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 Front Cover
 Title Page
 Front Matter
 Table of Contents
 List of Tables
 List of Figures
 List of Illustrations
 Main






Group Title: School survey series
Title: Report of the survey of the schools of Tampa, Florida
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00055159/00001
 Material Information
Title: Report of the survey of the schools of Tampa, Florida
Physical Description: 2 p.l., vii-xxv, 308 p. : illus. (incl. maps) plates, tables (1 fold.) diagrs. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Columbia university. Teachers college. Institute of educational research -- Division of field studies
Strayer, George Drayton, 1876-
Publisher: Teachers college, Columbia university
Place of Publication: New York city
Publication Date: 1926
 Subjects
Subject: Educational surveys   ( lcsh )
Public schools -- Florida -- Tampa   ( lcsh )
Genre: non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: made by the Institute of educational research, Division of field studies, Teachers college, Columbia university, George D. Strayer, director.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00055159
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000621541
notis - ADF0911
lccn - 26011680

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
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    Title Page
        Page iii
        Page iv
    Front Matter
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        Page vi
    Table of Contents
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    List of Tables
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        Page xvi
        Page xvii
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        Page xix
        Page xx
    List of Figures
        Page xxi
    List of Illustrations
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Full Text



S oojI Sl utbtp trfte


REPORT

OF THE

VEY OF THE SCHOOLS

OF


TAMPA, FLORIDA


MADE BY

THE INSTITUTE OF EDUCATIONAL RESEARPa
DIVISION OF FIELD STUDIES
TEACHERS COLLEGE, COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY

GROsne D. Snraua, Director














BUREAU oF PUCLICATIOKNN
tasters Colege, Coltunbia Unibm*U
NAW YOR1 cno





*-
'oi /


t ~ ~ ''








REPORT


OF THE

SURVEY OF THE SCHOOLS
OF

TAMPA, FLORIDA


MADE BY
THE INSTITUTE OF EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH
DIVISION OF FIELD STUDIES
TEACHERS COLLEGE, COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY

Gzoale D. STm&am, Director












BUwrAU or PUBLIOATIONr
tmaibt Coemte, calmsba lunbersit
NW YORK CIMY
1926


''

T '"
i










Copyright, 1926, TMCnma CouCan, OCLUMna UMiragr


Prw .d i the UIted State f o u Awr by
J. J. UTT uN A V cOMAnur, mXW tor=


L -~













THE SURVEY STAFF


GEOBGE D. STBr En, Director
N. L. ENoxIAB r, Associate Director

The field #ork of the survey and the preparation of the report
was directed by the following members of the staff of Teachers
College, Columbia University:
N. L. Engelhardt Paul R. Mort
M. B. Hillegas Herbert B. Bruner
J. R. McGaughy C. J. Tidwell
Carter Alexander E. H. Reeder

These specialists were supported in the field work and in the
preparation of the report by the following assistants:


Earl W. Anderson
Amelia M. Bengston
Frithiof C. Borgeson
Alonso Briscoe
E. E. Brown
Raymond G. Campbell
Claude S. Chappelear
Paul D. Collier
Belmont Farley
Ray Fife
Willard S. Ford
Clara Ritter Foss
Ben W. Frazier
Oliver Graffmiller


Henry J. Graybill
Otto T. Hamilton
David P. Harry, Jr.
Charles Henry
Edgar L. Morphet
Albert P. S. Robinson
Frederick R. Rogers
George A. Selke
M. F. Soloff
F. T. Spaulding
Robert E. Tidwell
Liang-Kung Yang
Wendell W. Wright
Dale S. Young

























































.













CONTENTS

IAPTu P M
I. THB ADMINSTATION O SCHOOLS . .. 1
The Co6peration of County and City Boards of
Education in the Administration of the Schools
of Tamps . . .. 2
Recommendations . . 3
The Organization of the Administrative Staff for
the Tampa School System . .. 5'
Assistant Superintendents . 7
Physical Education and Health Service 8
The Bureau of Educational Research . 9
Census and Attendance ..... .. 11
II. THE BUuIBms ADMInSTRaTION or SCHooLs IN
TAMPA . ... 15
Division of Duties in Business Administration 16
Business Administration . 1
Activities Primarily Secretarial, Pertaining to
the Secretary of a Corporation .. 15
Activities Primarily Financial .. 15
Activities Pertaining to the Purchasing of Sup-
plies 16
Administration of Buildings and Grounds 1
Activities Pertaining to the Operation and
Maintenance of the Physical Plant 1&
Activities Pertaining Primarily to Capital Out-
lay .. 16
Illustrations of the Kinds of Business Records
Which Should Be Maintained . 17
Records of the Acts of the Board of Education 17
Index of Minute Book for Board of Education 18j
Procedures and Records Involved in Budget
Making .......... 21
vii






Contents


OHAPTRB PAuB
Detailed Statement of Expenditures of the
Board of Education .. 23
The Cumulative Budget Record 24
The Purchase, Storage, and Distribution of School
Supplies .. 24
Textbook Management .. 25
Textbook Agency 27
Financial Accounting .. 27
Disbursement Ledger .. 28
Pay Roll Accounting 86
Refunding Pay for Unallowed Absences of
Teachers 37
Pay Roll Practice .. 39
Internal Accounting .... 40
School Bonds .. 42
Defects in the Record System 42
Record Forms Recommended .. 42
Insuring the School Property . 43
Some Problems Confronting the Assistant Superin-
tendent in Charge of Buildings and Grounds 44
Equipment Management .. .. 44
Problems in Personnel Management 44
The Annual Repair Budget 46
The Erection of New School Buildings 47
The Maintenance of Playgrounds .... 48
III. THE PaBUSNT SCHOOL BUILDING STATION 50
Tampa's School Enrollment .. 50
Increases in Enrollment ... 51
Increases in Enrollment During the Month of No-
vember, 1925 .. 51
Tampa Needs a Permanent Continuing Census for
School Children .. 51
Increases in School Population ..... 52
Children Improperly Housed .. 52
Shortened School Day .. .... 52
Basement Rooms, Portable and Auditorium
Classrooms ... ... \3
S Analysis of the Present School Building and
Sites ........... 53






Ce.ntent ix

School Building Arehitecture . 53
The Service Systems 54
Other Criticisms of the Older; School Buidings 4
Hillsboro High School 55
Junior High Schools . 55
Long Distances Traveled by Junior High School
Children ........... 56
Elementary Schools for White Children 59,
Faulty Location of an Elementary School 59
Irregularity of Present Elementary School Dis-
tricts .... 62
Tampa's New School Buildings. .... 64
Industrial and Commercial Development in Tampa 64
Tampa's Automobile Thoroughfares 66
Where the People Live .. 68
Residential Distribution of Population ... 68
Where the White Elementary School Children Live 71
Residential Distribution of Junior High School
Children ........... 71
Great Need for Junior High School Buildings 71
The Present High School Situation .. 74
Trends of Growth in Tampa ... 76
Residential Building Permits. 761
IV. THwaPBOPOSD SCHOOL BUIIMtN PROGRAM -. 80
Estimate of the Total Number of Children To Be
Provided for in the New Building Program 80
School Buildings To Be Abandoned .... 82
Proposed School Districts for the Present Elemen-
tary School Buildings .. 82
New Junior High Schools Proposed. 84
New Senior High Schools .. 86;
Schools for Colored Children . .
Sie of Sites Recommended 89
Cost of Proposed School Building Program. 91
V. ScHoOL FNANIrone A w SCHOOL CosM i TAMPA 92
Introductory Statement ..... 92
Source of Tampa's School Moneys. 92
Analysis of School Expenditures in Tampa. 94






x Contents

Total School Expenditures 96
Current Expenses for Schools 97
Total Cost of Public Education in Tampa 104
Tampa's Ability to Pay for Public Education 104
Cost of the Proposed Building Program 109
Outstanding School Finance Problems in Tampa 109
Summary ............ 115
Receipts of School Moneys .. 116
School Expenditures in Tampa 116
Ability to Pay for Public Education 116
Outstanding School Finance Problems 116
VI. THa EBMENTABY SCHOOLS or TAMPA 131
Introduction 131
Some Characteristics of Good Elementary Schools 131
Condition of Elementary Schools in Tampa .. ,135
Elementary School Opportunities in Tampa 135
Chart Classes .. 137
School Attendance 139
Grading and Placement of Pupils 139
The Course of Study and Methods of Teaching 140
Provision for Enriching the Courses of Study 141
Supervision ... 144
Teacher Training .. 146
Summary of Recommendations .. 147
VII. THE SECONDARY SCHOOLS OF TAMPA. .. .. .148
Curriculum Organization 150
Suggested Junior High School Program 154
Broadening and Finding Courses 156
Extracurricular Activities .. 159
Immediate Problems in Curriculum Revision 164
Supervision of Instruction .. 168
Summary ............. 171
Teacher Assignments and Teacher Loads 172
Articulation of Elementary Schools with Junior
High Schools and Junior High Schools with
Senior High Schools . ... 173
Relation to Community .. 174








Some Observations and Recommendations Relat-
ing to the Senior High School .. 175
School Citienship 176
Grouping Students in Classes 176
Methods of Teaching .. 176
Supervision .......... .177
The Courses of Study 179
The English Course .... 179-
The Foreign Language Course .. .. 179
The Mathematics Course .. 182
The Social Science Program .. 182
The Natural Science Course .. 183 C
The Commercial Course .. 183
The Home Economics Course ... 183 .
Extracurricular Activities . .. 184
Sequence of Courses and Electives .. 184
VIII. EDUCATIONAL RESULT ... 185
Age and. Grade Relationships .. 185
Holding Power of the Schools .. 186
Achievement in School Subjects .. 189
Reading ........... 189
Arithmetic 190
English Composition 192
Handwriting . 193
Other Tests . 194
Summary. .. ....... ....194
IX. RGULTION or PRBOOBm IN ELurmNTaBY ScHool
AND IN T JUNIOR AND SNIOB HIMQ ScxOOS 196
BGULATION OF PROGBEB8 IN EMMBNTABY SCHOOLS 196
Effectiveness of Present Regulations of Progres 196
Age of Entrance to Grade 1 Junior .. 196
Progress Through the Grades 201
Non-Promotion 208
Educational Achievement and Non-Promotion. 205
Mental Ability and Non-Promotion 213
Curriculum Adjustment and Non-Promotion 215
Proposed Methods of Regulating Non-Promo-
tions ........... .216


.t








GmanTm PA
Acceleration 219
Summary ... ........ 220
Effectiveness of Present Regulation of Progress 220
Age of Entrance to First Grade .. 220
Progress Through the Grades 220
Non-Promotion 220
Acceleration .222
RU LATION OF PRBOOBES IN THE JUNIOR AND SENIOR
IGH SCHOOS .. 22
Effectiveness of Present Regulation of Progress 228
Failures in Junior High Schools 225
Failures in the Hillsboro High School. 235
Reducing Failure in Junior and Senior High
Schools ........... 239
Acceleration 241
Summary .... .....242
Effectiveness of Present Regulation of Progress 242
Failures in Junior High Schools 242
Failures in the Hillsboro High School .242
Reducing Failure in Junior and Senior High
Schools ............ 243
Acceleration .. 243
X. CLABsmICATION OF CHILDREN IN THu ELUMUNTARY
SCHOOLS AND JUNIOR AND SNIOR HIGH ScHOOLB 244
The Classification of Children in the Elementary
Schools .. ...244
Present Classification .... .244
Proposed Reclassification of the Elementary
Schools. ..... ... .. 254
Regrading and Ability Grouping 2556
Special Classes ... .265
Regulation of Classification . 270
Summary of the Classification for Elementary
Schools. .. ... .... 273
Present Classifiation . 273
Proposed Reolassification of the Elemen-
tary Schools 273
Special Classes.. 274
Regulation of Classification . 274
\


Contents


xii





Contents xlii
OHAPTB YM
Classifcation of Pupile in Junior and Senior High
Schools . . 27
Summary of the Classification for the High Schools 280
XI. CLAmacATLow AND Paoame m SCHoMs Mon
CQowmw CHIm=Dr N DIrzC No. 4 281
Overageness . . 281
Distribution of the Pupils Through the Schools by
Ages . . 284
TestResults . . 286
Conclusions . . . 290
XII. TacHsms' B s AND COST or LIVING 292
General Stateents Concerning All Teachers .. 292
Facts Concerning Teachers Who Live at Home 295
Facts Concerning Teachers Not Living at Home 297
Facts Concerning Colored Teachers .301
Summary .. ..... .... .302
Facts Concerning All Teachers Reporting 302
Facts Concerning Teachers Living at Home 303
Fats Concerning Teachers Not Living at Home 303
Facts Concerning Colored Teachers 304


















TABLES


CHAPTER I
THE ADMINISTRATION OF THE SCHOOLS
TABLB PAGE
1. ATTENDANCE AND ESTMATED NON-ATTrNDANCE IN SCHOOLS FIO
WHITr CHILDRN-DIsTIT No. 4 .. ..... 11
2. COMPARATIVE COST or ATTENDANCE IN TAMPA AND OTHrm CrrI 13

CHAPTER 11
THE BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION OF SCHOOLS IN TAMPA
3. STATE PLAN or DIITRIBUTION or SCHOOL EXPnNDITUBB IN FLORIDA
COMPARED WITH PLANS IN USB IN PENNSYLVANIA, WISCONSIN,
NBW YOBK, AND MICHIGAN AND TH PLAN RECOMMENDED BY THU
NATIONAL EDUCATION ASSOCIATION, WASHINGTON, D. C. .. 30

CHAPTERBB I
THE PRESENT SCHOOL BUILDING SITUATION
4. ENBOLLMaNT IN TAMPA SCHOOLS FOE WHIrr CHILDREN, OcroBER,
1925, ... ........... ...... 50

CHAnPT IV
THE PROPOSED SCHOOL BUILDING PROGRAM
5. ESTIMATE or TOTAL NUMBER OF CHILDREN TO BE PROVIDWm ro
IN NEW SCHOOL BUILDING PROGRAM . . 82

CHAPmTE V
SCHOOL FNANCING AND SCHOOL COSTS IN TAMPA
6. REAL AND ASSeSSeD VALUATION or TAXABLE PROPERTY FO THE
STATE Or FLORIDA By COUNTIM .. ..... . 11, 112
7. DISTRIBUTION AS T SOURCES OF SCHOOL MONEYS rw ALL SCHOOLS 120
8. TOTAL RC BcIPTus F SCHOOL PURPOSES-TAMPA AND NINWmTN
OTHER SOUTHERN Crrm . .. .121

CHAPTr VI
THE RWLM NTARY SCHOOLS OF TAMPA
9. PERCENTAGE OF CURRENT EXPNsmE DEPINITBT ALLOCATE TO
INDIVIDUAL SCHOOL BUILDINGS . .122
XV







xvi Tables

10. DI)TBIBION or ToTAL EXPNDITUBm soe SCHoo, PuWLosm Dr
FuNCTION AND BT SCHOOL DrTmwar . 12
11. DIsnaTBIBno or CunumNT EXPENsr woR SCHOOL PUomPom-IN-
STBrUIONALo S8mVr AND OPBATION BT SCHOOL BUIDINGB AND
BY Tra or SCOOL . ..... 12125
12. EXPmNDmITUn PI PUP!L IN AVBAS DAILY AT sNDANce e
EACH FUNCTION or EXPENDrITUR-TAMPA AND Er~HT=
OTHBB SOUT NN CIrms . . 126
13. EXPmNDvIue Pm TEACHEnBB EACH FUNCTION or EXPFNDITUg
-TAMPA AND EIGHTRN OTHEm SOUTHERN CiuT .... 127
14. TOTAL ECONOMIC COST OF PuBIC EDUCATION, TAMPA, FLOBwA 128
15. VALUATIONS Or TAXABm. PBnoPBT, SCHooL TAX RAT. AND VALUA-
TION or SCHOOL PROPrBT--TAMPA AND SIXTMN' OTHrm SOUTH-
N Cr . .......... ... ..... 129
16. SuGoE sTDm SCHDmULB PY PAYTmNT OF Fiv MILLION SIX HUNDB
THOUSAND DOLLAR BOND Issue, FIVE Pm CENT SEIAL BOND,
THImTr-YaAB TagB . . .. 130


CHAPTEr VI
THs SeCONDArY SCHOOLS Or TAMPA
17. DISTRIUTION or NUMBER or TIMm PUPIis RBwtr TO CLABU 181


CHAPTER VIII
EDUCATIONAL ERSULT8
18. PERCENTAGE or Ovi&-Ao, NoMAi-AOm AND UNDs-AEB PUPHa mI
TAMPA, COMPARE WITH SIMnILA PERCaNTAGM IN OmTH CTrim 186
19. GRADE LOCATION O ALL THIRTn N-YBAR-OLD Boys AN GIRL IN
SCHOOLS wOr WHTrr CH.DBBN IN TAMPA COMPABD WITH 8MI-
LAB DISTRIBUTE IN OmTH CrTn . . 187
20. ENBOLLMzNT BY GBADB IN ELEaMNTABY SCHmOOI AND HIOH
SCHOOLS roB WHITs CgnmHILD SHOWING AN EsTIMATE Pm-
CENTAG Or PUPILS THAT FAIL TO REaCH EACH GuamI Bemo
DROPPING OUT or SCHOOL . . .. 188
21. DISTRIBUTION or PUPIn ENBoLIu IN MAY, 1925, IN SCHOOlS Ora
WHrIT CHILDBN, SHOWING PRCmNTAE IN EiCH Am Gaoup,
AND PEBCENTAGE Or CHILDREN WITaHDAWINQ rOM SCHOOL ArlB
Aas Tm~ ............ .... 188
22. ACHIumv MNT IN SImNT RADINo, SCHOOLS r(3 WmHIT CHILOUN
CoPAaM WrTH.OTHRm PLACMs.. . .. .. .. 190
23. COMPANION or ELma~NTAxr SCHOOLS oE WmHIT CHILDBN WTH
REwPrCT To ACHIwVMr NT IN SILENT RaB . 191







