NATURAL HISTORY OF PARADISE KEY
AND THE NEAR-BY EVERGLADES
W. E. AFFORD
Economic Botanit, U. 8. Department of Agricsdlw
FROM THE SMITHSONIAN REPORT FOB 1917, PAGES 377-134
(WITH 64 PLATES)
/ GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE
Smithsonian Report, 1917.-Safford.
ROYAL PALM STATE PARK.
Live Oaks (Quercms vireidene) bearing resurrection ferns. tillandslas, orchids, and other epiphytes.
The jointed climber is ifppocratem olubllU. Photograph by Roy D. Goodrich.
NATURAL HISTORY OF PARADISE KEY AND THE NEAR-
BY EVERGIADES OF FLORIDA.
By W. B. SA8OBD,
Boonomio Botaest, U. S. Department of Agricuture.
[With 64 plates.]
Paradise Key, an island in the heart of the Everglades of Florida,
is almost unique from a biological point of view, presenting as it does
a remarkable example of a subtropical jungle within the limits of
the United States in which primeval conditions of animal and plant
life have remained unchanged by man, and thus offering a striking
contrast to the keys along the coast of Florida as well as to other
Everglade keys in which normal biological conditions have been
greatly disturbed by destructive fires, clearing of forests, or the con-
struction of drainage canals, which not only affect the original
physical conditions but at the same time permit aquatic animals and
plants previously unknown to penetrate into the Everglades. The
region is also remarkable for the fact that it is a meeting place for
many temperate and tropical types of plants and animals. On this
account and from the fact that it offers a virgin field for collectors
in most branches of natural history, it seems of the highest interest
and importance that a careful study of its biological features should
The writer was directed by the Secretary of Agriculture to make a
survey of the region, which was begun in September, 1917, and
resulted in collections in nearly all branches of natural history, the
material of which has been studied and classified by specialists and
deposited in the collections of the Smithsonian Institution, the
United States National Museum, the Bureau of Entomology, and the
It is impossible within the limits of the present paper to give a
detailed account of the various species of plants and animals col-
lected, or to treat fully of the climatic, physical, and ecological con-
Spor hoer ftty and ad during the survey the writer acmowleds tIndebtedes to
those in charge of Paradmie Key, peularl to the Park Warde, Mr. Charles A. Moler,
a born woodman and aeeoomplUIed naturalist.
378 ANNUAL REPORT BMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1917.
editions pf Paradise Key, but the writer hopes to portray some of the
most interesting animals and plants of the key itself as well as of
the surrounding Everglades, and to call attention to their inter-
relationship and interdependence, in the parts which they play as
hosts or guests, parasites or victims, food or feeders. Among the
groups considered will be plants of the marshes and sloughs, the forest
trees and their epiphytal covering of orchids, resurrection ferns, and
bromeliads; climbing lianas, which here reach giant proportions; the
native palms of southern Florida, and the plants peculiar to the pine-
land region, especially the saw palmetto and the interesting cycad,
Among the animals to be described are some of the most interest-
ing mollusks, spiders, insects, fishes, bactrachians, reptiles, birds, and
mammals; and finally an account will be given of the little-known
aboriginal Indians who inhabited southern Florida at the time of
its discovery by Ponce de Leon, as well as'of their successors, the
Seminoles, who still live in the Everglades.
ROYAL PALM STATE PARK.
The region under consideration lies in Dade County, Florida, about
90 miles south of Lake Okeechobee and 87 miles directly southwest of
Miami, in latitude 25* 24' north and longitude 800 88' west of Green-
wich. In 1915 the State of Florida set side Paradise Key, together
with an area of adjacent swamp land, as a public park. This, to-
gether with an additional tract afterwards donated for the purpose,
has received the name Royal Palm State Park. The park, which has
an area of 8 square miles, includes, besides the key itself and adjacent
marshland, a corner of pineland, called Palma-vista, the vegetation of
which is similar to that of other pinelands of southern Florida.1
Paradise Key owes its preservation from fires and other destructive
agencies chiefly to its isolation and to a deep slough near its eastward
border which never becomes dry, even during periods of the greatest
drought. Its conversion into a state park insures its conservation as
a plant reserve and bird sanctuary and as a permanent field for bio-
logical research. Similar measures have been taken in other parts
of the United States, and it is hoped that the example will be widely
Dr. H. C. Oberholser, of the United States Biological Survey, in
commending the creation of this park points out that the refuge which
it offers to birds is one which is very greatly needed in southern
Florida, and that its location is admirable for the purpose of preserv-
ing the wild life of the region.
SFor an account of the creation of oyal Pal State Park the reader i referred to
the aceout of Mr. W. S. Jennin n the Tropic Magazine of April, 1910, and to an
hMeiteal etch of Paradlue Key by Dr. J. E Small in the Journal of the New York
Botanical Garden, voL 17, p. 41, 1916.
"The decrease of many species of birds," he says, "has been so
marked in recent years that it is of great importance to have for them
places where they can breed in undisturbed seclusion. If there do not
already exist colonies of herons on this reservation, it would be very
desirable to induce these birds, if possible, to take up their residence
in the swamps, which I understand are a part of the park, so they
could be protected, as they must be, if the various species of heron
are to be preserved from extinction. For many birds, also, the Royal
Palm State Park should prove to be a desirable haven and refuge, and
it will undoubtedly help to preserve from extinction many of the
interesting species that inhabit southern Florida."
CLIMATE AND RAINFALL.
Southern Florida, though usually blessed with an almost tropical
climate, is sometimes subject in the winter months to severe storms
from the north, in which the thermometer falls below the freezing
point. But this is also true of some parts of the island of Cuba,
which has repeatedly suffered frosts that have done great damage to
the more tender vegetation. Along the coast, where the influence of
the warm Gulf Stream is felt, much less damage has been done than
farther inland. That these occasional cold spells have not seriously
injured the vegetation of Paradise Key is shown by the presence in
its flora of noble royal palms more than 100 feet high, tropical
orchids, and other tender plants, and insects belonging to types ee-
sentially tropical On the other hand many temperate species, both
of plants and animals, extend their range southward to this region;
although, as far at least as the animals are concerned, the temperate
species are here represented by varieties or subspecies which take the
place of the northern types.
Generally speaking, there is a rainy season during the summer and
autumn and a dry season during the winter months, but the limits
of these seasons are not constant or well defined. During the rainy
season the Everglades are flooded with water, while in the dry win-
ter months they are dry enough to be crossed on foot. The accom-
panying illustrations (pl. 1) show Paradise Key in the distance with
the Everglades, both dry and flooded, in the foreground.
/ PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY OF THE EVERGLADES.
The Everglades owe their characteristic features of marsh, sloughs,
and shallow ponds, to their recent origin and their slight elevation
above the sea level. Their general surface is not high enough to per-
mit the formation of deep valleys by eroding streams; and the water
appears to ooze slowly seaward, on the west side toward the south-
west and on the east side toward the southeast.1
Isee Sanford, Samuel. The topography and geology of southern Florida, in Second
Annual Report of the Florida State Geol. survey, p. 189. 1909. q
380 ANNUAL REPORT 8MITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1917.
The rock which underlies the Everglades and appears on the sur-
face on the keys and pinelands of southern Florida is known to
geologists as Miami oolite. Its outcrop at Long Key, the great rock
barrier adjacent to the northern boundary of Royal Palm State
Park, as well as at other points, was noticed by Army officers at the
time of the Seminole War. Specimens from the vicinity of Paradise
Key in the collection of the United States National Museum contain
foesil bivalve shells; others (pl. 2) contain vermicellilike casts of
annelids, and others hollow tubes, apparently formed by crustaceans
in soft mud, now lined with crystalline calcite. This oolitic lime-
stone, as Dr. T. Wayland Vaughan has pointed out, is not of animal
origin, but a chemical precipitation of calcium carbonate in the form
of minute granules; it plays a much greater part in the construction
of Florida reefs than corals. It was originally deposited in a shal-
low sea, just as. similar sediment is now being precipitated in the
Bahama Islands. Dr. Karl F. Kellerman, of the Bureau of Plant In-
dustry, made a careful bacteriological study of samples of water and
calcareous mud from the ocean bottom near the Bahamas and the
Florida keys. He found the water laden with calcium bicarbonate
and filled with certain bacteria which liberated ammonia. The action
of the ammonia on the calcium bicarbonate caused a precipitation
of calcium carbonate, which assumed the form of oolite. The bac-
terial origin of calcium carbonate had previously been suggested by
the late George H. Drew of the Carnegie Institution, who succeeded
in isolating an organism which he named Bacterium calois. Doctor
Kellerman repeated his experiments and confirmed his observations,
referring the above-mentioned organism to the genus Pseudomonas,
under the name Pseudoonas calcis*.
The deep slough to the eastward of Paradise Key (pL 8), which
has already been mentioned as its chief protection from destructive
agencies, is filled with a dense growth of water plants: yellow water
lilies, or spatter-docks (pL 4); Sagittarias, with broad, three- petaled
white flowers (fig. 1); pickerel weed, with spikes of blue flowers
(fig. 2); water arums (fig. 8) related to our jack-in-the-pulpit and
with roots equally filled with needle-like raphides which burn the
mouth like fire; white-flowered floating hearts (fig. 4) resembling
miniature pond lilies, but not botanically related to them; and tall
water weeds (Oawypols filiformi) belonging to the same family as
the celery, but with hollow, quill-like tubes for leaves.
SS1ee Vamh, T. Wayland, Sketch of the eologle history of the Florida eoral re
tract and comparlon with other coral reef areas. In Journ. Wash. Acad. Sd. 4:2
1914. See also Corals and formation of coral reefs by the same author, n the present
ee Kellerman, Karl F., and Smith, N. B., Bacterial precipitation of calcium ear-
bonate. Joar. Wash Acad. S. 4 : 400. 1914.
PARADISE KEY-pA1F 6. 881
At first glance these water plants appear to be of no economic
significance; but it is they which make animal life possible in the
Fio. L--HBita$sr laxnofoUa. a, Fro. 2.-BLUUrLOwEED
GOowIxo IN DAMP SOIL; b, PICKERx L wnD, Po tf-
GROWING IN WAT=. MUCH a derti oordsta. Muca
Everglades. Aquatic insect larva and water snails and bivalves
which feed on their roots and submerged stems, yield food to small
fishes; fishes, crustaceans, frogs and surface in-
sects are the food of larger fishes, snakes, alli-
gators, and birds. One of the most common
occurrences is to see a magnificent osprey swoop
down upon what appears a grassy prairie'and
Faro. 5.- GExxNAT-
ING SUED OF THU
Oium aw sefriomms,
FIr. 4.--BfOATIxm ma, Nue- SHOWIxo THrm co-
pholde a4 Mqiroum, A DAINT LAU DEVnLOPnMNT
wAsrnX-LANT or rTH EVaR- orITH BRUL,. HAxI
GLADE NAT. 8IEU.
in. 3.-wiAar AON, rise with a good-sized fish in its talons.
Pussndrv gMtrs4o. ITs In addition to the plants just mentioned are
CI ED rTuKAO, numerous sedges (pL 5) and grasses (pL 6). No
w Hs THOROUsHLT traveler in the Everglades will forget the terri-
COOKED WAR MATES BU
rT INmIAN or VIR- ble saw-grass (pL 7), which is really not a
GIIA. MUCH DUCED. grass but a sedge, the leaves of which as seen
under the lens (pL 8) are armed with very sharp, fine cutting teeth.
Among the marsh ferns are Arostichum ezcelsum, with coarse,
882 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1917.
leatherlike fronds, and Bleckhnum errulatwm, with much thinner
fronds which soon wilt when gathered. There is a beautiful Crinum,
with white spiderlike flowers, and thick, fleshy seeds which have a
peculiar method of germinating (fig. 5); stately cat-tails, bladder-
wort with fine, dissected aquatic leaves, and many other characteristic
water plants, specimens of which have been deposited in the United
States National Herbarium. It is interesting to note the absence of
the water hyacinth and water lettuce which impede navigation in the
streams and lakes of northern Florida.
Paradise Key is bordered by a growth of marsh-loving shrubs;
among them, the amphibian willow; alligator apple (pL 9) ; the wax
myrtle, which yield wax from which
candles may be made; the fragrant
swamp bay, with an aromatic fra-
grance like that of bay rum; a mag-
nolia with white flowers and silver-
lined leaves; cocoa plums with edible
fruit and a Baccharis (pL 10), which
bers the pistillate lowers on one
bush and the staminate flowers on
another. Not far from the park are
small islets covered with thickets of
mangroves with branching, stiltlike
roots; and button mangroves (pl. 11)
RIo. 6.-GouuMtomo, sloahr~m with nectar glands at the base of
mwA;. An ss DST Rorr. the leaf blades; and in several places
are small groves of cypress (pl. 12),
similar to those of the Dismal Swamp, but not nearly so extensive.
FOREST TREES AND SHRUBS.
It will not be possible within the limits of this paper to enumerate
the forest trees, most of which are essentially tropical. The largest,
however, is the magnificent live oak (Quercus virginiana) of our
Southern States (pl. 13), which sometimes spreads its moss-covered
branches over an area 200 feet in diameter. The gumbolimbo
(Elapiwium simaruba) gets its odd name from the Jamaica negroes,
a corruption of goma elemd, the Spanish name of an aromatic
balsam which exudes from its bark when wounded. In the Antilles it
is sometimes called West Indian birch, on account of its papery red
bark which peels off like that of certain birches; and in some parts
of Spanish America its common name is palo mulato, from the color
of its trunk. It bears transplanting repnarkably well; sometimes
large trees are taken up from hammocks and planted in private
grounds, where they at once establish themselves. The fruit (fig. 6) is
much relished by crows and other birds.
Other striking trees are the satinleaf (pl. 14) which takes its name
from the golden brown, satinlike lining of its leaves; the laurel-
cherry of the West Indies, the leaves of which when crushed have the
characteristic bitter-almond odor of prussic acid; a beautiful mimosa-
like Lysiloma, usually called wild tamarind, with
fernlike foliage and smooth white trunk; the mas-
tic tree, or wild olive (fig. 7); the bois-fiddle (in-
correctly translated fiddle wood ") with racemes
of fruit shown in figure 8, and the pigeon plum
Of special interest is the strangling fig, Ficus
area, which begins life somewhat like a mistletoe,
sprouting from a tiny seed dropped on the limb of
a tree. It soon sends down threads which take
root when they reach the ground, and which
grow together wherever they touch one another,
forming a meshwork about the trunk of the host
which is slowly strangled to death (pl. 15). This
may well be designated the snake tree, or con-
strictor, of the vegetable world. Similar trees of
the genus Ficus are found in many tropical coun-
tries. Botanically they are
related to the many-trunked
banyan of the East Indies, FP. 7.-MA 8 T C
as well as to the familiar mu*. Or"***lea
toe tidi mmal
rubber plant of our con- JAc Im~io.m-
servatories.1 ca.nc, nu, ANo
g*. BDB IMAlr 11AT.
Another forest monster is arn.
the poison tree, Metopium
toxiferum, a giant sumach with a smooth
spotted trunk, the sap of which acts very much
like the poison ivy of our woods, causing erup-
tions on the skin. This tree is tropical in its
distribution. On the south shore of the island
rio. 8.- Bo riDL, of Cuba a surveying party of officers and men
otareurfni frntoo. of the U. S. S. Paducah employed, in May,
A "IRuT BT 1912, in clearing a base line near Caballona
Channel, were badly poisoned by this tree, the
effects of which they described as worse than those of Rtus toxio-
dendron. Notwithstanding this the berries are eaten with relish
by many species of birds at a time when other fruits are scarce.
Students of phytogeography are referred to the work of Dr. John W. Harshberger.
of the University of Pennsylvania, on "The vegetation of South Florida," published In
the Transactions of the Wagner Free Institute of Science of Philadelphia, voL 7, part 3,
October, 1914. In this work the plants of southern Florida will be found grouped ac-
cording to plant formations or asodeations
884 AwnUAL BEPOBT sMITHsoiuN a InSTrrTUT 191.
It is interesting to note that a closely allied tree, Rhu vernifera,
yields the celebrated Japanese lacquer, a kind of varnish prepared
from the very poisonous milk juice, or latex, which exudes from
incisions made for the purpose- Violent poisoning from this latex
is common among the workmen engaged in manufacturing the lac-
quer, which is one of the most indestructible varnishes known in the
arts. Stories are told of jewelers or cabinetmakers who, engaged in
repairing very old pieces of lacquer ware, have been severely poisoned
by the dust.
Among the smaller trees and forest shrubs of Paradise Key are
several belonging to the Myrtle family, including the white stopper,
naked stopper, spicewood, and the myrtle-of-the-river, the latter
(Calyptran Ae a sygum) with opposite glossy leaves and clusters
of fruit resembling blueberries. In addition to these are the paradise
tree, or bitterwood; soapberry tree; Krugiodendrn ferreum, or West
Indian ironwood; marlberry; and a holly (Ilew cassine) with red
berries but with leaves devoid of prickles, sometimes confused with
the more northern species from which the Indians of Florida made
their "black drink," but quite distinct from it. Specimens of all
these together with other interesting shrubs and small trees from
this locality have been deposited in the United States National Her-
Many of the climbing plants are interesting from their manner of
clinging to the trees which support them. Hippocratea volubils,
which, on account of its conspicuous swollen nodes, may be called
the "jointed liana," takes root wherever it touches the ground, form-
ing loops which trip up the unwary traveler, or perhaps catch him
under the chin as he passes through the jungle. Its opposite, arm-
like branchlets, which terminate in tendrils, clasp the tree trunks as
the plant makes its way upward to the light. When it has estab-
lished itself and spread over the branches, the arms, no longer of
use, break off at the shoulders and leave the vine hanging like a
great rope usually at some distance from the trunk, causing the
observer to wonder by what means it had reached its point of sup-
port (see frontispiece). This plant covers the crown of a tree so
-thickly that its host is sometimes crushed under its weight. Accord-
ing to the park warden, more trees are overwhelmed and brought to
earth by this incubus than by storms or destructive parasites
Among the other climbers are several wild grapes and plants
closely related to them, one of the most interesting of which, Cissu
For botanial description of them plants the reader s referred to Dr. .. Small's
Ieru Zt MiaU n, which moat of them will be found.
sicyoides, is sometimes called the water liana or hunters' vine, in the
West Indies. If a section is cut from the stem of this plant, a cool,
refreshing drink may be obtained from its sap by applying the
mouth at one end and slightly tipping up the other. Its succulent
stems are often found gnawed through by some animal; but, instead
of dying, the plant continues to live and soon sends down cordlike
roots which penetrate the earth like those of certain epiphytes.
