• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Title Page
 Preface
 Table of Contents
 List of Illustrations
 Ferns of Florida
 Subkingdom Pteridophyta
 Bibliography
 Glossary
 Index






Group Title: Ferns of Florida : being descriptions of and notes on the fern-plants growing naturally in Florida. (Illustrated)
Title: Ferns of Florida
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00055167/00001
 Material Information
Title: Ferns of Florida being descriptions of and notes on the fern-plants growing naturally in Florida. (Illustrated)
Physical Description: viii, 237 p. : illus. ; 19 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Small, John Kunkel, 1869-1938
Publisher: The Science press
Place of Publication: New York
Publication Date: 1931
 Subjects
Subject: Ferns -- Florida   ( nal )
Botany -- Florida   ( nal )
Genre: non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: By John Kunkel Small...
General Note: "Authorities cited in the work": p. 226-228.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00055167
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 001807576
oclc - 01511719
notis - AJN1419
lccn - agr33000773

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Title Page
        Title Page
    Preface
        Page i
        Page ii
    Table of Contents
        Page iii
    List of Illustrations
        Page iv
        Page v
        Page vi
    Ferns of Florida
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
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        Page 18
    Subkingdom Pteridophyta
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    Bibliography
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    Glossary
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    Index
        Page 235
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Full Text







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FERNS

OF


FLORIDA


BEING DESCRIPTIONS OF AND NOTES ON THE
FERN-PLANTS GROWING NATURALLY
IN FLORIDA




ILLUSTRATEDD)




BY

JOHN KUNKEL SMALL
HEAD CURATOR OF THE MUSEUMS AND HERBARIUM
OF
THE NEW YORK BOTANICAL GARDEN








NEW YORK
PUBLISHED BY
THE SCIENCE PRESS
1931













PREFACE


As regards ferns, the State of Florida excels all
our other Commonwealths in two ways:
First, in the greater number of ferns and fern-
allies, 107 species growing naturally within this
political subdivision of the United States They fall
into 6 orders, 14 families, and 48 genera. Further-
more, most of the species grow naturally in almost
inexhaustible quantities.
Second, these many fern-plants are available for
study and collection at all times of the year-there is
no closed season for ferns in Florida. The plants of
the species growing in northern .Florida are quite
hardy, and do not wither during the periodic cold
spells. Those growing in the peninsula, although as
a rule of more tender kinds, occur in habitats-ham-
mocks and grottoes-thus protected from the cold
waves that occasionally sweep down from the north.
Consequently, the fern student in Florida has the
advantages of a very great variety in fern life and an
all-year season for exploration and study.
JOHN K. SMALL
The New York Botanical Garden
December, 1931



























CONTENTS
P reface ..................................... ........ ...............................................
List of Illustrations .......................................................- vi
Ferns of Florida .................................................. ....... ...... 1
Taxonomic Treatment ................................................ .......... 19
Authorities cited ............................................................ 226
G lossary ....................................... ................................................................ 229
Index ............... ........... ....................................... ....... ........ 234















LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS
SPECIE PAGE
Botryhium obliquum ................................................................................ 22
virginianum ............. .................... 23
Ophioglouwum vulgatum ......................................................................... 26
Engelmannii .................................................. .................... 27
tenerum .... .............. ................... ...... ............. .................. 29
erotalophoroides ..................................................... ......... 30
Cheiroglossa palmata ......................................... .................. 32
Trichomanes punctatum ......................................................................... 34
lineolatum ......... ................................. ........... ............ 34
K ran u s ii ...................................... ........................................................... 34
Bosehianum ....................... ................... 38
Osmunds regalis ................................................................................... 40
cinnamomea ..... ................................ 42
Actinostachys Germani ....... ................. .............. 44
Anemia adiantifolia ........................... ................................ 46
Lygodium palmatum ............................................................................ 48
Ceratopteris pteridoides .................................................................. 50
deltoidea .......... ....................... ..... 52
Stenochlaena Kunseana ................................................................... 58
Aerostichum anreum ....................... ............................................... 60
daneaefolium ......................................... .................. .... 62
Polypodium Plumula ............................. ...................................... 64
p e tinatum .............................................................................................. 66
polypodioides .... ................. .................. 68
Goniophlebium brasiliense ......................................... ............ 70
Phlebodium aureum .......................... .............................. ........ 72
Campyloneurum angustifolium ....................................................... 74
P hy llitidi ................................................................................................... 76
latum .... .............. ............................. 78
costatum ......................... .... 4 ....... 79
Phymstodes heterophyllum ............ ....80
Vittaria lineata ............. ................................. .............. .. 82
Paltoninm laceolatum ................................................................. 84
Pyenodoria pinetorum ............................ ...... ............... 86
vittata .................. ........... 88
eretiea ..... ..................................................... ..... .......................... 90
P teris lati u cula ........................................................................................... 92
caudata ............................. ..................... ............ 94
Litobrochia tripartita ........................................... ............................ 96
Adiantum Capillun-Veneris ....................................... 98
vi








SPracIz PAGE
Adiantum tenerum ................-------------- 100
melanoleucum ...................-... .... ......... --. 102
Hypolepis repens ................ .... ................... --- 104
Cheilanthes microphylla .......................... ...........- 106
Pellaea atropurpurea .... ..... ...............-...--..- 108
Blechnum serrulatum -............... -.... .. ........... 110
occidentale.... ....... ...... .......--... ...-... ...... 112
Anchistea virginica ........................ .... ...... 114
Lorinseria areolata ................ ... ...------ ... 116
Asplenium serratum ..... ......... ... .................. .. .. 118
platyneuron ..........-.........-... ...........120
heterochroum ......................... .... .-.... 122
resilient ........ ............................. ----- 124
absciesum .......... ......... ........- 126
dentatum ........................ ..- 127
verecundum ......... ..........-.-.......... -. 128
biscayneanum ................ .. ........ 130
Asplenium auritum .................. ...... ... .. ........132
pumilum ... ...... ...................... .. 134
Onrtiesii ...-......-. -2..---- ---- 135
cristatum ............... ... ............. 137
Athyrium asplenioides ........................... .. ..... 138
Tectaria heracleifolia -.......................... .... ....... 142
minima ...: ... ......... .............. ....... 143
Ameeiana ..... ................... ...... ..... ......... 144
coriandrifolia .............................--- 146
Meniscium reticulatum ................................. .... 148
serratum .................. ................ ....- 149
Dryopteris ampla .............................. 154
setiera ...... .................................---.................. 155
panamensis ....................... ......... 156
normal ...... .. ......................... ...... 158
pate .......................... ....... ...... ...... ..... ........- 160
augescens .............. ................. ... 162
Thelypteris ........................ ...........--...... ----..---. 164
floridana ..... ....-... ..... 165
hexagonoptera ........................................ 166
gongyloides .............. .... ....... 168
dentata ............ .......... .... .... 170
subtetragona ..-. ............ ................172
reptan .......... .... ..-................ ...... 173
Pol ti acrotichoides .................................... 174
Nephrolepis exaltata .................. .......... ........ 176
biserrata ................... ..................... .... 178
Sphenomeria clavata -.............. ............. 180
Demutaedtia adiantoides .. ................ ............184
Onocles senibilis ............ ...................... 185
M arsilea veatita ....................... ......... ..... ... 188
vii








SPECIES PAGE
Azolla caroliniana ...................................... ............................ ...... 191
Salvinia auriculata .......................... ... ................ ........ 192
Psilotum nudum ......................................... ...... ....... ................. 194
Lycopodium cernuum ................................................................... .. 197
carolinianum ............................. ................................ 197
adpressum ............................................. ............ ............................ 200
p rostratum ................................................................................................ 202
alopecuroides ............................................................................... ... 204
Selaginella Eatoni .............. ............................................................... 206
a p u s ..................................................................... ..................................... 2 0 8
ludoviiana ...................................... ......................................... 209
arenicola ...................................................................................................... 211
floridana ............................................................................... ... ..... 212
funiformi ............. .. .......................................................... 214
acanthonota ........................................ .................................... ......... 2 16
Isoetes flaccida ........................................ ............. ............................... 218
Chapmanii .................... ............................................................... 220
a la ta ............................................ ......................................... ........................ 22 1
Equisetum robustum ................................. .............................. ...... 223













FERNS OF FLORIDA
Florida has been called the "land of flowers."
Even more properly could it be called "the land of
ferns." While its pinelands and prairies are them-
selves not without their own peculiar species, its
woods, hammocks, marshes, swamps, and sand-dunes
so abound in fern plants, often in such remarkable
luxuriance, that Florida becomes the Fern State, par
excellence, among all the States of the Union.
The pinelands1 are the forests of pine trees, ap-
parently the permanent tree covering replacing the
broad-leaved growth or hammocks of former ages, at
least in some parts of the state.
The prairies2 are flat, more or less extensive, usually
damp, treeless areas, mostly in the peninsula.
The woods3 are the broad-leaved forests, usually in
the hilly or rolling parts, especially of northern
Florida.
The hammoeks' are growths of broad-leaved trees,
surrounded by pine-forest or prairie, mostly in
peninsular Florida. The use of this word is confined
to Florida and adjacent States. It was formerly con-
fused with the word hummock, a topographic term.
Hammock is a phytogeographie term. The word is
STheir characteristic fernwort genera are few: Anemi,
P'enodor Pter!a, SBpheomer,, Lyopodium, Selaetdlla.
STheir characteristic genera are few: Blechmu Osocleo,
Lvcopodium.
Seir characteristic genera are few: BotryeMuhm, OpMo-
glofeam, Ligodium, Pteria, Adint~um, Aspleantm, Atthri4m,
D ieri, Polysticaum, Selginella.
STeir characteristic genera are numerous: OpMogpifso m,
Cheiroglossa, TrihoomaIne, Actinostathoy, BtasoaeMma,
Polypodim, Phlebodium, Campploneurm, PhArmtodes,
Vittaria, Paltonim, Ad46otum, Hsolep. CheUleathe.,
Aspelniem, Tectaria, Dryopteris, Nephrolep, sBlagisell,
Psllotum.








FBRBN OF PLORIDA


probably of Indian origin. Lime-sinks, which are
usually conspicuous ferneries, are commonly in ham-
mocks, and are included here.
The marshes5 are wet prairies. They are common
throughout the peninsula. Depressions in the prairies
often form ponds.
The swamps6 are wet woods. They are common
throughout the state and are often along or near
streams.
The sand-dunes7 are undulating or hilly areas of
siliceous or calcareous sand, active along the coast,
stationary back of the coastal lagoons and in the
interior. Shell-mounds or kitehen-middens are usually
on salt water or rivers. The "scrub," which com-
prises extensive areas of white sand supporting a
characteristic plant association, is included here.
In these various areas are found about one-third
of the different kinds of ferns and fern-allies growing
naturally in all America north of Mexico; and the
variety in habit and leaf-form of these far exceeds
that exhibited by the ferns of any other part of either
the United States or Canada. In Florida more than
one hundred ferns and fern-allies, both simple and,
complex, from very small to gigantic, grow either as
native or as naturalized plants.
There are ferns in nearly every part of the State.
Only the more extensive areas of distribution will be
referred to on the following pages, namely: north-
ern Florida is the long horizontal (east-west) axis
'Their characteristic genera are several: Osmunda,
Ceratopteris, Adroatichu, Blechum, AnchW ea, Loriseria,
Dr.oteri, Asolla, Lesopodium, BAeslItUa, Ioete.
STheir characteristic genera are: Om*uue, Act4eOt#ahlea,
Aeroetishum, Atwcatea, Lor4ieria, Bleohnsm. Drgopterie,
Me=ec!me, Nephroepis, Onoolea, Loopodihn, BelHagnekla,
PTeilotum.
Their characteristic genera are few: Pterit, (Cheiathee,
Belagsnela.








ERNS OF IORIDA 3

of the State, while peninsular Florida is the long
perpendicular (north-south) axis. The Florida
Keys8 are the islands of the Florida reef off the
southern coast The Everglade Keys are islands in
the southern part of the Everglades. The Florida
Keys and Everglade Keys are islands of rock. The
upper series of Florida Keys are of coral limestone
and are clothed with hammock. The Everglade Keys
and the lower series of Florida Keys are of Bolitie
limestone and are clothed with both hammock and
pine forest. The lime-sink region is an area in the
northwestern- part of the peninsula, which is sur-
rounded by other phytogeographic regions. It com-
prises mostly rolling sandy pine woods with de-
pressions or sinks, but only few streams. However,
near the rivers there are many large springs.
The several ferns and fern-allies may be grouped
thus: (a) naturalized exotic species, (b) endemic
species, (e) species typically of a more northern
distribution, and (d) species typically of more south-
ern distribution, and consequently tropical.
There are, apparently, only three naturalized fern-
plants. These are:
Pyenodoria vittata (Ladder-bracken)
Dryopteris setigera (Giant-wood-fern)
Marsilea vestita (iWater-clover)

Little was formerly known concerning a bracken,
Pycsodoria vittata, within our range, but it has re-
cently appeared in new localities and in abundance.
The second exotic has found such favorable habitats
*Key (Spanish cayo, English cay) p applied to
islands along the coast n and near Spsnun-
tries, largely replaces the use of the word sland," parti o-
larly in southeM lorida, and by the Inhabitants s called
to islands in the rds as well as to the Islands o the
coast and reef of Florida.








