted to the climate and soil of Florida, we have no doubt but grape
growing will prove very profitable. In the rich hammocks the wild grape
vines grow to great size, reaching to the tops of the tallest trees.
In the greater portion of this county good water is obtained in wells of
reasonable depth, and on the borders of hammocks are some very good
springs of pure, clear water; and strange as it may be thought by par-
tie fom mountain districts, there is in this vicinity good and permanent
water power; beautiful and clear streams, running from lake to lake, Mhr-
Snishin ~ sufficient for good mills.
Thelnds of this county are rich in their supplies of timber, the pine
forest urnishing almost inexhaustible stores of pine for lumber of the best
quality, the moist, extensive, rich, dry hammock lands furnishing large,
fne white oak, water oak, sweetgum, magnola, hickory, red bay, or Amer-
ican mahogany, bess wood, and many other kinds of timber ofvalue. The
low, rich hammock land, which is susceptible of draining, and thus being
reclaimed, contains a vast amount of valuable timber, such as white bay
dJa Most of such lands belong to the State, apd areforsale at one dollar and
twnty-flve cents per ace, which, if reclaimed, would be of inestimable
A ftw days since we obtained a map from the Register of the U. 8. Land
Ofe for Florida, with each and every forty-acre lot of land barely
marked ia this township: (to, 8, South R, No. 15 ERast,) in, wch
thAese wse i tmbeb lots of la d.ftr sale at one dollar an
2fe mrm w a*% id flfty'4:6 vaTOWt U. S. land, d aa tb xy
under the omemtead act. The rnanming our hundred and fortyrigt Iota


belong to actual settlers except the school sections and that part belong-
ing to the Pen ol and eorg Railroad ompay. We ive the above
statement of the condition of one township merely br Ul-urtaon, that
parties interested may me the fScllties ofobtdining ladftnlor and we
think theprice ofimproved lands would range from one dollar and fifty cents
to tn dollar per acre.
Price of l eier s from ten to fifteen dollars per thoand at the mills.
I cannot s at we have any well established pri of labor. The feed-
en,o a t extent, are indolent and not rllable. There is an increas-
ing deposition among the citizens (I mean white people, of core) to do
what work they can for themselves, and employ white labor as far as poe-
I cannot advise you with regard to the cost of clearing as there is but little
being done. More lands are cleared now than can be cultivated with all the
available labor at the command of those who own the lands. Pences are
rotting down; ~me Amees being moved out to repair outside fences, &c.
Lands of the best quality, for the want of capital- to furnsh implements,
stock, provisions, labor, &c., are lying uncultivated, growing briers, weeds,
&c. With regard to the cost of building, I may say such cottages as are
comfortable in this mild, warm climate, cost but a trifle compared to the
cost of building in the Northern States.
The disposition and bearing of the citizens of this community towards
worthy strangers is, and everhas been kind and hospitable.
With nmhest wishes, I am your obedient servant

The county of Madison is situated between the rivers Suwannec and
Aucilla, and about one hundred and twenty miles west of Jacksonville, and
sixty east of Tallahaaee, the capital of the State, and is connected by rail
with both places, and also by rail with Savannah, ,distant two hundred
adlsonville is the county site, situated on the railroad, and about the
centre of the county.
It is bounded on the north by Geora; at, by Suwannee and Hamilton
couties; south, by LaFyette and 'lor counties; and west, by Jefr-
son onty. It population now is abut 7,000 inhabitants; about
eight hundred square miles, or 512,000 acres. Of this about 94000 acres
e privaepoperty, held by titles fom the United States and tate gov-
nments. y of these tracts are choloe locations, selected on account of
advantages of dtuation, richness of soil, graing, and timber.

Corn and cotton have heretofbre been the principal production of this
county. Before the war between the States, about i O bals of cotton
Wree exported, more than one-third of which wa ma ad,or the long
pe variet. During 17 les than M 000 bale wen mat to marke
Sllag hort a bted to the scarcity and t of labor to
ltivate rom mquirng twelve mmont of o at tt and wo,
sad the m reDna isryaranesdTtatr ry pl m orlnr thor k
whe, muter ote, dr-onea u would be awe-buad, order, and
asehl class of cidti and which Ih only crteddlm d betwn capi-


tala d labor, when the strongest eliwp motives, iates*aand christian
rrea ntsi nwe to lre in peace and ha may, that 5a class my
Far ra ~~gdenu g for the earliest. Nothern et thi
equal advantages with any in the State, the lands ben u
to such culture. Sine the war, considerable quattM oft a t
blmsave been shipped commanding n New York, Beston,d Phidel-
phia highly nremuaative prices. Beside the staples of option, su-
W, upland rice, and sweet potatoes, Madison county lad abdsntly
produce Irish potatoes, peas, tunips beets, cabbage, onl egg-plant, to-
matoes, carrot, lettoe, celery, rhubarb, ,califtower rs d watmerl-
ons, cantaloupes, cucumbers, be and squashed; in short, all the vegeta-
bles known in the Northern States, and many that will not grow there, and
two months earlier than the latitude of New York. Many of these veg-
etables flourish during the winter months
Peaches and figs can be cultivated in thegreatestabusanmce; alsopome-
granates, grapes, strawberries, plums, and with cheap and easy transpr-
tation of only six hours to Jacksonille, twelve to Svannah, and lessthan
one hundred hours to New York, Philadelphia, or Baltimore.
worm or rArnx OAeDne.
4 acres english Peas, harvesting 400 bushels, worth at depot................. SM 00
8 napmble barl, ........... ..... 00
8 Nut elos .. ........
8 Tomatos, N~bMubela, .s .
16 acres. 1,106 00
The English.peas, snap beans, and cucumbers are ready for market in
April, and first weeks in May. The melons and tomatoes in first weeks of
May, June, and first weeks in July, without hotbeds. The greatest labor
is tle picking or harvesting, they being mostly cultivated with the plough.
If these sixteen acres are ploughed, harrowed well, and rolled by the nf-
teenth of July, there will spring up at once a strong crop of crow foot"
sad crab grass," which will mow in October at least one sad a half tons
of hay per share, ofa quality superior to any that is ever imported ftom the
north, and will readily command one dollar per hundred pounds, equal to
O480, the whole receipts of sixteen acres being $8,185.
With the above can be raised a crop of ten acres of cane, mang plough
work of 9 acres fbr one horse ; the harvesting and making the cae not
interfering with the Arm garden crop. It takes about the s e labor to
cultivate a sugar cae crop as it does for corn Forr not cihrft4at
Ian more than fire r ten acres of cane, the expense of an Itmn Hp rs
brick-work, hodes or shed, &c., would not coat to exceed *r h-
dred dollar. To manucture ten acres of cane would req*e
of six men forty day ; one par of mules, horses, or oxen a t hes
another pair to hall the eas fhm the feld. The prot f tt
planted in cne, frm actual experiment, omitting capilreqr l-
as, mill, troughs for crystaliing, houses for dining, teams, c., is as bl-
Dr. Ie wPo tO to bLak p land. p.jo pr day.............. 5
VJ ] M.................... t
Is I CA ...14 o .. .. ..o. ....... ........ Wo
e t ..d p.... .. .... ......2 : :
pl = ......
........... .............

O. a g ,i s, assAR.A I Prs.s *A................ ......W
ia~i: iMr'i ............... .........................


It is no uncommon thing to produce by proper fertilling two thousand
pounds of sugar, and one hundred and seventy or two hundred gallons of
yrup, equal to one thousand seven hundred pounds of sum, or a total of
three thousand seven hundred pounds of sugar, of a superior qualt, pe
acr. S r requires natural strong land or well manured ld, me
latter makin a better quality of sugar. By properly maturing the ratoon,
or cane springing up from the root, after the rst crop om plating, it
will yield nearlythe same product for two or three years; aft that tie,
experience teaches it is best to remove the roots to other ground. It will
be observed that after the first planting there is no mor expense fbr seed
Estimates of other products, founded upon actual experience, showing
the profits of Florida fming, could be made, demonstrating that there is
more profit in the rich lands of Florida than any other State of the Repub-
lic ; but this seems unnecessary, for whoever is earnest to better his situa-
tion ought to see for himself, and any time while the crops are growing, or
being gathered, can be convinced by ocular demonstration.

The Pensacola and Georgia Railroad runs through the middle of the
county, affording daily facility and cheap transportation to Jacksonville
on the Atlantic and to St. Mark on the Gulf, or branching at Live Oak,
forty miles east of Madison, to savannah, Georgia. The Buwannee river
affords good steamboat navigation to Cedar Keys on the Gulf, the western
terminus of the Florida railroad, stretching across the Peninsula to Fer-
aandina on the Atlantic.
C. H. 8rITa,
B. F. WAnL.Aw,
H. Z. AnDIS, Vice-Presidents.
L. M. BzOs,
A. C. WarH m, Secretary.

Lake City, the seat of Justice of Columbia county, is sixty miles west of
Jacksonville on the St Johns river, and is connected with the latter place
by railroad, and Jacksonville has regular steamship communication with
Savannah and Charleston, and arrangements made for a steamship line di-
rect to New York.
Lake Qity is also connected by rail, a distance of about eighty-fve miles,
with Ferandina on the Atlantic, with established steamship communica-
time with avannah, Charleston an New York.
ake City s ado connected by railroad with Cedar Keya an the Gulf of
M to' ,Wb later pl e has established steamship ommunication with
oaboe md sew O sus.
Lake Ofty Is si connected with St. Marks on the Qur, by railroad,
which lattws ple also established steamship communication with Mo-
bhfe d New Orlemas
* ake OCity is also connected by railroad with Tallsahae, the capital of
the State.


Lake City is also connected by railroad with Savannah, the commercial
emporium of Georgia, a distance of about two hundred miles.

The lands of Columbia county comprehend pretty much all.the varie-
ties of soil to be found in Florida.
Hammock--rey and black.
Pine lands ofvery superior quality B many of them with the clay crop-
ping out to the surnce.
Oak and Hickory lands of excellent quality. All these lands are highly
productive in their natural state, and yield a munificent reward to the Ju-
dicious husbandman for the labor and expense of manuring and fertiliz-
ihey can be purchased at from one dollar twenty-five cents, the govern-
ment price, to five dollars per acre, according to the improvements. These
low prices bring the lands of this county within the reach of men of lim-
ited means.
The principal crops now raised upon these lands are cotton, both short
and long staple, sugar cane, Indian corn, oats, rye potatoes, Irish and sweet,
pindars, corn-field peas, rice, &c. But they will also produce tobacco of
a fne quality, palma christi to perfection ; all the varieties of the turnip
to perfection; peaches of a superior quality; grapes, eeral varieties, to
perfection; ranges, sweet, sour, and bitter-sweet; fig very fine; apples,
tolerable; pears, tolerable; pomegraantes, fine: plum very superior;
strawberries, excellent, and all the garden stufsl to very great pertecton,
and in time for the early New York market.
The lands of this county are rich in their supplies of timber for lumber
and for naval stores. No country can offer greater inducements to the
lumber men of Maine and the turpentine men of North Carolina.-
Besides this nature has formed this county with peculiar adaptability
for small fums-a system which our present character of labor compels us
to adopt.
In conclusion, it may be stated that Columbia county is well watered,
and for good health is not surpassed by any county in the State.
The setting in of a decided current of immigration upon this county, and
the strangers coming here almost every day to look at our lands, indicate
a Just and growing appreciation of the advantages presented by this
county. J. J. F P z, .Presdent A. A.

Leon count has heretofre been considered the heart of Florida. In
point of population, wealth and intelligence, it hs aiway surpased any
county in the Statse. Georgia fonm its northern boundary, ad the rich
cotity of JeuInon its eastern. The Ocklockoee rver separates it from
the fne lands of Gadsdea on the wea, and Wakufa th s 'its southern
line. With asuch rr d a it is not surprisltg to fnd In this county
the best lads in the State. ed then are no uplmads in the southern
States that will those of Leon. The etreme southern portion of
the county a sndy sol, with heavy pbu growthbat the ras naui
prtInc ad by the great p ion, a n hooolateso,
Wspported and artned by a magat ent lq sbson, rendring the ds


not only very productive, but extremely durable. Lands that were cleared
some fyyears ago are still very productive, notwithstanding the little
care given them hi the way of cultivation, and the entire absence of any
manures or other fertilizers.
The surface is somewhat undulating, particularly so, in locations where
the best lands are found. The county is well watered by large lakes, pre
streams, and splendid spring. The climate is delghtfl, the summer's
heat being tempered by the inds from the Gulf coa During the present
summer the thermometer has not ranged over 90, and very seldom reached
that point.
Our chief products have been short staple cotton and corn. Our lands,
from their fertility and durability, are peculiarly adapted to the growth of
cotton. Five hundred pounds oflint cotton have been often made from an
acre of land without the assistance of manure.
Sugar-cane grows magnificently, and is becoming a crop of importance.
Rice will mature two crops, and yields abundantly. Field-peas, pindars,
millet, sorghum, bene, and palma christi are grown with entire success.
Potatoes, both Irish and sweet, are standard crops, and the yield cannot be
excelled in the South.
Garden vegetables, of all descriptions, grow in luxuriance and abun-
dance. Our cabbages, beets, onions, turnips, &c., c., cannot be surpassed.
Melons grow to perifctlon. Peaches, apples e figs, plums, and pome-
granates are'among the frnits that are successfully raied.
Grapes are receiving considerable attention of late. The Scuppernong
grows to perfection, and yields splendidly. Other varieties are now being
tested with every prospect of success.
The price of land varies from $5 to $15 per acre. Near Tallahassee
they are valued at $80. As an average, $10.
This county is accessible from all points by rail. Tallahassee, the cap-
ital, is situated near the centre of the county, upon high, rolling lands. It
is the centre of an educated and refined society. Churches and school-
houses abound throughout the county, and the people, as a class, are intel-
ligent, hospitable, and generous.
immigrants who come to cast their lot with us are warmly received, re-
gardless of political views. The labor of the county is good.
In point of soil, climate, health, society, and projfl, Leon county presents
the most tempting offer to Immigrants of any in the State, or, indeed, in
the South.