Tables zvi
TABM PAN
24. Acsrmasm nrs FUNDAMENTALS or ATHrammnIC, SCHOOLS w
WHmr CHanim COMPAw WITH TsB STANDmD WOOr-
McCau, Mrm FuxNDAm Trmc ArmTx . 191
25. COMPAmBeoNs or ELmeNTABr SCHOOLS imO WHIT CmHILDN
wrrH RaPcr To Acanmvma rT THm FUNDAMu NTALB Or
AwmTHma m c ................. 192
26. COMaPOSBION WBTrrm Br Purns m TAMPA, FLORIDA, SCHOmOL
soe WmH CmHILnN COMPARE WITH THOBB WBrTlw BY CHI-'
DUN Dm OrTHm Cira . . .. 193
27. AcHImarmr i HANDWrITI IN TAMPA, FLOBIDA, SCHOOL 0 m
WHmI CHmmIa COMPA TH OTHr Crrs . 194


CHAPTER IX

BMGULATION Or PROOBm IN iUMMNTArB SCHOOLS AND IN THE JUNIOR
AND SNION HIGH SCHOOLS

28. Aou-GBaD DimBIrToN or PUPne ENBaOL IN MAY, 1923,
TAMPA SCHOOLaS WHT CHILDBa (DITBITr No. 4) Facing 198
29. Acm or ENTRANCE T FIPas Ganm Di SCHOOLS FOR WHrI CHI,-
DBN ...................200
30. Sww-, Nemar-, AND RA -PaoaS PnUPuS IN TH THIRE AND
FnrT GBADm or SCHooaL oU WIFma CHILDBUN .... 202
31. PaOMOIoN, WrTHDRAWAL, AND NoN-Paou mc N Br SCHOOLS 204
32. PROMOaON, WrmTaHWAL, AND NON-PROMOTION BY GRADms 206
33. CAusB or JuNm 1925 NoN-PROMOTION I ELMENTART SCHOOLs
iso WHIT CHILDm As LlaD BT TEACHmBS o THBRE SCHOOLs 207
34. TmACHa S' RmAsoNs ms FAmILG To PaOMOTr SWANTm N PUPILS
nuOM GRAD 5 SNmmI or RosmT E. Lm SCHOOL m JUNe, 1925 209
35. DmTEDTInoN or PUPILS ENmma IN JUNIOR AND SENIOR HIOH
ScHoaLS v WHITE CnmHIu SHowNGo UNDem-Aa NoasM.-
Aam, AND Ovm-Aam PumIS BT GaDs.m . .. .224
36. PaROMOoN, WIrTRAwa4U, AND FAILUmr Br SUBJECTS IN T
Ginram WASHINa ON Jnumoa HIGH SCHOOL. .. .226,227
37. PROMOTION, WITHDRAWAL, AND FAILURE BT SUBJWy S m N TH
WooDnow WILSO JUNe HIGH SCHOOL . .. 228,229
38. CAUSs or FAILnu N m TH Woonow WISON JmUNI HmmH
SCHOOLAs ABmmmSINe B Tasonms . .. 234
39. CAUvSE or JUN, 1925, FAILUEm m WooOnow WmION JUNIOR
HIH SCHOOL As ASSIONsD BT TACHBm . . 235
40. PBOMTION, WrTHmAwAL, AND FAILU~n NY SuBraorCs m
SexoR HIOH SCHOOL8 . ....... 236







xviii Tables

SCHAPT X

CLASSIFICATION OF CHILDREN IN THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS AND JUNIOR
AND SENIOR HIGH SCHOOLS
TABLE nea
41. COMPARISON OF ErLB MNTAR SCHOOLS ron WHIT CHILDREN WIH
REPaCTr 1o MEDIAN CHRONOLOGICAL AND MENTAL Acam or
CHILDBRN IN CERTAIN GAD . .. 24
42. TBST IN SCHOOL SUBJeCIS-DISTRIBUTIONS or SCooR MADE IN'
Found SHOOLs IN STANFwOR AcHmvang TST . 248
43. AGE GRADE TABLE SHOWING DISTRIBUTION OF PUPILS ENRIOED
IN MAY, 1925, IN Go SCHOOL . .. 256
44. AQG-GRADs TABLE SHOWING DI SaBUTION or PUPIL ENROLLED IN
MAY, 1925, IN ROBEBs E. Lm SCHOOL .... . 257
45. Aom-GBAD TABLE SHOWING DISTRIBUTION OF PUPILS ENBOLLD IN
MAY, 1925, IN YBon ScHOOL. ..... . 258
46. NUMBER OF PUPILS THBEE oR MORE YaBa Ovau Ao IN THU
GOaBIa, Lm AND YBOR SCHOOLS .. . 259
47. COMPARISON OF THREE ELMNTARma SCHOOLS FOR WHrIT CHL-
DBEN WITH RESPECT To AVERAGE CHRONOLOGICAL, MaBTAL, AND
EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT BY GBADw . .. 260
48. CHANGES IN CLASSIFICATION THAT WOULD RESULT I 371 CHn-
DBEN IN G BIBm SCHOOL WBm RLAssIIFI D AcCORDING TO THU
RECLASSIFCATION PROPOSAL . ... 262
49. CHANGES IN 'CLAIICAmON THAT WOULD RESULT IF 386 PUPIL
IN THn LE SCHOOL WEn RCLAssIFIED ACCORDING TO THB Ri-
CLASSIFICATION PROPOSALS . . ... 263
50. CHANGEs IN CLASSIFICATION THAT WOULD RESULT IF 3FJ PUPILS
IN THU YBOR SCHOOL WBas RECLASSIFIED ACCORDING To THB RE-
CLASSIICATION PROPOSALS . .. .263
51. COMPARISON Or AOG RANGES OF GADES IN GROUPS AFTra Pao-
POSED RECLASSIFICATION COMPARED WITH THE AGE RANGES IN
THESE GRADBm IN MAY, 1925 . ... .264
52. DISTRIB noN OF PUPILS ENROLLED IN MAY, 1925, IN ELEMaNTABY
SCHOOLS FB WHITrr CHILDREN SHOWING UNDER-AGE, NORMAL-
AGE, AND Ovm-AaG PUPIrm BY GRADES ... .. 266
53. COMPARISON OF SCHOOLS FOR WHITrr CHILDBN WITH RESPECT TO
NUMBEa OF PUPILS FOUR YEAB OR MOBR Ovm AGE IN THE
VARIOUS GRADEs .... . ... 266
54. COMPARISON OF SCHOOLS FOR WHITE CHILDmRN WITH RMSPCT TO
NUMBEm OF PUPIL FIVE YmABS OR MoB OvBm AOG IN THB
VARIOUS GRADE IN MAT, 1925 . ... .267
55. COMPARISON OF SCHOOLS FOR WHITE CHILDBBN WITH RESPECT TO
NUMBEm OF PuPnS SIX Y.ERS oR MoRE OvBm AGE IN TH
VARIOUS GRADES IN MAY, 1925 ... ...... 267







Tables ix

56. COMPAmSON or ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS Fo Wmru CHmmn WITH
RmPmCp TO NUMBm or PuPIL FoURTEB N AND FmIWN YEAM
or Aoa ENBOumL D IN MAT, 1925 . . 68
57. DISTRIBUTION By DATE OF ENTBACc or PUPIL ENTERINr Em
MaNTARY SCHooLs PFO WmHT CHILDREN ArmTB THE BE(rIN
r THn FALL TsM or THa SCHOOL YEaR, BY SCHOOLS ... 272
58. DrRIBUTION or JUNIO Hmax SCHOOL PUPn wIT Rm P arT T
Lv.L or MENTAL DmV.PMmNT AS MmAsuBD By THm McCALL
MTmO-MmB AL SCALB or MENTAL ABn IT . .. 277
59. DISTIBUTION OF JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL PUPILS WITH Ramor To
AcHnausmNT IN FUNDAMENTAL PROCESSEB or AITHMImn 278

CHAPTER XI
CLASSIFICATION AND PROGRESS IN SCHOOLS F5OB COLOR CHILDREN IN TAMPA
60. AGE-GRADm TABLE SHOWING DISTRIBUTION OF PPILn ENBOLLED IN
THE SCHOOLS FOB COLORED CHILDREN . .282,283
61. Ovn-Aom PUPILS ENBOLLED IN MAY, 1925, IN SCHOOLS Fro CoL-
o-zD CHILDM N . . . . 284
62. NUMBBB AND PER CENT OF PUPILS IN EACH GBADn OF TH EIm-
MENTABa SCHOOLS IYo COUmm CHILDREN WHO An THEMR OR
Monm YEARS OvmB Aoa COMPARED WITH SUCH CHIDBm N IN
BAuLMOE AND ST. LOUIS . .... 285
63. DIeT~IBnoN oF PUPILS BY AOB--SCHooLs OB COLOBD CHIL-
DamN COMPARED WITH THOSE OF BAITIMOmB, MABTAND 286
64. DISTRIBUTION BY GRADEB or ALL THIBTN-, FOURrmN-, AND F r-
TeN-YRAR-OLD BOYS AND GILs ENROLLED IN MA, 1925, IN
SCHOOLS rFO COLORmD CmHI n . ... 287
65. DIBTrIBUTION o PUPILS IN THB FOURTH AND SIXTH GRADM Or
SCHaooLs O COLOB D CHILDBBN WITH RSPCT To GBADE STAND-
ABDS ATTAINED IN SILENT READINo ABIIT . .. .288
66. DISTRIBUTION OF PUPILS IN THE FOURTH AND SIXTH GRADE OF
SCHOOLS MOR COLORED CHILDREN WITH RESPECT TO THE GRADE
STANDARDS ATTAINED IN COMPUTATION IN ARITHMETIC 289
67. DISTaIBUTION or PUPILS IN THE FOURTH AND SITH GRADMS or
SCHOOL FOR COLOuED CHILDREN WITH RESPzC TO Lwu. or
MENTAL DIvOPMimNT EXPREBBSS IN MWrNAL Aa---McCALL
Muwr-MmNTA SCAla . . . 290

CHAPTER XII
TEACHERS' SALARIES AND COST OF LIVING
68. FAcrT CONCENINO 462 TAMPA TEACHERS' SALARIES AND SUMMER
SCHOOL ATTmNDANCe FO LAST Two YEAR AND TOTAL TECH-
ING EnPaINCE . . .. . 294







xx Tables
TARLU PAGE
69. FAcrs CONCrmNINO 284 TEACHm s LmIN AT HoDm-8Z or
FAMILY AND MAExw VALUw on ANNUAL RmTAL VaLUe or
FAMILY HOMMB . . 26
70. FACTS CoNCE NING 178 TEACHERS LIVNG IN RmNT ROOMS (NoT
aT HOME) CoMPAuMoN or THOsE LIVING ALONB VsSUB THOs
LIVING WITrH OTHERS, AND THOBS TEACHING FInT YEBA IN
TAMPA VERSUS THos IN TAMPA BEOB THIn YEBA .. 30
71. FAcrs CONcxRmNIN 178 TEACHREs LIVING IN RaBNT ROOMS (NOr
AT HOME), SUMMER SCHOOL EXPENSE, AND COMPARISON 0F
SALAB Iz WrTH COST or BOARD AND ROOMS--TACHBBS NW IN
TAMPA THIS YEAR COMPABRD WITH THOB IN TAMPA BOTH
YEARS ............... 307





I






MAPS

CHAPTER m III
THE PB BENT SCHOOL BUILDING SITUATION
NUMBER= PAGB
1. LocATroN or PsmBNT JUNIOn HIGH SCH . 57
2. AN ILLUSTrATION OF THE TBAvL DisTANB RsQUIRD or SOMB O
THE JUNIOn HIGH SCHOoL CHILDREN ATTrNDIN SCHOOL TO-DAY 58
3. LOCATION OF ELMmaNT A SHoot~ AND THm DrIBTuC THEr ,
SEBV . . ... .. 60
4. TH FAULTY LOCATION OF AN EI axmNwrT SCHOoL .... 61
5. IRBBGamULa~ IN SIZ AND SHAP or DIBTRwcm As PmBBNT ELm-
M NTAAB SHOOLS ................ 63
6. INDUBTBIAL AND COMMBCIAL TRBNDS IN TAMPA ..... .
7. ALL or THU HOMlm IN THi CTIES or TAMPA AND WSBT TAMPA IN
FBRUATr, 1925 .............. 67
8. THe PsBmNT LOCATION or THE Homs or COLmRD PuOa .. 09
9. WHin TH COLOau CHILDRm N LIB WHO ATTEND THB PUBLIC
SCHOOLS .................. 70
10. RESIDENTIAL DISTRIBUTION or CHILDBN ATTENDING THEIR L -
MNTARY SCHOOLS or THE CGrr . . .72
11. RIDmNTIAL DISTRIBUTN OF CHILDREN ArTTNDIN THm JUNIOR
HIGH SCHoOLS ....... .. .. .... .73
12. PmmExNT LOCATINow r T HIE U eo HIH S CHOOL-INcTDI AD
DB Ar OW ................ .75
13. TBaND or GaowTH rI THE CITr or TAMPA AS INDICATED BY THB
RESIDENTIAL PEBMIT2 ISSUED IN 1924 . .. 77
14. TREND or GROWTH IN THU CITr or TAMPA AS ImNDATmm By THn
RBIDzTIAL PmBBMI IssuE IN JANUArY 1925 To Ocroe 1925 78

CHAPTERIV
THE PROPOSED SCHOOL BUILDING PROGRAM
15. HnELemao COUNT, FLOUIDA, SHOWING LOCATION or TAMPA AND
WaT TAMPA ................ 81
16. LOCATION or TH PRmMNT ELmmENTAxw SCHOOLS AND TH PBO- '
POrSD ELMBNTARY SCHOOLS . . . 85
17. THU ULpnmu JUNIOR HIGH 8CHooL Buma.as . .87
18. THm ULTIMATE SmmIOR HIH SCHOOL PaOGaAM WITHIN r m
PSmmeNT DIrmaIT LIa . . . 88
19. LoamTON or PEBSENT SCHOOLS 0M COLOD CHILDBRN 90
zi























ILLUSTRATIONS


CHAPT r X

CLASSIFICATION or CHILDREN IN THB ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS AND
JUNIOR AND SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL
NUMBBI
1. A CLass or BaNNBB WHO Do NTr SPEAK ENGLISH Facing page 250
2. A FIzv SNIOn CLAss, TAMPA-MAY, 1925 .. Facing page 250
3. A FovT SB I CLASS, TAMPA-MAT, 1925 Facing page 250
4. A FouR SNIOs CLASS, TAMPA-MAT, 1925 Facing page 252
5. BoYs or NINTH- AND TENTH-GRADE Aau BLow TH U SVNxTH
GRADM IN ONI or TAMPA'S SCHOOLS ... Facing page 252
6. MECHANICAL INFOR~ ACTION Or A FirWrsT -YzA-Ow BOY IN THs
Six JumNo GRADm IN TAMPA . . 253
















CHARTS


CHAPTER I
THE ADMINISTRATION OF THU SCHOOLS
CHAT ( PAGB
1. PBOPOdND EDUCATIONAL OANIZATION . . 5


CHAPTER II
THE BUBINESB ADMINISTRATION OF BCHOO IN TAMPA
2. STEPS PeOPOSmD toB THU DIVOPMI NT OF THU BU~oGr FOm TAMPA 22
3. PLAN ros MANAMENT or SUPPLIES . ... 26
4. GBmaiuN S8UoGSTIONS rO THn FrNANC ACCOUNTING 8 T S
oB rTH TAMPA SCHOOS . . . 29
5. VouCnm leader .. ... . 32
6. GENmAL CONTmoL (RoULATIV AND EXuoCTnV SBu VIC) 32
7. INSTRUCTIONAL Smnvc (SUPrVISON AND TiACHING) . 33
8. OPBATION O SCHOOL PLANT . . .. 33
9. MAmINTNANC or PLANT (UPXae) . ... 34
10. FIxw CHA Om (DBT SmIncm) . ... 34
11. CAPITAL OVTLAy ACQUISITIONN AND CONSTRUCTION) . 35
12. AuxrLmr AaENcIs AND OTHER SUNDB AcVrnumm...i ..... 5
13. PxanC PAL' MoNTHLY RamO or THm ATBrND=cn or TACHmmR 38
14. Suoamsm PAY ROLL . . . 41


CHAPTER VI
THB ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS OF TAMPA
15. CONTBASTIN DIFFwRNT TPS Or SCHOOLS . .. .144