PEENS OF PLORIDA


and grows in such a natural manner that it is difficult
to realize that it is not a native plant. In fact, never
has a satisfactory explanation been offered as to how
the large wood-fern, Dryopteris setigers, did gain a
foothold in these apparently natural habitats. Of
course, it may be that its spores were primarily car-
ried there by winds from cultivated plants and thus
lodged in favorable habitats. But the true manner
of its introduction may remain a mystery forever.
The water-clover, Marsilea vestita, is native west
of the Mississippi River. It seems to have been
brought into Florida through the agency of the rail-
roads, and as far as we know it has not been found
far away from the lines of traffic.
There are seven species, which so far as known are
endemic in, i.e., restricted to, Florida. These are:
Asplenium biscayneanum (Spleenwort)
Asplenium Curtissii
Tectaria Amesiana (Halberd-fern)
Selaginella Eatoni
Selaginella funiformis (Resurrection-plant)
Selaginella floridana
Isoetes Chapmanii (Quillwort)
Isoetes alata
The first-mentioned spleenwort grows in only two
hammocks-hammocks on the Everglade Keys, in the
southern end of the Everglades, while the second one
is found in hammocks in the lime-sink region of the
northern part of the peninsula. The Tectaria is
known only in the hammocks of the Everglade Keys.
The first-cited species of Selaginella occurs in penin-
sular Florida, the second and third have been found
in northern Florida, as well as in the peninsula.
The first-mentioned quillwort has been found only in
western Florida, while the second one is known to








PEBNS OF PLORIDA


occur only in the Gulf Hammock region. This re-
gion is a rather narrow strip along the uppei western
coast of the peninsula with limestone near the sur-
face or cropping out. The coast line differs from
that farther south in being devoid of islands. The
very gradually sloping ocean bottom acts as a barrier
against the approach of high waves from the Gulf
of Mexico. The long-leaf pine is the most abundant
tree, but there are many low hammocks besides the
great Gulf Hammock of Levy County-whence the
name for the region.
The vast majority of the species comprising this
fern flora are native plants that occur also outside
the state, either in the eastern United States or in
tropical. America. They fall into two groups: the
one composed of northern elements, the other of
southern elements. With very few exceptions the
plants ae fibrous-rooted. The species of the genera
Botrychium, Ophioglossum, and Cheiroglossa are
fleshy-rooted and doubtless all represent mycorrhiza-
bearing forms.
The northern elements comprise about one-third of
the species. They are not, however, all strictly typi-
cal of decidedly northern latitudes. On the one
hand, some only extend northward as far as south-
ern Georgia, and others are merely in the coastal
plain of the Gulf of Mexico, while on the other
hand a few of the species that are naturally included
among the northern ferns are found in the American
tropics. Following is a list of the species:
Botrychium obliquum (Grape-fern)
Botrychium virginianum (Battlesnake-fern)
Ophioglossum vulgatnm (Adder's-tongue)
Ophioglossum crotalophoroides
Trichomanes Bosehianum (Filmy-fern)
a








PEIENS OV PWRBIDA


Osmunda regalia (Royal-fern)
Osmunda cinnamomea (Cinnamon-fern)
Lygodium palmatum (Climbing-fern)
Pteris latiuscula (Brake)
Adiantum Capillus-Veneris (Venus'-hair fern)
Pellaea atropurpnrea (Cliff-brake)
Anehistea virginica (Chain-fern)
Lorinseria areolata (Chain-fern)
Asplenium platyneuron (Brown-stem spleenwort)
Asplenium resilient (Black-stem spleenwort)
Athyrium asplenioides (Lady-fern)
Dryopteris Thelypteris (Marsh-fern)
Dryopteria foridana (Florida wood-fern)
Dryopteria hexagonoptera (Triangle-fern)
Polystichum acrostichoides (Christmas-fern)
Onoclea sensibilis (Sensitive-fern)
Marailea vestita (Water-clover)
Azolla caroliniana (Watermoes)
Lycopodium alopecuroides (Clubmoes)
Lycopodium prostratum
Lycopodium adpressum
Lycopodium carolinianum
Selaginella apus (Spike-moss)
Selaginella ludoviciana
Selaginella acanthonota (Resurrection-plant)
Selaginella arenicola
Isoetes flaccida (Quillwort)
Equisetum robustum (Scouring-rush)

These ferns occupy, for the most part, temperate
and sub-tropical Florida.9 The plants are predomi-
nantly terrestiaL Some kinds, however, are aquatics;
others are amphibious. Many kinds prefer as a
habitat what we commonly call soil, others grow best
SIncludes practically all the State, except the Everglade
Key, the Cape Sable region, and the Florida Keys. The
more tropical fns have been considered In "Perne of Trop-
ical Florida," i-x, 1-80, 1918, and "Ferns of Royal Pal
Hammock," 1-vi, 1-38, 1918, and incidentally I papers pb
lished in the Journal of The New York Botanical arde
from 1904 to 1920.








TNS OF PLORIDA


on exposed rock, while a few seem to thrive lux-
uriantly in peat.
The lowland kinds reach Florida along the Atlantic
Coastal Plain, while the highland species extend
southward from the mountains or from the Piedmont
region along the hills and ridges -and through the
river-valleys of western Georgia and eastern Ala-
bama. The typically lowland kinds, the majority of
the species of the above list, often range far south-
ward in the peninsula, while the ranges of the high-
land species generally end in northern Florida or in
the upper part of the peninsula, for example:
Athyrium asplenioides, Dryopteris hexagosoptera,
and Polystichtm ocrostichoides.
The tropical elements, comprising, as they do,
about two-thirds of the species, furnish the more
varied and numerous, and also the more interesting
fern-plants of our range, chiefly because they are not
found further north. They are represented by:
Ophioglousum tenerum (Adder's-tongue)
Cheiroglosea palmata (Hand-fern)
Trichomanes lineolatum (Pilmy-fern)
Trichomanes punctatum
Trichomanes Krausuii
Actinostachys Germani (Ckrly-grasl)
Anemia adiantifolia (Flowering-tern)
Ceratopteris pteridoides (Floating-fern)
Ceratopteris deltoidea
Stenochlaena Kunseana (Holly-fern)
Acrostichnm auream (Leather-fern)
Acrostichum daneaefolium
Polypodium Plumula (Polypody)
Polypodium peetinatmn
Polypedium.polypodioides (Reerrreetion-fern)
Phlebodium aureum (Serpentfer)
Goniophlebium brasiliense









FERNS OF FLORIDA


Campyloneurum angustifolium (Strap-fern)
Campyloneurnm costatum
Campyloneurum latum
Campyloneurum Phyllitidia
Phymatodes heterophyllum (Vine-fern)
Vittaria lineata (Shoestring-fern)
Paltonium lanceolatum (Ribbon-fern)
Pycnodoria pinetorum (Ladder-bracken)
Pteris eandata (Brake)
Litobrochia tripartita
Adiantum tenerum (Maidenhair-fern)
Adiantum melanoleucum
Hypolepia repens (Beaded-fern)
Cheilanthes microphylla (Lip-fern)
Blechnum serrulatum (Swamp-bracken)
Blechnum occidental
Asplenium serratum (Spleenwort)
Asplenium heterochroum
Asplenium absoisaum
Asplenium dentatum
Asplenium auritum
Asplenium pumilum
Asplenium verecundum
Aspleninm Curtissii
Asplenium cristatum
Tectaria heracleifolia (Halberd-fern)
Tectaria coriandrifolia
Tectaria minima
Meniscium reticulatum (Everglade wood-fern)
Meniscium serratum
Dryopteris panamensis (Shield-fern)
Dryopteris normalis
Dryopteris augescens
Dryopteris ampla
Dryopteris gongyloides
Dryopteris parasitica
Dryopteris reptans
Dryopteria dentata








FERNS OF FLORIDA


Dryopteris subtetragona
Nephrolepis exaltata (Boston-fern)**
Nephrolepis biserrata (Sword-fern)9*
Sphenomeris clavata
Dennstaedtia adiantoides
Lycopodium cernuum (Clubmoss)
Psilotum nudum (Brushmoss)

These tropical ferns, nearly all of which are ham-
mock plants and grow for the most part on trees, in
humus, or on exposed limestone, are largely confined
to three well-defined areas. Two of these constitute
"tropical Florida"-that is to say, the Florida Keys
and the Everglade Keys. The other area is that
lime-sink region in the northwestern part of the
peninsula, mentioned above and to be referred to
more flly further on.
The Florida Keys consist of a chain of low islands
built upo nthe Florida Reef mainly south of the
peninsula. >All of them are remnants of what were
evidently larger islands in past ages.10 They are
really situated in the waters of the Gulf Stream, and
extend from the Atlantic Ocean on the northeast
into the Gulf of Mexico on the southwest. They are
naturally divided into two groups: those of the upper
or more northern group, which are of coral-rock, and
those of the lower or more southern group, which are
of limestone. All the islands are clothed with tropi-
cal hammock, except portions of a few and here they
are either partly heath-like or partly covered with
pine. These hammocks and pinelands harbor but ten
different kinds of native ferns; and of these, one
a These common names are used Interchangeably.
This statement refers to the islands composed of rock.
The mud fats and Islands covered with mangrove are evi-
dently, as a rule. increasing in sie, especially in sheltered
places, but they scarcely figure in the matter of ferns. They
are destitute oftferns, unless an occasional Aorost4ichm
aureum got a foothold there








PEBSN OF FLORIDA


only (Paltonium lanceolatum) has not yet been dis-
covered on the Florida mainland.
The Upper Keys are for the most part long and
narrow ridges of coral-rock and are clothed with
evergreen hardwood forests which harbor the one
kind of fern not yet known to occur on the Ever-
glade Keys. The Lower Keys are more spread out,
more even, and rather less elevated above the sea.
They are clothed both with hardwood forests and, in
the case of a half-dozen islands, with pine woods, at
least in part. The Lower Keys have as yet yielded
no ferns not already known on the Everglade Keys.
In fact, the Florida Keys have a much smaller fern
flora than the Everglade Keys. Only about one-
fifth of the species of the Everglade Keys have been
found there. No doubt in their past the fern flora
was larger than it is now. It may have rivaled or
excelled that of the Everglade Keys, for the Florida
Keys consist of two areas of different ages, coral
and limestone; but this region has been for a long
time decidedly on the wane as regards area, and
doubtless also vegetation.
In addition to the leaching process of erosion that
has reduced the surface of the Everglade Keys, the
Florida Keys have had the mechanical and chemical
action of the sea to contend with and the evidences of
reduction are not hard to observe. These islands
have been worn down and washed away not only by
the never-ceasing action of the sea, but also by the
hurricanes of ages. This is quite evident The rock
surface, particularly in the case of the Lower Keys,
whose limestone corresponds to that of the Everglade
Keys, is polished off and plate-like, instead of merely
leached out and honeycombed. What the former
fern-plants consisted of we cannot even imagine, but








JINBB OP FLOIDAA


we are safe in assuming that the list was more ex-
tensive than that which we are able to record there
now.
The Everglade Keys, the second tropical area-a
phytogeographie region isolated in the Everglades-
comprise a curved series of limestone islands appear-
ing on the surface about the neighborhood of the
Miami River, trending southwest and disappearing in
the southern end of the Everglades. The area is sur-
rounded by the Everglades, except where a portion
fronts on Bay Bisayne or its lagoons.
As on the Florida Keys, the native flora of the
Everglade Keys consists almost wholly of tropical
plants. Pineland predominates in extent of area to-
day; but the few- hammocks-evidently themselves
remnants of a once dominant and magnificent forest-
still harbor nearly fifty kinds of our tropical ferns.
And among these are no naturalized exotic species,
no typically northern species. The only northern
ferns in the vicinity are those occurring where the
Everglades and the limestone islands meet.
The number of ferns and fern-allies in this region
is quite remarkable when we consider that the area
involved comprises only a few hundred square miles,
a mere fraction of the State's large area. Although
variety in soil and other physical features is light,
this area harbors more than fifty per cent. of the
fern flora of Florida.
An overwhelAing majority of the species are typi-
cally tropical American. In addition to these, there
are several cosmopolitan species and a few endemic
ferns. The plants of nearly one-third of the species
are epiphytic, living on the moisture of the air and
getting solid food from the bark and small quanti-
ties of humus, while anchored on trees and prostrate









FEBNS OF FLORIDA


logs. This condition doubtless makes up to some
extent for the lack of variety in topography, climate,
and soil.
The Everglade Keys consist of two main divisions,
the Biscayne pineland" and the Long Key pineland.
The former group is made up of about a dozen larger
islands, which are mostly bounded by the Everglades
on two sides and separated from each other by nar-
row channel-like intersecting prairies. The Long
Key group has a much smaller area than the Biscayne
pineland. It consists of about five larger islands
and a few smaller ones. Both groups, are of lime-
stone, and they are slightly elevated above the Ever-
glades. The rock is rather porous and the softer
spots of the almost universally exposed surface have
been eroded, mostly by leaching out, so as to form
a surface honeycombed with all sizes of cavities
having very ragged and sharp edges. These lime-
stone islands are almost completely forested with the
Caribean-pine (Pinus caribaea) which grows nearly
everywhere on the exposed rock. However, the pine-
woods, or pine-lands, are interrupted here and there
by hammocks or areas of hardwood shrubs and trees,
some areas small and some much larger, although all
taken together these comprise but a very small per-
centage of the region under consideration. The
hammocks may be divided into two groups; first, the
high pineland hammocks which are islands or colonies
of hardwood trees in the pine-woods. They are dry
"These two groups of islands are separated from each
other by a distance of three miles. The intervening Ever-
glades contain a number of sloughs which represent the
upper reaches of an unmapped river that flows southward
and empties into the Bay of Florida. The larger or eastern
group of islands takes its name from Bay Biscayne, which
washes the shores of one of the islands for a distance of
about fifteen miles. The smaller group takes its name from
Long Key, the largest island lying west of the sloughs re-
ferred to above.