That portion of Florida situated at the extreme west is, on various
accounts, an exceedingly interesting portion of the State.
Somewhat isolated rom the remainder of the State, the attractions
which exist have been inadequately known, and from its remoteness there
very naturally arose a decided willingness in the minds of many of the in-
habitants that the territory should be annexed to Alabama Hence, dur-
ing the annextion excitement of recent years, a disposition to undeirate
the real value of Western Florida has been quite pvlent
But the present prpect, through the oonpletion of the railroad from
Pesaeoa to New Oreans, to Selma, and to Jac nville, which will even-
tumaly make Pearcols, with its almost unequalled harbor, and its Lr-
reai railroad commetios, the central point of the shortest line of com-
munisa m between the mouth of the Mmsaldppi and the Atlantic, and Ie-
twee the Ni 1 upper valley ad the Gul has veT maeral
bauge d the 4epet othng, and now the intrinsic value of Webt Florida
begins to be liriy appreciated.


The soil of this portion of Northern Florida is similar to that of the
Portion, but of decidedly betterquality. Through thebys rivs,
M o in the vioit of Peinuco, it i ampy applied SIth alU -
b r ocean o ou location, and forms of the bt atd most valn-
Stmbered regions in the world.
Bi the expeoteaoi of receiving soon from resident citizensra detailed
t of th aextree western counties, I wll abstain for the pnsaa
descriptiM and simply add an article taken from the Pasw-

At last some of our citizens are awake to the importance of advertising
yt th would wish to bring to the notice of the public. And to do
e y it requires a great deal more tact than people generally are
aware of It must be done n a liberal manner and n a style to attract at-
tention ; if done in this way it trebly repys the outlay. The New City
py have at last made an effort n this diretion, by sung a eat
paphlet, with a map of the surrounding country near Pensacola. The
pamphlet gve a d option ofPenacol and ofthe country. It says:
-Th Cyof Pemaol has natural advantages which destine it to be-
come, by rapid strides, the Ch of he B h. It is situated on the north
coat of the Gulf ofMexico, in latitude 80 deg. 8 m. north, and longitude
87 deg. m. west of Greenwich, only ten miles ftom the open sea. Its
land-loked harbor covers an area of over two hundred square
miles about thirty miles long and from five to eht miles in width,
ha anchoragen a depth of thirty to thirty-fve
fi Teto the harbor Is about half a mile wide, with an aver-
age depth on the bar of twety-for fat. The same depth is readily se-
cured at the wharAge line of the dty. A laden ship of largest tonnage
can approach the city at any time n the year, or leaving its wharve can
be in me open ea in an hour and a hal
"As a place of residence, Penscols is attractive by a healthy and genial
clte. It has an abundance of excellent pue water, a the regularly
ahinrg nd en sea breezes make It a pleasant abode atal seasons. Its
gardens afford lowers and fruit winter and summer. Most tropical plants
gw there, ad require but little protection tom the old in winter, whilst
all kinds of cereals and northern fruit ld early &ad abundant crops.
The sorl of the itaediate vicinity is san and the drainage perfect.
"'The lands of the neighboring country are of the character known as
swamp, hammock, and pne swamp lands are those lying on the Es-
caimbl and Perdio rivers and their tributaries, and are remarkable for
their exhaustless frtility, those brought under cultivation yielding heavy
crops of corn, ot rice, and The t these lands
is covered with oak and cypr ready to h hand ofthe rat
bu interest, whih progress fcommerOe w speedily ter.
"The hamock are internediate between Iheswamp and pine
trats The th th locautlfors d are asly
aaweh of t whilst the
2t0i abrds permanent patatge1 rat require
All these loflidanrea readirecly eale rkultural pIrposes,
ht et wllfbr a century to coma supply the growing export
Of to atheOr of
n k I f to rm "
niflimii~~~~~~gn~~rir ^ft<^ a^gt.k. SKS*^1)


W" to us


Louisville railroad to its Junction with the Mobile and Montgomery rail-
"I ----,sw- *al AUAmkv Imm goa di 4 L
Ml.Wi, IW*st speedily dah POsMeo to thlml e yd o tewim clae
br e al al I ty In tdhe reft akwofW9 Beootalk
h at near to as is NewTrcL.
eg stmalmir cu onsume. of thegreat gain ad produce ow-
in Wg tr w etft the shoresl orf e oG in the: Vat bI anisl t
Omatl:d isadinAmerica. The Pnma larsofterta posm shorteU n
the exchange of commodties between tese markets and tes mean
West y toearad of mies and by may days thi a cttag a double sooo-
my oftime ad or of transportation.
SA e t the map will redily demonstrate the Act, o little known
heretofore, that e distance rom Chlcago to Peasol is only about nte
hundred miles It will also show it, rom Peeola, the distance to
Tampoio is 900 miles; to Havana, 90 mues; to Mamoras, 800 miles ; to
Ves Crou, 9D miles to Ha u, 950 miles Tie last named place is
the eastern port of the irth of Tehanmtepco
No ved has ever been driven ahore in any storm in the harbor of Pen-
saoola, and no ggle has produced a febet. The rival empty nto the
bay re clear ad ree fomn alluvial deposit, and th depth of er on the
nhore round.as well as on the bar, rema unaltered since the ear-
liest Spanih surveys.
With the rilway connection recently establishedand daily expand,
this magniint port becomes the most suitable outlet br the commas
of the entire Mlil Valley. It has this great advantage over New
Orleans, tha t i dose to the glf and not obstructed in it commerce by
a shiftg and treacherous bar, causing costly delays to shipping, and often
upsettiag t rest calculation for commercial profits. The vast exp -
tare in towage up nd down the river, to which the New Orleans ppi
is subject in reascig and leaving that Inland ort, i saved inPensaoola;
and is esiy demonstrable that shippers In ew Orleans can ship thi
cargoes more cheaply om the port of Pensacola than fom their own
levea StOl greater will be this economy when the canals now proposed
and under earey, shall connect the Missl lppi with Mole Bay, Perdido
Bay, and P eol Bay permitting steamers to bring their upl4nd o oe
directly to Puenacol an to lay them de the seagotg vessels.
"The amid water-font of the city to ofm rin railway freight
directlydw on the wharves, and to load esasels mediately from t
ca. The daeted bla on this war-front abrd Adlltlea r coal de-
pots, frm whidh vessels can be mrpplid through shntes, thus sating
greatly I expena ofhandling.
."Hain tin briefly alluded to the physical hatures of the port, we will
now ea e the advantages of its relative position to other ports.
Taking Ch go s the initial or starting pint, eig equally distant
om New Yor and Penacola, railroad trains ti to each of the
citiesod arrive at their destination within the m time. The one ar-
riving at New York would have traveled over 90 dmles, and would then
be asrleiXbrt as when it started from o, whereas the one arriving
at Pensacola would have gone directly S6u 900 miles, thus saving that
number o miles between the' l'p t (Chicago) and y other poiat
sooth of Paola. This distance, to b atr an siM to and fI m
New York, is equal to a gain of six days In &vor of fm iiil
"Take now the return cargoes, one W New York, the other eds Peasa-
cola--sy &oo ., from avana, distant from Pensacola 0 miles. The
one by way oPaoola would have reached its ultimate destination, and
have been dastribOted, be thaoar eami pably have reached New
York. Thee remar ap with equal force to all the cities and tow
.lyloayaeida with i gret natol artery of terdB-
- I a i1, trade, and commerce.


The Penscola and Louisville railroad line and its connectiLs, unlike
those leading to the Atlantic port, hus the parallels of latitude ofthe
ited State, hence it must collect and transmit the productions of these
diArent latitudes, consisting of wheat, flour, corn, pork, bacon, lard, chee,
bahln rope, iron, lime, coal, and a reat variety of industrial puodota,
ms foaure, cloth machi Inery, implet sc coentra thm
aH by one line at one point hipent and givin that the
ame advants to be ff 1 to the shipping terests of the world that
are now afforded at the said Atlantic orts through a hundred dilbreat
channels at a vastly increased expense, both in time and money, and ena-
blig ships desiring fight to any put of the world to make such selec-
tions a their interests or exigencies may require.
The commerce of the world will hereafter be carried on through the
agency of steam, and will expand in the use of that agent Just in tie ratio
in which ftel (coal) can be easily and cheaply obtained for that purpose
The coal beds of Alabama, estimated to cover between four and five thus
and square miles of area, are interested by this line of read, and from their
contiguity to Pensacola, must become the great source of supply Ior the
steam marine and coaling stationsof all point south of Pensacola The
coal now used for this purpose is prncly brought from Great Britain,
a distance of 8,000 miles. From te Alabama col-beds to Havana (wldch
can be thus supplied) the distance is.about 810 miles, and coal fom these
mines can be placed on shipboard at Pensacola at $4.7 per ton-the sea
traportation is but 00 miles. These Acts and figures guarantee that the
day is not r, distant when Pensaeola must become the great coal depot of
the Gulf, making annual shipments of millions of ton of this article,de-
veioping the resource and wealth of the country, and expanding into one
of the first cities in the world.
The rapid development of the iron mines of Alabama, whose natural
outlet to the markets of the world is the port of Pensacola, will not only
contribute a considerable quota to the commerce of this port, but will, in
comection with the Florida forests, furnish superior material for ship-
building, which, at no distant day, must rival in extent the similar indus-
try of northern port; the proximity and cheapness of all material required
igbuilders i this locality pecla advantage
"Te brefremarks are ddresed to the intellgent and enterprisng
young men throughout the United States, as an indication of the commer-
cial inducements of Pensacola. They are not intended to portray an El
Drado, where read-made fortunes hll into the lap of indolence. Success
here, as elsewhere, follows thrift and industry, forethought and persever-
ance; but the many opportunities of Pensacola for young men of energy
and intellect to ilup a splendid feature are unsurpassed by those of any
place in America, and unrivalled by those of any port on the southern
The object of this publication is simply to arouse a spirit of ii and
to iduce the inquirer to aonne and jbr Ai le lthe r dlt
of Peocol aad the scope then is the application of capal, industry,
ad talat."
Somewhat enthusiasts a the above may seem to those not acquainted
with tM ocality, I venture the predition hat in 180, Pensacola will con-
taln 80,000 inhalitantes

WiN ii. al c oll shd
US and 80 ft. If. latitude, and Is a coundtes of


Alachua, Levy, Marion, Putnam, Voluals, Orange, Bumter, Hernando, and
the southern portions of Taylor, ay, and St John's counties.
The surface of this division s les broken, and, as a whole, more level
than Northern Florida. It has more of savanna and marsh, ad is boun-
tiWy supplied with water, having the Steinhatchie, Suwuanes, Santa Fe,
Wit ee, Crystal, borough, Ocklawaha, and St. John's rivers,
and is profusely studded with ponds lakes d smaller streams.
The llmate is very perceptbly milder, not only from its more southern
geographical position, but the narrowness of the peninsula here, giving
an average breadth between the ocean and the Gulf of only about ninety
miles, exposes it to the daily sweep of the winds fom either side, and by
this means the extremes of both heat and cold are very emsntially mod-
Oed and ameliorated..
The exposure to daily winds from each side increases, also, the rain sup-
ply, so that this division has more frequent and abundant rains, and suf-
fer less from drought than the northern division.
The soils of Central Florida are similar to those of Northern Florida,
with a larger proportion of hammock and savanna, and are perhaps of better
quality, as a whole. Levy, Hernando, Alachu, Marion, and Sumter coun-
ties, taken together, form a body of land that, for productive capacity, is
not excelled by any similar body in the United States.
The staple crops are similar to those of Northern Florida, but the pecu-
liar adaptability of this division to the cultivation of the sugar-ce and all
the semi-tropical fruits, has caused cane to advance rapidly o late in the esti-
mation of farmers, and within a few years it will probably become the
leading agricultural production. The sugar-cane in this division matures
and perfects its seed; it rattoons for six or eight yearsin succession without
protection, and often attains a height of from ten to fifteen feet, even when
grown for a number of years on the same land without manure.
Particular attention is asked to the statistical return of crop in Her-
nando county, which is appended, and which, with other facts given, fully
sustains the assertion that Central Florida is the best cane region in the
United States, and probably in the world.
The entire division is the natural habitat of the whole citron tribe; nu-
merous groves of the wild orange have been found and still occasionally
appear, and as would naturally be anticipated, the orange, lemon, and lime
are natural and very prolific and profitable crops. The peach and the fig
thrive everywhere; the guava and the banana do well without protection;
and the pine-apple is cultivated, although it does not flourish as in South
Florida. Irish and sweet potatoes, melos, and all kinds of garden vege-
tables are cultivated with great success, and can be brought to maturity at
almost any season, at the option of the cultivator.
The descriptions hereto added of Hernando, Alachua, and Orange coun-
ties are very generally applicable to the whole region, and render. further
general description unnecessary.