Among those which hold on by redurved prickles are Erythrina
arborea, Guilandia crieta, and Pisonia acleata, all of them plants
which usually occur elsewhere as scrambling shrubs, but which here
become climbers. The first of these (pl. 16), which belongs to the
Bean family, has bright red, slender flowers and pods constricted
between the bright scarlet seeds; the second, belonging to the Cassia
family, is the plant which bears the well-known polished gray, stony
seeds called nicker nuts; the
third, belonging to the Four-
o'clock family, has peculiar,
slender fruits (fig. 9) bearing
five longitudinal rows of
prickly glands by means of
which they adhere to the plum-
age of birds and the fur of
mammals. This plant often
forms- dense .thickets, in trying
to penetrate which any creature
will 1p lacerated by the stout,
share recurved thorns which S, GLA9.--Co P T AI n ; RCow
arm its branches and which PIns Z WHICH AID IT IN CLIMBING. RO-
give it its common names DUCD.
" cockspur," pull-and-hold-back," and wait-a-bit vine." On Para-
dise Key Pieonia aculeata sometimes reaches gigantic dimensions,
climbing to the tops of the highest trees. Plate 17 is reproduced from
a photograph, made for the author in September, 1917, of a specimen
discovered by Mr. Mosier, with a stem 40.5 inches in circumference
at a distance of 7 feet from the base.
The tropical zarzaparillas (" climbing brambles ") are represented
by several subtropical species, the most remarkable of which is
Smila. latuifolia, the swamp bamboo brier," a lofty climber which
grows in marshy places. A photograph of its thick, bamboolike
root stocks is shown on plate 18. A closely allied species, Smila4
auricuata, growing outside the park in drier situations, was the
principal source of a delicious jelly, called "red coontie," formerly
prepared by the Indians of the southeastern United States from the
fecula contained in its root stalks and tubers.
886 ANNUAL REPORT 8MITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1917.
Most of the orchids of Paradise Key are modest and inconspicuous
when compared with their gorgeous relatives in our conservatories;
but some of them are prized for their odd forms or their fra-
grance, and all of them are attractive both to botanists and to lay-
men. Some of the most interesting are shown on plate 19. Spatiger
igidus (fig. 1)), a creeping epiphyte widely spread in the West
Indies, with pale, yellowish-green flowers, blooms continuously
throughout the greater part of the year. The spider orchid, AuUsa
noctuwna (fig. 2), also West Indian in its distribution, takes its spe-
cific name from the exquisite fragrance which its large, white, nar-
row-petaled flowers exhale toward nightfall. The shell orchid,
Anac eiwum oocAkeatm (fig. 8), was first designated by old Hans
Sloane in 1707, as a "mistletoe with a bulbous root and a showy,
larkspurlike flower." The chintz-flowered orchid, Onwidium undu-
latum (fig. 4), has odd-looking, mottled flowers, also described by
Sloane, who likened them to patches of Dutch chintz. Macra-
denia lAescens (fig. 5) is a modest, little plant with drooping flowers
dotted with purplish brown. The marsh orchid, Oncidium sphace-
latum (fig. 6), usually found growing on the edges of swamps, has
conspicuous, yellow flowers spotted with wine color.
In addition to the epiphytal orchids other plants are found grow-
ing on the limbs and trunks of forest trees, among them the resur-
rection fern, which curls up during periods of drought and uncurls
its fronds when moisture returns; a fleshy leaved Peperomia which
creeps along the tree trunks; the well-known Dendropogon, or
Spanish moss, which hangs in festoons from the branches (pL 20);
and its relatives of the pineapple family, the stiff-leaved bromeliads
(pl. 21). It is interesting to note in connection with the latter
that the bases of the leaves of many bromeliads collect water in which
insects lay their eggs and undergo their transformations. In some
parts of tropical America, in regions remote from water, certain
dragon flies and even frogs habitually lay their eggs in such reser-
voirs, which have been collectively called an epiphytal swamp re-
gion, which has the important advantage over a true swamp that
it never dries up.
In addition to the marsh ferns and the epiphytal resurrection fern
already mentioned there are several other interesting species, includ-
ing a delicate, little, filmy fern (fig. 10) growing among moss on
the trunks and limbs of trees; the epiphytal grass fern, Vittaria
tneata, and golden Phlebodium, with large fronds lobed like an
oak leaf and dotted beneath with conspicuous sori (pl. 22), often
found growing from the old leaf axils on the trunks of cabbage pal-
mettos; the strap fern, Campyloneurom pyllitidis, with undivided,
strap shaped fronds; the well- known
"Boston fern" of our conservatories
(NephroZepis exa2tata), and the closely
allied sword fern (N. birerrata). Other
species included in the flora are the brake,
Pteridium caudatim; the beautiful royal
fern (pL 23); Anemia adiantifolia (pl.
24); and the wood ferns, Dryopteris patents
and D. angescen .1
Among the native palms of. peninsular
Florida are the royal palm (pL 25) which Fio. 10.-EPIPHYTAL FILMX
has given its name to Royal Palm State QT"" ho p"o "not.at
Park; the saw palmetto so characteristic
of the pinelands; the saw cablige palm, Parotis wrightii, of coast
hammocks (pls. 26 and 27) which has sometimes been confused with
the preceding; the cabbage palmetto,
or cabbage palm (pl. 28); the small-
seeded, dwarf, blue-stem palmetto,
Sabal glabra, of northern Florida;
the large-seeded, dwarf palmetto,
Sabal etonia, of southern Florida; the
silver palm of the pine woods near
Miami and Homestead, Coccothri-
= ooargentea; the Florida thatch
palm, ThrTnaW floridana; and the
brittle thatch, Thrinaz microcarpa,
which occurs at the lower extremity
of the peninsula. The majority of
these species are found also on the
Bahamas and other islands of the
West Indies; the large-fruited Sabal
etonia, however, is endemic. The
coconut palm is not a native of
Florida, but may be regarded as a
naturalized citizen of the State. In
the accompanying illustration (pL
28) are shown the seeds of most of
these palms which differ so strik-
ingly that they will serve to identify
ao. P.--CABBAL. PALMo, aobd pa the various species. In addition to
.meto, BROWImo DmcUBTrD LE A the seeds themselves the plate in-
BLuS". eludes the dropping of a bird in
SFor further information regarding Florida fern the reader it referred to the beauti-
ful little pocket manual of Dr. J. L Small, entitled "Ferns of tropical Florida, 1918.
888 ANNUAL REPORT 8MITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, M11.
which a number of Thrinax eeds occur. Seeds of the royal palm
may have found their way to the park in the same way, dropped by
migrating birds from Cuba. In southern Florida trees of this
species as well as those of the cabbage palm and the introduced
coconut are sometimes used with great effect to form avenues. It is
interesting to note that the leaves of the cabbage palm, though usually
called fan-shaped, really have a short, decurved midrib (fig. 11).
This feature, together with certain peculiarities of the inlorecence,
leads Mr. O. F. Cook of the Bureau of Plant Industry to separate
several species usually included under Sabal into a distinct genus
which he has named Inodes.
The only pine growing in the vicinity of Paradise Key is Pinw
caribaea (pL 29). This is one of the species which gives its name to
the Isle of Pines on the south coast of Cuba. It covers vast areas of
southern Florida (pL 80), accompanied by an undergrowth pecul-
iarly its own. Next to the saw palmetto the most remarkable plant
of the pinelands is a cycad, Zamia loridana, from which the Semi-
noles make a starch, commonly called coontie, or Florida arrowroot.
The ancestors of this plant and its congeners can be traced back to
the giant cycads of the Carboniferous age. Among its relatives are
the sago palms," Cycas circinaUl and Cyeas revoluta, so well known
to horticulturists.1 Closely allied species of the same genus occur in
the West Indies, and of related genera in Mexico, Central America,
and Africa. All of them are remarkable for their peculiar method of
cross-fertilization; and nearly all of them are valuable as sources of
Zamia and its allies occupy a place intermediate between flower-
ing plants and ferns. Like the former, they bear fruit with a true
endocarp or seed; but, like the latter, their sexual propagation is ac-
complished by means of spermatozoids provided with movable cilia,
resembling those of animals The male and female plants are easily
distinguished. The inflorescence of the male plant (pL 81) is in the
form of an erect cone, shaped somewhat like an ear of maize and
composed of scales which bear on their under surface numerous
pollen sacs. That of the female plant (pL 82), much thicker and
relatively shorter, is composed of broad scales, each bearing a pair
of ovules quite devoid of any protective covering. The pollen,
borne by the wind, settles on the ovules, and sends down a tube into
the tissue of the nucellus. Archegonia are formed; egg cells de-
velop, and in the pollen tube are produced spermatozoids which
fecundate the egg. The fertilization of Zamia foriana was studied
'ee Bae ey's Standard Cyclopedif of Horticulture, 2: 95 to 98. 1914.
by Dr. H. J. Webber. It was he who first described and figured
these remarkable spermatozoids, which exceed in size those of all
other living organisms.
The ovules of Zamia foridana develop into beautiful orange-red
fleshy fruits arranged about a central axis, like large grains of corn
around a cob. These are at first covered by the peltate, triangular
scales which bore them, but they fall off when fully ripe and form
conspicuous bright-colored heaps in the pine lands where they grow.
A second species of Zamia occurs in the shady woods of Paradise
Key, but only male plants have thus far been found there It has
been referred by Small to Zamiza itegrifoUla, a species in moist
woods of middle Florida, particularly near the east coast. This
species may be distinguished from Z. forida&a by its leaflets, which
are somewhat broader, and have 20-28 parallel veins, about twice as
many as those of the latter. Both its leaves and its cones bear a
close resemblance to those of the West Indian Zamia media with
which it may possibly prove to be identical; while Zamia floridana
more closely resembles Zamia angustifoUia of the Bahamas.
Among other. characteristic plants of the pinelands are the silver
palm, the large-seeded Sabal etonia, sometimes called the goose-
neck palmetto, and the tall cabbage palm, already mentioned; among
the orchids, the tall, purple-flowered Bletia purpurea and the grass
pink, Limodo&mr pinetorwm; the pineland blueberry, Vaccinium
myrinites; the dwarf, white-flowered papaw, Asimina reticulata, the
thorn twig, Bumelia mecUnta (pL 38) and the prickly, holly-leaved
Rhaooma itiefoWia Among the climbing plants, or twiners, are the
beautiful, red-flowered morning-glory, Evogoniam microdawyct m,
with flower buds resembling fuchsias; the conspicuous Echites ites,
belonging to the Apocynaceme, with salver-shaped flowers resembling
enormous white jasmines, and a pair of long, slender seed pods in-
closing silky seeds; two species of smilax, S. bona-no, and S.
havawnsis; and occasional moonflowers, Calonyction acuteatwu,
climbing to the tops of trees. Among the ferns are the bracken,
Pteridium caudatm; Pteris lonifolia; Anemia aiantifoUa, shown
on plate 24; and in the old leaf axils of the cabbage palm PAlebodium
aureom, on plate 23. In addition to these may be mentioned two
plants which are confined to the southern Florida pinelands and do
not occur elsewhere-Chamaesyce pinetorwm, a low, spreading, hairy,
small-leaved plant belonging to the Euphorbiaceae; and the dwarf
Florida privet, Forestiera pinetorm, belonging to the olive family,
shown on plate 84.
SWebber. Herbert J. Spermatogenesls and fecundation of Zami 8. Dept. Agr.,
Bureau of Plant Industry, Bull. No. 2, 1901.
890 ANNUAL BEPOBT srMITH8OIAN INSTITUTION, 1917.
It is impossible within the scope of this paper to give a detailed
account of the animals of Royal Palm State Park. The insect
fauna alone must certainly include thousands of species, only a few
of which can here be mentioned.
The tree snails (see pL 85) which form such an attractive feature
of the forest, though varying greatly in color, are referred by zoolo-
gists to a single species, Ligusa faciatus. These beautiful creatures,
which spend their lives on the trunks of trees browsing upon micro-
scopic cryptogamous plants, are air-breathing mollusks like their
relatives the common snails, having their eyes on the ends of long
tentacles (fig. 12) which they can fold in like the tip of a glove
finger. Specimens sent by Mr. Mosier from Paradise Key are
now domesticated in one of the greenhouses of
the United States Department of Agriculture,
having borne the trip from their native forest
without apparent inconvenience. As in allied
genera these animals have both sexes united in a
single individual; so that each may become both
a father and a mother. In mating they do not
appear to discriminate as to color, for a pure
white-shelled form may be seen paired with one
which is yellow-banded or mottled like tortoise
shell. They sometimes fall victims to another
air-breathing mollusk, the cannibal snail, Glan-
OF n13. SUAL dina truneata (pL 26, fig. 2), the young of which
Pau, z Ug to* sometimes devour one another.
et m, WITH Other snails of this family are the minute
Borm msm Ama
unZm = Ac ac Polygyra septenvolva (pL 86, fig. 8) and P.
mWuAL. NAT. .8n uvuifera (pl. 86, fig. 4) with flattened shells
composed of many whorls coiled like a watch spring. Another lit-
tle shell, HelUcina orbiculta (pl. 86, fig. 5), is distinguished by hav-
ing a little door, or operculum," with which it closes the orifice of
its shell. Among the pond snails are Plnorbis duryi (pl. 8, fig. 6)
and Plysa gyrina (pl. 86, fig. 7), the latter with a thin polished,
The great marsh snail, Ampularia depressa, is of interest as the
principal food staple of the Everglade kite, already mentioned. The
colored illustration in the center of plate 85 was made from a
living specimen sent to Washington from Royal Palm State Park.
Its eggs, resembling flesh-colored pearls, are attached to the stems
of water plants (fig. 18). Last of all must be mentioned the little
bivalve, Muculwu partumeiw (pl. 86, fig. 9), which has a thin,
orbicular shell through which its pulsating heart can be seen. It is
an interesting little creature, actively climbing among the submerged
stems and leaves of plants, breathing in and expelling water by
means of a double-barreled siphon.
Of greater economic importance than the
large marsh snails above mentioned are the
crawfishes of the Everglades, which are eaten
in great quantities by many marsh birds, espe-
cially by white ibises and blue herons. Speci-
mens collected in the immediate vicinity of
Paradise Key (pL 87) were identified by Mr.
W. L. Schmitt of the United State National
Museum as Cambarus fIati Hagen.
The centipedes and scorpions of Royal Palm
State Park are represented in the writer's col-
lection by a single species each. The first,
identified by Mr. O. F. Cook as Theatops
postica, is interesting on account of its pe-
culiarly hooked and thickened last pair of legs.
Its bite, though poisonous, is not dangerous.
The scorpion identified by Dr. Nathan Banks
as Centrrus gracilis, like all of its allies, has
pincerlike palpi resembling the claws of a
crawfish, and a long tail terminating in a poison
sting (pL 88). Perhaps the most interesting
feature of its anatomy is a pair of minute, di-
verging, comblike organs borne on its ventral --
side just behind the last pair of legs (fig. 14).
The function of these little combs is not yet
understood. An ally of the scorpions, which F."',: O- oA, s
SNAiL, Asmuflr do-
may be regarded as intermediate between them prw, oN wrM or
and the spiders, is the giant whip scorpion, ? NsT .
Mastigoproctuw giganteus, shown on plate 88.
Its enormous palpi suggest the branching mandibles of a large stag
beetle. In the scorpion the front legs are the shortest pair, while in
the whip scorpion they are greatly elongated;
but the greatest difference is in the tail, that
of the whip scorpion being entirely devoid of
a sting. Even the fangs of this ugly creature,
FO. --SCOYU PIO so much dreaded by the natives wherever it
arwi graow. THmn is found, are said by Doctor Banks to be de-
WOmCTIONs rn own. void of poison. When attacked it emits an
acid, vinegarlike odor, from which the name vineigrier has been
given it by French creoles in the Antilles.
892 ANNUAL EPOBT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1917.
Among the spiders collected on Paradise Key are several of un-
usual interest One of them, Nephila claipes, constructs a beauti-
ful web composed of fine, silken threads which glisten in the sun
like burnished gold. Its silk has been woven into fabrics. A second
species, Mirnda aurea, forms a peculiar egg cocoon resembling a
miniature paper balloon. A third species, Plidippus audam, spins
no web at all, but catches its prey by jumping upon it and drags it
backward to its den. It has iridescent jaws and bright red eyes,
from which it may well take its name of ruby-eyed monster."
The life histories of many spiders as well as of certain groups of
insects are so tragic that the writer ventures here to repeat what has
already been expressed by Maeterlinck; since it is so strikingly
applicable to conditions on Paradise Key. With other classes of
animals and even with plants man feels a certain kinship, but spi-
ders and insects are not of his world; their strange habits, ethics,
and psychology seem to belong to some other planet, where the con-
ditions are more monstrous, more active, more insane, more atrocious,
more infernal than in our own. It is hard for us to believe that these
monsters are conceptions of that Nature whose privileged children
we love to imagine ourselves to be. We are horrified at the atroci-
ties they commit; their clandestine thefts, their ignoble parasitism;
the bold robberies, the murders, cannabalism, mariticide, for which
many of them seem especially adapted. Frightfulness and ruth-
lessness appear to be a very part of their nature; and we stand
appalled when it dawns upon us that these creatures are far better
armed and equipped for their life's work than we for ours. We
almost dread them as our rivals and ultimate successors, as the dom-
inant inhabitants of this globe.
THE SPIDER TAT SPINS TEXTILE SILK.
Outside the gauze screen of the park lodge veranda the writer
noticed a geometrical spiderweb, in which insect victims of all
descriptions had been ensnared, ranging in size from mosquitoes
to huge grasshoppers and dragon fies. In the center of the web
was the lady spider who had constructed it, and near its margin
the diminutive male, who seemed to be hanging 'round in a shiftless
sort of way, subsisting on such scraps of food as she might leave.
Specimens of these spiders (fig. 15) were identified by Mr. C. B.
Shoemaker of the United States National Museum as Nephila
ca4ipm, a species celebrated from the fact that its silk has actually
been woven into fabrics, specimens of which, in the form of bed
curtains, were exhibited at the Paris Exposition. In order to obtain
the silk a large number of females were kept in captivity, each by
herself in an iron ring isolated by water, fed with flies, and deprived
of her silk each day. Each of the cocoons of this spider contains
from 500 to 1,000 eggs. The newly hatched young show cannibalistic
propensities from the very beginning; for they not only feed upon
small insects which come in their way, but they devour one another.
