<%BANNER%>
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Half Title
 Title Page
 Dedication
 Preface
 Table of Contents
 Plates
 Florida Sea Shells
 Romance of the Beaches
 History of Mollusks
 Bivalves or Pelecypods
 Univalves or Gastropods
 Armed Mollusks or Cephalopods
 Tooth Shells or Scaphopods
 Other Creatures of the Sea
 Appendix
 Bibliography
 Index of English Names
 Index of Latin Names














xml version 1.0 encoding UTF-8 standalone no
fcla fda yes
dl
METS:mets OBJID UF00055177_00001
TYPE monograph
xmlns:METS http:www.loc.govMETS
xmlns:mods http:www.loc.govmodsv3
xmlns:xlink http:www.w3.org1999xlink
xmlns:xsi http:www.w3.org2001XMLSchema-instance
xmlns:daitss http:www.fcla.edudlsmddaitss
xsi:schemaLocation
http:www.loc.govstandardsmetsmets.xsd
http:www.loc.govmodsv3mods-3-2.xsd
http:www.fcla.edudlsmddaitssdaitss.xsd
METS:metsHdr CREATEDATE 2008-09-08T07:28:12Z ID LASTMODDATE 2008-09-08T07:28:06Z RECORDSTATUS NEW
METS:agent ROLE CREATOR ORGANIZATION
METS:name UF
METS:note server=TC
projects=JUV
OTHERTYPE SOFTWARE OTHER
Go UFDC FDA Preparation Tool
INDIVIDUAL
SMATHERSLIB\matmari
METS:dmdSec DMD1
METS:mdWrap MDTYPE MODS MIMETYPE textxml LABEL Metadata Object Description Schema
METS:xmlData
mods:mods
mods:titleInfo
mods:title Florida sea shells
type translated lang English
Sea shells
mods:name personal
mods:namePart Aldrich, Bertha
mods:role
mods:roleTerm authority marcrelator Creator
Snyder, Ethel
Creator
The Riverside Press
Printer
mods:originInfo
mods:place
mods:placeTerm text Boston ; New York
mods:publisher Houghton Mifflin Co.
mods:dateIssued 1936
mods:language
mods:languageTerm English
mods:identifier ALEPH 00064582
NOTIS ADH5734
OCLC 01613891
mods:note The verso of each plate contains letterpress descriptive of plate opposite.
"Bibliographical references": p. 115-116.
mods:subject
mods:topic Mollusks -- Florida.
mods:relatedItem original
mods:physicalDescription
mods:extent viii p., 2 l., 126 p. illus. (map) XI pl. 19 cm.
mods:location
mods:physicalLocation code UF
METS:amdSec
METS:digiprovMD AMD_DAITTS
OTHERMDTYPE DAITTS
daitss:daitss
daitss:AGREEMENT_INFO ACCOUNT UF PROJECT UFDC
METS:fileSec
METS:fileGrp
METS:file GROUPID G1 T1 textplain CHECKSUM 745edb4687fc9e3abaf6b907ce208d19 CHECKSUMTYPE MD5 SIZE 2358
METS:FLocat LOCTYPE OTHERLOCTYPE SYSTEM xlink:href 00294-2.txt
G2 T2 caabecc0ae2e2ed7a62ba65c8aa20df1 47
00296-2.txt
G4 T4 099d6e9e74946d0da8bd6636db94b593 221
00297-2.txt
G5 T5 62f64f1cec32cbbf878693eab64d73f2 283
00298-1.txt
G6 T6 4e9240afd9fece6cb5f020e51f3ffeb0 140
00298-2.txt
G8 T8 1ae8ec16af2cca3bdb9d75fcf13722e0 1136
00299-2.txt
G9 T9 6afd19f7ebd67ee65bfc86906f8908e7 1166
00300-1.txt
G10 T10 cfafec248d3dfa36593ce89e38ceac20 486
00300-2.txt
G12 T12 6f8bdd89b82fe2dde910fa401e983cb5 344
00301-2.txt
G13 T13 52918c8e43d89ff6a6a90c30205fd71b 1257
00303-1.txt
G14 T14 253de41f1b774de3be9b25ad7251ea89 69
00303-2.txt
G15 T15 76f2f9d8ee4d0548742dc5cefcc83097 773
00305-1.txt
G16 T16 cd4b265ca9990c6e0d6f45abe0731038 197
00305-2.txt
G17 T17 f64ee79256c16ee4492eba9bd9f31add 1594
00307-1.txt
G18 T18 19c4b716d6a563b1f1f1459c0004e63e 57
00307-2.txt
G19 T19 4f253955df73c09eb3f9aaa602adeb7a 1076
00309-1.txt
G20 T20 218ec8498f391def2f9b3344ff1df23e 46
00309-2.txt
G21 T21 bd736e235813e744911d564bcf5e7e75 1075
00311-1.txt
G22 T22 c96444a4e1df883fb0d59bc95f84c8b6 65
00311-2.txt
G23 T23 0f0f55385ac995ce8a7c596f7a1ba956 621
00313-1.txt
G24 T24 d7e76f63f8dc205d3e253c35f1eb69c4 24
00313-2.txt
G25 T25 e6384d70084125e186d54f035aca0dfe 430
00315-1.txt
G26 T26 bc949ea893a9384070c31f083ccefd26 3
00315-2.txt
G27 T27 1110148fcff7c2ebab2dcb8c466f47d7 945
00317-1.txt
G28 T28 2d74e00fe5aab058604cd482bcd4ad58 92
00317-2.txt
G29 T29 912baae52f87de039681cb0ac4104c6b 683
00319-1.txt
G30 T30 3492887af23b7b92c0fc51644cda689d 54
00319-2.txt
G31 T31 e4939bca3224d2a12b3f6050d0f353d0 427
00321-1.txt
G32 T32 b4e1bb1644c7e08274e704c717e707bf 39
00321-2.txt
G33 T33 aedc80d193190eec2cccfbe4e7bd8eec 422
00323-1.txt
G34 T34 453c7e3c159d8e038271c25314e75a47 114
00323-2.txt
G36 T36
00324-2.txt
G37 T37 4a43d40e4b550b8b1c3f24d2bf7bead1 338
00325-1.txt
G38 T38 88b10ee1c9ce5da2447d6a670afac630 1214
00325-2.txt
G39 T39 00a080236cad841b943837651ce51053 1617
00326-1.txt
G40 T40 f98495d07b64f120f567d971c0908ddb 1744
00326-2.txt
G41 T41 f0db17710fb08cbe57480aab87200532 1644
00327-1.txt
G42 T42 466006165a68459f329ea7bab6de1b28 1640
00327-2.txt
G43 T43 d818c6731c44f763b7ce698ec3a45355 1626
00328-1.txt
G44 T44 abfc0627188998c6f19020777fc4aa13 929
00328-2.txt
G45 T45 ad408dbc5ba021d9c4a99e98be613613 1230
00329-1.txt
G46 T46 1eca41938bab68557620d00dea702391 1613
00329-2.txt
G47 T47 6b1623eb7aa2dda29732767d212cbd10 1669
00330-1.txt
G48 T48 64194396406035842d134134468fd703 1620
00330-2.txt
G49 T49 565dc9b53b6e7866c46cffe2ebfdfbab
00331-1.txt
G50 T50 c11215a431c9b56109ecbda70a3fe52c 1698
00331-2.txt
G51 T51 d7ed024a46c88d72b693365ad9e46b2e 1518
00332-1.txt
G52 T52 96c1e818d766391064d2c3685997b6d6 1186
00332-2.txt
G53 T53 e0712f80be1707e3f7e56cb953f6a3c3 1672
00333-1.txt
G54 T54 c6030d2f637fef10b927456db3d4d0fa 1685
00333-2.txt
G55 T55 9ce54fcb6b70635f3e9d8388154fdfea 1668
00334-1.txt
G56 T56 e5814793fafde5a1ff59748a8db10659 1699
00334-2.txt
G57 T57 5df61c84991fd792446384cdd207c8b2 1331
00335-1.txt
G58 T58 87377495eadcaffb899733bcc8213d40 1532
00335-2.txt
G59 T59 39a45cd62c94cc7ca8ac3bff89d3e06b 1432
00336-1.txt
G60 T60 8614f94d2a84b3898581f10a117460bb 1437
00336-2.txt
G61 T61 7497163df8f6ae5277118bb887d47f20 1646
00337-1.txt
G62 T62 47ce76741a2c906ef20ef4517180a26e 1545
00337-2.txt
G63 T63 b8fa33e5ebf41d404d3902153ab81851 1511
00338-1.txt
G64 T64 b7644f5ad3e1bf771b899357bb3e2973 1604
00338-2.txt
G65 T65 4cfc14973cb60dbdfec2a76ea95f70ed 1523
00339-1.txt
G66 T66 deb30b0ed6a500a3c45fc3bc39188018 1517
00339-2.txt
G67 T67 0959f9b37a716585264e8199b21badaf 1616
00340-1.txt
G68 T68 9943ccb02db78a27d43aff8307898648 1552
00340-2.txt
G69 T69 52000533d17a1f6c04966ce62d4004c1 1452
00341-1.txt
G70 T70 571444b4565e4af00dc1f203b9379e22 1557
00341-2.txt
G71 T71 16095dca4408b7f4a639ad5cd72b6bdb 1374
00342-1.txt
G72 T72 d7edf8dbf6a390a07146a0c0322c5f2e 1095
00342-2.txt
G73 T73 f99729a7f4cc29f7d3aa1b55714caee3
00343-1.txt
G74 T74 3d8e1365a1f38a03ab565dbeac471f13 1343
00343-2.txt
G75 T75 fc74dbe5f1fa7dc55ab3be162a0a533c 1404
00344-1.txt
G76 T76 41168b9b73a2fbfc1fed814c25121f26 1477
00344-2.txt
G77 T77 723f8ad680b2682974623322a0548b24 1483
00345-1.txt
G78 T78 af0d45474659ec766a750decae8e6758
00345-2.txt
G79 T79 9fbf78023e50d5f7d1665fb66e13a718 1446
00346-1.txt
G80 T80 61aa6fd25a6268af199549f70ef57bf0 1634
00346-2.txt
G81 T81 f43dfe761ff83c944060b561713a0ae0 1359
00347-1.txt
G82 T82 3f1a5a6c534d726885eed1db32f2f60b 1241
00347-2.txt
G83 T83 c3bb8bcd530e798620d0699df6669d2b 1564
00348-1.txt
G84 T84 910150f80a104860e75507718ab07b85 1481
00348-2.txt
G85 T85 878d36d05c40c894449b004be09c9f0d 1180
00349-1.txt
G86 T86 62bcfa3af02eaeb385602d5c3c3c5736 1250
00349-2.txt
G87 T87 b44f043e9a754f6c81a3783a2d8219cf 1639
00350-1.txt
G88 T88 bfcc9086d9ef5fb15726061d1e8231ae 1704
00350-2.txt
G89 T89 5ec97d81e0776493a61f96b9abe123e2 1605
00351-1.txt
G90 T90 7b20bf544fc860ac9fca045e78cb22c8 1682
00351-2.txt
G91 T91 77cfad1619721d776ecc05b42287cff2 1563
00352-1.txt
G92 T92 036f1be709675f8fb95813e2e552eaf8 1392
00352-2.txt
G93 T93 65b00a46b53e7cf9cef78186e1c38502 1495
00353-1.txt
G94 T94 b386b09e3542b7be08ee1a8ade11d726 1256
00353-2.txt
G95 T95 e67f47dba5c71c013ddda411e1d8b0c4 1275
00354-1.txt
G96 T96 52ca8ca9d998d2b3a623937665017196 1460
00354-2.txt
G97 T97 3d2b971ae3913c379ac485aa89a601df 1121
00355-1.txt
G98 T98 4a313c8405287a998855c80b93649f92 1308
00355-2.txt
G99 T99 19ed203e5e96121d043607abe3acc68b 1491
00356-1.txt
G100 T100 0a2212503cfe8b7baee9bd0fba3071b6
00356-2.txt
G101 T101 cb57833bb09ddf7c4ff1689e42166703 1307
00357-1.txt
G102 T102 417c9cb2086273474b0b70c43b1e9e0c 1243
00357-2.txt
G103 T103 34a9228fd00eb5726508fe029ebd9994 1317
00358-1.txt
G104 T104 617aba7dbd54d91dca566f3eea857fe6 1582
00358-2.txt
G105 T105 6852b2985d2e757729769d70cbb980b0 1413
00359-1.txt
G106 T106 153bce11a58295fa4a519cbe4f63bacd 1488
00359-2.txt
G107 T107 f1ee4c9d4d253a9e8a5edfa0d3b83c19 1501
00360-1.txt
G108 T108 c8248591418ac95a258a7ef4f4b4982a 1389
00360-2.txt
G109 T109 7932fa666b1b7ff3c115ceafe5d5d922 1595
00361-1.txt
G110 T110 3d89652fc9c0282e6c4e43c127415e86 1403
00361-2.txt
G111 T111 587742239441e79c53760cffce80c86d 1223
00362-1.txt
G112 T112 7b70206f430b20b97e3196c17455156e 1207
00362-2.txt
G113 T113 9fbaeb32cf97e354c0298947bda74ab2 1434
00363-1.txt
G114 T114 38b74d7c4c2f9eb9dd14052ab3c9bde9 1664
00363-2.txt
G115 T115 56827f0d27e8921e0753aa6bad08b460 1336
00364-1.txt
G116 T116 d1bb89e6a2b5e49258eb89150b1c7564
00364-2.txt
G117 T117 5e4a929538ce2b8d7b47649f97b022a8 1708
00365-1.txt
G118 T118 56919f741bc55116b23ad5f43121c86c 1264
00365-2.txt
G119 T119 1fdf3f9610d441bbacc738d13ccdba7f 1510
00366-1.txt
G120 T120 595b5ad5e7a7c37ea1afe210775da24a 1325
00366-2.txt
G121 T121 6c55fe0a85eecc163512fb9daeca06bf 1278
00367-1.txt
G122 T122 3fcbe94c3df7d7869e45b08218479a72 313
00367-2.txt
G123 T123 e9f6362173b6bb1eb092a2e6df2f2416 1202
00368-1.txt
G124 T124 42802e7ce08e6aa896bff193e64c2953
00368-2.txt
G125 T125 91f45ff2d3b031efa1f9a309812883ee
00369-1.txt
G126 T126 c037dae419ad24f080b8d12c53ec40d1 1462
00369-2.txt
G127 T127 24d50878829e3eb20c73cfa01c413742 1561
00370-1.txt
G128 T128 42d8a8c80e2beeee4c732d6e4ba4bbb8
00370-2.txt
G129 T129 6d033b25628102a70fed6a12ce54cde0 1338
00371-1.txt
G130 T130 1b9443397bed9bcadcfc70c970d01827 1590
00371-2.txt
G131 T131 ecaa41a1f6b5130d31a0e66f8a911fed
00372-1.txt
G132 T132 4ac628dbd5c4e398b8de50851f6f9824
00372-2.txt
G133 T133 dbfad6bf7f8e28d86157736975f3e1cd 1407
00373-1.txt
G134 T134 26156c2e27e4c3c63c01304c0d0992af
00373-2.txt
G135 T135 93da69046719cc4edca7e73f9259ef42 1002
00374-1.txt
G136 T136 90d6016a89e7cfdfdfc6f1c76fa5e3b1 1125
00374-2.txt
G137 T137 f85e511449d566dc5c2b11083229e2a2 1440
00375-1.txt
G138 T138 85102e1a1391b5bbac9c41d91fdcec96 1443
00375-2.txt
G139 T139 8baf5913b134ebe862ccb1c0831ffd19 1265
00376-1.txt
G140 T140 9a978784d1f9f89426f33939ac48be8a
00376-2.txt
G141 T141 abfd8e7c4c71c00fe214d7caefdc0090 1175
00377-1.txt
G142 T142 80d10275a25ecff1a0d30977b58108dc 1284
00377-2.txt
G143 T143 f7aae2426750665a80793e391c766533
00378-1.txt
G144 T144 9bdeacb2a6196f0970138d496365dceb 1199
00378-2.txt
G145 T145 032614af66569d3a1b471be07b46e1be 284
00379-1.txt
G146 T146 f345366c6026f3c7f34ddad82f1f16a2 1375
00379-2.txt
G147 T147 351ee19b83fc9d6a3b6bfdfdf8c83cc5 2326
00380-1.txt
G148 T148 1d15c302f3d3890691259b0472b9734d 750
00380-2.txt
G149 T149
00381-1.txt
G150 T150 13fc15559322e175d2d0d39c00172038
00381-2.txt
G151 T151 62f2f5fc6e0a9e916cced069bddda504 1128
00382-1.txt
G152 T152 6166a0e8acdfe79aad657d5c459fda9c 1806
00382-2.txt
G153 T153 e5b488bcd6aaf420dba306bab19fc758 2068
00383-1.txt
G154 T154 48e121c7b5e9a36a8288464f92af426b 1947
00383-2.txt
G155 T155 c3afe2f8ce59de8885e1d4863525b8db 1721
00384-1.txt
G156 T156 29ad6f752e7382695d1d142da3d1c729 2099
00384-2.txt
G157 T157
00385-1.txt
G158 T158 faa49b167a7e26da27d8ac0666ad6b6f 1619
00385-2.txt
G159 T159 6bf1889bf12546d143a2833b558c83a5 1768
00386-1.txt
G160 T160 36d5bcef095d4682c92ae42398177ba3 1879
00386-2.txt
G161 T161 572e1bb3aa4ebfefb19262232c463683 612
00387-1.txt
R1 textx-pro 5c7533ab7575fd229d7feaf2822319a5 20482
00294-2.pro
R2 368d2788e83de52baa3fd24707e4b919 737
00296-2.pro
R4 8dc17845b9442bcd00957ba7a84a1520 3886
00297-2.pro
R5 a78e58ba3a79f76adc24437cacda99eb 3970
00298-1.pro
R6 0d1929147840e74e62c6517a804db0ae 2205
00298-2.pro
R8 86eaaf889b9ec10438f09a9d2fa8b3f1 27651
00299-2.pro
R9 cdf220c229ebb967077c959b08269d72 27619
00300-1.pro
R10 634e8523ecd49e99e3803655b6729552 11123
00300-2.pro
R12 760e4454aecfad7d013037e0e95a0639 7424
00301-2.pro
R13 0aa5db0318f933ef1f9ae98ae8900297 29345
00303-1.pro
R14 d64efd2e269e3dfb05cb720a681551f8 1295
00303-2.pro
R15 73bc7fb659338169f0f0f8c986710892 18215
00305-1.pro
R16 64731949b3a9ebd98a000c546d93cf2d 2763
00305-2.pro
R17 3c737fdbe458b67f9fc4d4b48ce48605 37778
00307-1.pro
R18 a04418c05385a7f9aff63f21230e791e 900
00307-2.pro
R19 dee92ea1c64653603c89d20ae5ba4beb 25706
00309-1.pro
R20 bfc8af00c4216eef5a2fb1e67180f2bc 690
00309-2.pro
R21 aca863b2c6c6176f29ad5d98517deec1 25546
00311-1.pro
R22 11d1246942e14ee6da10440777e43513 1049
00311-2.pro
R23 61b5fdc02b4f809bf1a0f21341246f55 14620
00313-1.pro
R24 07387372fd14ae9f42aa71c3fb5fcdab 551
00313-2.pro
R25 95015804f5dcd255b4e9b202a7619a86 10217
00315-1.pro
R26 346f075305c2141118336a6da61ccc4b 222
00315-2.pro
R27 9e73282e5219c374a7a228a416c38081 22667
00317-1.pro
R28 c6235a3900aaef0473e2bda5b55cfd6c 1418
00317-2.pro
R29 16c7ac9ed44b2c70a263cf916ce3442c 15841
00319-1.pro
R30 224b50ea71ba613e097035873e0b35c0 1072
00319-2.pro
R31 d2c7583a5c82a57fe011c744e1b98f2a 9447
00321-1.pro
R32 d9b7f401226e49b6a190394a25757855 589
00321-2.pro
R33 76449c5e76f02512ff78f57bb418fa62 10036
00323-1.pro
R34 a252dd80ded862f8b0ae6951fac0d87d 1836
00323-2.pro
R36 8de878bdc45d2edbd1cccfd91865e454 733
00324-2.pro
R37 a47ba8bb1010cadae7ef3265bfb90d6b 5843
00325-1.pro
R38 7ee16945023706c3ff4d540eb99447f7 29978
00325-2.pro
R39 759a106b966833ef7edeb78b6cba84a9 41074
00326-1.pro
R40 9f8ecefe6972dc0c20584a991d736cd0 42848
00326-2.pro
R41 f909a93bde2158bf80a9a018a1f1524d 41640
00327-1.pro
R42 6b140876fb4cfd66a1ac2705d1a069a9 41001
00327-2.pro
R43 6455c54db683e4d6d61265081b12528b 40921
00328-1.pro
R44 1124571765821437abb7357ecc7c296b 22912
00328-2.pro
R45 c1db8b90966410acfe262b9d56d45fa7
00329-1.pro
R46 4219e6d5aa9cbc33fbf608928cfa62d1 40106
00329-2.pro
R47 c041af1cfc7fbc07fecaaaede6df0c3b 42147
00330-1.pro
R48 f26c6cc9f5b82a5fe5827e4259665e36 40073
00330-2.pro
R49 e766b8a8be2a76f1351c526aaff74105 40540
00331-1.pro
R50 79e8e83f6b6e560f326fd38c9ee3afca 41990
00331-2.pro
R51 291e730cdb339a6b9ff59c42b38d7707 37508
00332-1.pro
R52 6ef3bef487beef57c0cda1025e500ce8 28946
00332-2.pro
R53 829556db5c6d29f9ede6a904806893e3 42399
00333-1.pro
R54 21e34f96e069567c6ecd447b1029f5a6 42024
00333-2.pro
R55 4b517ce90f7f21e3cee45d6e2228792f 42260
00334-1.pro
R56 921f83ee3b5100ffacef823204ec68f3 42460
00334-2.pro
R57 c76d88206567114d49a8d314d44e357f 32593
00335-1.pro
R58 bc5caeed9e7b788b0d0910ec3c2f4e4a 37801
00335-2.pro
R59 c214a60f5e16d53b12afe37e1c935817 36036
00336-1.pro
R60 4b7f52073b2148949745b8c18c934cfd 35505
00336-2.pro
R61 0e6c7c5be4217b895c03198dae4bc0ed 41827
00337-1.pro
R62 a10d7ccf2b510fa2c2b18ec4317e7b32 38682
00337-2.pro
R63 fabc736d02676600a0f767ce5e751729 37878
00338-1.pro
R64 2059e3add1413f8d7e8c032c94978186 39737
00338-2.pro
R65 8a6c34aff68d073f3583041527c2a769 38237
00339-1.pro
R66 7f1690cf2a6794ea94caf295b35ad17a 37256
00339-2.pro
R67 19cca78822bde2ac8054b3f94d1185bb 40997
00340-1.pro
R68 d9d806773d47b9266dfbfee5e3e872c3 38135
00340-2.pro
R69 c766b8859a27189cd07e6d96c44b9df5 35745
00341-1.pro
R70 769aaedff79997674d257ebf85a0bd05 38790
00341-2.pro
R71 f738f5b7c14958130ef92a99bf33b1fe 34588
00342-1.pro
R72 9ca6b3b98e9a8f787852ebb6385d7b58 25538
00342-2.pro
R73 611cddcb261c2c4a166563919ed38970 35782
00343-1.pro
R74 f40a84d765f182fdcf4c41c343e9c40d 32440
00343-2.pro
R75 3cd6b58c7c777539974f4cc5bfa5a4d4 35252
00344-1.pro
R76 46341c6ad14a433785a1da2bde6d5b5d 36446
00344-2.pro
R77 48b21dcf49b7e9c6c3ea6428fba8e252 37132
00345-1.pro
R78 616f920ba3429595a2933cb716947780 37431
00345-2.pro
R79 060e34e657dcf7ee889b49c91072a52a 36231
00346-1.pro
R80 14f2e5753c9c9ba7078b8b82619eda98 40422
00346-2.pro
R81 6d91bc30b148a139736eed40c13c73df 33338
00347-1.pro
R82 511373baee10b7d6ed5c95f6ffd79add 29607
00347-2.pro
R83 366657ad2f46ac3b8c40095b6b68d33c 39340
00348-1.pro
R84 dbc31da568ecd86328ac193d3d571c97 36278
00348-2.pro
R85 e1c77f4b0b01b483ef06d86d31e2c78b 29032
00349-1.pro
R86 846c512cd0c631396a8863c52a1b5d94 30613
00349-2.pro
R87 43a8341378ae85365ff0abbee4d90e36 41652
00350-1.pro
R88 eddecc8f2ecd7d68ad1db840712aaf68 42125
00350-2.pro
R89 73e6cf5791d1a47d6b8f4d9f69966210 39716
00351-1.pro
R90 d9588f25dc60e58517e9b561e2568044 42106
00351-2.pro
R91 137547afa7d4b286c2215bfcda6bf9f9 39334
00352-1.pro
R92 fde954b3e9aeec9d3a00dc7614e08adc 34378
00352-2.pro
R93 f509d02f3cc5d21f7d28d65aabf86455 37293
00353-1.pro
R94 a1dd08da9fc9233074e5bc6451a22b82 30408
00353-2.pro
R95 6d77b45b9af4f32a5c0bd48b518f62e2 31859
00354-1.pro
R96 27764193de2a46719734fa707dd8228d 36614
00354-2.pro
R97 00c71e8a22534ac2d58966eda3d5b7aa 27048
00355-1.pro
R98 0578dd145f92d4575eb819e088981f46 31812
00355-2.pro
R99 038ef276c8344f79f58de86e9e6c5d49 37540
00356-1.pro
R100 ecd366704440cc340cabb2a3df3921e4 33066
00356-2.pro
R101 c527c3ea56463defcc33db47a9dba1b6 32269
00357-1.pro
R102 673fb7c0405506387bedc4c8e83b51ec 29857
00357-2.pro
R103 537eda337b6376c168dd6ca1b5a998fb 32395
00358-1.pro
R104 5081af2b26276c2e5e495cb5eae8c448 39760
00358-2.pro
R105 54e9dfb3a30e530461037594ebe6914f 35521
00359-1.pro
R106 9cb809d35623b4a68c59072bb4b38f90 36601
00359-2.pro
R107 998b60ba52e08ae2fc0e4963ee101390 37178
00360-1.pro
R108 4df69a22b85622f7a8d87f336044f923 33854
00360-2.pro
R109 53736758da801c34d026e3c081514574 40347
00361-1.pro
R110 2a267f4e9cd129dff345af8ccd456c06 34678
00361-2.pro
R111 80f278be2d33bb5114ee8199d2eea7d4 30452
00362-1.pro
R112 af63b9790b930c47d4ea8171c5754ad7 28897
00362-2.pro
R113 19489a8ebd1e2b7d34a610fd18d95abd 35967
00363-1.pro
R114 7d6aa6659436c464e582a88c31d24cfb 41150
00363-2.pro
R115 cb5b98d3247cc958c2f400fb4e058457 33193
00364-1.pro
R116 69ace22aee8cd2fbb48d512f8e39e58d 30727
00364-2.pro
R117 d84349f4260b7e11a4e77595fd7440be 42346
00365-1.pro
R118 dd4b34a35323622b6f0b4da9142c3db5 31073
00365-2.pro
R119 cb77b75bd5c39889e7a70f206741039e 37816
00366-1.pro
R120 993e8b3c9c70c28beb75d5c43ac3c2e9 32896
00366-2.pro
R121 6f121ec7e62db75a3a618d980674e6b6 31678
00367-1.pro
R122 85d923f1ffd0f2532ad862e3389fbd31 7302
00367-2.pro
R123 66898b48d85cb9de901355b31b658d92 29763
00368-1.pro
R124 652e5ae938e783ea1937b8ccf094505d 41184
00368-2.pro
R125 7bf218bd4c0d5d3d624609a3bef1d975 40811
00369-1.pro
R126 800f86e05b2fbf6c22c34f4fa226856b 35531
00369-2.pro
R127 fc37b597a9abb3f4c830aff78717c9ad 39429
00370-1.pro
R128 b45eac3605b34b0522ded7166171dbf2 36469
00370-2.pro
R129 0d1c7d948e5f3e72734acebb61c5e29c 33072
00371-1.pro
R130 6717ed3641d91bbf6309b1c9c15504e3 39012
00371-2.pro
R131 4fab07169040ccac69cc5796480b1a34 36857
00372-1.pro
R132 ae249b0b314c8805eb35dcec0168fb51 40234
00372-2.pro
R133 bd283e6e756b14c013de967b0b78390c 34767
00373-1.pro
R134 732b0deafc6af6d8817a75ab3b73d217 30846
00373-2.pro
R135 c3960021ec83a6d588f4690b42ce99f1 25443
00374-1.pro
R136 76dbe7a49d51bce05119e37928affb98 26234
00374-2.pro
R137 d7360a8a677933f000bbab63698e14c0 35422
00375-1.pro
R138 4157b88d885bcf88e87d9a9f296eb2b0 35772
00375-2.pro
R139 7a6762b95c33a4e84c7c158203f90bc6 30647
00376-1.pro
R140 d2ec42a4e7e66b52cc882869d8f65f43 34874
00376-2.pro
R141 6fad5cfabd812c63b0a0c5d652e7a544 28830
00377-1.pro
R142 5c04957ab5a23f61d7b038439ad17d8d 31049
00377-2.pro
R143 3ec6c9d80f20dd2e0b282c93f882c13b 29915
00378-1.pro
R144 099c251370f105b7f73fe2ba714ae329 28346
00378-2.pro
R145 b04fcd25f252d9c40f40d995c48fd02f 340
00379-1.pro
R146 28d49a044a57b806ea8f0822acb59f30 33185
00379-2.pro
R147 48eff1dbc351012ece40e4bcfb04aef3 58619
00380-1.pro
R148 8c81ac94ced2495f9076eaea75fb832d 17942
00380-2.pro
R149 4d7431fd1dcb5877d0539cbc4d90f8b0 217
00381-1.pro
R150 9e5a7d831c99b3939fb90b0937420977 37952
00381-2.pro
R151 6bf14c1f3d0894d0df239648f16aecff 27463
00382-1.pro
R152 b6d5c193739879bb22711b65b1a83887 40802
00382-2.pro
R153 39150ae1293eb7c3ecd02c1a75290f3f 46349
00383-1.pro
R154 969f1ed550d6d90b8579340e6bf7a4ce 43018
00383-2.pro
R155 d0e5fad8d7087ede8e2d3a1f859c9b90 41131
00384-1.pro
R156 2e63d29623b631475991c427eb5c939b 47819
00384-2.pro
R157 9782e5b993f45a0991c5481a40c495d5
00385-1.pro
R158 262e3b33994bf894f2fc74c98c861bfa 36160
00385-2.pro
R159 fac3a7b04aa511e8ac276455f6e1df8b 41403
00386-1.pro
R160 1858548296acd101e157edc06f8fe530 42943
00386-2.pro
R161 1136825c18dfe19361fd47742d91f2c1 14372
00387-1.pro
E1 imagejp2 1a4957d5d1997eb790bda9648a0e1046 405745
00294-2.jp2
E2 0f8f12dfb0ca90fc4cd5385158266103 24481
00296-2.jp2
E4 9806d59be2976ebd1174a5e673b4ae39 328122
00297-2.jp2
E5 efaa60555c4e38b49b8166fea78a542f 328174
00298-1.jp2
E6 ca1cf259cde0e072155a781fb581d8b0 328180
00298-2.jp2
E8 f722d6fde668beacfa478050fb009e0a 328157
00299-2.jp2
E9 3a64dcbabf54d8f5eb7c6eadb067fc1b 328133
00300-1.jp2
E10 ec5291762f504ffb86938453b85e7a49 328070
00300-2.jp2
E12 c3f23914fd0f9770362e8553df494d69 328164
00301-2.jp2
E13 656412febb437d51814fba5c8679e7a3 328182
00303-1.jp2
E14 1ecebbc7119ef4b75d8b6ec95512c542 384228
00303-2.jp2
E15 586943375f6e0fbc6f4dc7773f56faa5 302774
00305-1.jp2
E16 1d803f3f8d009eaecf489da78552ce0c 380200
00305-2.jp2
E17 9b5b7b11e2406393cc5451a8672cd433 328177
00307-1.jp2
E18 25ddb1aa868d4c27fcd3c454b8dbf5a7 386335
00307-2.jp2
E19 ac1ec65169aff83850d1bdf1bc16e9af 328062
00309-1.jp2
E20 3d1d0cfb741db473e4385f22837dba14 386333
00309-2.jp2
E21 092b5867ebb17884a13130294775a50e 328113
00311-1.jp2
E22 0b668b16078e38d3c1244a51c45c04cc 386330
00311-2.jp2
E23 d338a2ac27730c4f70d2902651a85db2 255819
00313-1.jp2
E24 f900bb4445ed9c75dceb22ea8aef11be 386289
00313-2.jp2
E25 9b47d20863f92b26475d4ddfbf77a7c7 173092
00315-1.jp2
E26 b30b49ad64a5e067e41f7dd10b1ca940 386310
00315-2.jp2
E27 90347bc826a09552856081349d96e347 328171
00317-1.jp2
E28 809d4c7e753b6f102bc19a18ffe4720f 386150
00317-2.jp2
E29 d9ccc21565c643b926753b3d00d5c904 267476
00319-1.jp2
E30 75a92daa29c3f4db588b56ce0dad5a36 386237
00319-2.jp2
E31 3bf124c725c6256fa41b07cdd41e2b07 178952
00321-1.jp2
E32 58809ecfaf488d68ee9324398e9d63f5 386244
00321-2.jp2
E33 3acb8c7b428c3c9abde6993e151deb08 203817
00323-1.jp2
E34 fc7ceb2cd2a0399ddcf4a2b8db08b6b6 386250
00323-2.jp2
E36 b9c10bc95e42dd03239c9ae4d410f58a 327857
00324-2.jp2
E37 c72389bacde78f7f5623982eb878a21e
00325-1.jp2
E38 d97cf470cd1a976f056f91f11ee6669c 328099
00325-2.jp2
E39 006d6ff73a79019cae278df2cbd44afa 328074
00326-1.jp2