The orange is at home here, and especially so in the southern portion of
thecounty. Judge Edwards' beautify grove is a absolute emonsLrton
ofthis t. We will her, repeat that tie frue of December. 18, did
not afbct his and other groves, while as fr south as Charlotte oarorn
the ul sa.ndadian river on the Atlantic, all trees suMred man or ,
and some were entirely ruined. There may be better reasons, but the one


ally given is that the northern winds are obstructed in their pmse
1so aF1 tbyh the timber, while they have a ete swee f the lf
Stl we think theelevation and le large fesh erlakhave
iiahMance. It s an absolute hct that our t groves are locate on
ost elevated points, and in the viciity of larlakes. But let the
be what t may, it is nevertheless a stbborn ct that te tree do
at fmeese here. Ot e tree will produce 8,0 oranges, which at of a ent.
a pece, are worth 9M0.' Then one hunfred mres to the acre (the usual
ntber) would g the te handsome suam of 68.
'The emon Is of the same family as the orange and t has the same
habits and requirements; is very productive and of untold value. There
are but tw trees in the county, while there ought to be thousands.
The tme d rsn fam the lemon in size, but is more prollc. It is the
best possible substitute for the lemon. It also comes in use earlier.
The citron can be grown here with ease and saty. When sugar be-
comes a staple crop, we think the citron will play a very important part
in both our agriculture and commerce. Its prodcton certainly may be
made very profitable.
The pech sands next to the orange in importance. It grows almost
otaaeously, hence its cultivation is attended with very little expense.
Trees sometimes bear at the sge of fifteen months, a thing unknown to
any other section of the United States. For proof of this extraordinary
growth, we rear all those who doubt to the nursery of Bd. Jones (a cit-
ed of our town) for a living demonstration. Havan, Cuba, is an excel-
let market, nd only thirty hours distant by steam. Peaches in that
market are arth Iblous prices.
The gs propagated with greater ease than even the peach. It grows
efro cutting, a d generally bears in two years, and is a luscious fruit
There no reason why the fig should not be made valuable as a commer-
cial commodity.
Pomegrantes, plums, apricots, and nectarines flourish luxuriantly.
Thy are not abundant, but should be.
apes are not generally cultivated, but enough is known to establish
the fct that this is their natural home. In the haimoks they flourish in
the wildest luxuriance, which s, perhaps, the hihet possible evidence of
their dpblty to our soil and climate. The prospect now is that
their proiuaco will soon constitute an important par of home dlmsmtry.
Wis, equal to Califrnia's best, can be made in unlimited quantities from
the wppe n ith the aid of a little sugar; a vineyard can readily be
abh by drafting it into the wild muscadine. The Concord, Black
Hambrg, Isabela, and other fine varieties have done well wherever
We have verifed the fact that this luscious fruit can be raised here to
psecton, and that under circumstances which seldom occur. Some of the
nZ we ever ate grew in our garden last summer. The feese of 168
and S did not kill them. They are propagated fom suckers and ripen in
about eghteen months. An unlimited number of plants can grow on an
acr. o dollars a bunch is a fair price.

QOfih sam we think gar Is d4stmd to be the most Lmportat.
Tik of the e S e w1 .ll G to Pa-
4:.else or ;*emrm .


ter. The same natural causes that operate to protect the orne, apply
e Mweb to sua e thereby iathe 0oM an ty over
even e f er south. B seiigu ,edo, that actual eh a hly
asrf bass u which to procd, we here submit two or three tert caes.
T. O. Eisq., of this pa, old the products of one acre of cane (pine
land) fbr 800; J. E. Ddd, of Newnanille, raised fty thousand *talks
of cane an one and a half au s, which at the usual selling price (one cent
ak oe) would amount to $100; Mr. Hyre sold products of an acre at
The examples are, peup above anaverg s op,s but they never-
tt ~show the woderM capacity of our soil ad its adaptablity to the
cutare of the crop
otto heetofe has been ki" of crops, and mnder the old system of
crop wa quite remnerative. Of late year the have been certain
causes which have operated strongly afaint its regal power and which,
we think, have worked its partial overthrow. The sequel wll be, we pre-
dict, an introdution of a great variety of labor. Iaed some planters
hate already introduced a new order of things and are giving m r and
falt that consideration and attention their importance dnaG The
folly of relying on a sigle crop for food, raiment, and income is plain, and
eLeciay so when that crop is exposed to inroads fom a thousand ene-
We do not wish to be understood as opposed to the production of cotton,
only its exclusive culture, for we believe it can be made very profitable in
connection with a fill provision crop. We know instances where 000
Iba. of" seed cotton" have been picked from a single acre. Cotton in the
seed last all bold readily at from 8 to 15 cents per lb. in our town market
We have made some considerable inquiry after the prices of Florida Sea
Islands, at home and abroad, and from a fair comparison of prices are
forced to the conclusion that Alachua cotton is the best made outside of
the Islands.
Corn, sweet potatoes, Irish potatoes, and rice constitute the principal
provioon crops. Twenty-five bshelsperacre is an average of corn, sweet
potatoes will yield as high as two hundred and fifty bushels, and Irish po-
tatoes the same per are as in the more northern Btates. Peas and e-
ats anr prolific and very remunerative. They sell readily at =m
D toO per bashei. From twenty to .oe hundred bushels can be
ralsd on a ugl. Mo. Peanuts an a splendid substitute fr corn to
mae park with. l and oat ar a profitable cro. The cator ben
grows wild and luurlntly; tobacco would certainly do well. The squash
ad mkon are in their element on our soil, and to their yield there Is no
Is abundant in every month of the year. Peas, cabba, beets, turnips,
oon lettaue, radishes, c., do admiably n winter aa add much to our
tabes. They can be raised inquantitis mcntly la to ship to northern
ketw wl very little labor or expemme and at a hm m profit. Toma-
toe, bea, cumbers, rhubarb, okra, eg-plat, ppp, ., d., ow to
pl n si mmen r. We are ofathe tomato is destined
to be sai0oa aad scale or northea als a is atoNatme In It
A itL-s I. I sl The 7*lam bl. and
Ib d"r the w e sses. WebM
_Sab.. NO Teal Wbaoew Y W oe
dugleasss, ~ to Uger Tuk, whe they We.


sold at an average rate of $6.00 to the box. Where is there a businew
more profitable f

Gainesville is our largest and most important town, and is the
county site. It is noted for the general good health of its citizens
and its important locality. It has direct communication by steam with
Fernandin, on the Atlantic, and Cedar Key, on the Glf, and thence with
every port in the world. The proposed railroad fom here to Tamps
will doubtless be built within the next three years, which, in effect, wil
make it the depot of all south Florida. The proposed road north to Live
Oak will also, when built, add much to the improvement of the place.
The hotels in course of erection are destined to be well patronized by in-
valids and pleasure seekers when completed. The nvalid great dread
cold, bleak winds, ogs, and dampness, are confined to our coasts and large
rivers, and seldom reach the interior. Gainesville is located on about the
highest point of the Florida railroad between the Atlantic and Gult The
atmosphere isgenerally dry and bracing; the retail trade of the town is
very large. The Methodists, Episcopal, and Presbyterians have their re-
spectlve places of worship. School facilities are ample. Union Academy,
Live Oak Institute, and the Eat Florida Seminary are among the best in-
stitutions of learning the country affords. It has two newspapers. Lum-
ber is plentiful. lMcanoy is a much older place than Gainesville, but is
not so easy of -access. ts destiny, however is an important one. The
surrounding country will make it; t is in the heart of the great oran
and sugar section of the State. The proposed railroad, when built, w
give it an impetus that will both surprise and gladden the natives. New-
nansvlle is the oldest town in the county, and is next to Gainesville in
point of population. It has a good back country, but lacks for want of
communication. Waldo and Archer are two important depot towns on
the Florida railroad.

All that is required now to put this county onits feet, is a true statement
of her finances and resources. This fact in part accounts for the rapid in-
crease of the population of the county, which has more than doubled itself
in the last decade. In 1860 it was 828; in 1866,16,000; and Judgingkom
the number of registered voters it must now be about 90,000.
Game and fish are plentiful; the latter ar easily caught and of excellent
quality. Stock raising can be made exceedingly profitable. Our prairie
rni pasture the whole year, and with the aid of a little grain, stock
will keep fat the severest o winters. A better class of stock should be in-
troduced Skilled labor is in good demand; ordinary day laborers can be
had at rates raging all the way fro $18 to M. The price of land
rang from 75 cta to $50 per acre; $ and $10 are the most common
Naval stores cam be produced in abundance; our pine fbrests are peon-
liarly adapted to the bbeas.
Lads can be cleared here as beaply as In other timbered States. Fr-
Ulias 4asm dntoa or n adm -U d easy of aeaces
ml -M wfl be W -ladti thtoirp p s d, apw w

Tome es pete will be ple eto $how fA
Yours rupectwll, OCua 6 hn


The following reports were read at the late meeting of the State Agri-
cultural and Immigration Association :
1. General Sketch of History. 2. Locality and Climate. 8. Health. 4.
Surface and Soil. 5. Products of Fores Field and Garden. 6. Accessi-
bility to and Distance from Market ; Mail Faclties and Roads 7. Sup-
ply and price of Labor. 8. Price of Land and cost of Clearing. 9. Houses
and cost of Building. 10. Water, the Supply and Quality; References.
1. Geral Ob( rev6on.-In 1886, the whole Peninsula of Florida be-
low the present south line of St. John's county was comprised in three
counties-Monroe on the south, Alachua on the Gulf coast, aid Mosquito
on the Atlantic coast. The wild region between the last named counties
was known as the Indian River Reserve.
The name Mosquito was afterwards changed to Orange, and in Decem-
ber, 1854, all that portion of Orange county lying east of the St John's
river was incorporated under the name of Volusia county, since which
time Enterprise has been the county seat. It is supposed that the early
Spanish navigators landed on our coast An ancient roadway is graded
through the sand hills from the beach to the Indian river, near the south
end of Mrritt's Island. A similar road has lately been discovered near the
upper end of the Halifax. The first settlement in this county was made
Dr. Turnbull, who in the year 1867, established a colony of fifteen hun-
dred person, of Spanish and, perhaps, of Grecian origin, whom he had in-
dcd to emigrate from the Island of Minorca, in the Mediterranean.
Tnmrbull's wie being a native of Smyrna, in Greece, the settlement was
named New Smyrn. The crop cultivated by Turnbull was indigo, of
which he raised thousands of dollars' worth annually. These colonists not
being dealt with according to contract, all abandoned the settlement and
located in and near St Augustine, where their descendants now reside.
The only permanent monument left by Turnbull is a large canal, draining
the swamp that bears his name into the Hillsboro' river at New Smyrna.
The old settlement at Spring Garden was mentioned by Bartram in his
travels before the Revolution.
Before the Seminole war, which broke out in 1886, there were eleven sugar
plantations between New Smyrna and Saint Joseph, the site of Gen. Her-
nande's plantation; several of these establishments cost sixty thousand
dollars each; all were destroyed by the Indians in the first year of the
The rt fight with the Indians in this county was at Dunn Lawton, on
the Hali, In which sixteen Indians and one white man were killed.
Log frts were built at Bulow and at McCrea's, on the Timoka, at which
place the whites were surprised outside their fort and three men killed and
scalpd. At Yohua on the St John's, was one of the outposts and a fort.
rom this ptGen. uti, in command of the left wing of the army, com-
posed osty of regulars and drafted three months' mn from South Caro-
IM mad Georga set out to crms the country to the Wlthlaeooocee to join
Gen. Soott. the brief and fritless campaign of three months Gen.
Scott and his army crossed the river at Volusa on their way to St. Agu-
t. The first settlement at Voluda wasmade in 1816 by Horatio S. Dix-
This vllag, siamted pleasantly on the east bank of the St. Johns on a
hammock frmed of frh water she, although the largest village in the
county, har bt three stores and a dwellings. At nt
is a lehotel mad the county court house, ode stdre ad three dwl
hoses. There is no store on the cot north'o Sabd Point, at whi


place there is one store and several mille residing. Within a mile of
New Smyrna pot-oce are six fkmilie; within two miles of Port Ornge
post-ofce, on the bank of the Halihx, are eight white Amilies and fiur
The rivers on the coast furnish an abundance of salt-water fsh and oys-
ter. Deer are troublesome to frmers by eating the vines Of sweet pots-
This county contains about 1,800 inhabttat ; mostofthem Immingrad
from Georgi and the Carulinas, but every States repraented here. The
northern sttlers are along the coat and on the St. John'i Those who
live near the best lands are of moderate mean and they have not oleaed
the richest lands; consequently visitors paying through the country and
only seeing pine lads under cultivation, might get the impresson that we
have no rst class hammock.
The public schools are not yet in operation.
No clesegm idae within our borders. We have no politicians;
omces go begn; two of my neighbors who have cammisslo as astices
of the Peace e to act; the office of County Tresurer has been va-
cant for two years, seeking a man to accept it. We have no Jail and little
need of one.
When settlers come here and go to work and attend to their busins,
nobody cares whoe they come from ; they are welcomed and enoourud.
.In 186 and '7 an attempt was made to establish a olony offresdm
from South Carolia at Port Orange; some 500 allies were brought
here by Gen. Ely. from the vicinity of Columbia, in three steamboats fom
Charlestaon but the proper preparation ad location of their homate
had notben made and some disliked the pine land of the government
for hometeada, t d most of them went into the interior countM ; not
over a dosen famies are left here, and probably not a hdred In the
county. Som of the mot interesting antquities in the State e the a-
din Mounds In this county. Turtle Mount, or Mount Tucker of s oid
a is aple ofoyster shell vriously estimated fom My to eighty bet
stands on the et bank of Mosquito Lagoon; i it seo -e with
bshes and small trees on the top and an Elde, wrh the uception of wet-
ace, fronting the river, which is perpendicular ad of loose shelk. rth
mounds re common near the river banks along the odet; but the meat
remarkable of these is o prue Ceek, on the south beak, ir les em
the Halia It i about ity I et high ad a hmudred fet tn diaetea
the base, ad a eep o the sdde a the soil would ie, ezaeptang o a
east ide, which moemds gradually, as if fr a roadway. Deep ezcavatle
close by show wherethe earth was takia rm to ald thia tm pe.
In thee and other moands In t ia comaty hae.be bmn d eai c pet-
tery, tone pipes, and other aiplen ta, Qthrmel and h-an b- la
various stages of decay the latter ar ooaps reslyet. These Ares
ots distant aad unknown age lead the I iU.oI bdi bebyod the utb
dawa of wrihtUyiater ey vde the twilight of trdadlo a
ule it to thorm gh of thI bqrgetea p
s -oa iOOa k bonded mO the aowus by Be
s ountyr, seat by -the- ot t gar l o-nt, en
L J t'a ri whik separa te ir m nt. It ex-
iaMr.the Mn w 0- the NrIthtoI S W hktea. f
it about 10 miles. Its width aries from 40 miles at the north
Sadtp lSaPe ,**s It Ms betIween prAl- of