After two or three weeks in a web shared in common they scatter
and each female proceeds to spin a web for herself. From this time
they must be kept separate, or they would
eat one another. In removing the silk the
spider is gently seized and secured in a pair
of stocks, and the thread steadily and.
carefully pulled from her spinnerets until
it is exhausted. In this way a spider is
made to yield about an ounce of silk dur-
ing the summer. The thread is smoother,
finer, and more brightly colored than that
of the silkworm.1
As shown in the illustration, the male is
much smaller than the female, from which
it is also dis-
claws of FIe. 16.-MKs a ft,
scorpions and ADULT PALE AND MAL.
the enormous THn Fx-AL orTBx ometU s
S-HER PYTMT BR DEoGROOM AT
pincers of the THE END or TH HONMT-
whip scor- MOON. NAT. BI'E.
pion shown on plate 36, but which are
in the spiders specialized into sexual
organs. Doctor Wilder, who was the
Bie. 15.-Nephao clapes, ADULT first to breed this species for their silk,
ELUe D MHLA TS GOLDxN R contrasts the handsome female with the
TINOW SILK HAS BEEN BPUN
AnD wow v reo BaD curTAINm. insignificant male, who neither toils
NAT. I"' nor spins, and who keeps at a respect-
ful distance except when mating, and even then it is not unusual for
the ogress bride to eat him up.2
The Golden Miranda (also known as Epeira, or Argiope riparia)
is a beautiful, black and yellow spider of the marshes (fig. 16). The
female is nearly an inch in length, while the male is only about one-
fourth as long, similarly colored, but with the markings less distinct
and with very large palpi. The females make webs about 2 feet in
SSee Emerton, J. H., The Structure and Habits of Spiders, pp. 70-72. 1878.
SSee Wilder, B. ., How my new acquaintances spin. Atlantic Monthly, 18: 180. 1866.
894 ANNUAL REPORT 8MITHSONIN INSTITUTION, 1917.
diameter in the marsh grass or bushes, with an up-and-down zigzag
white band across the middle and a round thick spot where she takes
her station. In the autumn she lays her eggs in a large, balloon-
shaped cocoon like that already described (fig. 17).
Both the eggs and the newly hatched young are sub-
ject to the attacks of parasitic insects.
TERMITES, OR WHIrr ANTS.
Unlike their African relatives, which build great
mounds, the termites of Paradise Key infest dead
Fi. IT.--BA- wood (pl. 89) and are therefore apt to escape notice
or N,,' except during the period of swarming. At least four
Sgu a species have been collected in the park by Mr. Thomas
AT. u E. Snyder, office of Forest Insect Investigations,
United States Department of Agriculture. The social organization
of these little insects is of special interest. In addition to perfect
winged males and females, and wingless workers and soldiers, there
are nymphal and larval forms
of males and females which
never become winged. (See fig.
18.) The most interesting fea-
ture in connection with these
little insects is their social life
and the subdivision of labor in
their communities. Though
commonly called white ants,"
and often referred to by travel-
er as ants," they are not re-
lated to the true ants, but be-
long to the order Platyptera,
more nearly allied to the May
flies, dragon flies, and ant lions.
One of the most remarkable
phenomena of insect biology is .
FIG. 18.-Warrn Axn, Lewuetewes feel pe
the similarity of the functions s, Pam.NAr ownm ; 6, WIN, xMA; o,
of corresponding "castes" in sam-z'WsD Ms z; 4, BLIND WOm
such widely separated groups
as the termites on the one hand and the ants and social bees on the
other. Both groups of insects live in communities and have their
queen mothers, royal consorts, and specialized workers, which are
sexually imperfect. In the bees, however, the workers are imperfect
females, while among the termites here considered, the castes of both
soldiers and workers are composed of imperfect males as well as fe-
males. Another important point of difference is that newly hatched
bees and wasps are helpless, footless grubs, while the young termite
when it emerges from the egg is an active, crawling, six-legged crea-
ture, which soon begins to feed itself.1
DRAGON FLIES AND DEMOISELLES.
On plate 40 are shown five species of Odonata from Paradise Key,
identified for the writer by Miss Bertha P. Currie of the United
States National Museum, and her brother, Mr. Rolla P. Currie.
While sitting on the screened veranda of the park lodge it was
pleasant to watch these graceful insects, like squadrons of miniature
airplanes, waging incessant war upon the besieging mosquitoes. It is
not possible within the limits of this paper to speak of the early
aquatic stages of these insects and their transformations. Atten-
tion has been called in connection with the Bromeliacem to the fact
that in tropical America there are certain species which lay their
eggs and undergo their transformations from the larval stage to the
perfect insect in the water collected by the leaves of epiphytal plants
of that family. In this connection the reader is referred to the recent
work of the Calverts on the natural history of Costa Rica.2 Some.
of the species shown in the illustration are quite widely distributed,
but Gyna4oatha nervosa, the largest of the collection (pL 40, fig. 2)
is a very rare tropical species hitherto represented among the North
American Odonata of the United States National Museum by a single
specimen; and the dainty little demoiselle, Argiallagma minutum
(pl. 40, fig. 4), which is even rarer, is quite new to the collection.
MARGARODES, OR GROUND PEARLS.
In the black soil of the forest, often in the clefts of limestone pene-
trated by the roots of plants, quantities of little opalescent globules
are sometimes found. These beautiful little objects are the shells
of Coccidae or scale insects, known as Margarodes or ground pearls.
They occur also in the West Indies, on some of the islands of which
they are strung into necklaces and made into.purses. Very little is
known concerning their life history. It was formerly thought that
they occur on the roots of plants, but Mr. W. T. Swingle, who was
the first to find them within the limits of the United States, in Jan-
uary, 1895, called attention to the fact that in no case did he find
them attached to roots. In the accompanying illustrations, plate 41
shows a colony found by' C. A. Mosier on Paradise Key, in
SFor a detailed account of thee interest Insect the reader is referred to the paper
of Mr. Thomas B. Snyder, entitled "Biology of the termites of the eastern United
State," published by the U. 8. Department of Agriculture as Bureau of Entomology
Bulletin No 94, pt. 2, 1915.
sCalvert, Amelia Smith, and Philip Powell, A Year in Costa Rican Natural History,
pp. 280-248. 1917.
896 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1917.
figures of oolitic limestone. On plate 42 are shown cysts, enlarged 6
diametrs; and on plate 48 are shown necklaces and loose ground
pearls in the collection of the Bureau of Entomology, collected by the
late Prof. C. V. Riley and Mr. H. G. Hubbard in the West Indies.
This plate is reproduced from a photograph kindly furnished the
writer by Dr. L. Howard, Chief of the Bureau of Entomology.
The family Coccidae, to which these interesting ground pearls
belong, includes some very pernicious as well as some very valuable
species. The former, known as scale insects, do great injury to fruit
trees and other plants. Among the latter are several which are the
sources of valuable dyes and lacs: the Mexican cochineal, which has
become domesticated and is reared on certain species of Cacti; the
classic kermes of the Old World, from which crimson (carmin)
takes its name and which was used for dyeing the curtains of the
Jewish tabernacle; the "scarlet grains" of Poland, gathered from
the roots of SclerantAus peremie; another species, infesting the roots
of 8amguisorba sanguitorba, used by the Moors as a source of a
beautiful rose color with which they dye fabrics of wool and silk;
the Asiatic lac insects, which produce commercial lac, from which
shell-lac, sealing wax, and lac dyes and certain lake pigments are
derived. It is interesting to note that among the principal trees
infested by these lac insects are certain species of Ticus; and that
the Fiau aeea, the strangling fig of Paradise Key, is also infested
by a Coccus, which Mr. Harold Morrison of the Federal Horticul-
tural Board has identified as Cocus elongatw. An attempt might
be made to introduce lac insects from India into southern Florida,
to see if they would thrive on the native species of Ficus.
Among the Hemiptera of Paradise Key determined for the writer
by Mr. E. H. Gibson of the Bureau of Entomology are Acrostermw
Alais (pL. 44, fig. 8), a smooth, green insect allied to our squash
bugs; LeptogloPss phylopus (pL 44, fig. 7), sometimes called the
"leaf foot"; and MetapodipA femorat (pL 44, fig. 8), the "thick
thigh," which punctures fruits and sucks their juices. Less conspicu-
ous are the brown bug, Eusw stus ictericu, and Edessa bida, the
latter marked on the back by a whitish U-shaped figure. To this same
class of insects belong the various tree hoppers, some of which are of
odd shapes, simulating thorns and other natural objects.
ROACHES AND GRASSHOPPERS.
Among the Orthoptera of Paradise Key, determined for the writer
by Mr. A. N. Caudell, United States National Museum, are Eurycoti.
n See Proeeedln of the Btomologlcal Society of Washlton, :148. 1894.
floridana (pL 45, fig. 6), a large roach; Gonatista grisea (pL 44, fig.
6), a mantis resembling the praying mantis" of southern Europe in
form, but differing from it in color, and distinct from it generically;
a walking stick, Theprotia graminis; and several grasshoppers, or
locusts, including Romalea microptera (pL 44,
fig. 10, and pl. 45, fig. 4), remarkable for its
great size and gaudy colors. In addition to
these may be mentioned a katydid, Scudderia
teaen*sa (pl. 44, fig. 9) and a cricket, GOrylus
amsimis (pL 44, figs. 1 and 2);
A large specimen of the above-named roach
was observed on the lodge veranda in the
process of molting. Motionless, head down-
ward, holding on to the side of the house by
its six feet, its shell proceeded to split and an
exact replica of the insect gradually emerged
from it, but it was pure white except its two Fio. 19.-NEWLT MOLMD
Erjrootis foridse 4
little black eyes, which were almost concealed ABOT TO DVOOU rsS
by the anterior edge of its shieldlike thorax. cABT-o nKoKS TON.
At first it was soft and helpless, but it soon
showed signs of life, and turning about (see fig. 19) it proceeded to
devour its cast-off shell, even to the tips of the antenna and the rigid,
spiny, chitinized legs; so that there was not a vestige left of its old
exoskeleton. This species, the only representative of the genus
Eurycotis in the United States, is confined to
Florida and Georgia. It has rudimentary
wings and is incapable of flight. Its food con-
sists of all kinds of organic substances, includ-
ing textile fabrics and paper. Its only defense
is a volatile, ill-smelling substance which it
exudes frdm beneath the abdomen.
Gonatist grisea, the common mantis of the
park, presents an admirable example of camou-
flage; for its lichenlike mottled grayish colora-
tion renders it almost invisible as it stations
itself motionless on a branch or stem in wait
FiG. 20.--EG CAM O .
M AI, Amoonutg o for its insect prey. A specimen of its peculiar
*.. yzou A MnIIU egg case, or ootheca, sent to the writer by the
MO m.L HM, .AT. park warden, is shown in figure 20. It is al-
... most identical in form and structure to that
of its European cousin, the life history of which is even more
terrible than that of the spiders; for instead of one husband, this
lady Bluebeard is capable of devouring seven husbands in succes-
sion. In this connection the reader is referred to the great work of
Fabre, who apropos of the mantids exclaims: "Ah! les f6roces
898 ANNUAL BDPOBT 8MITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1917.
btes On dit que les loups no se mangent pas entire eux. La Mante
n's pas ce scrupule." The details of her conduct as related by him are
too horrible for translation.
The Phasmidae, to which the walking sticks belong, are all wing-
less insects which mimic different kinds of twigs. They are slow
and deliberate in their movements; they also are camoufleurs, rely-
ing for protection upon their deceptive resemblance and in some
cases they emit an offensive repugnatorial spray. Unlike the man-
tids, they are exclusively herbivorous."
RomaZea microptera, the giant grasshopper already mentioned, is
dimorphic in coloration. In the normal form the fore wings are
bright orange dotted with black and the hind wings crimson or rose
colored with a black border. The general color of the other form is
black or blackish. The female of this species is shown on plate 45,
figure 4, and the smaller-sized male on plate 44, figure 10. Mr. Cau-
dell has described the means by which these insects produce their
peculiar simmering noise, which he traces to certain spiracles on the
side of the thorax.
BEETLES AND THEIR ALLIES.
Among the most interesting Coleoptera of Paradise Key identified
by the venerable entomologist, Mr. E. A. Schwarz, of the United
States National Museum, are RhynchopAorue oruentatus (p. 45,
fig. 5), a large, black, weevil with two broad, dark red stripes on its
thorax, and decurved snout (which gives to the genus its name), and
antenna jointed like elbows and terminating in broad knobs. It is
allied to the genus Calandra and breeds in freshly cut or broken
palmettos. The adult insect uses its snout not only for feeding but
also for boring holes, into which it deposits its eggs. The larva-
fleshy, footless grubs, with tubercules instead of legs, and thick,
horny, curved jaws-burrow through the freshly cut stumps and
when about to transform to the pupa stage they envelop themselves
in a cocoon of twisted fibers. This species, which has hitherto been
recorded but from few localities in the United States, was collected
in the Royal Palm State Park on May 14,1916, by Mr. T. E. Snyder,
of the OfBce of Forest Insects.
Sharply contrasting with the above is the remarkably slender little
weevil, BrenthAw anchorago (pL 45, fig. 7). It has a smoothly pol-
ished, jet black head and thorax, and its wing cases, as seen under
the lens, are marked with deep parallel furrows composed of minute
punctures and ornamented with two longitudinal lines of straw color.
aeo Yam J. H. Mrs do Inaetwe moreeou eholdss etramit des sou vae M-
towql-vt VP nTo.
see Casl, A N., Pro U. National MNms, 26:e6. 190.
*s CauMl, A. N., Proc & Natiml Musum. 2: 76. 190.
This species has an almost straight, slender snout, and its antenna
are not elbowed like those of the Rynchophorus, but moniliform,
like a necklace composed of many beads. Its life history has not been
studied, but in a closely allied genus the females puncture the bark
of an oak and deposit their eggs. The larva, a cylindrical grub, with
three pairs of legs and an anil prop leg, bores into the solid wood.
Other Coleoptera collected in the park are a predatory tiger beetle,
Cicindela tortuosa, dark colored above and metallic beneath; a water
scavenger, Philhydrus nebulosus; a large click beetle, Alaus oculatu,
which has the habit of springing up suddenly when laid down on its
back; Buprestis lineata, whose grubs are known as hammer-heads or
flat-headed borers; Calopteron reticulatum, with broad yellow and
black bands; several lamellicorns (Scarabaeidae), including Phileu-
re truncatus, Phileuru valgue, the yellowish brown vine chafer,
Peidnota punctata; Anomala marginata Fabr., which, like the pre-
ceding, feeds on the leaves of wild grapes; the handsome, green
Euphoria limbalis; and Trichius delta, easily distinguished by a
delta-shaped spot on its back; several longicorns (Cerambycidae),
including the twig girdler, Oncideres cingulata, the gumbolimbo
borer, Mallodon dasystomus (determined by F. C. Craighead), and
the very rare Euryscelis auturais.
In addition to the above-mentioned species the collection includes
several small leaf beetles (Chrysomelidae), several weevils infesting
palmetto seeds, Calandrids injurious to maize and other grasses; and
a number of minute bark beetles (Xyleborus spp.) belonging to the
Scolytidae, which have been described by Dr. Andrew D. Hopkins
of the Office of Forest Insects. To speak of them'in detail is beyond
the scope of the present paper.
MOTHS AND BUTTERFLIES.
The most attractive insects of the Royal Palm State Park are un-
doubtedly the Lepidopters. For the identification of those in his
collection the writer is indebted to Dr. H. G. Dyar and Mr. Carl
Heinrich, of the Bureau of Entomology. The order to which they
belong takes its name, Lepidoptera, from the minute scales which
cover the wings and give them their varied and beautiful color
patterns. On plate 26 is shown one of these scales from the wing
of a Papilio, or swallowtail butterfly, magnified 750 diameters; and
on figure 21 the arrangement of these scales on a butterfly's wing,
overlapping one another like shingles or tiles.
The rarest and most interesting moth collected on Paradise Key
is the West Indian Perigonia luma interupta Walker (pL 47, fig. 1),
400 AmnUAL BPOBT SMITHBsoNuAN rNSTITUTIO, 917.
a variety of what may be called in English the "purblind hawk-
moth." It is of a reddish brown color, with the hind wings banded
with a deep orange. Like many other Sphingide it feeds upon the
nectar of flowers, about which it hovers like a humming bird, and
thrusting its long proboscis far down into their corolla tubes. Among
the day-flying wasp-moths are the Byntomeida ipomoea Harris,
which frequents morning-glories, a handsome
species with orange-and-black banded abdo-
Smen and black wings spotted with white (pL
44, fig. 5); and the closely allied polka-dot
wasp-moth, Sytomeida epitds Walker (pl.
nW 44, fig. 4), with the abdomen tipped with
bright orange-red and with black wings and
thorax spotted with white. Another wasp-
,--O T moth of the park is the little Didasys beae
Fia. 21.-8cAjas ox Tam
wiNe or A BUrma T, Grote (pl. 47, fig. 4), with orange-tufted
POl oa., o ~ mU abdomen and transparent windows in its
dainty wings. This exquisite insect is emen-
tially Floridian, and is the only species referred to the genus Didasys
Of much wider distribution is the beautiful little tiger moth, most
appropriately named by Linnaus UtAetAeisa beRa (pL 47, fig. 5).
It has rose-colored hind wings bordered with black and orange red
fore wings crossed by white bands dotted with black. Another in-
teresting moth, belonging to the Noctuidae, which fly by night, is
Xanthopastis this Cramer (pL 45, figs. 1 and 2), the fore wings of
which are a delicate rose color mottled with
black and yellow, the hind wings of a silky
mouse color, the thorax densely covered with
erect black fur, the hairs of which as seen under
the lens terminate in minute white club-shaped
tips, and the abdomen clothed with black hairs.
Its gaily banded larva, according to Doctor
Dyar, feed upon a species of lily." Specimens
were collected by Mr. Thomas E. Snyder on Rfa. 22.--C*M or ULO
Paradise Key where the adult insects have the n" ooW
peculiar habit of resting during the daytime WINmeG. rNMAL-
on the trunks of royal palms, usually high above HAWIs T ...Ima
the tops of the other trees of the hammock.
They are most abundant below the bushy fruiting spadices of the
palms, and from a distance look like dark specks against the smooth,
whitish, columnar trunks.