CHAPTER VII
THn SECONDARY SCHOOLS OF TAMPA
16. TrPICA PnooaM CABD . . . 160
17. TYPICAL PROGRAM CABD (CONTINUh) . . 161
18. CVrarCULUM-HLLSn OO HaGH SCHOOL .. . .. 180
Izii







xxiv


Charts


CHAPnE VIII
EDUCATIONAL RBBUITS
CHAT -PAM
19. COMPARISON or HOLONO POWza OF TAMPA SCHOOLS WITH THB
MIBAN or THIxBr-THBoE Crras WITH POPULATION Ovr
100,000 ............... ... ... 180

CHAP=Er IX
REGULATION OF PROGBBSS IN ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS AND IN THB
JUNIOR AND SENIOR HIGH SCHOOLS
20. CHART ILLUSTRATING THE GBAT VARIATION IN AB IN EACH
GBAD. ...... . . 7
21. PBzCENTAGE Or O Ov-AOm, NORMAL-AGB AND UNDBB-AG PUPIL
IN THE SCHOOLS IFO WHITE CHILDBBN-BY SCHOOLS, MAY, 1925 198
22. Am-GRADB RELATIONSHIP OF BINNmS . .. .199
23. P1~CCNTAGE oF SLOW-, NOBMAL-, AND RAPID-PBOGwseB PUPL IN
THE THIRD AND FIFTH GRADEB OF SCHOOLS FOR WHITE CHI-
DaN BY GRADES ............... 201
24. PEcBNTAGEs OF PUPeLB Nor POMOTED--BY SCHooLS, JUNI, 1925 203
25. PBENTAGES OF PUPILS IN SCHOOL IN JUNE Nor PBaoMormT -B
GRADES, JUNE, 1925 . . . .... 205
26. RmLATI ACHIEVEMENT IN SCHOOL SUBRJCTr or PROMOTED AND
NON-PROMOTED PUPILS AS MEASURED BT THB STANmOBD AcmI -
MENT TEBT-MAY, 1925 . . .. 208
27. RBmATIV ACHIBVBMNT IN VARIOUS SCHOOL SUBJBC s PRO-
MOTED AND NON-PROMOTE PUPILS AS MBASUBBD BT TH COM-
PONENT TESTB OF THE STANFORD ACHIEVMENT TunT IN MAT,
1925 .. ..... .......... 210
28. ACHIEVEMENTS OF NON-PBOMOTED PUPILS IN RELATION TO MIDDLE
HAL oF CLASS-LEE SCHOOL-GRADB 5A . .. 212
29. RLrATrIV MENTAL DEVELOPMENT OF PROMOTE AND NON-PROMOTD
PUPIL AS MEASURED BY THE MCCALL MUIJr-MENTAL SCALM,
MAY, 1925 .................. 214
30. COMPAIsON or GBADBs 4 JUNIOR TO 6 SBNIOB OF THREE SCHOOL
AS TO STANDING IN VARIOUS SUBJ]r S AS MEaIUBD BYr m
STANFOBD AcmHIVMmNT TEsT, MAY, 1925 . .. 215
31. PERCENTAGES OF Ov,-Am, NOMAL-ACB AND UNDw -Ao PUPILS
IN EACH OF THE JUNIOR AND SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL GBamB 225
32. COMPARISON OF SUBJeCw FAILURBB BY GBADB OF GBOam WASH-
INGTON JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL AND WooDnOW WILSO JUNm
HIGH SCHOOL, JUN, 1925 . . . 230
33. SvUJBCT FAILUZs IN JumNo HIH SCHOOLS . 231
34. SuJBCr FAn.uas IN JUNIO HIGH SCHOOLS BY GRAOB 232







Charts
CHABT
35. PncaNTAca or PUPIL IN SCHOOL IN JUNI FanMu Dr Vamous
TnACarm or Wooonow WnaoN JUNm HoH SCHooL .
36. SwBnaw FAmLUeB IN HELSTOBO Sm n HoGH SCHOOL .
37. PNDacNTAnO or PUPILa I SCHOOL IN JUNv FAILED IN VARIOUS
TNTH GADo SJ . . . .
38. COMPARISON or PBecmNTAam or F zAL.mu IN LATIN, ENGLISH,
HISTOeT, AND SCIENCm IN HILLBBOBO SENIOR HIoH SCHOOL .

CHAPTrs X


nrv



233
235

237

238
aa .
"*
*


CLASSIFICATION OP CHINDr N IN THEB EMBNTABY SCHOOL AND
JUNIOR AND SENIOR HIGH SCHOOLS
39. DIam BIBUTN or PUPILS IN GBDa 1 AND 2 IN MENTAL ABIuTT
As MRASURD BY THE PMNTN-CnUNNDGHAM PRIMARY MENTAL
TmsTe-GOaaI Lm, AND Yeon SCHoLS . .. .246
40. COMPARISON or LamEv or MENTAL DmVBLOPMN IN DImaBrNT
GRADs As MrASuBRD BT THB McCAU, MULvT-MmNTAL SCALE 247
41. COMPARISON or EDUCATIONAL AcmmHEVEmN m DnIma NT GBADM
AS MMASUBmm BT TH STrANFOD ACHImV NT TmST 249
42. COMPARISON or PmscENTAms or OVRAQnaes IN YBOB, LB AND
GoaBB 8cHOOLs--MAY, 1925 . ... 2
43. DISTIBUTON or INTmuamLIN Quormme or GBAban 9 AND 12 276


't
i
a
Is

1



1

~
.,F















REPORT OF THE SURVEY OF THE SCHOOLS
OF TAMPA, FLORIDA


CHAPTER I
THE ADMINISTRATION OF THE SCHOOLS

The administration of schools in the cities of the United States
is commonly vested in a city board of education. This board is
in most cases given full responsibility for the determination of the
program of education to be provided in the community, and in
approximately half of the cities of the country this body de-
termines the tax to be levied in support of public education. It
is not uncommon for the state to fix a maximum tax rate within
which the city board of education must operate.
As contrasted with this type of organization, which gives the
board of education full authority, there are those cities in which
the board is required to appeal to a general municipal body,
usually a board of estimate and apportionment or the city council,
for the funds necessary to support the schools. In these cities in
which the board is dependent upon a general municipal authority
there usually develops friction between the two bodies and a
divided responsibility for the educational program.
The city of Tampa operates under laws which distinguish
clearly between the general municipal or other governmental
authorities and the county and city boards of education. Tampa
is peculiar in that it shares with other cities of the state of Florida
in having a type of organization which subordinates the city
board of trustees to a county board of education.2 One of the
most important problems arising from this type of organization
is that of fixing the degree of responsibility which should be
accepted by each of these bodies.
SConstitution, Section 7 8, 9, ,10, 11, 18, 15, and 17, School Laws of the
State of lorida arranged b the t Superintendent of Public Instruction,
1928. Article X Secton 42 (R.S. 447) and 186 (R.S. 676)
School Law of the State of Florida, 1928. Sections 1 (B.. 568) ad
179 (B.S. 569).






Survey of the Shools of Tampa, Florida


THE COOPEBATION OF COUNTY AND CITY BOABDB OF EDUCATION IN
THE ADMINISTRATION OF THE SCHOOLS OF TAMPA
The law is not always entirely clear. Indeed, it may be pro-
posed that it contains conflicting provisions which could only be
finally cleared up by decisions of the courts.. In the absence of
any such judicial determination it seems possible in.the light of
present practices and with a view to promoting efficient adminis-
tration to propose for the acceptance of the county board of
education and the city board of trustees a statement of the re-
sponsibilities imposed by law upon the city board.
The fact that the legislature has seen fit to set up district
boards of trustees for the special tax school districts is evidence
of the intention to provide for the local administration of schools
in these several districts under the control of this local board. It
is equally clear from the several provisions of the law that this
local district board of trustees must operate particularly with
respect to its financial transactions under the control of the
county board of education. The state's contribution to the local
school district, and the revenue accruing from the county tax are
under the complete control of the county board of education.
The law appears to give to the district board of trustees the right
to control the expenditure of revenues derived from the tax voted
by the people of the special tax district.8 But even in the case
of this fund the apparent intent of the law ip that while the money
should be on deposit to the credit of the special tax district, the
vouchers approved by the local board of trustees should be
approved and paid by the county board of education.'
The law proposes that the actual supervision of schools in the
special tax district be undertaken by the local board of trustees.'
The distinction is made between the supervision of schools and
their control.* This would seem to indicate that the initiation of
educational policy and the actual working out of the program
adopted by the local board is subject to approval by the county
board. It would seem that the intent of the law is to place large
responsibility upon the local board of trustees for initiating
School Laws of the State of Florida, 1928. Sections 180 to 185 (.ff. 570 to
575) and section 108 (IS. 465).
SSchool Laws of the State of Florida, 1928. Section 186 (R.S. 567).
SFlorida Constitution. Article XII, Sections 10 and 11.
SSchool Laws of the State of Florida, 1928, Sections 178 (R.8. 568) sad
179 (a.5. 56).






The Administration of Schools 3
policies and for carrying them out, while requiring that they
submit their program to the county board for such suggestion or
amendment as may be developed in the discussions taking place
between the two bodies.
The survey staff believes that the only way to get an efficient
administration of schools of Tampa is to build, upon the founda-
tion provided in the law, an administrative organization com-
parable to that found in other cities of the size of Tampa through-
out the United States. It is believed that this can be accom-
plished without violation of the spirit or the letter of the Florida
school law. Conferences held with the district board of trustees
and with the county board of education have, as well, made it
perfectly clear that both of these bodies are anxious to secure for
Tampa the type of administrative organization and personnel
which will be competent to handle the problems presented in a
rapidly growing large city. In the light of these facts the fol-
lowing recommendations with respect to the relationship of the
county board of education and the district board of trustees are
made by the survey staff.

RECOMMENDATIONS
1. Recognizing the possible misunderstandings which may
arise between the two bodies responsible for the development of
an adequate program of education for the city of Tampa, and
appreciating the rapidly increasing burden of obligation resting
upon these two bodies due to the very rapid growth of the city of
Tampa, it is necessary that a working agreement which defines,
as adequately as may be, the responsibility of the county board
of public instruction and the board of trustees of the special tax
school district, be adopted.
2. In accordance with the constitution which provides that
the district board of trustees shall be responsible for the super-
vision of schools, it is proposed that the provisions of the con-
stitution and of the law placing this responsibility upon the
district board be interpreted to require of its administrative and
executive staff the performance of the following functions:
a. The supervision of instruction.
b. The performance of those activities commonly centered
in a bureau of census and attendance.







4 Survey of the Schools of Tampa, Florida

c. The responsibility for the classification and progress of
children throughout the school system.
d. The development of programs of study or of curriculum,
and of courses of study for all divisions of the school
system.
e. The organization of an adequate physical education and
health service.
f. The determination of the organization of schools as
affecting the divisions into which the school system shall
be divided, such as kindergarten, elementary schools,
junior high schools, senior high schools, and vocational
schools.
g. The selection of all employees.
h. The operation of a bureau of research.
3. In the light of the provisions of the law it is proposed that
the following obligations be accepted by the trustees of the
special tax district, and that the functions relating thereto be
performed by the executive staff of this board.
a. The preparation of the annual budget for the school
system.
b. The keeping of an adequate system of accounts.1
c. The purchase and distribution of all textbooks and
supplies used by the school system.8
4. In order that the board of trustees of the special tax school
district shall fulfill their obligations with respect to the building
of school buildings and the maintenance and operation of their
plant, it is proposed that the following obligations be accepted by
them and that appropriate action be taken by their executive
staff:
a. The selection of sites for new school buildings.
b. The securing and approval of plans and specifications
for buildings to be erected.
SSuch accounting will, in all probability, have to be in greater detail than
that required by the state, but should be in such form as to permit of report
to the county board and to the state as required by law. In the installation
of the more adequate system of accounting the survey staff recommends that
an expert be employed to install the system and that it be made applicable
both to the county oeice and to the city oeice.
SIt is assumed that all vouchers after approval by the special tax school
district board or their representatives will be presented to the county super-
intendent and to the county board for final approval and payment. It Is also
understood that the executive officers of the special tax school district will
provide the county board of public instruction with all reports required to
furnsh an adequate record of their transactions.






The Administration of Schools 5

c. The securing of bids for buildings and equipment.
d. The supervision of construction.
e. The maintenance and operation of school buildings.*

THE ORGANIZATION OF THE ADMINISTRATIV STAMT
FOR THE TAMPA SCHOOL SYSTEM
/The efficiency of the schools in a city the size of Tampa is
dependent in considerable measure upon the executives employed
by the board of education and upon the organization of the execu-
tive staff. The prevailing practice in American cities places the
superintendent of schools in the position of chief executive officer
of the board of education. It has been the practice in certain
Florida cities to call the executive officer of the local board of
trustees "Supervising Principal." While the matter of title ib

CHART I
THI PROPOSM EDUCATIONAL OGAMIATION

PEOPLE OWF ///LLJBOPO COUN/vr






I I
COUNTY 84a.O 4' EDUCATION CO//vrY JuPT, OP Je YOOI."J




IrAm P A4RAoO a- reow. rnveJrw












It is understood that in the securing of bids for new buildings the district
board of trustees will act as the agents of the county boarl of publle In-
trton and that the actual opening of bid and the awarding o ontrt




will be under the control of the county board of education as required by
law.
| w4rmrwgf in *fsw \ --



*It is understood that in the securing of bids for new buildings the district
board of trustee, will act as the agents of the county board of public In-
struction and that the actual opening of bids and the awarding of contract
will be under the control of the county board of education am required by
law.






Survey of the Schools of Tampa, Florida


not one of surpassing importance, yet it does seem worthwhile to
propose that the chief executive officer of the board of education
be given in Tampa, as elsewhere, throughout the United States,
the title commonly connected with his office.10 If a change in
the law is necessary, the survey staff recommends that such
amendment be secured and that the title of the chief executive be
changed from "Supervising Principal" to "City Superintendent of
Schools."
The success of the administration of the schools of Tampa will
depend upon the competence and the size of the staff provided
for the superintendent of schools. It is expecting the impossible
to propose that in a city of more than one hundred thousand
people that any individual can be thoroughly conversant with all
of the details necessary for the efficient administration of the
public school system.
A competent superintendent of schools is the directing head of
the whole enterprise and holds his staff responsible for putting
into form and placing before him, from time to time, that evidence
which is necessary for the formulation of those policies which he
presents to his board of education. In like manner, the actual
carrying out of the program adopted is dependent upon the super-
vision of competent men and women whose work is directed by
the superintendent of schools but who themselves and through
those responsible to them carry out the many details which arise
in the management of the school system.
A minimum staff for the city of Tampa would require, in addi-
tion to the superintendent of schools, (1) an assistant superin-
tendent of schools in charge of elementary education, (2) an
assistant superintendent of schools in charge of secondary educa-
tion (junior and senior high schools), (3) an assistant superin-
tendent in charge of business affairs, and (4) an assistant
superintendent in charge of the erection of new school buildings
and the maintenance and operation of the school plant. These
four assistants to the superintendent of schools represent the
heads of the several general divisions of activity to be carried
on in the development of the school system.
There are other services that are equally important in the de-
velopment of the schools of Tampa for which special direction
0 From this point on the chief executive omcer of the local board of trus-
tees of the special tax school district will be referred to as the superintendent
of schools and the local board will be referred to as the board of education.






The Administration of Schools 7
must be provided. The first of these has to do with that most
fundamental activity, the regular attendance of all children of
school age. The accomplishment of this purpose is dependent
upon the organization of a bureau of census and attendance which
should be headed by a competent director. In like manner, the
efficiency of the school system will be determined in considerable
degree by the health service which is provided. The limited
physical examination of school children now undertaken by the
city health department is acknowledged by the city health officer
to be much less than adequate. He agrees with the members of
the survey staff that this function should be performed together
with the general direction of a program of physical education by
a competent person who should be called a director of physical
education and health service.
All departments of the school system should from time to time
have inquiries instituted concerning the efficiency of their part of
the work and reports should be made from within the school
system and from other cities which will contribute to the efficiency
of the work which they are undertaking. Most of the cities of
the United States of the size of Tampa have already instituted
a department of research and statistics which serves to contribute
to an increased efficiency of a school system in the same manner
that this service is used in private corporations. A director of
research and statistics should be appointed.
Of the staff proposed the city of Tampa already has the three
persons responsible, respectively, for the direction of the work of
the elementary schools, of the secondary schools, and of the
construction"of new buildings. The additional staff proposed,
assistant superintendent in charge of business affairs, director of
census and attendance, director of physical education and health
service, and director of research and statistics, if appointed, will
give to Tampa a minimum staff as compared with other cities of
her class throughout the United States. In the opinion of the sur-
vey staff the highest type of efficiency and economy in the admin-
istration of the schools of Tampa requires that each and every
ne of these executives be appointed at the earliest possible date.