the &mw the obs-waa-- I each m atuth er 1O:


coldest, 47 d., hottest d.; February, 4-8 ; March, 84-88 ; Ap
S4-"; =Me.-o Joue, 0 7-9 Jy -;A 74-8; -m
timber, 'T-f; October, 4--75; Nov1mber, 8U81 = December, 88-*.
The mercury rose to 90 e. and upwards as follows: In April once in
May once, In June twice, July ten times, in August nia e times, in
member twice. The prevailing winds in the winter are from the
north, and northwest; the fosts are usually brought about by the last
named winds; in summer the winds are southerly and suhasterly; the
west winds are the most disagreeable. When cmfonrtahe hotels shall
have been erected along the beach, it will be a common place of resort in
summer for the residents of the interior of the State.
I speak fom experience when I say that this portion of the coast is
cooler and pleasanter in summer than Jacksonville, Savannah, or Charles-
Whatever injury the orange trees suffer from cold is in the spring, after
they have started to grow, and not in the colder weather of mldwinter.
In February, 1870, (lst mopth,) Mr. Bstrom had roasing eas from a
small patch of corn that grew in his field on the east bank of the Halifx.
Bananas and pine apples do well in the southern part of the county,
but cannot be relied on as a sure crop at the northern part
3. HeaB .-The coast, or that portion which lies east of the Halalx,
Hillsboro,' and Indian rivers, all of which run parallel with the beach,
may be set down as perfectly healthy. With reasonable care to prove
comfortable houses and wholesome food, hmaille may coaddently expect
to be exempt fom any disease that can originate here. Patients sffring
from ever and ague, which they have contracted in malarious regions,
soon recover here.
The high banks of fresh water creeks, above the reach of tide water, am
also healthy. So is the middle region of the county, although much of It
is taken up with flat, low pine woods and bay galls, and hollow cypress
ponds are numerous. The whole length of the county along the St. John's,
at the distance of two miles back from the river, is also free fom malarial
diase except t always, low, flat bottom lands on lakes, rivers,or
creets hat ar et to overflow.
The dner i thes instances is not in the wate bt In the aetli
the heat ofthe sun on the rich soil after the water has drained of or evap-
The mlam, which produces vor and ague, is a minate organ struct-
ure, which is nvibe to the ked e or to an orday lmcrscope
and is always produced when the req te degrees of e and molstre
are brought to bear on deceaing vegetah matter, on the same principle
that the plants !maIg mldew ad yest suddenly grow when he proper
coaditons re fitlhed, springing rom invisible medthat are constantly
lolat in t he air.
Salt mama that are regularly covered with the tide do not prodhos
this miamm but where te marshes and cotton Iads on the banks
creeks and riers ar oocovred with fuh or brackish wat
intermittent hfev m Ly be ndtly looked fobr. Aen xM-Me Cpto- n
to t* role orevai I the case of c s ad gon the intirio,
so log as a filled with oo vgetato ach es, bushamp
ads ae several n now=ingh ke ala
SP= Ia ointy, and I have no doubtI tha potds should be
ch rt of vegetation daring the suer every member
cT5 t alM ked wtb ctN u and Iver a wamweek. Th
4MA,mWd tat only exites i t1a ll Iae Ikcw r
abo raty Is e by
4. Ab q res a L-Thi Xoamtys surrondedad a ltweectd by wate-


course as follows: The Atlantic Ocean washes the eastern shore; the
Halax river is formed by the junction of the Haloven sad Bulew oreeks
ad the Timoka river; it is about a mile wide in its wlibe lngth of thirty
nieS, and so straight that midway of its length the hMisin meets the
*ater, as one looks to the northward or southward. It rus nearly par-
allel with the coast, and discharge its waters at Mosqito Inlet. The tide
lows up the entire length of th river, and renders the water brackish in
the tributaries just named for six miles or more above ti mouths. This
river was formerly called Mosquito North Lagoon. The orou rver,
or Mosquito South Lagoon, extends from Mosquito Dlet, southwardly,
parallel with the coast, thirty mile. For twelve miles south of the Inlet
the river is filled with marsh and mangrove islands, and divided into
crooked and narrow channels. Below these islands the river is a broad
expanse of water five miles wide, varying from three to six feet deep. The
channel is rendered tortuous by coral reefs and sand banks. This portion
of the river is now termed the Lagoon. This river is entirely salt, hav-
ing no tributaries from the land of fesh water.
Indian river is separated from the Lagoon of Hillsborough river by a
narrow strip of land two hundred yards wide called the Hulover. A canal
has been cut through connecting the two rivers, and allowing boats draw-
in two feet of water to pass through.
The Indian river is, more strictly, a bay. Its waters are salt, and it has
no current independent of the winds. It varies in width from two to eight
miles. The portion east of Merritt's island, thirty miles in length, is called
Banana river. Indian river runs parallel with the coast about 100 miles,
to the inlet of the same name. Elbow creek, which rises in the swamps.
near Lake. Washington, on the St. John's, empties into the Indian' river
nearly opposite the south end of Merrit's island, and is the only stream of
fresh water of any note that empties into this river within the limits of this
county. In this region, for several miles, the Indian and t. John's rivers
are only six miles apart
On the whole length of the [county, on its western border, is the St
John's. Of the streams which drain the swamps of the interior, are Tim-
oks river and Spruce Creek, with its tributaries, vis.: Turbull Creek,
Hawk Cypries, Sweet Water, and Little Spruce creeks, emptying into the
HTalx, the first at its head, the latter only a mile north of the inlet, and
Deep Creek and How Creek running weterly, the first into Lake Barney,
and last into Dunn's Lake. Spring ard Creek s a remarkable stream,
rising abruptly in a spring, and 1rnishlg a water-power of sufficient
fhre to drive machinery for iing otton and other purpose.
The surlce of the county d its soil can be described most conve-
niently in ive divisions, running lengthwise of te county.
1. ~oe on the eas we e a narrw srip of land between
the beach ad the n hI x, Hmsborough, and Indian rivers extending the
=who length of the county, only interrupted by the M uito Inlet The
w of s peilul aries from a half mile to five m which is the
dbta* e cares at the Cape Canaveral lighthouse. This penhnlar com-
pq mostly of sand hlus; the more recent ones ordering o th sea are
o Mr wta ; those further west, with saw lettoaak, and other
Sin heht as the river r u ear the river,
in a are rt, e spots that hw ar cultivation,and cov-
e; t tan p oaks, ad other trees. Dummitt and Burn-
ha as.e ge grove, the largest in the State, on the west ide of this
p itI Lrthi rglan Is ever made s t, it will be far redddosa of
those wiarh ivate the swamp lads on te mai. There are no sprise
or stitailor h water, but water emaa be had from wells dfg ahw
* rods ftethter a=tbe besiL
The Weat baks of the three rives above named constitute a peolliar .

feature in the face of the county. On the whole length of the Haliax and
HIllborough, and in many places on the Indian riveI, is a range of oyter-
shell banks, fom three to ten feet high; these constitute the" Ml-ham-
mocks;" the shells, when mixed with the soil, are a constant source of fr-
tility by their gradual decay. The scattring of these shell-heap over
considerable tracts, probably by large bodies of Indi who came fom
the interior to feast upon fish and shell-fish during the winter, has created
much of our second-rate hammock; this claw of soil terminates abruptly
at the last shell-heap, and the pine barren commences. Some portions of
the banks of Indian river are fifteen feet high; some places of sand, and at
others, f coquina or shell rock. There is but comparatively little of this
kind of shell-hammock on this river. In the vicinity of Mosquito Inlet
are considerable tracts of land, where the subsoil is composed of disinte-
grated and decayed shell rock, which, a few feet lower, is sound enough
for building purposes. This is the character of the river front from New
myrna northwest some seven or eight miles. This soil produces well
every variety of crop that has been planted on it. There is no part of the
St. John's where all the advantages of a fine river prospect, good soil, and
healthy location are combined as on the west banks of these rivers, which
are generally within two or three miles of the sea, and constantly within
the influence of its invigorating breezes, and within hearing of the surf.
8. The third division from the east is the swamp region. This extends
from Bulow's, on the north, across the Timoka, and, southwardly, the whole
length of Halifax and Hillsborough, and for fifteen miles on the Indian
river, a distance of more than eighty miles in length, and varying from a
half a mile to three miles wide. The celebrated Turnbull swamp, south-
west of New Smyrna, is. a part of this tract, as is also the Dunn Lawton
estate. The soll is a black alluvial, mostly unmixed with sand, and resting
on a clay or shell marl foundation. This is probably as good land as any
in the State. It needs draining to render it arable, and there is sufficient
fll to allow of this, as is amply proved by some of Turnbull's old canals,
which still discharge the waters of the swamps into the river. It was on
these swamp lands that the sugar plantations before mentioned were situated,
that were broken up by the Indians. The ruins of steam-mills are still
there, and the fields marked by the cane rows all covered with a clark for-
est of nearly forty years' growth. The greatest obstacle in the way of the
settlement of this county is the uncertainty of title and ownership of these
lands. They are covered with old Spanish grants, the owner of which
are in the West Indies, or in the Northern states; anywhee but here.
Many of these have not paid taxes for twenty years. They will soon be
taxed, and the owners or agents thus ascertained, or the lands, sold fbr
taxes. In the region of this county already described, along the eastern
shore are 100,000 acres of these Spanish grants.
4. The fourth region may be called the interior of the county, situated
about halfway between the ocean and the St. John's. It is otly a table
land of flat woods, from which the rains drain off slowly, intespe-ed
with bay galls, savannas, cypress ponds, and spruce pine, and dwarf oak
scrub hammocks, which are worthless for cultivation. This region is bet-
ter adapted to grazing than to any other branch of agriculture. It is thinly
settledby stock-raisers, and cannot sustain a dense population until the
prairies and savannas are drained and turned to fruitf fields.
8. The western portion of the county, borderig on the St. John's, is un-
dalsting; many of the elevations are called hills, among which are nu-
mmros small lakes or ponds. The soil is variable, and compries every
pade of soil in the State, bu is moaly pine land. Some of the best hrmes
Sthe county ae cultivating pine lad With cow-pnning, it produce
good corn and cane. Mr. George Sauls, who lives in this belt of undulat-
Ing pine woods, six miles from the St. John's, raised, in 1868, five


kIndred dollars worth of sugar, syrup, and molasses om one and three-
qarters of a acre of pine land, with no other frtilizer but the cow-pen-
fw. The pries he obtained were higher than will ever be likely to p-
vagain. seold hisgr at fteenentspe pound,syrupatseventy-Ave
ents, and molasses at cet per gallo.
The cotton lands on the t. John's ae of the moat fertile character, and
when diked and cultivated will exceed in productiveness the u lands
of Louisiaa; for we have a great advantage in climate here, bei more
than a degree further south than New Orleans. It was this kind ofoil,
cotton land diked, o the Timokaon which Captain Dummitt raised at the
rate of four thousand pounds of sugar to the acre. Merritt's Wslad is
mainly fat pine land, but its climate is milder than that on the mainland
in the sme latitude. It is a good location for the cultivation of the whole
omnge tribe.
--P u oaf tha Forres, Pd, and Garen .--Our forests produce abun-
dance of pine and live oak; conderble quantities of cedar, by, hickory,
cypress, and ash. Various other varieties of oak are also found here, mag-
nolia, sweet and black gum, assafas, black chry, soft maple, smac,
willow, bayberry, prickly ash, and on the salt marsh filand the mangrove.
In the eastern d southern portions the coontle root is abundant, fom
which starch Is made. The mnber interest is neglected here, there being
no saw-mill in operation in the county. A large steam saw-mill at Port
Orange, now idle, is soon to be started. The wild fits are the sour and
bitter-sweet orange, blackberry, huckleberry, and haw, none of which are
The eld crops are sugar-cane, both short and long staple cott, ric,
corn, potatoes, pants, co pes pumpkins, melons, and the mi-tropica
fruits-oranges, lImesons, and gs.
Gardensalmost wholly nected. Although nearly every variety of
vegetable matter can be raised ,as ha been proved by experiment,
fw kinds are cultivated. The variety in a southern country garden is as
follows: oolds cabbages, turnips, locks, or gari, Irlh potatoes, pp
perand sdage. This is the natural climate forr lim-boen g-pmlantoka,
d may kinds of vegetables that a rownih d lty at the north.
A ftw settlers raise beets, carrots, scaulflower cucumbers, and
radishes. It is customary to procure the fed m the North every year,
as it is supposed that that grown here i not as reliable.
Amng the other branches of agriculture, should be mentioned the stock-
roing interest. This one four most important interests. Catleand
hogs do well in every part of the county. As is usual i this tate, the
ony attention paid to stock s the marking i the spring o the yog.
While the cattle ae penned a fw weeks in the spring, the ownersobta
a supply o milk, whih is rather an incident of the marking than ob-
ject to be attaed. Beef cattle sell about fifteen dollars a d; whole
dro including "little and big," sell at ix dollars per head. Beef ells
s and even onts per pound. Hons and mules ae ge ally scce:
not enough add to pp the demand. Veryfew shpae pt; the
aliseM prehr dogs, of wih the is aboandnt,and noe ae so poor
that they mant maintain sval ugly, lean cumrs. owls of every kind
do well. Bes do well and m w ed awasm are mound in the wood.
emue. f L9W to Nit,. JH s, and Bd.-a-The whole of our
weatra border, on the St. John's a the aks within twentyr-ur bher'
st rak oJ of JaokeSvile. Steame ply almost daily betem that
oprt a, s t t opg at in irtO laad th. e east our
4 with thw d thrB th New or Moqgto
letb of Ysa il vesses, wich ee to k e The
e =m1b d l Boad, poeted aod-k by Gov. Gamt, the Amt 3a-
glsh Governor of Flor, extends from 1w Smyrns, et St. Augustine