Last of all must be mentioned little log-cabin worm," Oiketicw
abboti Grote, which constructs a case of sticks like a miniature crib
(fig. 22). It is an obscurely colored little moth, related to our com-
mon bagworm (Thperidoptery ephemeraeformie). The larvae are
sheathed in these little baskets, and the female, who is wingless
throughout her life, never emerges, but deposits her eggs in the larval
skin which lines the basket in which she has developed.
Three of the butterflies of Royal Palm State Park may be desig-
nated the regal group: the "monarch," Anosia plexippus L. (pL 48,
fig. 2) ; the queen," Anoeia berenice Cramer (pl. 48, fig. 1); and the
viceroy of Florida, Basilardia floridenae Streck. (PL 48, fig. 3.) Of
these the first two are closely related, but the last belongs to a distinct
genus, though resembling in general appearance the monarch. Both
the monarch and the queen are said to be avoided by birds, pre-
dacious insects, and other insectivorous animals on account of the ill-
tasting, acrid, juices secreted by them, and it is believed by many
naturalists that the viceroy imitates its royal companions, or rather
has gradually become modified so as to resemble them, owing to the
protection which this resemblance assures it. The male of the mon-
arch is distinguished from the female by a black scent pouch on each
of the hind wings. It feeds upon milkweeds (Asclepiadaceae) and is
widely distributed over the globe. The Florida viceroy resembles
the more northerly Basilarchia arckhppus, but is darker colored and
somewhat larger than that species. Its caterpillar, which has promi-
nent tuberculep on the back, is found upon willows (Salir amphibia).
The most interesting and foreign-looking of all the butterflies in
the park is the yellow and black banded Helioniu chaeritoniu L.
(pL 47, fig. 2), belonging to a tropical family, of which it is the
only representative in the United States. Special attention has been
called to this group by the naturalists, Alfred Russel Wallace and
Thomas Belt, in connection with the phenomenon of mimicry. The
Heliconii are said to be avoided by insect-eating birds and other ani-
mals. They are protected, according to Wallace, by their unpleasant,
strong, pungent taste. Belt noticed that certain other butterflies of
a distinct family, and even certain species of moths resembling them
very closely, shared their immunity from attack. In "The Natural-
ist in Nicaragua" he calls attention to this fact. He tells how he
watched certain insectivorous birds feed their young with various
kinds of insects including butterflies, but never in a single instance
did he see them bring a Heliconius to their nest, though Heliconii
were abundant in the locality where the observations were made. He
tried to feed Heliconii to a captive monkey, who greedily ate beetles
402 ANNUAL BEPOBT SMITHSOInIA INSTITUTION, 1917.
and other butterflies, but the monkey could not be induced to eat
them. When a Heliconius was given him the monkey would take it
politely and sometimes smell it, but he would invariably drop it after
holding it in his hand for a few minutes.1 The butterflies and
moths resembling them were also avoided; and the same was true of
certain harmless insects resembling species provided with stings.
The caterpillar of the Zebra butterfly feeds on the little paasion
flower (Passifora auberoma), which is quite common in the parf It
is interesting to note that both the butterfly and this host plant oc-
cur in Cuba and the Lesser Antilles. In Florida the species ranges
from the region of Indian River and the headwaters of the St. Johns
to Cape Sable. It also occurs in Mexico and ranges southward
through the lowlands of Central America.
Calphelis caeniu L., the "little metal-mark," is a very small
butterfly belonging to the family Lemoniidae, and the subfamily
Erycininae. It is of a reddish brown color on the upper side,
brighter red on the under side. On both the upper and the under
sides the wings are profusely spotted with small steely blue metallic
markings, arranged in more or less transverse series, especially on
the outer margin. Expanse, 0.75 inch. Its life history is unknown.
This species is common in Florida, and ranges thence northward to
Virginia and westward to Texas.'
The remarkable little coontiee" butterfly of the pinelands, Eu-
maeue atala Poey (pL 45, fig. 8), belongs to the family which in-
eludes the little "blues" (Lycaenidae), but it is larger than most of
its members On Paradise Key it is only an occasional visitor, but
it occurs on Palma-vista, in the northeast corner of the park, where
its food plant, Zamia floridaa, grows. According to Holland its
early stages await description, but Mr. E. A. Schwarz, of the United
States National Museum, has given an account of its life history
with excellent illustrations. The butterfly, which also occurs in
Cuba, is conspicuous, not only on account of its coloration, but also
for its abundance. The larva is of a brilliant red color, with tufted
protuberances on every segment. The butterfly lays its cream-col-
ored eggs, resembling microscopic, depressed, spineless sea-urchin
shells, on the under side of the leaflets and along the midrib, or
rachis of the leaves while they are still young and tender. In about
SSe Belt, Thomai The Naturallst In Nicaraua, p. 816. 1874.
SSee Bollad, The Butter Book, p. 28 p. 28, fg. 1. 1808.
*See Imwmtrato of thi plant, pl. 81 and 2.
PARADISE KEY-SAFFORD.' 403
10 days the eggs hatch. Two weeks later the larva are full grown
and assume the pupa state, which lasts 9 or 10 days before the per-
fect insect emerges.1
On plate 45, figure 9, is shown the closely allied Eumaeu mrviyas,
which ranges from Texas to Brazil, and which in all probability
passes its early stages on Cycadaceous plants related to Zamia.
Among the other butterflies of the park belonging to the subfamily
Nymphalinae (which includes the Basilarchia described above) are
the passion flower fritillary, Dione (Agraulis vanimae) L. (pl. 49,
fig. 1), tawny and black above, with a few white dots, and beautifully
spotted beneath with silver; the handsome peacock butterfly, or
"buckeye," Junonia coena Hiibner (pl. 47, fig. 7), which is said to
be very pugnacious toward other species; the white peacock, Anartia
jatrophae L. (pl. 47, fig. 6), a faded-looking tropical species whose
early stages have not yet been described; the dingy peacock, Eunica
tatila (pl. 47, fig. 8), a dark-colored butterfly, with white spots and
metallic, blue reflections on the upper surface of the wings and rows
of many little eyes dimly visible on the under surface; and the portia,
Anaea (Pyrrhanaea) portia Fabr. (pL 49, fig. 3), a handsome species
essentially tropical in its distribution, of a rich garnet color above
and laved with yellow on the under surface of its fore wings.
Those found in the park include the cloudless sulphur, Catopsilia
eubule L. (pl. 49, fig. 2 and fig. 5), the large orange sulphur, Catop-
silia agarithe maaima Neum. (pl. 49, fig. 4), which pass their early
stages on cassia plants, and the little cassia sulphur, Eurema (Ter-
ias) euterpe Menetries (pl. 50, fig. 3). In addition to these may be
mentioned the Florida white," Tachyris laire Godart, the male of
which has the hind wings on the under side of a very pale saffron
Among the swallowtails of the.park is the magnificent Papilio
crephonatee Cramer (pL 50, fig. 2), the larva of which is usually
called "orange-puppy" from its habit of feeding on citrus trees.
Here it is found on the native wild lime, Zathozylwnu Fagara, a
shrub or small tree botanically allied to Citrus, which has its foliage
dotted with minute aromatic oil glands. The butterfly has brown
wings banded with bright yellow, and closely resembles Papiio
I See Schwar, A., Notes on Nisam stalt Inset Ife, voL 1, pp. o 87-40. 1888.
404 ANNUAL BEPOBT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1917.
thoa of southern Texas. In southern Florida great damage is some-
times done to the orange groves by the caterpillar. Another beauti-
ful swallowtail is Papilio palmedes Drury (pL 50, fig. 4), which in
its early stages feeds on the leaves of various bay trees; not only on
those of the swamp bay (Tamala pubescen), belonging to the Laurel
family, but also on the foliage of the sweet bay (Magnolia glauoa),
which belongs to a very distinct family, but is aromatically fragrant
like the laurels, or true bays.
Among the more sober-colored butterflies of the park are two so-
called skippers, Pamphila ocola (Prene ocol, Edwards), the life
history of which has not been studied, and the swallow-tailed Euda-
mnu proteu L. (pl. 50, fig. 1), the caterpillar of which feeds upon
leguminose and makes a rude nest for itself by drawing the edges
of leaves together with strands of silk after having cut slits in them.
By the farmers it is appropriately called the bean leaf roller, and
is regarded as a pest
ANTS, WAPS, AND BEES.
The hymenoptera of Paradise Key were kindly identified for the
writer by Mr. J. C. Crawford and Mr. S. A. Rohwer, of the United
States National Museum, and Mr. H. L. Viereck, of the United States
Biological Survey. Several of the most remarkable species are
shown on plate 51.
The carpenter ant, Camponotu (Myrmothriz) abdonmnalis, rep-
resented in Paradise Key by the subspecies floridawe (pl. 51, fig. 2),
must have come into Florida from the West Indies.1 Like its nearest
relatives, this ant makes tunnels or galleries in dead wood, and, like
other true Formicidae, its colonies consist of several distinct forms or
castes; in addition to males, females, and workers, a large-headed
caste usually called soldiers. As in the termites, females and males
are winged, while the workers and soldiers are wingless. Comstock,
who has studied the habits of the closely allied carpenter ant (Campo-
notus pennsylvanicus) of the eastern United States, describes the
nuptial flight of the males and females. Very soon after the honey-
moon the male dies; and the pregnant female, tearing of her own
wings, for which she has no further use, proceeds to form a new
colony very much after the manner of the bumblebees and social
wasps. On many occasions Comstock found a female carpenter ant
in a small cleared space beneath the bark of a dead tree or log, either
alone or accompanied by eggs, larvae, or small workers Usually the
females are styled "queens," but this name is hardly applicable to
SWheeler, W. Ants, Their trcture, Development, and Behavior, p. 151.
those of ants. They are simply the mothers of their colonies. Sev-
eral of them may live together in perfect harmony, unlike the jealous
queen bee, who suffers no rival to her throne.
But, if not really a queen, the mother ant is
treated with queenly consideration by her chil-
dren, who feed her, care for her eggs as soon as
she lays them, and administer to all her wants.1
In addition to the species just described is a
form of the widely spread Camponotus mauc-
latU which occurs on every continent and
many islands and is divided into a number of
well-marked varieties, or subspecies; a small
stinging ant (Pseudomyrma gracilisf) closely
allied to tropical American species inhabiting
the hollow thorns of bull-horn Acacias; and the Fo. A23--NuBs or P.-
tiny, yellowish Pharaoh's ant" (Monomo um oN IADD B PAB-
pharaonis) which is so often a pest on board Am fa IS,
ship as well as in houses. Zm.
POTTER WASPS AND JEWEL WASPS.
On the framework of the lodge veranda, outside the copper gauze,
there were a number of little wasp nests resembling miniature ollas,
or earthenware decanters. These were the work of a slender-waisted,
black and yellow insect belonging to the genus
Eumenes. Some of the nests were grouped in
vertical rows (fig. 23), while others were soli-
tary, closely resembling similar nests found on
the stems of marsh plants in the adjoining
Everglades (pl. 51, fig. 11). On opening some of
the little ollas the remains of insect larvae with
which they had been stored were found, but ac-
Fie. a.--PrnP wcIX companying these, instead of a baby Eumenes, a
BUILDS IT NSTS ON beautiful, little, jewellike wasp (Chrysis sp.)
P ax L o's was found; in some cases of a brilliant sap-
.aPcIm coLLm CT Br phire luster, in others an emerald green (pL
c. 8 Mo... NAT. 51, fig. 12). Specimens of these little insects
caught near the nests, immediately rolled'them-
selves up like miniature armadillos. Under the lens their brilliant
surface was found to be minutely and regularly pitted, each concave
pit reflecting a brightly colored light, causing the insect to shine with
exquisite luster. On plate 52 three specimens from Paradise Key are
shown, enlarged 6 diameters. One of them is rolled up for defense as
described. The abdomen is somewhat concave on the under side,
SBee Comstock, J. H., Manual for the Study of Insects 7th ed, pp. 684-86. 1907.
65188*-s 1917- 27
406 AnvuAL zBPOnB smrITsoxmxIA nqTnTUTIOvN, 1917.
and is bent under the thorax when the insect rolls itself up. In
its parasitic habits it resembles the ichneumons. On discovering the
nest of a potter wasp it waits until the potter (fig. 24) is absent;
then the little rascal, not caring to make a nest of its own, deposits
its egg in the potter's nest. Sometimes it is surprised in the act, and
the indignant potter attacks it, but it rolls itself up into a ball, rely-
ing upon its metallic armor for protection, and the only damage it
can suffer is the loss of its projecting wings. St. Fargeau observed
a bee, who had surprised one of these little robbers fcgrante dedcto,
bite off its four wings; but she did not thereby save her young, for
as soon as she was gone the wingless Chrysis crawled into the nest
and deposited its eggs. It is on account of this habit that the chrys-
ids are called cuckoo flies. The Germans call them goldwespen
(gold wasps), for some of the European species
have a golden luster. To the writer the name
"jewel wasps" seems most appropriate. At
least two species were collected in Royal Palm
State Park, one belonging to the section Tet-
rachrysis, and the other, identified by Mr. S. A.
o. 2.M-L TAR WAP, Rohwer as Chrysis parvtla (pl. 51, fig. 13),
odrenwe umzrasetu, belonging to the section Trichrysis. On being
ws CL coNSTcr shown one of the clay nests above described,
AD OLLO TuBs. Mr. John Peabody Harrington of the Bureau
NAT. s. of American Ethnology at once recognized its
resemblance in form to certain vessels of earthenware used by the
Diegueno Indians of southern California as receptacles for the ashes
of their cremated dead.
OTHEB PARASrriT WASPS.
Closely allied to the potter wasps, but somewhat less elegant in
form, are the solitary wasps of the genus Odynerus, which construct
cells of mud in tubular cavities and store them with small cater-
pillars for their own larvae to feed upon. On the island of Guam
a certain species of this genus was very abundant, filling with its
cells empty cartridge cases, rolled-up magazines or newspapers left
lying about, the hollow internodes of bamboos, and even gun barrels.
In each cell examined the writer found a small, green caterpillar,
which had been stupefied but not killed by the insect's sting. The
larvae of the Odynerus in eating their animal food are much more
active than those of pollen-feeding insects, continuing to turn their
heads from side to side and living for some time after having been
taken from their cells.' One of the species collected on Paradise Key
was identified by Rohwer as Odynerus quadrisectus (fig. 25), a
'see Saford, W. S., The Use fl Plants of the Idand of Gam. Contr. from the
Natlomal Herbhlm 9:92. 1906.
pretty insect, somewhat like a yellowjacket, marked with four trans-
verse yellow bands.
Campsomeries gudrimaculatu8, the largest wasp of the park (pl.
51, fig. 7), takes its name from four bright yellow spots on its abdo-
men. This insect makes no nest, but burrows in the earth in search
of grubs of beetles and other larve, in which it deposits its eggs.
Contrasting with it in size is a square-headed little solitary wasp,
Hypoerabo decemmacZatus (pL 51, fig. 3), which stores its cells
with small insects. Smaller than this are Pristaudacus floridarnu
(pL 51, fig. 5), belonging to the ensign flies (Evaniidae), and a cer-
tain unidentified Braconid belonging to the genus Heterospilus, many
individuals of which were found in the burrow of a borer.
HORNETS AND MUD DAUBERS.
A collection of Hymenoptera received from Mr. C. A. Mosier in
March, 1918, included several hornets, mud daubers, and solitary
wasps, kindly determined for the writer by Mr. H. L. Viereck.
Among the hornets, or social wasps, were Polistes rubigiosus, of a
reddish-brown color, which constructs unprotected nests resembling
honeycomb in sheltered places, and Polistes amuslaris, somewhat
smaller and darker colored, which ranges as far north as New Jersey.
Among the mud daubers were Scelephron cementarius, a widely dis-
tributed species with very slender-pediceled abdomen, and legs va-
riegated with yellow; the dark, steel-blue Chalybion ooeruleum; the
thread waist" mud wasp, Sphee vulgaris, with the upper part of
the abdomen adjoining the threadlike pedicel orange-colored; and
the little slender Trypoaylon coliseum, devoid of yellow bands on
the abdomen, many of whose close allies store their cells with small
-spiders or insects. In addition to these there was a rare little soli-
tary wasp, Zethus (Didymogastra) poeyi, with its abdomen sepa-
rated from the thorax by a fusiform or pear-shaped peduncle, and
with narrow wings directed backward but not overlapping.
BEES AND THEIR ALLIES.
Among the bees collected on Paradise Key the following have been
identified by Mr. Crawford: Bombue pennsylvanicus, a widely spread
bumblebee (pl. 51, figs. 8, 9, 10); Xylocopa m~cca Fabr., a car-
penter bee, which excavates galleries in dry wood (p. 51, fig. 1);
several leaf cutters, including the rare Megacohie pofli uari Say
(pl. 51, fig. 4); a parasitic cuckoo bee (Coelioxys); and a metallic,
green jewel bee (Augoclora) which digs burrows in the ground.
Perhaps the most interesting of all these are the leaf cutters be-
longing to the genus Megachile (pl. 51, fig. 4). These are the in-
sects which cut circular disks from leaves with which to line their
408 ANNUAL REPORT 8MITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1917.
nests. Some of them are carpenters as well as leaf cutters, and exca-
vate tunnels in wood before cutting the disks. The lined tube,
usually rounded at the bottom, is partially filled with a paste of pol-
len and nectar, upon which the egg is deposited and the hole is then
stopped up with circular leaf disks a little greater in diameter than
the tube itself.1 Like the provident potter wasps the leaf cutter bees
also have their enemies; the nests so carefully prepared for their
tender offspring are infested by cuckoo bees, belonging to the genus
Coelioxys. This genus is represented in the author's collection by
three specimens of Coeliomys doZhos Fox (pl. 51, fig. 6), collected
on Paradise Key by Mr. Mosier.
The Diptera of Paradise Key include many groups zoologically
related but with very diverse habits: mosquitoes; horseflies and deer
flies, which not only attack animals but which even pursue automo-
biles for miles; robber flies, which catch their insect prey on the
wing; flower flies, which feed on nectar and pollen; parasitic tachina
flies, which lay their eggs on living insects; and carrion-eating flesh
Aedes niger, the most common mosquito in the vicinity of the park
is congeneric with the yellow-fever mosquito (Aedes calopus), but
it has never been known to communicate a malignant disease. Its
bite, though painful, is not nearly so severe as that of certain other
species, and is not followed by unpleasant consequences. Volatile
aromatic oils rubbed on the face, neck, and other exposed parts yield
temporary protection from their attacks, and campers resort to the
use of smudges for smoking them out of their tents.2 The writer has
already referred to the part played by dragon flies in the destruction
of mosquitoes. Their aquatic larva furnish food for young fishes.