E40 3d0913ecd37e214f84055923eb9ee3ae
00326-2.jp2
E41 a35a609a255cf425a0dd5e654769a904 328077
00327-1.jp2
E42 9e85006fd73dba0a9a1eab2aa024bfc9 328170
00327-2.jp2
E43 c9eef0c0eb17d3a954d634d74b169df4 328065
00328-1.jp2
E44 594a27aef678337dbd94d524744dd277 328078
00328-2.jp2
E45 1d28dc9093a069bd6da8a2bfcaccb457 328175
00329-1.jp2
E46 4105dfded54bbdba83f7f061226b0d80 328167
00329-2.jp2
E47 490ebbbb7728aebadfe7c6b5332f3ea5 328054
00330-1.jp2
E48 afde49853b42027b6f3e278db6d09f29 328119
00330-2.jp2
E49 30977a16feb675cfc5bf7c3f40ff7441 328114
00331-1.jp2
E50 760160cd0adc4de6ee705db7f57c84c4 328129
00331-2.jp2
E51 20588408637cc7c157f693e56c5d779d 328142
00332-1.jp2
E52 ef1f42bddf08c3c6ca127fd571f6412c 328110
00332-2.jp2
E53 520ffa9cf12124d2fe6d4f93dd13b0ab 328126
00333-1.jp2
E54 76540ca935a0f1687968d59edef3e332 328151
00333-2.jp2
E55 c219669e851372a40d3bd7709c30b4ad 328169
00334-1.jp2
E56 b6b7b8bece4690562cabf0d3ad6b98be 328127
00334-2.jp2
E57 71b46e85e627055616c5cfe848833098
00335-1.jp2
E58 2a9c4c51a7d6d56052be24b68dc0ff3b 328165
00335-2.jp2
E59 09adff6d6ca0d649469a478ac300013a 328117
00336-1.jp2
E60 105fc513847e75ac5192ea6ac08337ee 328028
00336-2.jp2
E61 edbd9a70d23ac97193bef473870bd0af 328066
00337-1.jp2
E62 a4ed7a3b14333a463379c782beb1d6f5 328158
00337-2.jp2
E63 d830c4bc5fd1d2bad5fe20fff09cd684 328173
00338-1.jp2
E64 a36d28f1222acbece10334d7dd3b53df
00338-2.jp2
E65 a011dfefa5cbf61c25c95e63d7895546 328103
00339-1.jp2
E66 44fd529e0b915e68d5fecfd6f848244a 328073
00339-2.jp2
E67 1a0108bfd83b0b7b5bd7adb79596a600 328063
00340-1.jp2
E68 047ee780b420d10f6368df58d3059ecc
00340-2.jp2
E69 634c0c169d9ca023fd924d4c5cb30d74 328136
00341-1.jp2
E70 969dc855e0e0f1666a85474b9c8efbe1 327941
00341-2.jp2
E71 af615806464a4fdd3d5ccc37c8e15523 328051
00342-1.jp2
E72 313798553449998a3d976059d3411918
00342-2.jp2
E73 9b211668330b945d2fab5da07b5ff20b 328042
00343-1.jp2
E74 2718d30b788cde903832feac82255691
00343-2.jp2
E75 6a2e4d8f88a76d9373bb50e2cbccdf39
00344-1.jp2
E76 aac5dbd74aeaffb215f4ca78bbdfbe19 328134
00344-2.jp2
E77 f1ec932a94601066e8b36a6225c3d160
00345-1.jp2
E78 46dce5c8079431e7e95c1c67405975f4 328172
00345-2.jp2
E79 b8226c4635be2467713cb904488ed74a 328082
00346-1.jp2
E80 43088f5d6f5be6fff9aa91ffcfe8a78f 328181
00346-2.jp2
E81 e054182f1bc539e75b8241b133a3e3e8 328143
00347-1.jp2
E82 8ab19df87bec283a9ff13d3c1a682d8e
00347-2.jp2
E83 8698aa6bdc758f7649f77bb1f5693351 328121
00348-1.jp2
E84 69ece25f16411f7f6be25ddb590eb002
00348-2.jp2
E85 4375b1e4401f60087addf0f1b10d8549 328056
00349-1.jp2
E86 e41a7d8a8c021ecc435e10a35e334d24
00349-2.jp2
E87 8709085f2245a6f420b36d0b32d552fc
00350-1.jp2
E88 d4030acfa112d6d724713240e1c40ad0 328002
00350-2.jp2
E89 f1ed6f41af1a3a348688f732625a75e9 328179
00351-1.jp2
E90 1ee111400ddfdbb54cd680080146ef55 328148
00351-2.jp2
E91 3a5f290c77d8aacad0bdacc11b7f5488
00352-1.jp2
E92 bd05f2eee39ebee371dc194f9f489c53
00352-2.jp2
E93 a5119b953d15e0b4ffcdb49b2aa4e14b 328085
00353-1.jp2
E94 7b4405be88466781045be8f97bedce20 328152
00353-2.jp2
E95 e7033dae856c5aacfe97cb0f9cee5220
00354-1.jp2
E96 941de460e8266e28b99922961517945e 328178
00354-2.jp2
E97 3ae100df24ec8f1508e78787e5392b58 327867
00355-1.jp2
E98 669922c40fa7376c33ed725ee0216ff7 328149
00355-2.jp2
E99 6c16e23aa6df5131921c106d2e601d83
00356-1.jp2
E100 7735e9bebbeb55811f9c14d96a2f2ba4 328031
00356-2.jp2
E101 27bff00b9e50a9967ff982411ad7c9aa 327865
00357-1.jp2
E102 e1347ee0c9c9fde6b7192fe35f46d3c0 327974
00357-2.jp2
E103 abf59ef29510415941016c4530d3379d 328163
00358-1.jp2
E104 eb13515a523b45a53d7c45ca5d35a131 328060
00358-2.jp2
E105 9bd9df960c47b3c8b95deea3af4f57af 327931
00359-1.jp2
E106 565c39af9bc2fce8f3927e7aed2bff78 327973
00359-2.jp2
E107 07f16ac885a3541d50c338cf1d0ddb9e
00360-1.jp2
E108 95c61f66990d8425c638294819b9bcb7
00360-2.jp2
E109 db6b01357ac6f408c530e5ee0553e849 328047
00361-1.jp2
E110 3d1f5461f2c03b99f0cb63fdc62a8b5a
00361-2.jp2
E111 ac17b92d999260d7af0f065b3ced0309 328146
00362-1.jp2
E112 8107580b6c376fffc03aeef9ea3f514f
00362-2.jp2
E113 729d7880fa25cf9228399070fc91415d
00363-1.jp2
E114 eb2a4358f8eafbf967d89d496736db0f 328022
00363-2.jp2
E115 a25b363d7d96c8853adc3ccbbb215288
00364-1.jp2
E116 a6a63bad008f465e0ba7fede6ce258a1
00364-2.jp2
E117 17efebf0e158cebada1ed797e13f366b
00365-1.jp2
E118 4780207b7293e3ba1030d8c0bc6f7bf5 328032
00365-2.jp2
E119 1554400f0268dca891fac94bcc780a57 328132
00366-1.jp2
E120 2038fc4c4e40de86e703d181b5fa923a 328087
00366-2.jp2
E121 1fec14a0ac2986b24fa891e9509aaaa2 328176
00367-1.jp2
E122 cd07cee7faa6e78f6775962418c8e935 328124
00367-2.jp2
E123 95a87f261dfe5a1f7caeb6f874cc5476
00368-1.jp2
E124 d13eadba66eae36597fd5ceae943c384
00368-2.jp2
E125 5bb4bee9dbae4fac2f4a5c23578a8d84 328004
00369-1.jp2
E126 a4fc0dabfd6299c65e19a014bb30bf52 328106
00369-2.jp2
E127 d09ef6dbdae0805d58ef3bb321148629
00370-1.jp2
E128 8ccb5b97243c4825f71e8f62682edcb6 327920
00370-2.jp2
E129 973cb1ef70d2e117a92e8999bab99af8
00371-1.jp2
E130 d497531513c1ba9bcb0ec3f63a1f3b3a 328104
00371-2.jp2
E131 e63f992e7b19ce6473d234982a81071e 328097
00372-1.jp2
E132 66b166d6f2b93dccb4a530e0743d8918
00372-2.jp2
E133 3eb4a0182ca1a09c6baa7b11c7d82899
00373-1.jp2
E134 254ad69abf765e1f7273d1c59f6a1483
00373-2.jp2
E135 13caa434be14d7a0613e04fb823debcb 328154
00374-1.jp2
E136 67aea1855922b8d90995f57c283f6365
00374-2.jp2
E137 0f299bcf7e05211ee211fb24dae088de 328034
00375-1.jp2
E138 e8145a53239eb2db151aba9fe1986a22 328141
00375-2.jp2
E139 91799302a30723130002e77712b7817c
00376-1.jp2
E140 bf9bbd052578e1ee6d4daefbfa0bd6f4
00376-2.jp2
E141 f0e8c65840c455735c1299a4f39de435
00377-1.jp2
E142 c09eba4c92cbaa36ac90725d490fde3b
00377-2.jp2
E143 850feee7823964d43d798bc0ca06c487
00378-1.jp2
E144 65ccbc7c0ebda9bf0d1fcdd87b37323d
00378-2.jp2
E145 24742a0c719df73b5bc6dffcdbce1d65 230339
00379-1.jp2
E146 3ef6423b682338c538f318ef103db3b4
00379-2.jp2
E147 8f3e85f4bc571cacc0cf77a270bc29b5
00380-1.jp2
E148 5c1f4f739f2abc5fd79c984ae6262623
00380-2.jp2
E149 1e96581ff4775bbfcaa0aad989e8c04a 185818
00381-1.jp2
E150 fbc716695b4c5d4c697e138d1631317a
00381-2.jp2
E151 4d3e1426f46812e8e0da611e6531abc2
00382-1.jp2
E152 fdb9fc1ebe3198c1507c4e190c16f207 328096
00382-2.jp2
E153 e989648b8e9e554dd73891138a8314c7
00383-1.jp2
E154 29653406a2fc0f8a9c0e6f85b44b54c1
00383-2.jp2
E155 30639597e1dfd64f3f11eeaac0906b79
00384-1.jp2
E156 577bcb4a38d02a59852e534d19a4abb6
00384-2.jp2
E157 30008333728754885ff307747f9eb870 251248
00385-1.jp2
E158 b9e4b54bf78ea759342ea9d3a16823f1 328159
00385-2.jp2
E159 41bbd2f566fe7ee87463b9ccc34dcdea
00386-1.jp2
E160 cfa871fecce79b0e829b8d83135e6a0b 328183
00386-2.jp2
E161 7f970d3741fb458116609e0002f29744 328160
00387-1.jp2
F1 imagetiff 6.0 11b5ec67c47b7f1027f8bc2db39c3657 3262240
00294-2.tif
F2 c58ea2e2074b9ccd878a2fe920138800 2641524
00296-2.tif
F4 8152c0a512f495dd37f5e19dda3cb05d
00297-2.tif
F5 b05c711f24eacfd207641afb9844ec5f
00298-1.tif
F6 855c2c55dcf72bc175bb7033277b9423
00298-2.tif
F8 c81ed9607c56b5069b744c717ab9d411
00299-2.tif
F9 0aa01484bb45f31f70fc9f946b2a0954
00300-1.tif
F10 910d52ee72ff4621ffc3cdb77be984ed
00300-2.tif
F12 88658aae2e39c0a4b0d1fd04b407a2a5
00301-2.tif
F13 d0186c99f55b5382815abf2683d31daf
00303-1.tif
F14 d796d53b2f8b7415ffb435b8b3f19944 3090840
00303-2.tif
F15 3de7d85e65bb4f4e64a7438ae14090f8
00305-1.tif
F16 f228e662759b6a2fe13362b14787e329 3058452
00305-2.tif
F17 1b6db378fef8a100842ebfbe2e1241c1
00307-1.tif
F18 ccf9bd322563615c30eb5d53b1e84dd3 3106744
00307-2.tif
F19 b235e321aec06bd70a951bd32ac8544e
00309-1.tif
F20 70dde7758cd113a3968936bb0829b8ca
00309-2.tif
F21 1e9fe201d94aec3b707c2ff2b72b9a7e
00311-1.tif
F22 4394e2993a4b1d14c7c2e4fff250e8ce
00311-2.tif
F23 393eb49526e8799d9a579a2b716c4cde
00313-1.tif
F24 7599584be2356c529d135ff996f36fe7
00313-2.tif
F25 95feaebe1705e5cf45f1a6ca464d2fb3
00315-1.tif
F26 7811fd6313fec1db0c6a503c1db1b3e0
00315-2.tif
F27 7f437365d5463c6d35ef2589ce2965cb
00317-1.tif
F28 39df0a50eef6a3f90e51b89a12d136be
00317-2.tif
F29 0f437019862998c690d5239777e402b9
00319-1.tif
F30 ebe0d9c4ecf9634d92279607d99c54c4
00319-2.tif
F31 372257394d6bb599b8846c928924a1b5
00321-1.tif
F32 f24c5ab89916103cbbba7d2cf27377fb
00321-2.tif
F33 f86bd8cf76a2bdccb44cb851c1a813b3
00323-1.tif
F34 85c2cec0c48a1ea05c837b2db5f52450
00323-2.tif
F36 b6691dd784cc1345da24d2d8f6e4eba4
00324-2.tif
F37 97ae44292cd2a90c9ceb992e8f415a56
00325-1.tif
F38 ff1b216492bc26cbe271efb6a61e1599
00325-2.tif
F39 d91ea7fc50b0d85a8804c555159e9180
00326-1.tif
F40 a7b2802f81143ac886f711f70dec5e61
00326-2.tif
F41 02d7ced091a80a9649db0e06fc15a584
00327-1.tif
F42 9c4419ab1359733e40b488fc1af619dd
00327-2.tif
F43 1ff4112f43f2f7ec70c333418d36e3db
00328-1.tif
F44 7e12868d38dd4e3bc6a64003b76b9e73
00328-2.tif
F45 872bc3772b4dc31c33f3eaf348de55df
00329-1.tif
F46 4bfcee7a5aa9eb054f1b05b2e838134f
00329-2.tif
F47 d5bdab88a5639e894dd4ed49daa45663
00330-1.tif
F48 35df466d2927c8f8e9275830f8f35205
00330-2.tif
F49 b67ffd4098de7b7eb30cc302173fd4d8
00331-1.tif
F50 b39adcebdbbdb221db714fd3d2f0a598
00331-2.tif
F51 95f6f3ad6640ff8866335a4950b37ccf
00332-1.tif
F52 c4b49409e4702b5f3294ee35f5b967a1
00332-2.tif
F53 4ab11796fcf1d5fa3fa67d3879a53039
00333-1.tif
F54 843c7790514a35942930eb1229b26cd7
00333-2.tif
F55 c028e386b9fb19c02a7cbcc83a72c28f
00334-1.tif
F56 5ad7c88856c89f9b3e102c0280397a01
00334-2.tif
F57 39ebc588bd1c4b65dc42a8dc54e408be
00335-1.tif
F58 81bacd287827edfea75015443d086443
00335-2.tif
F59 36c376bb4b8434eb6d01fb4d5b82de2d
00336-1.tif
F60 a498218bb6c5ff1248109797871dfd96
00336-2.tif
F61 9d6a49368f8dc39c3b96ca1a4983d27d 2641520
00337-1.tif
F62 de200d9a7e34ba8e90f7925fb419c704
00337-2.tif
F63 0d0e0b50a227ae71c74b73db53ba6386
00338-1.tif
F64 69cb35c97ba415ed4c1d98a6ee47dda5
00338-2.tif
F65 c770be3067a02517c078f0f4924e04ba
00339-1.tif
F66 66103b266a1105ca5dc076299e8132a9
00339-2.tif
F67 160dc641a70a6bb0667ef5397bc07368
00340-1.tif
F68 65ad70f36f002f617f1533582d5f91a0
00340-2.tif
F69 bdcf31a8f05ea07a51e49a8f7533d189
00341-1.tif
F70 7f63169e1e492b70f215e57f633fa1c8
00341-2.tif
F71 55f289ded937294cd3dbb9fb8fdb3adc
00342-1.tif
F72 0ee92464dd7c73fcf924444972de82a9
00342-2.tif
F73 80eb145dd2cf3732204ec30ef88d1616
00343-1.tif
F74 f42b9d425f66dc53d158e534270c5a4a
00343-2.tif
F75 799afa1dc9d6757c811131f74df71219
00344-1.tif
F76 cb1b2b87105a194cd3f80b136df79f85
00344-2.tif
F77 36e424210970887637e32b8ba4e9c16f
00345-1.tif
F78 fbd4b66566547b155078287b00d1e7b0
00345-2.tif
F79 35495a5413f383e4ebf657e60c988f75
00346-1.tif
F80 7079bef1eb9e9fbee9dfa38e46326358
00346-2.tif
F81 40939966df0a4763b045e246e7ecb2a4
00347-1.tif
F82 04c84d9c1cf8d4391971cae1811c5172
00347-2.tif
F83 3bf0a07587c5321ace3ff81466d68e83
00348-1.tif
F84 9ae243dc1d18adf8a903b6516df68968
00348-2.tif
F85 74d88e816a5c4736353a92a81a60943a
00349-1.tif
F86 b0c86e50e59251dc1e2a5ee8f9f735be
00349-2.tif
F87 dc21fbcd44dde03ca74f19a842f03014
00350-1.tif
F88 2fa20659623583479c302fc0d3289a86
00350-2.tif
F89 6ad56994338550aaded5c686657762ce
00351-1.tif
F90 fd47b3aa32fa6dca7ab6a4e6995afd3d
00351-2.tif
F91 83f4f9e223ce349bbef83ce3de8f0ba6
00352-1.tif
F92 1d5013f151ac99953dde6348bfd91162
00352-2.tif
F93 03daab17a9e8de51cf55934b12575609
00353-1.tif
F94 699d19b2f75c89ba2596bd2d73949a23
00353-2.tif
F95 bd8ec0076df105cee6c3e31bbe441c72
00354-1.tif
F96 28f35cde074b788c98733c367cd3d327
00354-2.tif
F97 77452593135e252ba0e2048f3f36a967
00355-1.tif
F98 b2eea6ef58bf87159c4333210229dcc2
00355-2.tif
F99 03f670c24ae76323226db86512e3a10f
00356-1.tif
F100 5369fe0f675bd2389b1e1e9c518c02ae
00356-2.tif
F101 0982f31210ed465f35e5e8f5817c54cd
00357-1.tif
F102 89f78cec3faf77c59f59a83acc2e37d5
00357-2.tif
F103 4d3e1ce17fdbbe2fb85cc1badc09f64a
00358-1.tif
F104 104e1820e18732b8b46f91d27674f2ec
00358-2.tif
F105 8cd64877f9dc553cbae444bda59be1af
00359-1.tif
F106 e2edac7b89f7934104f717949b1dd791
00359-2.tif
F107 a862e0a8de1d887e17d3954722c94323
00360-1.tif
F108 f5c059c9ef205dea29ade6332e27288f
00360-2.tif
F109 0e109a8fe4d39ce57dc3aab5f410d01e
00361-1.tif
F110 03cde8be5f3240372795e2532e22cdb7
00361-2.tif
F111 79106ffb8699d416265e6c83f4b8a791
00362-1.tif
F112 c7edde3db4a626437e6c6c4762b179e3
00362-2.tif
F113 acb420f5babe0173dfb810937d28bd5b
00363-1.tif
F114 ad06f94080a206788f7a928f8c44527c
00363-2.tif
F115 af73aebc81ef22797a5109f1c07108bf
00364-1.tif
F116 893f01ef09edf85a1f21e8952d132d59
00364-2.tif
F117 811f34cf39ff698ffa60f7d0ffdb71d0
00365-1.tif
F118 a03ad2a744a3127c72ee04e65e534682
00365-2.tif
F119 cae27156fe68ecb39e64b05f5668728a
00366-1.tif
F120 8023c3fd9ac00e0c8c66cfd76225d3f9
00366-2.tif
F121 75119cd108a755573d09498fa1bbde6d
00367-1.tif
F122 60aeab89d88d6aa6937587aa8e036a60
00367-2.tif
F123 eb251e9dc6d3d15828f1fa464804377f
00368-1.tif
F124 18f0554a5eb389394ae041f5f1ebf9dd
00368-2.tif
F125 725829262d840afa62389b110824590d
00369-1.tif
F126 eda11cc1a26caf35988a6ad980b4f0d2
00369-2.tif
F127 b7b92c74766e3331515418818bed401c
00370-1.tif
F128 d076d0e44f4f0f97ebbecbba5c133f1b
00370-2.tif
F129 7dc739497b8b9c821f16a72ad9426665
00371-1.tif
F130 06037bfe6dc7e9cff81a0623a7b0fc6a
00371-2.tif
F131 d4d8ae8628328de89767bf6c5d13d95f
00372-1.tif
F132 64ef834bf0e99d05befd1effc8cbae3e
00372-2.tif
F133 28e6be0629260421e7bce90e31e6ef95
00373-1.tif
F134 2d26df7c39c81b46496bd310b5ba3733
00373-2.tif
F135 7ae4a46aa9e3ba14e364c3aaf847eb64
00374-1.tif
F136 6be64f0b3bc16afbed7dab434d771736
00374-2.tif
F137 e1606c909df3aa64f786044a0572d080
00375-1.tif
F138 596c6c943c7af92bf1b652b3d39bfd98
00375-2.tif
F139 467933017e3dd1528e08cf7621ba7917
00376-1.tif
F140 bb6663b8b822b66c7f85866dafb136a4
00376-2.tif
F141 3572a6bfc30684cd48b743bc090161ec
00377-1.tif
F142 e818ce6cb7bb627209de0792c3f0892c
00377-2.tif
F143 09f5dae21ecb0749aad258924cbb89b5
00378-1.tif
F144 2b506378d9bf6e0d3a990cfa512f51e0
00378-2.tif
F145 b0de9799c36cd52b91edd0de931f5803
00379-1.tif
F146 b07bcaec943553714068a4421fbec880
00379-2.tif
F147 f24f355f651586ac669d6ac5d8de830e
00380-1.tif
F148 7590f2e357b9c7fa24070fa1cf6153a5
00380-2.tif
F149 1fb8b8a2be1f88456eef3230935f0405
00381-1.tif
F150 7960b1aa8e273303dc43287a614ebc1d
00381-2.tif
F151 f02ad72e888b8a0cdd7c73e3347a2b8b
00382-1.tif
F152 9f453018a64d6aa45cf6c3032447b6a0
00382-2.tif
F153 20b7c661451b5d0f66407e6949114932
00383-1.tif
F154 30bc3a99dafd483fd3b5af935ee67230
00383-2.tif
F155 3d4a5af44e5923e629b9ddebcfdf9c29
00384-1.tif
F156 c4aea102a1205ed787ed06a00eb6c791
00384-2.tif
F157 3eb7856078aa13fa9c2542ccbf0bc2d9
00385-1.tif
F158 ec38482e7353c62c01c92eebc5e2223d
00385-2.tif
F159 a966bf73ff2acb7d28cb5d9f76204451 2647788
00386-1.tif
F160 d53546dc1b9fd3b4fbe3b3ecfaaa257c
00386-2.tif
F161 4e71cc8c363b68d001491ebdbe08d2e6
00387-1.tif
J1 imagejpeg 03a7b4beba0d9627a15b31d2d7edbb33 766613
00294-2.jpg
J2 c618214cce1e7de9474ed2a2ab02d344 37783
00296-2.jpg
J4 d0407500013b6c7bb11e5f202e2b919c 342673
00297-2.jpg
J5 3f1cc5e13c7da1071cf6e08aba143cd9 171448
00298-1.jpg
J6 6dc86da7c026bbc77785a5f3fe314bc9 212236
00298-2.jpg
J8 54d337ffafc396498ecd905d3318d534 401154
00299-2.jpg
J9 23850bb15dd2ae7fd016b7cc716166df 368224
00300-1.jpg
J10 436023bdf24f07c4f1b2bd366637168e 294069
00300-2.jpg
J12 e29b4203aa66f8c0d8944bfc3dd76edf 255172
00301-2.jpg
J13 651c5e3b317acfa5b9ba0e42e7c26bc7 257441
00303-1.jpg
J14 7ddb092133dd544c08c6a648d365a440 432100
00303-2.jpg
J15 8ab68f9532a3cfbc2fc583f92ab180e6 174145
00305-1.jpg
J16 049c40f93ddebfa55ab7cf4f4900854d 458848
00305-2.jpg
J17 b1f4c426cf8fae2eb24ec9e6e4c8932b 307248
00307-1.jpg
J18 cda60230c7d8cdb069e71f43a8c6fed9 456987
00307-2.jpg
J19 544909b39a7ab3a87be13514ceb31eb0 238830
00309-1.jpg
J20 fc549f572f368cd8bc6f7937a887c5a7 343693
00309-2.jpg
J21 de9bd4d814637ac7d01884f634641fef 220976
00311-1.jpg
J22 977a145e36f83f9659af2673d8384eb8 369607
00311-2.jpg
J23 ac1c00c8db99d088333888d9cea5c186 149289
00313-1.jpg
J24 e3e2c711bc067a6c508d786452d58203 268474
00313-2.jpg
J25 e20b65b98c90f1fec7d481156a7edebf 108925
00315-1.jpg
J26 fc5da3c5a730dad4709667ae7fa571cd 349821
00315-2.jpg
J27 160a23706e3d805fb23b77f4024548d4 192736
00317-1.jpg
J28 3f1e833a1ab01b0bd5753f3ad9a634f8 332363
00317-2.jpg
J29 3ee85c2df17940f0596e1e3fce07bda9 156116
00319-1.jpg
J30 db71fc9a1a2557c0a44435de1a9a8ed8 334777
00319-2.jpg
J31 34954ff68fde9254f996462f08eeeb22 109428
00321-1.jpg
J32 46fa38e56c1a95505ca6c43f78ae3c80 307219
00321-2.jpg
J33 78de8151ddb4c615e9f1350be50ff02d 122761
00323-1.jpg
J34 70476565c149303ddb5f332218317c77 389537
00323-2.jpg
J36 34b1ea99e8be4a522a3288aa0fc07349 229458
00324-2.jpg
J37 632e3a6347e0d86b14a5bdd6dbcae81e 295701
00325-1.jpg
J38 4747a97bcb78480e8636d1ca88ae858a 410764
00325-2.jpg
J39 fc1d4e85cce08d6fe5da330bf4ee177b 428160
00326-1.jpg
J40 af7c1b159248cc9241c9a83256a35d2b 473323
00326-2.jpg
J41 65e8a6ecc77ed8f9c41813b6eb0e285e 442531
00327-1.jpg
J42 a7f48d3bf11fd2fc98a5856e7dd24c4d 465389
00327-2.jpg
J43 3cc0a64318ac22ebd070a8d2ba910d5f 426236
00328-1.jpg
J44 c29ed54e48cdc7241829bbe8187280f7 351695
00328-2.jpg
J45 b727df155e93d6828cc56f0c8e69d2fa 369969
00329-1.jpg
J46 316e2fd0c5cc50bb1c1a4cccc6ee5803 464201
00329-2.jpg
J47 3eecd994314c1a30d4a0a1c7ac6ad3a8 428850
00330-1.jpg
J48 c9bbd170ff2934e338bb7c90ad0d741b 457183
00330-2.jpg
J49 d997928d1bf6ee08c401f7f6e194bbde 427465
00331-1.jpg
J50 0a9ce8fb0f859d018812904974e9f646 473351
00331-2.jpg
J51 440c0dc4c5691655013321a49dc29a0a 403679
00332-1.jpg
J52 fe51c61b5d547c6b18d6b3a7aa975276 414289
00332-2.jpg
J53 af26e46e26e746435645dd85e1a9cbb7 440463
00333-1.jpg
J54 afd3e65345d3f9ca798070c4b74d2220 470458
00333-2.jpg
J55 8d9906df7d24799e7872454e2e3034ef 440652
00334-1.jpg
J56 776dc518b1ba42205ec957708b479e65 474786
00334-2.jpg
J57 1121475068a860ed8400a510c4fdd0c8 380403
00335-1.jpg
J58 2bebc3d24457832c32bc6d84bb55fb1c 448703
00335-2.jpg
J59 60b63a5cd7addf2a00552c3f1c571b8d 416157
00336-1.jpg
J60 c80c38d074ba89017eacf23d0b07efd7 446329
00336-2.jpg
J61 2bb9705d3f4e0d2f430f0bc10e8221a4 436918
00337-1.jpg
J62 47ceec1bb25d08e5de49eaf6f54c7a89 456943
00337-2.jpg
J63 822b5013a493212a5ed33930b55c3556 429752
00338-1.jpg
J64 bb97e468254b13da70f5d38a61d65bf0 470131
00338-2.jpg
J65 d9ad9614a87a454bf7f4ea6ee18f631f 399706
00339-1.jpg
J66 c7770b4ca4038ee75d82e325e1b7cf4b 443304
00339-2.jpg
J67 cdf1abc202f31fe3d93af3140b8d0f82 445698
00340-1.jpg
J68 5ef72d79854852b3bca5d2d3eeaffc04 459623
00340-2.jpg
J69 c6ccd75dff61c831c3dcffe88f1bb7ce 396622
00341-1.jpg
J70 df755f4ba83e3df52a287df71c4b5106 454217
00341-2.jpg
J71 350bc5f856bf55fa189b3f3f3aa9d7e6 405563
00342-1.jpg
J72 0b637fbffd3a1a3643ddd7ecc1bf5c08 396993
00342-2.jpg
J73 faacd99a4e8755aa66e29c49a4e2c828 395925
00343-1.jpg
J74 7faceeb78bd40366486dc2d704fd973e 415150
00343-2.jpg
J75 7f4b17c8b36c872dd7c58c5cc9234a4f 405925
00344-1.jpg
J76 6f9a91d8a948193a8e1249b667563dd8 436170
00344-2.jpg
J77 fd013452eff3a3e566c9a48a881361c5 404742
00345-1.jpg
J78 23d962525dac922da4cc0e51e66fec0f 442361
00345-2.jpg
J79 d1b7b73ca5a3e55557046643a68dd1dc 397404
00346-1.jpg
J80 26e28c3a082922adea268737f07aae88 461074
00346-2.jpg
J81 7c51286cb7a4c92dfacb4881b2c77630 388885
00347-1.jpg
J82 aca46738e7ee6b5c034e31c5c102d05d 409360
00347-2.jpg
J83 1e6c51075632f56a73b956d9a4ff3cad 403667
00348-1.jpg
J84 f2ba5f162a707de28c65ac9d695c69e8 434427
00348-2.jpg
J85 72938fe977fe6af1a7f64094505babaf 339504
00349-1.jpg
J86 0e62ee886bcbb447ef5dbfb3266b0f7f 405699
00349-2.jpg
J87 8b8ba448b1449bc5cf29691e9689e5b0 418838
00350-1.jpg
J88 aee5f28e74dafdaf3c470a502869197f 463048
00350-2.jpg
J89 ebd17dd3e6fb14229de663040c8b85e1 424338
00351-1.jpg
J90 8dc589de94c7e34be0e72613d887d900 476241
00351-2.jpg
J91 e3228bf3e2b5af623e88c2adf3c7bf23 409112
00352-1.jpg
J92 656ffb01835b404a5839a2f77e9e867a 426030
00352-2.jpg
J93 bf342e188871794a3ae4416809316b41 400977
00353-1.jpg
J94 f0d6db2d0bcdbb9a2110b406e006e554 409353
00353-2.jpg
J95 f45884e9ed28016b84fd400f892b540c 380119
00354-1.jpg
J96 1d3c873b1c8bc6ef023f4a05ff6e1570 439551
00354-2.jpg
J97 b27b9c9623d0187aafe396e7242c31fe 343414
00355-1.jpg
J98 cf09438189ba65c6e4f2c32d4d65491e 410599
00355-2.jpg
J99 b7851a262474b919986331a4645b4f04 408707
00356-1.jpg
J100 36edc32631311f69080a63bf904cf539 425931
00356-2.jpg
J101 fccb8a35815c6fb1340fc841082f361f 365913
00357-1.jpg
J102 e5c6c4ae52d791e6008e150668c7aae3 392579
00357-2.jpg
J103 c7b295873323a8330de5f8cae9208f67 377163
00358-1.jpg
J104 a3801b10594642936d363bf16bb0f10d 455466
00358-2.jpg
J105 c5b8c6fc97875a211f9e2422c2ad34fa 381499
00359-1.jpg
J106 aefe87107dbcac44115287f3c2504530 433731
00359-2.jpg
J107 34e238c2c58ec814c58f02adb5f567e1 412135
00360-1.jpg
J108 ccba4c19f1bdb23f71e1568b5a08b33c 432338
00360-2.jpg
J109 1cf036971ee94a0033b776bb6155d3bd 417548
00361-1.jpg
J110 4c4dee42b878080ffc288d4f4226498c 430133
00361-2.jpg
J111 5e5a42889a4c9ae5ca6c1571ba01244a 366950
00362-1.jpg
J112 01532cb96b8bc9bcefd76b9e197ddba7 399073
00362-2.jpg
J113 001634d1c264c73fe4c012f5a05953f3 387177
00363-1.jpg
J114 d1e832e792404a77728636c6e84cbaaa 461449
00363-2.jpg
J115 ab03609f889c9082b2c637556da3659f 379738
00364-1.jpg
J116 e08f39b529eb87ed19b5eb1fe67f75c8 398141
00364-2.jpg
J117 7e4d91919395e9ee8ed8a2dcdafc23da 427941
00365-1.jpg
J118 4029a7e999dac4984d3f1034c1c3d5ea 410398
00365-2.jpg
J119 d07df94a28f21862612c6965842ecf9a 397372
00366-1.jpg
J120 4fd82ea9a67ece22d209b418da7d4cde 411776
00366-2.jpg
J121 9be2ada60aac96be804eb60ad35461a2 371120
00367-1.jpg
J122 953c5aa8ff4d3136d54e698541457f33 233987
00367-2.jpg
J123 9f2725072f348194453277bebb746537 353039
00368-1.jpg
J124 0a53fd3094139d34b3823070291fef03 459700
00368-2.jpg
J125 1dfdd91dd30b205979d7d92ce22e0a5a 432909
00369-1.jpg
J126 29dd971b55bc266acd59b80396a2758e 441635
00369-2.jpg
J127 7d302772efe9a3c65d960d4229254326 418006
00370-1.jpg
J128 106caec1f14b8f39b85c1c418832d48b 444274
00370-2.jpg
J129 3c7e59bd7e7722e27d7404b0c98f87e6 391806
00371-1.jpg
J130 4e823a1c67456d1320d5abdf8ebda366 459763
00371-2.jpg
J131 ba580e4ed714460002f2460460423be6 397008
00372-1.jpg
J132 1ac0af49976ecded3f2bdbed19bfc144 454007
00372-2.jpg
J133 849cc9b6975f49803f984f6bc9bd74cc 389894
00373-1.jpg
J134 922640f267406ef745ecd841e365b3ca 416864
00373-2.jpg
J135 49de48601fbbb3876b75ef76ffba5fc4 317907
00374-1.jpg
J136 b0d2cbcc136bdddf892582b2496342b0 384995
00374-2.jpg
J137 b81bed018691acaeacbe5e1e25cdd890 404482
00375-1.jpg
J138 78e31bc567131cd0047b6357106d498e 439949
00375-2.jpg