03t EZTILA'5 Gum&i

and Jacksonville, to the St. Mary's river, It is not much travelled now,
and portions of it are overgrown with bushes, and the bridges are out of
repair; still it is pasble for teams From Enterprise, on thet. John's, a
mail road extends to Port Orange and Dtmn Lwton on theal x, thirty-
three miles; also, to New Smyras on ,te Hilsboro', thirty miles, ad to
Sand Point on the Indian river, Mfty miles. There repo ce at Vo-
lusia, Enterprise, Port Orange, New Smyrna, and aPoint. A anal,
through Haw Creek into the Timoka, connecting Dunn's Lake with the
HaRlio, would give our eastern border a direct nland rote to Jackson-
ville, and is among the most important internal improvements that can be
7. Suppy ad Prie of Labor.-The supply is limited sad prices high.
ood hands get from twenty to twenty-ve dollars par month and board
on the coast, and five dollars less on the St John's. Persons coming here
to open new lands should bring their help along with them. The need-
men, of whom there are about a dozen hmlliea at or near Port Orange, all
have entered homesteads, and only go oat to work occasionally. We very
much need an immigration of working men.
8. Prie of Land and Cbt of COlafrin.-There is very little cleared land
for sale at any price. The Spanish grants, unimproved, are geeally held
at from four to six dolLars per acre. The cot of cleanheavy swam
hammock at prices at Port Orange, is not less tha twenty per acre, and
in some instances may reach thirty. By clearing I mean cttng down all
the trees and burning off all the og. The Southern method of cleaing,
by girdling the large trees, i of course much cheaper. Some of our pine
land is so thickly covered with saw palmetto as to cost fifteen dollars per
acre to grb out the roots ready for plowing.
9. Budin and tMar Ckt-With the exception of a few houses our
dwellings are rude adhrs and poor apologies for houses. The cost of sw-
ed lumber, delivered at Port Orange pr New Smyrna, is eight dollars per
thousand for fight, added to the cost in Jacksonville. Most of the hore
are built of logs, and in the interior puncheons are hewed fom split logs
for floors, and glass windows are not in general use. A log-house with
two rooms, fifteen feet square, can be built for a hundred dollars, exclu-
sive of chimney. New settlers along the rivers' frequently thatch their
roof with palm leaves. A well-to-do- rmer has the following buildings:
a house, a kitchen, a smokehouse, which also answers for a storehouse, a
stable, and a corn crib; if a cane planter, a sgar-house. Arts, wagons,
plows, and all other Arming tools are commonly exposed to the weather,
and ruined in a year or two.
10. Watr, i6 Bupply and Qsa.t.-Under the head of Surface and Soil
I have already spoken of the resh water streams and ponds, which supply
the stock in the woods. Wells ftamls pure, sweet and soft water, all over
the country, with the exception ofthe-banks of the ialt water rivers on the
coast. where the water, though sweet and suitable for cooking and drinking,
is usually too hard for washing. Rain-water, caught in cisterns, is used for
this purpose.
seftr 'u: For general information in reference to the county address
H. Lngren, M. D., Volusk; B. Backner, Enterprise J. H. Fowler
and J. A. Beatrom, Port Orange. In relation to orange aad cane culture
and productiveness, Capts. MIes O. Buram andoglss Dammitt, New
Smyrna. In relation to stock rasdng, Bryant OstenEterprise. Bela-
tive to game and fish, boats and ides for sportman, hdon, New
Smyaas. J. M. HAws, D.
Por Osnea, Volmia Co., April, 1870.


Io. J damas, Com. Immigrartn, JaeksonmrO, PFa:
Dc Au 8ut : I propose to give you a topogrphica sketch of Hernando
county, hoping that some of the many gran to this State may desire
a home in the southern portion of it, and that this may be of some Interest
to them.
Hernando county s situated on the Gulf coast, and lies between latitude
S8 deg. 15 m. and S9 deg. 80 m. It is bounded on the north by the
Withlacoochee river, on the east by the same river, and what is called the
prong of it, on the south by the Hillsborough river, for some eight miles,
and from thence to the Gulf coast, by Hillsborough county, and on the
west by the Gulf of Mexico, for seventy miles-the entire length of the
county. It is adjacent to Levy and Marion counties on the north, on the
east to Marion and Sumpter counties, and on the .south to Polk and Hills-
borough counties. The average width of the county from east to west is
about thirty miles, and from this you will discover that its general shape
is that of a parallelogram, lying north and south.
There is no part of the State, of the same area, which has greater or
equal water facilities, nor can offer as great variety of inducements to en-
ergy and capital. To particularize, I will commence by speaking of the
many water advantages.
On the northern and eastern border we find the Withlacoochee river,
already navigable one-sixth of the circumference of the county, and can
be made so for hlly one-fourth. From the interior of the county, we have
the sources of Crystal river, Homosaesa river, Cheisowilaky river, Wick-
awachee river, and Anclote river. These rivers are generally about ten
miles apart, and from six to one hundred miles long, emptying into the Gulf,
at from ten to twenty miles apart. They are all navigable to some extent,
and some of them to their sources. Aside from these rivers there is a lake
connected with the Withlacoochee river (Lake Charliepopk) which is one
of the most extensive bodies of water in the State. It is about fifteen miles
long and froh one to sx miles wide, and iles diagonally in a southwesterly
direction across a portion of the county.
This lake seems to be a series of lakes running into each other, and there-
by creating long peninsulas of the most fertile land between them, and
in many instances islands which haveproven to be the most productive.
On the western border of this lake the land is elevated, and so on the
islands, and some of the most beautiful locations are to be had within on
the main or on some land. On theestern border the country is flat and
interspersed with cypress swamps for some eight miles, where you will
strike the river. In tis "cave," as the people call it, are to be found wild
cattle and hogs in abundance, with every imaginable species of indigenous
vmenin and some larger animals; but this is adie
This lake, with butlittle expense, could be ma navigable into the With-
lacoochee river at all seeons, as it is now during the wet or rainy season.
The connection of the lake, however, is above the head of navigation on
theiiver, but only about six miles, and no falls to encounter to reach the
navipble point on the river for steamboats. The Withlacoochee river is
ananow but deep stream, and ries in the northern part otPolk county,
rum nbrth till t reaches the northern boundary of this county, when its
corns taias westerly until within a distance of about twenty-five miles
by ~lad fP itsn mouth, when it turns dte west and empties into the,Gulf
about twelve miles fiom Cedar Xys, the western terminus of the Florida
Crsl rive rises about twelve miles fata its mouth and eight miles
south of the Wthlaoochee river; runs wert and enptles into the Gulf ten


miles from the mouth of the Withlacoochee river. It is navigable to its
source with small schooners, and for three miles from its mouth with sea-
going vessels. Its source is produced by numerous springs, all within an
area of half a mile, producing a beautiful broad and rystal stream, from
whence it takes its name. It abounds in fish and oysters of superior qual-
ity. A flourishing village is situated at its head, and takes the name of
the river. Bix miles fMther south, we find the Homosa river, which
is.also produced by numerous springs, and is ten or twelve miles long;
runs west and empties into the Gulf eight miles from the mouth of the
Crystal river. 'It is navigable for small steamers and schooners, and In-
side its mouth many large vessels have loaded with cedar timber for
New York. At the head of navigation on this river was formerly the
home of Hon. D. L. Yulee, where he cultivated and manufactured sugar-
cane on a large scale. This plantation is now in the hands of Northern
men, who are working it to some extent About four miles south we
strike the Cheilowilsky river, which gushes out from numerous rocks
and forms a bold and deep, but short river, not more than eight miles
long. At the head of this river was twentyt years go) the prin-
cipal trading point for this county. It was the principal shipping port be-
fore the war for cedar timber taken from its adjacent swamps, where many
cargoes of this valuable timber yet remain. The river is navigable for
good sized river steamboats and coasting sail vessels. It abounds in all
the fish common to the Gulf coast
Twelve miles south lies the Wiccawachee river, a narrow and serpen-
tine stream, which is formed by a spring, the basin of which is about an
acre large, but from fifteen to thirty feet deep. This stream is hardly en-
titled to the name river" until within about five miles of the Gulf, when
it widens and becomesnavigable for small steamers, and at its month there
is enough water for sea-going steamers. The village of Bay Port is situate
at the mouth of this river, and was a place of considerable commercial
importance during the war, as a point for blockade running," and many
valuable cargoes were landed, both from sail and steamboats, at this place.
A considerable mercantile and forwarding business is still carried on here.
From the head of this river large quantities of cedar timber have been
rafted to its mouth for shipment to New York.
About thirty miles south of this river we find the Anclote river, which
takes its origin from numerous lakes in the southeastern portion of the
county, in the flat woods, and not a great distance from the source of the
Withlacoochee river. Its course is southwest, and empties into the Gulf
about four miles north of the county line. It is a wide and deep stream
for about ten miles from its mouth, but from thence to its source is but a
shallow stream, the most of the time fordable. Some ten miles south of
its mouth commences the settlement of Clear Water Harbor, of which you
no doubt have heard.
It is somewhat remarkable that all the rivers and creeks between this
river on.the south, and Withlacoochee on the north, should take their
origin, some from numerous springs, and others gushing boldly from a
rocky labyrinthine source, and all from the side or near a rge of barren,
high, sad hills running north and south, and from six to twelve miles
fom the coast
The first impression in reference to the quality of the land is, that where
there is sech an extensive water border, there must be a uhr qantity of
that which is good; and such is the cae. Not onl on the border of this
extenio Lke but in the valley of a those short rrs, there s land that
will compare m vorbly with the Loulesans or Ywo lands bt t every loe-
tion sinb into comparative insignicamnce to the lk bodies of land near
the centre of the o ty. The principal body of Ql land es the An-
Mattaloggs Hammock, five-sixths of which is of the first quality of haM


mock land. It lies north and south, and is about thirteen miles long, and
fom three to five miles wide. It lies between two range of high hills,
which run parallel with the hammock on either side I and although the land
s elevated, and in some pa rolling, you will very pereptib discover
that it is an extensive valey when viewed ftrol one o these bil the alti-
tode of which is from two to three hundred fet. In some instances, arms
of the hammock project out between these high hills, but in no instance
to obstruct the view, which, it must be admitted, is beauti. As a general
thing, the land on the ranges of hills is oor, but afbrds the most beau-
til and healthy location s residences, affdkdn plenty of cool spring
water," frm which one has taken the name of "Spring Hill another
that of "Mount Airy" from it geat elevation ad the deligti l breezes
that are almost continually waiting the invigorating salt ait the Gulf,
which is only about fourteen miles distant. The survey from this hill is
greatly beautiied by a large and placid lake at its base
The growth upon this hammock land consists of whit-ok, live-oak,
water-oak, ash, hckory, elm, sweet gum, cedar, mulberry, orange, and all
other trees indigenous to this climae, ad which do not select their habi-
tation in the pine woods. Some of these tree grow to an enormous size,
such as the white-oak, live-oak, and hickory. It is not uncommon to see
them fom four to six feet in diameter. uantites of undergrowth are
under these e trees, and it is in some places almost mpenetrable, which
renders the cleaing of the land .difficult and expensive; but the greater
part of it can be cleared br five dollar per cre, which s a trfling ex-
peas, consderng the productivenes and duraity of it when once under
cultivation. It field per acre of corn is from twety to thirty bushels,
and when well cultivated and cared for will produce forty bushels, as is
frequently the case. Tobacco does welL Oats yield about the same as
corn when planted in November or December, but later they do not do so
well Cotton, as might be expected, does as well here as on the sea-islands.
The land, climate, and atmosphere all sult the growth of seailand cotton.
As a proof of thl, the yield of this staple for the pat three years, when al-
molted by the caterpillar, has been fom five to even hundred pounds
of eed cotton per ar, and in some instances a many as eight hundred
pounds have been i But it seems that Nature has more particularly
adaptd this land to the growth of sugar-oe. It yields fom two to three
thousand pounds of msgar per acre, according to the age of the rattoon,
and this runs fom five to seven year. Those who are acquainted with
the cultivation of sugar-c know that it is one of the most exhausting
growths to the sol tat is planted; nevertheless the natural land of por-
ttoa of this county continues to reproduce good stands of cne from the
rattoon from e to six years without any deterioration in the yield of
suar; and that, too, without any attempt at fitiling or enrichng the
ground by the husbandma. This is certainly an eid e of the desira-
Lty of this land, nor is the hare of your seventh yea's rattoon regarded
aa hilure of the soi, but qf the came roots, and a that the planter is re-
qaied to do is to plough up ad plant in the middle of the row, when he
Sbeprepared br aootherflve a' mncems in thzromwth ofsgar-cane.
A.br- evidence of the durability of this nd, will relate a little
converation that occurred not long ago. The writer suggested to oas of
thalM and most mseemnsl phtes in ti ss county to sumbsribe for an
agim arialjonal a told hm itn a joke, that would teach him how
to sg4 ltersnof various anda &., &s
Ha saM be, hLad no mtsar are; tht ead to d thwem ia Alabnma
udaa Yshaebt he wealwse ytdand: any t6ore that rq
ohat PIh Itt Wiathg hb ad
b-tH ed *ia tMa aa m Is Vi e Wrt rSVno apprciMedl ia
la th eld, r be es or thM gMeaItMs li tihee;