Some of the species undoubtedly deposit their eggs in the water
reservoirs of the epipthytic Bromeliads already described.
A popular account of the mosquitoes of Florida was published by
Dr. Hiram Byrd, of the Florida State Board of Health, in the Medi-
cal News, June 10,1905.
Among the mosquitoes from Royal Palm State Park determined
by Doctor Dyar are Wyeomyia atoinetta, W. mitchelli, Culeo simi-
is, C. peccator, Psorophora posicatw, P. foridenais, Aedes niger,
already mentioned, A. infirmatu, A. solicitaw, Anopheles quadri-
maoulatu, and A. crucians.
ISee Comstock, Manual for the Study of Insects, 7th ed., pp. 667-668. 1907.
SSee Howard, L O., U. 8. Department of Agr. Farmers' Bull 444. 1915.
For a systematic treatment of the group the reader is referred to
the monumental work of Howard, Dyar, and Knab, "Monograph of
the Mosquitoes of North and Central America and the West Indies,"
published by the Carnegie Institution of Washington. 1912 to 1917.
HORSEFLIES AND DEER FLIES.
While sitting on the lodge veranda our attention was frequently
attracted by passing teams, the horses of which were attended by
boys whose business it was to protect them from the attacks of
insects; from mosquitoes, I at first thought, but from horseflies, I
was told by Mr. Mosier. These flies are very annoying in southern
Florida, not only to horses and other animals but to human beings
as well. The largest of them all, a magnificent emerald-eyed insect,
called by the Seminole Indians chAoc-o-dono, is Tabanus americanus
(pl 45, fig. 3), the interesting nupital flight of which has been re-
cently described by Mr. Thomas E. Snyder, of the Office of Forest
Entomology, United States Department of Agriculture.1
Among the other horseflies collected on Paradise Key by Mr.
Snyder were Tabanus trijunctus Walker (pL 53, fig. 2), T. melano-
cerue Wied., and T. lineola Fabr. Mr. Snyder found T. trijunctu
very common from Hobe Sound to Paradise Key, often flying after
automobiles and railway trains; so annoying is it to painters and
other workmen that they have to protect themselves from it by
means of portable smudges. Of T. lineola he says that it is such a
pest in some localities that horses and mules have to be protected
from it by gunny sacking with holes cut for the eyes. Thus gro-
tesquely clothed they suggest the mounts of the Ku-Klux Klan.
Among the deer flies, belonging to the genus Chrysops, much smaller
and more brightly colored than the horseflies, but equally blood-
thirsty, were two species, CChrysops favidus (pL 53, fig. 6) and Chry-
sops plangens, both of which are pretty widely distributed in the
eastern United States. Their predacious larva, like those of Ta-
banus, live in water, in mud, or under stones, and feed upon water
snails and soft-bodied insects.
OTHER DIPTERA FROM PARADISE KEY.
The soldier fly, Hermatica iltucen, shown on plate 53, figure 9, lays
its eggs in decaying organic matter. Among the Syrphidae, or flower
flies, are the little Ooyptcanus fuscpeiis (pL 53, fig. 1), Eristaas
vinetorwm (pL 53, fig.4),Erietal atbifrm, and Meromamcru acue.
These insects, called "hover flies" by the English, from their habit
of hovering over flowers, feed on nectar and pollen. The larva
I See Bnyder, Thomas E., Notes on horselies as a pest in southern Florida. Proc. En-
tomological Soc. of Wash., 18:208. 1916.
410 ANNUAL REPORT SrMTH8so0N INSTITUTION, 1917.
of some of the species have a long, caudal appendage and are hence
called "rat-tailed maggots" One peculiar larva collected by Mr.
Mosier, the park warden, was referred to the genus Microdon by
Mr. C. T. Greene, who says that it differs from all allied larva in
the collections of the Museum in the peculiar form of its spiracles.
The wasplike Midas fly, Mydas clavat (pL 53, fig. 5), which has
a golden band across its abdomen, takes its generic name from the
Phrygian king Midas, concerning whom the legend relates that
everything he touched was transformed to gold. Like the robber
flies (Asilidae) it catches and devours other flying insects. Its larva
is also carnivorous, subsisting mainly on the grubs of beetles.
Archytas Aystria (pL 53, fig. 8) is a stout tachina fly, somewhat
resembling a bluebottle, but with a glossy brown body set with short
stiff hairs. It lays its eggs on living insects, principally on caterpil-
lars. Last of all may be mentioned the terrible little screw-worm fly,
Chrysomyia macelaria (pL 53, fig. 7), with a reddish brown face, a
steel blue thorax, and a short, broad, black abdomen, which lays its
eggs in wounds, or in the nostrils of living animals. It has even
been known to deposit its eggs in the nostrils of human beings sleep-
ing out of doors, but this is a rare occurrence. The eggs soon hatch,
and the larva, called "screw worms," eat away the flesh of the inner
nose and pharynx, causing intense pain and sometimes death. This
little fly causes little trouble in the Southeastern States, but in the
Southwest it is a serious pest, infesting cattle, hogs, and other
domestic animals. Some times it lays its eggs in the navels of
The Everglade fishes in the vicinity of Royal Palm State Park
have never been systematically collected. The highway from the
park to Cape Sable now under construction has a canal bordering
it, formed by the removal of material for the roadbed. The digging
is accomplished by a dredge, the parts of which were brought from
Miami on trucks and assembled in the canaL This canal is already
well stocked with fishes which can be easily observed from the road.
The fish fauna should be studied before the canal reaches the ocean;
for many marine fishes will undoubtedly make their way up the
canal and will destroy existing conditions, which may possibly lead
to the destruction of some of the existing species. Among them are
the alligator gar and mudfish, allied to the ancient ganoids; a bull-
head catfish; three or four minnows, or shiners (Cyprinidae); rare
Everglade killifishes, some of which bring forth their young alive;
unfisbes, or so-called breams; and the widely distributed, big-mouth
bas, or "trout."
SSee kmer.' Bull., p. 857, U. S. Dept. Agr., 1917.
THE ALLIGATOR GAR. LEPISOSTEUS TRISTOECHUS.
This is a voracious fish remarkable for its armor plating of enam-
eled rhomboid scales. The accompanying illustration (fig. 26) was
made from a field sketch by Master Stewart Loveland, of Home-
stead, of a specimen 25 inches long, weighing 3 pounds, speared by
him near Paradise Key. This species sometimes reaches enormous
dimensions. A specimen in the State Museum at Springfield, Illi-
nois, is 7 feet 2 inches long. It is widely distributed in streams flow-
ing into the Gulf of Mexico, and also occurs in the fresh waters of
Cuba. Many stories have been told of its ferocious nature and un-
canny habits; it takes the place of the predacious sharks in the fresh
waters of our country. Although it does not rank high as a food fish,
it is sold in the markets of Tampico, Mexico, and other Gulf ports.
The family to which the alligator gar belongs (Lepisosteidae) is
essentially American, like the mudfish (Amia) to be described be-
Fio. 26.-AutJxTon aAa, Lepi mte, tetoelhw raoM A LntL sKrenH BT S BwAKr
LOTVLAND or SPMCIMBN SPaARED BT BIM hNBA PARADIB Kwr. On-sIXTH NAT.
low. Fossil species of the genus, however, are found in the Eocene
of Europe as well as in that of America.
THE MUDFISH, OR DOGFISH, AMA CALVA.
This species is found in swamps, lakes, and rivers bordering the
Gulf of Mexico, extending up the Mississippi and its tributaries as
far north as the Great Lake region. It is especially abundant in
swamps and sluggish waters abounding in aquatic vegetation, prefer-
ring rather shallow water, and feeding principally at night. Gamy
and voracious, it is one of the hardest fighters that ever took the
hook." It frequently comes to the surface to breathe, especially in
stagnant water; and can be kept in a rain barrel for a long time
without change of water. It is said to survive periods of drought
by burying itself in the mud. The male builds the nest and guards
it after the eggs are laid; he is a good father, even accompanying
and protecting the schools of young after they leave the nest. It is
not highly esteemed for food, but is often eaten in the South. The
mudfish is chiefly interesting on account of its close resemblance
to ancient types of ganoid fishes. It is the only surviving relative
412 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1911.
of a once large family represented by numerous fossils from the
Jurassic of France and Bavaria and the Eocene of Europe and
OTHER FISHES OF THE EVEBORLADE.
The catfish caught in the slough near Paradise Key is in all prob-
ability Amehrw nebiuous, a species which has been collected in
Little River, a short distance north of Miami. Among the Cyprin-
idae are the golden shiner, Abramis roses, a tiny species, only 2)
inches long when fully grown, which takes its name from the rosy
color of the fins, iris, and snout of the male. Among the killifishes
(Poeciliidae) of southern Florida, which are to be expected from the
vicinity of Royal Palm State Park, are several species of Fundulus,
some of which do not exceed 2 inches in length when fully grown;
the viviparous "top minnow," Gambusia a4fis, which lives mostly
on surface insects; the "least fish," Heterandria formosa, abundant
in swamps and ditches near Miami and Little River, the adult female
of which is only an inch long, and the male three-quarters of an inch;
JordoneUa floridae, also common in the swamps of Florida; and
perhaps MoUienisia ongipinna, the male of which is remarkable for
his handsome dorsal fin. Among the sunfishes (Centrarchidae)
which certainly occur in the Royal Palm State Park, are the so-
called blue bream, or bluegill, Lepomrs incisor (Lepomi pagidw
Jordan), and Lepomns hobrooki (Eupomotis holbrooki Jord. and
Everm.). A beautiful illustration in colors of the former is pub-
lished in the Fishes of North Carolina, by Dr. Hugh M Smith,
United States Commissioner of Fisheries, who pays it the following
This is the largest and finest of the sunfishes. It attains a length of 12 to
14 inches and a weight of a pound and a half, and when full grown is a
magnificent species. As a game and food fish it stands high. This
fish has for many years been called Lepomri paWVds In the belief that Mitchill's
name of Labrua pzaidds applied to it; but a close examination of Mitchill's
description shows that It could not have been intended for this spedes, and
furthermore the bluegill is unknown in the locality from which the type of
paWdu came. The earliest available name Is inisor of Cuvier and Valen-
Drawings of both Lepomis incisor and L. holbrooki were made for
the writer by Master Stewart Loveland of Homestead, who caught
them in the slough near Paradise Key.
BIG-MOUTHED BASS, OR TROUT.
This species, known scientifically as Miropterua salmoides, is the
largest and most important of the fresh-water basses, and is a fine
I See North Carolina Geological and Economic Survey, voL 2, p. 242, pL 9. O107.
food and game fish. According to Dr. Hugh M. Smith, who figures
it in the work above cited-
It inhabits more sluggish and warmer waters than the other species, and
thrives under more extreme conditions of environment and temperature.
* It reaches its maximum weight in Florida, where examples weigh-
ing as much as 20 to 25 pounds have been taken in lakes.
After describing its nesting habits and the solicitous care of the
newly hatched young by the parents, Doctor Smith continues:
The food of the young fish consists of minute animals-crustacea, insects,
etc. At a very early period, however, they begin to prey on their smaller
brothers, and this cannibalism continues after they become adults. The larger
fish are very voracious and aggressive feeders, taking all kinds of fish as well
as small mammals, frogs, tadpoles, snakes, worms, insects, and also vegetable
FROGS AND TOADS.
In the forest of Paradise Key two little tree frogs abound; and the
neighboring sloughs and marshes are inhabited by a beautiful,
spotted leopard frog and a green bullfrog.
While sitting on the screened veranda of the park lodge, besieged
by clouds of mosquitoes, the attention of the writer was attracted
by a number of diminutive tree frogs, some of
them green, others brownish, on the outside of
the copper-wire gauze. One of the smallest,
whose body was scarcely bigger than a dime,
made a sudden spring and caught a mosquito.
Against the bright sky his little body was al-
most diaphanous and a dark speck could be HFi 27.-sreUe, wHICH
seen in his stomach; it was the mosquito he had wAoes NCuSSANT wA-
F*M 1ON M0 8QUITON8
just swallowed. After another successful catch A o N N IN
there were two specks, and continuing his good *. COROLLA or ? W-
ms. NAT. BIER
work the little creature soon had his stomach
comfortably full. Then he folded his little arms close to his body
and went to sleep. Closer examination showed that there were two
species of these little frogs, the second distinguished from the one
first noticed by lateral metallic bands. Alcoholic specimens were
identified by Dr. Leonhard Stejneger as Hyla squirrel (fig. 27) and
Hyla cinerea, respectively.
In the woods these little creatures were commonly seen clinging to
leaves from which they could scarcely be distinguished, and at
Homestead, while awaiting transportation to the park, the writer
SSee North Carolina Geological and Economic Survey, vol. 2, p. 247. 1907.
414 ANNUAL REPORT MITHrSONIAN ISTITrUTION, 1917.
noticed a number of them on flowering Datura, in a funnel-shaped
corolla of which one of them had established itself as a desirable sta-
tion for securing his insect food.
The leopard frog of Royal Palm State Park, Rana sphenocephala
Cope, regarded by Doctor Stejneger as a variety of our well-known
Rana pipies, is beautifully figured by Miss Dickerson in her Frog
Book. To this species Miss Dickerson pays the following tribute:
The southern leopard frog is perhaps the most beautiful frog in North
America. It has not the delicate modest beauty of the wood frog, but it has
distinction of form, richness of coloring, and Intricacy of color patterns. It has
not, like the wood frog, an expression indicating gentleness and tameness. In-
stead, a creature extremely alert and wild, possessing great powers of activity,
is seen in the unusually large eyes and in the attentive pose of the slender
body. The male, Rana sphenocephala, has large vocal pouches, one
at each side, above the arm. These frog are wild and active. They leap
long distances, and are difficult to catch. The species is evidently a very distinct
one, not intergrading with Raea p1ipie but holding its own with the latter
frog in the same localities in the southern part of the United States.1
The Florida bullfrog, Rana gryMio Stejneger, is also described and
figured by Miss Dickerson, who designates it as "a beautiful frog,
very retiring and thoroughly aquatic in habit." It is usually of a
vivid metallic green on the head and shoulders and olive on the pos-
terior portion of its body, with a pointed head, bulging eyes, the
ears of the male remarkably large and conspicuous, spheroid in
shape, and of an orange-brown color with a green center, and the
throat a bright yellow. It is probably this species which is common
in the slough near Paradise Key, living among the dense aquatic
vegetation among which it seeks refuge when disturbed. Miss Dick-
erson compares the sounds which it produces to "the grunting of a
herd of pigs," thus differing from the familiar bass notes of the
Among the turtles of Royal Palm State Park is a large terrestrial
box tortoise, a living specimen of which was received from the park
warden. This was determined as Terrapene major (Cietudo major
Agassiz), by Dr. Leonhard Stejneger, of the United States National
Museum, to whom the writer is indebted for much information re-
garding the batrachians and reptiles of the region here considered.
See Dickeron, Mary C., The Frog Book, pp. 186-188. 1906.
SDiekeron, op. cit., 226 to 228, pl. 85 and 86.
An aquatic turtle, collected by Mr. Arthur H. Howell, proved to be
Pseudemys floridana, belonging to the group of river turtles. In
addition to these Mr. Mosier reports the following species from the
park: A snapping turtle, a soft-shelled or leather-backed turtle, a
small water turtle with conspicuous red markings beneath, and a
large, hard-shelled, water turtle, which is very good to eat. The
well-known gopher of Florida, Gopherus polyphemus, so common on
sand dunes near the coast, does not occur in the park.
Alligator misuisippienais is not uncommon in the slough at the
eastern entrance to the park. During the writer's visit its bellowing
could be distinctly heard from the lodge, especially in the early
morning. These huge animals are not at all dangerous, but will
flee at the sight of a man and will not show fight unless brought to
bay. Young alligators feed mostly on fishes, frogs, and insects; the
older ones also catch waterfowl and unwary mammals which come
within reach. They drown their prey by holding it under water,
but in order to swallow it they must raise their head above the sur-
face. Alligators' eggs, which are about as large as those of a hen,
but oblong in shape, are eaten in many parts of the South. They are
nutritious and are as good as turtles' eggs- The young when hatched
are about 8 inches long. Though they do not appear to thrive in
captivity when brought north, they develop rapidly in their native
In addition to the alligator there is a true crocodile in southern
Florida, but it does not occur near the park. This animal, called by
zoologists Crocodilus acutus, is closely related to C. eulgaris, the
man-eating crocodile of Africa which was worshipped by the ancient
Egyptians and took part in their religious pageants and processions.
It is easily. distinguished from the alligator by its narrower head
and pointed snout. Specimens 11 or 12 feet long are not rare, and it
sometimes reaches the length of 14 feet. Its range extends from
Lake Worth to Cape Sable. South of the United States it ranges
from central Mexico to Ecuador and the West Indies. Though
showing vicious propensities in captivity it is naturally timid in its
The sight of a child will send a 12-foot specimen rushing from its basking
place for the water, and a man may even bathe with safety in rivers frequented
by the species.1
Sharply contrasted with the giant saurian of the swamps are the
little terrestial lizards commonly called skinks and chameleons. The
I See Ditmau, L, The Reptile Book, pp. 89-1. 1907.
416 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1917.
Florida skink, Pletiodon egregiu, is only 8j or 4 inches when fully
grown. Its body is cylindrical and slender, almost wormlike, with
small, weak limbs. It is of an olive or reddish brown color with four,
equidistant, longitudinal stripes margined with obscure dotted lines.
The so-called chameleon, A is oarlolwensis, takes its common
name from its changing color. It is not related to the true
chameleons of the Old World so often celebrated in fabulous stories,
but belongs to the iguana family and bears a superficial resemblance
to a miniature alligator. Specimens of this little animal were seen
on the screened veranda of the park lodge running about with ease
upon the vertical walls and even on the ceiling, to which it adhered
by means of its peculiar, padded toes, while it was busily engaged in
catching mosquitoes and other insects. In its habits it reminded the
writer of the geckos so common in dwellings on the island of Guam.