J139 4cc887e187067ff5c90802d25f2e7e0d 397873
00376-1.jpg
J140 6f7c41759565d756b59dd2dfeab5bdef 443664
00376-2.jpg
J141 f924671e1a2aebac3fbf39deee4c06aa 373578
00377-1.jpg
J142 204f9086491b89ddc9fd0ef62b4c2a93 426468
00377-2.jpg
J143 e1f512482a4ae3c8cb60b8dcaa048649 381771
00378-1.jpg
J144 f9c271ef4bfd63e250afafb73cc11ae9 392831
00378-2.jpg
J145 3945824acbef729559fba20620e7ca46 126493
00379-1.jpg
J146 adc62822ba06bb90683c710df013f06f 379217
00379-2.jpg
J147 fb9b4f23b08e182867ed47a8db3518b1 466227
00380-1.jpg
J148 87676a5273401f82ff70228db8e7fce9 291411
00380-2.jpg
J149 33656c98b15a9447675f41a82a444c33 107313
00381-1.jpg
J150 1c5fcb82845f94252b4fa3a651458509 421122
00381-2.jpg
J151 ff616470f75258a8ef1fb590a8ffd0e1 317690
00382-1.jpg
J152 9147cfe7a01a1de356eded3df55e8300 418368
00382-2.jpg
J153 4dcfc5617aba62b221e3736b1f4ebae7 379497
00383-1.jpg
J154 1abcd3b1697e927cd1cd45fde5edb48b 416665
00383-2.jpg
J155 2f3fff72af0682669213af4ce8ae0db0 398471
00384-1.jpg
J156 52449f114aad95b63d940d9d7f324b28 435547
00384-2.jpg
J157 aa0ea3f6d10879f3ad7142079a102cb4 136917
00385-1.jpg
J158 9288dd9964d6a9cc5b09b40a7359c63b 392288
00385-2.jpg
J159 942eed203ef01d3a9fdc84a904e14b6c 381554
00386-1.jpg
J160 385930f63aca3bc2d9723c2d52bbbd55 406979
00386-2.jpg
J161 04d8ae2430a95f69209b4e8e78f430cf 202660
00387-1.jpg
UR1 a67b637ad9052ce21ec64771ff0344c0 65830
00294-2thm.jpg
AR1 1dc2020e39ebfd81da3175ea07ee1cf6 224502
00294-2.QC.jpg
AR2 52491ded12fbce8ce4e0960ce03daf59 24239
00296-2.QC.jpg
AR3 d4d149e3fc8aa55f69393eb28de182c3 20128
00296-2thm.jpg
AR4 98bfffae86ddb3b71cc43d055645c580 112962
00297-2.QC.jpg
AR5 0ab5bd08867c07c918ffe77390c2c0f2 43991
00297-2thm.jpg
AR6 e0a794b92d8eaffd204451ad78472c61 67277
00298-1.QC.jpg
AR7 11b4b3450f61c356b61ed13293c189dc 32053
00298-1thm.jpg
AR8 04361eb61c0996d889a9e171751d6e1a 75468
00298-2.QC.jpg
AR9 c20ace06743b0671c087146fe24730d9 32239
00298-2thm.jpg
AR10 5194ca9b9f006254e2b38518845450a3 144413
00299-2.QC.jpg
AR11 0f7be8da61efdf7ac32e278f27795acd 51708
00299-2thm.jpg
AR12 6722597fe19334e3b571b6c228ffa933 139497
00300-1.QC.jpg
AR13 60117f9c98e709370cc2cf4a7a88e223 50850
00300-1thm.jpg
AR14 34264c957e892ad782690d9e7a1d8445 105258
00300-2.QC.jpg
AR15 823b029dc6d1f5f8240aa51ecda51eac 41838
00300-2thm.jpg
AR16 a5b0f3b0ef1f8e98a51a22d34461dd58 88087
00301-2.QC.jpg
AR17 30bb0979e2318230a827141bb6877974 36313
00301-2thm.jpg
AR18 a6a5551ee0311f8252dac45b276b13b3 108257
00303-1.QC.jpg
AR19 0ea450ce4ede302771459411f59e7124 45987
00303-1thm.jpg
AR20 4292a620c95d70f61cb7aafcc5031cf6 151985
00303-2.QC.jpg
AR21 9c8d8b7d980713f50f3e7842f77ea9b7 58573
00303-2thm.jpg
AR22 a0bfcfd61a020525dc09ef732b92202a 75357
00305-1.QC.jpg
AR23 43edf0737de9dd80db6cd54c58ada774 33895
00305-1thm.jpg
AR24 3260ed5716594f6737d0e81101c69bd7 155609
00305-2.QC.jpg
AR25 db13d22b5403e82fcd35f0b416c31901 57913
00305-2thm.jpg
AR26 1b8d0b421050cbaafdbcc569b32015e6 126048
00307-1.QC.jpg
AR27 3c6772a395bde872829d9a73af13dcf8 49710
00307-1thm.jpg
AR28 aff2438e8cba33ebcf92d2224edb54ac 151650
00307-2.QC.jpg
AR29 1d24a76240be5e48948adf6750eb2517 53536
00307-2thm.jpg
AR30 2ae8851bcc9ee7dcc6d8abff2d3a0c95 98260
00309-1.QC.jpg
AR31 d6c28dc55c2450677a5cbf430f623be3 41187
00309-1thm.jpg
AR32 8e3a3b4eca91659955a8c9962a597ad9 122638
00309-2.QC.jpg
AR33 e298306637a4fa7dab0d769a009e7ebc 48566
00309-2thm.jpg
AR34 d8d8aa4af73ea15de65c632c5396e5cb 94430
00311-1.QC.jpg
AR35 f995d633947a926888d20a2bbf9d0944 39910
00311-1thm.jpg
AR36 ccdd5d83750ead93bf4dfaced8316249 134827
00311-2.QC.jpg
AR37 c736243c729771971bf4c5e9742d3d1e 53563
00311-2thm.jpg
AR38 39c6203df5742bfb167596f5683fe4c4 67036
00313-1.QC.jpg
AR39 e5401324814e202780c7d925aa6a7033 32021
00313-1thm.jpg
AR40 cd568022c19fc03f8cf79244cb450fe0 98305
00313-2.QC.jpg
AR41 950baf8a76746ba07f7a196b56ccc81b 41356
00313-2thm.jpg
AR42 06ad1e15b26d961b6e39c23cced86cf5 51320
00315-1.QC.jpg
AR43 8ad662ddf4cedf730b146f3791d95fcb 27757
00315-1thm.jpg
AR44 3a350a461b41cc8feeb1a1409aac5394 128832
00315-2.QC.jpg
AR45 179b2d31c8ffb9de0d69e952b4ef5e38 50647
00315-2thm.jpg
AR46 4c755c7eff45e78788f3f21bafd0ebe2 82989
00317-1.QC.jpg
AR47 766beb20bb4012ff9cb463ff291cac34 36021
00317-1thm.jpg
AR48 940e4d3ea85f6db290307ece79bcfae6 121159
00317-2.QC.jpg
AR49 45c60db86775f4a05c2dfbdea8538d75 48563
00317-2thm.jpg
AR50 5a956749655bbd0821fdd489679cf2b9 70454
00319-1.QC.jpg
AR51 42c61ea3be85833cfd0dd585206e5fd7 33085
00319-1thm.jpg
AR52 f7a3fc1e65f29c1a47bed2c03d479f16 123755
00319-2.QC.jpg
AR53 a8981a81dbef7cddb2815d80b6d02ecd 50108
00319-2thm.jpg
AR54 b5ef5597063dc92823dd145efd40b86e 51417
00321-1.QC.jpg
AR55 c4082bad9ca204fe1d270a68e73d6d0d 28169
00321-1thm.jpg
AR56 4c250368d89d0b414a02cb8fdf01180d 112838
00321-2.QC.jpg
AR57 8b04f05715d46d9019707aedfbb2d826 44579
00321-2thm.jpg
AR58 dc95a6cf277096377b81ecfd522dcae2 57012
00323-1.QC.jpg
AR59 009c136dfb8a926561287fbe3a0209fd 28843
00323-1thm.jpg
AR60 c061c2f3cdb819a9e1c55546613627ad 141483
00323-2.QC.jpg
AR61 ae5c52d6d98eea6cfb41ceee68857b41 53663
00323-2thm.jpg
AR62 3b6735078893a77ed5038ad6616a1a4b 78011
00324-2.QC.jpg
AR63 0f6163e97c791b6c8416a00e218fd91a 32839
00324-2thm.jpg
AR64 fab36e9de5adc8274853c426b610540e 110607
00325-1.QC.jpg
AR65 6be997309f0fe27ead4cee6a9691707a 45053
00325-1thm.jpg
AR66 3430403926a7f67c07a56ce345d79e8a 150428
00325-2.QC.jpg
AR67 3b37cb1193941e61daf986159ffc05d1 54618
00325-2thm.jpg
AR68 16e0d3be60edbaaddf0b7edc66a39c93 164677
00326-1.QC.jpg
AR69 21cd8cdf36738d56be4a30165d219d2f 59163
00326-1thm.jpg
AR70 522a4c44d8e2e5b384e7d8fec74db2c9 175131
00326-2.QC.jpg
AR71 faf1a909e6f9d96ed9d1ccf3411b8098 60998
00326-2thm.jpg
AR72 b7f35905b636b6527b4b1d086ba9c58b 166651
00327-1.QC.jpg
AR73 504c2c3edff68f8a0238beec8370cf45 59781
00327-1thm.jpg
AR74 55c80d3d2996bcf36ee2798f12989add 173448
00327-2.QC.jpg
AR75 4845329b0d935b4400680e575595acf1 60771
00327-2thm.jpg
AR76 dc84c244d29c2ed17de6dc0578ae3616 164503
00328-1.QC.jpg
AR77 3c53a08d4f2842d6c1bf6c64f637c431 59647
00328-1thm.jpg
AR78 48534214c84ff26f1e6257fefb7a3bfe 127511
00328-2.QC.jpg
AR79 b644d05ac69783cc4c929170129b1b6c 47590
00328-2thm.jpg
AR80 4695d2c25510eaf64cfc8ef0710774ab 139942
00329-1.QC.jpg
AR81 38b5682581e55e9f9c8e90646afb1bd1 52898
00329-1thm.jpg
AR82 6fce8020a44f65c787b9a7e6987363ac 171766
00329-2.QC.jpg
AR83 ec2970a9507f83a39c3d63c788b6b4be 59980
00329-2thm.jpg
AR84 b5db3ac94376d2aa45302d1897b9a66a 165119
00330-1.QC.jpg
AR85 119da1f43ec53614056b1cacb1b40b83 57770
00330-1thm.jpg
AR86 1be5f5eddba6a1f1b8707d98b69d6461 170248
00330-2.QC.jpg
AR87 53c9fefb38a4649eb07281d3a78cdc51 60355
00330-2thm.jpg
AR88 b6f2fee3ca5804d4c5d30d65ce90c17f 162615
00331-1.QC.jpg
AR89 ee75e10c0f748a98cda7bc3ce4d32c86 58385
00331-1thm.jpg
AR90 85a5a7685fbb969d4557e546833a38d2 174417
00331-2.QC.jpg
AR91 60402bccda011873f6879e820ebfdae0 59868
00331-2thm.jpg
AR92 863a365c7505b33f30b77020e7fcdbcf 154493
00332-1.QC.jpg
AR93 3f7e1d999eabe100e81fc5cf2a496236 55571
00332-1thm.jpg
AR94 84fd3e5d49a4f2d965de6dc099b14dc2 150706
00332-2.QC.jpg
AR95 b13d0a759d2122502fc2f628ff123ade 53245
00332-2thm.jpg
AR96 4e16660282e759deedc278d76d9cc523 168741
00333-1.QC.jpg
AR97 0beb200cd3586aa0e571fac4f2600ce8 57914
00333-1thm.jpg
AR98 bbe92ffed0eee0ef45e420834794efc0 174586
00333-2.QC.jpg
AR99 debfb87c8621f117e075ae4395f45413 60124
00333-2thm.jpg
AR100 3e13e17c3090af3014a49b4b9b2b6f99 168111
00334-1.QC.jpg
AR101 edc52acea71aa5622cd599d244751831 59426
00334-1thm.jpg
AR102 4d63b24327c835b628731c021fd1d997 176668
00334-2.QC.jpg
AR103 61b6df5a1aab78abf955c4825b176f71 61450
00334-2thm.jpg
AR104 c8d155301b42b2f4d51609ee74c93cc6 146951
00335-1.QC.jpg
AR105 5a8bc789515dc8537023c80790f8ad7e 55551
00335-1thm.jpg
AR106 9771b3b661ba28a0e6e7035bea8b37e3 165380
00335-2.QC.jpg
AR107 b39d126a7740b89536190b991d2f3364 59329
00335-2thm.jpg
AR108 e32fcc151585ef03a200c1527c514408 157618
00336-1.QC.jpg
AR109 31cd1102af671dd5a3c9d1ab5eabc963 57671
00336-1thm.jpg
AR110 bf555db44bc12d6917f6521d837b6c95 163073
00336-2.QC.jpg
AR111 cd9b0ff5db5f76c50ccc6603f39f24a3 58323
00336-2thm.jpg
AR112 abbb9b11bdadbbdd9f37fadf89f88437 167690
00337-1.QC.jpg
AR113 e77db7e5b5b4c59b8d164badb3fc5e1e 59286
00337-1thm.jpg
AR114 91030d71b8a123101e5df50b3fd5f736 168726
00337-2.QC.jpg
AR115 8ab94933107ee56cb7522082371dc47a 59133
00337-2thm.jpg
AR116 5b335977227c7a3d6634cce3b29cdfd6 162500
00338-1.QC.jpg
AR117 158a3e6b3b75c18d1e1cd091874b386d 58079
00338-1thm.jpg
AR118 a2a7e6487329a2a5096661a2f8fcb934 170746
00338-2.QC.jpg
AR119 ad99df5960dfcf40dc2ddfecc8a3a661 59016
00338-2thm.jpg
AR120 195135c39448f137ffbdecccacc45018 157106
00339-1.QC.jpg
AR121 13f405340a5212de122846deb21b182d 56834
00339-1thm.jpg
AR122 bc86f57afb62b9bd70baaf7ab0809fef 164683
00339-2.QC.jpg
AR123 5757debf808ec597df89ca1fb7f0f138 59620
00339-2thm.jpg
AR124 a260fa43ea456f72988992eed187d62f 167733
00340-1.QC.jpg
AR125 bb250ac345e76624e1a7ef87e653665f 59998
00340-1thm.jpg
AR126 1069a053c76316286c491575ea4f64ac 168956
00340-2.QC.jpg
AR127 0c28adfccd5a4574f72cae400c78b5eb 59833
00340-2thm.jpg
AR128 d3d21de99c910c1d6d23a4faf8b3124d 153825
00341-1.QC.jpg
AR129 a81749df92ca6fda0b9c90b388a4d807 56689
00341-1thm.jpg
AR130 d0afb93aae80242dcdbf6691836f5e71 166829
00341-2.QC.jpg
AR131 91a7a5625e097435a15cc745468d7e97 59708
00341-2thm.jpg
AR132 aae1b358818d7b15b1f6c6a54de754b9 152804
00342-1.QC.jpg
AR133 8970cd15f34d154506d197ef12076b87 56789
00342-1thm.jpg
AR134 9c1446c94ba8db1a3584e002120cd913 142880
00342-2.QC.jpg
AR135 78763cbe18335ec4f658a77cf1f9be1a 54515
00342-2thm.jpg
AR136 31ab6dd93f8067cd4922482b13da8017 153758
00343-1.QC.jpg
AR137 24a7ee120d4ddfe7fa2dac8d7a3a7304 56876
00343-1thm.jpg
AR138 843ebd7736a35a5311bfd189244c026f 154072
00343-2.QC.jpg
AR139 77eeaf4b42dc2d1786ff868f9bc710fe 55439
00343-2thm.jpg
AR140 f79a412b4ba613874f1ad9307caf161c 153938
00344-1.QC.jpg
AR141 a16c9f869fd9a7af011b805b437ed5b1 56050
00344-1thm.jpg
AR142 27a2d85af88637ab4954b60651b3df23 162212
00344-2.QC.jpg
AR143 c6e9941a2b92a90fafe50dc4ae7c2862 57057
00344-2thm.jpg
AR144 45f3716ac50a4fed59c6d684a43b61fe 154960
00345-1.QC.jpg
AR145 cd11eb4fc1aeb7d10c99dc530b27e95f 55480
00345-1thm.jpg
AR146 d95c774f4641566695b34b50c3ce72c0 163062
00345-2.QC.jpg
AR147 b438b599d9c7ea758d138a05b74fa511 58359
00345-2thm.jpg
AR148 5f9ed7e645a77530340c79ff8647e665 153105
00346-1.QC.jpg
AR149 f9d2bf84f12004739334b94377fd2c7a 55881
00346-1thm.jpg
AR150 c32b7341225afef4111adbe17494d334 170698
00346-2.QC.jpg
AR151 7fdb7f592e9c60af1fac3e3a7aa49e26 59055
00346-2thm.jpg
AR152 7ddc26e61b25e6ee58b3c3b3a7550f63 148442
00347-1.QC.jpg
AR153 4e53837a0074c844cb926050a22f1474 54441
00347-1thm.jpg
AR154 bc7dd4841a8de529e83cb7e59116501f 149634
00347-2.QC.jpg
AR155 3705604b9cf0dcc695215ed0ebb06f86 56066
00347-2thm.jpg
AR156 82211a34732de58abf39135778e87571 156641
00348-1.QC.jpg
AR157 8031c7cd722bd28b29b336912746610d 57515
00348-1thm.jpg
AR158 b7827a5f379e6cc5c6fa84842b3ac31f 162123
00348-2.QC.jpg
AR159 cfecef79b28c9aa0283a515c046931d0 58599
00348-2thm.jpg
AR160 31fd171addebb3fbefbecf2769203305 133548
00349-1.QC.jpg
AR161 0de46033b4b103a07fd923a246a3d6b4 51551
00349-1thm.jpg
AR162 8e8b5d9b89b99e0453daf5befb26d29e 149006
00349-2.QC.jpg
AR163 b0ced0c51a4b7b2e766fd386aa9bd7bf 54468
00349-2thm.jpg
AR164 659bf9f56581a99ad46be5cb50992b8a 162550
00350-1.QC.jpg
AR165 bdbd1280ce694405841c391f10589136 58557
00350-1thm.jpg
AR166 94491ad33eb9b0ad67d505477bc9a546 173878
00350-2.QC.jpg
AR167 4cd14bbb937f0e576bcaf9fa57321ec1 61355
00350-2thm.jpg
AR168 8a4c0e7473d4a98d173938d1117f4e3b 161413
00351-1.QC.jpg
AR169 df005e299ce2befa37bc451c59ae40d7 58755
00351-1thm.jpg
AR170 668353cfa11322a313a0463be8f34f4b 175027
00351-2.QC.jpg
AR171 2a57672f20eab506494bf022935fb2ab 59957
00351-2thm.jpg
AR172 43e0aaf32f1602bfc4808d7c062311ff 159322
00352-1.QC.jpg
AR173 aa231053afc1ecb0021bd5b2f45d5cc0 55973
00352-1thm.jpg
AR174 9cb15a0e72087ac74296e345e895f68f 159115
00352-2.QC.jpg
AR175 06bb4d98c7693ac1356df8074aee74e8 57178
00352-2thm.jpg
AR176 1497635023938037f3026c00bac3d42f 155096
00353-1.QC.jpg
AR177 1de127c4c110a559afde38fa721946ae 56200
00353-1thm.jpg
AR178 cb530d9c8a8012db0851ff6f48cbe865 152292
00353-2.QC.jpg
AR179 702b1fd032d243646b2d5d77f607a74d 55165
00353-2thm.jpg
AR180 8dbf3301f86ab75c310531b5b8c8dfa5 146330
00354-1.QC.jpg
AR181 5840743450a50eaa9487ebd33a0c5bd1 54273
00354-1thm.jpg
AR182 709494360dfd04975e23d5e241c782e4 163597
00354-2.QC.jpg
AR183 13e2651a371193cbaf808876ec22ae50 57711
00354-2thm.jpg
AR184 69af18a07a72bb5b1c6f13ce2ef0046c 133972
00355-1.QC.jpg
AR185 c0a75094ca1bd0561a0e95d0e60b9c1d 52113
00355-1thm.jpg
AR186 de65b87c7da3dfa320de38ff91ee4c01 152323
00355-2.QC.jpg
AR187 770c2ef016553b1af48a16ad76e4eae4 56692
00355-2thm.jpg
AR188 e76b9febe7c24e9b52e0facf741d8145 157198
00356-1.QC.jpg
AR189 5259b24c2d3094478864705337da53a0 58015
00356-1thm.jpg
AR190 8aa1adf713d19f7641bb1cb788428fb9 158152
00356-2.QC.jpg
AR191 2b3389efc274cea1b0c94c23d56e3b18 57437
00356-2thm.jpg
AR192 99b7dd48d4bff618c258fd99eba63a4d 141132
00357-1.QC.jpg
AR193 f01f24bfd6278be49e11e406d72625fc 54985
00357-1thm.jpg
AR194 6a3c81f225e0b35fa2f33b1cee849db3 147977
00357-2.QC.jpg
AR195 22b341447537bee964028e6faab475ba 54574
00357-2thm.jpg
AR196 5b4f38b4901f1cdaafaf61d1d4eb02a9 143037
00358-1.QC.jpg
AR197 01a8f1f7edf8f91e982c927d9b3750ac 54802
00358-1thm.jpg
AR198 9ee82e09d7157fe7d25a0a54e2b5ecaf 167600
00358-2.QC.jpg
AR199 eb34f6cb06372c9e5efc447059656f83 58435
00358-2thm.jpg
AR200 db75f11494b4fd741caf172e38bf5e2d 149448
00359-1.QC.jpg
AR201 adcedcbf4fa21b9c08a88a9cdab4fa50 54951
00359-1thm.jpg
AR202 d548824a14c98fa2eb3f2f80d628bc47 160566
00359-2.QC.jpg
AR203 1138680afd4b88e2c8f96aa04a08e85a 56941
00359-2thm.jpg
AR204 199bb3181ecae1f467409d4358a17cf7 157381
00360-1.QC.jpg
AR205 27525c85439f3f8f9e43583c3c3d6622 57249
00360-1thm.jpg
AR206 361bf99d0e60e29e01f0c5472f58a009 158865
00360-2.QC.jpg
AR207 9f1859cdfc229fdc075c7e8ad2d856f6 57622
00360-2thm.jpg
AR208 c035c68580a8944356a9dd8ee0b57c6d 158347
00361-1.QC.jpg
AR209 02db609c88675d8e154ca33c3c63fe9c 56207
00361-1thm.jpg
AR210 9d7772ecf26e7e44fce4dde14b3292b9 157603
00361-2.QC.jpg
AR211 c9b7506a76bcd6f4e99a8f1688e02f1c 57542
00361-2thm.jpg
AR212 93b5ab2342b66697415a76a6d3cc3ce6 144269
00362-1.QC.jpg
AR213 54984a31849c634efff003f9294abadc 53293
00362-1thm.jpg
AR214 66a135787c94b7ad7584905be3580745 146453
00362-2.QC.jpg
AR215 f4409670aa14a76bb729e98a032da9ff 55419
00362-2thm.jpg
AR216 49abc62e39dff3c89fc89edb8a190200 152121
00363-1.QC.jpg
AR217 cf7d13bfb2fe90a25b02c607b2dce0a1 55462
00363-1thm.jpg
AR218 627728fd84eb10ccadd041e29fede5f1 171234
00363-2.QC.jpg
AR219 4cfaf1b25f46291e0911b825bfc11a4e 60067
00363-2thm.jpg
AR220 dcdcd0b52bae1a453d6cc5e3a7ac36fb 146892
00364-1.QC.jpg
AR221 9b9844b10132593f4836d7137b9724ad 55376
00364-1thm.jpg
AR222 d547c22c4c57fbdf4055d870eafa02f6 148416
00364-2.QC.jpg
AR223 0f5a91b5bcb54a19a4e692afbc4dcc84 53819
00364-2thm.jpg
AR224 f096962843509249c2048bac130b8250 166106
00365-1.QC.jpg
AR225 e5e460b55d5ebfe12879fdd8dcdc095f 57899
00365-1thm.jpg
AR226 4d847a1cf1d8e6f88a735c41f3f917f8 152220
00365-2.QC.jpg
AR227 1e9613aa53a15d17ade7dc9e26f9bae4 56250
00365-2thm.jpg
AR228 4c1be62a7edad248f79b10153a62b337 155155
00366-1.QC.jpg
AR229 ee88f7ad01525510c3f4d5c2524c2a3b 56241
00366-1thm.jpg
AR230 417f858080d4c121a1069bcd991d47ef 152593
00366-2.QC.jpg
AR231 a11c5a6b4d7ef8b75b7e1cee62b7173d 55765
00366-2thm.jpg
AR232 dc8b3abacc5cdc418f233e19792d7302 143620
00367-1.QC.jpg
AR233 75e25e4159cdf0aa59013c05f9bf125e 55486
00367-1thm.jpg
AR234 54d82d1f8f5a279c1ec152eed0897817 86346
00367-2.QC.jpg
AR235 219de00bbe160a90e21704c66a2ee0a3 36571
00367-2thm.jpg
AR236 da0f3ce315d631329c0a9710371fc8dc 137555
00368-1.QC.jpg
AR237 6669f8b13bc0da3708be6f3bb53c84f0 53211
00368-1thm.jpg
AR238 4f772aab1bf728a2a034368b1448ff7c 170607
00368-2.QC.jpg
AR239 9ecadb908b45a343f3ab01a98e968569 60098
00368-2thm.jpg
AR240 17758a82659e6534180b6ca85b8cb399 164885
00369-1.QC.jpg
AR241 c9fc73a09f518eef0e92f32fd211c95c 59314
00369-1thm.jpg
AR242 87a487862889b38af0927b862b9cf945 162274
00369-2.QC.jpg
AR243 d0c713ae3c3d44223bc621c8049e149d 58685
00369-2thm.jpg
AR244 4c100dc069f283f86fef1ea9a46082c9 159773
00370-1.QC.jpg
AR245 8e4256b3d91c273bc2a13175ccc4983d 57966
00370-1thm.jpg
AR246 a68993e84e35011fa4d423ee2ad4eef7 163756
00370-2.QC.jpg
AR247 478c62149e812edf22cc9a8cb5fc5081 58946
00370-2thm.jpg
AR248 529335559096dcdaaac758e55a8d6457 148025
00371-1.QC.jpg
AR249 b9c9c91c149304e922d8a9fb8ca05e22 54935
00371-1thm.jpg
AR250 c19ecdebddedca30dec1a5e33a0b09ca 169910
00371-2.QC.jpg
AR251 35e355c6b26596890834031bb293872f 59857
00371-2thm.jpg
AR252 2af9cfb72b8d49f6d43075b3542521d1 153457
00372-1.QC.jpg
AR253 f7e1026eccf94da76a2c7a8f883d8b72 56640
00372-1thm.jpg
AR254 36752b93e6eef2bc78270ef7b9676a85 168016
00372-2.QC.jpg
AR255 82366c545b0da4a4b0172c0d7120316c 59468
00372-2thm.jpg
AR256 99bfb2677b8e84d29d1d0e3f6db3eee9 149884
00373-1.QC.jpg
AR257 fcb42cbcb6db22d3c6782636f1d6f950 55759
00373-1thm.jpg
AR258 4fc0453838e569fa7b1858005de8f29b 152713
00373-2.QC.jpg
AR259 c54055d9996ade0002bbdb6928498760 54583
00373-2thm.jpg
AR260 0333b4ac2df6d7c4937688495f398c10 124044
00374-1.QC.jpg
AR261 2765d4a660a0835fc8b694c3a392ca03 46655
00374-1thm.jpg
AR262 2a53df2a250a6f475c5d4f3ce3804a43 140913
00374-2.QC.jpg
AR263 1a0a9a2a61300d36dbde5d0fa5b84473 51626
00374-2thm.jpg
AR264 4dcc6ca0dcdf69026cd627e192cee11e 154780
00375-1.QC.jpg
AR265 34dabfcccaf9e42f0b2aa1bfe55c2193 57205
00375-1thm.jpg
AR266 503ec8fab30b3eff0185e79d58316f27 162913
00375-2.QC.jpg
AR267 8b129a7ca6dc039b7be57c6ff8ec8657 58076
00375-2thm.jpg
AR268 8788b2812b150a62eef8e0aac2b778c0 148175
00376-1.QC.jpg
AR269 c2fc6a77e2dba76b7dbf8271403968cb 55413
00376-1thm.jpg
AR270 d681f5a33012fe7429fa7cb5309b5ddd 162086
00376-2.QC.jpg
AR271 2eb3783779b1d317b0552fe0c257f9c8 57523
00376-2thm.jpg
AR272 d8f5bcab429d2ca2af24f51c7016a2f8 143272
00377-1.QC.jpg
AR273 038a14b66d60e44a1d61e9137dbc0f8c 53860
00377-1thm.jpg
AR274 1a68aca9fc86936a90e21e0e0a36ac68 156944
00377-2.QC.jpg
AR275 9a2367fe7656bbfcad5048f79af80d35 57138
00377-2thm.jpg
AR276 7c3cf488fc635ccb4d1a2da402ce2943 143067
00378-1.QC.jpg
AR277 e7c8ad24bf2f995c126bf50aaac9bd6b 53282
00378-1thm.jpg
AR278 fc1af16274081be7503474d863bd13cf 144072
00378-2.QC.jpg
AR279 52568a67b5b492a2d00c463d5de82eb0 52429
00378-2thm.jpg
AR280 f10ae6bfc45a9ee06b6216ac479693d7 52709
00379-1.QC.jpg
AR281 e6ecdd80ea65c523b1f2703f53b427ce 26478
00379-1thm.jpg
AR282 8ab88721c150293c3f58e34cbab0e24e 135302
00379-2.QC.jpg
AR283 3424f0d94801f30269cebbbcf25df6d4 49612
00379-2thm.jpg
AR284 98d9822eb80fb7cfadb7856de2e05699 170014
00380-1.QC.jpg
AR285 f8ddd223e3363dabc127de5cadfe4e6a 59853
00380-1thm.jpg
AR286 ab6c38450f2bd1871608cc5e17ec8bbc 102630
00380-2.QC.jpg
AR287 2c218c8d4440e84c9e9f1beb72e803b7 39814
00380-2thm.jpg
AR288 cfe055f71501629834952f0e7496ab6d 46054
00381-1.QC.jpg
AR289 d3d283d8df85ca93fcdcb4ab15be4a10 24895
00381-1thm.jpg
AR290 24025064d1dced90cc446e8be2d918b2 151998
00381-2.QC.jpg
AR291 96cf314d0d456fe5833046589e839545 56155
00381-2thm.jpg
AR292 a54e8b882415af392f5293b6e76f4e45 120721
00382-1.QC.jpg
AR293 a3a5ad877b23abc154a540fcff9527a3 47415
00382-1thm.jpg
AR294 bd49e6cebcfb48e48a30b9a1a86f9477 145992
00382-2.QC.jpg
AR295 e357ab51bd596a2a677caf44509012eb 52959
00382-2thm.jpg
AR296 65caae7f6ebd15ee6464823bbacc5e7d 140029
00383-1.QC.jpg
AR297 132896498ba3a57f1729aa83e759ef1b 53047
00383-1thm.jpg
AR298 1997525560f98e4b3aded2e71561617c 148907
00383-2.QC.jpg
AR299 4e4192e802b51e037f86dbb4cc07e20a 54704
00383-2thm.jpg
AR300 1fef091678def19001d27327f8988d30 144584
00384-1.QC.jpg
AR301 ed14e26f04d051d705298b0ffffef674 52717
00384-1thm.jpg
AR302 c00190873d6c0aaa8a6d411906d9b390 153345
00384-2.QC.jpg
AR303 7c2e0eba7a6a2bfe2521863cb22fce87 55543
00384-2thm.jpg
AR304 a8f9c8adcce2e8084bd53589d1727792 55123
00385-1.QC.jpg
AR305 20470f53bc7993478b1a6f45b7df2304 27460
00385-1thm.jpg
AR306 a76acdc04cfab0726bdba728deb27106 138174
00385-2.QC.jpg
AR307 1ee1bd8f0f96513761e333619945ef15 51108
00385-2thm.jpg
AR308 deb45bc3a3553e338fe51000d7e6f3c3 143961
00386-1.QC.jpg
AR309 c12ffc1f9a3421ab5ee99bf2fee8328e 57983
00386-1thm.jpg
AR310 2068bed8f9088fc01d1600cee4bc5f47 144002
00386-2.QC.jpg
AR311 b102c21a91949d8f289e35a67aa52c07 52848
00386-2thm.jpg
AR312 e3fa59d95d3119aaf367ea10a0b8fb5f 79254
00387-1.QC.jpg
AR313 2f2c97ab8f860cd8d44e61395cdf1fea 35237
00387-1thm.jpg
AR314 54492c85462a9c42b5c8b49723630666 264846
UF00055177_00001.mets
METS:structMap STRUCT1 mixed
METS:div DMDID Florida sea shells ORDER 0 main
D1 1 Front Cover
P1 Page ii
METS:fptr FILEID
D2 2 Half Title
P2 iii
D3
P4 iv
D4 4 Copyright
P5 v
D5 5 Dedication
P6 vi
D6 6 Preface
P8 vii
P9 viii
D7 7 Table of Contents
P10 ix
D8 Plates 8 Section
P12 xi
P13 Plate I-i
P14 I-ii
P15 II-i
P16 II-ii
P17 III-i
P18 III-ii
P19 IV-i
P20 IV-ii 9
P21 V-i 10
P22 V-ii 11
P23 VI-i 12
P24 VI-ii 13
P25 VII-i 14
P26 VII-ii 15
P27 VIII-i 16
P28 VIII-ii 17
P29 IX-i 18
P30 IX-ii 19
P31 X-i 20
P32 X-ii 21
P33 XI-i 22
P34 XI-ii 23
D9 Sea Shells
P36
P37
D10 Romance the Beaches Chapter
P38
P39
P40
P41
P42
P43
P44
D11 History Mollusks
P45
P46
P47
P48
P49
P50
P51
D12 Bivalves or Pelecypods
P52
P53
P54
P55
P56
P57
P58
P59
P60 25
P61 26
P62 27
P63 28
P64 29
P65 30
P66 31
P67 32
P68 33
P69 34
P70 35
P71 36
P72 37
P73 38
P74
P75 40
P76 41
P77 42
P78 43
P79 44
P80 45
P81
P82
P83 48
P84 49
P85 50
D13 Univalves Gastropods
P86 51
P87 52
P88 53
P89
P90 55
P91 56
P92
P93 58
P94 59
P95 60
P96 61
P97 62
P98 63
P99 64
P100
P101 66
P102 67
P103 68
P104
P105 70
P106 71
P107 72
P108 73
P109 74
P110 75
P111 76
P112 77
P113 78
P114 79
P115 80
P116 81
P117 82
P118 83
P119 84
P120 85
P121 86
P122 87
D14 Armed Cephalopods
P123 88
P124 89
P125 90
P126 91
P127
P128 93
P129 94
P130 95
P131 96
P132 97
P133 98
D15 Tooth Scaphopods
P134 99
P135 100
D16 Other Creatures
P136 101
P137 102
P138 103
P139 104
P140 105
P141 106
P142 107
P143 108
P144 109
P145 110
D17 Appendix
P146 111
P147 112
P148 113
P149
D18 Bibliography
P150 115
P151 116
D19 Index Names
P152 117
P153 118
P154 119
P155 120
P156 121
P157 122
D20 Latin
P158 123
P159 124
P160 125
P161 126