but should it fail in the third, all they would have to do would be to take
a little more fresh land and work on.
It,is really so that the little fields which the pioneers of the country
cleared up some thirty years ago have been under cultivation all the time,
and unless on some little knoll or other place subject to wash, are nearly
or quite as productive as when first planted. There are many small de-
tached hammocks around this large body of land, all of which partake of
its fertility and durability.
At the south end of this large hammock is situate the village of Brooks-
ville, the county site. Two miles south of this village, we come to another
large body of hammock land, the Charcoochartie hammock. It is seven
miles long, but somewhat broken with scrubs and swamps, yet thousands
of acres of good, high timber land lie in it covered with growth similar to
the Annatalogga South of this body of land, keeping rather in the centre
of the county ies a remarkable country. It is hih, rolling, and reminds
one of the red hills in Georgia. The land is what he residents term mu-
latto land," which name is indicative of its color. It is quite productive,
and yields the best quality of sea-island cotton raised in the county. The
land reaches to the fiat woods in the southern portion of the county, and
ceases very abruptly, affording in some places a beautiful view of the ex-
tensive plain before you Along the border of the flat woods are many
desirable locations for those who desire to engage in raising stock, as the
pasturage is excellent in this section. Those fat woods extend twelve
miles south to the. county line, and give origin to some of the tributaries
of the Hillsborough river as well as the Anclote river.
Notwithtanding there are such quantities of good and lasting lands in
this county, accessble to almost any one, if an individual should select a
location that is unproductive-for its beauty or good water, or some fanci-
ful object-all he will have to do is to apply to any of the numerous marl-
beds, rich in lime, to be found all over the county, to fertilize his land; and
if he should be in reach of Charliepopka Lake, he will find humus enough
to enrich the poorest county in the State of New Jersey, to mix with his
Had I not already said more than I designed I would give you some
statistics of the products at large, and of some particular parts of the
The country about Crystal river, and the rolling country near the flat-
woods deserve special notice; but suffice it to say that if a man desirous of
following an agricultural pursuit will come and see the country for him-
self, I wi venture to ascrt he will not be displeased.
The inhabitants of the county number about twenty-five hundred. The
white portion consists prinpally of the second purchasers, as but few of
the first settlers of fonteramen have remained.
Notwithstanding Florida is not known in other sections of the coun-
try, but is looked upon as a little piece of valueless land," the white inhabi-
tants, even of this county, represent almost every Southern State and
some of the New Enland States.
They are a peaceable and quiet people, frugal and hospitable, courteous
to strangers, and glad to see them come when they bring the insignia of
honesty and enterprise. There are but few who take any interest in poli-
tics, and the most of these are among the colored people. About a dozen
churches are distributed throughout the county-Baptist and Methodist-
no publi but several private schools. A north, southem, and western
man twie a week; one telegraph office in the county communnicatingwift
dmu d rb ~ dties. The surveyed route fr the Waldo and Tnm-
pa lroadu and near the center of the cont.
In scld taa dy to the mmigrant, that.f he deres to plantan
orchard of tropi tres, let hib come to some of the short riven In



this county, clear off one acre of ground, plant out one hundred orange
trees twenty-one feet apart, and in three years he has a capital of ten thous-
and dollars bringing an interest of ten per cent. The land will cost him
but little, ranging from 0 to six dollars per acre. Each tree will pro-
duce one thousand oranges every year, at the least calculation, and they
will bring on the trees one cent a piece and sometimes two, so he has an
income of ten dollars per animum from each tree, equivalent to one hun-
dred dollars at ten per cent. interest. The propitiousness of the soil and
climate, with facts, Aflly ji.stify these estimates. If he desires to plant
cane, corn, cotton, tobacco, oats, potatoes, garden vegetables, pine-apples,
bananas, or all of the tropical fruits, he witlbe doubly recompensed for his
labor, and deJoy as good health (as might be expected from the proximity
to the coast) as if in any other portion of the State.
Very respectfully your oh't. serv't.
S. tWri'n,.:R.
Brooksville, Fla., Dec. 9, 189.

BaBOOuByLE, Fla., Jan. 18, 1,70.
Hon. J. A. Adaum, COn. Immigration:
DB m SB :-Yours of the first inst., asking for some statistical informa-
tion as to what had been done in the wayof crops in this, Hernando county,
came to hand a week or ten days ago.
In reply, I regret to say that I have not been able to make search for
such information as I would like to have given: still, such as I have col-
lected comes fom men of intelligence and unimpeachable veracity. In
gathering these facts I selected those who represent different parts of the
county in order that a fair exponent of what had been done in the county
at large, and not favorite localities, might be given. The figures below
are intended to show what has been produced per acre :
A. T. FPrerson.. ...b. bu. 40 ha. 400 IbM. 700 lbe.... bn. 5 lb ...
e Clardy ......b. 68 bu. 50 bu. ... Ibs. 1000 lb. 8400 bn. 48 lb. ..
J. H. Gould...:....ba. b. .. b. 400 lbM. 1100 s. 8M00 b... lb ...
Wi. Nicks.........ba.W b. .. be. 400 lbs. 1000 lbs.00 bn... lb ...
.Jame Parkton....ba... bn.. be... lb..... Ibs. .... bn. b.. 1800
Dr. W. T. Mayo ...ba.O bu. 40 be. ... bs..... lb. ... bu. 5 Ibs.....
Mr. Frierson made S00 gallons of wine fom eleven Scuppernong grape
vine-over one-sixth of an acre.
Mr. Gould says the above is his average crop.
Mr. Nicks gives the above as his average crop.
Dr. Mayo makes 4,900 pine-apples per acre.
It is not to be understood that these crops are raised every year, nor by
every farmer, but they have been raised by the gentlemen time and again,
and with labor that could be controlled could be raised successively. Mr.
Frierson says he can do so now if the seasons are not unfmewrie.
Suffice it that these "gures have been attained, and, too, by the old hah-
ioled way of farming, there not being a single Improved bring imple-
ment in the county, none being used save the turn-plough, scooter,
sweep, and hoe.
Mr. amdy says that he fully believes, with the improved method of
fIunag now it use in the Midle and Northern states, with the energy of
tbh e e of tbos sections, we could cope with say of the States in ras-
lng eCeeams. H has seen an experiuemt made ia wheat growing in thi
co sety a mde, and uM-Bat t tw as ean e asy eve saw in
Ta ase fd, ,orQ ; that i almost eve tamee there
were r gr o em in mh, wUi i th oth er StAi, two
wshes I tmhwtlu udt rl txt.e" Wt ae i be lhta
athelwe t btlitte1a= Mr. Prmon mak ofe h% a2


fifty to two hundred gallons every year from only eleven Scuppernong
grape vines, and others in the county do equally well from mall arbors.
Hoping this brief but reliable report of what has been done in the way
of crops In this county will be of some service,
1 subscribe myself your most obd't. serv't, S. STBMIraa.

APOPiA, Orange Co., Fla., July 90, 189.
Mr. J. Adamn, Comnriioner, &c., Jaek&on.ie, Florida:
DEAR SIR: In accordance with your published request, I shall proceed
to give you a brief description of this part of Orange county.
Our principal lake is Apopka, and the parallel of latitude, 9S deg. 85 min.,
runs through the centre. This name means in the Seminole language Po-
tato eating town." This lake covers an area of about three townships its
greatest length being northeast and southwest. It is surrounded by fine
bodies of hammock, a portion of which has been cleared. These lands
are well suited for the growth of corn and cotton; the latter, however, on
fresh land goes too much to weed, but if properly cultivated, does well on
old land. Sugar-cane does well, the rattoons being used for six years before
re-planting, and in the spring tassels. It is not uncommon for one cane to
yield one gallon of juice. The average produce is from 850 to 400 gallons
of syrup, or 2,000 pounds of sugar, to the acre. We raise as fine cabbage
as can be found anywhere, and sweet potatoes are grown all the year. They
are planted in the fall for spring and summer use, and are termed "stand-
overs." We have tomatoes and green peas during the winter, and many
other vegetables. The soil is a sandy loam, with a clay subsoil, which, in
some places, comes to the surface. Persons cultivating these lands should
have their residence at least a mile from the lake, with timber intervening,
to be healthy. Colonel H. L. Hart is now engaged in opening the Ockla-
waha river into the lake, and expects to have his steamers in there this
fall, thus connecting the lake with Palatka, on the St. John's river. The
orange and all the semi-tropical fruits, as far as tried, do well. Game is abun-
dant, and the lake affords fine fishing. There are some drawbacks; the
alligators destroy the hogs, and at times the mosquitoes are bad. The cost
of clearing hammock land is from ten to fifteen dollars per acre. The
produce of long staple cotton is from five to eight hundredpounds of seed
cotton to the acre; of corn, I do not know the average suffldently well to
state it. Labor is scarce, and is generally one dollar per day; by the month,
with board, fifteen dollars.
The pine lands are mostly high and rolling, interspersed withclear water
lakes of different sizes, abounding with fish. There are some streams of
running water, and sulphur sprigs abound. On the margin of some of
these lakes are small bodies of hammock A large portion of these lands is
still msbject to the Homestead Act, and in some cases claims em be par-
chased where small improvements have been made. There are still some
good State lands which have not yet been taken up. The prie of lad
varies so much and is advancing so tst in value, that it is scarcely po-
sible to make air estimate. From eight to twenty dollar per acre, I should
thinkwas now about correct. Lst fi a immal pl was oared to me
for 1s,, anotho r lbr $ 00. In two monthfter, s soldr 4S,
and the other for 800. The l of these ladIs is sady some hve
clay subsoil, and others a sandstone of vecant rtinmtlon. As a
rule they are healthy. Good water is obtaised fre well, at a pa
from eighteen to forty-seven fet. There are some good qprt The pis


lands produce good long staple cotton, the best bringing one bag to two
crest, but the average is one bag to three acres. Corn is not, as a general
thing, a certain crop on these lads, as it sometimes white-buds;" where
a person has cattle, penning obviates this, and the land produces surpris-
ingly. A little manure would not hurt any of it By cow-penning, fne
sugar-cane is produced in nearly the same quantities as on the hammocks,
and the sugar and syrup are much purer. range groves are doing well
on this land, and, thus far, all the semi-tropical fruits have tried. A steam-
boat now makes regular trips from Palatk, up the Wekiva river, to Clay
Spring, distant three and a half miles from the Masonic Lodge, and from
the lake some five miles. We have saw and grist mills and stores, Meth-
odist and Baptist preaching several times a month, and a Sunday-school.
Next month a day school will commence. We have, generally, a good
population; as an instance, the corn cribs and smoke houses have no locks
upon the doors. There are but few negroes here, and they ae good citi-
zens. To persons wishing to change their location, I would say come and
see for yourselves. The best time to move a family is about the last of
October. Respectfhlly yours,

APOPKA, Orange Co., Fla., Februar 16, 1870.
Houn J. &. Adaom, Talahawu, Fla.:
DXEa S a: In a former communication I rave a description of this
section, which was published in the Florida union. A longer residence
here has deepened the favorable impression first made on me, and I am
better satisfied that the statements made in my first letter are filly borne
out by experience.
I reside in township twenty-one, range twenty-eight, south and east, in
the county of Orange. As a general rule our pine landt are high and rol-
ling, the soil a sandy loam, in some cases underlaid with red clay, in others
a sandstone. The principal growth is pine, in some portions the under-
growth i tuskey-ok, post-oak, and sumac, with white and post-oak run-
ners. Most of the land, however, has no undergrowth except the oak run-
The cost of clearing is about $1.50 per acre. Rails cost from $1.00 to
$1J9 per hundred; carpenters $2.00 to $2.50 per day and board; farm
hands $10 to $15 per month, and hired laborers are scarce and hard to
These lands are well suited for the growth of cotton, both long and
short staple. The average is a 888 b. bale of long tale to the acre. They
are not so well suited for corn without manure, though some plant it This
grain is generally raised in the hammock land, which ha been planted
twelve ears in succession without manure, and yet yields 20 bushels per
asre. Rye does well on pine lands, and a number of my neighbors are
sowing oats. I am told they do well, specially the black oat.
By eow-penniag, we raie sgar-cae nai equal in quantity to ham-
mok land; while the sug ad syrup at o irer quality, the average
beg 800 to 400 gallons of golden syrup, worth hre 74 cents. per gallon,
or asmba900to 9000 su per acre. From experiments made, swamp
m k is equal if not spor to opw-pnin a m aa e
ean, and frit of tha as, uoe well, sand many persons are
pla l eat r aX y otae o ults sntooed here,.such as
ergeiKaua Pa aeer and unless the winter is

hwam ge dr M mow d'ri h-e % la

ter. I have some plants of Cuba on the north side of my house, and they
are still green
Our lands are well suited to the production of grapes, the lands being
rolling. Wedo not have standing water. In fifteen minutes after heavy
rain the water has all passed off. My grape vines produced abundantly,
and in the fAll a small second crop; the only enemy is the mocking bird,
and I am willing to give them a share for the sweet music they give in
There are some springs, but we mostly use well water, and it is a good
article. We have but fw creeks; the country is, however, well watered
with clear water lakes of various sizes. In winter they afford good drink-
ing water and abound in fine trout, bream, and perch.
Te is a good opening for a steam saw mill, which would not only pay
well but become a means of settling our country. There is a water mill
within four miles, but there is a difficulty at present of getting lumber as
fast as we want it Buildl lumber costs $15 to $17 perthou d.
Six miles off, at Rock prng, is a large bed of blue lim e, which in
many places comes to the sure, and only wants developing to become of
great service in making muck compost
All kinds of garden vegetables do well, and there isno trouble in having
a constant succession during the year. In most families vegetables are
scarce, from the tact that they do not try to have them. I have had no
difculty in supplying my family throughout the year, and on low ground
have as fine cabb=e as could be wished for. I have resided in Florida
near tea years, a from experience can say that person moving here
from a colder climate need not be uneasy in regard to health, provided
tho do not settle on Lake Apopka, or have their residences at least a mile
offwith timber intervening. The best time to move here is in the month
,of October. Though we live in latitude about 28 deg. 40 min. we have a
delight climate, enjoying the sea breezes both from the Atlantic and
Gul Last summer, which was unusually warm, we did not have more
than six nights that we did not require some bed covering.
The Apopka lands are rich, being mostly hammock, and are held at high
prices, while a large portion of the pine lands can be homesteaded. Steam-
boats now run regularly from Palatka, weekly, to Clay Spring on the We-
kiva River three miles from our Post-office. Fare 6.00. Supplies can
be obtained in the stores here or brought from Jacksonville or Palatka
We welcome to our section all moral persons who are willing to work
and assist in developing the vast, and in many cases, untried resources of
our State. Respectfily yours,
Z. H. MAso X. D.