Mr. Snyder states that they are very active in the woods when the
termites swarm, devouring them in great quantities. Sometimes it
assumes a dull, brown color, at other times a vivid green. The males
have a throat pouch which they inflate, while uttering a peculiar
sound very much like that of a baby alligator, and they have a way
of nodding their head that is odd and comical Unlike the little
tree frogs frequenting the veranda, these little animals were very
timid, and quickly escaped when attempts were made to capture
Among the harmless snakes of the park are two garter snakes;
TAumnophis sirtalia, with three, yellow, longitudinal stripes and the
more slender Thamophis sackeni, with two, long, lateral stripes and
the beginning of a short median stripe on the back of the neck.
Both of these species are semiaquatic, subsisting upon frogs and
fishes as well as earthworms and toads; and they bring forth their
young alive. Two water snakes are found in the sloughs and pools
of the Everglades: the "spotted belly" Natria fasciata sometimes
erroneously called a moccasin, but easily distinguished from the
poisonous water moccasin by its yellowish white abdomen spotted
with bright red blotches and clouded spots of black and gray; and
the so-called green water snake, Natri cyclopion, with an unspotted,
yellowish abdomen and yellow lips. Both of these species are harm-
less, but they simulate poisonous species by flattening themselves out
and assuming a threatening attitude when cornered.
Among the racers or black snakes is the well-known gopher snake,
DrywmaouAo corals oouper, a variety of the large tropical American
D. corals, sometimes 8 or 10 feet long, with a highly polished, blue-
black body, which has given it the name of indigo snake in certain
localities. It has a gentle disposition and often lives about houses
in a semidomesticated state, subsisting principally on rats and mice.
Children sometimes pick it up, and it seems to enjoy being petted.
A fine, large specimen of this snake greeted the writer at the door
of the lodge, when he alighted from the automobile which conveyed
him to the park. The park warden gave a vivid description of the
mating of a pair, in which both the male and female strutted in
front of each other, as though trying to show off to the best ad-
vantage. Closely allied to this species is the black racer, Coluber
oostrictor, which does not kill its prey by squeezing, as commonly
believed, but is a constrictor only in name. Both of these snakes are
oviparous, the shell of the egg of the latter being white and tough and
sprinkled with grains resembling coarse salt. Both species have the
reputation of charming birds and small rodents, but this power is
quite imaginary. The two species are easily distinguished, the
gopher snake by its glossy body and reddish brown throat, chin, and
upper lip plates, and the black racer by its dull slaty luster and
milky white throat and chin. The closely allied coachwhip, or whip
snake, Coluber flagellum, differs from the two preceding species in
having a nasty, irritable disposition, and will not submit to being
handled. Its body is slender, of a black or brown color above, be-
coming lighter toward the tail, and the under surface white, with the
plates of the throat clouded along the edges. It is very swift, often
climbing trees in quest of eggs and young birds, but it can not be
The green tree snake, or magnolia snake, Opheodrys aestivus (Cy-
clophs aestivus), is a gentle creature of a uniform leaf-green above
and bright yellow beneath. It lives among the branches of bushes
and low trees, feeding upon grasshoppers, crickets, the larvae of
insects, and, according to Mr. Mosier, on small tree toads. In de-
scribing the vegetation of southern Florida hammocks, Dr. Small
refers to this species as follows:
Orchids, air plants, and ferns completely clothe the limbs of the larger trees
However, plants do not have a monopoly of the trees. There are also epiphytic
lizards and epiphytic snakes. There is everywhere present a beautiful green
snake It inhabits the hammocks and it is especially abundant in those of the
Everglades. It lies outstretched on the branches of shrubs and trees and glides
along the branches from one tree to another with surprising ease. One has
usually to be careful to look before laying hold of the limb of a tree for sup-
port, or he may grasp something of quite different consistency from that of
wood. One reason why this little creature is so much at ease among shrubbery
is the peculiar nature of its scales, each of which is distinctly keeled, so that
the general surface of the body is roughened and thus able to hold on more
securely to the branches along which it glides.
SBee Ditmar. B. L, The Reptile Book, pp. 286-287. 1907.
418 ANNUAL REPORT 8MITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1917.
OO-NOMe, onx ur anDm, Heterodon onoortr4i (H. plaorhMhus).
Concerning this species, which he kept in captivity, Dr. Hiram
Byrd writes as follows:
Among the snakes of my pit the puff adder acts the part of clown. He is all
bluff. I you come upon him suddenly he spreads his hood like a cobra, and
tries to frighten you with his looks. Falling, he blows like a rattlesnake. If
you are still undaunted, he takes to flight. If you do not permit that, and pro-
ceed to tease him, he then resorts to camouflage,-which Is to turn over on his
back and, pomsumlike, play dead. He will even try to creep away on his back.
I can't imagine the rattlesnake associating with the puff adder on terms of
This snake is easily recognized by its turned-up nose and its mot-
tied brown body.
TBr corroNMOUTr, on wAnr MOCCASIN, Ansotrodon pilackrus.
This species, so much dreaded by travelers in the Everglades, is
clbeely allied to our copperhead, Ancistrodon mokasen (A. contor-
trim), which is sometimes called the highland moccasin. The top of
its head is very dark, usually black, the chin and lower lips yellow,
with three dark bars on the lip plates on each side of the mouth, and
the abdomen is yellow blotched with dark brown or black, while the
under portion of the tail is black. This coloration of the abdomen
serves to distinguish it from its harmless associates, with which it is
sometimes confused, Natri faciata, which has a yellowish white ab-
domen spotted with red and black; and Natrix cyclopion, which has a
uniform yellowish abdomen. When surprised it has the habit of
opening its jaws widely, disclosing its white mouth parts, from which
it takes its name of cottonmouth. In addition to fish, frogs, and
other snakes, it feeds upon birds and small animals. It brings forth
its young alive, usually seven to twelve.
The pigmy rattlesnake, or ground rattler, Sistrurus m uiariu, may
be recognized at once by its small size and minute rattle. The adults
scarcely reach a length of 18 inches. Their warning rattle is so faint
that it can be heard from the distance of only a few feet. The dia-
mond-back, Crotals adbmanteus, is the largest of all the rattlesnakes,
sometimes reaching a length of 6 to 8 feet It is recognized at once by
its rattle and its broad, flat head and distinctly narrowed neck. It
is of an olive or grayish green color with a longitudinal chain of
large, diamond-shaped patches outlined with bright yellow. With its
long fangs and large poison glands it may be regarded as one of the
most deadly poisonous snakes in the world. Doctor Byrd has made
SByrd, Hiram, Letter to writer dated Hometead, FPa., Nov. 15, 1917.
some interesting observations on the life history of the species,
from their earliest stages to maturity. He was bitten on the finger
by a specimen 12 days old while trying to feed it. He stopped cir-
culation immediately by the use of an improvised tourniquet, and
though experiencing certain odd sensations of chilliness, escaped se-
rious injury. Unlike the solicitous mudfishes and basses of the
neighboring Everglades, who protect their young for some time after
they are hatched, rattlesnakes let their little ones shift for themselves
as soon as they come into the world. Dr. Byrd could discover no
evidence of parental affection among them; yet in admiration of their
innate dignity, courage, and their disdain to strike without warning,
he composed an ode in their honor, which ends with the following
Yet all thy virtues wrest from man no lays,
Who sings of war and love, of bird and bee,
And e'en of rusty toad, but not of thee.
To thee he yields but hate or fear, not praise.
Indifferent thou to hatred, fear, or wrong,
Content in jungle drear to seek thy food
And make thy home and launch:thy royal brood
In solltude,-I grudge thee not a song.
The bird fauna of southern Florida is especially rich, not only on
account of the mild climate, favorable to many subtropical species, but
also because Florida is a highway for migratory species which spend
their winters in the West Indies. Mrs Kirk Munroe, president of
the Cocoanut Grove Audubon Society, and Mrs. Hiram Byrd, who
resides at Princeton, not far from Paradise Key, have interested
themselves in observing the birds of this vicinity and making a census
of its bird fauna. It is impossible within the scope of this paper to
give a detailed account of the birds, but the reader's attention is
called to some of the most interesting.1 Since the writer's visit sys-
tematic studies of the birds and mammals of the park have been made
by Mr. A. H. Howell, of the United States Biological Survey, who
visited the region twice during the year 1918. The results of his
investigations will be published later by the Survey.
In southern Florida many well-known birds, as well as mammals,
are represented by varieties or subspecies quite distinct from the
typical forms occurring farther north. In some cases the differences
are in the relative proportions of certain parts; in others it may be
in the coloration of one or both of the sexes Thus we have a Florida
SIllutrations, description, and scientflc names of many of the birds here considered
will be found in the admirable little pocket bird guides of Chester A. Reed, published by
Doubleday, Pae & Co.
420 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1917.
quail, Florida crow, Florida wren, and the Florida cardinal, all of
which are essentially Floridian, and the Florida wild turkey, which
is fast disappearing. Other forms called Floridian, because they
wee first described from Florida, but which have a wider geographi-
cal range, are the Florida gallinule, several Florida hawks, the
Florida screech owl and barred owl, and the Florida blue jay. One of
the most beautiful birds, a tropical species now fast disappearing
from Florida and occurring nowhere else in the United States except
in Texas, is the roseate spoonbill.
Of this species, known scientifically as Ajaia ajaja (pL 54) Mrs.
Kirk Munroe has written a most charming description, which the
writer hoped to embody in the present paper, but which, on account
of limited space, can not be here presented in full.
Once the roseate spoonbill inhabited the neighborhood of Paradise Key In
great docks, but It is becoming rarer and rarer. They are sociable
birds, always traveling and nesting in communities. The nests, usually built
among picturesque mangrove branches, look like a pile of rubbish, except in
the very center, where three or four whitish, brown-spotted eggs are placed.
Young spoonbills are covered with snowy down while they are nestlings. In
feeding they push their bill, indeed the entire head, down the parent's throat
as far as possible to secure food, each greedy little fledgling takin its turn.
The spoonbill is sometimes called the shoveler on account of the peculiar shape
of its beak, which it uses with wonderful skill in catching aquatic Insects and
crustaceans in the mud along the water's edge. Quantities of its beautiful,
rosecolored feathers were sold to tourists a few years ago. In certain localities
exploring naturalists came upon great piles of carcasses from which the beau-
tiful wings had been torn. No wonder that this unfortunate bird, whose beau-
tiful plumage like that of the egret has been its curse, has become almost extinct
in Florida. Thanks to the influence of the Audubon societies, the feathers of
wild birds are becoming more and more unfashionable, and it is hoped that the
roseate spoonbill may thus escape extermination.
The white ibis, another bird belonging, like the spoonbill, to the
heron order, is quite common in the vicinity of Boyal Palm State
Park. It is easily recognized by its white body plumage, black-
tipped wings, and decurved, orange-red beak, with which it is most
adept in extracting crawfish and aquatic insects from the mud of the
marshes. To the same order also belong the American bittern, a
brownish bird with greenish-yellow legs; the Ward heron, stately
"lady of the waters," with slate-colored back, mostly white under
parts, and whitish crest; the little blue heron, not always blue, but
sometimes pure white, also common about Paradise Key; and the
black-crowned and the yellow-crowned night herons, whose "day
begins after sunset," when they leave their roosts in the forests and
fly forth to feed in the marshe.
Among the diving birds are the pied-billed grebe, also known as
the water witch or hell-diver, a bird easily recognized by its lobed
feet. The darters are represented by the uncanny water turkey, or
snake bird (Anhinga anhinga), quitA common in trees near the
slough of the park. This bird, like a submarine, dives with the
greatest ease and pursues its prey beneath the surface of the water.1
There is little open water to attract ducks, but the park warden has
every year observed, in the vicinity of the park, a few blue-winged
teal, mallard, and Florida ducks (Anas fulvigula), the latter remain-
ing throughout the entire year.
The turkey vulture commonly seen sailing in the sky above Para-
dise Key is Cathartes aura that ranges over North and South Amer-
ica, called Tzopilotl by the Aztecs and GaUinazo by Spanish Ameri-
cans. Specimens of it were caught by
Mr. A. H. Howell in traps set on the
marshes for raccoons.
Among the birds of prey are the
Everglade kite (Rostrh~mus sociabi-
lis), which feeds upon the large
marsh snail already described and is
known locally as the snail hawk; the
swallow-tailed kite (Elanoides forfi-
catu), with a deeply forked tail,
white under parts and head and blu-
ish black back, a bird quite common
near the park and ranging to Central
and South America; and the Missis-
sippi kite (Ictinia mississippiensis).
The hawks include the marsh hawk, k,
sharp-shinned hawk, red-tailed hawk,
Florida sparrow hawk, the osprey F h ,
FIG. 28.-O8rPMr, PCMMNow heaoetus
(fig. 28), and the Florida red-shoul- aroQmeme, wHIa cAcns rFaIs
dered hawk. Many ospreys (Pandion IN TH VOOUD -vu.GOLAM.
aliaetus caroZinensis) were observed by the writer flying over
the Everglades between Paradise Key and Camp Jackson, occa-
sionally darting down into the flooded grassy prairie and emerg-
ing with a good-sized fish in their talons. This species also occurs in
Porto Rico, where it frequents both the coast and inland swampy
lagoons.* On that island it is sometimes called aguila (eagle) on ac-
count of its noble eagle-like appearance. A magnificent specimen
of the handsome red-shouldered hawk (Buteo lineatu alleni) perched
habitually on the limb of a tree in front of the lodge during the
visit of the writer to the park. From its station it pounced upon
its prey, principally insects, lizards, and frogs, in the clearing
before the building. It also catches snakes. The park warden
SThe writer at greatly indebted to Mr. Francis Harper, of the U. 8. Biological Survey,
for notes on the water birds of Florida.
SSee the interesting report of Mr. Alexander Wetmore on the birds of Porto Rico,
U. Dept Agr. Bull. 826. 1914.
422 ANNUAL BPOBT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1917.
took this bird as an illustration of the conditions of life on Para-
dise Key, using the following parody on the well-known House-
that-Jack-built. This is the hawk that caught the snake, that swal-
lowed the rat, that ate the fruit, that fell from the palm, that grew
from the seed that the bird dropped."
Among the swamp dwellers are the limpkin (Aramsw vooiferw),
an odd bird intermediate between the cranes and rails, with olive-
brown plumage streaked with white; and the Carolina rail, or sors
(Porana carolina), a modest-colored, shy bird, which remains con-
cealed in the vegetation of the marshes during the day and does not
reveal its presence until the late afternoon, when it begins to utter its
whistling note, and continues it long after night has fallen. A
chorus of these birds has been compared to that of piping Hylas in
the early spring.1 To this group also belong the purple gallinule and
the Florida gallinule, the former with resplendent plumage, a blue
shield on its forehead and a carmine bill tipped with yellow, the latter
with brownish plumage, a red frontal shield and a broad red band
above its knee. Another allied bird is the coot, or mud hen (Fuioa
americana), distinguished by its whitish frontal shield and especially
by its lobed or scalloped toes, which are not unlike those of a grebe.
Kildeers (Oayecu8 vociferua) are very common, filling the air with
their shrill cries, as though in a perpetual state of alarm.
In addition to the well-known mourning dove, there is a beautiful,
little ground dove (CAaemepeia passerina) on Paradise Key. A
closely allied variety of the latter collected in Porto Rico by Mr.
Alexander Wetmore, of the United States Biological Survey, was
found to have swallowed a number of ground pearls, or margarodes,
already described, which Mr. Wetmore thinks may have been picked
up by mistake for gravel to aid digestion.
Other birds recorded from this region are the yellow-billed
cuckoo; several woodpeckers, including the rare ivorybill; a screech
owl, already mentioned, which offers a pleasant contrast to some of
the unspeakable spiders and insects mentioned in this paper by its
conjugal fidelity and parental affection, for it remains mated for
life and defends its young most courageously; the whippoorwill,
which is. a winter resident, the allied Chuck-will's-widow and the
Florida nighthawk; our own little ruby-throated hummingbird; the
kingbird; the crested flycatcher; the phwebe; purple martin; barn
swallow; tree swallow; mockingbird; catbird; long-billed marsh
wren; and the Florida wren already mentioned. To the last-named
SSee Chapman, Birds of astern America, 8d ed., p. 148. 188.
sMany other birds of this region occur also In the Wet Indis, or are there repe
mente by loosely allied varieties or subspeces. The reader' attention is called to Mr.
Wetmre's monograph on the Birds of Porto Rico already quoted, isued as U. 8. Dept.
Agr. Ball. No. 328. 1914.
bird (Thryotlhor ludovicianus mimenesis) Mrs. Kirk Munroe has
paid a well-deserved tribute.
Following these in the bird census of the park come the ruby-
crowned kinglet; the wood thrush; Wilson thrush, Hermit thrush,
American robin (P&mestiwus migratorius) and bluebird (Siaia
satde); the Florida blue jay, Florida crow, and the fish crow; a
number of wood warblers, including the beautiful little ovenbird
(&urue aurooapil~e), which comes daily to the door of the park
lodge to be fed with scraps from the table; the Florida yellowthroat;
and the American redstart (Setophaga ruticila). During the
writer's visit to the park several individuals of this beautiful bird
were frequent visitors to a blooming marlberry tree (Icaorea panicu-
lata) in quest of insects attracted by its fragrant, elderlike blossoms.
The list of birds terminates with the names of several vireos, the
scarlet tanager, summer tanager; the American goldfinch; the Savan-
nah sparrow, which is a pest in the seed beds of neighboring truck
farmers; the Florida cardinal, the female of which is more deeply
colored than in our own variety; the blue grosbeak; the indigo bunt-
ing; and the many-colored painted bunting, or nonpareil One
would think that the last-named bird (Passeria iris) would be
highly conspicuous in its natural habitat; but Doctor Oberholser,
who is a keen observer, says that it is often difficult to detect in the
dense undergrowth which it frequents, for the bright colors of its
varied plumage act as a kind of camouflage or disguise.
Among the strange animals which early explorers encountered in
the New World the two which excited most wonder were the opossum
and the strange, aquatic manatee, both of which were unlike any-
thing ever before seen. The imperfect descriptions of the manatee
gave rise to tales of sirens, and the exaggerated accounts of the
animal which carried its young in pouches made of its own skin
resulted in various fanciful pictures.