FERNS OF PLORIDA


except for the water contained in deep lime-sinks
and in the humid air. They number about a score.
Second, are the low pineland hammocks, indefinite in
number and situated along the boundary line of the
pinelands and the Everglades proper and prairies.
These are usually high and dry towards the pine-
woods and low and wet along the Everglades or
prairies.
The ratio of pineland ferns to hammock ferns
seems astonishingly small. There are only three
kinds of ferns that may be considered naturally pine-
land plants. Even two of these ferns will spring up
in clearings in hammocks which have been partly de-
stroyed either by nature or by man. The other forty-
eight species are hammock plants. Their habit ranges
from the stiffest to the most graceful and their struc-
ture from the coarsest to the most delicate. The
pineland species are strictly terrestrial in habit.
The hammock kinds are to a great extent epiphytic.
The hammocks of the Biscayne pineland are rich
repositories of ferns. The trees are nearly all ever-
green. More abundant are: pigeon-plum (Cocco-
lobis), devil's claws (Pisonia), blolly (Torrubia),
cherry (Laurocerasus), wild-tamarind (Lysilma),
Jamaica-dogwood (Ichthyomethia), coral-bean (Ery-
thrina), torch-wood (Amyris), bitterwood (Sima-
rouba), gumbo-limbo (Elaphrium), Guiana-plum
(Drypetes), soapberry (Sapindus), butter-bough
(Exothea), wild-coffee (Colubrina), lancewood
(Ocotea), stopper (Eugenia), .and many others, all
growing closely associated to make the hammocks.
Nearly all the kinds of ferns of tropical Florida
may be found in them. The well-like lime-sinks, the
hammock floor, and the trunks and limbs of rough-
barked trees are the habitats of the many species,







PERNS OF PLORIDA


each and all usually forming ferneries of indescribable
beauty. They can be appreciated by the eye alone;
even the camera falls far short of doing them justice.
In some places the deep well-like sinks have their
sides completely covered with mats of iridescent
filmy-ferns (Trichomates) to the exclusion of all
other vegetation, while nearby tree-trunks and logs
are completely covered with another kind of filmy-
fern. In other sinks the small halberd-fern (Tee-
tara) predominates, while in still others we find the
honeycombed rock sides adorned with various ferns,
filmies (Trichomanes), maidenhair (Adiantum), hal-
berd-fern (Tectaria), wood-fern (Dryopteris), and
spleenwort (Asplenium), not to mention the rarer
holly-fern (Stenoclaena), which is one of the few
climbing ferns of Florida. The hammock floor is
another kind of fernery. There the strap-fern, vari-
ous wood-ferns, maidenhair, spleenworts, sword-fern,
and large halberd-fern comprise the more conspicu-
ous kinds. One species of wood-fern (Dryopterie
ampla) is, at the same time, the most conspicuous and
most elegant. It sometimes has an erect stem a foot
and a half high and elegant lace-like leaves with a
spread of a dozen feet! In these remarkable ham-
mocks there are ferns everywhere, ferns under-
ground, ferns on the ground, and ferns in the air.
The trunks and limbs of rough-barked trees are
actually clothed with masses of ferns, as well as with
orchids, and other plants. The resurrection-fern
(Polypodium), the strap-fern (Campyloneurum), and
the Boston-fern (Nephrolepis) are the most common
epiphytic kinds, while the elegant vine-fern (Phy-
matodes) occurs plentifully in one hammock. Pal-
metto trees are often conspicuous ferneries. Below
the crown of leaves and growing from among the






PERNS or FLOBDA


old leaf-bases one often finds a collection of Boston-
fern (Nephrolepis), shoestring-fern (Vitoria), hand-
fern (Chekioploom), and serpent-fern (Phlebodiom).
In passing, before taking up the additional tropi-
cal locality, it may be of interest to mention a kind
of half-way -station where a few tropical kinds of
ferns have found congenial conditions, and flourish.
It is the magnificent hammock that clothes the eastern
shores of Lake Okeeehobee. Here vegetation is pro-
tected by the tempering of the westerly winds, that
blow across the lake in winter. As a consequence
the Boston-fern (Neplrolepis) and the strap-fern
(Campyloneurum), as well as some epiphytic orchids,
are abundant.
The third tropical fern area-and the one by far
most difficult to understand or to interpret satisfac-
torily-is that district several hundred miles north
of the Everglade Keys previously referred to, the
lime-sink region in the northwestern part of the
peninsula. Here the hammock is composed of trees
not tropical, but characteristic of more northern
warm temperate regions. The trees are mostly de-
ciduous-leaved. There one finds iron-wood (Car-
pinus), oak (Quercue), elm (Ulmw), sugarberry
(Celtis), mulberry (Moru), sweet-gam (Li qidam-
bar), ash-leaved maple (Neguado), maple (Acer),
and flowering dogwood (Cynoxylon). The boulders,
sinks, chasms, cafions, caves, and cliffs hidden in these
hammocks support a growth of ferns, even if of a
fewer number and of less variety, yet, just as tropi-
cal, both in character and in kind, as do the lime-
sinks of the Everglade Keys. There is one striking
difference, it is true. This is the absence of the
epiphytic kinds so common to the more southern area.
The resurrection-fern (Polypodum .polypodioides) is







FERNS OF FLORIDA


the only truly epiphytic kind. Following is a list of
the species found in the largest known grotto:

Polypodium polypodioides (Resurrection-fern)
Polypodium Plumula (Polypody)
Polypodium peetinatum
Pteris eretica (Bracken)
Adiantum tenerum (Maidenhair-fern)
Asplenium abscissum (Spleenwort)
Asplenium Curtissii
Asplenium heteroehroum
Asplenium platyneuron
Asplenium verecundum
Teetaria heracleifolia (Halberd-fern)
Dryopteris floridana (Wood-fern)
Dryopteris normalis (Shield-fern)
Dryopteris reptans

These species, or the related types in the case of the
endemic Asplenium Curtissii, are of general tropical
distribution. The plants are evergreen and have no
apparent resting period during the year.
Such a copious growth of ferns is rarely seen any-
where else in Florida. Boulders and cliffs are often
entirely hidden from view by dense masses of the
various ferns growing intimately mixed. On other
overhanging rocks with rather smooth faces the plants
are often scattered. Most of the kinds grow not
only on the perpendicular faces of the rocks, but
also on the tops of boulders and all more or less hori-
zontal surfaces. The masses of leaves of all sizes and
kinds of ferns often completely hide numerous pit-
falls of various sizes and ranging from a few feet to
twelve feet deep. Walking is rendered exceedingly
dangerous from these treacherous pitfalls alone, not







PINS OF PLORIDA


to mention the soft and crumbling edges of cliffs and
ledges.s1
Among the tropical ferns that do not comply with
our rule of these three tropical phytogeographic areas,
are the amphibious leather-ferns (Acrostichsm),
which extend northward along the coastal strip or
through the Everglades up into the Lake region, the
floating-ferns (Ceratopteris) which are scattered
through the peninsula up into the Lake region, and
such epiphytes as the hand-fern (Cheiroglossa), the
serpent-fern (Phlebodium), the vine-fern (Phy-
matodes), the shoe-string fern (Vittaria), two species
of strap-fern (Campyloeumr.m), and the sword-fern
(Nephrolepis).
The exception in the case of the epiphytes, how-
ever, is easily accounted for. The soil or rock condi-
tions in the country lying between southern Florida
and the northern part of the peninsula are wanting,
but whenever the conditions of hammocks in this in-
tervening territory are favorable, for example, the
hammock on the eastern shore of Okeechobee, these
epiphytes, finding congenial conditions, take hold
and thrive.
There are nine kinds of ferns common to the
Everglade Keys and to the lime-sink region. They
are of tropical origin. .There are forty-two species
growing on the Everglade Keys not yet found in the
lime-sink region, and five species have been collected
in the lime-sink region not yet met with on the Ever-
glade Keys.
Travelers and botanists observed and perhaps col-
lected specimens of ferns in Florida before the begin-
SFor more detailed account of thee fern grottoe ee
A. H Cartls, Plant World 5: 68-70, 1902, and B .
Harper, American Fern Journal 6: 68-81 1916
2







PERNS OF FLORIDA


ning of the eighteenth century. Then during the
earlier part of the last century, further collections
were made in many localities, and about the middle
of that century nearly fifty species of ferns were
known to grow wild in the entire state. During the
eighth and ninth decades of the last century and the
first decade of the present century, however, during
which periods collectors carried on botanical ex-
plorations in the less-known parts of the state, the
list of Florida ferns was increased by more than fifty
additional species. So that now, as already stated,
we know that in this state alone there are growing,
without cultivation, over one hundred different kinds
of ferns and fern-allies.

NOTE
The drawings for the figures on the following pages
were made by Mary E. Eaton, with the exception of
four species of Selaginella (8. arenicola, S. floridana,
S. funiformis, and S. acanthonota) which were made
by Henry C. Creutzburg. A three-centimeter rule
has been inserted in all figures which are smaller than
natural size. Most of the leaflets or portions of leaves
or leaflets showing the venation and sporangia are
more or less enlarged, at least as compared with the
habit sketch. William R. Maxon and Edward J.
Alexander have read the copy and the proof. Edgar
T. Wherry and Roland M. Harper have read the
proof. The specimens on which the list is founded
and from which the drawings were made were col-
lected, for the most part, by the author, and are pre-
served in the Herbarium of The New York Botanical
Garden.








PTERIDOPHYTA


SUBKINGDOM PTERIDOPHYTA

FERNS AND FESN ALLIES

Plants containing woody and vascular tissues.
They produce spores asexually, each of which,
on germination, develops into a prothallium or
small thalloid body gametophytee). The pro-
thallia bear the reproductive organs; the female
organ is known as an archegone, the male as an
antherid. As a result of the fertilization of an
egg in the archegone by a motile spermatozoid
produced in the antherid, the asexual state of
the plant is developed sporophytee); this phase
is represented by and popularly known as a
fern, a lycopod, or a quillwort. About 6,000
species of living ferns and fern-allies are known.
Perhaps an equal number of fossil species have
been discovered. A great majority of the living
forms grow only in tropical regions.
Leaves with broad or narrow, entire, toothed, or dissected
blades. Fern-like plants.
Spores of one kind, minute.
Sporangia coriaceous, open-
ing by a transverse alit:
vernation erect or in-
dined: plants succulent. Order 1. OPHIOOLOSSALeS.
Sporangia membranous,
opening Irregularly by
an elastic ring: verna-
tion spirally coiled:
plants not succulent. Order 2. FILICALUS.
Spores of two kinds, minute
microspores and larger
megaspores, borne in sporo-
carps. Order3. SALVINALnS.
Leaves sale-like or subulate:
moss-like plants or rush-like
plants.








OPHIOGLOSBACBAE


Sporangia in the axils of
small or leaf-like bracts:
stem solid.
Leaves scale-like, flat, borne
on erect or creeping
stens and branches: ter-
restrial or epiphytic
plants. Order 4. LYCOPODwALB.
Leaves long-subulate, borne
on a short corm-like can-
dex: aquatic plants. Order 5. ISOETALas.
Sporangia in an apical cone,
borne under peltate scales:
stem hollow, rush-like. Order 6. EQUISBTarLa.

ORDER 1. OPHIOGLO88ALES
Succulent plants consisting of a short fleshy root-
stock bearing numerous fibrous, often fleshy, roots and
one or several leaves. Leaves erect, or pendent, con-
sisting of a simple, lobed, or compound sessile or
stalked sterile blade and one or several separate
stalked fertile spikes or panicles (sporophyls), borne
upon a common stalk. Sporangia formed from the
interior tissues of the leaf, naked, each opening by a
transverse slit. Spores yellow, of one sort. Prothal-
lia subterranean, usually devoid of chlorophyl and
nourished by an endophytic mycorrhiza.-Comprises
the following family:

FAMILY 1. OPHIOGLOSSACEAE

ADDz'S-TONGUE FAMILY
Terrestrial or epiphytic leafy plants, the leaf
straight, erect in vernation or merely inclined, from
a subterranean bud which is formed within the base
of the old leaf-stalk or at its side. Sporophyls erect
or drooping, solitary or clustered.-There are five
genera in this family: three occur in Florida; the
others are tropical.
Leaf-blades with free veins: sporangia distinct from each
other, borne in simple or branched
clusters. 1. BOTBTCHIUM.







OPHIOGLOSACEAB


Leaf-blades with united and retculate
veins: sporana cohering in more
or le elonate spike-like clusters.
Plants terretra: sporangla borne in
a single erect, terminal, long-
talked ter. 2. OrauoLossex.
Plan epphy : sporanga borne In
several 'drooping lateral short-
stalked clusters. 3. CHaoOLossA.

1. BOTBYOIUM Sw.
Fleshy terrestrial plants with erect rootstocks bear-
ing clustered fleshy roots and 1 to 3 erect leaves. A leaf
consists of a short cylindrie common stalk bearing at its
summit a 1-3-pinnately compound or decompound free-
veined sterile blade and a long-stalked fertile spike or
1-4-pinnate panicle (sporophyl) above the sterile blade,
with numerous distinct globular sporangia in 2 rows,
sessile or nearly so. Bud for the following season at
the apex of the rootstock, enclosed within the base of the
common stalk, either wholly concealed or'visible along
one side.--Consists of about twenty species, most abun-
dant in the temperate regions of both hemispheres
Nearly a dozen species, besides the following, occur in
the eastern United States.-MooNwoRTs. G(Qa -rszIS.

Leaf-segments fleshy, crenulate or serrulate; veins several
times forked. 1. ob.lqus.
Leaf-segments membranous, pinatlfld;
veins mostly once forked. 2. B.crgit4nis.
1. B. obliquum Muhl. Leaves 1-5 dm. high, the com-
mon stalk short, with the bud for the following season
concealed within its base; blade usually long-stalked,
commonly 5-12 cm. broad, subternately divided, the di-
visions stalked, nearly equal, 1- or 2-pinnate or some-
what 8-pinnatild in larger forms, the segments obliquely
ovate to lanceolate or oblong-lanceolate, the terminal
ones elongate, 1-2 cm. long, the margins throughout
crenulate to sharply serrulate: sporophyl very long-
stalked, erect or nodding at the apex, 3- or 4-pinnate:
bud densely pilose, both portions bent in vernation. [B.
tensifoium Underw.]-(GBAr-rN[s)-Woods, pastures,
riverbanks, and pinelands, northern Florida.







22 OPHIOGWbSBACEA1


BoTmxoHmUa OBLIQUUM








OPHIOGLOGBACEAE 23


BoMhYCHIL VMGINMIwAUI







OPHIOGLOSACBAE


The grape-fern is one of the rarer ferns of Florida.
It was first found in the State in the earlier half of the
last century; but it apparently has not been collected
recently. The geographical range includes the United
States east. of the Mississippi River, and adjacent
Canada. Its center of distribution was probably always
in the more temperate regions whence it spread to
Florida ages ago. The form found in Florida is rather
different in aspect from that -growing farther north,
notably in having the segments of the leaf cuneate at
the base, and may represent a definite variation.
2. B. virginianum (L.) Sw. Leaves 2-7 dm. high,
the common stalk slender, comprising j to j the length of
the plant, with the bud for the following season exposed
along one side; blade nearly or quite sessile, spreading,
thin, deltoid, 1-4 dm. broad, nearly as long, ternate, the
short-stalked primary divisions 1-pinnate or 2-pinnate,
the segments 1- or 2-pinnatifid; ultimate segments elliptic
or ovate, toothed at the apex; sporophyl long-stalked,
2-3-pinnate, with slender branches.-(BATTLESNAKE-
PEBN)-Rich woods, northern Florida.
The rattlesnake-fern, like the grape-fern, is one of the
rarer ferns in Florida. It was the first collected in the
state in the earlier half of the last century and has been
found there since. Its geographical range is extensive,
including North America, Europe, and Asia. The plants
require, or at least thrive best in a climate with alternat-
ing hot and cold seasons. This may account for the
fact that it only enters the northern portion of Florida.