Marion is one of the central counties of East Florida, and occupies a
csumaw= ng position among the best agricultural counties of the State.
Suaoundedby and bordering upon Levy, Alachua, Ptnaam Orange, Su
ter, and Hernando counties, it participates in the characrtics of all of
tw and may with propriety be called the agricultural heart of East
AlIt h tialy an inland count, and nowhmnext ai to the coast,
slba upon Lake George, upo the *arT, dd nearly in twain
by a o e tShe Ocklawah, and anme an thrue h its numerous
and beutsil lakes with the St. John's, it Is not y ma ss deoileat
uamm asof aesse to moret and she bNria hr exportation of its


It extends, in latitude, from 29 deg. to 29 dog. 80 min., and thus has a.
mild and genial climate, well adapted to the growth of many semi-tropical
Nearly midway between the Atlantic and Gulfcoast, itis daily visited by
the winds from either side, which meet over her territory and pay frequent
tribute from their moisture-bearing clouds, so that continued droughts are.
almost unknown.
In addition to the facilities of access by water, there is now a strong
probability of the speedy completion of the railroad from Waldo, on the
Florida Ridlroad, to Ocala, the county site, through a recent organization
of energetic business men, under a new charter.
The surface is generally level, but in several sections is gently undu-
lating, and, interspersed here and there with numerous lakes and ponds and
beautiful springs, is characterized by a beauty of natural scenery seldom
found in Florida.
The soil in Marion county is better than that of the average of the State,
having an unusual proportion of hammock, both high and low, and the
pine lands having a richer subsoil and nearer to the surface, than is com-
monly found. Marl and muck, giving abundant supplies of natural fertil-
ization, are to be found in all portions of the county, and are easily acces-
sible, and insure a permanent agricultural capacity.
Cane, cotton, corn, and sweet potatoes maybe cited as the staple crops,
but so favorable is the geographical situation that almost any of the
strangely varied productions of Florida can be successmlly cultivated
here. Oats rye, the peach, the fig, and the grape, with the tobacco ef
Northern Flrida, succeed equally as well, while the natural adaptation to
semi-tropical fruits, indicated by the existence of numerous and extensive
natural groves of the wild orange, is amply demonstrated by Phe successful
cultivation of the orange, lemon, lime, citron, and banana.
The county is unusually provided with rivers, lakes, and springs, and
good water can besecured in all parts by wells of little expense, furnishing
abundant supplies of wholesome water.
Good health, as a rule, prevails throughout the county, and the only dis-
eases that can be said to be prevalent are those always encountered in a
rich and new country, and consist in the lighter types of bilious and inter-
mittent fevera
Valuable kinds of timber abound everywhere throughout the county.
Yellow pine is universal, and in the hammocks are found ample stores of
ash, oaks, live-oaks, cedar, bay, cypress, and magnolia.
Sea-Island cotton has hitherto long been a favorite crop, but the ravages
of the caterpillar have turned preponderating attention to short cotton and
cane; and, with perhaps the single exception of Hernando, Marion will
probably become the cane county of the State. If the actual sugar ca-
pacity of these two counties was well understood and Airly appreciated
abroad, the price of land would double in one year. .
Two routes are open to those wishing to visit Marion county, one by the
St. John's to Palatka, and thence by the Ocklawaha steamers to Silver
priags and Oca or still further up the river to the lake region. Another
is by those lorida alrad to Gainesville, and thince by ack (a Mio-
aaopy and Ooala.
O.mg. SpruPag is simply the burntiag Art of a ll-sized river from
the vry bowels of the earth, and with Its hsatl clear water and
cboalr ba, carved out of the of the eb orm 4 o f
- i or Iat m The iiadisan of Iu- would b eqll ddd
retw iss singular flsakh a atare a quiet and pltoMbarUty of

thftflUalbstat resma~be tenns Oioodligp llam a oy stf-~ir


88 to $10 per acre, and rge quantities of United States and State lands
are open to entry and purchese.
The people are well disposd and orderly, and will extend a hearty wel-
come to all new-comers.
With its genial climate, agricultural capacity, cheap lands, varied crops,
and commanding position, the future of Marion county Is not uncertain.
In Florida, sugar will, ere long, dispute supremacy with cotton, and sugar
lands that are good for an average crop of ,500 pounds per acre, must soon
command a ready market at good prices.

South Florida, consisting of that portion of the peninsula south of lati-
tude 28 deg. north latitude, is composed of the counties of Hillsboro', Polk,
Brevard, Monroe, Manatee, and Dade. From its low latitude, its peculiar
location, as interposed between the Gulf of Mexico and the Atlantic Ocean.
and its proximity to the Gulf Stream, this division has marked charac-
teristics which specially distinguish it.
The surface is in the main flat, and excepting the extension within its
northern portion of the flattened ridge or plateau upon which the State is
mostly situated, the greatest elevations found are around the external
boundaries while the depressions are in the interior, causing it to resem-
ble the basin of a shallow lake. Thus constructed and under the influence
of the rain-bearing clouds from both sides, while the elevation of the ex-
terior border prevents the easy egree of superabundant water, this divi-
sion is not only well supplied with rivers, streams, and small lakes, but'
has, also, the broad shallow lake of Okeechobee, and that remarkable recep-
tacle of surplus fresh water called the Everglades, within its borders, and
occupying a large proportion of its extent It is quite probable that a
clearing out of he obstructions formed in the channels of the numerous
river courses reaching out from the interior to the Gulf and ocean, will re-
lieve this section from much of its excessive humidity, but at present a large
part of this territory is so liable to submersion as to derogate largely fom
Its value for cultivation, although scattered along the exterior borders and
upon the banks of its many lakes and streams can be found rich and fer-
tile lands, which under the fostering influces of a climate of unsurpassed
mildness become exceedingly valuable for their immense productiveness in
special crop .
The savannas, or grass prairies, that are liable to periodical inundation
during part of the year, but hidden with rich growth of nutritious grsses
during the balance of the time, form a characteristic feature of South
Florida, and constitute some of the best cattle ranges in the world.
The climate is singularly equable and uniform, the diffrence between
summer and winter being very slight, and the range of the thermometer
during the year confined within very narrow limits. Warmer in winter
and cooler in summer than any other portion of the State, the climate is
equal to that of the most favored regions of the world, and nearly resem-
bles thit of the Sandwich Islands.
The crops in this section would not include the cereals grown with suc-
cess n Northern Florida, and even corn is not grown with much success,
while the apple pear, and peach do not do as well; but on the other hand,
cam, cot toboo, the orange, lime, lemon, citron, and grpe find here a
cogeal home; and the semitropical and tropical units thrive as well as
in any part of the world.
And on the eys" or islands which line the toast and vary in extent
rom a kw acres to a number of square miles, forming a very peculiar ea-


ture of the section, the bananas, pine-apples, and cbcoa are easily grown in
great abundance and of great size.
A more complete idea of the region will be obtained from the,accompe-
nying account of Manatee county, and the letters of Ueut. Governot
Clean, who resides in extreme South Florida, and is thoroughly ac-
quainted with the whole region.


MAJxATE Co., Fla., March 4th, 1870.
J. 8. Adam, gq., Com. of Immigrtion :
Your letter of Feb. 1st, and circular of January, reached me the 2Sd ult,
at Manatee
In answer to your inquiries, I will endeavor to answer so far as this
county is concerned.
The sure is, with very few exceptions, level; soil sandy, divided into
pine woods and hammocks, with considerable prairie. The pine land is
well adapted to all the crops of our climate when sufficiently firtflied by
cow-pening; but specially for raising sweet potatoes, which grow the
year throw and average in price from ffty cents to one dollar per
bah he hammocks are from a light to a drk gray color, and Ar-
rally ; they constitute our sugar-cane land, principally, and will aver-
age two hgefd of sugar and eighty gallons of molases to the aee ;
rattooning~lm six to eight years or longer, according to the cultivation.
Also best fr oranges and corn The praeis regarded as poor, and has
never been cultivated to my knowledge. It constitutes a part of the great
range for cattle, hogs, &c.
Our climate is that can be desired, exempt from excessive cold or
heat, differing but a few degrees between summer and winter, ti ther-
mometer.rarey reaching 90 deg. in summer, or lling to 0o deg. in winter.
Sometimes we have excessive rains in the rainy season, and sometimes we
are affected by drouth in the dry seon, but not more so than occurs ese-
The chief products are immense herds of cattle; the estimate of the
county be g 7,000 to 100,000 head.
uc which is our specialty, is not only the most profitable, but
dededly the most reliable, crop. Cotton is ust beginning to claim atte-
tion in the county, ad by selecting suitable locate itproduces well.
I allude to the l staple. Tobaco an be raised in great abundme on
the rich lands.a lUe in the lower and stir soil, if planted early, will am-
tre two crops, the last being rattoon, yielding in both, at least seventy-fve
bushels to the are.
Corn on worn-out cane land will in a fvorable season, produce twety-
ve bushels to the acre, but corn i not regarded a a sure rop T
witto elas of garden products yield in extraordnury degree, embraeeg
the hdle melon and umpkin cass.
Field pes raise abundantly, and of excellent quality. Pindar do
well bt are not much cultivated.
Mpst,, solhmn, hbeo, cbur, arum, esava, temnayah, are all grown in
thb ~ to sam esentt.
ol al its been pereoly. *eth
Oif ii whole n jt.bp o reomkUssws s to
H~llCUI ~Yii>iiaohA 1 tt ate s tk a M-M
Mft~e~ ca n *O |owe bbu the IMe lwa t-

ten have been unusually fosty and the plants seem slow in cover
from the effects. On the Islands and K pieppl dates, and that
class of fits may be raised. The olive,te t4e, dcofe at are sip
pod to be adapd to our soil and climate, but hve nota tried. I -
think the two former would grow well in South Florida. Of native wild
fits we have the mulberry, persimmon, Indian fig, blackbery, hukle-
berry, plum, etc. The quince, fig, guava, avocado pear, etc., are raid.
Also pomegranates and tamarind. The native grapes consist ofseverl va-
rieties, one resembling the Catawba and the other perhaps the Southern
The price of land varies according to improvement, say fom 1.50 to
S0. Turpentine pine, live-oak, water-oak, hickory, soft maple red
and white bay, sea ash, pop ash mulberry, cypre gnoll, ceda,a
gum, India rubber, cabbage pa, mangrove, black ad red myrtle, pde
of India, West India birch, swamp dogwood, Florida acas, aloe, wilo
oak, etc. Lumber twenty-five dollars per thousand, (mills much needed.)
Labor one dollar per day with board; one dollar a and half without Not
much means of procuring it. Markets, Key West, Havana, and Tampa,
and home consumption by new-comers. Cost of learning hammock land
about twenty dollars per acre. Building expensve, unle using pie logs
anldlmetto covering, which answers for this climate-the very
Water soft out of the hammocks, and hard in them, but good. H
no better in any part of the world. Owing stock is a good busis.
Schooners and steamers carry cattle fom Manatee river and harlotte's
Harbpr in this county nearly constantly, paying about fifteen dollars
head bfr steers. Hogs do well, but are prone to run wild; and are =ect
to many enemies, vi. : eagles, cougars, nr, fo alligators, beam, ad if
the ho. are fat, ate~h foIL.
The rivers, creeks, and bays teem with all sort of fish, both scale and
shell. Mullet might be put up in Term Sea, Palma Sol, Sar Sota, and
other less and greater bays, to supply the Union. Clams and oysters
abound. Deer, turkeys, and other game are plentifl. The county s set-
ted in spots; sometimes twenty-five, or even fifty, miles between neighbor-
Nearly every neighborhood has its church and school, and one Masonic
Lodge in the county, situated at Manatee village. Inects bad in port
of the county at certain seasons, but not past toleration by ny means.
Grass grows luxuriantly and requires wahin to make good crps, but
industry always ge the better of it. The people are very m to
strangers. Neghorhoods can be found to suit the political da ieMWs of
modern type
Immi nt must not come to Manatee to live without work, nor to ex-
pect no privations If they do, they will be disappointed.
Respectfully, &c., L M. FOB.