ASSISTANT SUPEDINTBNDZNES
The reader will discover in' the section of the report dealing
wth the administration of schools sufficient evidence of the need





Survey of the Schools of Tampa, Florida


for providing an assistant superintendent for business affairs. It
is important in passing to emphasize the responsibility of this
official to the superintendent of schools. Any suggestion of a dual
administration which sets up a business manager as coordinate
with the superintendent of instruction leads inevitably to divided
responsibility and to maladjustment in the development of the
school system.
All business transactions undertaken.for the board of education
are valid only as they contribute to the development of the pro-
gram of education which the schools seek to provide. The
assistant superintendent in charge of business affairs is under
the obligation in each one of his activities to contribute as largely
as he can from the standpoint of good business procedure to an
increase in the efficiency of the system of education. Even
though the superintendent of schools may not be familiar with all
the details of accounting, of purchasing, and the like, it is reason-
able to suppose that he has sufficient executive ability to direct
the activities of that division of the school organization having to
do with these affairs.
In like manner, it is important that the present arrangement
in Tampa, whereby the supervisors of building construction and
maintenance is directly responsible to the superintendent of
schools, be continued. The schedule of accommodations to be
provided in school buildings and the standards which must be
met can be determined only by one who is charged with the re-
sponsibility of developing the program of education. The main-
tenance of school buildings and their operations may contribute
to the welfare of children and teachers and through them to the
efficiency of the school system or, through a lack of the apprecia-
tion of the needs of those working in the buildings, operate to
handicap the schools. Dual control inevitably leads to maladjust-
ment, even though the board of education may seek to reconcile
differences in program or policy proposed'by the superintendent
of schools and the assistant in charge of buildings and grounds.

PHYSICAL EDUCATION AND HEALTH SERVICE
As will appear in those sections of the report dealing with
elementary and with secondary schools the programs of physical
education and health service in the city of Tampa are as yet
little developed. The three services, first, physical examination






The Administration of Schoole


which seeks to discover the physical needs of school children;
second, health service which attempts to carry forward a pro-
gram of correction and elimination of defects in so far as this is
possible, and third, a constructive program of physical education
which seeks to provide that training which will result in sound
bodies, are after all different aspects of the same general problem.
As has been suggested above, the most satisfactory organization
that has been developed in American cities places the direction
of all of these activities under one executive. He is commonly
called the director of physical education and health service. If
this program is to be developed for the city of Tampa, he will
have to be supported, first, by a chief medical examiner who will
guide the work of physicians and nurses in the conduct of physical
examinations, the development of remedial work through physi-
cians employed by parents or by clinical facilities provided in
the city; and second, by a supervisor of health and physical
education who will have general supervision of the work under-
taken in physical education and health teaching throughout the
city. No single contribution to the welfare of the children of
the city of Tampa promises more certain returns than those which
will follow from the organization of this department of the school
system under competent supervision.

THE BUREAU OF EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH
In the general discussion of the administrative staff and in its
graphic representation there is included the director of research
and statistics. This function of school administration has been
developed particularly during the past fifteen years in those cities
in which superintendents of schools and boards of education have
sought to develop a scientific administration of the school system.
Judgments with respect to practically every major issue of school
organization and administration should be based upon facts
which have been assembled and interpreted by one specially
trained for this type of work.
In this survey the recommendations with respect to the classi-
fication and progress of children are based upon more than one
hundred thousand tests given to children throughout the school
system. The carrying out of the recommendations made is de-
pendent upon further careful measurement of the achievements
of children and of their progress through the school system. After





10 Survey of the Schools of Tampa, Florida

these data are assembled and interpreted they should be placed
in the hands of the superintendent of schools and considered by
him in cooperation with other members of his staff in the de-
velopment of recommendations with respect to the size of classes,
the promotional program of the school system, and the modifica-
tion of courses of study. It is equally true that the problems
that center around the provision of buildings and equipment con-
tinuing studies, with respect to the shifts of population within
the city and the increased number of children to be provided for
over the years which lie immediately ahead, should be under way
at all times.
These illustrations are only two of the many activities in which
the bureau of research should be engaged in order to provide the
executive staff and the board of education with the knowledge
necessary for intelligent action with respect to the many problems
confronting them. Many other investigations may be undertaken
during a period of years, dealing with the financing of the school
system, with costs for various types of service and for varying
units into which the school system is organized, with the selec-
tion, assignment, promotion, and payment of teachers. No
efficient business enterprise of the size of the Tampa public school
system could be conducted without the type of service proposed
above. Much of the success of all of the other executives em-
ployed by the board of education is dependent upon the service
which is provided for them by the bureau of .educational re-
search.

In concluding the general discussion with respect to the ad-
ministration of the schools of Tampa, the survey staff wishes to
emphasize the importance of providing at least the minimum staff
recommended above. Every proposal of the survey for the im-
provement, or for those procedures which it is believed will add
to the efficiency of the school system, is in the last analysis de-
pendent upon the adequacy and efficiency of the administrative
and supervisory corps. It is poor economy to seek to administer
a school system by overloading the most competent executives
that can be secured. It is necessary to provide the superinten-
dent of school with as adequate a staff as possible if the best
returns are to be secured from the investment made in the public
school system.







The Administration of Schools 11


CBNSns AND ArTTNDACB
The need for a more adequate attendance service has been
indicated over and over again in the study of the Tampa schools.
By a conservative estimate, there are eight thousand boys and
giils not enrolled in school. The discrepancy between the largest
age group of pupils and other age groups in Tampa alone shows
that the enrollment in other age groups would have to be in-
creased by more than three thousand to make the percentage of
enrollment of children of other ages equal to that of the ten-year-
olds. This is shown by Table 1.

TABLE 1
ATrBNDANCB AND ESuMATI) NON-ATmBNDANC IN THE SCHoo1a WB WHIm
CHIa U N, DISTm Tr No. 4

Betilmt"4
Ae D4erenO e eroUment if
Aae Smrole -r.oomO 19 Pe'r CNtuiZ
r-06 19-TesryOM
inet School
6 ................. 645 47 .... 77
7 .................. 1,144 148 .... 277
8 .................. 1,71 21 .... 150
9 ............... 1,199 93 ....22
10 ................... 1,2 0 1,421 129
11 ................. 1,26 23 .... 152
12 ................... 1,237 55 .... 184
13 ................... 1,113 179 .... 308
14 ................... 929 3 .... 492
15 ............... 682 610 .... 739
16 .............. .... 420 8 .... 1,001
Total ......... 3,011 Total Non-At-
tendance ..... 4,430
Note: The estimate that 10 per cent of the ten-year-ds are not now ia
school may seem low when conditions In Tampa are considered.

The failure to enroll pupils in school is equaled by e failure
to obtain timely enrollment of those who do eventually enter,
the failure to keep pupils in regular attendance, and the failure
to prevent withdrawal during the year for inadequate reasons.
Table 29, on page 200, shows that in February, 1925, 177
pupils entered the 1 Junior grade eight years of age or older. Of
the pupils who entered this grade in September, 1924, 272 were
above eight years of age. Thus, about 26 per cent of those
entering the first grade are one year or more beyond the first
compulsory attendance year. One out of every seven enters the






12 Survey of the Schools of Tampa, Florida


first grade nine years of age or over. One out of every fourteen
enters at ten years of age or older, and a number are twelve and
one-half, thirteen, and some even thirteen and one-half years of
age when they enter the 1 Junior grade. Late entrance de-
creases the number of years schooling which almost all of these
boys receive. In addition, it makes the problem of proper classi-
fication of children in the school system exceedingly difficult.
A record of the age and residence of each boy and girl in
Tampa would make it possible to get in touch with the homes
when children reach the age of six. This is a service outside of
compulsory attendance, but is the type of service much of which
an effective attendance department well performs. These same
records make it possible to follow up all pupils not in school by
the age of seven, and, when necessary, to bring the compulsory
attendance pressure to bear.
Much greater attention is needed for the problem of obtaining
timely enrollment of pupils at the beginning of the term. Under
present conditions, many pupils do not enter school until the term
is well advanced. Evidence of this is given in Table 57, page
272. Out of 178 pupils in Grades 4 and 6 who entered late
during the fall semester of 1924-1925, 42, or 3 per cent, of all -of
the pupils enrolled in these grades, had been in Tampa at the
time school opened. A properly operating attendance service will
not only prevent this condition, but will secure immediate enroll-
ment of boys and girls moving into Tampa. The system of census-
keeping must be such as to bring all such boys and girls to the
attention of school authorities without delay.
The early withdrawal of large numbers of pupils shows the
need for more attention to this phase of the attendance problem.
Table 31, on page 204, shows that in the elementary schools for
white children, a total of 830 pupils, or 8.6 per cent of the total
number enrolled, withdrew before the end of the school year. It
is the duty of the attendance department to investigate those
cases where the reason for withdrawal is not otherwise estab-
lished and secure a return to school whenever possible. This
should apply to all pupils, to those below and above the com-
pulsory age limit, as well as to those for whom attendance is
compulsory.
The large place that non-attendance plays in retarding pupils
in Tampa is indicated by the reasons for non-promotion given by






The Administration of Schools


Teachers in June, 1925. Of all the causes of failure given by the
teachers, poor attendance stands next to the most frequent cause.
According to the teachers, poor attendance is responsible for 12
per cent of the failures in the Lee School, 16 per cent in the
Gorrie School, 18 per cent in the Ybor School, and 21 per cent in
the Wilson Junior High School.
STampa, at present, has the full-time services of two employees
in the attendance department. The total annual cost of this
department is less than three thousand dollars per year, or
approximately fifteen cents per pupil enrolled. Table 2 shows
the cost of attendance in several northern cities with an enroll-
ment near that of Tampa.
TABLE 2
CouraAuTvs CosT or ATmsen ce IN TAMPA AND OrIm CrIT *
v Cost of Attendasce
VIPer Pespu rolled
Springfield, Massachusett ..................... 80.46
Albany, New York ..................... ..... .44
Paterson, New Jersey ......................... .
Johnstown, Pennsylvania ........'............ .27
Allentown, Pennsylvania ................... .22
TAMPA (1925) ............................ .15
SFigure are compiled from superintendents' reports for 1920-1921 and
1921-1922, except for Tampa.
Careful study has shown that a city, in order properly to
enforce the compulsory attendance law and extend the principle
of universal education, may properly spend up to one dollar
per pupil of compulsory attendance age for the purpose of main-
taining an adequate and effective attendance department. Tampa
is therefore justified in materially increasing the amount now
spent in order to build up a thoroughly efficient attendance de-
partment. It is, no doubt, true that the work of a census and
attendance department in Tampa will be greater than in a city
of the same size with a more stable population.
The development of a progressive educational program depends
first of all upon the accuracy and continuity of the school census.
The city of Tampa should institute at once an attendance de-
partment directly subject to the control and supervision of the
local school executive to the end that data may be made available
for educational and administrative purposes. A permanent con-
tinuing census of all children from one day old up to at least






14 Survey of the Schools of Tampa, Florida


eighteen years of age is imperative if the school system is to be-
come an efficient agency for universal education. An efficient
child accounting system must be based upon such a census. In
no other way can the actual school enrollment be adequately and
regularly checked with the actual school population of'Tampa.
In organizing the attendance department in Tampa, there
should be, first, a director of the census and attendance depart-
ment who is directly responsible to the supervising principal and
has charge of all census and attendance work. Such clerical help
and assistants as the office of the director may require should be
provided. In taking the initial census for the purpose of in-
stituting a permanent continuing census, a well-trained staff of
assistants will be necessary. Thereafter, one census field worker
will be sufficient.
There should be a chief attendance officer with at least two
assistants and clerical help necessary to keep an efficient system
of records and check on attendance. When the department is
well organized, it will probably be found desirable to add to the
staff a visiting teacher well trained in social welfare and atten-
dance work, and a probation officer to look after court cases and
employment.
A recent investigation of attendance service of cities of the
size of Tampa gives in detail the necessary forms and pro-
cedures for an effective attendance service. Since this will soon
be available in printed form, the detailed treatment of these
aspects of the problem is omitted here."
SEmmons, Frederick E. it~ School Attendance Service. Bureau of Pub-
lications, Teachers College, Columbia University. 1926.












CHAPTER II


THE BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION OF SCHOOLS IN
TAMPA
DIVISION OF DUTIES IN BUINESS ADMINISTRATION
The officers who are recommended to carry out the program of
business administration are the assistant superintendent in
charge of business affairs and the assistant superintendent in
charge of buildings and grounds.

BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION
The activities of business administration which will fall
primarily to the responsibility of the assistant superintendent in
charge of business affairs will be the following:
Activities Primarily Secretarial, Pertaining to the Secretary of
a Corporation.-Recording proceedings of the board of education
and its committees; having custody of the records of the board,*
including seal, contracts, securities, documents, title papers, books
of record, insurance policies, receipts, bills, cancelled orders and
warrants, cancelled bonds and coupons, and board corre-
spondence; signing records of board, school warrants,* school
board contracts; making reports to the state; keeping record
of employees of the board,-past and present; keeping record of
annuitants; publishing board reports and board notices; notifying
members of meetings and supplying them with an outline of busi-
ness to come up, together with resolutions covering same; mailing
minutes of board meetings to members subsequent to meetings;
handling of board correspondence including the notification of all
interested parties of board action, and executing contracts for
the board.
Activities Primarily Financial.-Preparing, examining, and
certifying to county board pay rolls; reporting regularly the
I As Indicated in the previous chapter, part of these duties must be e
formed by the offee of the county board. It i reconised that the last action
or the lat transaction, In many cas, Is an obligation of the county oepm.
The asterisk ndicates the fuThtions which ar primarily thoae of the espty-
ofcers.
16






16 Survey of the Schools of Tampa, Florida

condition of the various board funds; collecting and disbursing
school funds on proper authorization; keeping financial rec-
ords; auditing claims against the board; preparing the annual
budget; insuring school property; estimating building costs;
recommending transfer of funds from one budget appropriation
to another; preparing annual inventory of board property; and
making annual financial report.*
Activities Pertaining to the Purchasing of Supplies.-Listing of
needed supplies; advertising for bids on same; purchasing sup-
plies; issuing purchase orders for supplies on properly certified
requisitions; storing and distributing supplies; keeping perpetual
inventory; keeping accounts with various units of the school
system for the determination of unit costs; reporting on supplies
on hand; preparing annual budget for supplies; and superin-
tending all printing for the board.

ADMINISTRATION OF BUILDINGS AND GROUNDS
The activities 2 in which the assistant superintendent in charge
of buildings will participate are those pertaining to the operation
and maintenance of the physical plant as well as those which
are primarily the result of new building development. These
activities are recorded in detail below:
Activities Pertaining to the Operation and Maintenance of the
Physical Plant.-Inspecting of school plant and its equipment;
supervising the maintenance staff; overseeing all repair work and
alterations; certifying all bills for maintenance; supervising
operation and maintenance employees; supervising operation of
plant; preparing specifications for supplies used in operation and\
maintenance, including fuel; issuing permits for use of school
property; and having general custody of the plant.
Activities Pertaining Primarily to Capital Outlay.-Acquiring
title to property by purchase or condemnations; supervising the
voting and issuing of bonds; approving plans and specifications
of architects; furnishing data to architects; supervising the work
of builders at every stage; approving contracts of board either
with or without legal advice; approving "faithful performance"
bonds; certifying contractors' and architects' claims; appraising
'As indicated in the 'previous chapter, part of these duties mest be per-
formed by the office of the county board. It is recognized that the last action
or the last transaction, in many cases, is an obligation of the county officers.
The asterisk indicates the functions which are primarily those of the county
officers.


. I







Business Adminitration of Schools in Tampa


grounds and buildings; advertising for bids and letting of con-
tracts; keeping construction records, plates of sites, and plans of
buildings; checking on construction before making final payment;
and supervising the manufacture of school furniture and the
installation of equipment.
This survey cannot include all of the details of business manage-
ment 8 in each of the fields enumerated above. It is recommended
that a policy be pursued by the officers of business administration
which will produce for school administration in Tampa as eco-
nomical and efficient a business management as has been de-
veloped by the most satisfactorily organized corporations en-
gaged in private business. Some illustrations of the practices
recommended are given in this report. Among the references
in educational literature which will assist in the development of
the program proposed are the following:

CAsE, HBIm C. Handbook of Instruction for Recording Disbursements
for School Purposes. C. F. Williams and Son, Albany, N. Y. 1917.
FowrKx, JOHN G. School Bonds. Bruce Publishing Co, Milwaukee,
Wis. 1924.
HoCHINeoN, J. H. School Costs and School Accounting. Bureau of
Publications, Teacher College, Columbia University. 1914.
MaLcmHo, WM. T. Insuring Public School Property. Bureau of Publi-
cations, Teachers College, Columbia University. 1924.
MosaLmaM, AarTHn B. Uniform Accounting Plan for Michigan. State
Education Department, Lanaing, Mich. 1925.
SrraH, HAnrr P. Business Administration of City School Systems.
Bureau of Publications, Teachers College, Columbia University. 1926.
8rnAmT, G. D. and ENQLHAmn r, N. L. School Records and Reports.
Bureau of Publications, Teachers College, Columbia University. 1923.
TwaNTa, JOHN W. Budgetary Procedure for the Local School System.
Published by author. 1923.
HAn~SBnvO, PA. Survey of the Organisation and Administration of the
Public Schools of Harrisburg, Pa. Bureau of Municipal Research, N. Y. C.
1917.

ILLUSTRATIONS OF THE KINDS OF BUSINESS RECORDS WHICH SHOULD
BE MAINTAINED
Records of the Acts of the Board of Education.-It is exceed-
ingly important that all of the official acts of the city board of
SAs indicated in the previous chapter, part of these duties must be per-
formed by the oece of the county board. It Is recognized that the last action
or the last transaction, in many cases, is an obligation of the county offers.
The asterisk indicates the functions which are primarily those of the county
officers.








