Front Cover
 Table of Contents
 Gallesio on the Orange
 Back Matter

Title: Treatise and hand-book of orange culture in Florida, Louisiana and California
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00055178/00001
 Material Information
Title: Treatise and hand-book of orange culture in Florida, Louisiana and California
Alternate Title: Treatise and hand book of orange culture in Florida ..
Hand-book of orange culture
Physical Description: ix, 184 p. : ; 18 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Moore, T. W ( Theophilus Wilson )
Publisher: E. R. Pelton & co.
Ashmead Brothers
Place of Publication: New York
Jacksonville Fla
Publication Date: 1883, c1881
Copyright Date: 1881
Edition: 3d ed., rev. and enl.
Subject: Oranges -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Fruit-culture   ( lcsh )
Orange industry -- United States   ( lcsh )
Genre: non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Statement of Responsibility: by Rev. T.W. Moore.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00055178
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 001839960
oclc - 19618582
notis - AJR4160

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page i
        Page ii
    Table of Contents
        Page iii
        Page iv
        Page v
        Page vi
        Page vii
        Page viii
        Page ix
        Page x
        Page xi
        Page xii
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        Page 152
    Gallesio on the Orange
        Page 153
        Page 154
        Page 155
        Page 156
        Page 157
        Page 158
        Page 159
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    Back Matter
        Page 182
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        Page 184
Full Text



:`lr-n, _,----,~-~ i~-i~ s i~i;~ u~- -IN-





PREFACK TO THE SECOND EDITION ............................. v
PREFACE ro TH FIRST EDIONx ..................... ...... vii
GROV S ... ........ .. ........ .. .. ..................... o
CHAPTER VI.-BUDDING....................................... 41
GROVE....... .......................... .................. 47
CHAPTER XI.-TRANSPLANTING................................ 68
CHAPTER XII.-THE DISTANCE APART.............. .......... 72
CHAPTER XIII.-CULTIVATION................................. 74
CHAFrPT XIV.-THOROUGH CULTIVATION................... ...... 79
CAPrrTa XV.-PRUNING....................................... 85
CHAPTER XVI.-FERTLIZING.. ................................ 90
CHAPTER XVII.-SPECIES, VARIETIES, ETC...................... 99
CHAPTER XVIII.-THE LEMON AND LIs....................... 116
DIES TO Ba APPLIED....................................... 1o


CHAArP XXI.-RusT oN THU ORANGS........................ 33
ORANGE.. ...............1...................... ...... 138
ANG TR ES.... ........................................... 144
CITRUS................................................... 147
CHAPrrT XXV.-COCLUSION .................................. 49
APPNDIX..................................................... 153
COMMENDATIONS.............................................. Ia


HE author's reason for changing the title of this
book so as to make it embrace the orange in-
terest not only of Florida, but also Louisiana and
California, is found in the fact that many corre-
spondents, residents of the last named States, and
the most skilful growers of the orange have ex-
pressed unqualified approval of the methods of cul-
tivation taught in this work.
Resting upon their judgment, we send forth this
third edition upon a wider mission to bear kindly
greeting to all orange-growers throughout the
FRUIT COVE, Oct., 188Z.


HE author's reasons for publishing a second
edition are several :
i. The first edition of more than two thousand
copies is about exhausted, while orders for the
work are most active ; so that, to meet the demand
for information on the subject of orange-growing,
a new issue would be necessary even if there were
no need for emendations and enlargement
2. A longer experience and continued observa-
tion now enable the author to write with more con-
fidence on certain points left in doubt in the former
edition, as well as to give new matter in almost
every chapter.
3. Hundreds of letters have been received, mak-
ing inquiry concerning matters not noticed in the
first publication, also asking for fuller information
on subjects briefly mentioned. To give the in-
formation desired, and to extend it to others who
doubtless would have asked similar questions had
they not been restrained by a thought of the trou-
ble and expense necessary to answer each individual


by letter, the author has availed himself of this op-
portunity to give, more thoroughly than he other-
wise could, the information asked.
To the Press, which has given so many favorable
notices; to the public, who have given so hearty a
welcome; and to the experienced orange-growers
who have noticed with more hearty commendation
than any others the little pamphlet first issued ; the
author would here extend his thanks, and again
send greeting and an earnest God speed you."
FaulT Cova, FLA., October, i881.


7HE writer for several years suffered greatly for
want of some reliable advice on Orange Cul-
ture. Could he have had such instructions as the
following pages contain he might have hastened
forward to profitable bearing by several years an
orange grove now crowning his labors with suc-
cess. He could have done this with half the
amount of money expended by him in experiment-
ing, in following unreliable, advice, and in doing
what at the time seemed wisest It is to save others
such useless expenditures and to help forward the
best material interests of Florida that he has un-
dertaken to give to the public the result of his ex-
perience and observation on ORANGE CULTURE IN
Nor has he undertaken this without the earnest
solicitation of many who are engaged in orange
growing, and have witnessed his success and dis-
cussed with him his plans.
The writer has not only had ten years of actual
experience in orange growing, but he has had be-
fore him a wide field for observing the efforts of
others engaged in this business. He has had
throughout his life a passion for horticulture ; in


early life considerable experience as an amateur
cultivator of fruits. For twenty-five years he has
been accustomed to eat fresh from the trees the
orange grown in Cuba, in Central America, in Cal-
ifornia, in Louisiana, and in Florida. His admi-
ration of this queen of fruits" has led him to
observe and inquire after the methods of culture in
each of these several countries. During the ten
years of his experience he has frequently travelled
over the State of Florida, visiting, at all seasons of
the year, the various sections engaged in growing
oranges, discussing with growers their theories, and
noting the results of their efforts.
This little work, therefore, is not the result of
the experience of a single individual confined to a
single location, but the result of the experiments,
the successes, and the failures of many, extended
over the entire State of Florida.
The Press of Florida has done much to help for-
ward the knowledge necessary to success in orange
growing in this State. Its appreciation of this great
interest, and the readiness with which it has devoted
its columns to growers for the interchange of
thought and the discussion of theories, both false
and true, has given to persons widely separated
the benefit of each others' experience. For this
work the Press of Florida, and especially the Agri-
culturist and the Semi-Tropical, as more especially de-
voted to this interest, is deserving of all praise; and
whosoever would keep up with the rapidly growing


knowledge of orange culture in our peculiar cli-
mate and soil must continue to read, as the Press
will continue to publish, every new light on this
subject. The Author here makes acknowledgments
to the Press of Florida as well as to the thousands
whom he has visited, and with whom he has dis-
cussed the contents of these pages.
All technical terms, as far as possible, have been
avoided in these pages. Where such terms have
been employed it has been solely to make the
meaning less questionable. This book is intended
as a manual for all who wish to best succeed with
the least expense in growing the orange. Such
terms as can be understood by the unlearned can
be also comprehended by those who can command
encyclopedias and the elaborate work of Gallesio.
With earnest desire for the success of the orange
grower in Florida, and with hearty good-will to
them and to others who may engage in this honor-
able and profitable business, this humble and little
book is submitted by the





HEN compared to the profit from other kinds
of business, that derived from orange-grow-
ing is so large that a statement of facts is often
withheld because the truth seems fabulous to those
who have only had experience with other kinds of
fruits. Those engaged in the business consider
each tree, so soon as it is in healthy and vigorous
bearing, worth one hundred dollars. Indeed the
annual yield of such a tree will pay a large interest
on the one hundred dollars-from ten to a hun-
dred, and in some instances one hundred and fifty
per cent per annum. Now if we take into consid-
eration that from forty to one hundred trees are
grown on an acre, the yield is immense. In the
quiet country, breathing its pure atmosphere, with
fresh fruits and vegetables from January to Janu-
ary, with milk, butter, honey, and poultry, the
product of his farm and accessories to his grove,


the man who has once brought his trees into suc-
cessful bearing can enjoy all these and much more
besides, having at his command an income quite
equal to that commanded by owners of blocks of
well-improved real estate in our towns and cities,
with not one tenth part of the original cost of city
investments. Or, if the owner chooses, he is at
liberty to go abroad without fear of the incendiary's
torch or the failure of commercial firms. And
even if a frost should come severe enough to cut
down full-grown trees-and but one such frost has
come in the history of Florida-the owner of such
a grove has but to wait quietly for three years, and
out of the ruin will come a second fortune as large
as the first, and without the cost of brick, mortar,
and workmen.
The age to which the orange tree lives, from
three hundred to four hundred years, is so great
that Americans do not know how to consider it in
the light of a permanent investment. The fear has
sometimes been expressed that the business will be
overdone, that the supply will after a while exceed
the demand, and the price of the fruit so decline
that the orange will be unprofitable to the grower.
But those who entertain this fear have certainly not
considered the facts. The area of the States with
climate suitable for growing the orange is compar-
atively small. The southern portion of California,
a very small part of Louisiana, and the whole of
Florida, if devoted to orange culture, is but a trifle


compared to the vast sections of the United States
which will be well filled with inhabitants long before
the orange-growing sections can be brought into
bearing. The present yield of fruit grown in the
United States furnishes hardly one orange a year to
each inhabitant. Our population will likely double,
judging the future by the past, in the next thirty or
forty years. To furnish such a population with
one orange or lemon a day will require no less than
thirty thousand millions of oranges or lemons per
annum. The skill in gathering, curing, and pack-
ing the late and early varieties now appearing will
enable the grower to furnish for the market at all
seasons of the year either oranges or lemons. The
wholesomeness of the fruit, together with its medici-
nal qualities, will increase its popularity as an arti-
cle of food, until it will be universally used. At
present the production of Florida oranges is so
small that it is not known in the markets of many
of our largest cities. The foreign varieties offered in
those markets, even when fully ripe and eaten fresh
in their own countries, will not compare with the
Florida orange. But in order to reach this country
in sound condition they have to be gathered when
green, and hence are not only unpalatable but un-
wholesome. When the Florida orange becomes
generally known, and the supply is adequate, it will
exclude foreign fruit, and, because of its excellence,
become universally used. Such will be the demand.
Already successful shipments have been made to


Europe, which at no distant day is to get its best
oranges in large quantities from Florida.
Now note the possibility of supply. Only a small
proportion of those sections with climate sufficiently
mild to grow the orange can ever be made avail-
able. A few of the more southern counties of
California and that portion of Louisiana along
the Gulf Coast can be made available for grow-
ing oranges profitably. In Florida the climatic
conditions are more favorable, but the land and
location suitable are not one hundredth part of the
State. Another fact lessens the possibility of yield.
Orange culture belongs to the class of skiled labor.
Hundreds engaged in the business will fail, because
success requires intelligence, application, patience,
and skill. Hundreds have already failed, from one
or all of these causes, and have left the State, never
dreaming that they alone are to be blamed for their
failure. Men in the very communities thus aban-
doned have succeeded because they were more pru-
dent in the selection of soil and location, and used
their intelligence and the intelligence of others, and
persevered in the face of partial failure brought
about by ignorance. But those men who failed
took no advice except that of the landowner who
offered to sell land cheaper than any one else.
They read nothing that had been written by men
who had succeeded. They took no warning of
those who had failed. Stilted on their castle of


self-conceit they stood, nor deigned to look down
to the humble but prudent laborer for advice, till
their castle fell, and they left the State imagining
that the sand of Florida" had proven an unsta-
ble foundation and overthrown them and their cas-
le. Such instances will repeat themselves. Who-
ever may succeed, such men will fail. Whatever
may be written, and wisely written on the subject,
and however published, whether in book or journal,
will not be read by them. But while the above
facts will lessen the general yield of oranges, it will
make the business vastly more profitable to the men
who possess the virtues necessary to success. The
orange will pay beyond any other fruit at half a
cent an orange on the tree. In Europe, where
lands are exceedingly high, a grove is considered a
most profitable investment, even when the fruit sells
at from two dollars to four dollars per thousand.
Ten years ago the Florida orange was considered well
sold when the grower could get one cent on the
tree. Few now sell for less than one and a halt
cent, and some average at their groves as high as
four cents per orange, and the price still advances.
In no business can a young man with pluck, in-
telligence, and application, so certainly lay the
foundation for a competency and fortune as in or-
ange-growing in Florida. With the exercise of
these he may in ten years be what the country would
call a rich man.
A young man from Middle Florida borrowed


money enough from his father to buy a piece of
land.: After paying for his land, located a few
miles above Palatka, he landed in Palatka with
three dollars in his pocket. These he paid for pro-
visions, and went to work growing vegetables on
about an acre and a half of cleared land. Six years
afterward he sold his place for twelve thousand
dollars cash, without owing a cent for anything.
Many instances could be given of young men, as
well as old men, who have done as well, and of
some who have done still better. Young men have
frequently written to the author to aid in securing
for them a clerkship. His advice has been invari-
ably given, Go to work raising fruit in Florida, and
be iadependeni and have a home."