Florida sea shells
CITATION SEARCH THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00055177/00001
 Material Information
Title: Florida sea shells
Physical Description: viii, 126 p., 11 p. of plates : ill., map ; 19 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Aldrich, Bertha.
Publisher: Houghton Mifflin
Place of Publication: Boston
New York
Publication Date: 1978
 Subjects
Genre: fiction   ( marcgt )
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 04281536
System ID: UF00055177:00001

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Half Title
        Half Title
    Title Page
        Title Page 1
        Title Page 2
    Dedication
        Dedication
    Preface
        Preface 1
        Preface 2
    Table of Contents
        Table of Contents
    Plates
        Plates
        Plate I-1
        Plate I-2
        Plate II-1
        Plate II-2
        Plate III-1
        Plate III-2
        Plate IV-1
        Plate IV-2
        Plate V-1
        Plate V-2
        Plate VI-1
        Plate VI-2
        Plate VII-1
        Plate VII-2
        Plate VIII-1
        Plate VIII-2
        Plate IX-1
        Plate IX-2
        Plate X-1
        Plate X-2
        Plate XI-1
        Plate XI-2
    Florida Sea Shells
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Romance of the Beaches
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
    History of Mollusks
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
    Bivalves or Pelecypods
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
    Univalves or Gastropods
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
    Armed Mollusks or Cephalopods
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
    Tooth Shells or Scaphopods
        Page 99
        Page 100
    Other Creatures of the Sea
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
    Appendix
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
    Bibliography
        Page 115
        Page 116
    Index of English Names
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
        Page 120
        Page 121
        Page 122
    Index of Latin Names
        Page 123
        Page 124
        Page 125
        Page 126
Full Text