In southern Florida several of our familiar animals are repre-
sented by varieties slightly different from northern forms, varying
either in color, size, or relative proportion of the parts. Thus the
mammal fauna of the Royal Palm State Park includes the Florida
opossum, Diddphis virginina pigra, very similar to our northern
type but somewhat smaller and with a longer and more slender tail;
the cotton rat of south Florida, Sigmodon hispidcu spadicipygue; the
south Florida rice rat, Oryzomys palustris colortus, aquatic in its
habits and an excellent, swimmer; the Florida cotton mouse, Pero-
mysous gossypinue palmcare, very abundant in the forest; the Flor-
424 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1917.
ida marsh hare, Bykv agu plustris paludiola; the Florida wild-
cat, Lyt rm u f~ oridanws, still very common in Paradise Key and
in the hammocks between Royal Palm State Park and Miami, and
even within the city limits of Miami; the Florida panther, Fe~i
oryi, now nearly extinct, but sid to be an occasional visitor to
Paradise Key; the Florida otter, Lutra canadendss aga, not uncom-
mon in the sloughs of the park the Florida raccoon, Prooyon lotor
elhu, of a more yellowish color than our northern type; the Florida
bear, Ursus nericewn floridanw, an occasional visitor to the park;
the Florida deer, Odocoiles virginians osceoa, a dark colored, little
animal, about one-quarter smaller than our Virginia deer.
In addition to the above mammals, the manatee, Trichec s lati-
roris, already mentioned, should be included; for, although it does
not occur in the immediate vicinity of the park, it is not uncommon
in the Miami and other streams close by, into which it enters to feed
upon the aquatic vegetation. Its favorite food is the so-called mana-
tee grass, Cymodocea manatorum, to which it gives the specific name.
During the writer's visit to Miami he saw a fine specimen of this
strange animal in captivity, which was fed daily with great quan-
tities of this succulent weed.
For a Asume6 of the work which has thus far been done in this
branch of zoology, the reader is referred to a paper on "The land
mammals of peninsular Florida and the coast region of Georgia,"
by Outram Bangs,1 in which it is pointed out that the chief cause of
the occurrence of so many well-defined subspecies of animals is the
isolated position of southern Florida which, like that of an island,
has resulted in the segregation of groups and the development of
special breeds or distinct forms.
INDIANS OF SOUTHERN FLORIDA.
Many of those who have visited southern Florida have had their
attention called to the shell mounds and other prehistoric vestiges
of human habitation found in many places along the coast. Some
of the most remarkable of these, situated at Marco, or San Marcos,
on the Gulf coast of southern Florida, were investigated in 1896 by
the late Frank Hamilton Gushing, who, among other things, found
the remains of remarkable terraces constructed almost entirely of the
shells of conchs, Fulgur perversum, a species which takes its specific
name from the perverse, or left-handed twist of its spiral shell.'
Among the objects unearthed were many made wholly or in part of
these shells: Mattocks or hoes (fig. 29), war clubs, ladles for baling
canoes, drinking cups, spoons, and even boat anchors, the latter
'Proceedima Boet. Soc. Nat Hist., 28:157 to 235. 1898.
See Cuhlng's report in the Proceedings of the Amerlean Phllosophical Society, vol. 85,
pp. 829-448. 1896.
made by securing several of the largest shells together, with cordage
made of agave or yucca fiber, which also served as the cable. An
interesting fact connected with these objects is.that similar utensils
made of this same shell, easily recognizable by
its "perverse" spiral, have been unearthed in
the mounds of the valleys of the Misisissippi and
its tributaries, which tend to connect the Florida
mound builders with those of our great inner
basin. Objects made from the shells of Fulgur
perver um taken from the mounds of Florida,
Arkansas, Tennessee, Ohio, Indiana, Illinois,
and Missouri may be seen in the collections of
the United States National Museum. Plate 55
is a photograph by Cushing of a terrace faced
with these shells; plate 56 shows a ladle made of
one of the shells with the inner whorls removed;
and figure 80 shows a spoon unearthed in
pared with a
found in a
nessee.1 Fio. 29. MATTOCK 0
Nearly all WA-CLT -LU AD iFo,
aSHLL or FPgur (Bu-
m L' accounts Of seM) pervemrm, mIKI-
the aborigi- LAR To SFC r FOUND
IN GRAVES OF
nal inhabit. MooND-BUiDnnw OF THE
ants of Flor- Mi8i' iiM VAUT.
ida refer to utensils made of
these shells, especially in connec-
tion with the celebrated "black
FIn. 30.-UTZNILS MADE oF SHELLS o drink ritual, in which the shells
vlig (Buaim) perwvsm. CUP
IN T UvITEmD STAT NATIO&. Mu- were used as dippers and drink-
KUM FROM THE WEST COAST Or soUTH- ing cus for serving this cere-
MN LORIDA ; b, PE2RORATED SHBI for srVig thi
FROM MOUND IN EASTRu T' assan monial decoction. The earliest
RDucD. illustrations,2 however, evidently
drawn from memory, erroneously represented these utensils as being
made of a shell shaped like that of a nautilus instead of the species
1 ee MacCurdy, in Proceedings of the Nineteenth International Congress of Amer-
canitat, p. T, fg. 27. 1915.
2See Lemolne's Illustration (1564) reproduced in the writer's paper on the Narcotic
plants and stimulants of the ancient Americans, in the Smithsonian Report for 1916,
pL 14. 1917.
426 ANNUAL BEPOBT SMIITHSONIAN INBTrITTON, 191.
Very little is known about the aboriginal Indians of southern
Florida. The Seminoles, as every one knows, are comparatively
recent intruders in this region. At the time of the discovery the
most important tribe was known as the Calusas, or Calooeas, from
whom the Caloosahatchee River takes its name. Their territory
extended from Tampa Bay southward to Cape Sable, eastward to
Cape Florida, including the outlying =ayos, or keys, and inland to
Lake Okeechobee. They claimed authority over the east coast tribes
as far north as Cape Canaveral. It was they who, in 1518, repelled
Ponce de Leon and kept him from landing on their coast. They
were cruel and piratical, killing shipwrecked mariners, and enrich-
ing themselves by robbing stranded vessels. The most authentic ac-
count of them is given by Fontaneda, who lived among them as a
captive. According to him, they ate bread made of certain roots the
greater part of the year, but sometimes the roots could not be
gatherered on account of floods to which the country was subject.
They also had an abundance of fish and of roots resembling truffles,
as well as many other kinds, and when they went hunting deer or
birds they ate venison or fowl's flesh. These Indians did not wear
clothing; the men went naked, except for tanned deerskins or mats
woven of straw of which they made breechcloths; the women wore
moss which grows from the trees, resembling oakum or wool, which
is not white but gray, and with these weeds they covered themselves
around the waist."' Their weapons were bows and arrows and throw-
ing sticks or spears.
In the sixteenth century a tribe known as the Tequestas occupied
the coast of southeastern Florida within the present limits of
Dade and Monroe counties. Like the Caloosas, they were savage
and piratical. About the year 1600 they carried on a regular trade
with Habana in fish, skins, and ambergris, a grayish, waxlike sub-
stance secreted in the liver or intestines of the spermaceti whale
(Catodon macrocephaus). This is lighter than water and some-
times occurs in great masses floating on the surface of the ocean.
Formerly it was collected in considerable quantities on the shores of
the Bahama Islands and the east coast of Florida. When heated it
emanates a delightful fragrance, on which account it was at one
time much used in perfumery. It was also used in medicine and be-
lieved to have aphrodisiac properties.
RBtoe Indlos no viten RBope, nl meano las Mjere; andan demnudos los Hombres,
@i no es anos Pelleos de Venado curtldos, con que bacen unos Bragueros y s cabren
solameate em Verguens, y la MuJeres, unas Pajuels que nacen de los Arboles, A
maaera de Estopa 6 Lea, y no es blanes, nlao pud, y con aquella Terbs cubrne
dellam Ia roedoae de la Cinta."
The most complete account available of the Indians who preceded
the Seminoles in southern Florida is that of Jonathan Dickenson,
who in 1699 while on a vessel bound from Jamaica to Philadelphia,
with his wife and infant child, was wrecked on the southeast coast
Several editions of his narrative have been published, the first one
appearing in Philadelphia in 1699. It is a pathetic story of suffer-
ing. He, his wife, and his companions were stripped of their clothing
and all their possessions and most cruelly treated by the Indians,
but the Indian women, taking pity on his infant child, suckled it
when its mother's milk was exhausted. From his account, which
agrees essentially with that of Fontaneda, an accurate idea may be
gleaned of the appearance of the Indians, their
food, domestic economy, weapons, etc.
They were of fine physique. The men went
naked except for a triangular breechcloth plaited
of straw and wrought with divers colors, with a
belt of the same material about four fingers wide.
A string from the lower corner passed between
the legs and was tied to the two ends of the belt
which met behind the back, and from the knot
hung a bunch of silk grass -(fiber of Yucca fila-
mentosa) of a flaxen color resembling a horse's tail
They also had deerskin cloaks. Their long hair ia. L t.-AsoaIr-
was coiled in a knot into which were stuck two NAL INDIA or
bones, one shaped like a broad arrow, the other IDA DRINKING nFox
like a spearhead (fig. 81). SanLL CUP.
Their wigwams were made of small poles stuck in the ground, with
the upper ends arched together, and thatched with palmetto leaves.
The wigwam of the cassekey (cacique) was about a man's height
to the top," and within it was a "cabin," or platform, about a foot
high, made with sticks and covered with a mat, which served as a set-
tee and couch. At one village the cacique's house was about 40 feet
long and 20 feet wide, covered with palmetto leaves, and within it on
one side and at the two ends there was "a range of cabins or barbe-
cue." In some places the houses were built upon mounds artificially
constructed of shells. Dickenson describes a flood caused by a violent
gale from the northeast, which caused the water to rise in the chief's
house and obliged him to seek refuge in a house on a higher mound.
The household utensils consisted of mats, bags of woven straw used
for storing dried berries, baskets, gourds, and drinking cups made of
sea shells. Though he does not describe their earthenware he men-
tions pots in which they brewed their ceremonial drink called cas-
sine. Palmetto leaves were used as trays in serving food
428 ANNUAL R iEPOT 8MITHSr Asom nsrWrTUTIoN, 1917.
Concerning their food Dickenson says:
These people neither sow nor reap nor plant any manner of thing whatsoever,
nor care for anything but what the barren sands produce. Fish they have as
plenty as they please, but sometimes they would make It scarce for us, so that
a meal a week was most commonly our portion, and three meals a rarity.
Oysters, clams, and other shellfish were also included in their
menus, and they must have had venison and other game occasionally,
for Dickenson mentions the use of deerskins for clothing. In fish-
ing, torches were sometimes used at night, and Dickenson noticed a
young Indian spearing fish with great dexterity by means of a
"striking staff," which he threw at the fish and brought them to
shore on the end of his staff. In two hours he got as many fish as
would serve 20 men. This striking staff or spear must have been
similar to a harpoon, with a foreshaft.
Among the objects from southern
Florida in the United States National
Museum there are wooden spears hav-
ing the foreshaft pointed with sharks'
teeth. In addition to the spears, they
are armed with bows and arrows, and
many of them carried Spanish knives.
They also had other objects of Euro-
pean origin which they had obtained
from wrecks, and one of them had a
supply of ambergris which he had
collected along the shore and which
he expected to sell to the Spaniards
rli. a2-cooo 'rM, oCrotesa s at a good price
eo.ac" : nALr r. SM Among the wild fruits eaten by the
Indians, Dickenson mentions seaside coco plums (Chrysobalanis
caco) (fig. 82), "seaside grapes" (Coccolob uwifera) (pl. 57),
and palmetto berries, great stores of which were kept in their houses
The latter, which were undoubtedly the drupes of the saw palmetto
(Serenoa serruidta) (pL 58), may be considered the principal vege-
table food staple of the Indians south of Jupiter Inlet. Dickenson
found the coco plums and seaside grapes refreshing, but of the pal-
metto berries he sa~:
Not one amongst a could suffer them to stay In our mouths for we could
compare them to nothing else than rotten cheese steeped in tobacco Juice.'
Notwithstanding his dislike of these berries when he first en-
countered them, Dickenson and his companions became accustomed
hat this empariso Is meet apt was proved by the writer, who tested soe dried
da pes Jamsne smmist in the collection of the Breaa of Plant Industry. They are
Met alike mall dates In appearance, with a seed resemblin a browc bean, surrounded
by seant pulp. The latter tasted very much like rancid cheese, with a slightly sweetish
taste lke that of certain kinds of chelng tobceo. (See pl. 28.)
to them, even stealing a bag of them for provisions on starting out
for the north, and deploring the loss of a small quantity which was
accidentally burned at night. Large supplies of palmetto berries
were paid as tribute to the "King, or young Cassekey," of a town
near the present site of Palm Beach, by the Indians of Santa Lucia,
who were his vassals. On reaching St. Augustine, Dickenson says,
his palate had become so changed by a diet of these berries that he
could not endure the taste of salt.
The Indians were very fond of cassine (an infusion of Iles vomi-
toria), which they used not only ceremonially, but also as a refresh-
ing beverage. This plant (pL 59) does not grow in southern
Florida. Dickenson describes the joy with which the Indians re-
ceived from the north a supply of its leaves, together with some vege-
table product which they used as a tobacco substitute. Of tobacco
they were immoderately fond. The Spanish officials in Florida, like
those on the island of Guam in early days, used tobacco leaves in
paying the Indians for supplies and for labor. At the time of
which Dickenson wrote, the use of Ilex vomitoria tea was as common
among the Spaniards of Florida as that of Ilex paraguarieneis
among the colonists of Paraguay and Uruguay. Like the latter it
contains caffeine and is a pleasant stimulant. When very strong
and taken immoderately it acts as an emetic.
From an ethnological point of view Dickenson's description of a
ceremony accompanied by drinking cassine is the most interesting
part of his narrative. His account follows:
The Indians were seated as aforesaid, the Caasekey at the upper end of
them, and the range of cabins was filled with men, women and children, be-
holding us. At length we heard a woman or two cry, according to their man-
ner, and that very sorrowfully, one of which I took to be the Cassekey's wife;
which occasioned some of us to think that something extraordinary was to be
done to us; we also heard a strange sort of a noise, which was not like the
noise made by a man, but we could not understand what, nor where it was;
for sometimes it sounded to be in one part of the house, sometimes in another,
to which we had an ear. And indeed our ears and eyes could perceive or hear
nothing but what was strange and dismal, and death seemed to surround us;
but time discovered this noise to us-the occasion of it was thus:
In one part of this house, where a fire was kept, was an Indian man, having
a pot on the fire, wherein he was making a drink of a shrub (which we under-
stood afterwards by the Spaniards, is called Casseena) boiling the said leaves,
after they had parched them In a pot; then with a gourd, having a long neck,
and at the top of it a small hole, which the top of one's finger could cover, and
at the side of It a round hole of two inches diameter. They take the liquor out
of the pot and put it into a deep round bowl, which, being almost filled, con-
tains nigh three gallons; with this gourd they brew the liquor, and make it
froth very much; It looks of a deep brown color. In the brewing of this liquor
was this noise made, which we thought strange; for the pressing of the gourd
gently down into the liquor, and the air which it contained, being forced out
of the little hole at the top, occasioned a sound, and according to the time
480 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1917.
and motion given, would be various. This drink when made and cool to sup,
was Ih a shell rst carried to the Casskey, who threw part of It on the ground,
aad the rest he drank up, and then would make a load hem; and afterwards
the cup passed to the rest of the Cassekey's associates, as aforesaid; but no
other man, woman or child must touch or taste of this sort of drink; of
which they sat sipping, chattering, and smoking tobacco, or some other herb in-
stead there, for the most part of the day.
In the evening, we being laid on the place aforesaid, the Indians made a
drum of a skin, covering therewith the deep bowl in which they brewed their
drink beating thereon with a stick, and having a couple of rattles made of a
small gourd, put on a stick with small stones in it, shaking it; they began
to set up a most hideous howling, very Irksome to us; and. sometime after
came many of their young women, some singing, some dancing. This was
continued till midnight, after which they went to seep.
Of another ceremony he writes as follows:
It now being the time of the moon's entering the first quarterthe Indians bad
a ceremonious dance which they began.about 8 o'clock in the morning. In the
first place came in an old man and took a staff about 8 feet long having a
broad arrow on the head thereof, and thence half way painted red and white
like a barber's pole. In the middle of this staff was fixed a piece of wood,
shaped like unto a thigh, leg, and foot of a man, and the lower part of it was
painted black. This staff being carried out of the Cassekey's house was set
fast in the ground, standing upright; which being done, he brought out a
basket, containing rattles, Which were taken out thereof and placed at the
foot of the staff. Another old man came in and set up an howling like unto a
mighty dog, but beyond him for length of breadth, withal making a proclama-
tion. This being done, and most of them having painted themselves, some red,
some black, some with black and red, with their belUes girt up tight as well
as they could girt themselves with ropes, having their sheath of arrows at their
backs, and their bows in theit hands; being gathered together about the star,
six of the chiefest men in esteem amongst them, especially one who is their
doctor, took up the rattles and began an hideous noise, standing round the
staE with their rattles, and bowing without ceasing to it for about half an
hour. Whilst these 6 were thus employed, all the rest were staring and
scratching, pointing upwards and downwards, on this and the other side, every
way, looking like men frightened or more like furies. Thus they behaved till
the 6 had done shaking their rattles; then they all began to dance, violently
stamping on the ground for the space of an hour or more, without ceasing;
in which time they sweat In a most excessive manner, so that by the time the
dance was over, by their sweat, and the violent stamping of their feet, the
ground was trodden into furrows; and by morning the place where they danced
was covered with maggots; thus often repeating the manner, they continued
till about 8 or 4 in the afternoon, by which time many were sick and faint.
Being gathered into the Cassekey's house they sat down, having some hot
aesM a ready, which they drank plentifully of, and gave greater quantities
thereof to the sick and faint than to others; then they eat berries. On these
days they eat not any food till night.
The next day, about the same time, they began their dance as the day before;
alo the third day they began at the usual time, when many Indians came
from other towns, and fell to dancing, without taking any notice one of an-
other. This day they were stricter than the other two days, for no woman
must look upon them; but if any of their women went out of their houses they
went veiled with a mat.
The Indians had narrow canoes in which they crossed inlets and
rivers. When they visited outlying keys or wrecks they lashed two
canoes together by transverse poles upon which they made platforms
for carrying their effects. In this way they sometimes navigated as
far as the island of Cuba. They appeared to be under the sway of
the Spanish and showed hostility to all Englishmen or castaways
whom they suspected of being English. Dickenson tells of the ar-
rival of Spanish soldiers from St. Augustine, and describes the cha-
grin of the Indians when, instead of ill treatment, the Englishmen
met with kindness at the hands of their rescuers, by whom they were
taken to St. Augustine.