2. OPHIOGLOO8U8 L.
Terrestrial, low, often diminutive, plants, with small
erect or oblique fleshy sometimes tuber-like rootstocks,
and fibrous, naked roots. Leaves 1 or 2-6 together,
slender, erect, consisting usually of a short cylindric
common stalk bearing a simple entire broad or narrow
sessile or'short-stalked sterile blade and a single erect
long-stalked spike-like sporophyL Sporophyl formed of
2 rows of globose coaleseent sporangia: spores copious,
sulphur-yellow. Bud for the following season borne at







OPHIOGLOBaCZAB


the apex of the rootatoek, exposed, free.-Comprises
about forty-ive species, widely distributed. Besides the
following one or two other species oceur in the eastern
United States.-ADDn 'S-TONGU~ S. ADDnR'S-FiNB.
Leaf-blades rather gradually narrowed at the base, rounded
or obtuse at the aper, with equal or parallel ves at
the base.
Sterile leaf-blade rounded, obtuse or aeutish at the apex:
areolae broad with few vein-
lets. 1. 0. Vulgatum.
Sterile leaf-blade apiculate:
areolae broader, with many
velnets. 2. 0. sgelmhsoi.
Leaf-blades abruptly narrowed or
cordate at the base, abruptly
pointed at the apex, with mar-
ginal veins at the bas.
Rootstock obscurely tuberous:
spike less than 2 mm. in
diameter. 3. 0. teserur.
Rootstock tuber-like, subglobose:
spike over 2 mm. In diameter. 4. O. orotalophoroe4s.
1. O. valgatum L. Bootstock short: leaf solitary,
1-4 dm. tall, deep-green, glabrous; sterile blade near the
middle, sessile, ovate to elliptic, 3-12 cm. long, rounded,
obtuse or merely acutish at the apex, rather firm in
texture, rather faintly reticulate, the veins very fine:
areolae with few delicate veinlets within; basal veins
9-13, nearly equal: spike 1-2.5 cm. long, apiculate:
sporangia globose, 1.5-2 mm. in diameter, 9-25 along each
side of the rachis or rarely fewer.-Meadows or open
woods, northern Florida.
This adder's-tongue is admitted into the Florida flora
on the strength of a specimen collected in the state many
years ago. It has not recently been found there. It
ranges northward to southeastern Canada, and occurs also
in Europe and Asia. It is a northern type of fern, and
may have been forced southward during the lee Age far,
enough to reach Florida. Its geographical range in-
eludes various plant provinces, but it is usually found in
distinctly acid soils.
2. 0. Engelmanin Prantl. Bootstock cylindrie: leaves
usually 2-5 together, 0.5-2 dm. tall, bright-green:
glabrous: sterile blade elliptic or rarely ovate, 3-
apieulate, soft-corlaceous, delicately reticulate, the veins
very slender: areolae with numerous free or anastomosing
veinleta: basal veins 13 or more: spike 1.5-2.5 em. long,








OPHIOGLOSSACEAE


OPHIoOssUM VULGATUM







OPRIOGLOSSACEAB 27


OPHIOGWBSUM EiOuGZAWnqU







OPHIOGLOSSAOCIA


slightly apiculate: sporangia globose, mostly 1-2 mm. in
diameter, 10-27 along each side of the rachis.-Shaded
hillsides and banks, northern Florida.
Recent exploration has discovered this adder's-tongue
in abundance in the western part of northern Florida.
There its favorite habitat is partly shaded banks, in
highly calcareous soil. Outside of Florida it ranges to
Arizona, Missouri, and Virginia. From somewhere in
this geographic range it formerly migrated to Florida.
3. O. teneram Mett. Bootstock nearly erect, ob-
scurely tuberous: leaf very slender, 2.5-4 cm. tall,
glabrous; blade near the base of the leaf, ovate to
lanceolate, abruptly pointed at the apex, cuneate at the
base, and with 3 basal veins: areolae very irregular,
large, broad, but decidedly longer than wide near the
center, smaller and very unequal near the margin, usually
with few free veinlets: spike slender, 6-12 mm. long:
sporangia less than 1 mm. in diameter, 2-18 along each
side of the rachis.-Bogs or low pinelands, nearly
throughout Florida, except the Florida Keys.
This species of adder's-tongue is not often collected.
However, it is probably more common than it appears
to be, and its inconspicuous habit may account for its
apparent rarity. It was first found in Florida in the
earlier half of the last century. Tropical America seems
to have been the original home of this species. Sub-
sequent to its prehistoric introduction into Florida, it
failed to spread beyond the southern Coastal Plain from
Georgia to Louisiana.
4. 0. crotalophoroides Walt. Bootstock globose,
tuber-like: leaf rather stout, 2-15 cm. tall, glabrous;
blade about the middle of the leaf, ovate or elliptic-
ovate, 8-30 mm. long, abruptly pointed at the apex
abruptly narrowed or cordate at the base, with 5 basal
veins: areolae very unequal, very long and narrow near
the center, very small near the margin, usually with no
free veinlets: spike stout, 4-12 mm. long: sporangia
fully 1 mm. in diameter, 3-10 along each side of the
rachis.-Low grounds, northern Florida and the northern
part of the peninsula.
The range of this and the preceding species seems to
be about the same, except it has not yet been found in








OPHIOGL8OBACEAB


OPHIOGLOsBUM TENfBUM








OPHIOGLOSSACEAB


OPHIOGLOSSUM CROTALOPHOBOIDES







OPHIOGLOSSACEAB


the southern part of the peninsula. It also is a tropical
type. It was found in Florida in the earlier part of the
last century, and without the State it ranges in the
Coastal Plain from South Carolina and Georgia to
Texas.
3. OHEIBOGLOSSA Presl.
Pendent, epiphytic plants, with long fleshy roots.
Leaf-blades broad, palmately lobed. Sporophyls short,
borne on the base of the blade or on the stalk near the
blade. Veins reticulate: areolae without free veinlets.-
The following species is the only known representative of
this genus.
1. 0. palmata (L.) Presl. Boots cord-like: rootstock
tuberous, covered with fine woolly chaff. Leaves fleshy,
kelp-like, tender; blades 10-25 cm. long, palmately di-
vided into 2-9 erect or broadly spreading lobes, or rarely
entire and lanceolate, narrowly or broadly cuneate at
the base: sporophyls 2-16, or rarely 1, 2.5 cm. long or
more. [Ophioglossum palmatum L.]-(HAND-rELN.)-
On trees, usually among the bases of the leaves of the
cabbage-palm or palmetto, peninsular Florida.
The Hand-fern grows in insular and continental tropi-
cal America. It was discovered in Florida in 1875 along
the Caloosahatchee. It has since been found at many
localities, as far south as Cape Sable. The plants are
very sensitive to fire, and since forest-fires and prairie-
fires are becoming more frequent in districts where
they formerly were of rare occurrence, this fern is fast
disappearing from localities where it once was abun-
dant. Evidently a prehistoric immigrant from tropical
America, its geographical connection with the center of
distribution is still intact. Its favorite habitat in Florida
was cabbage-trees (Sabal palmetto). Before the cold
climatic conditions of the Ice Age came, the hand-fern
may have followed the cabbage-tree up along the Atlantic
Coast.
ORDER 2. FILICALES

Terrestrial or epiphytic, or in one family aquatic,
plants various in habit. Sporangia developed nor-








OPHIOGLIOSACEAE


CHEIBoOGLSSA PALMATA







HYMENOPHYLLAMNAN


mally from single epidermal cells, variously disposed,
mainly upon the under surface of the leaf, commonly
in clusters (sori) upon the veins, or within special
marginal indusia, or, less commonly, irregularly or in
rows upon slender more or less non-foliose pinnae or
segments. Spores of one sort. Indusia of various
forms, or wanting. Prothallia flattish or filamentous,
green, terrestrial or epiphytic.-Includes several
families, five of which occur in our range.
Leaves with filmy translucent blades: sporanga sesile on
a fliform receptacle within an urceolate, cp-lie, funnel-
form or tubular indusim. Fam. 1. H"MrNOPHNtLACAa.
Leaves with herbaceous or
leathery blades: sporan-
gia on the back or the
margins of normal or
modinfed leaf-blades
Sporsagia in panicles or
spikes developed from
modified leaves. or
parts of leaves.
Sporangia nearly glo-
bose, with a rudi-
mentary rin. Fam 2. OSMNDACBAn.
Sporangia ovoid or py-
riform, with a com-
plete apical ring. Fam. 3. ScHIZAAcEAI.
Spor a borne on the
back or margin of a
leaf-blade.
Sporangla nearly ses-
sile: plants aquatic
or semiaquatic. Fam. 4. CRaATOPTRIDACaAm.
Sporangia long-stalked:
plants terrestrial or
epiphytic. Fam. 5. POLYPODIACBAL

FAnLY 1. HYMENOPHYLLAOEAE
FILMY-mEBN FAMILY
Delicate or dainty, mostly matted small ferns with
filiform or slender creeping or suberect rootstocks.
Leaves often numerous and crowded: blades very thin,
entire, erose, toothed, or usually much divided, the
leaf-tissue pellucid, usually consisting of a single
layer of cells. Sporangia sessile upon a filiform
usually elongate receptacle within an urceolate, cup-
like, funnelform, or tubular, either truncate or 2-
lipped marginal indusium which arises at the tip of
3








HYMENOPHYLLACEAE


TRICHOMANES PUNCTATUM


TRICHOMANES LINEOLATUX


TRicHoMaANEs KRAussii







HYMENOPHYLLACEAE


a vein; ring complete, transverse, opening vertically.-
There are two genera in the filmy-fern family, the
following and Hymenophyllum. The latter, com-
mon throughout wet tropical regions, has not yet been
found within our range.
1. TRIOHOMANES L.
Plants extensively creeping, often densely matted,
terrestrial or epiphytic. Leaves remote or close together
on the rootstock: blades entire, lobed, or pinnatifid, or
several times pinnately divided or flabellate. Indusium
tubular or funnelform, truncate or sometimes broadly 2-
lipped, the sporangia mostly upon the lower portion of
the slender, often exerted, receptacle.-An additional
species is found in Georgia, Alabama, and Mississippi
Leaf-blades flabellate, crenate, lobed, or incised: plants
mostly terrestrial. I. FLABELLATA.
Leaf-blades deeply pinnatifid, the seg-
ments pinnatifld: plants mostly epi-
phytic. IL PINNATA.
I. FLABELLATA
Lateral veins tapering toward the mar-
gin of the leaf-blade, the tissue
between the veins conspicuously
cellular-punctate. 1. T. punctatum.
Lateral veins enlarging toward the
margin of the leaf-blade: the tissue
between the veins not conspicuously
cellular-punctate. 2. T. lineolatum.
II. PINATA
Indusia exserted beyond the leaf-
segments, but narrowly winged,
strongly 2-lipped: receptacle short,
somewhat exerted from the indu-
slum. 3. T. KraussU.
Indusia not exerted beyond the leaf-
segments, slightly 2-lipped: receptacle
long and thread-like, long-exserted
from the indusium. 4. T. Boschianum.
1. T. punctatum Poir. Terrestrial, or rarely epiphytic,
very fragrant: rootstocks matted, very slender, finely and
softly radiculose: leaves 0.8-2 cm. long; blades flabellate,
cuneate, obovate, or orbicular-obovate, with a cuneate
base, 3-8 mm. wide or sometimes wider, slender-petioled,
incised or incised-lobed, the margins with stellate hairs:
indusia solitary or few, usually partly immersed and
often narrowly winged, 1.5-2 mm. long.-Edges, sides,
and vicinity of lime-sinks in hammocks on the Everglade
Keys.







HYMENOPHYLLACEAE


The geographic range of this filmy indicates that it
was long ago carried across the Florida Straits, and
then secured a foot-hold in tropical Florida. As far as
we know it never progressed further northward. It is
almost always terrestrial but occasionally occurs on the
bases of tree-trunks about lime-sinks where the ferns
grow in abundance. It occurs either in small patches or
dense carpets, sometimes entirely lining the perpendicular
edges of the sinks. It was first found in Florida in 1901
in Snapper Creek Hammock and listed as T. sphenoides.
Since then it has been found in several of the pineland
hammocks as far as Camp Longview and on Boyal Palm
Hammock. The species is common in tropical America.
2. T. lineolatum (v. d. B.) Hook. Terrestrial, scarcely
fragrant: rootstocks matted, slender, creeping, bristly
radculose: leaves 1.5-3 cm. long; blades flabelate
obovate to euneate, or in the case of young leaves sub-
orbicular and cordate, 5-12 mm. wide, nearly sessile or
petioled, 2-10 mm. broad, create or variously incised,
the margins with stellate reflexed hairs: indusia partially
immersed or exerted, few, often partly winged, about 2
mm. long.-Edges and sides of lime-sinks in hammocks on
the Everglade Keys.
The statement about the origin and advent of
Trichomitnes pucstatum in Florida applies equally well
to this filmy. It may always have been less ubiquitous
in the Everglade Key region or it may be gradually be.
coming extinct on the Florida side of the Gulf Stream.
Trichomanes lineolatwn is not as common as the preced-
ing. It resembles it in habit and habitat, but is usually
somewhat larger. Up to the present time, it has been
found only in Boss Hammock near Silver Palm. It oc-
curs in tropical America, but was not discovered in
Florida until 1906.
3. T. Eranass Hook. & Grev. Epiphytic: rootstocks
matted, widely creeping, slender, densely radiculose:
leaves 2-3.5 cm. long; petioles short, bristly, sometimes
winged above; blades variable, elliptic to broadly elliptic
or ovate, 5-15 mm. wide, deeply pinnatifid, the rachis
thus narrowly winged, the segments linear to elliptic,