............
............
... ... ...... ... ....... .. .........

..........

... ................



..... ... ..

............



.... .... ......




........




























. .. .. .. ...
..... .................





................ .


.......... ....... ......





om









...............


..........
............
.... ... ... .. ......



















............






.... ......




.......... .


... .. ..... ........
............



............... .. ..... ......



...... ..........


























.......... .



.............



.........



... ...........






.............









..............



-- -------------



..........

.............




........... .. .









............

... ... .. .......






S. L'




FlY, ..

tw'
...............




..........















FLORIDA SEA SHELLS






FLORIDA


SEA SHELLS


BERTHA ALDRICH AND
ETHEL SNYDER










WITH ILLUSTRATIONS





BOSTON AND NEW YOBK
HOUGHTON MIFFLIN COMPANY
uMlaa t s"meCuawrag
























=wM=Mff. 1936.3 NT MimA D. 3. ALvinW AND 3mmL unIM

ALL XIGEnU 3333Y3D O.UDUIG MM3 3103! TO RZflODUCZ
































-AIIUG WASBCUX3
133ff Ell T133 U.U.A.


















ma
LEE
WHO LOVES THE
'EMPIBE OF THE BUN'
AND THOUGHT THIS BOOK
A GOOD IDEA










PREFACE






IN PREPABING this book the authors have endeavored
to meet an ever-increasing demand for material con-
cerning Florida shore life. We do not claim original-
ity, but by patient search have gathered together
those facts that we consider most useful to the
teacher and the shell enthusiast.
Because live mollusks are so abundant on the
Florida beaches, we deemed it best to include facts
concerning the inhabitant of the shell as well as a
description of the shell itself. Some facts concerning
the use of shells have also been added for the purpose
of creating interest and to show that shell collecting
is not a pretty hobby alone, but may have far-
reaching commercial possibilities.
We hope to acquaint those who may not be able
to collect shells themselves, but who may buy them
or receive them as gifts, with the joys and profits of
a knowledge of the great kingdom of Mollusca. In
order to limit the scope, only material pertaining to
marine life has been used. The terrestrial mollusks
and the fresh-water mollusks have not been in-
cluded.





PREFACE


To Car Byars Dawson and her children, Cars and
Fielding, we express our gratitude for the many
hours of patient searching and for their gallant comn-
penienship on the trail of the elusive shell
Thanks are due to that intrepid exponent of
Southern hospitality, Mrs. Bertie Sumner, of Way-
side Inn, Bonita Springms for her interest and co-
operation and for the loan of her beautiful shells that
made our task so much eaier.
And to Mr. Ernest Schmitt many thanks for
his very practical assistance and his hearty laugh
that helped over so many a rough place.
We are grateful, too, to Mr. Lorin 0. Thompson
and Major Daniel C. Smith for their timely assist-
ance and constant encouragement.
We acknowledge our great debt to Julia E. Rogers
for Tno 8Sa Book, our guide and inspiration, the
storehouse of shell information we have drawn upon
so heavily.
To the staff members of the Miami Beach Public
Library, who have endured with rare patience and
fortitude the birthing of this brain child, our undying
gratitude.J
B==A AiUmBcH
Emm.rSwm a










CONTENTS


. I. RomANxC or mz BEACHem S
HI. HIMzIY or MOLLU K 10
IIL BVALzs on PELCTPODS 17
IV. UNIVALVu OB GAmToroPD 51
V. AmKD MoLLusxs oB CEP ALPoDs 88
VI. Too=n SHmas oB SCAP OODS 99
VII. OrTHE CREATURES OF THE SEA 101
APPENDIX
1. COLLECTING SHELLS 111
2. MOUNTING SHELLS 112
BIBmnooGRAPIC R mBENC 115
ImNDx 117















PLATES
The figures in italics refer to the pages of the text


Grateful acknowledgment is made to Dr. Paul
Bartsch, Curator of Mollusks and Cenozoic Inver-
tebrates, Smithsonian Institution, United States
National Museum, for his assistance in selecting
and arranging these illustrations.







PLATE I (Y3 natural size)

1. The Large Cockle (Cardium robustum). 432
2. Angel's Wing (Barnea costata). 50
3. The Sun Ray or Giant Callista (Macrocallista nimbo-
sa). 44
4. Chest Rock Oyster (Echinochama arcinella), exte-
rior. 39
5. Chest Rock Oyster (Echinochama arcinella). inte-
rior. 39
6. Atlantic Wing Shell (Pteria colymbus). 27
7. Turkey's Wing (Area occidentalis). 23
8. Hooked Mussel (Mytilus recurvus). 36
9. Pearly Oyster (Pinctada radiata). 28
10. The Ponderous Ark (Noetia ponderosa). 24
11. Tree or Coon Oyster (Ostrea spreta). 30
12. Noah's Ark (.4rea umbonata). 23
13. Leafy Rock Oyster (Chama macrophylla), inte-
rior. 39
14. Leafy Rock Oyster (Chama macrophylla), exte-
rior. 39
15. Tulip Horse Mussel (Modiolus tulipus). 36
16. American Thorny Oyster (Spondylus echinatus amcri-
canus). 31
17. Calico Shell (Peeten gibbus). 33
18. Lion's Paw or Knobbed Scallop (Pedecn nodosus). 33
19. Prickly Pen Shell (Atrina rigida). 25
20. The Green Razor Clam (Solen viridis). 49
1l. The Virginia Oyster (O.strea virginica). 28
2t. Pea Pod Shell or Rock Eater (Lithophaga bisul-
cata). 36
23. The Half-Naked Pen Shell (Atrina serrata). 25










ia <,


'0
S -
* FO<*,


16

20








PLATE II (Y2 natural size)

1. Cross-Barred Venus (Chione cancellata). 44
2. Elegant Dosinia (Dosinia elegant). 44
3. Disk Dosinia (Dosinia discus). 43
4. Spotted Clam (Macrocallista maculata). 44
5. The White Buttercup (Leripinus alba). 40
6. The Pennsylvania Lucina (Lucina pennsylvanica). 39
7. The Rose Cockle (Cardium isocardia). 41
8. Tiger Lucina (Lucina orbicularis). 40
9. Channeled Lahiosa (Labiosa lineata). 49
10. Solid Surf Clam (Spissula solidissimna similis). 49
11. Florida Lucina (Lucina floridana). 40
le. Rayed Semele (Semele proficua). 47
13. The Yellow Cockle (Cardium miuricatum). 42
14. Round Clam or Hard-Shelled Clam (Venus merce-
naria). 4->
15. The Buttercup (Lucina janiaicensis). 39







. '1 ,






'.q* i^ ^ .:
..., .t^.f.,- I."




r


1IH..:L ...,-






PLATE III


1. Plaited Shell (Plicatula gibbosa) (}1 natural size). 31
2. Rose Petal (Tellina alternate) (1j natural size). 46
3. Sunrise Shell (Tellina radiata) (/2 natural size). 46
4. The Lined Tellen (Tellina lineata) (/2 natural size). 46
5. The Transverse Ark (Arca transversa) (12 natural
size). 22
6. Cross-Lined Ark (Arca reticulata) (/2 natural size). 24
7. Three-Lined Pandora (Pandora trilineata) (natu-
ral size). 37
8. Nut Shell (Nucula proxima) (natural size). 22
9. Florida Lyonsia (Lyonsia floridana) (natural size). 37
10. Shipworm (Bankia gouldi), shell (natural size). 50
11. Shipworm (Bankia gouldi). pallet (natural size). 50
12. Say's Tellen (Tellina sayi) (natural size). 46
13. Pink Tellen (Macoma tenta) (natural size). 47
14. Basket Clam (Corbula contract) (natural size). 50
15. The Iris Tellen (Tellina iris) (natural size). 46
16. Variable Wedge Shell (Donax variabilis) (natural
size). 47
17. Lantern Shell (Periploma angulifera) (natural
size). 22
18. Thick-Shelled Heart (Crassatellites gibbsi) (,' natural
size). 38
19. Southern Cyrena (('yrena carolinensis) (,i natural
size). 37
20. Egg Cockle (Laericardium serratum) (12 natural
size). 42
21. Broad-Ribbed Cardita (Cardita floridana) (,' natural
size). 38
22. Smooth Jingle Shell (Anomia simplex), exterior of
upper valve (i1 natural size). 35
23. Rough File Shell (Lima scabra) (}i natural size). 34
24. Smooth Jingle Shell (Anomia simplex). interior of
lower valve (2 natural size). 35







2
/' a


K~


6


~La








PLATE IV (natural size)

1. The Pointed Marginella (Marginella apicina). 81
2. Granulated Sundial Shell (Architectonica granu-
lata). 65
3. Spotted Marginella (Marginella guttata). 81
4. The Greedy Anachis (Anachis avara). 77
5. Slit Limpet (Subemarginula pumila). 57
6. Key-Hole Limpet (Fissurella barbadensis). 57
7. Flat Slipper Shell (Crepidula plana). 65
8. The West Indian Limpet (Acmaea antillarum). 57
9. The Auger Shell (Terebra protexta). 84
10. The Angulated Scala (Epitonium angulatum). 60
11. Florida Bubble (Bulla occidentalis). 86
12. Tessellated Nerite (Nerita tesselata). 60
13. Florida Modulus (Modulus floridanus). 68
14. The Alternate Siphon Shell (Siphonaria alternate). 87
15. Common Columbella (Pyrene mercatoria). 76
16. Worn-Out Basket Shell (Nassarius obsoleta). 77
17. Cup and Saucer Limpet (Crucibulum striatum). 64
18. Coffee Bean (Trivia pediculus). 71
19. Swollen Egg Shell (Cyphoma gibbosa). 70
20. Violet Snail (lanthina ianthina). 61
21. Ruddy Rum Shell (Marginella carnea). 81






4



9


*

10

10








PLATE V (YI natural size)

1. The Duplicid Moon Shell (Polinices duplicate). 62
2. Stone Apple (Astraea tuber). 59
3. Little Moon Shell (Natica canrena). 62
4. The Spotted Moon Shell (Sinum maculatum). 63
5. Bleeding Tooth (Nerita peleronta). 60
6. Florida Top Shell (Calliostoma euglyptum). 58
7. The Flat Moon Shell (Sinum perspectivum). 63
8. The Broad-Spined Turban (Astraea latispina). 59
9. Star Shell (Astraea longispina spinulosa). 59
10. Mouse Cone (Conus mus). 85
11. The Cancellated Cantharus (Cantharus canctlla-
rius). 77
12. Worm Shell (Vermicularia spirata). 67
13. Golden-Mouth Murex (Murex chrysostomus). 75
14. American Stone Apple (Astraea americana). 59
15. Slipper Limpet (Crepidula fornicata). 64
16. Cross-Barred or Nutmeg Shell (Cancellaria reticu-
lata). 86
17. Chinese Alphabet ((onus proteus). 85
18. The Florida Cone (Conusfloridanus). 85
19. Variegated Screw Shell (Turritella rariegata). 66
qo. Netted Olive (Oliva reticularis). 83
el. Lettered Olive (Oliva sayana). 83













6 7


4 5


2


'5 :









PLATE VI (3 times natural size)

1. Short Pyramid Shell (Turbonilla curta). 62
2. Lunar-marked Columbella (Mitrella lunata). 77
3. The Impressed Odostomia (Odostomia impressa. 62
4. Florida Blind Shell (Caecum floridanum). 67
5. The Shining Horn Shell (Meioceras nitidum). 67
6. Pygmy Coffee Bean (Erato mangeriae). 72
7. Umbilicate Pheasant Shell (Phasianella umbili-
cata). 58
8. Pheasant Shell (Phasianella offinis). 58
9. Obelisk Shell (Pyramidella candida). 62
10. Four-Spotted Coffee Bean (Trivia quadripunctata). 71
11. The Lined Scala (Epitonium lineatum). 61






5
6'


4(








PLATE VII (Y natural size)
1. Partridge Tun (Tonna perdi.). 73
2. Scotch Bonnet (C(assis inflata). 73
3. Junonia (Maculopeplum junonia). 81
4. Apple Murex (Mure.r pomum). 7.5
5. Florida Purple (Thai floridana). 76
6. West Indian Top Shell (Livona pica). 5,1
7. Paper Fig Shell (Ficus papyratia). 73
8. Violet-Brown Worm Shell (Vermetus nigricans). 66
9. Measled Cowry (Cypraea exanthema). 71











PLATE VIII (natural size)

1. Florida Drill (Urosalpinx floridana). 76
2. Longhorned Smoke Shell (Typhis longicornis). 75
3. Hungarian Hat (Capulus ungaricuv). 63
4. The Narrow Nutmeg Shell (('ancellaria tenera). 86
5. Oyster Drill (Urosalpinx cinerea). 75
6. Common Periwinkle (Littorina irrorata). 65
7. Rice Shell (Olivella mutica). 83
8. Zigzag Periwinkle (Littorina ziczac). 66
9. The Modest Siliquaria (Siliquaria modesta). 67
10. Tampa Urosalpinx (Urosalpinx tamnpaen.is). 76
11. The Angulated Periwinkle (Littorina angulifera). 65
12. The Plicate Egg Shell (Simnia uniplicata). 70
13. The Pointed Egg Shell (Simnia aricularis). 70
14. Painted Cantharus (Cantharu tiinetui). 77
15. Brown Horn Shell (Cerithiumn floridanum). 68
16. Prickly Tectarius (Tertarius inuricatus). 66
17. Nodulose Tectarius (Tertariu.t nodulosus). (6
18. The Dislocated Auger Shell (Terebra dislocata). 84















06
7 8






12 1.3


9




16 18








PLATE IX (Y5 natural size)

1. Channeled Whelk (Husycon canalieulatus). 78
2. The Spine-Ribbed or Lace Murex (Murex fulres-
cens). 75
3. Left-Handed Whelk or Lightning Shell (Busycon per-
versa). 7.Y
4. Tulip Band (Fasciolaria tulipa). so
5. Pale Tulip (Fasciolaria distans). 80
6. Pear Conch (Busycon pyrum). 78
7. The Fighting Conch (Strombus pugilis). 70
8. Conch (Strombus gigas). 69
9. King's Crown (Melongena corona). 79
10. The Spiny Vasum (Vasum muricatum). 67
11. Black or Cameo Helmet Shell (Cas.is madagascaren-
sis). 72
12. Giant Band Shell (Fasciolaria gigantea). 80
13. Helmet Tun Shell (Tonna galea). 73







i


/


V
1/2


13


~I;i~









PLATE X

1. Paper Nautilus (Argonauta argo) (t3 natural size). 96
,2. Spirula (Spirula spirula) (/3 natural size). 98
3. Tooth Shell (Dentalium laqueatum) ('! natural size). 99
4. The Common Squid (Loligo pealeii) (i natural
size). 93
5. Octopus or Devilfish (Octopus vulgaris) (' natural
size). 91
6. Chambered Nautilus (Nautilus pompilius) ('3 natural
size). 97














'fw)


Ow








PLATE XI (5 natural size)

1. King Crab (Xiphosura polyphemus). 109
2. Sea Horse (Hippocampus punctulatus). 109
3. Starfish of Florida (Asterias forbesii). 106
4. Millepore of Florida (Millepnra alricornis). 105
5. Stag Horn Coral (Madrepora cerricornis). 106
6. Sea Urchin (Tripneustes exculent us). 107
7. Sea Fan (Gorgoniaflabellum). 104
8. Sand Dollar (Mellita quinquiesperforata). 107












~3
2

10
0

l *r

s *

,5"









6 7
*6 7 8 '















FLORIDA SEA SHELLS










GEORGIA 1
^ {


Ceda Kea


Tarpon Srin
Colearwater

0





0


Pernandina 'rI
kmonille

t. Augustine



Deach e"


dian River
City
0











Bomb


'Mro


CLIMATIC DIVISIONS s .

FLORIDA w r of










ROMANCE OF THE BEACHES




FO*DwA, from its earliest history, has been a land of
romance and adventure. The Spaniard came seeking
gold he did not find, but the modern adventurer, if
he be a shell collector, will be well rewarded for his
quest.
The sea, with its treasures, has always excited the
imagination. In ancient times the ocean was be-
lieved to be peopled with sea nymphs and mermaids.
Oceanus ruled it, with Neptune and his triad. Fan-
tastic pictures describing palaces on the ocean floor
have filled the books of fairy tales. But nothing
can equal the reality revealed to us through the
modem equipment designed for exploring the ocean
bottom.
Coral formations, purple sea fans, gorgeous sea-
weeds, brilliant-hued fish, queer creatures whose
shapes and colors defy description, starfishes, crusta-
ceans, and mollusks of all varieties, make a veritable
dream world. Only a few are privileged to explore
this new world for themselves, but many can and do
enjoy the treasures tossed up lavishly on the beaches
by the ever-recurring tides.
The collector of shells finds the Florida beaches
abundantly loaded with the objects of his search.





4 FLORIDA BSA SHBLLS
The West Coast of Florida is particularly rich in
varieties of mollusks and other sea creatures. The
most famous beaches of the Florida West Coast are
near inlets or an islands just off the mainland. To
these beaches the rushing waters of the tides carry
multitudes of shells.
At the southernmost tip of the Florida West
Coast is Cape Sable. Stretching northward from this
point, isolated and accessible only by boat, are
beaches where shells are piled up in great mounds.
The Ten Thousand Islands, lying along the coast
opposite Everglades City, have few beaches. A
sandbar rising between the islands and the open
Gult prevents the mollusk from being washed to
shore. The islands are covered with tangled man-
grove trees. Oysters cling in masses to the roots of
the mangrove. At low tide the roots and their bur-
den of bivalves stand entirely out of the water and
the clinging oysters are exposed to view. This phe-
nomenon gives rise to the droll legend concerning
the oyster that is able to climb a tree.
A few miles north of Everglades City is the splen-
did beach on Marco Island. A narrow shell road,
leading off the Tamiami Trail, east of the town of
Naples, will take you to the Gulf Coast, where you
will be ferried across to the island. The settlement on
Mareo Island consists of a fair hotel, a few scattered
dwellings, a general store, and many fishermen's huts
with drying nets flapping in the wind. There is a
large clam-chowder factory on the island. Great
mounds of discarded clam shells dot the island in
every direction.





ROMANCE OF THE BEACHES 5
A three-mile tropical trail brings one to a great
horseshoe stretch of wide, white sand beach, miles
long, bordered with clumps of tall cabbage palms
and tropical growth. Shells are piled in profusion.
The Mexican Gulf, blue as a turquoise, stretches
calmly to the most distant horizon. Great black
porpoises lift their fins and tails as they swim along;
a lonely heron stands on one leg in the shallow water.
Pelicans sail overhead in orderly file, following the
leader; tiny sandpipers run along the beach dodging
the oncoming waves. Mountains of billowy white
clouds pile high in the cobalt sky.
Here the collector walks along the tide line picking
up a golden-yellow buttercup shell filled with sea
water, a rose cockle, a spiky white chest rock oyster
with its lavender lining, or a Chinese alphabet shell
just rolling back into the water with a receding wave.
This lovely tropical beach stretches mile upon mile,
untouched by civilization- beautiful, dazzling in
the sun, gorgeous in color and splendor. This at-
mosphere of beauty and peace, absorbed by the col-
lector and associated with his shells, is of greater
value to him than the shell itself.
Cape Romano has a good beach; Naples, also. At
Bonita Springs, four miles off the Tamiami Trail,
there is an excellent beach. Here the eight-mile
stretch between two rushing inlets is well combed by
shell collectors during the winter season. At the
north end of the beach is a fisherman's hut, with its
palmetto-thatched roof. The fisherman's wife gath-
ers shells at low tides. There is a ready market for
her shells because of their wide variety. Her own col-





6 FLORIDA SBA 8HELLS
election is of great interest to shell enthusiasts visit-
ing this locality.
Sanibel Island near Fort Myers is most widely
known for the great variety of splendid shell speci-
mens found on its beach. The rare and beautiful
Junonia, a deep-sea mollusk, is frequently found
here, after a storm has stirred up the ocean depths.
Stretching northward along the West Gulf Coast
from Charlotte Harbor to Cedar Key, either on the
mainland or on adjacent islands, are many fine shell
beaches. These beaches are the Mecca of shell col-
lectors from all over the world. Many winter visitors
to this section of the State have become collectors
through their surprise and delight at finding so many
varieties near at hand. The children are especially
enthusiastic, and many adopt the study of shells as a
permanent hobby. Some of the better-known beaches
are at Punta Gorda, Sarasota, Bradenton, Passa.
grille, Clearwater, and Tarpon Springs.
The South Gulf Coast, though it does not offer as
many shell beaches, is the locality where the com-
meidal use of shells and their animal inhabitants has
been built up. Here the oyster industry thrives, and
those animals and shellfish that feed upon them are
hee too. Their shells are washed up on the shore or
brought up by the fishermen and eagerly seized upon
by shell lovers.
The Florida East Coast, though not so rich in
shells as the West Coast, has, however, many varie-
ties particularly its own. The northern half of the
East Coast, extending as far south as Indian River
City, is classed as semi-tropical, and the fauna of





ROMANCE OF THE BEACHES


this section is very different from the lower half of
the State that is classed as sub-tropical. In the semi-
tropical regions are oysters and coquinas and many
other specimens of the temperate latitudes of the
Atlantic Coast.
The northern part of the sub-tropical section, al-
most as far south as Miami, is also different in fauna
from the southernmost parts and from the Florida
Keys. This is due to the near presence of the Labra-
dor Current that hugs the shore closely from Palm
Beach to near Miami, where it disappears. But
even in this cold current the marine life is warm
temperate mixed with a few of the hardier tropical
varieties.
The Gulf Stream, sweeping northward along the
coral reefs, has a temperature of from seventy-five to
eighty degrees and sometimes higher. In the shal-
lower waters all life is tropical. As a rule the beaches
of southeastern Florida are not so rich in marine life
as those of the West Coast. The main reason for this
difference is that the shore drops down rapidly to the
bed of the Gulf Stream and there are few shallows
where such life develops.
The beaches near Miami are very different in ap-
pearance from other Florida beaches. On the main-
land beaches and those island beaches, such as
Miami Beach, the sand is coarse and golden. Above
the high tide line there is a wealth of tropical vegeta-
tion. Coconut and palmetto trees line the shores, and
everywhere is to be seen the sea grape or Coccolobis,
with its round, heavy, shiny leaves and its weight of
purple fruit that may be eaten. The leaves of the






8 FLORIDA E8A BHBLLS
ma grape are rich and green in the summer, but in
the winter change to autumn hues. Great masses of
the Touraertia, or sea lavender abound, with hoary
leaves that seem to be covered with perpetual snow.
Low yellow sunflowers grow everywhere and the
goat's-foot vine, with its cloven shiny leaf, sprawls
along covered with large purple blossoms that re-
embe the morning-glory. The shore is often piled
high with the common gulfweed and many delicate
algaa white, pink, and red as well as green, are
present. High above the tide line is a flat stretch of
and. Here many shells and seeds are to be found
washed ashore. The rare Spirula is here and the
delicate violet snail. The sea bean is found if one
is lucky, and the round, salt-encrusted seed of the
'Bus' palm (Manicaria) that has traveled three
thousand miles from its South American home to
rest at last on the shores of Miami Beach.
Along the Florida Keys to Key West, where there
are a number of splendid beaches, many different
tropical shells are found. The bleeding-tooth snails
live on the coral rocks. The large pink-lipped conch
is also found here.
At Key Vaca chitons are fastened to the rocks, and
a blow from a chisel is needed to loosen them. Here
also are triton, cowries, and small coral. At Stock
Island there are rocky shores, covered with bleeding-
tooth mail.
Pen shell by the millions and quantities of the
small purple sail are found at Key West. Lovely
corals of many varieties are secured by the fisher-
man. Stands all along the road to Key West display






ROMANCE OF THE BEACHES 9
for sale corals, conchs, sea fans, and shells. The Dry
Tortugas, a small group of islands about sixty-five
miles west of Key West, have lovely corals and hel-
met shells and large conchs.
Charles Torrey Simpson fittingly expressed the
glory and romance of the Florida shores when he
said:
'The brilliant sunlight, the beautiful sky, the
masses of tropical rain clouds piled up and the in-
tense and ever-varying color of the sea are all at-
tractions of a Florida shore. One could spend a life-
time wandering along these beaches and reefs and
still have much to admire and learn. Here are won-
derful lessons in the distribution of life, in the adapta-
tion of animals and plants to environment, in mimi-
cry. One would constantly find the unbelievable and
he would continually unravel problems in evolution
and the mysteries and purposes of life.'