We clip the following statistics of making an or-
ange grove in California from the address of Mr.
L M. Holt, Secretary of the Southern California
Horticultural Society. It will he observed that the
rates are far above those charged in Florida in some
of the items, land for one :

An orange orchard in full bearing will yield ioo,-
ooo oranges to the acre. Five dollars per thousand
will pay all the expenses of taking care of the orchard
and picking and marketing the crop in San Francisco,
or to any other market to which the freights are no
greater. If the price should come down from the pres-


ent figure to ten dollars per iooo-jobbing rates-there
will still be left five dollars per iooo, or five hundred
dollars per acre for the producer, which on a ten-acre
tract will satisfy the cupidity of the most avaricious.
There is scarcely a possibility that the price of good
clean oranges will reach so low a figure as ten dol-
lars per thousand yet, for years to come.

As a guide to those who may desire to figure on
the probable expense of starting an orange orchard,
I give below some figures which are applicable to
Riverside ; they must be changed somewhat for other
localities. Land in Riverside settlement is compara-
tively high. One year ago good wild land could be
obtained for seventy-five dollars per acre, and even at
sixty dollars per acre under the canals. To-day there
is none for sale at a less figure than one hundred
and fifty dollars per acre, and choice land in good lo-
cations is held at two hundred dollars per acre firm.
Lower priced lands can be had in other localities, and
in no place in Southern California does it command
as high a figure as here in Riverside. In applying
these, figures to other localities the price of land can
be figured all the way from twenty-five to one hun-
dred dollars per acre. Following are the figures for
a ten-acre tract :

Ten acres of land in Riverside ................. 15co
One thousand trees, budded or seedling......... 750
Planting and caring for same first season, at
twenty-five dollars per acre ................. 250
Caring for orchard second year, at fifteen dollars
per acre ................................ 15o


Third year. fifteen dollars per year.............. 15o
Fourth year, twenty dollars per acre............. 200
Fifth year, twenty-five dollars per acre........... 250
Other expenses incidental to work............... 550
Total for five years.................... $3800
Interest on investment..................... 1200oo
Total ..............................** 5oo

This is the expense account. There will be some
receipts. If good budded trees are planted, the third
year will give a little fruit, the fourth year still
more, and at the end of the fifth year there will be
quite a fine crop. In order to be safe in these calcu-
lations we will place the yield and prices at the
lowest possible estimate :

Third year crop, scattering oranges-a few hun-
dred or thousand-not counted.
Fourth year, an average of fifty oranges to the
tree-5o.ooo oranges at twenty dollars per thou-
sand..................... ................ $1ooo
Fifth year, 200 to the tree-200oo,ooo oranges at
twenty dollars per thousand............... 4o00

If these prices are maintained the owner has his
investment all back again at the end of five years,
and is ready to ship oranges in large quantities every
year thereafter.
All persons planting orange orchards do not do as
well as this, and some do better. Those figures
represent what can be done with good judgment and
thorough work. If a man thinks to save by getting
cheap and incompetent work, he may succeed in re-
ducing the cost a few dollars, and the receipts a few
hundred dollars, or even a few thousand dollars. If


he buys a poor tree he can get it for twenty cents,
instead of paying the market price for a good thrifty
tree, he will make another saving in cost of orchard,
and in.cost of boxes in which to ship the fruit."



HE question is frequently asked, Which is
the best?" The several methods are-ist,
the budding of the wild sour tree, without mov-
ing them; ad, budding them first and planting
afterward in some suitable location; 3d, plant-
ing the sour stumps and budding afterward ; 4th,
growing the trees from sweet seed without budding ;
5th, planting the sweet seedling and budding either
before or after removal from nursery; 6th, bud-
ding on sour seedlings either before or after re-
moval from nursery; and 7th, a grove of sweet seed-
Each of these plans has some advantage over the
others. They all have advocates, but which of all
has the greatest number of advantages is question-
able. I have tried them all ; but, after stating the
advantages of each, must leave to the grower to se-
lect for himself as circumstances and inclination
may control.
If one is impatient for returns, let him choose the
sour grove, if he can find it, and bud the trees
where they stand. With proper management he


may begin to gather in two years. If he is still
impatient but cannot find a sour grove, let him buy
the sour stumps, plant them in some suitable loca-
tion, and he may begin to gather fruit in three
years from planting. But if he can wait a while
longer for fruit, with the hope of getting a longer-
lived tree and more abundant yield, let him plant
younger trees, either seedlings or budded stock. If
he wishes an early bearer and comparatively smaller
tree, he can select the sour seedling budded. If a
larger but later bearer, he can select the sweet seed-
ling budded. If he wishes an abundant yield and
the largest trees, and can wait a longer time, the
sweet seedling unbudded will suit. With good
treatment such trees will begin to yield in eight
years, and after a longer time, in ninety-nine
cases out of a hundred, give him a fair quality
of fruit; but perhaps he will have as many varie-
ties or sub-varieties as trees in his grove. The
sour stock for a few years grows more rapidly, but
will finally make a smaller tree than the sweet
The best quality of fruit can be insured only by
budding from the best varieties.
As to the relative advantages of seedling and
budded trees, each year's experience and observa-
tion increase my appreciation of budded trees.
Were I to plant again, I think I would plant no



HI grove yields so readily under so simple treat.
ment that we shall consider it at once. Of course
nature has already determined the location, and
in many instances the location has been wisely
chosen, not only with reference to best protection
from frost, but also in many instances with refer-
ence to cheap and easy transportation, on the banks
of navigable rivers and creeks. Wherever a wild
grove can be found so located, the purchaser can
afford to pay a liberal price if he has to buy, or the
owner can afford to improve by the most approved
Many, however, have been the blunders made in
attempts to improve such valuable property. I
know of many groves greatly damaged, and some
completely sacrificed, by bad management The
two mistakes most frequently made in the treatment
of such groves are, first, the reckless destruction of
the forest trees furnished by nature for the protec-
tion of the orange, and, second, the continued pull-
ing off of the young shoots from the stumps cut off
for the purpose of budding. The first and second
buds having failed, the cultivator continues to re-


duce the vitality of the tree by pulling off the young
shoots, until at last the sap, for want of elaboration
through the leaf, becomes diseased, and the tree,
tenacious of life as it is, dies of the double cause of
exhaustion and disease. It may be well to caution
the orange-grower at once against the commission
or repetition of this frequent blunder. Few of our
forest trees will survive being cut down to a stump;
still fewer will survive if the young shoots are kept
down for a few months. Every time the young
shoots are pulled off, the young rootlets, correspond-
ing to and starting at the same instant with the
shoots, die, and the effort of nature to restore vital-
ity is checked and weakened until the hardiest tree
is soon killed. In budding old stumps I have found
it of great advantage to allow a few shoots to grow
along the trunk, below the bud, pinching back
these shoots, allowing a few leaves on each shoot
to grow to full size, and so furnishing the tree with
healthy sap, encouraging the development and ma-
turity of new wood and new roots, and keeping up
an active circulation. Continue this until the sweet
bud has so far advanced as to be able to furnish the
tree with sufficient leaf to enable it to collect suf-
ficient carbon from the atmosphere to insure the
health of the tree. After this point has been reach-
ed you may then pluck off all the sour shoots and
keep them off. In some instances where a sweet
bud has made an early start, a more vigorous
growth of the sweet bud may be obtained by pluck-


ing off all the sour shoots from the first,but this is
at the risk of the health of both the stock and the
bud. I will mention one other thing in this con-
nection : do not allow the sweet bud to grow too
long before pinching it back. If allowed to grow
two or three feet, as it will from a very vigorous
stump, it is liable to be broken off by the wind.
But even if it should be securely tied so as to pre-
vent such an accident, it should, nevertheless, be
pinched back in order to hasten the maturity of its
own wood and leaves. The mature leaves are nec-
essary to the health. of both stock and bud, and
necessary to gain a controlling influence over the
circulation, and to draw itas early as possible to the
sweet bud. By this means also the mature wood of
the sweet bud is better enabled to resist the blight-
ing influence of both sun and frost. Still another
advantage is gained. By pinching back the bud it
is induced to branch near its junction with the
stock and thus enlarge and strengthen its connection
with the stock.
I again call the attention of the reader to the
other mistake mentioned in the beginning of this
chapter, and so frequently made by those who have
undertaken to improve wild groves. Nature has
not only planted these groves, found above the frost
line on the south side of bodies of water, but has
also taken the additional precaution to plant them
under the protection of forest trees. Thus doubly
guarded, these orange trees have grown, some of


them probably for a century. As the cold winds
from the north-west have swept down upon them,
the frost has been tempered by passing over a body
of water of higher temperature than the winds.
The spreading branches of forest trees, hanging like
canopies, have checked the radiation of heat pass-
ing from the surface of the earth, and inclosed the
orange grove in a vapor bath. And even if the
tempest has been too strong and cold, and swept
S away the warm air-blanket thrown by nature over
the tender orange shoot, and the cold has frozen
the sap until the tender woody tissues have been
ruptured, still the forest trees have stood like foster-
mothers to keep off the rays of the morning sun till
these ruptured tissues and sap vessels could be heal-
ed by the efforts of nature. The mother who has
suddenly plunged the body of her scalded child
into a bath of flour or oil to save the child from
suffering and death, has not shown a tenderer care
than the forest trees have extended for scores of
years over their charges. And yet the first thing
done by many of us who wished to improve our wild
groves was to cut down these natural protectors to a
tree. The wonder is, not that so many of these
wild groves have been destroyed, but that any have
been saved after such abuse.
But we will not now discuss the advantages of par-
tial forest protection. The subject is of too much
importance to be dismissed in a single paragraph.
We will consider this subject in a separate chapter


further along. I have thus early noticed this sub-
ject lest the reader may do what I and hundreds
of others have done-des/roy these magnificent wild
groves when attempting to improve them.
Before beginning to bud a wild orange grove, first
cut down all the underbrush, and then the smaller
forest trees. This rubbish can be removed or
burned and the ashes used as fertilizer for the orange
trees, spreading a liberal quantity around the trunks
to keep off the wood-lice"--white ants-which
frequently attack trees where there is much rubbish
left on the ground. Or, if lime can be had, sprinkle
this around the trunks and let the rubbish rot on
the ground. The decayed brush will add greatly
to the fertility of the soil and will soon be out of the
way. It would add greatly, however, to the ease
with which you accomplish your subsequent work
to take all this rubbish out of the way.
The ground cleared of underbrush and small
trees, pass through and select at suitable intervals
the forest trees you wish to remain. Select a plenty
of these trees, and mark them so that they will not
be cut down. If afterward they are found standing
too thickly on the ground, some of them can be
felled. If felled too hastily, fifty years cannot re-
store them. The number of these trees which are
to remain is to be determined by circumstances.
If the place is well protected by water, fewer trees
will answer. But be certain to leave enough trees
to keep off the morning sun after a frost, as it is


the sudden thawing more than the freeze which kills
the trees. Trees intended for shelter should be of
habits the opposite of those of the orange. You
wish the orange to have low-spreading branches.
Select as their protectors trees so tall that their lower
branches will not interfere with the foliage of the
orange. The orange tree sends most of its roots
near the surface of the ground. Select as their pro-
tectors trees that send their roots deep. I have no-
ticed several varieties of live oak in the State. Only
one of these is in the habit of sending its roots deep
into the soil. Whenever I have found this variety
growing I could plant the orange close to its trunk
without damage to the orange. The persimmon
has this habit of deep feeding, but unfortunately it
drops its foliage in the winter. The pine has this
habit only when grown in a well-drained soil.
There are some individual trees whose habits are
an exception to the general habits of the variety.
These can soon be discovered by the use of the
spade or hoe. But if trees without surface feeders
cannot be found, then select trees with other desira-
ble qualities and cut the surface roots by a trench
ten or twelve inches deep a few feet from and around
the base. After those trees have been selected and
marked which you wish to remain, you can now cut
next such trees as can be felled without damage to the
standing orange trees. The work thus far should
be done during the fall or winter, so as to be ready
for the spring and summer work which is to follow.