HYMENOPHYLLACZAE


pinnatifd, the lower ones deeply lobed, each sinus bear-
ing a small black stellate hair, the upper side not parallel
to the rachis: indusia few or several, aserted from the
leaf-segments, but narrowly winged, about 2 mm. long.-
Bases of tree-trunks, roots, logs and stems of shrubs in
hammocks, on the Everglade Keys.
Evidently of tropical origin and dissemination, this
filmy must once have crossed the Florida Straits and
lodged in the southern part of the Florida peninsula.
There is no evidence that it ever grew further north
than its present geographic limits, although it may once
have been more abundant within its present range when
more extensive favorable habitats existed there. It has
been found in a half dozen hammocks from the Silver
Palm region to near Camp Longview. It occurs in dense
hammocks and grows not only on trees and shrubs near
the ground, but quite high up, sometimes completely
covering the trunks and limbs with masses that can be
stripped off as mats of several square feet. It was rst
found in Florida in 1903, but was previously known in
both the neighboring and distant parts of tropical
America.
4. T. Boschianmn Sturm. Terrestrial: rootstocks
elongate, wiry, tomentose: leaves ascending; petioles
naked or nearly so; blades lanceolate or ovate-laneeo-
late, 5-20 cm. long, 1.5-3.3 cm. wide, 2- or 3-pinnatild,
the segments inequilaterally ovate, obtuse, toothed or
cut into linear or narrowly ovate divisions: indusia 1-4
to a segment, the upper side of the euneate base parallel
to the winged rachks, 1.5-2 mm. long, immersed in the
tissue of the leaf-segment. [T. radican A. Gray, not
Sw.]-Damp or wet rock or ledges, western Fla.t
In moderately recent geologic time this filmy may have
been more widely distributed. Its ancestors probably
came from the great tropical ilmy-fern reservoir, and as
they migrated northward they became somewhat im-
mune to cold. Now, however, all connection with the
original home of the filmy-ferns has been lost. It is our
largest filmy-fern, and is also the rarest within the State.
The plant is most abundant and reaches its best develop-
ment in Alabama. It has been found also in northern









HYMENOPHYLLACEAE


TBIcHOMANES BOSCHIANUM







OSMUNDACEAE


Georgia and extends northward to Kentucky. It often
grows in strongly acid soils. It is sometimes called
bristle fern.
FAxILY 2. OSMUNDACEAE
CINNAmoN-rEE N FAMILY
Tall leafy terrestrial plants, with creeping or sub-
erect rootstocks. Leaves erect or spreading: blades
1- or 2-pinnate: veins free, mostly forked, extending
to the margins of the leaflets: petioles winged at the
base. Sporangia naked, large, globose, mostly
stalked, borne on modified contracted leaflets, or in
clusters (sori) on the lower surface of the leaflets,
opening in 2 valves by a longitudinal slit; ring few-
celled or wanting. Prothallia green.-There are
three genera in this family: the following, and two
others in the Old World.
1. OSMUNDA L.
Leaves in large crowns, erect, from a thickened root-
stock: blades once-pinnate or twice-pinnate, some wholly
or some partly spore-bearing, the spore-bearing blades
or leaflets very much contracted and devoid of chlorophyl;
sporangia short-stalked, thin, reticulate, opening in
halves, a few parallel thickened cells near the apex rep-
resenting the rudimentary transverse ring. Spores
copious, greenish.-Besides the following, one other
species grows in North America, and four or five addi-
tional ones occur in other parts of the world.
Leaf-blades 2-pinnate: leaflets serrulate: upper pinnae of
some of the leaves spore-bearing:
veins mostly twice-forked. 1. regalis.
Leaf-blades 1-pinnate: leaflets pinnati-
fid, all the leaflets of some of the
leaves spore-bearing: veins mostly
once-forked. 2. 0. cinamomea.
1. 0. regalis L. Leaves clustered, 6-20 dm. tall:
blades 2-pinnate, the leaflets 1.5-5 cm. long, serrulate
and sometimes crenately lobed near the base, elliptic-
ovate, or lanceolate-elliptic, sessile or slightly stalked,
spore-bearing portion of the leaf terminal: sporophyl
panicle-like, thrice-pinnate, the segments linear-cylindric,








OSMUNDACEAE


OSMUNDA REGALIA







OSMUNDACKAB


greenish before maturity, red-brown or dark-brown and
withering with age.-Wet and moist grounds, nearly
throughout Florida, except the Florida Keys.
This is a cosmopolitan fern, par eeUllenee. It is com-
mon both north and south of Florida. It seems impoe-
sible to decide whether it took its place in the plant
population of Florida from the North or from the South.
Now, it occurs in nearly every part of the State. In the
southern part of the peninsula the plants are evergreen,
and often have more than one "fruiting" season in
each year. The royal-fern is most common in and about
low hammocks and especially in cypress swamps and
cypress-heads. There it often forms stem-like tussocks
half a meter high. Sometimes it grows in the open
Everglades especially near streams and sloughs often
occurring in patches an acre in extent.
2. 0. cllnamomea L. Leaves erect or nearly so, 5-15
dm. tall, one or several fertile leaves borne within the
crown of sterile ones; leafets lanceolate to linear-lanceo-
late, deeply pinnatifid, the segments oblong or ovate, en-
tire, obtuse: sporophyl twice-pinnate, soon withering:
sporangia cinnamon-colored.-Swamps and wet woods,
nearly throughout Florida, except the Everglades, the
lower eastern coast, and the Florida Keys.
It seems reasonably certain that this fern originally
came to Florida from the north, for it is lacking from
the southern part of the peninsula and the Florida
Keys. If it did come from northern regions where it is
not evergreen, it later assumed an evergreen habit in
the Florida peninsula where its main spore-producing sea-
son is frequently as much as six months earlier than
in the North. The cinnamon-fern is often plentiful in
swamps and open wet woods, but it does not occur in
such extensive areas as the royal-fern. It ranges north-
ward from the Gulf States to Minnesota and Nova Scotia,
and it occurs in Europe and Asia. Forms sometimes
develop with leaves intermediate between the sterile
and the fertile types. It was first found in Florida in
the earlier part of the last century.








OBMUNDACEAE


OSMUNDA CINNAMOMEA







SCHIZAEACEAE


FAxILY 3. SOHIZAEACEAE
CURLY-GRASS FAMILY
Erect and rigid or climbing plants, sometimes
tufted. Leaves with simple pinnate or dichotomous
and palmate-lobed blades. Sporophyls borne on the
ordinary leaves or on specialized leaves. Sporangia
borne in double rows on narrow specialized leaf-
lobes or leaf-segments, ovoid, sesile, naked or in-
dusiate, provided with a transverse apical ring, open-
ing vertically by a longitudinal slit. Prothallia
green.-Comprises six genera or more. Besides the
following another genus is represented in New Jer-
sey, Nova Scotia, and Newfoundland.

Plants erect; leaves not twiing.
Sporophyls borne on specialized leaves: leaves with nar-
row simple, terete or flattish
blades. 1. ACTINOSTACHYS.
Sporophyls borne on the elongate
pinnae of ordinary leaves: leaves
with pinnately compound blades. 2. ANEMIA.
Plant climbing: leaves twining. 3. LYGODIUM.

L ACTINOSTACHYS Wall.
Epiphytic, low, sometimes tufted, often humus
plants. Leaves erect: blades simple, linear, triquetrous
or flattish. Sporophyls erect: segments terminal in a
penicillate tuft, spuriously digitate. Sporangia borne in
2 rows. Indusium continuous, formed of the narrowly
reflexed margin of the segment.-Represented in the
United States by the following species:
1. A. Germani FWe. Leaves rigidly erect, 1 or several
from a bristly tuber which is usually buried in rotten
wood, borne upon a slender chestnut-brown rootstock,
5-15 cm. long, about 1 mm. in diameter, triangular or
flattish in drying: spore-bearing segments linear, 1-4
pairs, 8-15 mm. long, the sporangia in 2 rows, often ap-
pearing in 4's from crowding, the mid-vein pilose.-Low
hammocks, Everglade Keys.

Considering the paucity of spores in the case of this
fuzzy fern as compared with prodigious numbers of









SCHIZABACEAE


ACTINOSTACHYS GRMAWNI







S8HIZAAOCAB


spores produced by some of its associates, it is difcult
to realize how it migrated from the West Indies to
Florida. It appears to reproduce itself in a very'limited
number of individuals. This relative of the northern
curly-grass has been found but twice in Florida. It was
discovered in low hammocks about the headwaters of the
Miami Biver in 1904, and over a decade later in Boyal
Palm Hammock. It was always growing in decaying
wood, sometimes in stumps over a meter from the ground.

2. ANEMIA Sw.
Terrestrial erect plants, with creeping or ascending
rootstocks. Leaves (in our species) with the lowermost
pair of leaflets (sporophyls) of some of the blades
greatly elongate, often overtopping the rest of the blade,
and bearing numerous panicles of sporangia in 2 rows
on the back of very narrow divisions: sporophyls erect,
contracted, long-stalked.-A tropical genus of several
dozen species; besides the following another occurs in
western and southern Texas.
1. A. adiantifoli (L.) Sw. Plants 1 m. tall or less:
leaf-blades triangular-ovate, 12-30 cm. long, on usually
elongate petioles, slightly pubescent, pinnately decom-
pound; ultimate segments obovate or euneate, striate
above with numerous fabellate veins: panicle of the
sporophyl ascending or erect, tan or brown, fusy on the
back, continuous or slightly interrupted.-Dry pinelands
and hammocks, Everglade Keys and lower Florida Keys.
This fern long ago spread over insular and continental
tropical America, and northward of the West Indies
passed beyond the technical boundary of the tropics.
However, after it became established in Florida its
migrations ceased, and in historic times, at least, it has
been confined to the oolitic limestone regions. Though
more common in the pinelands than in the hammocks,
this fern usually grows two or three times as large in
hammocks as in pinelands. It seems to have been first
collected in Florida in the early part of the last century
either on Key West or on Big Pine Key.








SCHIZAEACEAE


ANEMIA ADIANTIFOLIA







SCHIZAEACEAE


3. LYGODIUM Sw.
Vines with elongate climbing or twining leaves, the
rachis wiry and more or less lexuous. Leafy parts con-
sisting of stalked lobed, pinnate, or pinnately compound
secondary divisions arising in pairs from alternate
slender or short naked stalks, the primary branches.
Leaflets mostly lobed: veins several times forked, mostly
free, the midvein mostly zigzag. Fertile leaflets usually
narrower. Sporangia obovoid, borne in a double row
upon the contracted and more or less revolute segments.
Indusia scale-like or clamshell-like, hooded, fixed by their
broad bases to short oblique veinlets, opening antrorsely.
--Comprises nearly thirty species which are most abun-
dant in the tropics.

1. L. palmatum (Bernh.) Sw. Bootstock slender,
wide-creeping: leaves 5-15 dm. long, narrow, vine-like;
sterile leaflets orbicular to broadly reniform, 2.5-6 cm.
long, 3-8 cm. broad, dichotomously pedatifid J to I the
distance to the cordate base into 4-8 spreading unequal
lobes, thus subpahnate, the outer lobes small and rounded
or emarginate, the main ones elliptic to lanceolate, ob-
tuse or obtusish: fertile leaflets usually terminal, 3- or
4-pinnate, the divisions narrowly linear or linear-lanceo-
late, covered beneath with the scale-like indusia, some-
what revolute: indusia 0.6-0.7 mm. wide, the free edge
uneven.-(Climbing-fern.)-Low .woods, shaded banks,
and pastures, northern Florida.

Whatever its remote history may have been this fern
is now localized in the eastern United States. Thus it is
a temperate region plant. It reached Florida from the
north-its ancestors, perhaps, driven southward during
the progress of the ice-age. The climbing-fern is rare
in Florida. It is somewhat local in its general area of
distribution, but occurs from New Hampshire and Massa-
chusetts to Florida, and in Kentucky and Tennessee. It
is most abundant in the last named State. High soil-
acidity is most favorable to it.






OCHIZAEACEAE


047


LYGODIUM PALMATUM







CEBATOPTERIDACEAE


FAMILY 4. CERATOPTERIDAOEAE
FLOATING-PERN FAMILY
Aquatic or partly amphibious succulent plants,
floating, or rooting in mud. Leaves of two kinds, the
sterile leaves floating or emergent, the sporophyls
erect, the ultimate segments narrow, often linear, the
margins revolute and often meeting near the midrib.
Sporangia scattered in 1 or 2 longitudinal lines,
nearly sessile, globose, thin-walled, with a complete
.or vestigial ring.-Comprises the following genus:

OCEBATOPTEBIF Brongn.
Plants soft-succulent, often growing in wide mate.
Leaves tender: petioles stout, with large air-cavities:
blades broad, the margins uneven. Sporophyls usually
more divided than the sterile leaves.-(FWOTING-rNs.)
Few species, widely distributed in tropical and subtrop-
ical regions.
Mature sterile leaves floating; blades pentagonal in outline,
20 cm. long or less, 2-4-pinnatfld: annulus few-celled, the
lip-cells wanting: spores 32 in each
sporangium. 1. 0. pteridoides.
Mature sterile leaves emergent; blades
broadly deltoid in outline, 2-60 cm.
long, 2-pinnate: annulus and lip-cells
well-developed: spores 16 in each
sporangium. 2. (. deltoidea.
1. 0. pteridoldes (Hook.) Hieron. Plants floating or
partly submerged and rooted: larger floating leaves 25
cm. long or less; petioles expanded, bulbous; blades
pentagonal, 6-20 cm. long and broad, 1-3 times pin-
natifid, the ultimate segments broadly ovate or deltoid,
or in succeeding leaves 2-4 times divided, with narrowly
oblong segments; leaves of rooted plants similar, but the
petioles not expanded, the areolae relatively large, rather
abruptly diminishing towards the margins from quite
large and long cells within: sporophyls 40 cm. long or
less, the segments linear or linear-lanceolate; annulus
4-10-celled.-(FLOATINO-ERlN.)--Still or slow-flowing
water, upper peninsular Florida.
These fern anomalies cannot long survive freezing
temperatures. They have always remained tropical types
of ferns. Their aquatic habitat and fragile tissues lend


49









CEBRATOPTEBIDACEAE


C3RATOPTRIS PTEBIOIDES







POLTPODIACEAB


them to ready distribution by water-birds. After the
pioneers of our two species were brought across the Gulf
Stream, the water-birds doubtless were responsible for
spreading both species northward in Florida and along
the Gulf coast.
C. pteridoides is apparently the more abundant of our
two species of floating fern in Florida, and grows further
north in the peninsula than the following. It was dis-
covered in our range in 1879, a year later than Cera-
topteri deltoidea. It has been found growing abun-
dantly in the headwaters of the St. John's River on the
eastern side of the peninsula and in the upper waters of
the Withlacoochee River on the western side. Outside of
Florida this fern is known from Cuba and from north-
ern South America.
2. 0. 4eltodea Benedict. Plants partly submerged:
larger mature leaves 25-50 cm. long; petioles not bulb-
ous, 10-20 cm. long; blades deltoid, 20-35 cm. long, 15-
25 cm. broad, acute, 2-pinnate or pinnatifid, with 5-8
pairs of pinnae, the lowest pinnae broadly deltoid,
3-4 em. long, acute or aeutish, the areolae rather small
and numerous, gradually diminishing towards the mar-
gins from longer ones within: sporophyls 40-65 cm. long,
the petioles flattened, the blades deltoid, 40 cm. long or
less, 4 times pinnately divided, the ultimate segments
narrowly linear; annulus 400-0-elled.-(FLOATmni-
rzP .)-Still, or slowly moving water, lower peninsular
Florida.
Although only lately described, this was the first of
our two species to be found in Florida. It was collected
in 1878 in Prairie Creek northeast of Charlotte Harbor,
and is otherwise known from Louisiana and some of the
West Indian islands.