II

HISTORY OF MOLLUSKS
VALUE TO MAN AND GENERAL
CLASSIFICATION



THE first known study and classification of the mol-
lusks was made by Aristotle. He recorded his finding
in two volumes entitled Historia Animalium and
De Partibus Animalium, and described the habits of
mollusks with considerable accuracy. In 1685,
Martin Lister laid the foundation for our modern
classification in his volume, Historiae Conchyliorum.
Cuvier, in 1799, designated Mollusca as one of the
primary groups of the animal kingdom. Richard
Curie, in his book, Colecting American First Edi-
tions, pages 31-S2, makes mention of The Concholo-
gist's First Book: or, a System of Testaceous Malacol-
ogy (1889), written by our own Edgar Allan Poe. Of
this work Mr. Curie has this to say: 'The spurious
erudition of those last two words [Testaceous Mala-
cology] was, if one may say so, Poe's only erudition on
the subject of snails. At this length of time we may
smile at any alleged interest, much less knowledge,
by Poe concerning these insignificant animals, but
in the eighteen-forties it was no laughing matter
either for his pocketbook or his pride. The letter






HISTORY OP MOLLUSKB 11
illustrated here shows how scanty was Poe's real
connection with this work, but how keen his resent-
ment at any suggestion of plagiarism, even in mala-
cology.'
Mollusca, excluding insects, is by far the largest of
the invertebrate zoological groups. The Encyclo-
paedia Britannica notes that there are sixty thousand
living and twenty thousand extinct species. Bartsch,
in the chapter on mollusks in the Smithsonian
Scntife Series, asserts that there are probably one
hundred and fifty thousand species including the
fossils. Many naturalists in the past two centuries
have studied Mollusca and have written about them.
As late as the year 1800 there were only two thousand
known species, but in the past one hundred and
thirty-five years thousands of new species have been
named.
There are valuable collections of shells both in
Europe and in America. Some of these collections
are to be found in public museums; others are pri-
vately owned. The Smithsonian Institution, the
Philadelphia Academy of Science, the Museum of
Comparative Zoology, Cambridge, Massachusetts,
the American Museum of Natural History in New
York City, and the Academy of Science in Chicago
all have splendid collections. Amateurs everywhere
collect shells, shell collecting being a hobby as popular
as coin or stamp collecting. Catalogues of shells are
available from firms having for sale shells collected
from all parts of the world.
People of wealth, interested in shells, frequently
sail their own yachts to those tropical beaches






U FLORIDA BRA 8HBLL8
famous for beautiful molluks. Many valuable
specie have been procured by such enthusiasts.
Scientic expeditions are launched by learned so-
ceties and by public subscription, and are sent to
the four corners of the globe, that they may bring
to us at home specimens of every variety.
Mollusks have a wide range of habitation. They
inhabit every climate. They live in salt and fresh
water, on land, in trees, and on shrubs. There are
mollusks able to climb, to crawl, to swim, to burrow,
to dig, not only in sand, but into hard rock, to dive
and to Soat. They vary in sie from the giant squids
of the North Atlantic, fifty feet long, to pin-head
sue. There ar dams in the West Pacific weighing
as much as fve hundred pounds.
Different varieties of shells are found on the same
beach at different times of the year. Sometimes
there will be quantities of paper fig shells and later
on none at all. During the month of March the
whole pecten, that delight of collectors, is generally
to be found on the Florida West Coast beaches. At
other times of the year, it is difficult to find even a
perfect single valve. Just as tropical birds and
fishes are the most brilliant in coloring, so the great-
est varieties and the most beautifully colored speci-
mens of mollusks are to be found on tropical beaches.
Mollusks have considerable commercial value.
The oyster industry, from which millions of dollars
are derived yearly, ranks first. Scallops, clams, and
cockles furnish food for man. In Europe some land
sails are considered a delicacy.
In the Orient the octopus is a choice food. The






HISTORY OP MOLILUSX8 1i
Greeks and Romans considered it the finest food
furnished by the sea. Pliny tells us that the gour-
mands of Rome ate every variety of octopus known
in the Mediterranean. The cooks baked the creature
in a sort of big pie, cutting off the arms and filing
the body with spices. Visitors to Italy, today, mar-
vel at the fondness of the Italians for octopuses.
They are to be had in almost any restaurant. There
are many ways to prepare them. Those persons with
a penchant for queer foods endeavor to cultivate a
taste for this oddity.
Pearls are found in many pearly shelled mollusks.
Mother-of-pearl is derived from the lining of shells.
From fresh-water clam shells, pearl buttons are made.
Cameos are cut from conch and helmet shells.
Italian cameo-cutters are especially adept in this
art. The Japanese, however, are the only people
fully awake to the beauty of form and color in shells.
They use this knowledge extensively in their art.
The purple dye of ancient times came from the
secretions of the murex. At that time the manufac-
ture of this dye constituted one of the principal in-
dustries. It flourished until an emperor decreed that
purple should be used only for royal robes.
India ink was formerly made from the secretion
thrown out as a smoke screen by the squid and the
octopus.
The pen shells spin a silky thread. This thread
is secured in sufficient quantities to weave small ar-
ticles such as gloves.
Cowries and tooth shells were used as money by
primitive tribes. The wampum of the American






FLORIDA SEA SHELLS


Indian was made by cutting and grinding beads
from the clam shell.
In the Philippines and in China the flat thin win-
dow shell is used instead of window glass. It tones
down the tropical glare, and withstands the typhoon.
In Tibet, a shell with the whorl turned to the left
is held as sacred. An enterprising American obtained
a large quantity of left-handed whelks from the
Florida West Coast. These he disposed of with con-
siderable profit in Tibet. They were placed in the
temples there.
Within the past few years the making of all sorts
of novelties and souvenirs from shells has developed
into one of Florida's very profitable industries. These
souvenirs are popular with the winter tourists, and
shops and stores throughout the area carry large
stocks of all kinds of them.
Bartsch, in the Smithsonian Scientifc Series,
volume 10, page 25a, describes how the fossil mollusk
is used to determine the age of geological formations.
We quote the following:
'Perhaps no group of fossils is more used by the
geologist and paleontologist to determine the age of
geological formations than the shells of mollusks.
These shells act as guides in the search for the treas-
ures of the earth's crust, be these water, oil, iron,
gold, diamonds, or the thousand and one other ma-
terials that we extract from the earth.
'It is the shell also that furnishes us with informa-
tion about the antiquity of Mollusca, for their fossil
shells bear evidence that these animals lived as long
ago as the early part of the Paleosoic era- well-






HISTORY OF MOLLUSKS 15
nigh the most ancient time from which animal re-
mains of any kind are known; and the shells also
bear evidence that these earliest known animals were
already so highly specialized as to force us to the con-
clusion that their ancestors arose far back beyond
Paleozoic times.'
Mollusca are invertebrate animals; that is, they
are without a backbone. The shell is the animal's
skeleton, secreted by the mantle for the animal's
protection. The shell is formed and developed at an
early stage in the mollusk's existence. This early
shell is never shed, but added to in much the same
manner that we develop our bones. The shell, what-
ever its shape or size, consists of three layers: an
outer, thin, protective layer; a second, thicker layer;
and an inner, very smooth, shiny layer that in some
shells is pearly. One group of mollusks, the squids
and octopuses, have no shells at all.
Many elements enter into the distribution of mol-
lusks: the temperature of the sea; the salinity, depth,
and pressure of the water; and the nature of the
floor of the ocean. The Gulf of Mexico is shallow
near the land and has a sandy bottom, while the At-
lantic Ocean is deep near the shore with long stretches
of coral reef making the bottom rough and rocky.
Most of the Atlantic mollusks have heavy shells to
protect them from the pounding of the surf. The
mollusks of the Gulf Coast are more fragile.
Some people consider only the shell, but Mollusca
has been classified with as much consideration for
the anatomy of the fleshly parts as for the shell
structure. 'Conchology' is the term used to de-






10 FLORIDA 8RA SBBLLS
sribe the study of shells; while 'malacology' refers
to the study and classification of the entire mollusk,
both shell and the animal within.
The classification as given by the Smithsonian In-
stitution is used in this volume, and is as follows:
CLass ExrAum
Peecypods (htchet-footed) oyster bivalves
Sephopoda (plow-footed) dentalium tooth shells
Gtropa (belly-footed) snail univalves
Cephopoda (head-footed) octopus
The Scaphopoda and the Cephalopoda are limited
to a marine home. The bivalves are found in both
fresh water and salt. The only group living on land,
as well as in fresh and salt water, is the Gastropoda
which embraces the snail family. This group has the
greatest number of species.
The question constantly is asked, 'How long do
mollusks live?' In SBituonian Scient&e BSri,
page 625, will be found the answer: 'That is a ques-
tion that cannot be answered for all forms. Where
known, their duration of life extends from one to
thirty years. The oyster is adult at about five years
and lives for as long as ten. The garden snail has
been known to live five years. The fresh-water mus-
sels (Anodonta) may live for thirty years.'
Life is difficult at best for the mollusk. A great
majority never reach maturity. Fish, crustaceans,
starfish, and other sea creatures feed upon the suc-
culent mollusk. Mollusks are sometimes carnivo-
rous, and some even feed upon mollusks.








Ill

BIVALVES OR PELECYPODS




Thm mollusk called bivalve is one with two shells
hinged together, opened and shut at will by the
create within. These halves may not be of equal
siue nor of sihlar color, nor quite the same shape.
Oysters and dams are bivalves.
The muscles which open and close the shell are
very strong. In order to open an oyster which has
dosed its shell, a special knife and strong arm are
necessary. Sears are made by these muscles on the
inside of the shell where they are attached and
smaller scar are made by the attachment of the foot
and mantle muscles.
The foot, which is usually quite sharp and points
downward and outward, looking much like a hatchet,
gives this family its name; Peecypoda, or hatchet-
footed. All bivalves at some time or other have this
foot. The oyster in adult life has ay habits and does
not develop the foot with which it starts life. With
this foot the bivalve can anchor itself to the ocean
bed, dig down into mud, burrow into sand, pull its
shell along, or even drill through a substance as hard
as granite.
Bivalves have neither head, nor jaws, nor teeth.






18 FLORIDA SEA SHELLS
The pectens or scallops have eyes, sometimes as
many as one hundred and twenty, which are placed
on the outer edge of the mantle and appear as tiny
and brilliant specks.
When the shell is ajar, which is its natural position,
the mantle appears as a simple flap. In some species
it is fringed with bright-colored tentacles which wave
gracefully. The mantle in some mollusks is even
more beautiful than the shell itself. It is the mantle
which secretes the shell. This shell is both the mol-
lusk's stronghold and its skeleton. The mantle
lines both valves and is attached to both. At one
end of the shell the two mantle edges form two tubes
or siphons.
In most species the siphons are not very long and
can be tucked into the shell when the animal wishes
to close it, but in a few species the siphons are several
times longer than the shell, and are too large to be
pulled in. Through one siphon water passes into the
mantle chamber, and through the other water is
discharged. Like fishes, bivalves breathe by means
of gills, and the inflow of water supplies the gills with
oxygen and the stomach with food. Minute forms
of life are carried with the water through the siphons,
and the bivalve has to take what food chance sends
its way. However, it can by a straining process dis-
card what it does not want and take what it chooses
to eat. It is estimated that an oyster strains almost
twenty gallons of water a day in order to get its sup-
ply of food and oxygen. Although the bivalve has a
mouth, it has no teeth, and the food is pushed into
a pouch-like stomach, where it is acted upon by the





BIVALVES OR PELECYPODS 19
digestive juices. It has intestines, kidneys, heart,
and a blood circulation. The blood of most bivalves
is colorless.
The nervous system of the bivalve is very simple.
A few species have eyes, and the ear, when there is
one, is in the foot. The instinct for self-preserva-
tion, even in the absence of eyes and ears, is de-
veloped to a point where, though the shell be tightly
closed, it can defend itself effectively. The mollusk
has many enemies, one of which is the starfish,
which lives side by side with it. It smothers the
mollusk by tightly wrapping its tentacles about the
closed shell, shutting of the mollusk's supply of
water and oxygen. In the clear, shallow water at
Bonita Springs Beach, on the Gulf of Mexico, such a
struggle with a starfish occurred where a group of
shell collectors could actually witness it. A nine-
legged starfish, seven or eight inches across, attacked
a small yellow cockle. The cockle closed its shell
tightly, but was not safe from the smothering grasp
of the starfish. By some instinct the cockle sensed
just the right second to strike. It opened its shell
and quickly clamped down on one of the starfish's
legs, completely breaking it off. The starfish at once
loosed its hold and swam away, to grow a new leg.
Life in the sea is a continual struggle for existence,
and an alert shell collector can see many instances of
it for himself.
Ordinarily, bivalves are either male or female, but
careful observers have found that some bivalves have
the ability to be female at one time and male at
another. In some bivalves the eggs are passed into






zo FLORIDA 8EA SHELLS
the surrounding water by the female where, after
fertitio they undergo further development.
In other species they are stored in the gills which
serve as bood pouches in which a certain amount of
development takes place.
Most bivalves have to contend only with their
enemies of the sea, which are many, but the unfor-
tunate oyster and a few other species are also preyed
upon by man, to such an extent that some famous
oyster beds produce less than ten per cent of the
product of a few years ago. This, in spite of the fact
that the fourth or fifth generations of a single oyster,
if they all lived, would equal in bulk a planet five
or more times as large as the earth. A single female
oyster lays from ten to twenty million eggs in a sea-
son. The death-rate is very high. The young oyster
furnishes food for herring and other fish. Many
mollusks also feed upon the tender young bivalves.
Many bivalves have a free-swimming young stage
in which they are much alike. There is present the
gland which secretes a fragile transparent shell which
is developed in the manner in which we gow our
bones. Soon, however, the young mollusk begins to
take on the habits and appearance of his own species.
Oysters and dams settle down into permanent 'beds,'
mumels and pen shells tie themselves by their byssus
to a rock or suitable place; the ship borer finds some
submerged wood to bore into where it can develop;
the rock-boring species drill out a comfortable, safe,
and permanent home for themselves; while the pec-
tens, cockles, and other species move about, enjoying
the freedom of variety.





BIVALVBE OB PELECTPODS 21
Some species of bivalves have an additional gland
in the foot with which they secrete what is called
the 'bysus.' This is a bundle of hairlike threads of
different lengths and thicknesses These threads are
used to attach the bivalve to some submerged ob-
ject, and are very strong. It is difcult to pull a mol-
lusk loose when it once has attached itself. Some
species can climb up and down on this thread in
much the same manner that a spider goes up and
down its silen skein. In the Mediteranen coun-
tries the byssus is gathered and woven into articles.
It has a silky texture and an olive-gold color. Gloves
and even articles of clothing have been woven from
these threads. The mussels, particularly the black
mussels and the pen shells, have this gland.
The pest commonly called shipwormm' is not a
worm at all, but a bivalve molluk. When very
small, they bore their way into any kind of sub-
merged wood, using their shells as files. Here they
extend their aiphons out to secure the needed water
and food, and keep going deeper and deeper into the
wood. They have sets of minute sawlike teeth on the
edges of the shells, and with these they can cut
through the toughest wood. As they push their
shells deeper and deeper, the body grows longer and
longer, until it is sometimes several feet long. Great
damage is done to ships by these creatures. Wharves
are destroyed. No kind of wood is safe from their
destruction. Since one female lays millions of eggs
in a season, and these in turn, in some species, ma-
ture in three months, it is impossible to estimate the
damage they are able to accomplish.





33 FLORIDA SEA SHELLS
The following is only a partial list of the shells of
the bivalves that may be found on the Florida
beaches of either coast after a storm or at low tide.
This list is in no sense a complete one, but does con-
tain the shells most readily picked up, and is for the
purpose of identification only.

Nut Shells Family Nuculdae
Most of the members of this family are northern
in distribution. The southern species are usually
found in deep water.
One of the common little bivalves found on all
Atlantic beaches. This species occurs on the western
Florida beaches.

Lantern Shells Family Preplomatidae
The Lantern shells are thin and fragile and live in
moderate depth.
A bivalve, rarely found on the Atlantic Coast and
the Gulf Coast. This family is practically extinct.

Ark Shells Family Arcid
The ark shells are found on both coasts of Florida.
They are very heavy, ribbed, with the valves equal
and of the same color and shape. There are about
one hundred and fifty varieties, found in all warm
seas. They are box-shaped; the hinge is very strong;
some species have red blood.

Tum TamVIBnav Aac (Arse tramuwm)
A small four-sided shell with opposite sides parallel
and equal; scaly, and marked with heavy concentric





BIVALVES OR PELECYPODS 23
lines; one and one half to two inches in length. It is
found on the Florida Keys.

TUE Y's WNG (Arca occidenai)
This ark shell is found on both coasts, probably
more frequently on the Atlantic side. A similar
species occurs on the western coast of Mexico in
the Gulf of California. It has a very decided re-
semblance to a turkey's outspread wing, and it will
be easily recognized. The shell is very heavy, white,
ribbed, and has brown markings which give it the
feathery appearance. The hinge is as straight as if
drawn with a ruler. The lining is chalky-white, edged
with brown as evenly as if done with a paint brush.
Some specimens found on the West Coast have
a fuzzy epidermis along the lower part of the shell.
This mollusk grows to a length of five inches and an
inch in width, but smaller ones are more frequently
found.

Noan's Aim (Area umbonata)
This interesting shell is found mainly on the At-
lantic Coast. Brown, ribbed, thick, it has much the
appearance of an ark. Its outside finish is generally
worn off, exposing the white lining. The shell has
a warped appearance due to clinging to rocks and
when the shell is soft being shaped by the object it
clings to. Noah's Ark has the byssus gland in its
foot and attaches itself to rocks. It has red blood,
and also has a fringe of eyes on the mantle's edge.
The hinge is a straight line, but is weak, so the whole
shell is seldom found on the beaches. It can grow





24 FLOBIDA SBA SHELLS
to a length of five inches, but specimens about one
and a half inches long are generally found.

ICnsD Am (Arm 0uf~at)
Thi is a small species kindred to those of Cali-
fornia and Mexico; checked surface; =mall in sie.
It is found on the Florida East Coast, but is not
abundant.

Tu Poammous Axr (Nedia odrmus)
This species is found in abndance on Flrida
West Coast. Its most distinctive feature is the thick.
black epidermis. One is inclined to believe that this
shell has got into ta or ship's oil, it is so thickly
covered, but soon discovers that this is part of the
ark's own growth. The shells are white, vey thick.
boxlike, ribbed; the hinge is very strong, so that
frequently the complete sheB is found on the beah.
The inside of the shell is chalk-white. When the en-
tire shell is viewed sidewise, it has a heart shape.

The Pmo Shells FmMly Phuide
These are sometimes called fan musels. The
wedge-saped shell is not unlike the old quili pen in
appearance. The valves are equal. The shell is thn,
rather fragile, of a horny substance, generally sailed,
and with iridescent inside lining. Many varieties
as found in warm seas. The shells are strewn over
the beaches of the West Coast of Florida. They grow
to a great me, and are often found complete. The
pea shells have the unique ability of spinnig a
strong ilken cord called the bysus.





BIVALVBE OR PEBLCTPODSB
PmanaL Paw Smu. (Arias riidg)
This is a triangular-shaped shell. The hinge side is
straight, and the opposite side is curved. It is of
horny texture with prickly erect spines The interior
is iridescent. It is plentiful on the Florida West
Coast beaches, and sometimes grows to eight inches
in length. Its most noted characteristic is the byssal
gland.
Ta HAIz.-NA-XD PmN SmHLL (Arina rrata)
The shells range from six to ten inches'in length.
They are thin, of smoky, transparent, horny texture,
and are covered with delicate scales. At the pointed
end the scales are so thin that the iridescent lining
shows through.

The Wing Shells and Pearl Oysters Family
Pteriidae
Live species of this family are now found only in
warm seas, although some fossil remains are located
in cold latitudes. There are approximately one
thousand fossil, but only one hundred and twenty
living species. The family Pteriidae is nearly ex-
tinct. The valves of the shells are always unequal.
The hinge line is straight and extended. It has been
said that the typical Avicula resembles the profile of
a bird in fight.
A member of this family is the pearl-bearing
oyster. Although the pearl oyster is not found in
Florida, it is of such universal interest that a few
details concerning it may not seem out of place.
The early Babylonians, Egyptians, Persians and





26 FLORIDA SBA SHELLS
Romans all valued the pearl highly. Much of the
wealth of the Aztecs was in pearls, and early records
tell of the fabulous pearls taken from the Aztecs by
the Spanish conquerors.
The best pearls are found in Ceylon, in the Persian
Gulf, the Indian Ocean, off the coast of Australia,
and in the tropical waters of the Pacific Ocean. The
Western Hemisphere is not, however, without pearl
beds of great importance. Some of Florida's near
neighbors are rich in pearl beds. There are fisheries,
famous since the days of Cortez (1526), aloqg the
coasts of Lower California. These beds were badly
overworked and almost destroyed by the short-
sighted Spaniards, but after years of rest they were
reopened and today are an important factor in that
locality. Less important fisheries are located on the
coasts of Panama, Costa Rica, and Colombia. Pearl-
oyster beds are also at points along the coasts of
Mexico and Nicaragua. From these American beds
some rare black, green, and blue pearls have been
taken.
Pearl oysters live at considerable depths and are
brought to the surface by divers, one perfect pearl
often meaning a fortune to its discoverer. The gem
is formed from the same pearly substance nacree) that
lines the shells. This substance is secreted to protect
the oyster from the irritation caused when bits of
sand or the larva of worms enter into the partially
opened shells. The finest pearls are found in beds
where the oysters are overcrowded and ridden with
disease., The pearly lining of the shell is called
mnother-of-pearl and yields, commercially, more value






BIVALVES OR PELECYPODS


than the pearls, as so few pearls of value are found in
comparison to the amount of mother-of-pearl pro-
duced. Mother-of-pearl is used in ornamentation and
for pearl buttons and novelties of jewelry. Only
healthy oysters produce the best mother-of-pearl.
So certain is it that pearls will be formed that
artificial beds are made for the pearl-bearing oyster
and irritants are introduced mechanically into the
shells. The Japanese are adept at producing artificial
pearls. The Chinese even introduce small statues of
Buddha and other religious objects to be covered by
the nacre.
Different forms and colors of pearls are preferred
in different parts of the world. Orientals prefer
yellow pearls, while the black pearl is highly prized
in Spanish America. The pink pearl has a wide range
in color, varying from pale flesh pink to deep ver-
milion. The gray or smoky pearl is a universal
favorite with men. The iridescent or Oriental pearl is
very flattering to blondes, while brunettes look their
best in white pearls.
The gem of greatest value is the perfectly round,
opaque, and lustrous white pearl. Pear-shaped pearls
are valuable and desirable. Styles of pearls often
vary with changing fashions. There are pearls as
famous and as much written about as the celebrities
who have owned them.
Julia E. Rogers, in The Shel Book, devotes many
pages to the cultivation of pearls.