In early spring, before the new growth of the
orange has started, begin to saw off the limbs of
the orange trees if they branch near the ground,
taking off all the top. If the trunks are long, cut
off the tree, leaving about two and a half feet of
stump. Immediately afterward fell the balance
of the forest trees that are to be cut.
So soon as the sap begins to flow freely, and the
bark to break by the springing of new shoots, insert
sweet sprig" buds, ranging from the top to six
inches below the top of the stump, inserting four
or more buds to the tree. I have sometimes has-
tened the development of the bud by inserting the
bud before cutting off the top, if the sap was flow-
ing freely, and so soon as the bud was known to
be living then cutting off the top. But this has
been with trees standing apart from others. Where
they stand thickly, as is generally the case in the wild
grove, the felling of the tops usually knocks out or
so disturbs the bud as to cause it to die.
As the young sour shoots start, rub off all above
and in the immediate vicinity of the buds. Allow
a few shoots to remain along the trunk, but pinch
them back after growing a few inches. Be careful
to allow none to reach higher than the bud, as the
tendency of the sap is to flow in greatest abundance
to the highest point. I have already mentioned
some advantages to be derived from first allowing
sour shoots to grow and then pinching them back.
I mention one other advantage. This method


soon furnishes new and mature wood on which to
bud if the first buds fail.
After the sweet buds have grown ten or twelve
inches, pinch back, simply taking out the terminal
bud. So soon as the buds have started fairly a sec-
ond growth, you may begin to lessen the quantity
of the sour shoots below, until you can safely risk
the tree's health with the foliage furnished by the
sweet bud. You may have to occasionally pinch
back the sweet bud. It is safest to hold it in such
check as will hasten the maluri4y of wood, and thick-
ness rather than length of branches.
In the after-cultivation of such groves, if the de-
posit of leaves is sufficient to keep down the grass,
do not disturb the soil with plow or hoe for the first
year or two. Pull up or cut down with a scythe
any weeds that may spring up. I believe such
groves can be most economically and successfully
cultivated by keeping up nature's method. I have
had several letters of inquiry as to the proper culti-
vation of such groves, correspondents dwelling upon
the difficulties of plowing and hoeing while roots
were so near the surface.




HE next most expeditious way of getting a
sweet grove is from transplanted stumps of
sour trees. It is sometimes the case that per-
sons improving wild groves, having budded all
the trees and finding them too thickly set on the
ground, will sell those budded stumps at a fair
price. When this is the case a grove can be brought
into bearing in a short time. I have frequently
had such trees to fruit the same year of planting.
But this has been the case only where they have
been taken up with great care, with abundance of
root, and removed but a short distance. But even
where this early fruiting can be secured, the policy is
doubtful. The tree should not be taxed with efforts
to bear fruit so early after its removal and in its en-
feebled condition. It requires much greater effort
on the part of the tree to bear fruit than to produce
new wood. One of these budded sour stumps of
medium size, carefully taken up with good roots
and carefully cultivated, will begin the second year
to bear considerable fruit, if it has not been allowed
to fruit the year of planting. The third year such


a tree will begin to pay a good interest on the in-
vestment of purchase-money.
There are some objections to a grove of this kind.
These trees from old stumps never grow to be so
large as the unbudded seedlings, nor bear so
abundantly. They are believed also to be much
shorter lived. European writers tell us such is the
case, but I do not believe that our experience in
Florida has been of sufficient length to test the age
to which one of these trees will live and bear fruit
Some of the oldest bearing trees in this State, of
such origin, are still fine bearers and in vigorous
health. One other objection I will mention. It
is generally believed that it is hard to make the old
stumps live. The sad experience of those of us
who, a few years ago, bought such stumps by the
hundred and had them die almost as fast as they
were set, has made this kind of business very un-
popular. But I am persuaded that most of this dis-
aster can be attributed to ignorance and careless-
ness. I am satisfied now that if I had handled
sweet seedlings as I and every one else then han-
dled sour stumps, the sweet seedlings would have
died almost as badly. There is no doubt that the
younger the tree the less risk there is in removing
it But the early return to be gathered from these
sour stumps, budded either before or after removal,
will justify the risk in planting a few in every new
grove, and if the stumps can be bought at a fair
price and are near at hand, so as not to be damaged


in transporting them, the grower would do well to
plant them liberally. In transplanting sour stumps
too much care cannot be exercised.
Many of the wild groves are found in low wet
land. The tap-root is small, and the laterals near
the surface, while reaching a considerable distance,
have few or no fibrous roots near the base of the
tree. They have also been accustomed to an
abundance of shade and moisture. One must see
at once that new and entirely different habits must
be formed by such trees transplanted into a drier
soil and with less shade and moisture. These new
habits have to be formed at a time when the tree is
least able to bear the change. It is better to select
trees grown in a drier soil. I have, however, suc-
ceeded in transplanting trees from a swamp, at the
time of taking them up flooded with water. Some
such are now healthy and fine bearers.
In taking up large sour trees, have at hand a
sharp axe, a sharp narrow-bladed saw, and two sharp
spades prepared especially for such work. The
spades should be made to order, narrower than
usual, with handle and jaws sufficiently stout to be
used in prying. With such tools the work will be
greatly expedited and done much more satisfactori-
ly. The time saved in one day's work with such
tools will pay for their cost.
If ready to begin, saw off the top, leaving a
stump five or six feet high to be used as a lever for
bending the tree out of its bed. Now drive down


the spade, cutting the roots in a circle two feet and
a half from the base or trunk. Shake the tree to
see if all the lateral roots have been cut. If not it
will be necessary to cut a trench the width of the
spade to enable you to cut deeper. In making the
second cut incline the point of the spade toward the
tap-root Next cut the tap-root two feet and a half
from the surface and lift the stump from its bed.
Place the stumps at once in the shade and wrap
them well with wet green moss. Protect as far as
possible from the sun and drying winds. After
taking a stump from the soil plant it in position as
soon as possible. One great cause of failure has
arisen from keeping them out of the ground too
long, and allowing the roots to be exposed to wind
and sun.
In setting, have the holes freshly dug. Do not
allow the soil to dry before it is replaced around the
roots. Dig the holes, for resetting, five feet wide
and ten or twelve inches deep. If the holes are
dug too deep it is almost impossible to keep the
tree from sinking too deep in its position, as the
fresh soil settles. In the centre of the hole dig a
deeper hole the width of the spade for the tap-root
With a sharp knife, and where the roots are too
large for the knife, with a sharp saw with fine teeth,
cut away all fractures and bruises from the ends of
roots. So set the tree that it will stand, after the
soil has been settled by showers, a little higher than
it stood in its original bed. It had better be higher


by two inches than lower by one inch than it origi-
nally grew. You cannot be too cautious at this
point. If the tree is set too deep, it may live, but it
will not flourish for some time ; it may be not for
years, but certainly not till it has sent out fresh
surface roots to take the place of those which have
been smothered by having been buried too deeply.
The tree having been put in position, replace the
soil, packing it first firmly around the tap-root
Now press down the ends of the laterals so that
they will have a slight dip, and fill in with soil,
treading it firmly upon the roots. Finally cover
over with two inches of light soil and leave the
ground level. When the ground is sufficiently wet
it is not necessary to use water. But if the ground
is dry, use enough water to settle the soil firmly
around the roots, and especially around the tap-
root, but do not wet the top layer of earth. I pre-
fer planting after showers to using water. If the
planting is done in spring or summer, mulch at
once with one or two inches of litter, and if the
trees have been set in the open ground shelter them
from the sun by setting a pine bough to the south
of the tree. If the stumps have been taken from
a dry soil the above is sufficient to insure their liv-
ing, but if taken from a very wet soil, be careful to
keep the ground moist till the new roots have well
started and penetrated well into the soil. The
stump should be cut off two and a half feet high.
If the stumps have been budded, and the buds have


grown to considerable length, cut them back, leav-
ing here and there a few leaves to direct the current
of the sap into the sweet wood. If the stumps have
not been budded, so soon as the bark begins to
break with new shoots and separate freely from the
wood, insert three or four sprig buds near the top,
and treat the tree as directed in budding the natural
grove. Fertilizers should not be added till the trees
are well established. When fertilizers are applied,
do not place them near the trunk and above the
roots, but a little beyond their extremity.



IN selecting seed for the nursery, if you intend
budding the young trees, you need not be
careful as to the quality of fruit from which the
seed is taken. The plant from the sour seed,
as already stated, will for a few years grow more
rapidly, but make a smaller tree than the plant from
the sweet fruit
If you desire to grow your trees without budding,
select only from the best fruit, and from trees not
grown in the vicinity of any trees bearing sour 6r
indifferent fruit. All the varieties and even species
of the citrus family mix very readily, and if grown
in close proximity, seeds from the same tree will
give an endless variety of fruits, the tendency, how-
ever, being toward the kind produced by the tree
from which the fruit is plucked, as the pistils are
more apt to be fertilized by pollen from flowers
near at hand.
If sour seed are to be planted, the fruit may be
thrown into piles till rotted and the seed washed
out from the pulp. But whatever kind is used, do
not allow the seed to dry. Put them at once into
moist sand, to be kept till ready for planting.


The seeds may be planted either in boxes, or in
the open ground, or under glass, as quantity or
other circumstances may suggest If fruit is eaten
in the early winter, the seed may at once be planted
in boxes and the boxes set in some warm place in-
doors, and the plants be so far advanced as to be
ready to set in the nursery early in the spring.
In preparing beds or boxes for seed, have the bot-
tom soil covered two or three inches deep with fresh
leaf mould from the hummock. Place the seeds
about one inch apart and cover with half an inch of
soil-leaf mould. Finish by a covering of one inch
of mulching and a thorough watering. Keep the
soil moist, but not wet. If the seed-bed is in the
open ground it is well to hold the mulching in
place by laying a few brush on the bed.
I have sometimes succeeded very well by allow-
ing the seed to remain in a box of sand till they
have started to sprout and then planting them di-
rectly in the nursery. In this case select a place
partially sheltered by forest trees. Prepare the soil
thoroughly for ten or twelve inches deep. Open
the rows four feet apart and eight inches deep. Fill
to within two inches of the top with well-rotted
muck, drop the seed three inches apart, and cover
with one and a half inch of soil.
In selecting a position for the nursery, if your
place is well protected by water on the cold points
you may risk your nursery in the open field. But
if you are not satisfied about the protection, select a


position sheltered from the morning sun, to prevent
the too sudden thawing after a frost I would pre-
fer shade on the south as well, as the sun some-
times breaks out suddenly during'a cold snap about
noon. Under such circumstances I have known
serious damage done to young plants. A still bet-
ter plan is to clear away a half or a quarter of an
acre of ground in the midst of a tall forest Around
this half acre or quarter acre sink a ditch two feet
deep, in order to cut the surface roots of the forest
trees. Plow or spade the land deep. Open the
rows four feet apart and eight or ten inches deep,
fill them with good muck or leaf mould clear of such
litter as would attract wood-lice. Over this muck
place an inch or two of soil to keep the muck
moist. A dressing of ashes or slaked lime will be
of advantage, especially if the muck has not been
previously well rotted in heaps. Your land can
now stand till the trees are ready to be taken from
the seed-bed. Some prefer putting the muck, or
whatever fertilizer is used, broadcast over the land.
But my reason for advising the muck to be put in
drills is that if well rotted it will not heat, but will
serve to keep the roots of the young plant in a com-
pact body. A great deal is saved by this means
when you come to transplant to the grove ; the roots
having grown in a compact body, very little will be
lost by root-pruning. And where the distance from
the nursery to the grove is short, and the trans-
planting is done when the ground is wet, the en-