FAxmL 5. POLYPODIACEAE
FEZN FAMILY
Terrestrial, epiphytic, or swamp plants. Rootstocks
elongate, creeping or horizontal, or short and erect.
Leaves sometimes dimorphous, coiled in vernation,
erect, spreading, or pendulous: blades simple, once










POLYPODIACEAE


CERATOPTERI DELTOIDES









POLYPODIACEAE


pinnatifid or several times pinnatifid or pinnate, or
decompound. Sporangia borne either promiscuously
or in clusters (sori) on the lower side or margins of
the leaf-blades, stalked, provided with an incomplete
vertical ring of thickened cells, opening transversely.
Sori either with or without a membranous covering
indusiumm). Prothallia green.-The largest of the
families of ferns. It includes nearly one hundred
and fifty genera and about five thousand species. It
is represented in arctic, temperate, and tropical
regions.

Sporebearing leaves with the blades, divisions, or leaflets
flat, or with the edges merely revolute.
Spore-bearing leaflets densely clothed with masses of
sporania.
Leaves dimorphous, the sporo-
phyl quite different from
the other leaves; veins free. I STBNOCnHLarnIAB.
Leaves not dimorphous, the
sporophyl not different from
the other leaves: veins
anastomosing. IL AcaOSTICHEAs.
Spore-bearing leaflets, or leaf-
segments, with sporangia
borne in separated sort.
Indusla wanting.
Sort broad, circular or
nearly so, or elliptic,
not marginal
Petioles pointed to the
rootstock. III. POLTPODImAN.
Petioles not jointed to the
rootstock. IX. DRYOPTBIDA.IL
Sori linear, in continuous or
interrupted marginal or
intramarginal lines. IV. VITTABIaa.
Indusla present
Sori marginal or dorsal, but
not borne in cup-like
or pocket-like indusia
which open towards the
apex of the leaf.
Sort marginal or essen-
tially so: indusium
formed, in part, by
the more or less modi-
fied leaf-margin.
Sporangla borne en a
continuous vein-like
receptacle connecting
the apices of the
veins. V. PTIEIDeAL.
Sporangla borne at or
near the apices of
unconnected veins. VI. ADIANTAn.










POLPODIACUEA


Sori not marginal, dorsal:
induslum not formed
by part of the leaf-
margin
Sort narrow, linear to
elliptic: indusium
more than thrice
as long as broad.
Sort parallel to the
midrib of the leaf-
segment. VIL BLBCHN A .
Sori oblique to the
midrib of the leaf-
blade or the lef-
segment. VIIL ASPLENIZAL.
Sort broad, roundish or
reniform: indusium
less than twice as
long as wide.
Sort mostly on the
backs of the veins:
Indusia attached at
or near the middle,
opening all around:
leaf-blades simple
or compound, he
leaflets not articu-
late, persistent. IX. DaroPTraID
Sori terminal on the
veins: indusia at-
tached at the side,
opening laterally,
mostly towards the
margin of the leaf-
let: leaf-blades
once-pinnate, the
leaflets articulate
and deciduous X. NBPHEOLBPII
Sorl borne in cup-like or
pocket-like Indusia which
open towards the apex of
the leaf-segent. X DAVALLIZAL.
Spore-bearing leaves with the
divisions closely rolled together,
thus necklace-like or berry-like. XII ONOCLA.
I. STBrocCHLAaE N
Creeping or climbing plants with
spiny-toothed leaflets. i. STmNOCmLANA.
IL AcaosTxCHmAs
Erect plants with entire leaflets. 2. Ac osTICHn M.
III POLTPODIMAN
Veins free: leaf-segments usually
numerous. 3. POLYPODIUM.
Veins anastomosing: leaf-segments
few or leaf-blades entire.
Leaf-blades broad, pinnatifld.
Leaf-segments with nearly or
quite uniform areolae, each


)DAB.


UI.


Q









POLYPODIACKA


areola with a ingle free
velnlet: sori terminal on the
included venlet.
Leaf-segnents with Irregular
areolae, each areola along
the midrib without a vela-
let: sort terminal on a pair
of veinlets.
Leaf-blades narrow, elongate, not
pinnatfld, essentially entire.
Rootstocks short, not climb-
ing: leaves in a crown:
areolae in regular rows, or
chiedy in one row in 0.
asgustifetuem.
Rootstocks elongate, exte-
sively climbing: leaves
spaced on the rootatock:
areolae irregular.
IV. VITTAMIBaa
Veins obscure, forming a single
row of areolae without Included
veinlets.
Veins freely anastomosn. the
* areolae with Included veinlets.


4. UoNioPxMauIU.



5. PeLNUOoiuM.




6. CAMx'moxUunSU.


7. PHnYAToDss.



& VITTARIA.
9. PALTONIlUM.


Vt. PTUmanuIA
Induslum singe, formed by the
modified leaf-margin: leaf-blades
once-pinnate or rarely twice-
pinnate 10. PYCNODOBIA.
Induium double, an Inner mem-
branous portion aising from the
receptacle: leaf-blades more than
twicepinnate.
Veins anstomosing: middle divi-
sion of leaf-blade 2-pinnate (in
our species). 11. PTaaBs.
Veins forking, but free: middle di-
vision of leaf-blade 1-pinnate (in
our species). 12. LITOBBOCHIA.

VL ADIANThAS
Leaves with only the teeth or lobes
of the divisions or leaflet re-
curved on the sort as indusla.
Petioles black or very dark,
slender and wiry ADIANTUM.
Petioles yellowish to brown,
stout, not wiry. 14. HYPOLPIS.
Leaves with the margins of the
segments wholly recurred over
the sort
Leafets with pubescent blades:
sporangia in interrupted sub-
marginal bands: veinlets with
much thickened tips. 15. CHBILANTHES.
LeaSets glabrous except the mid-
rib: sporangla. forming con-









POLYPODIACEAE


tinuous submarginal bands:
veinlets not thickened at the
tip. 16. PELLAEA.
VII. BLECHNEAE
Blades of the leaflets or leaf-
segments entire or toothed:
veins free, or in spore-bearing
leaflets connected near their
bases by a transverse continuous
receptacle: sori continuous or
nearly so. 17. BLECHNUM.
Blades of the leaflets pinnatifid:
veins anastomosing near the
midrib: sori interrupted,
chain-like.
Leaves uniform; veins free be-
tween the sori and the mar-
gins. 18. ANCHISTEA.
Leaves dimorphous; veins anas-
tomosing, thus forming fine
areolae. 19. LORINSERIA.
VIII. ASPLENIEAE
Scales (chaf) of the rootstock
firm, of thick-walled cells. 20. ASPLENIUM.
Scales (chaff) of the rootstock
very delicate, of thin-walled
cells. 21. ATHTYIUM.
IX. DBYOPTERIDEAE
Veins anastomosing.
Veins copiously and irregularly
anastomosing, the areolae ir-
regular: sori separated. 22. TECTARIA.
Veins regularly anastomosing by
pairs, the areolae regular: sori
covering the back of the leaf-
let. 23. MENISCIUM.
Veins free or those of the lower
one or two pairs Joined and
running to the sinus.
Indusia (if present) reniform or
suborbicular and with a nar-
row sinus. 24. DRYOPTERIB.
Indusia orbicular-peltate, with-
out a sinus. 25. POLYTTICHUM.

X. NEPHBOLEPIDEAB
Epiphytic or terrestrial plants:
leaves long, and narrow, often
greatly elongate: leaflets numer-
ous; blades toothed: indusia
reniform or orbicular-reniform. 26. NEPHROLEPIS.
XI. DAVALLIEAE
Terrestrial plants with clustered
leaves, the blades divided into









POLYPODIACEAZ 57

many narrow segments which
are slightly broadened upward.
Indusium flattish, attached at the
base and the sides, the soral.
pouch pocket-like: leaf-seg-
ments linear-cuneate. 27. SPHENOMEBIS.
Indusium convex, adnate later-
ally to the concave opposed
lobule, the soral-pouch cup-
like: leaf-segments cuneate to
ovate. 28. DENNSTAEDTIA.

XII ONOCLAn
Terrestrial plants with extensively
spreading rootstocks and erect
leaves, the sterile-leaves anu the
sporophyls separate. 29. ONOCLzA.









POLYPODIACEAE


SwTocHLAzNA KbTMUwNA








POLYPODIACIA


1. BTENM OOCLANA J. E. Smith.
Rigid terrestrial or epiphytic wood-plants or rock-
plants. Leaves borne singly or clustered on the creep-
ing, sometimes climbing woody rootstock, dimorphous;
blades 1-pinnate, relatively narrow; leafets thick, usu-
ally toothed, sometimes spiny-toothed, the spore-bearing
ones narrower than the others. Veins free, extending
from the midrib to the margin, simple or forked.
Sporangia numerous, oonluent and clothing the lower
surface of the leaflets. Indula wanting.-About ten
species, natives of the tropics.
L unseana (Presl) Underw. Bootstock elongate,
creeping or scandent, flattened, with ovate-lanceolate
scales: leaves dark green, 1-6 dm. long; petioles mar-
gined, green or purple-tinged; blades oblanceolate to
spatulate in outline, much longer than the petioles, the
leaflets few to many, the blades various, ovate to reni-
form and very small at the base of the leaf to lanesolate
or linear-lanceolate and larger (4-12 em.) above, the
larger ones acuminate, pale-green beneath, dark-green
above, irregularly dentate or serrate-dentate, euneate at
the base, short-stalked: veins simple or once-forked, ex-
tending into the teeth: sporophyls smaller than the other
leaves, the leaflets with much narrower blades which are
thickly covered with sporangia beneath.-(HoLLr-
rsN.) -Hammocks, Everglade Keys.
As is the ease with several of our ferns of tropical
origin, this one apparently never migrated far from its
point of departure from the West Indies. It now main-
tains a precarious existence in a very limited area.
Perhaps it was more abundant when the hammocks of
the Everglade Keys were more extensive. Now it seems
in a fair way to be eliminated from our range. The
holly-fern is quite distinctive from all other ferns in
our region. On account of the arrangement of the
sporangia, it was formerly considered to be closely re-
lated to Aorostiohwm and even included in that genus.
However, it differs from it in the dimorphous leaves.
It is more vine-like than our other ferns. The elongate
rigid rootstocks creep or clamber about the edges of the









60 PMYPODIACEAE


ACHBOSTICHUM AUEEUM








POLYPODIACEAE


well-like lime-sinks and about the bases of shrubs and
trees. It is now known from a half dozen hammocks,
several in the Biscayne pineland and one in the Long
Key pineland. It was discovered in Florida in 1903.
It occurs also on some of the larger West Indian islands.

2. ACREOTIOHUM L.
Tall coarse swamp plants. Leaves erect, in a crown
on the short or somewhat elongate rootstock: petioles
smooth or with several pairs of spur-like species: blades
pinnate, on stout petioles; leaflets leathery, the blades
thick, entire or obscurely toothed, flat, erect or spread-
ing. Veins anastomosing, forming copious minute
areolae without free veinlets. Sporangia very numerous,
covering the entire lower surface of all the leaflets or
of the upper leaflets only with a red or brown felt-like
coating.-About five species, widely distributed in the
tropics.-LnATHz -rFNs.
Meshes of the areolation, away from the margin of'the leaf-
let, averaging between 2 and 8 mm. in length: upper
leaflets of the spore-bearing leaves
bearing sporangia. 1. A. auresm.
Meshes of the areolatlon, away from
the margin of the leaflet, aver-
aging between 1 and 2 mm. in
length: all leaflets of the spore
bearing leaves bearing sporangia. 2. A. doneaefotium.
1. A. aureum L. Leaves loosely tufted, more or less
arching, 1-3 m. tall, pliable; petiole armed with dark
horny spurs; blades much longer than the petioles, the
leaflets 12 pairs or more, the blades thinnish, broadly
linear to linear-lanceolate, the larger ones mostly 1.5-2
dm. long, light-green, pliable, separate or distant, some-
times long-stalked; areolation coarse, very oblique to
the midrib: sporangia confined to the upper quarter or
half of the leaflets of the spore-bearing leaves.-
(LBAT~aB-rxlN.)-Mangrove swamps, salt-marshes, and
low hammocks near salt-water, coasts of peninsular
Florida and Florida Keys.
The leather-ferns are quite suggestive of primeval
vegetation. They are strictly tropical types and have
made very sure of perpetuating themselves by the pro-
duction of an inordinate number of spores. These may










POLYPODIACEAE


ACROBTICHUM DANEAEPOIUX








POLYPODIACEAE


have introduced the species into Florida, either through
the agency of the wind or of water-birds. Likewise, the
species have migrated northward nearly the whole length
of the peninsula.
Up to the end of the last century, A. aureum had been
considered the only representative of Aorostichm in
the United States. Now it is known to be even less
common than the following species of leather-fern, with
which it was confused. It is most abundant in salt-
marshes and mangrove swamps on the Everglade Keys
and in low hammocks on the Florida Keys. Luxuriant
growths are to be found in the large lime-sinks in the
original forest on the northern end of Key Largo. It
thrives best in shaded localities. This plant is common
in the West Indies and in continental tropical America.
It was discovered in Florida in the latter half of the
eighteenth century.
2. A. daeaefolinm Langsd. & Fisch. Leaves closely
tufted, ascending or erect, stiff, 1.5-4 m. tall; petiole un-
armed; blades much longer than the petiole, the leaflets
usually numerous, the blades thick, lanceolate to linear-
lanceolate, the larger ones mostly 2-3 dm. long, sometimes
more, deep-green, stiff, approximate or crowded, short-
stalked; areolation very fine, slightly oblique to the mid-
rib; sporangia covering the lower surface of all the
leaflets of the spore-bearing leaves. [A. exoelsum
Maxon.] (LzrTHn-FnN. GlAur-n RN.) Freshwater
marshes, brackish swamps, low prairies, and wet ham-
mocks, lake region of peninsular Florida and southward.
This fern as far as mass is concerned has the largest
leaves of any of our fern-plants. In favorable localities
leaves often measure nearly four meters in length.
Away from any influence of salt-water it reaches its
greatest development, both in size and quantity. In the
prairie-like outlets of the Everglades and far north
about Lake Okeechobee areas acres in extent are cov-
ered with a magnificent growth of this fern. The
tangled masses of rootstocks and the close-set stout leaf-
stalks make these thickets almost impenetrable. It
thrives beat in places fully exposed to the sun. This










POLYPODIACEAE


POLYPODIUMl PLUMULA








POLYPODIACBAE


plant is common in insular and continental tropical
America, and was discovered in Florida in the earlier
half of the last century.