ATLnmc WING SmiL (Pteria colmbus)
The wing shell is found in Florida. It is from three






FLORIDA BRA BHBLLB


to four inches in length, and is a reddish-brown shell,
with long slender points. The inside of the valves is
iridescent motherof-pearl.
Pamr OTrm (P eada rniat)
These are flat, square, drab wing shells with
fringed edges, so light that the crests of the waves
ast them high up on the beach

The Oysts Family OstreWd
The shels of the oyster are late-colored and
irregular. The valves are unequal, and are cemented
to a support. The oyster has no foot, no siphons, and
nobyssus cord. Thereareabout fifty living species.
Before the coming of the white man to America,
the Indians living along the coasts used oysters a
a staple item of diet. They dried or smoked them
and bartered them with inland tribes. The oyster is
widely distributed along our shores from Maine to
Texas and is found on the West Coast in San Fran-
cisco Bay and Puget Sound. The Western beds are
sown with seed from the East. The Virginia oyster
(O~ amr irgwinia) is the most succulent. New beds
are generally seeded with this variety. It is com-
monly known as the Chesapeake Bay oyster.
The eggs of our oyster are cast into the sea where
they develop into minute, free-swimming organisms
that easily fall prey to other sea enzatures and to the
vicissitudes of a marine environment. Their rudi-
mentary shell is fragile, but as it begins to harden
the oyster attaches itself firmly to any available sup-
port and thereafter 'goes no more a-roaming.'






BIVALVyB OR PBLECYPODS SV
The oyster shell is made up of layers secreted by
its mantle. The layers are added a the oyster grows,
much additional space is added to a dwelling to
accommodate a increasing family.
Julia E. Rogers, in The IShel Book, pages 42S-486,
gives a detailed account of the family Ostreidae.
Those wishing to know more concerning this mollusk
will fad her material very helpful.
Oysters of various kinds are found all along the
coasts of lorida, both the East and West, and in
many bays and inlets. They are also found far inland
along the edges of streams and canals. Most of these
oysters are not edible because they live in contami-
nated waters.
On the Florida East Coast, Fernandin has de-
veloped a thriving oyster industry, but the bulk of
the development is confined to the South Gulf Coast
Saint George Sound and Apalachicola Bay are the
chief locations. There are ve large canning factories
in Aplachicola and fish and oyster houses line the
waterfront. Oyster farming is a principal industry in
northwestern Florida and is one of the chief indus-
tries of the State. Commercially it amounts to
several million dollars a year and thousands of
persons re employed in its operation.
The State has appropriated large sums of money
for replanting oysters on the natural coral reefs.
Current and accurate statistics can be obtained from
the United States Bureau of Pisheries, Washington,
D.C.
The Apalachicola oyster is eaten extensively all
through the South. It makes fine soups and broths,






SO FLORIDA BSA SHELLS
and is delicious when baked or escalloped. It has
a much stronger favor than the Northern oyster.
The shipping of fresh oysters to inland points in
Florida and throughout the South is extensive.
Not only the flesh of the oyster is processed, but
the shells also. The huge piles of discarded shells are
ground into flakes and shipped to poultrymen in all
parts of the world for the consumption by their
flocks. Crushed oyster shells formed the beds of
many of the early roads of Florida. Some of these
roads are still in existence. Even today some of the
lesser traveled roads of northern and western Florida
are made of shells. Oyster shells were used as build-
ing material by the Spanish settlers and ruins of an
oyster-shell house and an old Spanish slave-house
are still to be seen on Fort George Island, near old
San Juan Mission.

Tas or Coow OrwrTBs (ORaem preta)
The roots of the red mangrove tree in southern
Florida, on both coasts, are covered with masses of
these small, rough, thick oysters. At low tide, when
the roots are left above water, the oysters also are
out of water. Thus it is that oysters literally 'grow
on trees.' These are not much eaten because they are
small, and not particularly good. Some animals feed
upon them.

The Thrny Oyster Family Spndydae
This family has irregular shells, firmly attached,
ribbed; the spines bear tiny mosslike scales. The
hinge is composed of two teeth in each valve. These






BIVALVES OR PELECYPODS 51
teeth interlock. The thorny oysters live in warm
seas, and derive the name from a resemblance to
a small hoof. The shells range through all shades of
all colors, and are much prized by collectors because
of their color variations. The oysters have been
known and eaten since the days of the early Greeks.

AMErcAx THOBNY OYBTrs (Spondyllus ecinatus amei-

The shells of this oyster are found on the Florida
East Coast. They vary in length from three to five
inches, and may be bright yellow, orange, or red in
color. The valves are similar to those of the scallop,
ribbed. The spines vary from needle points to heavy
spikes. It is very difficult to find perfect shells.
They are usually broken by the pounding of the surf.

PLarBD SHum. (Pliatula gibboma)
There are only a few living species of this bivalve.
The shells are small, with braided surfaces traced
with rusty hair lines. They accumulate a limy deposit
as they age. They are found on the Florida East
Coast, and are one inch in length. A smaller variety,
Plicatula mantdUi, is found on the Gulf Coast.

The Scallops. Comb Shells- Family Pectinidoe
There are two hundred varieties of the family
Pectinidae widely'distributed throughout the world.
Those found on the Florida coasts are among the
finest. The best are to be found on the Florida West
Coast. The shells are from one to two inches in
diameter. These bivalves are shaped like a ribbed






H2 FLORIDA 8BA BHELLB
fan completely opened. Earlike extesions project
from the hinge line. A mall notch in the side of
the sbel allows the bysal eord to emerge. The
foot is not well developed. The shell normally rete
upon the right valve, partial open. Thi eight
valve is pale and colorless, while the lft valve is
gayly colored and fancifully patterned. It is as if
nature painted only the exposed side. By qMuicly
opening and closing the valves the pecten is able to
swim. The young pecte anchors itself by the bssal
thread to the bottom of the sea, breaking it off when
it wishes to swim about.
The creature within is more beautiful than the
shell. It is brilliantly colored. The mantle edge is
double-fringed and waves gracefully in the water.
The eyes, placed in an even row, sparkle like diamond
points Occasionally bright yellow eggs, tucked
neatly into the folds of the mantle, are visible.
In ancient times a large pecten shell was used as
a drinking-cup. The Crusaders wore as an enblem
the large pecten shell found on the shores of Palestine
to signify that they had reached the Holy Land.
This shell was known as the 'Pilgrim's Shell.' Those
who made the pilgrimage to the tomb of Saint
James called their emblem 'Saint James's Shell.'
A few noble families still have the pecten on their
coat of arms, signiying that some ancestor had been
a Crusader.
In France a large scallop shell is used aa baking
dish. This shell gave to cooking the term to 'ee-
callop.' The tender, delectable gallop is the muscle
that opens and domes the scallop shell.





BIVALVES OR PELECYPODS 33
Shell collectors price highly their pecten shells
because of their wide variety of colors.
Julia E. Rogers, in The Shell Book, page 412,
writes: 'To see hundreds of scallops the size of a
silver dime flitting through the shallows on a bright
summer day will certainly convince you that even
mollusks can express the joy of living! At low tide
the youngsters are to be looked for in tide pools and
in the shallows near shore. They snap their shell
lips together with a succession of clicking sounds;
at each contraction of the great muscle a jet of water
is thrown out under the ear, darting the body for-
ward, sometimes a yard or more, always in a straight
line. Changes of direction are made with great
dexterity at the end of a stroke, a zigzag course
enabling the mollusk to escape capture.'

CALtco SHmla (Peten gibb w)
The shells are found in greatest variety of colors
and patterns on the Florida West Coast, with a
diameter of one to two inches. The colors most often
found are bright orange, lavender with orange rays,
purple, brown with white rays, white ground with
mottlings of purple. The plain lemon-yellow is the
rarest color. The under valve is generally white,
with shadings at the hinge of purple or brown. One
may have a complete assortment of colors in a pecten
collection.

Loxe's PAw or KILtoan ScALwor (Pecten wodonu)
This shell is found on both Florida coasts. It is
a dark rich red ororange, with a diameter of three






34 FLORIDA SEA SHELLS
to four inches. There are large knobs along the nine
ribs of the shell. The ears are not equal. This shell
resembles the spread-out paw of a lion. Perfect pairs
are often found in shell shops in Miami.
The File Shell Family Limidae
Only one file shell is found on the Florida East
Coast. The surface is rough, suggesting a file, and
resembles the scallop shell. The mollusks dart
quickly through the water, hinge foremost, by open-
ing and closing their shells. Their long tentacles
trail behind them. They have the byssal gland.
They build nests by making a web of the byssal
threads and adding to it fragments of coral, broken
shell, and seaweeds. The nest is small and funnel-
shaped. The adult file has little room to move about,
but it can run up and down, in spider-like fashion
within the net.

RouoG Fna Sam. (Lima scbrm)
This shell is found on the Florida East Coast, and
attains a length of two or three inches. It is covered
with a yellowish-brown epidermis. Beautiful file,
shells are found in Bimini in the British Bahamas,
east of Miami.

The Jingle Shell family Anomidae
The shells of this family are roundish, warped,
thin, and small. The valves are unequal in size,
color, and shape. A large notch in the under valve
near the hinge permits the byssal gland to function.
The jingle permanently attaches itself to another






BIVALVES OR PELECYPODS


shell or to a fragment of rock. There is a great
variety of colors.
SMOOTH JINGLB SmEL (Anomia simplZ)
These shells are found on both coasts of Florida.
Those of the West Coast are more brilliant in color
and more fragile. The upper valve is the more
beautiful of the two; cupped, roundish, translucent,
solid color, no markings. The jingle shells are deep
orange, yellow, salmon pink, white, slate, gray, and
jet. The common name of this shell is 'Baby's
Foot,' derived from an odd scar on the inside of the
shell where the valves are attached. This scar bears
some resemblance to a child's footprint. The upper
valve is convex and the lower concave. A handful of
these shells makes a pleasant jingling sound. They
seem very fragile, but are not easily broken.
Julia E. Rogers writes in her Shell Book, page 419:
'The jingle shells when young settle upon some rough
surface an oyster will do nicely, or the hollow side
of an empty scallop. If there isn't room for all, they
cheerfully pile themselves, one upon another, each
firmly riveted to the one below by the slimy byssus.
Oyster dredges often bring up masses of jingles alive,
shells all ajar. A tap on one of the outer shells causes
it to close tight. As if signaled, the next one follows
suit, then the next, until in succession they all sense
danger, and are safely locked in.'

The Mussels Family Mytitida
The mussels are a large family, with many species
widely distributed. They hang in bunches on pieces






86 FLORIDA SEA SHELLS
of submerged wood, or on the wharves. Some mus-
sels burrow; others build nests similar to those built
by the file shells. They are edible and used also as
fish bait. The valves are equal in sie and shape, and
are similar in coloring.

HoOKF MDasL (Mytibe m )w )
This is a thick-shelled mussel with beaklike hook
at the hinge end; dark or brownish in color; one to
two inches in length. It is often found singing
to oysters, and is abundant on the Gulf Coast of
Florida.

Tumr Homm M L.n (Modiold etipm)
The length of this mussel is two to three inches.
The species found on the Florida East Coast and in
the Bahama- is oblong, with alternate rays of yellow
and brown. The West Coast variety has an iri-
descent, orchid lining, with deeper stripes of purple
or lavender. They are nest spinners. They have a
brown epidermis, worn through at the top permitting
the lavender lining to show through. Horse mussels
are not edible. A beardlike fringe hangs from the
bottom of the shell. The hinge is strong. Perfect
whole shells are frequently found.

P.a POD SaHU. or aBoa EATgr (LdthopIag biulena)
A smooth chestnut-colored shell shaped like a pea
pod; found on the Florida Key. The shells become
thickened with a limy deposit. When adult, they
bore into the rocks and cannot be dislodged.





BIVALVES OR PELECYPODS 37
Pandora SheBs Family Pwadeidw
Beautiful flat bivalves, found principally in cold
water, a few go south to the tropics.

TM Lm-Imn PANwoo (Pandora trilinea)
A delicate bivalve with iridescent lined white
shell. The lines parallel with the margin extend
around the shell. It is found on the Florida East
Coast.

Lyonstas Family Lyonmda
Thin and fragile shells found in moderate depth
in shallow places.

TRAP aBmr Lyone~ (Lyonsi kyiina)
A very small bivalve found on the Atlantic and
Gulf Coasts. The family is almost extinct.

Cyras Family Cyrenide
The members of this family have heavy shells with
thin greenish, olive or blackish epidermis.

SOUTamIN CYraNA (Cywena csroinenti)
A bivalve that lives in the mud of brackish water
on sub-tropical coasts; two to three inches in length.
It is found on the Florida East Coast.

Thick-Sheled Heart Family Crassttedtidae
All the members of this family have very heavy
shells with ponderous hinge.





88 FLORIDA BEA SHELLS
THwmShmu- Mums (CrandUoia ybbn)
A thick-shelled bivalve living chiefly in tropical
regions. This species is found on the Altantic Coast
from Florida to Cape Hatteras. /

The Carditas Family Carditidae
The shells of this family are small but heavy,
triangular in shape, heavily ribbed with the ribs
radiating from one point at the hinge top to the
edge. They are white, -with ribs dark brown or
marked with brown spots. The valves are equal in
size, similar in shape and color. The inside of the
valves is chalk-white. The hinge ligament is strong.

BOA-RIBBED CABDrTA (Carditafloridana)
These shells are found on both coasts of Florida,
from one half to one inch in length. The bottom
edge of the shells is very straight. Many beautifully
marked varieties of Carditas are found on the western
coast of Mexico in the Gulf of California. One of
these is a deep pink with red markings. The Cardita
has the byssus gland in the foot; but the triangular
shape and pronounced ribs are the outstanding
characteristics for identification.

*The Rock Oysters Family Chamidae
This group of shells has round thick valves, with
spines. The valves are not quite equal. They have
a small foot, and long siphons, and are found in
tropical waters. They wedge themselves into the
crannies in the coral reefs. In this manner the spines
are often broken.





BIVALVES OR PELECYPODS 59
Lmar RocK Orern (Chama macerophiya)
The shell is found on both the East and the West
Coasts of Florida; pinkish-lavender, violet, or lemon-
yellow in color; length, one to three inches. It has
lacelike ruffled edges on both valves. The valves are
unequal and of irregular shape. They are brought up
by fishermen from shallow water. Some fine speci-
mens have been found at Miami. An unusual speci-
men observed there consisted of two perfect shells
grown together, one a lovely violet and the other
a lemon-yellow.

Cnmr BOCK Orer (Echinoe chama arcineUa)
This shell is found on the Florida West Coast.
It is small, seldom more than one inch long, white,
round, very spiny, and lined with a delicate purple.
The hinge ligament is strong. The whole mollusk is
often found.

The Lucinas Family Luciidae
The Lucinas have ribbed or latticed shells, small
and depressed. They live in mud and sand of tropical
shores.

THI PZNNSTLVANI Luca (Lucina pennmykanica)
A variation distinguished by diagonal furrows
about the posterior region; yellowish-white in color;
two inches in diameter. The shells are found on the
Florida East Coast.

THe Bvrrmcup (Lucina jamaicemis)
This shell is a thicker, less colorful, variety of





WU FLORIDA SEA SHELLS
buttercup. It is not the perfect bowl shape of the
buttercup (Loripinus chrysotoma) and the edge of
theinside only is orange-color; the center of the lining
is a rough white. This variety is also found on the
East Cost; seldom in pairs. The valves are not quite
equal in sie, but are alike in shape and color. It is
also classified with the Lucinas.

pFLODa LOcuA (L ciaafridana) /
The shells are dull white in color with yellow
growth lines, and are found in abundance on pro-
tected sandy beaches of the Florida West Coast and
the Florida Keys. They are small, about one inch in
diameter.

Tria LUcuN (Lucina obicul aw)
Ridges radiate from the beak of the shell and are
crossed by fine concentric ridges; white in color;
diameter three inches. It is found on all Florida
coasts.

Tua BunmUcur (LoripiNs alba)
The valves of the buttercup shell are equal in sise,
similar in shape and color, and they are found on the
West Coast of Florida. They are very beautiful,
delicate bivalves, bowl-shaped, white outside, and
the inside butter-colored. The hinge is fragile, and
a pair is seldom found. They are washed up from
the deep water, and are very abundant in all seasons.
To walk along the tide line and find these colorful
shells filled with sea water, which brings out the
rich golden color, is a thrilling experience. The






BIVALVES OR PELBCYPODS 41
yellow shows through the lining, giving the outside
a faint color.

The Cockles or Heart Shells Famly Coardded
There are about one hundred species of cockles,
found in many parts of the world. They have valves
equal in size, color, and shape. When the entire
shell is looked at sideways, it has a decided re-
semblance to a heart, and thus gives the species its
name. The European variety is edible. The cockles
go about from place to place, and have a well-
developed foot. There is no byssus, as the cockle has
no desire to stay put. They live in shallow water and
dig down in the sand or mud. They are found on
both Florida coasts.

TiE RoBI COCKL (Cardium isordia)
This shell is found on both coasts, but those of the
West Coast have more deeply colored interiors. The
valves are equal in size, shape, and similar in color.
The twenty-nine or thirty ribs start from the hinge
top and radiate out to the edge, ending in a delicate
scallop. They are close together and notched. The
outside is pale tannish-yellow with splotches of
reddish-brown. The polished interior shades from a
delicate salmon pink to deepest rose, with shadings
of purple, and some are shaded with orange. The
rose cockle is one of the most beautiful shells found
on the West Coast. The hinge is strong, and often
lovely pairs are found. They are one to two inches
in diameter, often smaller.






FLORIDA BEA BHELL8


Tur Ymuzow Coc u (CadinW mrieaiMm)
This is a smaller species of cockle, found mostly
on the West Coast. Both valves of the shell are
similar in size, shape, and color. It has thirty ribs
deeply chiseled, set close together, and notched with
blunt spines. The outside is pale yellow with deeper
yellowish-brown splotches, and the polished interior
ranges from delicate yellow to deep rich shades of
yellow. The hinge is not so strongly constructed as
that of either the roe or the large cockle, so pairs are
not found so frequently. Diameter, one half inch
to one and one half inches.

Tua LAren CocnLI (Cardium robutum)
This mollusk has a large, rather heavy, closely
ribbed home, yellowish-brown in color with markings
of dark brown. The inside is a red-brown color.
There are thirty-five ribs, rather flattened. The
shells are strongly hinged together and pairs are
found in abundance on the West Coast. The high
seas wash them high on the beach and they are
found up above the low-tide line. These shells are
largely used in making souvenirs, and many of the
contraptions in the gift stores such things as ash-
trays, inkstands, desk lamps, and what not- are
made of them. They are also useful as individual
baking dishes, as they withstand the heat of an
oven. They develop to a diameter of five to six
inches.

Eao Cocxn (Laesicodiunm orroatm)
This shell is found on both coasts: smooth and






BIVALVES OR PELECYPODS 43
shiny as an eggshell. The East Coast specimens ap-
pear as if lacquered, they are so highly polished and
are tinged with yellow, while those of the West Coast
are tinged with a delicate pink. There are two valves
equal in size, of similar color and shape. A variety is
found in the British Bahamas which is smaller, a
brilliant yellow within, highly polished, and called by
the natives 'Butter Shell' The egg cockles grow to
be as large as the rose cockle- diameter, two to
three inches. The shell is often found complete and
oval in shape.

The Venus Clams Family Veneridae
This family is named in honor of the goddess
Venus. As befits the goddess of love and beauty, the
shells are famous for their brilliant coloring, their
sculptured and symmetrical shape, and their splen-
did finish. Species are found in both tropical and
temperate waters. The tropical shells offer the
greatest variety, both in color and shape.

DImx DosemA (Dosinia discu)
This shell takes its name from its discus shape.
It is very flat, with not much room for the animal
within. The surface is finely scored with concentric
lines; the valves are white with a shiny yellow
epidermis. The hinge ligament is extremely strong.
There is a decided point at the bottom of the hinge.
The shell is white, but the epidermis gives it a yellow-
ish appearance. The lining is white. The valves are
equal in size, and similar in shape and color.






44 FLORIDA SBA SHELLS
ErunGA DoINsm (Dosnia okbaU)
This is a small Venus clam. The shell has heavier
ridge& than its relatives. It is found on the Florida
East Coast.

Ta Sun RAT or GlrT Canarm a (,Maoreoiadas nimbow)
Beautiful specimens of shells are found on the
Florida West Coast. The name sun ray is given
became of the rays which radiate from the top to the
valve edge much like the rays of the setting sun.
The shells are crossed with lines which give a plaid
effect, and grow as large as five or six inches in length
and two to three inches in width. They are polished,
pink, with the cross-lines and rays in pinkish-brown.
The hinge ligament is strong so that the whole shell
is often found on the beach. The flesh of the clam is
edible.

SPrOED CLAM (Macrocaelii macuQlas)
The shells are found on the Florida West Coast,
but are rare. They are oval, very shiny, and not very
large, seldom over three inches in length, with a
width of two inches. The valves are equal in sie,
and similar in shape and color; light brown with spots
of a reddish-brown. This is a very lovely shell. The
flesh of the clam is edible, but has a peppery flavor.

CmoumsBasDs VauNs (Chiown camosda)
The shells are found on both Florida coasts, but
more abundantly on the West Coast. They are
small with valves equal in size, shape, and color. The
narrow ridges cross on the surface of the valves in






BIVALVES OR PELECYPODS 45
a cross-barred pattern. The lining is sometimes
a deep orange, sometimes purple. The outside is a
cloudy white, light tan, or gray. The East Coast
has a brown species. The shells vary from one half
inch to one and one half inches in length.

ROUND CLA or HABrDSHnua D CLM (Veasi mewaria)
This is the clam known as 'Little Neck' or 'Qua-
hog.' It is the edible clam. The creature is active,
rarely burrows into the sand, and seldom attaches
itself by the byssus. The shell is very thick, ridged,
and the inside has a wide purple margin. The early
American Indians used this purple portion in making
wampum. The purple wampum was wokth twice
as much as the white. From its use as money, this
clam derived its name 'mereenaria.' On Cape Cod
it is raked up from the mud flats by 'clam diggers.'
In the South it reaches a size of six inches in diameter
and weighs often as much as five pounds. There
are clam-chowder factories along the Florida coasts,
one well-known one being on Marco Island in the
Gulf of Mexico. Great mounds of clam shells lie all
about the plant. The young clam is as tender and as
tasty as the oyster, but the adults become tough.

The Tellen Shells Family TedBnida
A large family, living in sandy or muddy shallow
water; widely distributed. This mollusk has no
byssal gland, its mantle is fringed, and the valves are
equal. The hinge is so delicate that one seldom finds
a complete shell. The tropical species are the most
brilliantly colored. This group contains some of the
finest of bivalve species.






46 FLORIDA BEA 8HELL8
TMn LUD TMuLJ (Tdema liats)
This is a rounder variety of tellen shells, pink-
rayed and elongated with a twist to the valves
distinguishing it from other small tellens. It is
found on the Florida Gulf Coast.

Suamm SmB=L (TeiSa radiate)
This bivalve grows from three to four inches in
length, and is found on the Florida East Coast and at
Key West. A fine variety is obtained from Bimini
inthe British Bahamas. Live specimens hiding just
below the surface of the sand can be dug up at low
tide. The shells are translucent, shiny white, with
three broadening rays of rosy color extending from
the hinge to the edge of the valves. There is a splash
of yellow around the hinge, and anoverlay of pale
greenish-blue. The effect is that of the rising sun.

BoOe PTALr (Telia alterata) i
The rose petals are more abundant on the Florida
West Coast. The curled edges of the shells remind
one of tea-rose petals; delicate pink in color. There is
also a yellow variety. It is from two to three inches
in length.

SarT TMEu~ (Tedina oai)
A small shiny white shell about two thirds of an
inch in length; rounded front and with pointed end.
It appears on the Florida East Coast.

TnH Imsa TMaLm (Teina iris)
An iridescent white shell with pink rays and circles






BIVALVES OR PELECYPODS 47
on each valve. The margins are thin and sharp;
one half inch in length. It is found on the Florida
East Coast

Pnm TzLLN (Macoma teta)
This shell is found on the Florida East Coast.
It is very small one half inch in length; dull white,
with the rosy pink from the inside showing through,
resembling a pink thumb nail: dainty and fragile.
The mollusk is found on sandy beaches, living just
below the water line.

Semeles Family SemeUidae
Most of the shells of this family have uneven
valves; the end is usually upturned.

RAT=D Smonx (Semee profcua)
A small bivalve whose shells are flat and circular,
with the valves rayed with rosy pink, and a yellow-
ish lining; one inch in length. It is found on the
Florida East Coast.

Wedge Shells Family Donacidae
These live mostly between tides and are very ac-
tive burrowers.

VAMABL. WmaDm SHmXU (Donaxz riabilii)
This mollusk is also called coquina or pompano
clam. It is very tiny, scarcely reaching one half inch
in length. A delicious and nourishing broth is made
from the wedge shells. An Englishman, who had
become familiar with this tasty soup during the






48 FLORIDA SEA SHELLS
winters spent at Bonita Springs, Florida, ordered
'Coquina Broth A Ia Florida' served as a special treat
to his dinner guests at the Waldorf Astoria. The
soup cost well over a dollar a plate, but the host was
amply repaid for his thoughtfulness by the delight
of his guests.
The dams are found in profusion on many Florida
beaches. They live in the sand just at tide line. As
the waves recede, they are to be seen burrowing into
the sand with their small pointed feet. They are
dug from the sand with shovels and sorted by run-
ning them through a sand sifter. It is not difficult to
obtain quantities of this tiny mollusk.
The shells have a greater variety of color and
pattern than the butterflies that they so strongly
resemble. There are pink, lavender, blue, green and
white, red and yellow ones. Plaid varieties are in
shades of brown and blue and yellow. A pattern
designer might find the color combinations of the
wedge shell very practical.
These shells are used in the making of countless
shell novelties, such as dainty flowers and butterflies
on hand-painted place cards, porti&res, and window
curtains.

The Razor Clams Family Solidae
The razor clams live in warm waters. They are
easily located by the jet of water thrown up when
they pull the siphon into the shell. The shells are
long, narrow, and straight, with rasorlike edges.
They are able to dig and bury themselves vertically
in the sand. Razor dcams are eaten in Europe, but
not in the United States.