It may be of interest here to note the use of the acorns of the live
oak (pl. 60) by the Florida Indians, who, after removing the bitter
tannic acid by soaking the kernels in water, ground them up and
made them into cakes or mush. The early Spaniards, when their
supply of Mexican chocolate was exhausted, used these acorns as a
substitute for cacao in preparing a chocolatelike drink, not, however,
altogether satisfactory as a substitute, with which they regaled their
In the wars between the Spanish and the English the Indians
above described were loyal to the Spaniards, while the Creeks and
several other more northerly tribes were allies of the English.
Finally, in 1768, when Florida was ceded by Spain to England the
" Spanish Indians" sought refuge on the outlying keys and many of
them removed to Cuba. Among those that remained in Florida were
the Muspahs, who maintained their individuality until the close of
the Second Seminole War. Unfortunately nothing is known of the
languages of these south Florida tribes, so that their linguistic rela-
tionship to other tribes can not be determined.
As already stated, the Seminoles are comparatively recent in-
truders. They belong to the Muskhogean stock, and are therefore
related to the Choctaws, Chickasaws, and Creeks, but not to the
Timucuas encountered by the French Hugenots at the mouth of the
St. Johns River. They are the descendants of immigrants from
lower Creek towns who retreated to southern Florida in the eight-
eenth century.2 The name by which they are now known, signify-
1 Dickenon, Narrative of a Shipwreck In the Gulph of Florida, 6th ed., pp. 4T-49.
sMuch misinformation has been published regarding the origin of the Seminoles. One
recent writer refers to them as descendants of the Aztecs, and at the same time connects
482 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1917.
ing "runaways," was first applied to them about the year 1775. It
is often stated that they are a mixed race, owing to intermarriage
with refugee negroes; but it is quite certain that those now living in
southern Florida (see pls. 61 and 62) are of pure blood, of fine
physique, and dignified mien, speaking a language allied to the Choc-
taw uncorrupted by English It is not within the scope of this paper
to relate their history or to trace the causes which led to the Seminole
wars, and the removal of a large proportion of the tribe west of the
Misissippi. Those now living in Oklahoma have been organized
into what is called the Seminole Nation. Concerning those remain-
ing in Florida, much interesting information is given by Clay Mac-
Cauley in the Fifth Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology.
The reader is also referred to Mrs. Minnie Moore-Wilson's sympa-
thetic account of these Indians in her work entitled The Seminoles
of Florida "; and to the various works of Anthony Weston Dimock,
dealing with Florida adventure, especially Florida Enchantments "
and "Dick Among the Seminoles." To Mr. Dimock the writer is
indebted for the accompanying illustrations (pls. 61 and 62).
Unlike the Indians described by Dickenson, the Seminoles prac-
tice agriculture, cultivating maize, sweet potatoes, pumpkins,
squashes, introduced melons, peanuts, sugar cane, guavas, pineapples,
and various citrus fruits. Among the wild fruits eaten by them are
seaside grapes (Coocolobis wuifers) (pL 57) and coco plums (Chrys-
bakla~m lcaco and C. pe)ocarps) (fig. 82); but in MacCauley's list
the berries of the saw palmetto (Serenoa serrulata) are conspicuous
for their absence. On the other hand, the Seminoles have an impor-
tant food staple not mentioned by Dickenson, though the plant yield-
ing it was very abundant in the region through which he passed.
This is the koonti or coontie, a kind of cornstarch prepared from the
roots of Zamia foriidana (pL 683), already described in this paper.
So highly do the Seminoles esteem the koonti that they declare it
to be a special gift from God. An Indian named Ko-nip-ha-too re-
lated to MacCauley a legend in which it was declared that long ago
the Great Spirit" sent Jesus Christ to the earth with the precious
plant from which it is prepared, and the place of his descent was at
Cape Florida, where he gave the koonti to the red men.1
them with the ancient ugyptias and the Hebrews. The evidence offered to establish
their relationship with the last named is that of a certain bishop, who heard a Seminole
eblr repeat the name Jah-ey, and identified it with that of Jehovah. The Indiman
eoflrmed "the wonderful, ye, startling observation" made by the bishop; and from
the um of this name, chanted in the depth of the verglade, one may work back to
the prhistoric ruined temples of Mexico and Ycatan, so similar to those of Mapt;
and ths may and In Seminole speech a language link to connect the new world with the
old." It Is esarcely neeseary to state that there is no llnguistie relationship between
the Moskhogean stock to which the Seminoles belong and the Aztecs of Mexico or the
Maya of Yucatan.
*See Fifth Annual Report Bur. Am. Ethn.. p. 518 1888.
PARADISE KEY-SAPFOBD. 433
Another coontie starch was obtained by the Florida Indians from
the roots of certain species of smilax, commonly called China brier,
but not specifically identical with the species described by Linnaeus
under the name Smiaea pseudo-china. Three species were in all prob-
ability used for this purpose: Smilax laurifolia, growing in swampy
places; the very similar Bnmia lawceoata, growing in drier situa-
tions, and nilax auriulata (pL 64), growing in hammocks and on
coastal sand dunes. William Bartram has given the following de-
scription of the preparation of red koonti from the roots of smilax:
They chop the roots in pieces, which are afterwards well pounded in a
wooden mortar, then, being mixed with clean water in a tray or trough, they
strain it through baskets; the sediment, which settles to the bottom of the
second vessel, is afterwards dried in the open air, and is then a very finer
reddish flour or meal; a small quantity of this mixed with warm water and
sweetened with honey, when cool, becomes a beautiful, delicious jelly, very
nourishing and wholesome; they also mix it with fine corn flour, which being
fried in fresh bear's oil makes very good hot cakes or fritters.1
Dr. John R. Swanton, of the Bureau of American Ethnology,
has called attention to the fact that the name koonti," coonti,"
or "conte," is etomologically identical with knta" of the Ala-
bama Indians now residing in Texas. His account follows:
In the course of my investigations among the Alabama (Alibamu) of Texas,
I heard much of this plant, called by them ka' ato, and obtained a specimen
of it, which Mr. Paul Standley of the National Museum has identified as
milas lanceolata. It is evidently identical with a smilax that had been pre-
viously described to me as coonti by an old Creek Indian born in Alabama
before the removal of the Creeks, "a brier that climbed up on trees like a
After repeating Bartram's account of the preparation of smilax
coontie as quoted above, he continues:
Hawkins also says the China brier "is called coonte," and he describes the
way in which flour was extracted from it It is therefore evident that at least
two species of smilax were known as coonti by the ancient Creeks, and since
the cycadaceous plant which now bears that name among the Florida Seminole
is confined to southern Florida, it is evident that it could have been used only
after the Seminole reached that country from the north. Originally it is
evident that the term must .have been applied to several species of smilax
having large reddish roots.'
The. roots of three species of smilax were tested for starch, at the
writer's request, by Dr. Henry Hasselbring, of the Bureau of Plant
Industry: Smila laurifolji, S. lanceolta, and S. auricuata. The
first showed no vestiges of starch, though this may have been because
the rootstocks were old and woody. The second contained starch, but
'Bartram, William, Travels through North and South Carolina, Georgia, East and
West Florida, etc., p. 241. 1791.
American Anthropologst, voL 15, pp. 141, 142. 1918.
484 ANNUAL BuEPOT MITHSONIAN INmTITrTION, 191.
this could not be extracted from the powdered rootstock in sufficient
quantities to make a jelly. The third, figured on plate 64, which
contained an abundance of starch, was subjected to a process like
that described by Bartram, and yielded a delicate flesh-colored Jelly,
slightly acidulous and somewhat astringent. This jelly was quite
equal to arrowroot when sweetened with sugar, for which it could
be reed as an excellent substitute.
It has been impossible within the limits of this paper to give a
complete list of the plants thus far collected in the region here con-
sidered. It is hoped that such a list may be published later.
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Smithsonlan Report, 1917.-Safford. PLATE I.
I. VIEW OF PARADISE KEY FROM THE NORTHEAST, DRY SEASON. SHOWING ROYAL
v. F ..
2. SAME VIEW AS ABOVE: EVERLADES FLOODED.
Smtsna Rpr,11 .Sfod.PAE2
.* ; '
OOLITIC LIMESTONE FROM ROYAL PALM STATE PARK, SHOWING CRUSTACEAN TUBE
AND ANNELID CASTS ORIGINALLY FORMED IN CALCAREOUS MUD DEPOSITED IN A
Naturalsize. 'Photographed from s.l'iiiitensiii Uiitdl .Staies National Museum.
Smithsonian Report, 1917.-Safford.
Smithsonian Report, 1917.-Safford.
YELLOW WATER LILIES, OR BONNETS NYMPHAEAA ADVENA).
Smithsonian Report, 1917.-Safford.
SEDGES FROM ROYAL PALM STATE PARK.
(1) Rhynchuspora corniculatq; (2) Rhynchospora tracyi; (3) Cyperus speciosus; (4) ('ylprus luspan; (5)
Fuircna brcvisea; (6) Dichronuna colorata. Naturalsize.
Smithsonian Report, 1917.-Safford.
GRASSES FROM ROYAL PALM STATE PARK.
(1) Manisurls rugosa: (2) Paspalum umonostaackm: (3) Panicum rirgatum: (4) Panicum condetnsm; (5)
Andropogos cabuninit; (6) Phleum pretense;: (7) Chloris glauca: (s) Panicum nilidum. Natural size.
Smithsonian Report, 1917.-Safford.
MARISCUS JAMAICENSIS (CLADIUM EFFUSUM Torr.), THE DREADED "SAW GRASS" OF
Smithsonian Report. 1917.-Safford. PLATE 8.
LEAVES OF SAW GRASS (MARISCUS JAMAICENSIs) ENLARGED SO AS TO SHOW CUTTING
TEETH OF MARGINS AND KEEL.
Smithsonian Report, 1917.-Safford. PLATE 9.
ALLIGATOR APPLE (ANNONA GLABRA).
Very abundant on Everglade Keys. Its remarkably light wood is used for corks and for floats of
fishing nets. Natural size.
Smithsonian Report, 1917.-Safford.
BACC1HARIS GLOMERULIFERA. A SHRUBBY COMPOSITE VERY COMMON IN MARSHES
AND THE MARGINS OF EVERGLADE KEYS.
The male and the female flowers are borne on separate plants. Natural size.
Smithsonian Report, 1917.-Safford.
BUTTON MANGROVE (CONOCARPUS ERECTA). SHOWING CLUSTERS OF FRUIT AND
NECTARIES ON EACH SIDE OF THE PETIOLES.
Photograph of specimens collected by C. E. Mosier from the neighborhood of Royal Palm State Park.
Smithsonian Report, 1917.-Safford.
SWAMP CYPRESS (TAXODIUM DISTICHUM), SHOWING BUDDING BRANCH AND MATURE
Smithsonian Report, 1917.-Safford.
ROYAL PALM STATE PARK. TENT OF WARDEN NEAR EASTERN ENTRANCE.
Photograph by Wilson Popenoe.
Smithsonian Report, 1917.-Safford.
SATIN-LEAF (CHRYSOPHYLLUM OLIVAEFORME). SHOWING FLOWERS, FRUIT, AND SATIN
LI NED LEAVES.
Smithsonian Report, 1917.-Safford.
ROOTS OF STRANGLING FIG (FICUS AUREA) EMBRACING CABBAGE PALM.
Photograph by Wilson Popenoe.
Smithsonian Report, 1917.-Safford.
ERYTHRINA ARBOREA, USUALLY A SCRAMBLING SHRUB OF MODERATE SIZE BUT HERE
GROWING IN THE FORM OF A LIANA.
Specimen growing near the easternentrance to the park. Photograph by Roy D. Goodrieh.
Smithsonian Report, 1917.-Safford.
PISONIA ACULEATA, CALLED COCKSPUR ON ACCOUNT OF ITS SHARP RECURVED SPINES:
A PLANT OF WIDE TROPICAL DISTRIBUTION: USUALLY A SCRAMBLING SHRUB.
HERE A GIANT LIANA OF THE FOREST.
Showing C. E. Mosier, the park warden, at the base of the plant. Photograph by Roy D. Goodrich.
Smithsonian Report. 1917- Safford.
KESSML CO. M"I"A
ORCHIDS OF PARADISE KEY
Smithsonian Report, 1917.-Safford.
SWAMP BAMBOO-BRIER (SMILAX LAURIFOLIA), SHOWING JOINTED TUBEROUS
The globose elastic seeds were sometimes strung Into necklaces by the aboriginal Indians. Natural
Smithsonian Report, 1917.-Safford.
SPANISH MOSS (DENDROPOGON USNEOIDES), AN EPIPHYTE BELONGING TO THE PINE-
APPLE FAMILY. USED BY THE ABORIGINAL INDIANS FOR MAKING SKIRTS AND
Photograph received from Mrs. W. S. Jennings.
Smithsonian Report, 1917.-Safford.
TILLANDSIA UTRICULATA. AN AIR-PLANT, OR EPIPHYTE. BELONGING TO THE PINEAPPLE
Photographed by Wilson Popenoe.
Smithsonian Report, 1917.-Safford.
PHLEBODIUM AUREUM. A FERN GROWING IN THE AxILs OF OLD LEAVES ON THE
TRUNKS OF CABBAGE PALMS. PORTION OF A FROND.
Smithsonian Report. 1917.-Safford.
THE ROYAL FERN (OSMUNDA REGALIS); STERILE AND FRUITING FRONDS.
ANEMIA ADIANTIFOLIA (ORNITHOPTERIS ADIANTIFOLIA Sw.), STERILE AND
Smithsonian Report. 1917.-Safford..
Smithsonian Report, 1917.-Safford.
ROYAL PALMS (RoYSTONIA REQIA) OF PARADISE KEY, FROM WHICH ROYAL
PALM STATE PARK DERIVES ITS NAME.
Photograph by Wilson l'openoe.
Smithsonian Report, 1917.-Safford.
PAUROTIS WRIGHTII (SERENOA ARBORESCENS SARa.). THE TREE SAW PALMETTO.
This species forms clumps on the south coast of Florida, but does not occur within the limits of the park.
Smithsonian Report, 1917.-Safford. PLATE 27.
ARMED PETIOLE OF THE TREE SAW PALMETTO (PAUROTIS WRIGHTII).
Compare its fruit with the large date-like fruit of the dwarf Saw Palmetto, from which it is generically
Smithsonian Report, 1917.-Safford. PLATE 28
FRUIT AND SEEDS OF FLORIDA PALMS.
1, Bird dropping from Paradise Key containing seeds of Thatch Palm (Thrinax), indicating means by which
palms may be distributed; 2, Fruit and seeds of Thrmna microcarpa; 3, Same of Royal Palm (Rostoes
rgis); 4, Date-like fruit of dwarf Saw Palmetto (Sereno. serrleats) eaten by the Indians; 5, Goose neck
almeto (Sa eoa); ommon Cabbage Palm ( al mtto); 7, Bluestem Pametto (a
gl/bra);. Silver Palm (CoccolAriuaxrgentea). Natural seme.
Smithsonian Report, 1917.-Safford.
Smithsonian Report, 1917.-Safford.
PINUS CARIBAEA, THE ONLY PINE GROWING IN THE VICINITY OF ROYAL PALM STATE
PARK. FASCICLED LEAVES; OPEN AND CLOSED CONES.
Smithsonian Report, 1917.-Safford. PLATE 30.
PINE LAND NEAR ROYAL PALM STATE PARK.
Beneath the pines (Pinus caribaea) grow the dwarf Saw Palmetto; the Silver Palm, the Cvcad,
Zamia floridana, a crimson-flowered morning-glory (Eo onium microdadctyum) and the Twining
Apocynaceous, EchiteU echites. Photograph by Wilson Popenoe.
Smithsonian Report, 1917.-Safford.
Smithsonlan Report, 1917.-Safford.
ZAMIA FLORIDANA, AN ENDEMIC CYCAD FROM THE STARCHY ROOT OF WHICH FLORIDA
ARROWROOT 18 MADE; MALE INFLORESCENCE.
Smithsonian Report, 1917.-Safford.
ZAMIA FLORIDANA; FEMALE CONE, SHAPED LIKE AN EAR OF MAIZE, BEARING
ROWS OF SEEDS I CLOSED IN SCARLET ARIL AND COVERED BY A VELVETY
Smithsonian Report, 1917.-Safford.
THORN TWIG., BUMELIA RECLINATA, A PINE-LAND SHRUB BELONGING TO THE SAPOTE
Smithsonian Report, 1917.-Safford.
DWARF FLORIDA PRIVET, FORESTIERA PINETORUM. AN ENDEMIC PINE-LAND SHRUB OF
Smithsonian Report, 1917.-Safford. PLATE 36.
MOLLUSKS OF ROYAL PALM STATE PARK.
1, Tree suab, U a f.Nit3,a: 2an,anibal l, andina trnceta; 3, Poltrn &eptemwoevs olzeo;
4W Potlra i_/r5, Hilciu orMvbita clappi 6, Plnorbis duri,; 7, Pkhys graeno; 8, AmrpuUelar
9, p m elam. Natural .
Smithsonlan Report, 1917.-Safford.
Svrnthsofll&fl Report. 1917- Safford. P~rE 35
TREE SNAILS AND MARSH SNAILS OF PARADISE KEY
*RKUKER 4 KESSLER CO MtLA.
Smithsonian Report., 1917 Safford.
Smtsna eot 9 .Sfod LT 7
EVEROLADE CRAWFISH (CAMBARUS FALLAX), AN IMPORTANT FOOD-STAPLE OF
THE WHITE IBIS AND OTHER MARSH BIRDS.
Natural size. Determined by W. L. Schmitt.
Smithsonian Report, 1917.-Safford..
Smithsonian Report, 1917.-Saftord.
8CORPIOMN (CENTRURU8 QRACILIS) AND WHIP SCORPION (MAsTIIOPROCTUS
GIGANTEUS) FROM PARADISE KEY.
Determned by Dr. Nathan Banks. Slightly enlarged.
Smithsonian Report, 1917.-Safford.
DOOR CASING OF SOUND OAK TIMBER RIDDLED BY WHITE ANTS (LEUCOTERMES).
SHOWING RUNWAYS COATED WITH EARTH AND EXCRETED WOOD.
Natural .ize. Photograph by Thomas E. Snyder.