tire ball of muck may be taken along with and ad-
hering to the roots, and the tree hardly feel the
shock of the removal. When the young plants in
the seed-beds are a few inches high and have four
or five leaves, they may be transplanted to the nur-
sery. In taking them up, cut off the ends of the
tap-roots so that they will not be apt to double up
in setting them. The setting is better done in
rainy weather. The ground should be thoroughly
wet in order to insure a good result. The rows can
now be opened four or five inches deep, and the
young plants dropped at a distance of six inches
apart. Let a hand follow, and before the roots have
time to dry set them in an upright position, care-
fully spreading out the roots and packing the soil
around them. Be careful not to set the plants
deeper than they grew in the seed-beds. When a
row or two have been set, level off the ground with
a rake, leaving the sandy soil on the surface and
not the muck, as the latter hardens under the influ-
ence of the sun. If a shower does not follow soon,
it is well to water, in order to settle the earth well
around the roots. If the sun is hot, a little shade
for a few weeks would be beneficial. Pine boughs
can be laid over the ground, or palmetto leaves
stuck along the rows. The nursery should be
thoroughly worked and kept clear of weeds and
grass, and the soil frequently stirred to the depth of
two inches.
Eight or ten months before removing the plants


from the nursery, root-prune the young plants.
This can be done by pushing a sharp spade eight
or ten inches deep on each side, and six inches
from the rows. This can be done more expedi-
tiously by placing a revolving cutter on a plow to
be drawn by a horse. This method of root-pruning
has all the advantage of replanting, with the addi-
tional advantage of great saving of labor and little
check to the growing plants.



HERE it is the purpose of the orange-grower
to bud his trees it is better that the budding
should be done before the trees are taken from
the nursery. The reasons are-Ist, the sooner in
the life of the tree the budding is done the earlier
and more thorough the healing of the wounds;
2d, the budding is done with greater ease and ra-
pidity in the nursery than in the grove; 3d, in
transplanting trees of considerable size it is impos-
sible to take up all the roots, and as it is necessary
that the top should not exceed in proportion the
roots in transplanting trees, it is beneficial to cut
back the top considerably. If the budding has
been done but a few months before transplanting,
the wounds will have healed and the proportion be-
tween the roots and top will have become about
right for transplanting without the necessity of in-
flicting new wounds upon the branches at a time
when the tree is in its most tender condition.
A good time to begin to bud is when the trees in
the nursery are one year old. By budding every
alternate tree the budded trees can be set the fol-


lowing season, leaving greater space for larger
growth of the trees left in the nursery. Those re-
maining can be budded when two years old and
set the season following. Where trees are to be
bought from the nurseryman it is preferable to
plant trees older than one or two years, as older
trees come into bearing sooner. But where per-
sons are growing their own stock, the sooner they
are set, after the first year, in position, the more
rapidly they will grow, if the trees are properly
In budding nursery stock, but one plan, that of
inserting a single bud, is practised. The graft has
not done well. Grafted trees will live, but they do
not grow so thriftily as the budded tree. Grafting
is sometimes resorted to when one wishes to pre-
serve a new variety, and he has obtained a cutting
of this new variety in winter when the sap is not in
condition for budding. Sprig budding is not re-
sorted to for nursery stock, as the stem is usually
too small to admit the sprig. Do not attempt to
bud except when the sap is flowing freely-so freely
that the bud will readily lift the bark as you push
it downward into its position. The stock to be
budded should be trimmed so as to have as few as
possible of branches or leaves in the way of the oper-
ator. The trimming should be done several days
beforehand, so that the wounds may be in a healing
condition and the flow of sap not checked by too
much cutting at the time of budding. The bud-


ding-knife should be sharp, that it may cut through
the hard wood of the bud without splitting the fibre
of the wood or bark.
Select buds from healthy and vigorous trees of
the variety to be propagated. They should not be
too old or they will be slow in starting, nor too
young lest they perish. The wood from which they
are taken should be nearly mature, between the
angular and the round. Select buds with well-de-
veloped eyes. It is sometimes the case that insects
have eaten out the eyes. It is useless to put in
such buds. In cutting the bud from the branch, do
not hold the blade of the knife at right angles with
the branch, as in such a position it is likely to slip
in and out, following the grain of the wood, and so
givmig an uneven surface to the face of the bud.
The face of the bud should be so level and straight
that when it is pushed into its position the cut sur-
face will at all points touch the wood of the
stock and so exclude the air. To prevent this ir-
regularity of surface, hold the blade of the knife
firmly in the hand and almost parallel with the
branch from which the bud is being cut. In cut-
ting, draw the knife to you, as the cut will be
smoother by this method than if the bud were sev-
ered from the branch by simply pressing the blade
through the wood. The knife should be inserted
half an inch above the bud and come out a half or
three quarters of an inch below. It is better to
insert the bud on the north side of the stock. The


incision in the stock should be made with a down-
ward cut and about three fourths of an inch long.
At the top of this incision make a cross incision,
each time only cutting through the bark. With
the point of the knife, turning the back of the blade
to the wood so as not to dull the blade, raise the
bark at the top of and on either side of the first in-
cision, so as to enable you to insert and push down
the bud. If the sap is flowing freely the bud in its
downward motion will easily lift the bark, and as
it takes its position exclude the air from beneath it
and the wood of the stock. After the bud has
been pushed partly down with the fingers, place
the blade of the knife one fourth of an inch above
the eye of the bud and perpendicular to the line of
the first incision, press the knife through the bark
of the bud, and by a downward motion force the
bud down till the knife comes directly over the sec-
ond incision. Tie in the bud with strips of cloth a
quarter or a half inch wide, or, what is better, with
strings of woollen yarn, as its elasticity will not al-
low the strangling of the bud so soon. In tying
do not bring the cloth or string in contact with the
eye of the bud. So wrap as to hold the bud firmly
in its place, and to exclude the rain if any should
fall soon after budding. Revisit the buds eight
or ten days after they have been inserted. If they
are living, take the wrapping from that part of the
bud below the eye. The wrapping above the eye
may be loosened, but it should not be taken off so


soon. Where the bud is living, cut off the stock
three or four inches above. As the bud grows it
should be tied to this upper section of the stock for
support. After the bud has started on its second
growth, if the stock is small it should then be cut
off just above the bud ; if larger, a longer time
should be allowed before cutting off the stock close
to the bud.
Before leaving this subject, attention is called to
the importance of having the top of the bud fit
neatly against the bark above. The law governing
the growth of trees is this : the sap passing upward
through the pores of the sap-wood is elaborated
through the leaf. It is only after the new sap has
entered the leaf and absorbed carbon from the at-
mosphere that it is ready to make new wood. The
sap having secured its carbon descends the tree
mainly between the bark and the wood. As it de-
scends evaporation is carried on through the pores
of the bark, and the thickened sap makes a deposit
along the line of its descent and around the trunk
of the tree just under the bark. This thickened
sap presently hardens into wood. It is this fact,
that new wood is generally formed by this down-
ward flow of sap, which makes it so important that
the top of the bud should come in close contact
with the ufper bark. Placed thus it is put in con-
tact with and in the way of the direct current of
life. Placed otherwise, its chance of life is dependent,
upon lateral circulation or absorption.


If the buds are from the Mandarin or Tangerine
varieties, insert them during spring or autumn, as
they do not live readily when inserted during the
heat of summer.



PECIAL reference should be had to drainage,
soil, water protection, forest protection, prox-
imity to fertilizers, and facilities for transporta-
tion. The soil for a grove should be thoroughly
drained, either naturally or artificially. Not only
should the surface water be carried off, but the
drainage should be so deep as to allow roots, and
especially the tap-root, to penetrate for several feet
Some think that less than ten feet is not sufficient
But there are in this State groves of fine old trees
and good bearers with considerably less than ten
feet of drained soil. The sour stock will flourish
on a much wetter soil than the sweet And it may
be that these groves that have long done well in
such localities are sour stocks budded. Where
choice of location can be made, and especially if
sweet stocks are to be planted, select a soil well
drained by nature. Art and labor can accomplish
a great deal, but it costs something, and the effect
is not so permanent as when nature has done the
work. If no positive evil arise from a wet subsoil
in close proximity to the surface, still there are
reasons why a deep, dry, or moist soil is better.


While it is true that the principal feeders of the
orange lie near the surface, yet whoever will take
the pains to examine the roots of an old orange tree
grown in a deep and well-drained subsoil will find
that these roots have penetrated for many feet deep
into the earth and in all directions from the tree.
Now if trees have been set twenty feet apart in the
grove and the soil is drained but one foot deep, the
roots of each tree have but four hundred cubic feet
of soil in which to feed-2o x 2o 400. But if the
soil has been drained to the depth of ten feet, then
the feeding ground for the roots has been increased
tenfold, and instead of four hundred cubic feet of
soil in which to feed, the tree has four thousand cu-
bic feet-zo x 20 x 1o 4000. This advantage is
more especially to be considered where the subsoil is
sandy, as in such a soil air and other nutriment for
the roots penetrate to a greater depth. But there
are some of these wet soils found in our State that
are positively poisonous to the orange, as they con-
tain a large per centum of salt-chlorade of sodium.
Such is the case with soils underlaid with hard-
pan," a stratum seemingly of dark sandstone, un-
derlying many sections of our State, and generally
but a few feet from the surface. Analysis will
probably show this hard-pan" to be a concrete of
sand, iron, and salt. The best surface indication
of the presence of hard-pan" is an abundance of
saw palmetto with an abundance of roots above the
surface. The palmetto feeds largely upon salt, its


roots containing an unusually large per cent. But
" what is fun" and life to the palmetto is death to
the orange, as well as to the pockets of hundreds of
those who have attempted in vain to grow oranges
on lands underlaid with hard-pan." If your
land has on it an abundance of saw palmetto with
roots on the surface, do not select that location for
an orange grove until you have dug a few feet be-
low the surface in search of hard-pan." If you
wish to ascertain the depth of natural drainage, re-
visit the hole twenty-four hours after it is dug, and
measure the distance from the top of the water to
the surface of the ground. The distance is the
depth of the natural drainage of the soil.
The orange will grow in a variety of soils--in
clayey, sandy, shelly, or loamy soils; in ham-
mocks black or gray; on pine lands or black-jack
ridges. It does well on soil underlaid with clay or
sand. It will even do well on a light soil underlaid
with white sand if fertilizers are annually applied.
But whoever wishes to plant an orange grove should
be careful to select the best available soil. Perhaps
the poorest soil suitable for orange-growing is that
underlaid with a white sand, as such a soil leaches
very readily the soluble manure. Perhaps the best
soil is found in our dark gray hammock with deep
soil underlaid with a yellow clay or yellow sand
subsoil. The natural growth should be tall and
large, with an abundance of live oak and hickory,
as such a growth would indicate an abundance of


lime. Of our pine land, that on which the hickory
is found mixed with the pine, with yellow subsoil,
should rank first Such a soil is really a mixed
hammock and pine. Next to this is the pine
mixed with willow, oak, and black-jack. Consid-
ering the ease with which such lands as the last
two classes are cleared and planted, and the readiness
with which the orange grows on them, they deserve
a high rank, and especially if fertilizers are close at
hand. In selecting a location in the purely pine
lands, select that which is thickly set with tall trees,
well drained, and with a yellow subsoil. Such soils,
if occasionally dressed with alkaline manures, grow
the orange admirably.
While with proper care the orange may be grown
successfully in almost any portion of the State of
Florida, still it is wise to select a location which
may combine all conditions favorable to the best
results. Among the favorable conditions we would
mention water protection. Whoever has travelled
over the State, not by railroad or steamboat, but
through the country, and noted the effects of frost
here and there upon the orange trees, and es-
pecially at the close of a severe winter, must attach
great importance to water protection. Its advan-
tages were known to the old settlers, as witness their
frequent advice to those who in later years have
gone into the orange business. Its advantages
were known to and made available by nature so far
back that the memory of man knoweth not to the