BIVALVES OR PELECYPODS 49
TnB Gamn Rason CLAM (Soen ,iridia)
This is the only variety found on the Southern
beaches. It is about two inches long, and has a light
green epidermis.
The Surf Clams Family Mactridae
There are about one hundred and fifty species,
chiefly found in tropical seas. The shells are three-
cornered and heavy, on the whole.

SOLD SUBt CuLA (Spiwsula soidisima similia)
This is the largest of clams. The valves of the shell
are very solid, and growth lines mark the surface;
longish, white with yellow epidermis. These clams
live chiefly in tropical water; are edible, and also
are preyed upon by starfish and whelks. The clams
have strong feet, which enable them to leap when
trying to escape from their enemies. They burrow
into the sand, and develop to a length of seven
inches. The solid shell was used by the Indians as
a hoe for working their maize fields.

CHANELED LAmosA (LabiOw lineata)
The shells of this species are found on the Florida
West Coast. They are chalky-white, fragile, deeply
grooved, the front half swollen, and quite flattened
behind, with a delicate hinge ligament, seldom found
complete. They are so light in weight that they are
generally found high up on the beach. They are
two to three inches in length, and are found, though
not so plentifully, on the East Coast. The shell has
no lining, but the outside grooves plainly show
through.






FLORIDA SEA 8HELLS


Little Basket Clams Family Corbulidae
Small shells with unequal valves, living in sand or
mud.

BAsFsr CLa (Corbula conrada)
An interesting little bivalve that lives in sand or
mud; found on the Atlantic beach of Florida.

Angel Wing Family Pholadidae
ANGm's WINo (Barnes coitaa)
The shells are found on the Florida West Coast.
The mollusks burrow down several inches into the
sand or mud and a number of them live together.
The valves of the shell are white, long, narrow,
ribbed, and bear a decided resemblance to the con-
ventional picture of an angel's wing. They grow to
be seven or eight inches long. The people of Havana
consider this mollusk as one of their stable sea
foods. The two valves are connected only at a point
near the tips: a lovely, fragile shell.
Shipworms- Family Teredinidae
Long worm-like mollusks burrowing in wood.
Very destructive to pilings and unprotected shipping.

Sm= WOBx (Btatia goudi)
A wormlike bivalve that bores into piling, ships'
bottoms, or other submerged wood, by means of its
shell. In tropic waters they often grow two feet in
length.








IV

UNIVALVES OR GASTROPODS




THE univalve is the mollusk whose house consists of
but a single shell. It is also called Gastropoda, or
belly-footed. This is the largest family and the most
widely distributed. They live on land and in the sea;
in salt water and fresh, and even in tall treetops in
the tropics.
The most common form of shell is the cone. It
begins as a small capsule and adds coil to coil at the
open or mouth end, each coil becoming larger as the
body of the animal grows, until it is full-grown. The
coils nearly always whorl to the right, but a few
whorl to the left, as the left-handed whelks. Some
have no coil, but are like inverted cups, such as the
limpets and the sea ears.
While univalves are much alike structurally, they
differ greatly in the size, finish, and shape of the shell
house. They range from the tiniest snail, no larger
than a pinhead, to the great horse conch of the
Florida Coast, which is two feet long and weighs
often as much as five pounds. There is also the sea
worm which looks like a petrified angle worm. The
outside finish of univalves may be smooth and shiny,
or spiked or knobbed or ribbed, and of a great variety
of colors.






FLORIDA SEA SHELLS


The opening through which the animal comes out
of its shell is called the 'aperture,' and the shape and
size and ornamentation of this opening varies greatly
in different species. In some families there is great
diversity in the different species. Most univalves
have a strong door called the operculumm,' which
closes the aperture tight after the animal is inside
the shell. This door grows on the end of the foot,
which is the ideal place for it, as the foot comes in
last. With this door tightly closed, the creature is
safe inside its fortress. This is much the same idea
as the closing of the old drawbridge in mediaeval
castles! All gastropods do not have this door, how-
ever.
The most essential organ to the well-being of the
greater number of univalves is the long file-like
tongue, called the 'radula.' This tongue is used for
getting and grinding food. It is equipped with count-
less teeth which literally rasp or scrape the food to
pieces. The carnivorous univalves have fewer and
larger teeth, and the vegetarians have smaller ones
and more of them. An interesting fact concerning
the snail is that new sets of teeth are constantly
developing ready to take the place of the old ones
as they become worn down. The number of teeth in
some reaches many thousands. This tongue is some-
times twice the length of the mollusk. Some species
have jaws, but the tongue is what counts. The diges-
tive system consists of mouth, esophagus, stomach,
and intestines.
Univalves have a heart, liver, kidneys, colorless
blood, and a simple nervous system. Some breathe





UNIVALVEB OR GASTROPODS 03
with lungs, but more often they are supplied with
gills. A species of chiton has several thousand eyes
scattered over its shell, while some univalves have
only a single pair of eyes located in different positions
on the tentacles. Some have no eyes at a. But
with or without eyes, mollusks are sensitive to light
and dark. Some like the light, others find it dis-
agreeable. Some can see no more than to distinguish
between light and dark, while others have very good
vision, and can see for some distance. Some start life
with eyes, which in adult life become overgrown with
skin and are useless. This is comparable with the
peculiarity of the adult oyster, which fails to develop
the foot with which it begins life.
The organs of hearing consist of a pair of ear sacs,
like small, white points, located on the foot. There
are no auditory canals leading to the ear sacs from
the outside.
The shell lining is called the 'enamel' and is
generally highly polished and beautifully colored.
The mantle is the fleshy part which covers the body
and lines the shell. Univalves have the senses of
touch, smell, sight, and hearing. The entire bodily
surface, particularly the foot, is sensitive to touch.
The tentacles on the head are adapted to feeling.
Everyone has watched the snail stick out his horns
or tentacles. Closely connected with the breathing
organs is the sense of smelL Those mollusks which
eat decayed animal matter locate it by smell
The broad sole of the foot of the limpets and
California abalones enable them to secure a firm
hold on a rock or other support by suction, so that it





64 FLORIDA SEA SHELLS
is almost impossible to pull them loose. To surprise
them with a sudden shove or pry them loose with
a sharp weapon is the best method. They also use
atmospheric pressure. The limpet, scarcely one inch
in length, has had a twenty-pound weight suspended
from it which it has held up for a few seconds.
Wordsworth has well written:
Should the strongest arm endeavor
The limpet from his rock to sever,
Tis seen its loved support to clasp
With such tenacity of grasp,
We wonder that such strength should dwell
In such a small and simple shell!
The abalone is much larger than the limpet and
has much greater suction power. Authentic records
show that persons seeking to pull abalones from the
rocks to which they attach themselves have had
their hands so firmly clamped and held by this
suction that they were unable to free themselves
and have so perished in the incoming tides.
The sexes are distinct in some gastropods, in some
they are both male and female. All reproduce by the
means of laying eggs. These eggs are laid or stored
in the brood pouch of the female for further de-
velopment. One sea slug lays many thousands of
eggs in each batch. All are encased in an egg ribbon
which the slug coils into a cluster and fastens to
a rock. One land snail averages less than one egg
a day. Eggs may be deposited one at a time or they
may be enclosed in capsules. These capsules are then
joined into long chains or egg ribbons, or stuck into
a mass. These capsules are very tough, parchment-





UNIVALVES OR GASTROPODS


like, and the ribbon type makes a whorl around
a center cord. They are truly remarkable, and in
late winter many of these empty ribbons and cases
are washed up on the beaches.
The whelk egg case looks like a coarse sponge, and
each capsule contains many eggs. There are as
many as five hundred capsules to each mass. As
they hatch, the larger baby whelks eat up the smaller
ones, so that not a great many finally develop into
adult whelks. The eggs are laid in the winter. It
takes two months for them to hatch and develop.
The tiny violet snail has still a different method of
caring for its eggs. It secretes a clear gelatine-like
raft or air float which is attached to its foot, with the
eggs fastened to the underneath side. This raft as-
sists the fragile creature to swim.
Many times a small mollusk will fasten its egg
case to the ribbon of a larger mollpsk which is al-
ready fastened to a rock or coral reef below the water.
The univalves have not the great food value for
man that the bivalves have, but the abalones have
a market value in California. Snails are cultivated
for food in Europe. The English do not relish them.
Snail culture dates back into Roman history as
far as 51 B.c. The Roman maintained snail preserves
and fattened the creatures upon new wine and meal.
In the West Indies, the Bahamas, and on the
Florida Keys the conch is highly esteemed for conch
chowder. An unnecessarily cruel method of getting
the conch out of its shell is used. The animal is tied
to a taut line and allowed to hang there until the pull
of the heavy shell finally tears it from the shell.





56 FLORIDA SBA BHBLLS
Sometimes it will hang on for several days. There
are great piles of the lovely pink-lipped conch shells
wherever the animals are used for food. These are
sold as souvenirs throughout Florida. The conch is
dried for easier shipping to Northern markets.
Conch shells are used in the manufacture of
porcelain and lim, and cameos are cut from them.
Cowries were used for money in British India until
the end of the last century. Other uses of univalves
have been given in an earlier chapter.

The LU pets Family AcmIadae
The typical limpets are generally very small,
scarcely more than one inch in length. They are like
an inverted bowl, oval in shape, heavily ridged from
the top radiating out to the edge, which is faintly
scalloped. The limpet has no operculum, and is un-
protected. The animal clings to the rocks with such
tenacity that it cannot be picked off by its enemies.
The tongue is twice the length of the shell When it is
not sawing off seaweed or scooping out a hole in the
rocks, it is neatly coiled up inside the shell The
limpet lives in the small hole scooped out of the rock.
It goes about, but always returns to the sme home.
It has a very broad foot, which enables it to cling by
suction to the rocks or to a coral reef. Many beauti-
ful varieties are found on the western coast of Mexico
in the Gulf of California. In Central America there is
a giant limpet which grows to be fourteen inches wide
and is used as a washbasin. The Florida limpets are
small





UNIVALVEB OR GASTROPODS b7
Wmr IDrmaN LmPw (Acnmaa amduarm)
This is a Florida species with seven to nine rays of
black down the sides; tan or dull gray in color; one
inch in length, and oval in shape. It is found on the
Florida West Coast.

The Key-Hole Limpets Family PIwunridwe
A broad cone-like shell, dull, not pearly in texture.
This division of the limpets s distinguished from
the pure limpets by the slit or key-hole. Its habits
resemble the family Acmaeidae.

Kzr-HoLz Lcarv (FinureQ brbde niu)
This shell is sometimes called volcano shell owing
to its likeness to the ash crater of a volcano. It is
about one inch long, oval-shaped, like an inverted
bowl. It is found on the Florida Keys and at Char-
lotte Harbor on the Florida West Coast, on rocks and
coral reefs. The steep cone is deeply ribbed and the
ribs are evenly distributed. There is a small round
hole in the top, which gives it the name. It is grayish-
green in color. A similar species found in Bimini in
the British Bahamas has an apple-green, porcelain-
like lining.

Sur Lunwr (Submwargila pumWa)
This is a very long name for a tiny mollusk, less
than one half inch long, found on the Florida Keys.
The shell is oval, pointed, with a narrow slit at the
front. The ribs are uniform and daintily beaded.
It is pale green or flesh-colored.






58 FLORIDA 8EA SHBLLS
The Top Shells Family Tochidae
The shells are top-shaped, lining pearly, with large
radula. The animals feed largely on seaweed, and are
found in tropical seas, the most beautiful specimens
coming from the Indian and Pacific Oceans. The
outer limy substance of the shell is usually removed
to reveal the pearly iridescent foundation. Some va-
rieties of top shells are used in the making of pearl
buttons, pearl ornaments, and necklaces.

W Trr ImuND TOP Sma W. (Liona pica)
A heavy top-shaped shell with rounded whorl,
which attains a length of four inches. In color it is
pearly-green with wavy black markings, and sharp-
edged aperture. The body is fringed with two long
tentacles. It is found, but not in abundance, in
Charlotte Harbor on the Florida West Coast. The
mollusk lives on rocks and coral reefs, and is eaten in
the West Indies and in Central America.

FwmSDA TOP Sm.Lr (CaUioetoma euglyptwm)
The shell is pyramid-shaped, three fourths of an
inch high, with pearly lining. The ribs are overlaid
with rows of small white enameled beads, white
dotted with brown and purplish spots.
The Pheasnt Shells Family Phasine.idae
A small tapering spiral shell brilliantly colored,
with darker shades overlaying the more delicate
shades. It paces in the same fashion as the top
shells. Varieties found in Cuba and Florida are:
Phasiane, a qffinii; Florida species are PharianeUa
umbilical.






UNIVALVES OR GASTROPODS Ov
The Turban and Star Shells Family Twurbndae
The Turbinidae have turban-shaped, spiral solid
shells, with calcareous thick operculums and coils.
They inhabit warm seas.

STan Sami, (Atraea longipina spinuloo)
Marked with brown specks and streaks; one and
one half inches in length. Found on both of the
Florida coasts.

BRoAD Spn=D TURBAN (Adraea kdistpa)
Small triangular spines are found on the whorls
of the shells, which are dull in color, streaked with
yellow and brown. They are found on the Florida
West Coast.

STowN APPLi (Aiaea tuber)
Two inches in height and breadth; dirty white in
color, with greenish or pale brown splotching.
Found on the Florida East Coast.

AmarcAun STaoN APPL (Aatraea amerima)
1 Stony, with high cone; trifle smaller than the stone
apple. Found on the Florida Keys.

The Sea Snals Family Nerifidae
The sea snails are a large family, found mainly
in warm seas. They are easily recognized by their
resemblance to the common garden snail. They have
long tentacles; their eyes are quite keen and are
attached to the ends of hollow stalklike projections.
They are able to turn their eyes in any direction.






60 FLORIDA SEA SHELLS
When in danger the eyes can be drawn through these
projections to safety, under the skin of the head.
Sea snails have a long radula. They live upon rocks,
in shallow water, feeding heartily on seaweed.

Baiamo Toora (Nwail pdfronde)
The bleeding tooth is about one inch in length, and
is found on the Florida Keys, dinging to coral reefs.
The shell has zigzag bands of red, black, and purple
on a white or yellow ground. The inner fold has one
or two teeth-like protuberances, stained a yellowish-
red, that in appearance are not unlike bleeding
teeth. The animal feeds upon seaweed.

Tmwuae mAmD NzRTA (NOFita tkeeata)
This snail is about one inch in length, and is
checkered black and white. It is found at Miami
and south along the coast, and clings to rocks and
coral reefs.

The Staicase or Ladder Shells Family Epiton d.e
These mollusks have a small white polished shell
with turrets and whorls, related to the lanthinidae.
They have a world-wide distribution, many living
in tropic waters; called Wentletraps. They have a
protective fluid like the cuttlefish.

ANwouAT ScanA (Epitoniun angulata)
Strong and white; three quarters of an inch in
length; found on the Florida East Coast.





UNIVALVES OR GASTROPODS


LNBD SCALA (Epitomin iwafa)
Thick, with brown spiral bands; one half inch in
length; found on the Florida East Coast.

The Violet Sails Family Iw t idaee
These are delicate, semi-traparet snails, violet-
colored. They are found in both the Atlantic and the
Pacific Oceans, drifting freely in schools, near the
surface.

Vroxur SxNAn (lanisina ianwina)
A delicate purple snail, about one inch in length.
Too fragile to swim, the snail secretes a gelatinous
mass into which it pushes air bubbles with its foot,
forming a small pneumatic raft. By this means it
stays on the surface of the water. Its eggs are
fastened to the under-side of this raft. Should the
snail become separated from the raft, it sinks to the
bottom. Having no eyes, it protects itself from its
enemies by throwing out a screen of violet ink in
which it hides. Seagulls are its greatest enemies. The
snail will attack a jellyfish many times its own size,
biting off portions with its rasping tongue. Charles
Torrey Simpson at one time came upon a great school
of violet snails washed ashore at Key West. He
wrote concerning them, 'Before I came to the beach,
I noticed that as far as the eye could see it was a mass
of the most intense glowing violet color, and on com-
ing up to it, I was astonished to find that this color
came from untold millions of iamhinuw which had
been washed up during the night.'





FLORIDA SEA SHELLS


The Pyramid or Obelisk Shells Family Pyra-
mid"Wdae
Slender small spiral shells with many whorls.

OBmuua SHmu (Pyramidea candida)
A rare shell that occurs in Florida.

SaNor PTramI SmMu (Twubonla curia)
One third of an inch in length. Found on the
Florida East Coast.

INPBwBD ODOSC aA (Odolo0mia imprn a)
One third of an inch in length. Found on both
coasts of Florida.

The Moon Shells Family Naticidae
The shells are globe-shaped, solid, smooth, with
wide aperture, and large radula. The animals bur-
row into the sand for bivalves.

LTrrM MooN SaHm. (Natica cwna)
The shell is heavy and smooth, snail-like in appear-
ance, and is found in the West Indies, on the Atlantic
Coast and the Florida West Coast. It is one to one
and one half inches in diameter, and has spiral chest-
nut bands streaked diagonally with purple on a
whitish background. The interior is dark brown
shading into purple with a white edge.

DuPucm MooN SHmEL (Podinsio duploata)
This is a flatter, smoother shell than the typical





UNIVALVES OR GASTROPODS 63
moon shell, and its color is pale brown slightly
shaded with blue. It is about three inches in di-
ameter, with a ruffled sand collar, and is found on
both the Atlantic and Gulf Coasts of Florida.

FLAT MooN Sa UX (Sinum perspectwum)
A flat, solid, white, ear-shaped shell, different in
form and manner from the true natica. The body is
exposed. The animal preys upon the oyster, and is
found on the Florida East Coast.

SPorran MooN SaMLL (Sinum maculatum)
A dotted species also found on the Florida East
Coast, one and one half inches in length.

The Cap Shells Family Cpulidae
Cap-shaped shells with a spiral twist.

HUNGARlIA HAT (CapUtd uns ari us)
This is a small shell, from one to two inches in
length; almost as high as it is long. It is similar to
the limpet, with the outside rough, with a twist at
the top which resembles the cap worn by Hungarian
peasants. It is generally white inside and out, and is
attached to rocks or empty shells. It is found on the
Florida Keys. The mollusk feeds on seaweed or
minute animal particles.

Cup and Saucer Limpets Family Catyptraeidae
The shell is limpet-shaped with slightly spiral apex.
The interior is highly polished; exterior, porcelain-





FLORIDA 8EA SHELLS


like. Most of this family remain all their lives in one
place, clinging firmly to the rocks and shells of their
first environment. They feed upon seaweed and the
bits of animal matter that come within their reach.
Some species lay their eggs in a brood pouch.

CUP Am SIAuc LmPn (Crucibhlm )triatm)
This species is found on the Atlantic Coast. The
shell is less than one inch long, pale tan in color, with
ridges, and resembles an inverted dome. A cup is
attached to one side of the interior. Its likeness to
a cup and saucer gives the shell its name. It is very
rarely found on the Florida West Coast. Many
lovely and varied specimens of this limpet are found
at Kino Bay on the western coast of Mexico, in the
Gulf of California. One of the prettiest is called the
White Cap.
The Slpper Shells Family Crepidubdae
Slipper-shaped shells with a shelf on one end of the
inside.

SUwama LM"n (Orepidulfofanicata)
The shell is one to two inches in length, and is
found abundantly on the Florida West Coast. It is
oval, boat-shaped, with a seat in the stern end, and is
sometimes called 'boat shell' or 'baby's cradle.' The
seat is white and thin. The inside is brown, shiny,
and like porcelain. The slippers fasten themselves to
rocks, to an empty shell, or pile on top of eachiother
in great dusters. They take on the shape of the
object to which they are attached; hence some are
flat, while others are curved.






UNIVALVES OR GASTROPODS 00
FLAT Sn Hzm SxaLL (CrepidWa plana)
The shell is about one inch long, and quite flat.
The pointed end has the boat seat; the other end is
broad. It is generally white, and grows, flattened
out, on an empty shell, taking the shape of its
support.
The Sundial Shells Family Architectoncidae
These are flattened cones, with spiral markings
resembling a sundial, found in all warm seas.
GBamNLATD SUNDIAm SmKBm (Architetonica granulota)
These shells are found from North Carolina to the
West Indies. The surface is like china. The whorls
are lavender, with white edges, marked with brown
dots in even rows, with raised granules all over the
surface, never larger than two inches in diameter.
The Perwinkles and Clink Shells Family
Litorinidae
A globular shell, spiral, turbinate, and dull. The
mollusks live on the rocks at the tide line, or on roots
of the mangrove, with world-wide distribution,
increasing on the American coasts. They are used
as food in Europe and for fish bait in America. Some
varieties are becoming terrestrial.
CoMMoN PauwmIN CULiUtorina irronat)
One inch in length, found on the Florida Gulf
Coast.

ANx~Gue AD PmUrwniKz (Lilorina angulifora)
A variety found on the Florida coasts and in the
West Indies.






00 FLORIDA SEA SHELLS
ZIGoAG Pzmwmnaxx (Ldtorina nicae)
One half to one inch in length, found on the Florida
Keys.

Pm TY TAcramTn (Tectriw mwrwichu)
This mollusk, one inch in length, will live on dry
land or in water. It is found on the Florida East Coast.
NoDUMes TWcraZBI (Tectoriu nodulous)
One half to two thirds of an inch long, dull olive-
green; found on the Florida East Coast.
The Screw Shells Family TurriteUidae
The screw shells have long, slender spires coming
to a sharp point, with many whorls. They attain
a maximum length of five inches. Very few species
are found in America.
VArmmeAT Scamw SHmuX (TurriteU sarieata)
The screw shell has a length of two and one half to
five inches, with sixteen whorls. In color it is mottled
dark brown on a white background, and tapers to
a needle point. The common name is 'lady fingers.'

The Sea Worm Family Vermetidae
The sea worms have a tube-like spiral shell with
dividing partitions, in appearance not unlike a cork-
screw. The aperture is round. The animal is easily
mistaken for a worm, and is found on both coasts of
Florida.

Vzoz.a-BaowN WORM SHMLL (V cMetus fiigrW)
A violet-brown, irregularly coiled shell, which is
found in masses on the Florida coasts.





UNIVALVES OR GASTROPODS 67
WoRn SmLL (Vermicharia pirata)
This shell resembles a petrified angleworm. It is
often six to ten inches in length, and is a light tan or
white in color. The spirals are close and regular at
the beginning, then go off at any angle. Frequently
the mollusks are found in a twisted mass. They are
found in shallow water.
MODEBT SIQUABIA (Siliquari modesta)
A typical pod shell of the family vermetidae
found in deep waters off the Florida West Coast
from Cedar Key, southward.
The Blind Shells Family Caecid.e
A minute spiral-shell mollusk living in warm seas.
The shell becomes cylindrical with age, causing much
confusion in classification.
FLORIDA BLND SHELL (Caecu floridanum)
One fourth inch in length, found on the Florida
East Coast.
SHnmmo Hops SmEI~ (MeioceO m nitidum)
One tenth inch in length, found in Florida.

The Chank Shells Family Xancidae
A large shell resembling the murex and voluta;
heavy and fusiform in shape; sculptured and in a
great variety of color. It is found in the tropics.
SpnrT VsBUM (Vaum muricatum)
A stronger species with sharp tubercles on the
whorls; white lined with pink.






FLORIDA SEA SHELLS


Famiy Moduldae
Small gray, button-shaped shells with rather
strong markings.

Fisuma MODU.U (Modulu floridawu)
A minute variety found on the Florida Keys.
The Horn Shells Family Cerithiidae
A small spiral shell, with many whorls, notched.
The animals live on rocks and among seaweeds.
Only a few species are found in America, but are
plentiful at Key West. They feed on decayed organic
matter.

BBowN HOBn SmELL (Cerikium floridnnam)
The commonest variety found in Florida, about
one inch in length, often colorless. The strong spiral
ribs are set with rounded knobs.
Other varieties found in Florida include the dark
horn shell (Cerithium airatum), Cerithium muasarum,
Cerithium litteratum, Cerithium ferrugineum, Ceri-
thidia scalariformis, Bittium nigrun, Cerithiopsi
puncata, Cerithiopis ubercularis, Cerikiopsis tere-
bralia, and Trifori decorate.

The Conch Shells Family Strombidae
Conchs are active mollusks found in tropical seas.
They feed upon dead mollusks and crabs. The shell
is heavy and porcelain-like. Its eyes are developed
on tentacles, the body is muscular, and the foot very
strong and well developed. By means of it the conch
can pull its heavy shell along. It jumps or leaps


68






UNIVALVES OR GASTROPODS


along. The conch of the West Coast is different from
the one found on the East Coast. The large pink-
lipped conch is found mainly on the Florida Keys or
at Key West.

CONCH (Stronbu giga=)
Found only in tropical waters, this conch is
probably the best known of shells, as it has been
widely used as an ornament in homes and gardens
and as a doorstop. A large conch was used as a horn
to call the farmhands to dinner on the farm of the
authors' grandfather, and this same conch had its
place for years on the living-room hearth. Children
for generations have held the conch shell to their
ears to hear the ocean roar. This is the shell of the
pink-lipped conch, which is very large when full
grown. They often attain a length of twelve inches
and a weight of five pounds. They live among coral
reefs, mainly on the Florida Keys. They eat decayed
animal matter, acting as scavengers. They have
a keen sense of smell and very good eyesight. The
outside of the shell is rough and horny, but the en-
amel lining is a deep, highly polished rose. The color
fades when exposed to the light. Occasionally pink
pearls are found in the mantle, and, while only semi-
precious, are extremely lovely. They also fade when
exposed to light. Cameos are cut from this species.
It makes a yellow raised figure with a rose back-
ground. The animal is strong and muscular and can
pull along its heavy shell by means of the sharp foot.
This conch is used as a food, and the shell is also
used for the manufacture of porcelain.