18 Survey of the Schools of Tampa, Florida

education be recorded in such form that ready reference may be
made at any time to any single action of the board. Thus the
minute book becomes one of the most important records main-
tained within the school system, since on its pages are recorded
the policies and programs to be pursued and the steps which are
sanctioned for the development of public education within the
city. The standards set up by Strayer and Engelhardt in their
publication, School Records and Reports, should be followed in
detail. From this should result accuracy of recording and ease in
reference. A suggestion of one of the standards proposed by these
authors is to be found in the kind of index which should be main-
tained to permit of easy reference to the actions of the board of
education. The index given below should be cumulative to the
degree that it will cover a period of years of the proceedings of
the school boards of Tampa.


INDEX OF MINUTE BOOK FOR BOARD OF EDUCATION


Acceleration
Accounts,
auditor of
classification of
system of
Adjourned meetings
Adult instruction
Advertising of evening
schools
AFgbra
American history
Americanization
Ancient history
Annual appropriations
Annual reports, Bee Re-
ports
Annuitants, list of
Applratus
Appendix, contents of
Appointments,
assistant superinten-
dent
attendance officer
clerks
Janitors
principals
supervisors
teachers
Appropriations for,
auxiliary agencies
capital outlay
debt service
enerpal control
nstructIon
maintenance
operation
Architect
Art
Assessed valuation,
of school property
by schools
total
Assets and liabilities
Assessors, report of


Assignment of teachers,
elementary
evening
high school
special
Assistant superintendent,
appointment of
duties of
report of
salary of
Athletics
Attendance,
elementary
evening
high school
kindergarten
of teachers
parochial schools
special classes
special schools
Attendance department
Attendance omfieers, re-
port of
Auditor, report of
Balances
Balance sheet
Bath centers
Bids
Bills
Biology
Blind schools
Board of assessors
Board of education
Board of election, com-
missioners
Board of examiners
Board of health
Board members
Bonded indebtedness
Bonds,
according to issue
authorized but not is-
Sued
outstanding


Bonded debt,
report of
schedule for
Bonding for contractors
Bookkeeping
Boundaries
Budget
Building fund
Buildings,
new
old
Business agent, report of
Business committee
Business,
department
new
Calendar
Capital outlay
Car tickets
Certificates
Chamber of commerce
Checks unclaimed
Chemistry
Child labor
Child Welfare Board
City Council
City districts
Civil service
Clerical assistants,
appointment of
salaries of
Clerical department
Clinical psychologist
Clinic psychological
Coal, contract prices
College admisaons
Colored schools,
elementary
high school
kindergarten
special schools
Commercial,
department
nsramoo







Busineae Admisitration of SchoolI in Tan"&


Committees
Communications
Community cdies
Compulsory attendance
Connections
Contagious diseases
Continuation schools
Contractors, bonding of
Contracts awarded
Cooking
Corporal punishment
Corporation
Costs,
per capital for
elementary
evening
high school
special schools
total,
elementary
evening
.high cool
special schools
County officers
County superintendent
Courses of study,
elementary
evening
high school
special schools
Court cases
Cripple children,
classes for
transportation for
Curriculum, Bee Course
of Study
Custodian
Day elementary schools
Day high schools
Day special schools
Dean of girls
Deeds, abstracts of
Degrees
Dental Inspection
Department of research,
report of
Depositories of board
Detention school
Diplomas
Director of research,
appointment of
report of
salary of
Directory
Disciplinary classes
Donations by schools
Drawing
Drinking fountains
Elementary schools
day
evening
list o eligible,
Janitors



funds
lists of,
Janitors
principals
teachers
English
Equipment,
new
old
Evening schools,
elementary
high school
special schools


BEvening lectures
Examlnations ot,

eachers
Executive heads of de-
partments
lxbhibits
Experimental,
rooms
schools
Expenditures,
auxiliary agencies
capital outlay
debt service
fixed charge
general control
Instruction
maintenance
operation
Extended use of buIld-
ins
Bxtensfon coureas for
teachers
Feeble minded
Finance
Fire,
drills
escapes
protection
Fires
Flag Day
Foreign language
Fraternities
Free textbooks
French
Funds,
building

rniture and equipment
Garbage and ashes
Geometry
German
Gifted children,
classes for
examination of
Graduation exercises
Growth of schools
Handwriting
Health certfcates
Health department
Health regulations
Heating
Heating aeps tus
Rome gardening
Home study
Household arts
Hygiene
Illiteracy
Incidental fund
Indebtedness,
outstanding
statement of
Industrial,
arts
classes
schools
teachers
Inspectors of schools
Insurance
Interest
Intermediate,
classes
schools
teachers
Inventory
Janitors,
appointment of


certification of
elaeslfation of

troe
service
supplies
Junior high school
Junior Bed Cros
Juvenile court
Kindergarte-n
attendance
supervisors
teachers
total enrollment
Laboratories
Labor certbicates
Land appropriated
Lansuam
Land pnche
Leave of absence
Lectures for teachers
Legal department
Legislature
Liabilities
Liberty bonds
Library,

report
committee

















Military drill
societies
Loans
Lunches
Lunch rooms
Maintenance fund
Manual and industrial
arts
arts supervisor
report of
training,
elementary school
high school
supervisor
Marks
Measurements
Medical inspection, re-
port of
Merit system
Military drill
Minimum essentials
Museum
Music,
concerts
report of supervisor
supervisor
Nature study
New buildings
New equipment
Non-Bnglls ah-speaking
classes
Non-promotion
Nurses,
appointment
reports
salaries
Obituary
Observation,
classes
school
Officials
Open-air school
indebtedness
OverU ae aso*u
paye ,
attendance eoeem








20 Survey of the Schools of Tampa, Florida


clerks
janitors
supervisors
teachers
Parent-Teachers' Associa-
tions
Parental school
Parks
Part-time classes
Parochial schools,
attendance
enrollment
Pensions,
fund
rules governing
Personal service
Petitions
Physical,
education
training
Physics,
laboratories
teachers
Pianos
Plans and specifications
Playgrounds,
equipment
supervision of
Plumbing
Population,.
city
school
Prevocational classes
Primary classes
Principals,
appointment of
day elementary school
day high school
evening schools
salaries of
Printing
Promotion of teachers
Promotion rate
Property,
inventory of
valuation
Psychological,
clinic
laboratory
report of director
survey
tests
Public library board
Public school libraries
Public speaking in
high school
Punishment
Pupils,
ae table
attendance
by buildings
number in private
schools
number of 6 to 16
number per teacher
Purchasing department
Purchase orders
Recommendations
Records
Red Cross
Reform schools
Registration of school
children
Rents
Repairs
Report of committees
Reports, annual,
assistant superintend-
ent
attendance department


business agent
custodian
director of research
superintendent
treasurer
Reports, special
Requisitions
Resignations
Resolutions
Retardation
Retirement,
board
fund
Revenue
Rotary club
Rules and regulations
Salaries,
assistant superintend-
ent
attendance officers
business agent
clerks
director of research
Janitors
principals
superintendent
supervisors
teachers
Salary schedule.
Sales
Salesmanship
Sanitation
Savings banks
Scholarship
School Board,
members of
officers of
organization of
regular meetings of
report of
sub-committees of
School,
bonds
calendar
census
centers
committees
districts
documents, printing of
elections
enrollment
for deaf and dumb
gardening
Improvement
laws
location of
lunches
population
property
supplies
taxation
term
Schools, colored,
elementary
evening
industrial
secondary
special
Sectarian instruction
Bible in schools
Secretary
Separation of races
Service
Sewer assessments
Sewin
Short nme loans
Sinking funds
Sites for schools
Smith-Hughes appropria-
tions


Social centers
Special,
classes
schools
Standards for measure-
ments
State,
aid for schools
board of education
dertment of educa-
educational policy
examinations
funds
inspection of schools
normal schools
officers
school funds
school lands
Statistical data
Stenography
Storekeeper
Storeroom
Sub-normal classes
Substitute teachers
Summer schools,
for pupils
for teachers
Sundry
Superintendent of public
instruction
Superintendent of schools
Superintendent's report
Supervisory organisation
Supervisors,
elementary
kindergarten
primary
special
Supplementary classes
Supplies
Supply room
Surplus
Surveys
Suspension and expulsion
Swimming lessons
Swimming pools
Taxes,
local
state
Teachers,
clubs
elementary
employment of
examinations
high school
in service
institutes
kindergarten
leave of absence of
meetings
new
primary
professional training of
resignations
salaries
special
substitute
tenure
transfers
unions
Teaching efficiency
Technical education
Technical high school
Telephones
Temporary appointments
Tests of school work
Text books
Time schedule







Business Administration of Schools in Tampa


Total cost of maintaining Typewriting Vocational,
schools Unnshed business classes
Trade schools Unaded, department
Training schools cla goance
Transfer of funds school schools
Transfers Uniform financial ac- teachers
Transportation counts Voters, registered by
Treasurer Uniformity of textbooks wards
Truancy Unit cost Warrants
Truant school United States flag in Water service
Tuberculous children, schools Writing,
classes for Units of measurements measurement of
Tuition, Vacations supervisor of
of pupils Vaccination Work permits
refunds Ventilation
Type of schools Victrolas in schools

Procedures and Records Involved in Budget Making.-Due to
the peculiar relationship existing between the district trustees
and the county board of public instruction, it would seem to be
particularly important that the district trustees or the ultimate
city board of education should exercise the greatest possible care
in making their budget. It is necessary that the county board of
public instruction sometime approve the expenditures of the city
board of education. This can be accomplished when the city
board presents a budget which sets forth the needs of the city in
the greatest possible detail accompanied by unit costs and such
other facts as will give evidence to the county board that the
moneys to be expended have been carefully distributed and
allotted to the respective phases of the educational program.
The work in budget making will consist of two parts, the
preparation of the budget itself by the superintendent of city
schools and his staff under the direction of the city board of
education, and the final review and approval of the budget by the
county board of public instruction. When this budget has been
approved in this form by the county board of public instruction,
the implication should be that the city board of education will
have definite guidance as to their program and assurance that
they may proceed to carry out the policies and programs as laid
down in the budget within the financial limitations set up by the
budget itself. The steps to be taken in the preparation of the
budget may be seen in Chart 2.
The summarized budget, as presented to the county board of
public instruction, should appear at least in the detail presented
on page 23. The monthly reports of the business management to
the city board of education showing the relationship between
budget appropriations, the amounts already expended, the un-
encumbered balances, and the amounts which must be paid during



















































CHART 2
STEPS PROPOSED FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE BUDGET FOB TAMPA, FLOIDA






22






DETAILED STATEMENT OF EXPENDITURES OF THE BOARD
OF EDUCATION
I uu-- -- = m l ---





24 Survey of the Schools of Tampa, Florida

the current month as a result of executive action can also be
made in this same form.
The Cumulative Budget Record.-It should be the function of
the business management to maintain a cumulative budget record
which will make possible comparisons by years and schools on
the basis of unit costs. Such a record is indispensable in pre-
senting the public and the press with the real situation in
respect to educational costs and in defending the school system
against criticism which is based upon limited knowledge of the
facts. Such a cumulative record should include facts concerning
the relationship between school expenses and total city expenses,
the increases in valuations, the changes in tax rates, the growth
in population, the enrollment increments, the outstanding in-
debtedness and other similar facts which are utilized as the bases
for comparisons. If such a record is not thoroughly planned in
advance and not maintained accurately, information concerning
school cost is secured only with difficulty.

THE PURCHASE, STORAGE, AND DISTRIBUTION OF SCHOOL SUPPItS
All details for budgeting, purchasing, distributing, and account-
ing for school supplies should be centralized in the office of busi-
ness management of the city school system. The machinery for
purchasing and distributing should be as simple as possible and
sufficiently adequate to meet the educational demands as they are
made. The effort should be made to avoid unnecessary duplica-
tion of clerical service, but the procedures should be so developed
as to eliminate the possibility of waste, oversupply, and loss of
materials. It is recognized that school property in the form of
cash is, as a rule, very carefully accounted for. As soon as cash is
converted into materials or supplies, the appreciation of values
seems to disappear. Accounting becomes less detailed and less
active, and a loose and wasteful process creeps in. Stores account-
ing should be so developed that, at any time, the quantity of
supplies on hand, the quantities used, and the point of consump-
tion should be easily ascertainable. The records which should be
maintained should give exact information concerning the supply
budget appropriations at all sources of need, the amounts con-
sumed, and bills outstanding.
The large percentage of supplies for a school system should be






Business Administration of Schools in Tampa 25

purchased annually and in bulk. Competitive bids should be
sought. The city superintendent of schools and the business
management should have the privilege of purchasing emergency
,or special supplies within limitations in case of special need. A
standard list of supplies in each field of activity should be adopted
by the board of education and published with such definite spec-
ifications that all teachers and principals making requisitions
will order in definite terms and without ambiguity.
Mr. R. B. Taylor, in his book, Principles of School Supply
Management,' has set up a plan for the management of supplies
as a result of his intimate analysis of school supply management
in a number of school systems. Mr. Taylor's plan, as reproduced
in Chart 3, is recommended as the basis for the development of
the supply program in Tampa.

TEXTBOOK MANAGEMENT
After July 1, 1926, Tampa will have a twofold problem of
textbook management. The first problem is that of handling the
textbooks supplied to grades 1 to 6 by the state textbook com-
mission through the county superintendent of schools. Grades 7
to 12 will continue, as is being done at present, to purchase the
-books required for their work from the book agency which the
district trustees have been compelled to establish due to the trade
confusion resulting from past practices.
Difficulty will be encountered by the city school teachers in
establishing the relationship between the proposed curriculum
and the textbooks which have been adopted by the state book
commission. This difficulty arises primarily from the fact that
these adoptions are for a period of eight years, while during that
same period of eight years very significant changes will no doubt
take place in the curriculum development of the city schools.
Due to the fact that the state law requires that all textbooks
furnished by the state must be collected at the end of the school
year, the city of Tampa must provide storage space for these
books at the direction of the county superintendent of schools.
Every effort should be made to reduce to a minimum the detail
work involved in issuing and collecting these free textbooks. The
city authorities have already made splendid progress in devel-
STaylor, R. B. Pri iples of Shool HUipyi Meangem lt. (To be published
by Bureau of Publications, Teacher College, Columbia University.)












CHART 3

PLXAN FOM MANAGMnONT OF SDPPLU


BE Supply Estimate
R Requisition
SB Supply Budget
BF Bid Form
3 Quotation
Purchase Order
SSupply Items
I Invoice
V Voucher


LEGEND
-4 Direction and Order of Transaction

Source

SApproved or Checked
E-3 Destination
Plan developed by R. B. TALOm.







Business Adminstration of School in Tampa


oping a method of textbook management. The work has been
greatly handicapped by lack of adequate storage facilities. Text-
book distribution in Tampa will soon involve more than one
hundred thousand volumes. It can be readily seen that a
superior system of management must be maintained to make
possible the proper distribution of the books themselves, as well
as to safeguard the health of the school children.
Textbook Agency.-The textbook agency which was created
last year should be placed under the direction of the officer in
charge of free textbook distribution. It is the recommendation of
the survey staff that the Tampa school system rapidly develop
a system of free textbooks for pupils of the junior high school
and senior high school. No distinction can be made between
the free textbook service rendered to elementary children and
that which should be rendered to pupils of the upper schools.
Until the financial program can be advanced to the point where
this free textbook extension is made possible, every safeguard
should be established about the funds which accrue from the sale
of textbooks. This textbook fund is similar to many other funds
which are handled in city school systems. They cannot be classi-
fied as legitimate receipts as they are nothing more nor less than
a revolving fund to take care of a certain need which has not
been duly authorized by the school authorities or by law as a
legitimate school expense. In the section, "Internal Accounting,"
recommendations are made covering this textbook fund as well as
other similar funds.

FINANCIAL ACCOUNTING
Accurate and adequate financial accounting is vital to the
building up of an efficient and progressive school program.
Records of all financial transactions should be as simple as
possible, and yet they should hold a complete history of every
transaction.' A system of school accounts should provide for an
original document that would contain such a history. An ade-
quate system of accounts should further provide for a complete
accounting of all funds appropriated and furnish such information
as will enable the board, the superintendent, and his assistants to
decide intelligently questions of policy and efficiency with
knowledge of costs.







Survey of the Schools of Tampa, Florida


The work of accounting is closely linked up with what is termed
"Business Research and Statistics." The latter may be thought
of in terms of cost accounting, preparation of the budget, and
specified investigations to aid in scientifically determining various
phases of the educational program and business program.
Cost accounting for schools should *result in a statement of
three principal kinds of costs:
1. Costs for various kinds of service.
2. Costs for various kinds of schools [and for kinds of service
in kinds of schools].
3. Costs against schools (buildings) for various particular
activities.