The following letter was written some time ago by Hoo. W. H. Gleason,
late Lieutenant-Governor, and published by order of. governor Waeler:
Bi m estme D. 8. WalOr, Gormor :
St: Areer b ly to your request, I will undertake to giveyou a dm p-
tdon of the southern portion of Florida, through whichI have been Ua-
. ka rather *w lmoaths, Its prod its aand its raor.
S have been to that port of the
or raroad laddttfrom Jack toedar sK and,
ao south of theW deGg. oftatt which I sall d -
aste. iTz~bJ~loId


This portion of the State comprises an area of 20,000,000 square miles,
and a population, previous to the war, of about 6,000 inhabitants. The pop-
ulation has not materially diminished, as there Is quite an imm ton
tending in that direction, and is sufcient already to compensate r its
losss occaioned bythe war. About onmealf of this population reesie
upon the island of Key West and the neighboring keys and Islands, and
reegaged in the buness of wrecking and fishing, while a large propor-
tion of t remaining one-half are engagedin the raaing of catte. Farm-
ing and the growing of crops has hitherto been neglected, and has been
confined principally to small patches or gardens around the houses of the
The raising of cattle upon the mainland is the all-absorbing business of
the inhabitants, who reside from 80 to 40 miles apart, and allow the cattle
to grase upon the ihblic domain. As the food disappears in one place,
they change to another, so that the people have become migratory in their
The raising of cattle upon the plains and prairies of this portion of the
State is a profitable business. It is not uncommon to find men who, a few
years ago, had no means, that are now the owners of from two to ten
thousand head of cattle, and this after furnishing large numbers to the
armies of Lee and Jqhnston. The country is divided into hammocks.
pine-openings, and prairies. The hammocks are very rich, and are covered
over with a dense growth of timber, consisting of live and water-oaks,
magnolia, bay, and a variety of other hard-wood timber. The soil is sandy
and mixed with marl and limestone. The pine-openings are covered with
scattering pines and a grass which affords fine pasturage. The soil s sandy
and not as desirable as the hammock lands or prairies. The prairie lamds
occupy the interior portion of the State bordering upon the Kamimee
river, the head waters of the St. John's, and the upper Calooeahatchee.
The soil is a rich, sandy alluvium, and they are covered over with a heavy
growth of gram, and from their appearance, must be very productive.
They are dtted over with small cdumps of hammock, contaIning from
one to five acres each, which give beauty and variety to the scenery, and
aford shelter during the heat of the day to innumerable herds of deer and
cattle. There are also numerous small lakes of pure water, filled with
ish, some of which are only a few rods in extent, while others are fom
'two to ten miles in length. These prairies are the paradise of the herds-
men and the hunters.
The cattle require no feeding during the winter, and one can hardly
travel over the pairies a whole day without seeing from 50 to 100 deer.
The sa s, which border upon the Everglades and Blcayne Bay, are
inundated duri the rainy season from an overflow from the Ev les.
As the wat *rmbide, there is leA a debris fom one-fourth to inch
in depth. Thi process has been going.on fbr centuries, and haaprovided
one of the richest soils in the world. The rich lands which skirt the ma-
vannas upon the coast-side are covered with rotten limestoe, and have
mixed with the vegetable matter to that extent that the soil will eervesce
as moon as it comes in contact with acids. These savnas are valuable
ihr mxpr plantation, as he sugar-cane requires a large per oentage of
lime, ad the climate is so mild that the cane will not require planting
ofienr than once in ten or twelve years. The Palma Chrlsti or Castor
Beais here perennial, and grow to be uite a tree. I saw quite a num-
ber, a la m peac trees, twenty ifet high. Sea-Island cotton seems to
be a pm l In this sector of the Stt and is of a fie qual. The

'-rWr other t eia
d v mtiir soa "Majyr, Mte r eqait of ilb aex ) lot
aled with gre to a

OR uE TsLR'sN uumIm)E

variety of fish, and, indeed, the entire coast of Tropical Flgrida is one
innmen fsery. At Charlotte Harbor we bund quite a number aged
in shing th seines. The value of the fah caugt averages per -hnd
for the season (three months) 800. I doubt f any henry pay better. The
fisheries of Charlotte Harbor oould profitab give employment to 1,000
ers ; and the fisheries at Sarasota and ndian river are equally good.
Eeriver, creek, and lake seems to be alive with fish, and oysters are
fond in great abundance at different places all along the ocomt
All that portion of the State which I have denominated Trpical Florida,
is capable of producing oranges, lemons, limes, arrow-root, cssava, Indigo,
sisal hemp, sugar-cane, sea-Island cotton, rice, figs, melons of all kinds, as
well as the vegetables grown in the more northern Stts. The country
around Charlotte Harbor and Biscayne Bay is susceptible also of producing
cocoanuts, cocoa, pine-apples, guavas, coffee, baanaas, plantain, alligator
pears, and all the fruits and plants of the West Indies.
Like all other tropical countries, Tropical Florida has its wet and dry
seasons. The wet or rainy season is during midsummer, which has a
tendency o cool the atmosphere, and render the summer months cooler
than It f in the more northern portions of the State, or in other portions
of the south. During the rainy season nearly the whole country is wooded,
the country being so flat and level that the water does not fow off readily.
A great portion of the country requires ditching and draining, and when
some systematic method shall be adopted to let off the surpdts water during
the rainy reason, this portion of the State will prove the most productive
part of the South. It has but few swamps or marshes; unless you consider
the Everglades a marsh. They can hardly he considered as such, but
more properly a lake. The water is from ix inches to six fet in depth,
is pert clear, and is grown up with grass, pond lilies, and other
aqueous plant The Alpativkee swamp, upon the head waters of the
St. Lile river, is the only swamp of any magnitude n Tropical Florida
and this part of the State has less swamps than Northern Wisconsin or
Michigan. The country north of the 98th deg., east of the St. John's river,
and south of the railroad, Is more thickly settled then the pat Just de-
ncribed. There arequte a number of plantations under cutivaton, and
more attention is pid to agriculture. The Iada are more roUli than
the ouatry hrther south, and produce a Afi quali of eea-is4ad cotton,
which te prcipal crop raised. It produce ood s am amn excel-
lent quality of toba Alachua, Marion, and He o are all Sal ooi -
ties of land for hming.purposes, and have many batil lakes. 'The
country eat and south the St. John's river has ore sw ps tha
other part of the Stte through which we bh raws They a prin-
cipally covered with cypress timber, and being eaq of access from he St.
John and Indian rivers, are valubl Theare fe leads upon Ial
river, LAM whlh, at a brmeriod, wer uer cultivation,
but were aban the Ind an dar their dowar s. I thak that
there i no puet of the South tat of sa s in eM ils to the t mid-
grant I Florida. The salubrity anid thm ofits domi ethe equa-
bUty ,of 1it m ItmI atcesI It, the cheess a t Itos lmd, the
easewiIt which tsan aIe iicanabea which are
not to be ookb the Iu t; ad tshe l tha t o loria
s the only por et the Uned L tsucepatibandm oabt ofr log
the uas ad plaa oetthe West Inde, needs to y dsbetand n = fr
san -i.h to setse la that direction to a s rA extent to
the Nr ebtdsl, ad the entire North, with oraeIus, ltmons, ll
other plrev l AtUs.
We hvem WMAd upwards of Aeftn hunmrud lles In the newest ad *
most neledlpam of the State; we have mixed freely with the people
fall classes, and being Northern men, and wishing to learn the sentiments



of the people, as well as to examine the country, discussed the leading
uqmgtions of the day, the war and its results, negro sufage. and, in A t,
.vuyth.ing connected with the war and ecaWion. We were everywhere
hopltabl received, and although many did not agree with us in all our
views, all agreed that hereafter the grievances of the Souti, or of ny por-
tion of the country, must be settle in accordance with law and the Con-
stitution, upon the foor of Cngress, and not by a report to arms. An
immigration from the North will e welcomed by a large majority of the
ele, and almost every one is anxious to see the State settled up and
develop. A northern man of the most Radical views is prly
a& in traveling through any portion of Southern Florida, ad to give
full vent to his deas and sentiments. The people have no real love for
the North as a section, but they will teat Northern men with respectand
courtesy, and wil encourage them to settle.
All seem to be heartily sick of the war, and we heard no expression of
hostility to the general government On the contrary, the fe seems
to be, upon the pt of many who were formerly s onsts, to carry out
and enforce the law, ad they wi give their ai d anaction indo d .
Like all new countries n theot and West, the laws ave been looe
carried-nto elect, and the people have heretofre been n the habit of set-
tlhig their grivaces without an apppea to the lap; but thb ac'near as
we could leamn, have chaged or the better In that respect smc te war.
Iespectfly yours, Wx. H. GL x.

M IYA Fla, Bept rb e, 1968.
A aly to r quest, I will endeavor to give you a deripto of
tior! o o Mthe Se ehr- tnih from Jupite' fablt Do toh aid ina-

ire lat th to mimes of the Oa ,lr.a. s'asoy sre o
a ilwaear all being larwBf baonrmtlom ad v. xky. lsB are
taf da tothe tantDB Tothers coatina s many m w acres.
ildI gpbt.be ys ar only a*aw saw abei e aM wetewr,
a- *n wrlye tw agwrth"ofbard wood ~ a aWoa stang
of!Mtt td tD o, oeblwood, aht mea-
~giiro sda e a laaq 1I too roeky to tt geeal
a teltnd t is d d to th growth of oo t, elte. m ial
bAp, ad piB6la, am fwch a to lve on a roeby isolad grow
aptw o ash* k the amisa Is BMaaM' gosad ia bUaaea
My. 8 "dr' aIfd owes'ets mre tI ist I'II f1trid b -magb
mama as^ aled Is aQerVs't at hs, and
iVShe reart itiapAl btt od birdb i-' j
a boft o !ay are i of tartle,
*siiM^ ttur tu takeo

a ipb'lr~lim~laC'I^ th a bhad

IeIyseas ya m .MWik hauY |l t all rnesl I- than
1tPI'eM I ,sa am abMka eto sidat -das I. 'tigme a
re Salow w O4goUW wo a|Hol p9u tMles, Werw -cs

oR s TrrLER's UIDW. 67

plants, interspersed with innumerable small islands of from one to one hun-
dred acres each. Thee islands are principally anamock lands covered
over with a growth of live and water-oaks sad oooo plums, with an un-
dergrowth of morning fodes, grapes, and other wines, and re extremely
fertile. The water is fom fur inches to hur bet deep, sad is very clear
and pure. In many places re channels and sinks where the water is fom
ten to fifty feet deep ; these holes are well supplied with ish, of which the
trout is the most desirable. Alligator and rtle are abundant, and pa-
thers, wild cats, and bears are quite numerous.
Flowers of the sweetest fragrance, and of every hue and color, greet the
eye. The border and outer margin of the Everglades is prairie, of from
one-fourth to one mile in breadth, and comprsies some of the finest and
richest land in America, having once been a portion of the Everglades, and
formed by the receding of the waters. The soil is sandy, with a mixture of
lime and vegetable matter, and freely eflrvesces when brought in contact
with acids.
The strip of land between Baicayne Bay and the Everglad s from
three to fifteen miles in breadth, and is principy rocy pine land, with
an undergrowth of a species of the Sago Pa, called the Indians
" Kooritie," which name has been generally adopted by the whites. It
makes a very good article of starch, and excellent gavaii, which cannot
be distinguished om Bermuda arrow-root, except by microscopic tets.
This section of the country has evidently been n uplift or upheaval, s
the rock dips at an angle of about twenty-three degrees, and slope both
toward the and the Everglades. The rock, in many places, i in cir-
cular form, an is coral.
The soil is sandy, which, mixing with the decomposed lime of the coral
rock, frms an excellent and inehaustble sol br g sand sgar-cane.
The country north of Bcn Bay, towards Jpitr Inlet,is of a similar
character to that already with, the exception that there is no
rock. Fine springs of water are Iond in dlrent localities, and burst
forth with great force; some of these ae mineral springs, prince ly
chalybeate. Se-Island cotton Is grown hre, and Is ap nnal, d can
be picked several times each year. G ourish weland ae not sub-
ject to mildew, and ripen about the middle of y. Tobacco ra&ed along
the Bay will compare with the best of Cubs. Baanas, plantains, orsangs,
coffee, dates, pine-apples, rice, indigo, ngar, apples, arrow-root, caava,
lU ow and thrive well, ad the garden vreetabls of the Northern ad
States. Indigo when coe sown, remains in the ground aad
rattoos as it is out ot. S rartoo d reaquis plr ting only once
from four to five years. ar canm be raid aerewith le lborthan
in Cuba, as the land is easier clivated ; aad a plantation can be
made for one-Ah of the money which it can n oi tana.
This section of the State is of od g all of the d ret pro-
ducts of the West Indie; and the is no doubt tlt, whea this portion of
the country becomes known, it will be rapidly develped.
Sea-Island cotton can be raised with hal the labor that Is required in
the northern part of this State or In Soth C this is bond the
region of frost The climate is very agreeable, bbeig tempered y the
Gulf Stream. It s not as warm her in uastr New York, or as
cold in waiter as n Cuba, as we have no ounta or high elevations of
lad. The thermometer averages 78 degrees, aad the extremes an 61 de-
gpm ad N degrees.
ere is a ostant sea bresas of the Gulf stm.commmcig about
8 o'oc. M, and lasting until nearly sundown. The climate very
an aad La whit man can do as much labor la a day as i any
porthiofMs United States
The constant Indian wars, which have been more severely hft in this

' \

zui~ror1* u of Jouie and -I*& ol
SI~ nTupt~La. ( at~h thftambfue the 011=4.;*
here hii F ; ~wi h2m a tabdency to

P aspea" and, 4uiet an wtound.

W H (4PA~f*;J

,1 9


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