contrary," as witness the many wild-orange groves
to the south-east of lakes and rivers. As our coldest
winds come from the north-west, the benefit of water
protection on any given location is in proportion to
the width of the water lying to the north-west, and
the proximity of such a body of water to said loca-
tion. There may be seeming exceptions to this
general rule. Air currents are governed by laws
similar to those governing water. Hence, when
any obstruction suddenly opposes a current, whether
of air or water, an eddy or circular motion is given
to the current Bodies of timber with dense under-
growth standing on the north or north-west of a
grove and along the shore of the river or lake have
the effect of creating a rolling current of air like a
breaker from the ocean rolling over a sandbar, and
so, when the wind is from the north-west, bring
down upon the grove a stratum of freezing air from
above. The remedy for this is to clear out the un-
derbrush along the shore and allow the warmer air
from the surface of the water to flow through the
grove. The taller trees should stand to keep the
violence of the wind from the orange grove, and to
check the violence of the air current upon the moist
soil, which readily yields its moisture along with its
heat to a strong air current, and so intensifies the
cold. It is regretted that some good locations along
the St. Johns have been marred, and groves made to
suffer damage from want of attention to the above.
The above facts also account for the well-known


fact that the frost sometimes strikes in spots or
Proximity to fertilizers is another favorable con-
dition to be considered. The orange tree is a rav-
enous feeder and an abundant bearer, and however
fertile the original soil may be, and even though it
should be sufficient to produce fine trees and sus-
tain them for a few years, any soil would finally
become exhausted and need to be replenished.
Commercial manures can be bought, but even when
transportation is cheap the cost is considerable.
The abundant and frequent deposits of muck in al-
most every locality have been shown by repeated
experiments to be a valuable fertilizer. It would
be well for the person looking for a location for an
orange grove to have an eye to such a deposit close
to the place for the intended grove. Leaves and
ashes from a hammock close at hand, a shell bank,
or limestone from which lime may be procured,
should also be considered.
Facilities for transportation is the last item to be
noticed in this chapter of favorable conditions to be
considered in locating an orange grove. One other
condition will be discussed in a separate chapter.
The orange will bear transportation well, whether
the expense of transportation or perishableness of
the fruit be considered. But it would be well for
the reader contemplating planting oranges to esti-
mate the cost of hauling, say five miles by wagon
or cart, an average crop of oranges grown on an


acre, before he locates too far from a navigable
stream or from a railroad. He can make the esti-
mate for himself, and it will certainly have some
weight in determining the location.
Some of the finest young trees I have seen in the
State stand upon a sandy loam-the original growth
pine-underlaid with clay four or five feet below
the surface, on which rested a thin stratum of marl.
I have seen trees six years from the seed on such
soils produce from four hundred to five hundred




fHE frequent discussion of the subject consid-
Sered in this chapter among orange-growers,
its importance to all, and especially its impor-
tance to many portions of the State where suc-
cess must ever depend upon either forest or some
artificial protection, demands careful attention.
Many persons have heretofore considered it un-
necessary, and the idea even absurd. But years of
experience and observation, and especially the ex-
perience of the winter of 1876-7, have made many
converts. Let the reader consider some facts that
may be mentioned.
Wild groves have grown luxuriantly, have borne
abundantly, and lasted, no one knows how long,
not suffering, so far as the writer has been informed,
even from the severe frost of 1835 ; and all under
forest protection. Again, all through Florida
in almost every old settled community, and even
in the southern tier of counties in Georgia, there
are a few old trees standing and bearing well fine
fruit. Hundreds seeing these trees have thought
that what has been done once can be done again,
and have planted in the immediate vicinity of such
trees, but unfortunately in the open field, or, what


is equally fatal, where the morning sun would
smite the orange tree after a frost; and have fail-
ed. They have failed to consider that these
trees that have survived so long and done so
well were planted in almost a dense forest, when
only a few forest trees had been cut to give place
to the cabin of the early settler; or that they
were planted on the north or west side of the house
and thus never exposed to sudden thawing; that
under some such protection of house or forest they
passed through the tender age of their early life
until their own boughs could furnish their trunks
the protection needed. As to the questions of pro-
ductiveness and thrift under partial forest protection,
they are settled by the success of the few who in the
face of opposing theories have planted and succeed-
ed. Some of the most thrifty young groves in the
State, grown with less expense and equal to any of
their age in productiveness, have been grown under
the shelter of the pine or oak trees. Many groves
in a most flourishing condition, and supposed to
be well located with reference to protection from
frost, some far south and with considerable water
to the north-west, were seriously damaged in the
winter of I876-7, and many trees beginning to
bear entirely killed ; but the writer has not heard
of a single instance of damage to trees in that win-
ter where they were protected by forest trees stand-
ing to the south and east of the oranges.
Even the lemon, in'76-7, much tenderer than


the orange, was unhurt where so protected. One
other instance. On the south or south-east of Or-
ange Lake stood two beautiful and extensive orange
groves side by side. They were wild groves budded
and just coming into bearing. They both had the
same water protection. One grove was judiciously
protected by forest trees left standing at suitable in-
tervals; the other grove was without such forest pro-
tection. All the forest trees had been cut down.
A few days after the severe frost of the winter of
1876-7 the sheltered grove was still as green as in
midsummer, while the other appeared as though a
fire had swept through it. Its leaves were dead or
fallen, while thousands of dollars' worth of fruit,
frozen and spoiled, hung upon the naked branches.
The owner estimates that if he had left a few forest
trees in his grove they would now be worth to him
twenty thousand dollars. Are not such facts suffi-
cient to check somewhat the reckless destruction of
our noble forest trees and nature's chosen pro-
tectors ?
In leaving trees for purposes of shelter for the
orange, the direction given in Chapter III. on bud-
ding sour groves should be attended to. Suitable
trees at suitable distances should be left. Three
things are especially desirable : ist, the rays of the
early morning sun should be kept from falling di-
rectly on the frosted trees. As the sun hangs far to
the south during our coldest weather, tall forest
trees on the south and east would materially benefit


orange trees standing from one to two hundred feet
from them ; 2d, the rays of the sun should be per-
mitted to fall, during some portion of the day, and
in summer during a considerable portion of the
day, upon each tree in the grove, as the rays of the
sun, direct or indirect, are essential to plant life and
health. But in our sunny climate and long sum-
mers, shade and sun alternating throughout the
day are found to be most favorable to many plants ;
3d, the roots of the forest trees should be kept out
of the way of the principal feeders of the orange.
Of course the orange trees should be as thoroughly
cultivated as if they stood in the open field. Fail-
ures in forest culture-and there have been some
abominable failures have occurred only where
these points have been disregarded.
The following plan is suggested as one to which
it is believed no reasonable exception can be made.
Select a forest of tall and thickly set trees, whether
of pine or hammock. Clear out the underbrush
so as to allow a free circulation of air and to enable
you to lay off more accurately your land. This
done, lay off a straight line as the base of operating.
Allowing your land to be a plat of five acres lying
north and south, let this base line run east and
west fifty feet north of and parallel to your south-
ern boundary. Run a second line one hundred
and five feet north of and parallel to the first; so
continue through the plat, running these east and
west lines at intervals between, alternating from


fifty to one hundred and five, and from one hun-
dred and five to fifty feet apart. Now begin on the
east side, and fifty feet from your eastern boundary
you can run your base line perpendicular to your
first base line. Go through the plat as before, alter-
nating the distances between the lines from fifty to
one hundred and five feet apart. You now have
your land laid off in smaller squares of fifty feet,
and parallelograms of fifty by one hundred and five
feet The timber on these smaller squares and
parallelograms is to be left standing. You have
also a number of large squares 105 x 105, or about
one quarter of an acre each. These larger squares
are to be cleared of the timber and made ready for
planting orange trees, and each square will be
found to be surrounded on all sides by a strip of
timber fifty feet wide. Around these squares next
to the timber cut a ditch two and a half, or, if you
wish, three feet deep, so as to cut all the roots of
forest trees that would interfere with the orange.
To prevent this ditch from draining the moisture
from the grove, fill it with the litter from the orange
land and leaves from the forest The next year
clear out this ditch, use the rotten leaves as a fer-
tilizer for your grove, and fill the ditch again with
leaves from the forest around. By this means you
can have an endless supply of manure close at
hand, and you can have the benefit of the sun and
the benefit of forest protection without any damage
from the roots of the forest trees.

In sections where the frost does not fall so heav-
ily these squares for the orange may be greatly en-
larged. But for the northern tier of counties in
this State, where there may not be sufficient water
protection, the dimensions given are large enough.
With such a system as the above no man in Flor-
ida who has the soil and the timber need hesitate to
plant largely of this valuable fruit, both for himself
and for market
In the cut below, the dark lines represent the
forest which has not been cut away ; the white spaces
represent the spaces cleared for orange trees.




UCH has been said and written in certain por-
tions of Florida concerning the frost line"
and the orange belt" I regret to put into this
treatise a single line that savors of controversy. But
justice and truth demand that certain statements be
corrected, and the public informed as to the facts.
There are so many good places in Florida that
many men who have places imagine theirs to be
best. Now it is very fortunate that there are so
many good places, but it is very unfortunate that
one section should be praised by its inhabitants to
the detriment of another equally good. No good
has come to the State at large, and I doubt if any
will come, in the long run, to the special community
that pursues such an unjust course. The climate
of Florida is so excellent, her soil so varied, her at-
tractions so great, that multitudes will continue to
come, as they are now coming, from the Northern
and Western States, and from Europe, till all our
goodly land is filled with a thrifty and contented
population. Do not let any of her citizens say
anything that would injure the adopted mother of
us all.


As to the frost line," there is no portion of
the peninsula of Florida that is not subject to oc-
casional frost. I have seen the effects of frost as
low down as Fort Myers. Persons whose state-
ments are entirely reliable, and residents of the sec-
tion, have told me time and again that they have
occasionally had their vegetables killed on the ex-
treme southern capes of the peninsula. That frost
is modified by latitude there is no question ; that
the southern portions of the State are less liable to
frost than the northern portions there is no doubt;
but do not deceive the immigrant by saying or im-
plying that any portion of the mainland of Florida
is entirely exempt from frost And I do no, know
that this is to be deprecated. For while "Jack
Frost" is an unskilled pruner, and by the little cut-
ting he does in Florida may do some hurt, yet I
think upon the whole both the orange tree and the
health of the inhabitants are the better for his visits.
I am sure my own orange trees were never so free
from insects and in so healthy condition as to-day,
eight months after the frost of December, 188o.
And the only trees of my grove now giving indica-
tion of rust on the fruit are those where the frost
left a few leaves, giving a wintering and start to the
rust insect
As to the orange belt," there is no orange
belt" in Florida, unless those who so frequently use
that expression mean to embrace the entire State.
I do not mean to say that certain portions of the


State are not more favorable to the growth of the
orange than other portions, but I do mean to say that
the orange is so hardy that it can be grown profitably
in any part of Florida where proper cultivation is be-
stowed and available protection given against the
effects of frost No finer oranges are grown than are
grown in West Florida. On Fort George Island, at
the mouth of the St John's River, the thermometer
fell to 160, and yet the young grove of Mr. Stuart,
planted according to the diagram given in the last
chapter, is at present writing in fine condition. A
few trees have done well on the mainland across
the line dividing Florida and Georgia, while on the
islands along the coast old groves in good condi-
tion are to be found as high up as South Carolina.
The frost of last winter caused the leaves to drop
from the trees of the last-named groves, but the
owners with whom I have recently conferred report
their trees in good condition.
I do not wish to be understood as advising per-
sons who wish to come to Florida exclusively to
plant oranges to settle in Middle Florida. Other
portions of the State would suit better for this busi-
ness. But were I owner of some of the fine lands
of the above-named section, and had such excel-
lent protection as their fine forests and lakes afford,
I should not hesitate to plant largely of the golden