Before a board and superintendent can effectively and effi-
ciently develop an educational program, they must know the cost
figures with reference to units of service rendered rather than
merely total amounts. The latter are often misleading if given
without some measure of unit cost.
Chart 4 illustrates the types of records which are recommended
for financial accounting. This accounting system will include,
among others, the following accounting books:
Order Book Stores' Ledger
Appropriation Ledger Property and Equipment
Record Accounts Payable Ledger
Disbursement Ledger Record of Receipts
Schedule of Stores' Invoices Teacher Payment Accounts

Disbursement Ledger.-In the distribution of expenditures, the
state plan in use in Florida varies in great degree from that
utilized in many other states. The distinction is clearly shown in
Table 3 where the Florida plan is compared with the Pennsyl-
vania, Wisconsin, New York, and Michigan plans as well as with
the plan recommended by the National Education Association.
In this table, the main functions of accounting are shown. Each
function is itemized in such great detail that the cost of education
in any one particular field of endeavor is easily ascertainable.
It will be seen that theFlorida plan does not have a consistent
method of segregating functions as is true in the other cases.
Since the plans followed in the other states are those which have






Business Administration of Schools in Tampa


CHART 4
GNERMAL SuGaBTIONS FOn IH A FINANCuAL ACCOUNTwa SYIN STm Tra
TAMPA SCHOOLS

met with the approval of accounting officers of recognized ability
and experience in the field of educational accounting, and as the
main outlines of these plans have been approved by national
educational bodies, it is recommended that Tampa follow in
general the form of distribution which is approved by the
National Education Association.
The forms of accounts which are recommended are shown on
pages 32, 33, 34, and 35. A handbook 5 giving instructions in the
SCase Hiram C. Hamdbooo of Inrtrwson for Recording D~toremenst for
86hoolI Pwose. C. Williams and Son, Albany, N. N. 1917.






30 survey of the Schoole of Tampam, Florida





TABLE
STATz PLAN oi DIrTrIBUTIoN or ScHom ExrmITnrvm zN Fwmx24 CuPAFdD
MIcHinAN, AND f ,EDPLAN RouXm tuinD sy THE


FLORIDA

1. Salaries of
Teachers
2. Purchase of
School Lots
8. New Buildings
Bopended for Bohool
4. Repairs to Build-
ings
5. Furniture
6. Apparatus
7. Insurance
8. Rent
9. Janitors
10. Fuel
11. Free Books
12. Transportation of
Pupils
18. Incidentals
14. (Blank)
peusaw of
15. Salary of Super-
Intendent
16. Traveling ex-
uenses of Super-
intendent
17. Per Diem and
Mileage of Mem-
bers of Board
18. Commissions of
Treasurer
19. Incidentals for
Board and Super-
intendent
20. Printing and Fl-
nancial Statement
21. Printing
Administration, eto.
22. Expenses of Ex-
aminations
28. Tuition Paid for
County Line Pu-
pils
24. Institute or Sum-
mer School
25. Books, Furniture,
etc. Not Dis-
tributed
26. Interest
27-54, Inclusive
(Blanks)


PBNNBYLVANIA

Dept.A. General Con-
trol
Dept. B. Instruction
Dept. C. Auxiliary
Agencies
Dept. D. Operation of
t school Plant
Dept. B. Maintenance
of Plant
Dept. F. Fixed
Charges
Dept Debt Service
Dept. Capital Out-
lay


WISIONSIN

Form A. Receipts
Form B. Advance-
ments
Form C. General Con-
trol
Form D. Expenses of
Instruction
FormE. Coordinate
Activities
Form F. Auxiliary
Agencies
Form 0. Expenses of
Operation of
P nt
Form H. Maintenance
or Upkeep of
School Plant
Form J. Fixed
Charges
Form K. Debt Service
Form L. Capital Out-
lay








Business Administration of Schools in Tampa


WITH PLANs In UsB Dn P NxrsTLANiA, WIBCoans, New YoCS, AND
NATIONAL EDUCATION AseocATION, WASHINGTON, D. C.


NEW YORK

I. General Control
II. Instruetional
Service
III. Operation of
School Plant
IV. Maintenance of
Plant
V. Fixed Charges
VI. Auxiliary Agen-
cies
VII. Capital Outlay
VIII. Debt Service


MIOCIGAN

I. Admiltraton
(GeMeral Con-
II. Instnruction
III. Coordinate Ace
tivities
IV. Auxiliary Aen-
cles
V. Operation of
schoo Plant
VI. Fixed Charge
VII. Maintenance of
SSchool Plant
VIII. Capital Outlay
IX. Debt Service


NATIONAL NDUOA-
TION ABBOOIATION
I. Expenses of
General Con-
trol (Overkead
Charges)
II. expenses of In-
straction (Day
Schools)
III. xpenes of In-
struction (Night
schools)
IV. Expenses of
Operation of
School Plant
VI. Expenses of
Maintenance of
Behool Plant
VI. Bxpensea of
Auxlia A
day Activities
VII. Expenses of
Fixed Charee
VIII. Expenses of
Debt Service
IX. It In
apital outlay











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33






Survey of the Schools of Tampa, Florida


use of these forms is available. If the city of Tampa utilizes
these forms, it will be possible to get accurate cost accounting
data. It will also make it a simple matter for the accounting
officers to give correct reports to the United States Bureau of
Education and other governmental bodies which seek information
concerning the expenditures of municipalities. The use of this
plan by the city of Tampa will not prevent the school officials
from making state reports according to any method which the
state has adopted or will hereafter devise.

PAY BOLL ACCOUNTING
The law provides that the district trustees shall recommend
to the county board of public instruction the teachers for the
schools of the district. If such recommendations are approved by
the county board, the county superintendent is authorized to
enter into a contract with the teachers recommended by the
trustees. If the nomination of any teacher is not approved by the
county board, the trustees recommend a second time. In case
the same teacher is recommended by the trustees a second time
and the county board disapproves of her the second time, the
county board then proceeds to fill such place on its own motion.
The law further provides that the county board shall add the
amount set apart for the salaries of teachers in each school by the
district trustees to the county appropriation made for that school
and upon this determine the salaries to be paid the teachers and
the length of the school term. In Hillsboro County, the county
superintendent is authorized by the county board to contract
with the teachers. Some attempt has been made to establish a
salary schedule based upon training and experience.
It is also provided by the state statutes that the part of the
school fund arising from the district shall be paid to the teachers
upon the order of the county board, based upon reports approved
by the district trustees the same as other funds are paid upon the
endorsement of school supervisors. Each month the teacher gets
two salary checks. These checks are signed by the county super-
intendent and countersigned by the president of the county board.
One of these checks is drawn upon the county fund and one on
the district fund.
It is the recommendation of the survey staff that the city
board of education be given complete responsibility in the selec-






Business Administration of Schools in Tampa


tion and retention of teachers and all other employees and that
they also have the responsibility of determining the salary sched-
ule according to which teachers are to be paid. It is recognized
that the salary checks must, according to law, be signed by the
legal representatives of the county board of public instruction.
All other steps in the payment of teachers up to the point of
signing the checks can apparently be delegated to the city school
authorities. There will then be in the office of the city school
board a complete record of all the transactions involved in the
management of the personnel of the teaching staff.

REFUNDING PAY FOB UNALLOWED ABSENCES OF TEACHERS
It is the practice to pay each teacher the full monthly salary.
If the teacher has been absent for a cause not approved by the
county superintendent, she is required to refund the payment,
already made to her, for such absence. This practice is a very
unsatisfactory one. It results in confusion of accounts and can
be the cause of considerable friction.
It is recommended that the principal's report on teacher ab-
sences follow the general plan indicated in Chart 13. Before
payments are made to teachers, the reasons for absence will
have been recorded and will have been passed upon by the city
superintendent of schools. If a rule for deduction from pay be-
cause of absence is established, it will be wise for the city board
of education to study the methods employed by cities elsewhere
throughout the United States.*
Dr. George E. Carrothers in his study, The Physical Eficiency
of Teachers,7 discusses all of the problems involved in teacher
absences and indicates the exacting nature of the work done by
teachers. He suggests that boards of education consider a cumu-
lative plan for allowed absences if a definite number of days of
paid sick leave must be written into the board rules. There is a
growing tendency on the part of boards of education toward
liberal adjustment with teachers in case of absence, thus recog-
nizing the fact that teaching service cannot be put upon a day
*Problem in Bduoational Administration. By 0. D. Strayer, N. L. Engel-
hardt and Others. Bureau of Publications, Teachers College, Columbia Uni-
versity. 1925. See page 710.
Carrothers George E. The Phis4ca Rflo eSr of Te2chers. Bureau of
Publications, Teachers College, Columbia University. 1925.





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Business Administration of Schools in Tampa 39

basis. If deductions are to be made from the salary of teachers,
it is recommended that they be made on the basis of one three
hundred and sixty-fifth of the yearly salary, thus recognizing
the fact that the salary paid to teachers is paid upon the assump-
tion that teachers have only one vocation and that while they are
not teaching they are engaged in improving their own training
through attendance at professional schools or through such other
agencies as travel, visitation of school systems, attendance at
professional conferences and the like.

PAY BOLL PRACTICE
In pay roll practice, the following principles should be used as
a guide:
1. The work of pay roll making should be done in the central
office of the city school board. The principal should not be
unduly burdened with the clerical work involved in this
field. It should be recognized that the principal of a school
is an educational officer and not a financial officer and that
the principal does not participate in any of the financial
work.
2. Pay rolls should be cumulative, thus reducing the duplica-
tion of names and the pay roll data to a minimum.
3. The accounting service should be rigid. In developing this
service, the object should be to make substitute service as
efficient as regular teaching service. The difficulties in
securing this result in Tampa are recognized, but the policy
of securing an efficient regular or substitute teacher for
every. hour that the child is in school should be pur-
sued.
4. The time report which principals submit conceriTng
teachers' absence should carry all data required for action
on pay allowances for absence. Such pay allowances should
be regulated by the central office and not by the principals'
schools.
5. Pay roll procedure should be so planned that all payments
to employees are promptly executed but without undue
haste in any step of the procedure.






Survey of the Schools of Tampa, Florida


6. The pay roll data should be maintained as permanent
records of the city board of education and should be bound
for this purpose.
7. In expediting pay roll accounting, such devices as a pay
roll calculator, a pay day calendar and a code distributor
for the expenditure ledger will expedite the work of the
office, reduce telephone calls, and make the payment process
a purely mechanical one.

A suggested form of pay roll appears in Chart 14. If a pay
roll form similar to this is submitted to the county superintendent
of schools together with the unsigned checks for payments, this
will enable the accounting office to secure the data necessary for
its records.

INTERNAL ACCOUNTING

A system of internal accounting should be developed to apply
to all textbook sales and fines, sales of supplies, management of
lunch rooms, school publications, student organizations, athletic
clubs, savings bank, parent-teacher association, and any and all
other activities authorized by the school authorities and engaged
in handling what may be called "semi-public funds" of a trust
nature. The supervisory control of these funds should remain
in the hands of a duly authorized representative of the city board
of education. It is the recommendation of the survey staff that
the assistant superintendent in charge of business affairs be held
responsible for the establishment of a scheme of internal account-
ing which will be all inclusive and which will free the school
system from criticism with respect to the inadequate handling
of such trust funds. One of the most comprehensive bulletins
issued on this subject by any school system is that containing the
"Statement of Policies and Manual of Business Procedures,
Records and Accounts," issued under date of August, 1925, by
Superintendent Studebaker of Des Moines, Iowa. Many of the
practices in this comprehensive circular can be adopted for use in
Tampa. Other suggestions are to be found in the bibliography on
records and reports 8 appearing in the May, 1925, number of the
Teachers College Record.
Engelhardt, N. L., Ganders, H. 8., and Riefling, B. Jeannette. "Bibliograpy
on School Records and Reporta." Teachers Oolege Record. May, 1925. P. 76.
Teachers College, Columbia University.










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42 Survey of the Schools of Tampa, Florida

SCHOOL BONDS
In a city the size of Tampa, the school bond procedure and
accounting problems assume rather large proportions. There are
now ten different bond issues outstanding against District No. 4
and two against District No. 45. Interest and bonds fall due on
six different days in the year. These districts are now in another
bond issue program. The bond records of all districts in the
county are now, and by law must be, kept in the office of the
county board of education. For effective administration, the
city school trustees must have available a better record system
than the one now in use.
Defects in the Record System.-The defects in the bond prac-
tices of Tampa are primarily those connected with the record
system. The most outstanding of these are the following:
*1. There is no summary record of all bond issues for school
purposes.
2. There is no record of bond issues for each individual school.
3. There is no summary record showing the amount of princi-
pal and interest due at each interest paying date.
4. Tampa's bond records are in the same bond book with
those of all other districts of Hillsboro County.
5. There is no index to the bond book.
6. The bond book and the cancelled bonds and interest
coupons filed away are not in a fireproof inclosure.
7. These bonds and coupons are not arranged in systematic
order.
8. The city school authorities must go to the county office
when they study their own bond situation.
9. The record showing that the bonds have been paid consists
of a statement to that effect in the minute book, the
cancelled bonds in the county office, and the date written
under the caption "Paid" in a column opposite the amount
of the bond paid. This is in the one bond book.
10. The record showing that interest has been paid consists of
a similar record.
Record Forms Recommended.-Improvement may be secured
in the record system for bonds by adopting the four suggestions
which are given here:






Business Administration of Schools in Tampa


1. Developing a summarization of all school bond issues for
school purposes to be recorded in such form as to be avail-
able at any time.'
2. Maintaining a record of bond issues so that the indebted-
ness for any individual school can be secured readily.
3. Maintaining a bond record go that total amounts of interest
and principal due on all outstanding amounts of indebted-
ness can be ascertained for every year during the life of the
incurred bonded indebtedness.
4. Recording each issue of bonds so that all essential facts are
made available at the time of issue and maintained in that
form during the life of issue.
Forms for carrying out these suggestions are available in the
Strayer-Engelhardt School Record Series.' A policy of pre-
serving all coupons and bonds when paid in such a manner that
the records are intact and readily accessible should be followed.
It, of course, will be wise to provide adequate fireproof vauli
space for such materials. Such provision is almost entirely
lacking in the school offices to-day.

INSURING THE SCHOOL PROPERTY
Although much attention has been given by the board of educa-
tion to the problem of insuring school property, it is possible to
bring about certain changes which will result in economies
and in better administrative practices.
1. The record system is incomplete. All data used in the sur.
vey study of insurance were secured from the policies theos
selves rather than from any other summarization which the
office force had found it possible to make.
2. No adequate fireproof storage space has been provided for
the insurance policies, nor is the space which has been pro-
vided of such a nature that any systematic arrangement of
the policies is possible.
3. There is,no equalization of the amounts of premium due
each year, thus failing to distribute the insurance cost
equally among the annual budgets. In 1926 more than
$4,600 is due for premium, while in 1927 less than $2,100 is
due.
SStrayer, G. D. and Engelhardt, N. L. School Record Series. C. w.llltal
and Son, Albany, N. Y. 1920.






44 Survey of the Schools of Tampa, Florida

4. No uniform time has been set for the expiration of policies
in order to insure action at one fixed period without re-
quiring a constant reference to the insurance problem dur-
ing the year. At present, policies expire every month in
the year and at no uniform date within each month.
5. A standardized insurance plan will bring about a reduction
in rates and subsequent economy for the school system.

It is recommended that an adequate system of insurance records
be developed, that a satisfactory plan of caring for policies be
inaugurated and that the board of education give further con-
sideration to the plan of insurance for the purpose of securing
lower rates. It is clear that rates are influenced by the fire
hazards which exist within the school plant as well as by other
factors. It is recommended that the program of maintenance
and operation of buildings include due consideration to the
elimination of fire hazards to the end that insurance rates may
be secured at the lowest possible figure.

SOME PROBLEMS CONFRONTING THE ASSISTANT SUPERINTENDENT IN
CHARGE OF BUILDINGS AND GROUNDS
Equipment Management.-Equipment includes such articles of
furniture as are not consumed in the process of use supplied an
organization to carry on an enterprise most effectively, efficiently,
and economically. In a school organization, equipment may be
grouped into two classes:
1. Building equipment; i.e., equipment essential in proper
housing of the enterprise (plumbing, heating, lighting, etc.)
2. Educational equipment; i.e., equipment essential in per-
forming the enterprise (desks, maps, chairs, instruments,
etc.)

As the Tampa school system grows, the problem of equipping
the schools and maintaining the equipment in a good state of
repair will become increasingly burdensome. At present, much
of the necessary equipment for carrying on the work of a satis-
factory curriculum is lacking. The problems of purchase, replace-
ment, and renovation of equipment are being only partially
solved. The equipment program may be divided into five parts:






Business Administration of Schools in Tampa 45

1. The assistant superintendent in charge of buildings and
grounds should be given the responsibility for developing
a. The budgeting of new equipment and the replacement of
old equipment.
b. The purchase of new equipment; the repair or disposi-
tion of old unserviceable equipment.
c. The receipt, delivery, and storage of new equipment, old
equipment awaiting repairs, and repaired equipment.
d. The accounting of equipment, as to
(1) Original costs by schools, department or kind of
service rendered, and unit costs in type of equipment.
(2) Insurance and depreciation.
(3) Desirability, utility, and ultimate cost.
(4) Its contribution in determining new standards.
(5) Fixing responsibility and accountability as to de-
facement, destruction, and loss.
(6) Labor and material costs in repair.
(7) A permanent inventory of all equipment, so organ-
ized as to be most convenient for periodical check-
ing and budget making.
e. A systematic inspection of all equipment.
(1) A properly trained and organized staff for repair of
equipment.
2. Capital in the form of equipment should be as accurately
and thoroughly accounted for as cash itself.
3. All equipment should be properly marked with a permanent
and fixed label for ready inventory and convenience in
record.
4. Such equipment record forms should be prepared so that in
their use the standard practices and procedures can be
carried out with the greatest economy of time, labor, and
costs.
5. Standard specifications should be established and should be
continually in the process of further development. The
records involved in the accounting of the equipment should
be the basis for an intelligent analysis of the facts and for
determining standards and specifications.