3. POLYPODIUM L.
Low epiphytic or terrestrial wood-plants. Leaves
erect or spreading on horizontal or creeping rootstocks,
to which the petioles are joined; blades simple, lobed,
or pinnatifid, the segments thin or leathery, entire or
toothed. Veins free or only casually anastomosing.
Sori orbicular, borne in one row or in several rows on
the back of the leaf-blade on either side of the midrib
or on the back of the leaf-segment on either side of the
midrib. Indusium wanting.-Almost two hundred spe-
cies are known in this genus. They are widely dis-
tributed in temperate and tropical regions.-POLYPODYS.
Leaf-segments membranous, not scaly: rootstock short:
leaves clustered. I. CASPITOSA.
Leaf-segments coriaceous, densely
appressed-scaly beneath: rootstock
elongate: leaves spaced. IL INCANA.
L CAuSPITOSA
Leaf-sements consicuously numerous
and closely placed; blades very nar-
row, mostly linear: veins obscure,
once-forked. 1. P. Plumvi.
Leat-segments neither conspicuously
numerous nor closely placed; blades
relatively wide, more or less taper-
ing: veins rather prominent, twice
or thrice forked. 2. P. pectiseotm.
II INCANA
Plants with long creeping rootstocks
and appressed pale peltate scales:
leaves shrivelling in dry weather,
expanding i nwet weather. 3. P. polpodioides.
1. P. Plumuls H. B. K. Bootstock short, stout: leaves
clustered, 1-5 dm. long, deep-green, erect, arching, or
spreading; petioles black or dark-purple, very narrowly
margined, usually finely pubescent; blades nearly linear
to linear-lanceolate, much longer than the petioles, often
with a strong lateral curve, the segments very numerous,
narrowly linear or nearly so, the longest ones less than
3 cm. long: veins obscure, once forked: sori minute.-
(PoLYPOD.)-Hammocks, peninsular Florida and Florida
Keys.










POLYPODIACEAE


POLYPODIUM PECTINATUM








POLYPODIACEAE


Polypodys, in different groups, represent both cold
and warm climate plants. None of the northern types
reach Florida. The tropics have furnished several-
two of them very tender, as far as low temperatures
are concerned. The present species and the one follow-
ing came directly from the West Indies. Both species
have migrated well up into the peninsula, but they have
selected rather widely separated and protected habitats.
P. Plumula is known in our range only from a few
widely separated localities. It occurs in the upper part
of the peninsula; and in both the eastern and the western
coast regions, but curiously enough, it is not found in
the hammocks of the Everglade Keys. On Pumpkin Key
and Key Largo it grows on well rotted logs and in humus
on the floor of the dense hammock. In some places it
occurs in colonies, in others it is found only as an
isolated plant. In the hammocks of the peninsula it
commonly grows on the trunks and the branches of trees.
The geographic range of this fern includes the mainland
and islands of tropical America. It was discovered in
Florida in the earlier half of the last century.
2. P. pectinatum L. Rootstock short, stout: leaves
clustered, 4-10 dm. long, deep green, arching or spread-
ing, petioles purple, often very dark, narrowly margined,
more or less pubescent; blades almost linear to narrowly
elliptic or lanceolate, longer than the petioles, often much
longer, the segments numerous, but not conspicuously so,
linear-tapering to linear-lanceolate, the longest ones at
the widest part of the blade over 3 cm. long; veins twice
or thrice forked: sori relatively large.-(PotYPODY.)-
Hammocks, peninsular Florida.
This species is more abundant and apparently more
widely distributed than the preceding polypody. It is,
as yet, unknown on the Florida Keys. In the peninsula
it occurs in the hammocks of both the eastern and west-
ern coastal regions and in those of the interior. It
prefers dense hammocks where it grows either in humus
in the hammocks or on rotting logs and stumps, and
sometimes also on the rock walls of lime-sinks. It is
common to both continental and insular tropical America










POLYPODIACEAE


P4LYPODIUM POLYPODIOIDEB








POLTPODIACEAB


and was discovered in Florida in the latter half of the
last century.
3. P. polypodloides (L.).A. Hitche. Bootstock elon-
gate, widely creeping, slender: leaves scattered along the
rootstock, bright-green, or grayish when dry, 0.5-2.5 dm.
long; petioles copiously scaly, slender; blades lanceolate
to oblong, or sometimes elliptic-ovate, as long as the
petioles or longer, the segments linear to elliptic, entire
or undulate, sparingly scaly above, densely scaly beneath,
the scales dark-centered: veins very obscure, forking:
sori near the margin, mostly oval, 1.5-2 mm. long.--
(RwsuawsoN-raPw s.) Hammocks, nearly throughout
the Florida mainland and the Florida Keys.
The resistance to adverse climatic conditions acquired
by this fern in its tropical home served it well after it
migrated to more northern latitudes. After coming out
of the West Indies into Florida it was able to proceed
with impunity into the land of ice and snow where it
maintains an existence, although, naturally with less
luxuriance than in its tropical haunts.
The resurrection-fern has the distinction of being the
most abundant and common of the small ferns of the
hammocks in our range. In dry weather the leaves
shrivel, shrink, and curl up, but after a rain-storm or a
rainy period they are restored to a perfectly fresh state,
whence the common name. It grows in probably nearly
all the hammocks of northern Florida and the penin-
sula, and in many places on the Florida Keys. It occurs
in abundance on the trunks and the limbs of the live-oak
and on other rough-barked trees and also on dead stumps
and prostrate rotting logs. It is more rare on the
ground and on rocks. This plant is common in conti-
nental and insular tropical America, and extends north-
ward in the eastern United States to Iowa and Pennsyl-
vania. In mountainous regions it forsakes trees and its
epiphytic habitat, and often grows almost exclusively on
rocks. It was discovered in Florida in the eighteenth
century. It is sometimes known as scaly-polypody, tree-
polypody, and gray-polypody.










POLYPODIACEAE


GONIOPHLEBIUM BRASILIENSE








POLYPODIACEAE


4. GONIOPELEBIUM Presl.
Rather large epiphytic plants. Leaves borne singly,
erect or spreading, jointed on a stout scaly creeping
rootstock: blades broad, deeply pinnatifid, the segments
firm or thickish, entire or undulate. Veins regularly
anastomosing, forming nearly regular areolae in each of
which is included a free veinlet. Sori orbicular, borne
on the back of the leaf-blade at the ends of the
free veinlets. Indusia wanting.-More than 100 species,
widely distributed in the tropics.
1. G. brasllnse (Poir.) Small. Rootstock stout,
creeping, sometimes elongate, copiously scaly, the scales
brown: leaves more or less scattered on the rootstock,
2-5 dm. tall, bright-green; petioles brown, glabrous, at
least ultimately so; blade varying much in width, but
usually ovate to elliptic-ovate, about as long as the
petioles or longer, the segments lanceolate to linear-
lanceolate, commonly 1-1.5 dm. long, separated on the
rachis, entire and undulate or irregularly erose and
more or less crisped: areolae copious; aori numerous,
mostly in two rows on each side of the midrib, nearly
or quite 2 mm. in diameter.-(BRBAZILAN POLYPODY.)-
Low hammocks, Ten Thousand Island region, Florida.
Many of the ferns of Florida grow on both the eastern
and the western coasts of Florida. However, the ham-
mocks of the western coast can boast of some species
that are absent from the eastern coast, and conversely.
The Brazilian polypody is one of the kinds that, as far
as we know, grows only on the western coast where it is
apparently confined to the low hammocks at the northern
end of the Ten Thousand Islands. The species is widely
distributed in tropical America, and was first found in
Florida in 1924.
5. PHLEBODIUM R. Br..
Rather coarse epiphytic plants. Leaves borne singly
and spreading or drooping from a stout creeping root-
stock to which the long petioles are jointed: blades broad,
deeply pinnatifid, the segments thickish, entire or toothed.
Veins regularly anastomosing, forming large areolae in










POLYPODIACEAE


PELEBODIUm AUBsum








POLYPODIACEAE


which are included two or more free veinlets. Sori or-
bicular, borne on the back of the leaf-blade on the united
ends of the free veinlets. Indusia wanting.-About six
species widely distributed in the tropics.
1. P. aureum (L.) B. Br. Bootstock stout, creeping,
serpent-like, copiously fuzzy with red scales: leaves scat-
tered along the rootstock, 3-18'dm. long, bright-green or
yellowish-green, spreading; petioles brown, smooth;
blades ovate to elliptic-ovate in outline, longer than the
petioles, the segments lanceolate, elliptic-lanceolate or
linear-lanceolate, or linear when young, mostly 1-2 dm.
long, entire, undulate or sometimes crisped, separate or
approximate and even overlapping: areolae copious,
somewhat irregular: sori in one series on each side of
the midrib, about 2.5 mm. in diameter.-(Sma rPNTw aN.
GOLDEN-PoLYPODY.)-Hammocks, and palmettos in pine-
lands, peninsular Florida and the Florida Keys.
It is easy to conceive how this fern was brought to
Florida from the West Indies by agents other than wind
blown spores. The plants are epiphytic, very frequently
growing in the crown of palm-trees. Birds stopping to
feed on the palm fruits become dusted with the spores
of the fern and thus carry the spores from one feeding
station to another.
The serpent-fern is usually confined to the palmetto
or cabbage-palm. Its bright-colored rootstock adheres
closely to the stem of the palm, winding between and
over the dead and living petiole-bases just below the
crown of leaves. It less frequently occurs on other trees
and on fallen logs and even on humus on the hammock
floor and on rocks. It is most common on palmettos
around the edges of the hammocks and also grows on
palmettos in the pine-lands away from the hammocks.
It is widely distributed in all parts of tropical America,
and was discovered in Florida early in the last century.
Its range extends to the northern part of the peninsula,
but it is rarer there than in the southern part.
6. CAMPYLONEBLURTJ Presl.
Bather coarse terrestrial or epiphytic wood-ferns.
Leaves erect, arching or spreading in a crown on the








74 POLYPODIACEAE








POLYPODIAOEAE


short rootstock to which the petioles are jointed: blades
narrow, elongate, entire or at least undivided, usually
glossy. Lateral veins extending from the midrib to the
leaf-margin, connected by curved parallel transverse
veinlets which form more or less regular areolae which
contain usually 1 or 2 free veinlets. Sori orbicular,
borne in 1 row or in several rows on the back of the
leaf-blade on either side of the midrib on the free vein-
lets.-About fifty species, mostly confined to the tropics.
--STAP-PERBS.
Leaf-blades narrow, 2 cm. wide or less: veins obscure.
1. C. angustifoium.
Leaf-blades relatively broad, 3-8 cm.
wide or more: veins prominent.
Leaf-blades long-acuminate, acute, or
obtuse, rather translucent; veins
conspicuous or evident.
Petioles very short: areolae rela-
tively few and large. 2. C. Phyllitdis.
Petioles elongate: areolae rela-
tively many and small. 3. C. latum.
Leaf-blades abruptly caudate-acumi-
nate, nearly opaque: veins obscure. 4. C. costatum.
1.. 0. angustfolm (Sw.) F6e. Rootstock rather
slender: leaves usually many together, arching, 2-5 dm.
long; blades elongate-linear, more or less falcate, taper-
ing to each end, shining, somewhat paler beneath than
above, often slightly revolute, short-petioled: veins ob-
scure, sparingly anastomosing: sori in an irregular row
on each side of the midrib.-(STRAP-pERN.)-Hammocks,
Everglade Keys.
Collected but once within the geographic limits of this
work, this narrow leaved strap-fern is one of our rarer
species. It occurs in Timms hammock, where it grows
mostly on live-oak trees. It was discovered in Florida
in 1903, and is widely distributed in the West Indies and
in continental tropical America.
2. C. Phyllitids (L.) Presl. Rootstock stout: leaves
several together, erect or arching, 2.5-14 dm. long;
blades elongate, linear and tapering to each end, shin-
ing, somewhat leathery, slightly paler beneath than
above, entire or undulate, short-petioled: veins rather
prominent, copiously anastomosing, the areolae large:
sori in several irregular lines on each side of the mid-
rib.-(STilAP-rz.N.)-Hammocks, lower two-thirds of the
Florida peninsula and Florida Keys.