HIS is a matter of such moment that it needs
to be closely studied, and, if possible, thoroughly
understood by all persons engaged in agricultural
or horticultural pursuits. Either extreme of heat
or cold is damaging to vegetation. Some plants
are hardier than others, and so are less easily affect-
ed by either extreme. Some families of plants are
so hardy that they extend over nearly the habitable
part of our globe. Some perennials are created
with reference to greater heat, and are so limited in
their natural condition to the tropics or the torrid
zone. Others are created with reference to extreme
cold, and hence are found in Arctic regions or on
lofty mountains. While others, annuals, reach
maturity within a few months, in order that their
growth may be extended over a wider area of earth.
These live in cold climates only during the warm
months. Some plants are limited to a very narrow
belt. Humboldt gives the natural limit of the or-
ange from 120 to 40 north latitude. Of course
the orange can survive in this higher latitude only
where the climate is affected by warm ocean cur-


Cold and heat are nature's great agents in
breaking down rocks, disintegrating earths, and so
converting into soluble manures for the use of
plants what otherwise would be useless for plant-
life. In higher latitudes the effect of cold is to
suspend circulation during the winter months, in
order that the soil may store up during winter an
ample amount of plant-food for the great effort of
Nature to make fruit It is owing to this that vege-
tation in cold regions puts forth more rapidly dur-
ing the short summers, and that fruit trees in such
regions are so uniform in the production of fruit
This hint should be taken by the growers of or-
anges in the semi-tropics. When their trees fail to
put on a sufficient quantity of fruit, let them manure
in the fall or early winter-sufficiently soon for the
manure to reach the roots before the buds begin to
swell. Thus stimulated, the bush that would only
put forth the less effort and produce a leaf or
branch may be forced to the greater effort to pro-
duce fruit This fall manuring might prove inju-
rious to a young tree, with wood too immature for
the production of fruit, by forcing it to put forth
shoots so early as to be nipped by a late frost But
it would have the opposite effect on a bearing tree,
by forcing the production of blossom and fruit in-
stead of tender branches, as both blossom and fruit
of the orange will stand much more cold than the
newly started leaves and branches. I have not infre-
quently seen considerable frost fall upon both blos-


som and young fruit without any damage. In re-
gions where there is no frost, the orange tree, when
sufficiently fed, is in the habit of fruiting continu-
When water freezes it expands. It is owing to
this law that cold is so fatal to plants fully charged
with sap, mainly composed of water. The sap, by
expanding, ruptures the cellular tissue-the woody
cells containing the sap. The oxygen of the at-
mosphere penetrates these ruptures, and, combining
with the sap, induces fermentation. Unless pre-
vented, either by artificial or natural means, this fer-
mentation will extend itself to contiguous parts
until the whole plant is destroyed, when only a
small portion of the tender wood may, in the first
instance, have been frosted. Nature's method is
to close behind the rupture all avenues against the
penetration of the atmosphere by a deposit of glu-
tinous or gummy substance furnished by the inner
bark. When the old wood or bark decays or drops
off, this inner becomes the outer bark, and so the
damage is greatly and sometimes wholly repaired.
The artificial remedy is to cut off the frosted wood
and at once apply an artificial skin impervious to
the atmosphere. Many persons who have treated
frosted orange and lemon trees have failed at this
latter point. They have cut off a part or all the
frosted wood, but left a surface to be cracked by
the sun or drying of the wood, and so only opened
fresh avenues for the penetration of the atmosphere.


It is better not to cut at all unless the wound is to
be covered at once. Shellac dissolved in alcohol,
or a coating of whitewash, or a soft paste made of
lime and fresh cow-dung, are good applications.
When a plant is frosted, the direct rays of the sun
will suddenly thaw and so contract the bark as to
enlarge the avenues to the atmosphere and make
the cold more fatal in effect Hence, shading a
frozen plant, or thoroughly drenching with water, is
often a preventive of injury. I have seen orange
trees saved by setting a pine bough or other shelter
on the south and east, and when the thaw occurs
in the afternoon, on the west side of the tree.
It has before been mentioned that the sowing of
oats thickly upon the ground in the fall will check
the circulation of sap during winter by taking up
the soluble manures. Nature has two methods of
fortifying perennials against the effects of severe
frost. One method is to deplete the tree of sap
during winter. Deciduous trees are so rendered
hardy. Their wood during winter contains so lit-
tle sap that the expansion by frost is not sufficient
to rupture the cells. Another method is to so com-
mingle oil with the water of the sap as to counteract
this law of expansion universal to frozen water.
While frozen water expands, frozen oil or hydro-
carbonates contract. The clockmaker has faintly
imitated nature in this. By combining different
metals in the rod which suspends the pendulum he
has made the law of expansion furnish him with a



rod equal in length whatever the changes from heat
to cold. All resinous woods, such as the pine,
the fir, etc., are of the class so protected by na-
ture. Hence, though found in almost all habitable
latitudes, these are under no necessity of shedding
their foliage.
The orange tree approximates in the character of
its sap to this order of plants, and is therefore, though
a tropical plant, able to stand the changes of a semi-
tropical climate.




SEFORE the work of transplanting begins, the
soil for the grove should be well prepared.
It is most generally the case that the great hurry to
get the trees into the ground causes much neglect
at this point, but this policy is a bad one. The
haste should have reference to the early fruiting
and rapid growth of the tree; and they are not
brought about by careless preparation of the soil.
The soil should be deeply and thoroughly broken,
and the ground cleared of the roots. To insure the
setting of the trees a proper and uniform depth, the
ground should be levelled with harrow or drag.
No manure should be used at the time of setting,
nor before, unless applied some months before set-
ting and thoroughly incorporated with the soil.
The best time for setting trees is the late winter
or early spring, before the new wood has started.
The ground is then cool, and the roots in as dor-
mant condition as at any time during the year. It
is better that the ground should be wet and the
setting followed by showers. But wet soil is not so
essential at this time of the year as it is when the
transplanting has been done later and the ground


and sun are warmer. If the work of transplanting
has not been completed before the warm, dry
weather of spring has set in and before new wood
has advanced far, it is best to defer the work till the
frequent showers of August and September begin
to fall. Good results sometimes follow summer,
fall, and winter planting, but these seasons are not
so good as the months of February, March, and
April. One exception to this rule should be stated.
Where trees are to be set under forest protection so
that they will escape any damage from frost, the
late fall is the best time, as trees set at that time are
well established and ready to start by the spring.
In taking up the trees great care should be taken
to prevent breaking or bruising the roots. As
many roots as possible should be taken up. If the
distance from the nursery to the site of the grove
be short, and the nur ry rows have been well ma-
nured with muck, and the ground is wet at the
time of lifting the trees from the nursery, much of
the soil can be taken along with the roots. Imme-
diately on lifting the roots from the ground they
should be trimmed with a sharp knife wherever they
are found to have been bruised or broken. The
lower part of the tap-root also should be cut off to
prevent its doubling up on being reset. Twelve or
eighteen inches is sufficiently long for the tap-root
Put the tree under shade, and cover the roots with
wet moss as soon as possible. Do not allow the
fibrous roots to dry, as they are very delicate and


soon perish. Should they die before setting, cut
them off, for if left on after they have died they will
only impede the starting of new rootlets. Keep
them protected up to the moment of setting, taking
but one tree at a time from its covering of moss.
To insure still further against damage to the tender
roots, have on hand a half barrel of muck made
into a thin paste, and as fast as the trees are lifted
and the roots trimmed, plunge the roots into this
paste, take them out, and wrap in moss.
The holes for the trees should be freshly dug.
The work of setting is easily and rapidly done by
three hands working together-one to dig the holes,
one to prune and set the tree, and a third to fill in.
The holes should be dug in the shape of an invert-
ed saucer or truncated cone with about two inches
of the top cut off. Proceed thus: Around the
stake which marks the place for the tap-root, with
a shovel or hoe take away the soil, letting the tool
strike the top of the soil at the stake, and continue
to dig deeper into the soil until at a distance of
eighteen inches from the stake it has penetrated six
inches below the surface. Proceed thus around the
stake until it is completed. This gives the greatest
depth of the hole on the outer edge or perimeter
of the circle. Now take up the stake, and cut two
inches of the top off the cone. Where the stake
stood, push down the spade by working it back and
forth until it has penetrated the ground about
eighteen inches, or the full length of the tap-root


of the tree to be set Now insert the tap.root in
this hole made by the spade. Be careful not to
set the tree deeper than it grew in the nursery.
With the hand pack the soil firmly around the tap-
root. Next spread the lateral roots over the cone,
taking care to distribute them evenly over the cone.
Throw on two inches of dirt and press it firmly
with the feet Finish by throwing in soil and lev-
elling the ground, leaving the last layer of soil un-
Before the tree is left it should be trimmed with
shears in proportion to the trimming done to the
If planting is done in summer or in hot weather,
and the ground is not protected by forest trees, it is
better to mulch.
If trees are older than three years, and wild
grown, it may be necessary to dig the holes deeper
than directed above, but the point of this caution is
against deep setting. The writer is satisfied that
more trees have been diseased and retarded in their
growt, and frequent, y kilkd, AMtl e MtIB 11Mn
by any other one cause.



SN the grove the distance apart at which trees
should be placed depends upon the character
of the trees to be set. The seedling should have
the greatest distance, the sweet seedling budded
less, and the sour stock budded least of all.
In Europe, where budding on sour stock is gen-
erally practised, and land is much costlier than in
this country, trees are set much closer than is the
custom in Florida. In the former country, where
set in the open ground, they are frequently put as
close as ten or twelve feet apart, and where artificial
covering during the winter is resorted to, still nearer.
But in Europe orange trees never grow to the size
they attain in Florida. In some of the old groves
in this State where the trees stand forty feet apart
the ground is completely covered by the branches of
trees that have grown up since 1835. Thirty or
forty years, however, is too long a 'time to leave
the land uncovered. Trees planted nearer together
will soon protect each other.
The rule I have observed for some time is to set
budded trees on sour stock 21 x 2 feet; budded


trees on sweet stock, 25 x 25, and sweet seedlings,
30 x 30 feet.
When the planter wishes to set the budded and
seedling in the same grove, a good plan is to set the
sweet seedling 30 x 30, and then in the centre of
the square formed by four trees set a budded tree.
The budded trees will come into bearing some years
before the seedling trees, and by so much lessen
the dead expense of the grove. Another advantage
of the last-named plan is, that space will be econo-
mized and the trees still be at a uniform distance
from each other.




HE orange will live with almost no cultiva-
tion, but it will only be a sickly existence. I
know no plant, shrub, or tree that will pay better
for good cultivation; none that will respond so
certainly to thorough cultivation.
The ground in the grove should be kept level, the
surface light As far as the roots have extended the
surface should not be stirred deeper than three
inches. The more frequently it is stirred the bet-
ter. Beyond the reach of the roots it is well to cul-
tivate deep and frequently, but as the roots extend
themselves this area of deep cultivation should be
lessened. After the roots have extended themselves
well over the ground, the best plow to be used is
the sweep. A single thirty-two-inch sweep, or a
gang plow, the middle or front plow twenty-two
inches wide, and the two side plows fourteen inches
each, does excellent work. It is better than the
turning plow or cultivator. The sweep is much
more uniform in the depth of its cutting than either.
It is much more rapid in its work than the single
plow. It is more apt to cut off the weeds below
the surface and destroy them than the cultivator.