Problems in Personnel Management.-In cities of one hundred
thousand and more, the personnel problems arising out of plant






46 Survey of the Schools of Tampa, Florida

management are of such a nature as to require intimate study and
standardized procedures. Among these problems are those in-
volved in the selection of the janitor-engineer personnel, the train-
ing and supervision of these men, the standardization of the
amount of work required, the measurement of the effectiveness of
the work done, the purchase and use of time-saving and labor-
saving equipment, the establishment of methods of work which
will insure economy of time and effectiveness of results, and the
development of a program of supply management which will
insure the availability of the essential materials as needed.
The most recent noteworthy contributions to the literature in
this field are those made by Business Superintendent Womrath 10
of Minneapolis and Dr. Reeves."' Such principles as the follow-
ing should guide in this field:
1. The care and control of buildings and grounds and the
responsibility for repairs should be centered in a superin-
tendent of buildings and grounds working under and re-
sponsible to the superintendent of schools.
2. Efficient plant management demands a systematic scheme
of records and reports dealing with operation and main-
tenance from which are computed comparative unit costs of
buildings, equipment, and service through a period of years.
3. Principals should be given local control over janitors and
matrons in respect to all those phases of janitorial service
which affect the educational efficiency of school buildings.
4. Efficient operation of plant requires careful selection of
janitors, training of janitors in service, standardization of
janitorial practice, and frequent inspection of buildings.

THE ANNUAL REPAIR BUDGET
When the survey staff began its work, it was apparent that no
fixed program of annual repairs had been instituted, nor had any
significant financial appropriations been made to maintain the
school plant at high standard. This has been rapidly undergoing
a change during the past six months. The program of repairs
which has been inaugurated recently should be maintained at its
1o Womrath, Geo. F. The Ja Mor-Bgneer Problem. Board of Edncation,
Minneapolis, Minn. 1922.
SReevesi Chas. An Analysis or Janitor Rerfioe 4. tIe Blehlst. Me-he,
score and standards for Jan or ce Iemet school. me-
rphed copie.) Bureau of Publications, Teachers College, Columbia niver-






Business Administration of Schools in Tampa


present high level. The cost of these repairs should be included
in the annual budget after approval by the city superintendent of
schools and the board of education. In no other way can the
property values of the existing plant be adequately served. This
annual repair program requires the establishment of a fixed pro-
cedure involving the reports from principals and other directors,
the standardization of those parts of the equipment which are
most frequently out of order or most frequently require replace-
ment, the estimating of costs, and the approval of a program
early enough in the year to be included in the budget for the
ensuing year.
Where more than twenty thousand children are involved, the
repair program becomes of such importance that it cannot be
maintained adequately except through a competent staff of
workers who are specialized in particular fields and engaged by
the year to render service. Expert representatives of mechanical
trades should be included in this staff. The repair program should
be so organized that costs can be charged to the specific job done
and the school in which the service has been rendered. The sys-
tem of establishing cost records should be worked out by the
assistant superintendents in charge of business and buildings and
grounds so that the work of the two offices is properly correlated.

THE ERECTION OF NEW SCHOOL BUILDINGS
Tampa's prospects for rapid growth give indication that the
erecting of new buildings will be a constant problem for the city
board of education for a considerable period of time to come.
With these prospects before the board, it becomes necessary for
the assistant superintendent in charge of buildings and grounds to
standardize all the steps and procedures essential for the successful
completion of new school buildings. Standardization of bid and
estimate forms, architects' contracts, the kinds of bonds accepted,
the forms of advertising, and construction records should result
in many economies and efficient practices. The records of the
superintendent's office should be planned so that there is a
permanent file of specifications, working drawings, plot plans and
other data which are used as a basis for present and future
building. Reference to such material is very frequently neces-
sary. The interests of the board of education are best conserved
when these materials are readily available at any time.






Survey of the Schools of Tampa, Florida


In the planning of new buildings, it should be the effort of the
building superintendent to secure standardization in all fields
where experience shows that repairs frequently become necessary.
Such standardization can include the character and size of
glazing, the types of doors utilized, the character of hardware in-
stalled, the kind of plumbing fixtures utilized, and other ma-
terials of a like nature. Standardization. in these fields will bring
about subsequent significant economies in maintenance.
The school system in Tampa should gradually develop for itself
a code of building including those factors which, out of experi-
ence, have proven to be the most satisfactory in the building of
new buildings. In the development of this code, such documents
as Standards for Elementary and High Schools" and School
House Planning 'l should be followed. For standardized forms
of contracts which form part of the building program, practices
followed in cities 14 similar in size to that of Tampa should be
utilized as guides.

THE MAINTENANCE OF PLAYGROUNDS
The department of buildings and grounds has an especial obli-
gation in Tampa in the preparation of playgrounds about the
school buildings so that they may be used at all times of the year.
Standardization of playground apparatus, with due reference to
the prevention of accidents to children, the permanency of the
equipment, and the gradation of equipment so that all ages of
children may have the opportunity of play, must be undertaken
at an early date. The preparation of the ground itself requires
special consideration. In practically all cases of the present
schools in Tampa, almost no attention has been given to the care
and upkeep of grounds. The sand is too deep, or the brick pave-
ments which have been installed in instances are too hard for
satisfactory play. Due attention should also be given to land-
scape and grounds. Trees, shrubs and flowers should be planted
to add beauty to the city and also to furnish shade for children
during hot school days. A slight beginning has been made in this
S"trayer, 0. D., and Engelhardt, N. L. Standards for lemstent School
Buiedin. 1928. Standards or High School Buldings. 1924. Bureau of
Publications, Teachers College, Columbia University.
"National Education Assoelation. ohool House Planning. Washington,
D. C.
"See documents published by Boards of Education of Pittsburgh, Pa., Balti-
more, Md., and Oakland, Calif.






Business Administration of Schools in Tampa 49

direction. It is felt that progress made in the development of
playgrounds will bring commensurate educational returns. The
opportunity for linking the use of the playgrounds with the use
of school buildings and thus permitting the children to profit dur-
ing school hours from the climatic advantages should not be
neglected.













CHAPTER III

THE PRESENT SCHOOL BUILDING SITUATION

TAMPA'S SCHOOL ENBOLLMDNT
In October, 1925, the white children of the Tampa and West
Tampa Schools were being housed as shown in Table 4.

TABLE 4
ENaou.LLam Ix TAPA SJCOOL's oRs Ww~n Cmwarw
OCMOBI 20, 1925
HIGH ScaooLs
Hillaboro ...................................................... 1,305
Washington (Junior) ............................................ 1,
Wilson (Junior) ................................................ 914
Memorial (Junior)* ............................................ 54
ELWMZNTABY SCHOOLS
Bryan ............. ........................................ 267
E on ......... ............................................. 0
East ampa ................................................. 46
Gary ............ .................................... .... 04
Gorrie ........................................ 883
Graham ........................................... 6
Henderson*** .................................................. 844
Jackson ......................................................... 457
Lee ........... ...................................... 1,116
Madison .................................... ............. 383
Mitchell ........................................................ 420
Roosevelt ...................................................... 01
Seminole ....................................................... 1,104
Shore ....................................... 744
Ybor ........................................................... 1,21
Was TAMPA
Cuesta ........................................ .. .. 882
Drew .................................................. 144
Gordon ......................................................... 89
MacFarlane ..................................................... 414
Total Number of White Enrollment-Tampa................... 14,862
Total Number of White Enrollment-West Tampa................ 1,479
Total Tampa and West Tampa Enrollment..................... 16,41
The Memorial Junior High School had not as yet been completed and
these children were being cared for temporarily in afternoon sessions t the
Washington Junior High School.
** Edilon School building not completed at this date.
*** Inldng tho housed in the old wooden structure formerly used as the
County High SchooL






Present School Building Situation


INCBBASEB IN IINBOLLMqN
The enrollment of white children of October 20, 1925 showed
an increase of 222 over the enrollment of September 28, 1925.
The October 20, 1925, enrollment was also 1,797 in excess of the
final enrollment in June, 1925. The increases in enrollment corre-
spond with the heavy increases in total population which have
been occurring in Tampa during the past two years. Each suc-
ceeding week of the present fall has brought large numbers of
new pupils. It is almost impossible to anticipate just how great
the increases will be during this present school year.

INCREASED IN BNBOLLMENT DURING THE MONTH OF
NOVMLBEB, 1925
During the month of November, the increases in school registra-
tion were at the rate of forty'pupils per day. Interpreted in
classroom facilities, this means that in order to provide ade-
quately for these children, it will be necessary for Tampa to
build at the rate of one classroom per day, or one large school
building per month. If this increase continues over an extended
period, all estimates of population growth which the survey staff
has attempted to make will be greatly exceeded.

TAMPA NEEDS A PERMANENT CONTINUING CENSUS TOR SCHOOL
CHILDREN
In another part of this report, a recommendation is made that
Districts No. 4 and No. 45 develop a permanent continuing census.
It was the observation of the survey staff that large numbers of
children were not attending school or were regtered in home and
mission schools which were not providing th1 educational oppor-
tunities which should be made available for all children. Large
numbers of colored children and children in the Ybor and West
Tampa sections are not attending any school. Because of the
lack of junior high schools in various parts of the city, many
children drop out of school upon completing the elementary school
work or earlier. The senior high school facilities have not been
such as to attract all of the boys and girls who would otherwise
have accepted the opportunity of attending such a school. In the
junior high schools, the types of courses which tend to keep chil-
dren in school during that period have not been developed. All of






Survey of the Schools of Tampa, Florida


these factors combined have assisted the survey staff in arriving
at an estimate of the number of children of school age who live
within these two districts and are not attending school, but for
whom school facilities should be provided. This estimate has
been placed at 7,900 children. In arriving at this estimate, the
percentages of total population actually found in school in other
comparable cities have been used as factors.
The difference between the enrollment of the first six years of
school and of the second six years indicates that Tampa is not
holding its pupils in school to the extent that other cities do.

INCREASES IN SCHOOL POPULATION
A very conservative estimate of increase in number of children
due to increase in population indicates a need for additional
accommodations for at least 4,950 children by September, 1927.
This increase in the number of children to be provided for is based
upon an estimated increase in population during this period of
from twenty-five to thirty thousand people. This is a most con-
servative estimate.

CHILDREN IMPROPERLY HOUSED
On October 20, 1925, 4,276 children were improperly housed.
This number includes children attending school in basement
rooms, in undesirable buildings like the Henderson Annex, and
those attending for part time. The large numbers of children
enrolled in the Tampa schools since this period should be counted
among those children improperly housed, with the exception of
those who have been enrolled in the senior high school.

SHORTENED SCHOOL DAY
Because of the overcrowded conditions in the elementary
schools of Tampa, many children are having a shortened day.
This number is increasing rapidly. A shortened school day is un-
satisfactory to teachers, to parents, and to pupils. It places an
additional burden upon the teacher, resulting in less efficient
work. It discommodes the parent, disarranges the family
schedule, and frequently results in unsatisfactory school work
on the part of the pupil. Tampa's effort should be to maintain
its schoolhousing facilities to the point where every child would
be assured of a seat in school for the regular school day.






Present School Building Situation


BASEMENT ROOMS, PORTABLES, AND AUDITORIUM CLASSROOMS
It is pleasing to note that in the new buildings contracted for
in the spring of 1925, the school authorities were successful in
eliminating all rooms used for educational purposes from base-
ments. This, most emphatically, is a step in the right direction.
In the older buildings, many basement rooms and makeshift
rooms are still in use. It is the express purpose of the board
of education to abandon these for class work.
In October, 1925, 26 such rooms were in use. There were 15
other rooms which were unsatisfactory from the educational point
of view. These rooms were in portables or some other form of
temporary housing. The building program outlined in this re-
port involves the abandonment of these temporary rooms.

ANALYSIS OF THE PRESENT SCHOOL BUILDINGS AND SITES
A thorough study was made by the survey staff of all of the
buildings which are now part of the school plant of Tampa and
West Tampa. This study brought to light certain suggestions
which should be considered by the school trustees when plan-
ning future buildings. In the majority of cases, the school sites
are not large enough for the school enrollments which are being
housed upon them. Larger sites and larger school buildings are
recommended for the future. This may mean that the school
trustees must select their sites in advance of residential growth,
or as soon as the evidence presents itself that a section of the city
is being built up. As the boundaries of Tampa are extended, it
is exceedingly important that this policy of selecting sites in
advance of needs be pursued.
It is extremely gratifying to find that the school trustees were
able to secure the large acreage for the Memorial Junior High
School site. It is hoped that the same broad vision will guide
in the selection of all future sites, whether for elementary, junior
high, or senior high school purposes.

SCHOOL BUILDING ARCHITECTURE
It seems unnecessary to import into Tampa architecture for
schoolhousing which is apparently fitted for northern climates
rather than for the Florida situation. In the new Roosevelt and
Bryan Schools, the school trustees have indicated that they are






54 Survey of the Schoole of Tampa, Florida

aware of the possibility of adapting school architecture to the
climate and history of Tampa and Florida. These buildings
are a far greater adornment to the city than the many other
school structures which have an architecture not so appropriate
to the city and which, in the minds of the survey staff, have little
of beauty about them.

THE SBBVICE SYSTEMS
In the appointment of a supervisor of buildings who will be
responsible for the maintenance and operation of school plant,
as well as for the supervision of new construction, the Tampa
school trustees have taken a very important forward step. The
analysis of the school buildings in May, 1925, indicated great
laxity in the maintenance and operation programs. There was
evidence that buildings had lacked adequate supervision -at the
time of construction. It was also clear to the survey staff that
very little attention had been given to the nationally known
standards for schoolhouse construction at the time these buildings
were being erected. As the new program of maintenance and
operation advances, effort should be made by the school trustees
to replace unsatisfactory service systems, including toilets, water
supply, lighting and heating systems. In the opinion of the sur-
vey staff, it is just as necessary to put the existing school plant in
the best possible condition as it is to build any new buildings. The
school trustees, the supervising principal and the building super-
intendent took many advanced steps in this direction during the
summer of 1925. The cleaning, repairing, and painting of class-
rooms and corridors, the elimination of unsatisfactory basement
and storage conditions, the cleansing and painting of toilet rooms
and other phases of renovation during this period added con-
siderably to the attractiveness and to the possibility of continued
utilization of the older buildings.

OTHER CRITICISMS OF THE OLDER SCHOOL BUILDINGS
Factors in the older school buildings which emphasize the need
for care in the planning of new buildings are as follows:
1. The lack of adequate provision for lunch rooms.
2. The failure to -provide satisfactory natural and artificial
lighting.






Present School Buildng Situation


3. The poor location of stairways.
4. The inadequacy and poor location of toilet facilities.
5. The lack of standardization of classroom spaces.
6. The failure to provide a sufficient number of the special
rooms needed in school buildings.
7. The limited amount of space devoted to the administrative
offices.
8. The failure to provide adequately against loss by fire.
9. The need for making complete provision for drinking water.
10. The installation of more and better equipment of play-
grounds.
11. The care of the playgrounds so that a program of play may
be made an actual part of the school work.

HILLSBOBO HIGH SCHOOL
At present, the Hillsboro High School is a county high school
serving Tampa, West Tampa, and the other districts of the
county. Although the county board has recently invested one
hundred and seventy-five thousand dollars in an addition to this
high school, the increases in enrollment have been so great as to
make further high school expansion necessary in a relatively
short time. As these increases promise to continue, it is evident
that Tampa will soon be facing a very serious high school build-
ing problem. Other factors which will cause growth in the
Hillsboro High School are:
1. The proposed expansion of high school curriculum offerings.
2. The better coordination which is being developed between
the junior high school and the senior high school.
3. The general increase in high school population, following
the tendency throughout the United States.
4. The tendency in the South for greater utilization of public
education facilities.
5. The general growth of Tampa.

JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOLS
The three junior high schools, the Washington, the Wilson,
and the Memorial, in October, 1925, were all being housed in the
two buildings, the Washington and the Wilson. The children
of West Tampa were being offered no junior high school oppor-






Survey of the Schools of Tampa, Florida


tunities except as they were permitted to attend the Tampa
schools. The Tampa board of trustees has been very generous
in granting this permission. The growth in junior high school
enrollment has been very rapid during the past three years. As
yet, certain thickly populated districts in the city have failed
to send their quota to junior high school. Without question,
these sections will tend in the future to send larger percentages
of their children to junior high school than they have done in
the past.
The present congestion in the junior high schools is so great
that parents who can afford to send their children to private
school hesitate to send them to these congested centers. As
junior high schools are built, this condition will no longer exist.
As is pointed out in the study of child accounting, there are
large numbers of children in elementary school who ought to
be doing junior high school work. With better promotion and
classification standards, enrollments in the junior high schools
will increase considerably.
The present location of the junior high schools is shown on
Map 1. On this map, circles have been drawn with a mile radius
and with each of the junior high schools as a center. The areas
included within these circles are those sections of the city which
would be adequately served by the present junior high schools,
providing the buildings satisfied all junior high school needs.
The Tampa and West Tampa areas which are not included
within these circles are the areas in which children live who
are not served by the existing junior high schools.