POLYPODIACEAE


CAMPYxwoN~WDN PHYLITIDIS








POLYPODIACLAE 77

Contrary to the very circumscribed geography of its
three generic associates, the range of this fern, since ita
landing on the Florida Keys or on the adjacent main-
land from the West Indies, has been extended well up
towards the northern end of the peninsula. It occurs in
all the large and dense hammocks of the lower part of
the peninsula. In the high pineland hammocks of the
Everglade Keys it is exceedingly abundant, growing in
the humus on the hammock floor, on logs, on stumps,
and on tree-trunks and often high up on the branches.
It is also conspicuously plentiful in the hammocks of the
Big Cypress and in those of the eastern shore of Lake
Okeechobee. This fern is not so common on the Florida
Keys as on the Everglade Keys, although it grows spar-
ingly on most of the larger islands of the Florida reef.
It'occurs in nearly all parts of tropical America, and
was discovered in Florida in the earlier half of the last
century.
3 0. l.atm Moore. Rootstock stout: leaves few to-
gether, erect or ascending, 3-12 dm. long; blades nar-
rowly elliptic to linear-elliptie, or broadest above the
middle or below it, leathery, shining, undulate or repand,
long-petioled: veins quite prominent, copiously anastomos-
ing, the areolae relatively small and irregular: sori in
several to many irregular rows on each side of the mid-
rib.-(SBraA -rzx.)-Hammocks, Everglade Keys.
As in the case of the following species, the past his-
tory of this fern in Florida from the time it escaped
from the West Indies is obscure. It too, for some reason
occupies only an isolated habitat on the Everglade Keys.
Like the frst species in this genus, this strap-fern is one
of our rarer ferns. It has been found in Florida only
in the Hattie Bauer hammock in Dade County. It grows
about lime sinks, both on the rock ledges and on the bases
of trees around the sinks. This fern occurs on the main-
land of tropical America and in the West Indies. It
was discovered in Florida in 1903.
4. 0. ceotatum (Kunze) Presl. Bootstock stoutish,
scaly at the end: leaves usually few, stimy erect, 3-4 dm.
long; blades linear-elliptic or linear-oblanceolate, abruptly









POLYPODIACEAE


CAMPYLONEURON LATUM









POLYPODIACEAE


CAMPYLONEURON COSTATUI





POLYPODIACEAE


PHYMATODES HETEBOPHYLLUM


0








POLYPODIACEAB


caudate-acuminate, coriaceous, subentire, repand, long-
petioled: veins obscure, rather copiously anastomosing;
the areolae larger than in C. latm and smaller than in
C. PhyR(tidis: sori in few lines on each side of the mid-
rib.-(STBP-rwaN.)-Hammocks, Fahkahatchie Cypress,
southwestern peninsular Florida.
This strap-fern is very rare in our range, and, like
C. latum, it has been found in only one locality. It is
strongly characterized by the long slender tip of the leaf-
blade and the obscure veins. The low hammock is the
home of this fern. It is epiphytic and grows on trees,
on logs, and on cypress knees. It was discovered in
Florida in 1904. Outside of the United States it is
known in the West Indies.
It is not evident just how this fern escaped from the
West Indies. The spores may have been carried by the
wind or on the plumage of migratory birds. Where it
began its career in Florida is another mystery. It may
have been carried directly to its present isolated habitat
in the Big Cypress Swamps or it may have started on
the Florida Keys or in the Cape Sable region, and as it
worked its way northward, died out in the rear of its
course.
7. PHYMATODES Preel.
Delicate epiphytic vines. Leaves borne at intervals
along the extensively creeping rootstock to which the
petioles are jointed: blades various in shape, entire,
toothed, or slightly lobed, but undivided, the spore-
bearing ones usually narrow. Veins copiously anastomos-
ing and forming irregular areolae, the free veinlets
spreading in various directions. Sori orbicular, variously
placed on the back of the leaf-blades. Indusia wanting.
-About sixty species, distributed throughout the tropics.
1. P. heterophyllum (L.) Small. Rootstoeks slender,
greatly elongate, creeping along the stems of shrubs or
trees, with lax reddish scales: leaves irregularly spaced,
appressed or spreading; petioles slender, green, less than
1.5 cm. long; blades short and broad when young, the
mature ones linear, elliptic, or lanceolate, 4-15 em. long,
entire, sometimes undulate, narrowed to both ends, and
6









POLYPODIACIAE


VITTARIA LINEATA








POLYPODIACEAS


usually acuminate, but sometimes obtuse at the apex,
slightly paler beneath than above: areolae large, few,
rather irregular: sori in a line on each side of the midrib,
about 1.5 mm. in diameter. [P. exigstu Underw.]-
(VI~N-rEBN.)-Hammocks, southern peninsular Florida
and Florida Keys.
Considering the ages that have passed since this fern
reached Florida from tropical America, it seems strange
that its distribution there is so limited. The lack of
abundance is, probably, due to the fact that the leaves
produce relatively few spores by which it might be dis-
seminated to distant points. In a given locality a plant
is well able to reproduce and multiply vegetatively, for
the tips of the stem and branches have the power of
endless growth, and a detached piece may form a new
plant.
On the northern part of Key Largo in 1882 this climb-
ing-fern was discovered in Florida. In 1903 it was first
collected on the mainland in Hattie Bauer hammock on
the Everglade Keys. Where it usually grows it is very
plentiful. The stems and branches are closely appressed
and adhere tightly to the stems of shrubs and trees,
especially those of smooth-barked kinds. Occasionally it
climbs up trees to a height of twenty-five feet. It grows
on the southern part of Key Largo as well as on the
northern, and also on Adams Key. Recently it has been
collected on the western side of Florida as far north as
Chokoloskee Bay. The plant is widely distributed in the
West Indies.

8. VITTARTA J. E. Smith.
Slender, tufted epiphytic plants. Leaves grass-like,
crowded on the short rootstock, pendent; blades narrowly
linear and elongate, entire, often strongly revolute.
Veins obscure, forming a single row of areolae on each
side of the midrib. Sori linear, continuous in single
marginal or intramarginal grooves, sometimes partly cov-
ered with the slightly produced and revolute margin of
the leaf-blade. Indusia wanting.-About fifteen species,
natives of the tropics.









POLYPODIACEAE


PALToNIUM LANCEOLATUM








POLYPODIACEAE


L V. lineata (L.) J. E. Smith. Bootstock with short
clustered branches, densely scaly: leaves many together,
sometimes exceedingly numerous, densely clustered, droop-
ing, or pendent, 1-12 dm. long; blades narrowly elongate-
linear, usually between 2 mm. and 3 mm. wide, smooth
and shining; veins Very obscure: sori borne in an intra-
marginal continuous groove.-(Gatss-reu SHOBTawNGO-
Rzax. BzAn -r N.)-Hammocks, and palmettos in pine-
lands, peninsular Florida.
Conditions opposite to those mentioned under the
climbing-fern obtain in the ease of the shoestring-fern.
The myriad leaves produce spores in vast-almost un-
limited quantities. The results are evidenced by a wider
field of distribution and a great abundance of plants in
a given locality.
V. linata, called grass-fern from the narrow and elon-
gate leaves, is common in all the hammocks of the Ever-
glade Keys. Its distribution and habitat correspond
closely to those of the serpent-fern, Phlebodium auremn.
It usually occurs on the trunks of the cabbage-palm or
palmetto. It is widely distributed in insular and con-
tinental tropical America, and was discovered in Florida
in the latter half of the eighteenth century.

9. PALTONIUM Preal
Relatively small tufted epiphytic plants. Leaves clus-
tered on the creeping rootstock, ascending or pendulous:
blades entire or at least undivided, narrow, elongate,
tapering, often revolute. Veins anastomosing, forming
areolae with free included veinlets. Sori narrow, often
linear, borne in a continuous or interrupted nearly mar-
ginal line. Indusia wanting.-A single species, the fol-
lowing widely distributed in tropical America.
1. P. lanceolatom (L.) Presl Bootstock short, but
somewhat creeping; leaves few or many together, 1-4.5
dm. long, erect or arching; blades nearly linear or broad-
est near the middle and tapering to the base and to the
apex, thin-coriaceous, entire, with the midrib prominent,
short-petioled: veins numerous: areolae various, large
ones near the midrib, smaller ones near the margin: sori
densely crowded in a submarginal line near the apex of









POLYPODIACEAE


PYCNODORIA PINETORUM








POLYPODIACEAE


the leaf-blade. (RIBBON-PERN.) Hammocks, Florida
Keys.
The ribbon-fern was, in some way, put across the Gulf
Stream from the tropics. However, contrary to the
course of the great majority of our ferns derived from
tropical sources, it failed, as far as the evidence shows,
to reach the Florida mainland. This, one of our very
rare ferns, was discovered in Florida in 1881. It occurs
on tree-trunks on Old Rhodes Key and on Elliotts Key.
It is otherwise unknown in our range; but is widely dis-
tributed in continental and insular tropical America.

10. PYONODOEA. Preel.
Rather coarse terrestrial plants. Leaves erect or ascend-
ing in a crown on the short rootstock, the petiole con-
tinuous with the rootstock: blades relatively narrow,
pinnate in our species, the leaflets narrow, entire
or toothed. Veins free. Sori linear, continuous, mar-
ginal, borne on a slender receptacle which connects the
tips of the free veins. Indusium formed from the re-
flexed margin of the leaf-blade, single, membranous.-
About sixty species widely distributed in temperate and
tropical regions.-BAKE.
Lower leaflets with undivided blades, very short.
I LONGIFOLIA.
Lower leaflets, at least, with divided
blades, elongate. II. CarWica.
L LONGIrOLIA
Blades of the leaflets obscurely toothed:
petioles glabrous at the base. 1. P. pletorusm.
Blades of the leaflets conspicuously
toothed, especially near the apex:
petioles copiously scaly at the base. 2. P. vttato.
II. CarncAu
Blades of the lateral leaflets curved, the
lower ones petioled, the upper sessile. 3. P. eretia.
1. P. pinetorum Small. Bootstock short, slender, not
copiously scaly: leaves erect or ascending, about 1 m.
tall or less, clustered; petioles green, or purplish at the
base; blades lanceolate or oblaneeolate in outline, the
leaflets tender, separated, often rather numerous, the
blades narrowly linear, or the lower ones ovate, or obtuse,









POLYPODIACEAE


PYCNODOBIA VITTATA








POLYPODL0CAE


entire, with a rounded anriculate base, sessile: veins
usually once forked near the midrib or near the margin,
or forked near the midrib and again near the margin,
decidedly oblique to the midrib: indusium brown or yel-
lowish-brown.-(LAnon-manaxa)-Pinelands and rarely
hammocks, Florida Keys and Everglade Keys.
The West Indies, geologically older than Florida, evi-
dently, contributed this fern to the Keys and adjacent
mainland of that State. Most of our ferns are hammock
plants, but this brake is typically a plant of the pine-
lands. It grows almost anywhere through the flat pine
woods, but thrives best about or in lime-sinks. It is ter-
restrial, and it is occasionally found on the floor of open-
ings in hammocks. It was discovered in Florida on the
lower Florida Keys in the earlier half of the last century;
however, it is more abundant in the. Everglade Keys.
This brake also grows in the West Indies.
e. P. vittato (L.) Small. Bootstock stout, copiously
scaly, knotted: leaves erect or nearly so, 2-5 dm. tall, or
more, clustered; petioles green, copiously or densely scaly
near the base; blades firm, lanceolate, elliptic, or ob-
lanceolate in outline, the leaflets firm, separated, widely
so below, slightly so near the tip of the rachis, often
rather few, the blades of the lower ones lanceolate or
ovate and very short, those near the middle of the blade
linear-lanceolate, the upper ones linear or nearly so and
much longer than the others, all acute or slightly acumi-
nate, serrate, prominently so near the apex, sessile: veins
forked near the midrib or about half-way to the margin
and occasionally again forked near the margin, somewhat
oblique to the midrib: indusiumm red or brown, usually
extending from the base of the leaflet to within 1 or 2
cm. of the apex.-(LADDzmBa&ax)-Florida.
This brake, a native of the Old World, was collected
in Florida many years ago, but apparently the locality
was not recorded. Within the past decade it has ap-
peared at several localities, in abundance. In the south-
ern part of the Everglades it appeared on embankments
and on hammock islands. In the northern part of the
peninsula it even grows on brick walls in towns. It is
also established in Alabama and Louisiana, and has in-
vaded the West Indies and South America. It has some-
times been mistakenly identified with Pteris longifolia L.









90 POLYPODIACELE


PYCNODORIA CRETICA








POLYPODIACEAE


3. P. cretica (L.) Small. Rootstock somewhat elon-
gate: leaves several, approximate; petioles 15-30 cm.
tall, straw-colored or pale-brown; blades 15-30 cm. long;
leaflets usually 2-8 opposite pairs, sessile, the sterile
considerably broader and spinulose-serrulate, the lower
pairs divided into 2 or 3 linear segments; spore-bearing
leaflets with the indusium extending from near the base
to within 1-3 cm. of the serrulate, acute or acuminate,
apex; veins parallel, simple or once forked, either near
the midrib or near the margin, nearly at right angles to
the midrib. [Pteris eretica L.]J-ocky hammocks, north-
ern Florida and the upper part of the peninsula.
The tropics were, evidently, the course through which
this fern reached Florida. It prefers rocky woods, grow-
ing best in lime-sinks, in grottoes, and on river-bluffs.
It was first found in Florida before the middle of the
last century. As the specific name implies, the plant
was thought to have first been found on the island of
Crete. It grows in many places, either native or natural-
ized, in tropical and subtropical regions around the globe.

11. PTEBIS L.
Coarse terrestrial plants, sometimes vine-like. Leaves
borne singly along the elongate rootstock, sometimes
greatly elongate and clambering or climbing, the petiole
continuous with the rootstock: blades broad, triangular
or pentagonal in outline, ternately decompound, the ulti-
mate segments entire, toothed, or lobed. Veins free.
Sori linear, continuous, marginal, borne on a slender
receptacle which connects the ends of the free veins.
Indusium double, the outer prominent, formed by the.
reflexed margin of the leaf-blade, the inner obscure,
borne upon the vein-like receptacle and extending be-
neath the sporangia.-Several species of very wide geo-
graphical distribution.-BRACKEN.
Terminal segments of the leaflets ovate or lanceolate; lat-
eral segments approximate at the base;
veins mostly twice or thrice forked. 1. P. ltiet4oula
Terminal segments of the leaflets linear,
often elongate-linear; lateral segments
markedly separate at the base: veins
mostly once forked. 2. P. caudata.









POLYPODIACEAE


PTEmI LATIUSOULA




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