With such an implement, a grove free from stumps
and litter is easily and cheaply kept in fine condi-
While the orange trees are young it is of advan-
tage to keep the ground planted in garden crops-
peas, beans, potatoes, tomatoes, anything that re-
quires frequent work and will mature within a few
weeks, partially shading the ground. Of course
nothing should be taken from the ground without
making adequate return in the form of manures.
Suitable fertilizers will be noticed in a separate
Where the trees are planted far apart, and ten or
twelve years will elapse before the ground will be all
occupied by the orange, grapes and peaches will
do well and prove profitable, provided the soil is
well drained.
At no time should the roots of grass and weeds
be allowed to mat themselves on land growing the
orange. Not only will they draw heavily upon the
soil while they are growing, but when turned over
the turf and matted roots will necessarily leave the
surface very irregular, causing the ground to dry
rapidly under the influence of sun and wind. Some
have advised cultivation to cease during August and
September, alleging it to be better to allow the
weeds and grass to grow after these months in order
to check the fall growth, and thus allow the wood
of the orange to so harden as to resist the influence
of frost during the winter. But the writer has ex-


perimented extensively and expnsively--considering
results-with the above policy, and where others
were pursuing the same policy he has advised them
to try clean culture or garden crops on a part of
the grove, and in every instance where the land
has been kept thoroughly cultivated the trees have
doubled, in size and thrift, those allowed to be left
to the mercy of the weeds and grass.
Another result should be considered in this con-
nection. Where grass and weeds are allowed to
grow in the grove they are generally killed by the
frost during the fall or winter. In this condition
they absorb and part with moisture very readily, ab-
sorbing moisture when the atmosphere is warmer
than the ground, and yielding it up when the at-
mosphere is cooler than the ground or the wind is
blowing. But to part with moisture is to part with
heat and increase the cold. In some sections of
Europe, before the invention of ice machines, con-
siderable ice was collected and stored away where
the general temperature was only 40o. The freez-
ing was induced by simply covering over lightly
and surrounding the ice ponds with wet straw. The
wind passing through the wet straw took up from
the exposed and larger surface of the straw its
moisture together with its heat and left the water to
freeze. To leave any dry straw, weeds, or litter on
the ground during the winter only intensifies the
cold and invites the frost. The writer knows of sev-
eral beautiful groves that were entirely frozen down


from this cause, while others in the immediate vi-
cinity were unhurt. Mulching during the winter
has a similar effect In this immediate neighbor-
hood an old and beautiful orange tree was heavily
mulched during winter. It was the only tree hurt
by the frost in the grove that was hurt very badly,
taking two or three years to recover. While the
trees are young, keep the grove clear of grass and
weeds, summer and winter. If you mulch during
the summer, bury the mulching as the winter ap-
proaches; dig holes and bury the litter. This in-
struction is for young and tender trees. When the
surface of the ground is well shaded by older trees,
general mulching is recommended, as will be seen
in another chapter.
In cultivating the grove with the plow there is a
constant tendency of the soil to pile up around the
trunk of the tree. This should be watched, and if
the crown of the lateral surface roots is a half inch
below the surface, from this or from deep planting,
the soil should be drawn from around the trunk till
the upper sides of these roots are brought to the top
of the ground. If the upper parts of these roots
are left bare for one or two inches, where trees are
five or six years old, and for a greater distance
where the trees are older, these roots develop very
rapidly, and not only furnish stout braces to the
trunk, but great arteries for conveying life and
food from the soil. This point is so little under-
stood and attended to by many cultivators that it


may be well to explain further. This development of
the crown roots is nature's plan when it is not in-
terfered with. Whoever will visit and examine a
natural forest, whether of orange or other trees, will
find the top of the crown roots from one to several
inches above the ground and running in many in-
stances, as great braces, well up the trunk of the
tree. This development of the crown is slow at
first, but increases in proportion as the upper sur-
face of the roots lift themselves above the surface of
the ground. This development can be hastened by
taking away the earth from above the roots for a
short distance from the tree, as mentioned above.
The principle is the same as that adopted for the
development of the bulb of the onion by taking the
earth from around it. The root of the plant, being
more porous than the stem, parts more readily with
its moisture at the point where it is exposed, and
hence the thickened sap lodges more readily at that
point, and so hardens into wood and increases the
growth. As the upward circulation passes only
through the new or sap wood, this enlarged base
furnishes, at the very seat of life and strength, new
and increased capacity to the tree.




SHEN the preceding chapter was published,
four years ago, the writer hoped he had put
the importance of good cultivation so forcibly as to
induce any reader of the first edition of this treatise
to fairly cultivate any orange trees that he might
plant with the wish to make them productive and
profitable. But four years of additional observa-
tion and experience convince the writer that a large
percentage of those who are engaged in orange-
planting in Florida are wasting time and means by
careless cultivation. Now let me drop this indirect
munier Of upweaing of the writer as the third per-
son. I want to look you in the eye, reader, and
say to you if you do not intend to cultivate your
trees thoroughly, or have them cultivated thorough-
ly, do not waste money by buying land and having
it planted in trees. In no business is the old aph-
orism truer than in orange-growing, What is
worth doing at all is worth doing well." I would
add, what is poorly done in this business is apt to
bring poor return or no return to the owner of a
grove. I will give one or two instances of many,
very many, that have come under my observation.


A little more than twelve months ago a gentle-
man from Middle Florida purchased a portion of a
grove that had been planted two or three years in
Orange County. At the time of the purchase I
could see no advantage in size or thrift of trees or
excellence of soil in favor of that portion of the
grove retained over that portion sold. Since the
division of the grove the purchaser has had his part
of the grove plowed once or twice. The other part
of the grove has been well cultivated and fertilized.
To-day the cultivated trees look as though they
were several years older than the uncultivated-this
difference thus brought about in one year. One
other instance : Some years ago a neighbor bought
several hundred trees from a nurseryman, who ad-
vised him to suspend cultivation in August, in order
that the growth of grass and weeds might check the
growth of fall wood as a prevention of frost.
Another party advised the planter to cultivate one
half his trees throughout the summer and note the
different results. He did so, cultivating small crops
among the trees. The advantage gained in half a
year is so marked that four years, so far from oblit-
erating the evidence, has made it only the more ap-
One word about this often-expressed opinion and
advice, to stop cultivation in August, in order to
check the fall growth and give the wood time to
harden before frost." The orange tree, if well cul-
tivated, will make from three to four growths dur-


ing summer. If not manured later than June,
thorough cultivation will only hasten forward the
seasons of growth and ripening of the wood before
fall. Besides, vigorous health with well-ripened
wood is one of the best protections against damage
by frost. If the object be to prevent any winter
growth and suspend active circulation of sap during
winter, this can be better secured by seeding the
land heavily in oats The growing oats will take
up all soluble manures in the soil and leave the
young orange trees to rest till spring.
Various discussions have been entered into
throughout the State as to the relative value of deep
and shallow culture. The disputants on the differ-
ent sides have usually reached their conclusions
not by generalizing, but by induction" from a
single experience or observation. One gentleman
who had met with marked success in orange-growing
wrote as the secret of success, Deep plowing,"
" Tear up the roots." Convinced that there must
be something unusual about the soil that would
produce fine trees and fruit under such a method,
I visited his grove, found it planted upon an oak
scrub with no fertility in the upper soil, but under-
laid a few feet from the surface with clay, on which
rested a stratum of marl.' The mystery was solved.
There being no nourishment in the upper soil, the
roots had gone down to where they might find
food, and so were little disturbed by the deep plow-
ing. Indeed, the deep plowing only let in the


sunlight and air for the further penetration of roots.
But this case is exceptional. Nature's method is
to deposit the most valuable manures near the sur-
face of the ground. Trees, weeds, and grasses are,
by means of roots, reaching down to bring up some
of these manures from beneath, while the leaves
are reaching out to gather other manures from the
atmosphere, and so from these two directions nature
is gathering and combining in organized and useful
forms substance for plant-food to be deposited
upon the surface of the soil, to be carried down by
means of rain to the roots of the growing crops.
Hence with nearly all plants, and especially those
having yellow roots, the orange included, the most
abundant feeders lie near the surface. Hence the
most natural means of cultivating a grove is to
mulch the entire surface with sufficient material to
prevent any growth of weeds or grass. This meth-
od gives a treble advantage-it secures sufficient
moisture for the roots of the orange, it avoids the
necessity of cultivation with either hoe or plow,
and gives sufficient fertility to the soil. This
method is especially adapted to natural groves that
have been budded and to groves planted on low
lands. In the first instance, nature has already placed
the roots near the surface, and it is poor policy to
disturb the roots by plow or hoe, and so attempt to
force nature from its long-established habit In the
second instance the roots will not penetrate a wet
soil, but grow near the surface. The flourishing


condition of the groves at Federal Point, on the St.
John's, and other groves where the surface water
can be carried off by shallow ditches, sufficiently
demonstrates that the orange can be successfully
grown on low lands by mulching, or by shallow
cultivation with the hoe, or, as in some instances
where the soil is rich, by mowing the grass and
weeds twice a year and leaving them to rot on the
Where material is abundant and near at hand,
mulching is the cheapest method of cultivation, as it
is equivalent to both manure and frequent disturb-
ing the surface with hoe and plow. In many parts
of Florida abundant material is at hand. Leaves
from our forests can easily be collected and carted
to the ground. In many places a horse-rake can
be used for gathering them in piles. The wire-
grass can be cut by hoe, or better, where the forest
is open, by means of a mower and horse-rake. Our
marsh lands along our extended coast and the banks
of our numerous rivers and lakes in Florida are at
no distant day to be utilized and made valuable by
furnishing thousands of tons annually for the pur-
pose of mulching. The first year of my residence
in Florida, living on a lake with a margin covered
with grass growing above the water, I constructed a
flat-bottom boat with a mower attached in front
and driven by man-power, which enabled three men
working a half day in a week to furnish nine head
of horses with abundant and nutritious forage.


Such a machine impelled by steam could be made
to do the work of a hundred men, and furnish
mulching to growers on the banks of our rivers at
a cost not exceeding one or two dollars per ton.



RUNING is universally adopted by nature. In
the forest all the branches of the little oaks and
pines are near the ground. But as the trees grow
these lower branches die and drop off. A few years
later we behold thousands of graceful, well-trimmed
trunks. Where the oak grows up in the open field
its method is to prune the inner branches and ex-
tend the surface, giving what fruit-growers call an
open head. The grape-vine prunes itself. Where
its branches are thickest the tendrils first strangle
and then cut off some of the excessive branches.
It is the Divine plan. I am the true vine, and
my Father is the husbandman. Every branch in
me that beareth not fruit, he cutteth away; and
every branch that beareth fruit, he pruneth it that it
may bear more fruit." Wise is the man who will
follow such teaching. Happy is the man who has
a taste for such work and can take up the voca-
tion first taught man when the Lord God put him
into the garden of Eden to dress it and to keep
it;" especially where he can dress a garden of this
golden fruit-a relic of Eden--that is pleasant
to the sight and good for food."