LONG DISTANCES TRAVELED BY JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL CHILDREN
On Map 2 will be found the circle representing the territory
served by the Washington Junior High School. The dots on
this map represent the homes of the children who attend this
school. A measurement of the distances from the homes of the
pupils shows that a great many of them walk more than the
accepted maximum distance of one mile. The children of the
East Tampa, Gary, and Jackson Heights centers, as well as many
from the congested Ybor section, are required to pass along
heavily traveled thoroughfares in order to arrive at the Nebraska
Avenue and Michigan Avenue location of this junior high school.
























































MAP 1
LOCATION OF PRBsNT JvNIOR HIGH SCHOOLS
OcOBBB 1925
The center of each circle represents the school site. A radius of one mile
has been used in describing the approximate areas served by each school.
67








































TAWA;FLA.
---* I >--





















*- I





MAP 2
AN ILLUwTATION or THn TRAV7 DITANc= RBQunIn or So 0 or TEH
JuNIzo HIGH SCHOOL CHnILDuN ATTBNDINO SCHOOL T-DAT
OCTeOBs 1925
The Washington Junior High School is in the center of the circle. The dots
represent the homes of the children attending this school. The radius used is
one mile, indicating that many children in the east and southeastern parts of
the city are required to travel unreasonable distances to school. In making
this study, similar maps have been made for each school in the city and have
been uaed as one of the bases for developing the recommendations Included in
this tudy.






Present School Building Situation

This further indicates the need for expansion of junior high school
facilities within the districts of Tampa and West Tampa.
ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS FOR WHITE CHILDREN
Map 3 shows the location of the elementary schools for white
children as they were in use or planned for use in October, 1925.:
The two-room Gordon School has not been included in this map.
In each case, the small circle represents the location of a school.
The larger circle denotes roughly the area to be served by the
school. The radius of the larger circle is one-half mile. It is
of interest to note that the overlapping among the elementary
districts of the existing school plant, as defined by these circles,
is limited to Central Tampa. This overlapping is considerably t
less extensive than it is in the majority of cities in the United'
States. In some cases, like the overlapping between the Drew
and the Cuesta schools, the overlapping is not significant because
of the inadequate nature of the Drew School. The most serious .
overlapping occurs among the Graham, Lee, Henderson, Ybor,
and Madison districts. In planning the future school plant, every
effort should be made to avoid overlapping of this kind, as itj
duplicates facilities for the same area. :
There are many areas of Tampa and West Tampa not included |
within the circles of these nineteen schools. These areas are, in
many cases, being built up very rapidly. These are the areas
which should be provided with schools. In making such pro- I
vision, very careful consideration should be given to such other
important factors as the location of homes of the colored people,
the development of through lines of automobile traffic, and the
industrial and commercial trends of the city.

AULTY LOCATION OF AN ELEMENTARY SCHOOL
To guard against errors in the location of future elementary
schools, Map 4 has been drawn as an illustration of the faulty
location of an elementary school building. The circular area for
the Shore School overlaps the Ybor School area to a considerable
extent, and also includes a very large industrial area which will
tend gradually to decrease the housing facilities in this location.
Two schools might have been properlylocated to serve adequately
the enrollment now cared for in the three schools, the Ybor, the
Shore, and East Tampa.





































* TAMPA.FLA.


MAP 3
LOCATION OF ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS AND THE DISTRICT THIn SEBVI
OCTOsB 1925
The larger circles define the districts. They are drawn with the schools
u centers and with a one-half-mile radius.
60


[-I ---i:

























Em














M..
ID~







MAP 4
THE FAULTY LOCATION OF AN ELEMENTARY SCHOOL
OCTOBER 1925
In planning new school buildings, the effort should be made to select sites
which are centralized with reference to the present and future population
which they serve. The small circle represents the location of the Shore School.
The black areas represent sections pf the city which have been non-residential
In nature and probably will continue to be so during the life of the city. In
the future, such close proximity of non-residential areas to school site should
be avoided.

61





62 Survey of the Schools of Tampa, Florida

The future policy should be to erect the smallest number of
school buildings that will serve adequately the community. This
means a better selection of sites and larger school buildings rather
than small buildings upon poorly located areas.

IRREGULARITY OF PRESENT ELEMENTARY SCHOOL DISTRICTS

On Map 5, the variation in size of the present elementary
school districts and the extreme distances traveled by many chil-
dren to attend some of the schools have been shown.
Map 5 is drawn to illustrate the character of the districts from
which each school draws its pupils. Each school has been en-
closed in heavy lines. This enclosure defines a pupil-residential
.area from which the majority of pupils attend the school so en-
closed. For example, all of the pupils residing within the lines
which enclose Madison School attend the Madison School. In
the Henderson district, however, the cluster of "M's" indicates
the residences of pupils who attend the Madison School, although
they live in what is logically Henderson territory. Each letter
throughout the entire map stands for five pupils who attend the
school assigned to that letter in the legend. For illustration,
in the district in which the greater numberof pupils attend the
Buffalo School, there are ten pupils who go to Edison, and fifteen
who go to Graham. The outstanding facts indicated by this map
are as follows:
1. The areas from which the elementary schools draw the
major part of their respective enrollments vary greatly in
size and shape.
2. The elementary school buildings do not adequately provide
for the pupils residing in territory that is logically within
their districts.
3. Because of poor organization or improper location of build-
ings, or both, some elementary schools are situated at the
boundaries of the districts they serve, if not quite outside
of them; viz., Bryan, Cuesta, MacFarlane, and Mitchell.
4. There is much overlapping of the areas served by the ele-
mentary schools.
5. Pupils frequently walk past one school on their way to
another.

















































MAP 5
IsRamusu rr m Sin AND SHAPr or DISTreCT or Pg1MNT ELUMNTABT
ScHOOLS
OcroazM 19
The small circle represent the school building. serving the outlined district
in which th are found. Initials have been placed on the map represebtin3
individual schools, ach letter so placed represents five children located out-
side the district of the school which they attend. The Interminglingl of letters
shows how Impossible it has been to establish definite school district lines.




63






64 Survey of the Schools of Tampa, Florida

6. In Central Tampa, there is a tendency on the part of the
school population to drift back from the northeast to the
older schools, indicating that the school building program
has not keep up with the movement of the population.
7. The facts indicate that the administration has been un-
able to develop a consistent policy of assigning pupils to
schools.
8. A large number of elementary school children are still being
drawn away from residential districts to the business
centers to attend school.

TAMPA'S NEW SCHOOL- BUILDINGS
Late in the spring of 1925, the school trustees of Tampa let
building contracts for substantial additions to the East Tampa,
Jacksgn, Mitchell, Wilson, Blanche Street, and Seminole schools.
Contracts for the following new schools were also let: Memorial
Junior High School, Bryan School, Edison School, and Roosevelt
School. At the time of this writing, some of these additions
have been completed, and the Bryan and Roosevelt schools are
being occupied. Upon the completion of all of these new build-
ings, a child will have registered for every seat so provided.
Not only will these new buildings be crowded, but the old build-
ings will not be relieved of any of their congestion. The school
trustees have also planned additional play facilities at the Ybor
School to make possible the platoonizing of this school, thereby
utilizing every facility of this congested school center to a maxi-
mum degree.

INDUSTRIAL AND COMMERCIAL DEVELOPMENT IN TAMPA
Map 6 shows the areas in Tampa which are devoted to indus-
trial and commercial purposes, together with such other areas as
parks, cemeteries, and school grounds which probably never will'
revert to residential use. The non-residential areas in Tampa
and West Tampa are shown in black on this map. These black
areas represent the industrial and commercial housing as well as
other non-residential areas as of July 1, 1925. The largest in-
roads of industry and commerce into residential and school areas
have been in the districts of the Madison School and the Hender-
son School.















































!I

S TAMlPA.FLA.


**, .*

V.







MAP 6
INDUSTBIAL AND COMMERCIAL TRENDS IN TAMPA
OCTonBE 1925
All of the black areas are areas that will probably never be devoted to resi-
dential purposes. These black areas do not require school buildings. The
marked tendency is toward the complete development of the section south of
Bose Avenue and Michigan Avenue for commercial and industrial purposes.
65






66 Survey of the Schools of Tampa, Florida

The present tendency in the city of Tampa is toward the
development of industrial and commercial sections in the terri-
tory bounded by the Hillsboro River, Ybor Estuary, and Michi-
gan Avenue. It would be unwise for the school trustees to plan
any new school construction south of Michigan Avenue, as busi-
ness houses may eventually take over larger sections of this area
than they do at present. The further evidence that this section
south of Michigan Avenue is being appropriated for other than
residential purposes exists in the small number of building per-
mits for dwellings which have been issued for this territory dur-
ing the past few years.
As years go on, the number of children in the section bounded
by Michigan Avenue, Nebraska Avenue, the Estuary, and Hills-
boro River will decrease, and probably at a rapid rate. In Ybor
City, the expansion will be toward the north and east. As the
housing conditions are improved in Ybor City, the child popu-
lation of this section of Tampa south of Michigan Avenue will
also tend to decrease. Another promising industrial and com-,
mercial development for Tampa and West Tampa lies in the
section bounded by the Hillsboro River, Willow Avenue, Grand
Avenue, and Magnolia Avenue. The population in the area so
defined will also decrease. Thus two districts will be built up
in the south central section of the city. The commercial and
industrial sections lying at the southern extremity of the Hills-
boro River will continue to grow and will offer in the future a
greater barrier to the children passing to and from school. This
should be kept clearly in mind in planning the programs for the
junior and senior high schools.
TAMPA'S AUTOMOBILE THOROUGHFARES
Such thoroughfares as Florida Avenue, Nebraska Avenue,
Michigan Avenue, Seventh Avenue, and Grand Central Avenue
must be given full consideration in planning the future school
building program. These main thoroughfares are now greatly
congested during school hours, and are the greatest sources of
danger to the safety of children. In the planning of new struc-
tures, every effort should be made to locate schoolhouses so
that a minimum number of children will be required to cross
these thoroughfares. This will result in irregular school districts
for the city of Tampa.




















































MAP 7
Au. or Ta Homx On THI Cr rT or TAMPA AND WRB TAMPA
FBMUAET 1925
Data for sections within the muilcipal boundaries taken from the Banbora
Map use by the Insurance Underwriters. Other data taken from the child
dtrlbution maip of the school districts. In planning school building, this
residential deveopent contrted with commercial and industrial deop-
ment already shown.
67






Survey of the Schools of Tampa, Florida


WHERE THE PEOPLE LIVE
The Sanborn Map Company of New York City has developed
maps of all sections of the city of Tampa showing the location
of each house in the city. These facts, as recorded by the San-
born Map Company for both Tampa and West Tampa, have
been reproduced on Map 7. The data recorded by the Sanborn
Map Company are those of February, 1925. The survey staff
has added to this map certain information which it has secured
showing the location of the homes of children in those sections of
Districts No. 4 and No. 45 which were not included in the study of
the Sanborn Map Company. This composite map, therefore,
fairly accurately represents the present location of homes in Dis-
tricts No. 4 and No. 45. On this map are shown also the small
circles indicating the present elementary school centers. This
exhibit is presented that the reader may get an impression of
how extensive the school problem is for these two districts.

RESIDENTIAL DISTRIBUTION OF POPULATION
Tampa's school building problem consists of two parts, build-
ing schools for white children and schools for colored children.
Maps 8 and 9 have been used to show the approximate location
of the colored population as well as its possible future resi-
dential location.
On Map 8, the black areas represent the sections in which
it is anticipated that the colored population will continue to live.
The crosshatched areas represent the sections in which the colored
people are living at present, but from which they may move
because of commercial and industrial development. In the sec-
tion north of West Tampa, it is proposed that an area be set
aside for high-grade residential development of homes for the
colored people. All of these boundaries should be considered in
the development of the building programs for both the white and
the colored children.
The actual distribution of the homes from which the colored
children who are attending the public schools to-day come is
shown on Map 9. The areas of this map correspond somewhat
roughly with the areas of Map 8. Map 9, no doubt, gives a better
picture of the exact location of the homes of colored people to-
day. Each dot on Map 9 represents one child attending public












r .. .. ^ I
























g I
















.*







MAP 8
THU PaBSENT LOCATION Or Tm HOiBs Or THIn CCOutO PoUnIa
OCrosmn 1925
Showing regions from which colored population Is gradually withdrawing
and proepectve region for colored residential development. These facts vitally
affec th building programs for both the white and the colored children. Data
assembled by the Associaton for the Tampa Urban League.
The dotted line = prospective development
The H le = present development
The l are = probably tre ares for colored population
The croeshatched area = areas from which colored population sto owly
moving out
Ma








ri 'r-


MAP 9
WHElR THE COWIED CHILDREN LVB WHO ATTrNDD THE PUSEc SCHOOLS
OCTOBEm 1925
Each dot represents the approximate location of the home of a colored child.
The dense population in the center of the city will be vitally affected by the
northerly growth of commercial development.
70






Present School Building Situation 14

school. The large mass of colored population lives in a part o4
the city which is rapidly changing into commercial and industrial
sections.

WHERE THE WHITE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL CHILDREN LIVE
Map 10 has been developed to show the location of the home
from which the white children of grades 1 to 6 come. T
points of density of this map correspond closely to.the point
of density in maps showing the housing distribution of the city
From this map, it is clearly seen that those sections of the school
districts which lie outside of the cities of Tampa and West Tamp
are furnishing their quotas of children for the public schools.

RESIDENTIAL DISTRIBUTION OF JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL CHILDREN
Map 11 shows the residential distribution of junior high school.
children. Each dot represents the home of a child attending-
junior high school in October, 1925. All sections of the city are
sending children to junior high school. If comparison is made
between the distribution of elementary school children and
junior high school children, it will be clear that in many sections.
the same proportion of children is not attending junior high
school as is attending the elementary school

GREAT NEED FOR JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL BUILDING
Map 11 has been drawn to indicate the.location of the'homes
of children attending junior high school from both districts; No.
4 and No. 45. Map 1 indicates the location of these junior
high schools and also the districts which they adequately serve.
These districts are defined by drawing circles with a one-mile
radius, using the present junior high school buildings as centers.
The one-mile travel distance for junior high school children is.
considered the maximum in most cities of the country. Com-
parison of the circle map and the dot distribution map shows
that there are not enough junior high schools in the city to serve
adequately the junior high school population.
It should be remembered that the present elementary school
population is the source from which the junior high school enroll-
ment comes. If comparison is made between the residential dis-
tribution of elementary school enrollment and of junior high


























































MA 10
s*






























HOO OF TTAHP CA.
..
]*


0 *** *












OCOBMB 1925

As commerce and Industry grow In Tmpa, the large mass In the center of
the city will tend to spread in arionus directions. This tendency has been
ree.onied. In the development of the new building program ter elementary
ohooa.2
72


















































MAP 11
RBrD TTIALu DISTRIBUTION OF CHILDREN ATTENDIN THE JUNIOR
HIGH SCHOOLS
OCToen 1925
Contrast this map with the residential distribution of children attending
the elementary schools and the senior high school. Apparently, the Junior hihl
school appeal has been limited to certain sections of the city and to a selected
group of children. The effort should be made to provide high school facilities
which will have a wider appeal and will draw more children into school during
that period. This distribution of junior high school children should be con-
trasted with the circle map of the present Junior high schools. The need for
more junior high schools Is readily apparent If all children are to be provided
for.






74 Survey of the Schoole of Tampa Florida

school enrollment, it will be seen that the junior high schools do
*not serve equally well every part of the city. In the south-
western section of the city only is the junior high school enroll-
ment at all commensurate with the elementary school enrollment.
In the areas served by the Washington and Memorial Junior
High School, the density of the residential distribution of ele-
mentary enrollment indicates the extent to which junior high
school opportunity might be accepted by children if greater
provision were made in the city of Tampa.
In West Tampa, large numbers of children are attending the
Wilson Junior High School and are required to travel extreme
distances in so doing. A comparison between the residential
distributions of the elementary and the junior high school enroll-
ments in West Tampa emphasizes the extreme need for a junior
high school in this part of the city.
From the standpoint of the development of a building pro-
gram, the greatest need in Tampa to-day is the extension of its
junior high school facilities to make provision for the children
of the present elementary school enrollment as they are graduated
from the elementary schools.
THM PBUBNT HIGH SCHOOL SITUATION
The present Hillsboro County High School, even with the ad-
dition which has already been made, will not suffice to meet the
high school needs of Tampa after this present year. It is im-
possible to add to site and building in such a way as to develop
what will be ultimately a satisfactory situation at this present
location, except at an excessively high cost.
Map 12 has been drawn to indicate the location of the homes
of the students attending the Hillsboro County High School at
present. This map shows that the enrollment is divided into
two distinct parts, separated by the Hillsboro River and the
rapidly growing commercial and industrial area in the south-
central part of the city. The evidence which has been accumu-
lated, showing the extension of residential growth to the north,
northeast and east, and to the west and southwest of the present
School District No. 4, indicates the trend of residential develop-
ment away from the centralized business section of the com-
munity. This trend is naturally affected by automobile trans-
portation and the availability of sites for homes.



































*"










S





,







MAP 12
PUmNT LOCATION or THEs HnLoamom HIGH SCHOOL
INDICATED BY ARBOW
Ocroez 192
Bach dot reprent the home of a student attending this hih school. The
residental dist ution of these hih school students is broken into two parts
by the Hillsboro River and the rapidly developing commercial and industrial
section Wling in the south-central part of the city. It Is unwise to add to the
congestion of the commercial section by sending hih school students beck and
orth through this reon. The high school enrollments are Increasn to the
point where two bdi are necessary, one for the eastern section of Tampa
aud oe fo the western section.
78




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