It may be said, If nature prunes at all, let her
do it all." Yes, and it may be said, If nature
plants and grows the corn at all,_why should I take
the trouble to plant and cultivate ?" But such a
man will reap little more than the harvest of his
folly and indolence. Nature makes suggestions,
but does not propose to do all the work where
man's interest is especially concerned. Even be-
fore thorns and briers had sprung up, it was man's
duty and to his interest to dress the garden" so
perfectly planted. Again, where nature prunes,
knots and dead wood often become the starting
points for extensive decay. But where a living
branch is cut off with a sharp knife from a vigor-
ous tree, the wound soon heals over, leaving no scar
nor injury.
The writer has practised on a grove of about 4000
trees all the methods of pruning, and not pruning,
to satisfy himself as to the best method. Noi has
he spared himself the trouble of visiting many of
the best groves in the State, watching the opera-
tions of others, and questioning them closely as to
their practice and the results. He will not trouble
the reader with the many theories advanced, much
less with discussing them. A few essential points
are all that are necessary to be attended to.
In pruning, the sharper the knife or saw, the bet-
ter. Let the cut be clean and smooth. When the
knife is used it is better to cut up than down, as
the downward cut is apt to split the wood and peel


off the bark. Do the principal pruning in the
spring. By all means avoid fall or winter pruning,
as it is apt to start new wood at a time when it is
most exposed to damage from frost Cut off all
dead wood, and up to or a little into the living
wood. Thereby the wound heals more readily. As
a general rule cut off all diseased branches, es-
pecially if they have become so far diseased as to fail
to develop healthy leaves. Do not trim up the
trunk too high. Encourage the lower branches to
extend themselves well around the trunk and far
over the surface of the ground. If they do not
touch the ground they are not too low. As the
tree grows these branches will continue to droop
nearer the ground until the lowest may have to be
cut off after a while; but this late cutting off is
much better than to have the trunk exposed either
to sun or cold.
Give and keep an open head to the tree. To do
this, select the most vigorous lateral branches, leav-
ing some on all sides of the tree, so as to obtain a
head as uniformly balanced as possible. After cut-
ting off the other branches close to the trunk, trim
up these selected branches almost to a point, leaving
only a few of the terminal smaller branches. When
this is done the tree will look like a skeleton, and
you will likely conclude you have used the knife
too freely. But if this pruning has been- done in
the spring, and you keep the water" shoots pulled
off the trunk, and cultivate well, you will find the


trunk by winter inclosed in a beautiful head, with a
dense wall of foliage on the outside. The next
spring trim these laterals in a similar manner, al-
lowing the first laterals to rebranch a little distance
from the trunk so as to be able to fill up the larger
area by fall. Continue this method till your tree is
large enough to bear its first crop. You can then
slacken your pruning so as to encourage the fruit-
There are several advantages arising from judi-
cious pruning. Whenever a branch dies, it not only
ceases to benefit the tree, but becomes a drain on
its sap and vitality, as an ulcer to the human body.
The same is true, to some extent, with a diseased
branch. Moreover, as a branch begins to die, its
fermenting sap is slowly taken up into the general
circulation, and so the disease extends itself some-
times to the entire tree, unless it be cut off below
the sound wood. This is especially the case when
the frost has partially killed the young wood. The
writer has known quite vigorous trees to be killed,
not only to the ground, but entirely, by neglect at
this point The open head not only gives room for
the free circulation of air through the branches, but
also enables the gardener to watch the trunk and
larger branches and remove from them insects that
might prove damaging. Anotheradvantage, arising
from the open head is, it causes the lower branches
to extend themselves far out from the trunk, and so
gives a greater bearing capacity to the tree. Trees

in the grove of the writer pruned after this plan have
doubled in development within two years, in their
surface area, others standing by their side with the
same treatment, except that the latter were not




HIS has never been sufficiently appreciated in the
South. Her broad acres have always tempted
to planting too much land and using too little ma-
nure. Somehow, when Northern men come South
they, too, yield to the temptation and fall into the
Southern fashion. And yet po soil responds more
readily to the influence of manure than our warm
Southern soil. The manure put by Peter Hender-
son on a single acre would be deemed by any
Southern farmer ample for the broad fields of cot-
ton stretching around his decaying mansion. A
few men are wiser; they have ceased to fell the
forest for more land, and are contracting the planted
area of the old land. They are endeavoring to in-
crease their crops by manuring. Such men have
succeeded, and are still succeeding. Some I know
have grown rich by such a policy.
No crop feeds more ravenously than the orange,
and none will convert so large an amount of suitable
fertilizers into fruit so profitably. Much of our
Florida land will produce and sustain fine trees for
a few years without the aid of manure; but after
some years of fruiting the leaves will begin to turn


yellow, indicating a deficiency in the soiL Some
of our lands considered poorest-black-jack ridges
-in the vicinity of dwellings grow fine trees, and
continue to sustain fine crops of excellent oranges.
But these trees so located are almost daily replen-
ished with accidental deposits of nitrogenous ma-
nures (the principal fertilizers needed on black-jack
lands), as well as considerable wood-ashes and soot
from the daily fires of the kitchen, and suds from
the washtub. The flourishing condition of these
trees only shows the advantage of manures.
It is not safe to manure trees at the time of plant-
ing. In some instances this has succeeded very
well, but only when the manure has been long
composted and frequently turned, so that no fer-
mentation will occur around the wounded roots.
When manuring will be done thus early it is better
to scatter it on the ground and turn it several times
in the soil some weeks before the tree is planted.
After the tree has been planted and once started
to grow, it is then well to manure it heavily till it
begins to bear. Begin with a moderate quantity,
applying near the outer extremity of the lateral
roots, and increase the quantity every year and en-
large the area to which it is applied. When garden
crops are planted, scatter the manure broadcast.
Aim to make the ground rich-rich as a city garden.
It will pay for the manure and cultivation if the
ground be planted and well cultivated in crops, and
especially if planted in vegetables where a market


can be readily reached. There are several advan-
tages derived from generous manuring when the
trees are young: not only is the development of
the tree hastened, but the tree is less liable to be
attacked by some of the insects, and when attacked
is better enabled to resist their ravages; and when
in vigorous health, but not making new wood
during winter, it is less liable to be damaged by the
influence of frost To prevent this last-named evil
the young tree should never be stimulated in the
fall or latter part of the summer. It is much bet-
ter to manure in the spring. Another advantage to
be noted is, when trees are pushed before coming
into bearing, the heavy manuring does no damage
to the fruit
The kind of fertilizer to be used depends largely
upon the character of the soil. If the land planted
was originally heavily set in hard wood, and the
ashes of the wood, cut in clearing, have been scat-
tered on the ground, it is more than likely that the
soil for a few years will have a sufficiency of lime,
soda, and potash. In that case nitrogenous ma-
nures will be needed. But if all the hard wood has
,been taken off the land and no ashes left, such a
soil will likely have become poor in calcareous
manures (as the readiness with which the pine
springs up in our worn hammock lands shows), and
should be treated as the pine lands, and manures
applied containing all the elements of vegetable
life used by the roots.


Some of the commercial manures are valuable,
when used in combination with other things, but
none of them contain in the right proportions all the
elements needed for the orange. The writer has
used and seen used a large variety of these fertil-
izers, and some benefit has been derived from most
of them. From others no advantage has been dis-
coverable. A good article of ground bone, where
the oils and phosphoric acid have not been too
generally expelled by burning; Peruvian guano,
and potash, both the nitrate and sulphate, are very
good when combined with muck. These are es-
pecially valuable when early vegetables are to be
grown among the orange trees, as they highly stim-
ulate the soil and hasten forward both the vegetables
and orange trees.
Land plaster should be especially mentioned as
beneficial to our sandy soil, as it not only furnishes
an important element to the soil, but in the ab-
sence of clay in most of our soil furnishes a valuable
absorber and retainer of the volatile manures so
easily expelled by our abundance of sunshine. The
writer thinks he has seen another advantage in the
use of land plaster in the check which the sulphur,
contained in the plaster, has upon some of the in-
sects which damage the trees.
Green crops turned under are highly beneficial
to young trees. Rye, oats, and barley, sown in the
fall and turned under in the spring and followed by
one or two crops of cow peas during the summer,


help forward a grove of trees wonderfully. It is
still better if this be accompanied by a liberal dress-
ing of wood-ashes. One ton to the acre is not too
Manures from the stables, cow-pens, hennery, and
pig-sty, indeed from every place where waste is de-
posited, should first be deodorized by the liberal
use of land plaster or sulphate of iron-copperas-
dissolved in water and composted with muck, and
be carefully saved and utilized. As they are highly
stimulating, they should be composted with three or
four times the quantity of muck, and frequently
turned before using.
But of all the manures, that which is cheapest
and most abundant is the muck to be found in our
rivers, creeks, lakes, and ponds. A good article
of muck is little less than decomposed vegetable
matter. Leaves, wood, weeds, and grass, as they
have fallen, have been washed into these deposits and
decomposed under water so slowly and so excluded
from the atmosphere that they have lost little of
their original elements. Here they have been pre-
served by nature, as in the crucible of the chemist,
for ages, and now lie in rich and vast deposits for
the use of the orange-grower. Some who have
supposed they were using muck have been mistak-
en. They have found a black sand with a little
vegetable matter with it. If they had taken a little
of it and washed it they would have found little else
than sand, and some of it, that of a brown granular


appearance, of a similar nature to hard-pan."
Such a deposit is of no value, and that containing
the brown sand is actually injurious to the orange.
Some who have used this kind of material have
failed to discover any benefit and have cried out
against all muck. But the time has passed for
this. Too many have used muck and found it
valuable for its merits to remain longer unknown.
Where this deposit is close to the grove, an econom-
ical way to use it is to haul it at once from the bed
and spread it broadcast over the ground and plow
it in. It should not be allowed to dry in the sun,
as it then becomes lumpy. If turned under the
surface it soon incorporates itself with the soil.
After it is applied and turned under, a top-dressing
of ashes or lime would prove beneficial. If the de-
posit is somedistance from thegrove it is more eco-
nomical to throw it into heaps near the bed, but
under the shade, and still better to add a little lime
slaked with salt water or ashes, as it is thrown in
uniform layers. The pile soon heats and dries out,
leaving the muck as friable as a bed of sand. It is
then very light and easily handled and carted. In
this condition it can be used in almost any quanti-
ties; the only danger to be feared from excessive
use is in piling it up so deep over the roots as to
smother them for a while. And yet if the crown
roots are kept uncovered the surface roots soon find
their way to the muck near the surface. The writer
has had the orange roots penetrate, for several


inches above the general surface, a pile of muck
left for a few weeks near a tree.
Before trees reach the bearing state they should
be fed with nitrogenous manures, but after they
have begun to bear, potash and kindred manures
should be liberally used. Nitrogenous manures
encourage the development of new wood and foli-
age, while phosphate of lime and potash are neces-
sary to an abundance of fruit. The yellow leaves
of the tree indicate a deficiency of nitrogenous ma-
nures, while the dark green leaves show an abun-
Where trees are slow in coming into bearing, or
where old trees do not set sufficient fruit, give the
trees a liberal manuring sufficiently -early in the sea-
son to enable the rains to carry the soluble manure
to the roots before the time of forming the button
for the bloom. By so doing you develop the bud,
that would otherwise only makefoliage, into a fruit
bud. It requires more nutriment to make fruit
than wood, and hence the importance of this in-
In colder latitudes the frosts of winter lock up
the circulation of fruit trees that nature may have
sufficient time to store food for the greater effort
to bear fruit But in the milder climate of the
orange regions this circulation is not always check-
ed sufficiently to prevent the consumption of the
soluble manures in the soil. And hence when the
time of fruiting comes, there is not a sufficient sup-


ply of fertility in the soil to make the blossoms set
the fruit, and so the tree makes the easier effort to
form wood instead of fruit. After growth has been
for a while suspended, by drought or poverty of
soil, I have brought trees into blooming and bear-
ing during midsummer by a liberal application of
soluble manure. I haveseen a grove that had pre-
viously borne only a few scattering oranges brought
into liberal bearing by the application of a good
dressing of manure in November.
Once more before leaving this subject: While
commercial manures, properly combined and suffi-
ciently concentrated, are a great convenience, owing
to the ease with which they are distributed, the
temptation to adulterate with something worthless,
and sometimes something injurious to the orange,
is so great that there is much uncertainty as to their
real value. I have occasionally used manures of
the same brand and from the same establishment
which differed so greatly in their real value that
while I have found one lot entirely satisfactory,
another lot has proven quite worthless. The intel-
ligent orange-grower can proceed with much more
certainty if he can make his own manures. For
this purpose no country can furnish better facilities
than Florida. In addition to the abundance of
material for mulching, already mentioned, there is
such a vast quantity of muck, leaves, and grass
from forests and marshes that with a few cattle or
horses a large amount of valuable manure can be


secured by those who are willing to take the trou-
ble. Some of our planters in the State have made
by this method as much as one ton of good manure
per head of cattle or horses per month. And noth-
ing is better for the orange than this well-rotted barn-
yard manure. If it is not convenient to keep stock,
a good compost can be made by adding 300
pounds of ground bone and 200 pounds of muri-
ate of potash to one cord of muck. Turn frequent-
ly the compost, and when well rotted apply broad-
cast at the rate of iooo pounds per acre, and har-

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