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Title: Climatology of Jacksonville, Fla. and vicinity
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00055135/00001
 Material Information
Title: Climatology of Jacksonville, Fla. and vicinity
Physical Description: cover-title, 15 p. : tables ; 24cm.
Language: English
Creator: Davis, Thomas Frederick, 1877-1946
Publisher: s.n.
Place of Publication: Jacksonville
Publication Date: 1908]
 Subjects
Subject: Climate -- Jacksonville (Fla.)   ( lcsh )
Genre: non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
General Note: Reprint (with author's additions) from the Monthly Weather Review for Dec. 1907.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00055135
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000138916
oclc - 01830946
notis - AAQ5008

Table of Contents
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    Main
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        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
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        Page 15
Full Text
2 Davis, Thomas Frederkbk '

Climatology of Jacksonville. 1908. 1..
1 "


aLIaU!OLOGY


OF JAC(SONVILL, PLA., AND
VICINITY.


T. FBEDERKOK DAVIS.









Reprint (with author's additions) from the Month- Weather Beview for
Deember, 1807.

AIIcYi^ JI iitJMMe' E&r9
VeiMlfG


F.z.
U%44


'I


r












CLIMATOLOGY OF JACKSONVILLE, FLA., AND
VICINITY.
By T. FREDERICK DAVIS, Observer, U. S. Weather Bureau. Dated Jacksonville, Fla.,
January 31, 1908.
Situation and general remarks.-To Jacksonville belongs the
distinction of being the farthest west of any city on the Atlantic
seaboard. Its longitude and latitude are 810 39' W. and 300
20' N.
The city is situated on slightly rolling ground on the north
bank of the St. Johns River, and has a river frontage of 21
miles. The back country is generally flat. In a direct line
the city is 16 miles from the ocean.
Under normal conditions the climate is equable, altho there
are often clear, cold, bracing days in winter and high midday
temperatures in summer. Early spring and late autumn are
the most pleasant seasons of the year, as they are characterized
by pleasant temperatures and a greater percentage of clear
skies.
The changes in weather conditions in this vicinity are due
chiefly to the shifting of the areas of high and low barometric
pressure over the country, the amount of the change depend-
ing upon the proximity and strength of the influencing factor.
In winter a spell of rainy weather is nearly always followed by
a shift of wind to westerly, thru the south quadrant, and by
colder weather within twelve to twenty-four hours. The
storms that give these winter rains are principally of the
southwestern type, originating in the west Gulf of Mexico, or
in Mexico. Their normal course is northeasterly, and their
influence upon local weather conditions begins when they are
not more than 400 miles distant, or, in other words, about as
far away as the State of Mississippi. The wind here is then
northeasterly, and, as the storm progresses northeastward,
it veers gradually to southeast and south, when with a rapid
shift it goes to westerly, and the cold air of the advancing
high-pressure area is ushered in. These conditions typify
our cold waves.
In summer stagnant pressure conditions prevail. The pres-
ence in this vicinity of the West Indian storms, known as
hurricanes, always produces a marked departure from normal
weather conditions. These storms, fortunately, are not of
frequent occurrence. So far as they affect local weather con-
ditions, they may be divided into two classes: (1) those that
recurve into the Atlantic Ocean over the lower peninsula and
(2) those that enter the east Gulf and recurve about latitude
290. Storms of the former class seldom affect conditions here,
except occasionally by causing heavy rains; but with those of
the second class there are experienced all the phases connected
with storms of the tropical type.
Meteorological records.-The data in the tables for the period
June, 1829, to August, 1833, are from the records of Judge
F. Bethune, made at his plantation some 5 miles south of








Jacksonville. Terdaily readings were made-about the hours
of sunrise, 1 p. m., and 8 p. m., local mean time-of a ther-
mometer that was exposed on his front porch, but unfortu-
nately no more is known of this exposure.
The record from 1838 to January, 1872, was made by Dr.
A. S. Baldwin, a man of scientific turn of mind, with a leaning
toward meteorology. The lapses in this record were due to
the Indian and the Civil wars. The best thermometers then
obtainable were used. Doctor Baldwin's observations, were
made terdaily-at 7 a. m., 2 p. m., and 9 p. m., local mean time.
The thermometer was exposed on the front door facing of his
porch, and the instrument was well sheltered from the direct
and reflected rays of the sun. Until December, 1861, the eleva-
tion was 13 feet 11 inches above sea level; beginning February.
1866, it was 20 feet, probably due to his removal to another
residence two blocks farther north. In both locations the
instrument was about 7 feet above the ground.
On September 11, 1871, the United States Signal Service
(whose meteorological work was transferred to the United
States Weather Bureau on July 1, 1891) established a station
here, in the Masonic Hall Building, occupied until September
19, 1871, during which time partial observations, only, were
taken. September 20, 1871, the station was removed to the
Freedman's Bank Building, Pine and Forsyth streets. This
office was occupied until July 21, 1880. Here the thermome-
ters were exposed in the regulation window shelter, 20 feet
above the ground. The rain gage was on the top of the
building, 64 feet above the ground and 69 feet above sea leveL
The third office was in the Astor Building, Bay and Hogan
streets, and was occupied from July 22, 1880, to July 31, 1902.
The elevations of the instruments above ground were: Ther-
mometers, 37 feet, exposed in a window shelter'until October 1,
1886, when they were placed in a roof shelter 69 feet above
ground; rain gage, 57 feet; anemometer, 84 feet. To reduce
to sea level add 71 feet. On August 1, 1902, the station was
removed to its present location, Dyal-Upchurch Building, Bay
and Main streets. Here the elevations of the instruments
above the ground-are: Anemometer, 129 feet; thermometers,
101 feet; rain gage, 88 feet-the ground being about 7 feet
above sea level.
In Table 3 thO annual minimum temperatures for the years
not covered by Judge Bethune's and Doctor Baldwin's records
were compiled by Maj. George B. Fairbanks, historian, who
collected these data from various reliable sources.
Time used.-The entries of time until January 1, 1885, were
local mean time; after that date, standard ninetieth meridian
time, which is thirty-three minutes slower than local mean
time, is used.
Discussion of mean temperaturens-The mean temperatures,
Table 1, prior to January, 1874, were obtained by the formula
(7+2+9)-3, but .this gives a mean somewhat higher than
the true mean. The formula '(7+2+9+9)4 gives a reslt:
very near the true mean temperature. The "Correction "
line in the middle of Table 1 represents the ten-year mean of







TABmu L-MIem teumraCiwues (tIhwkeat ).




- I z I i i I |


u18....
m1 ....
18i...
1is....
18s3...
1. ...
18s....
1841....
1M. ...
1i....
1t4 ...
IM18....
lll...
M184....
18/....
1861...
1M....
1801....
1:::M...:
1U ..
16 ....
s18 ...
1871 ...
1866....


IM. ...
Sw....
186M....
IM....
I1....
1' ...

1M1...
1870....

ilo. ...
Corrent

18M ...
1l7 ....
187 ...
187...
S17....
187 ....
187....
1w7....
1661...
187....
18.M...
1881...
I1S....
183....
I. ...
1s.M...
IM...
18....

1o. ..


IM. ...
18....
IMS....
im ....





UM9a.
UR. .:
=M.


70.8 I .9
.6 M. I 64.6
41.4 & 4


8. I 64.s I 7.1 76.i M.4 .2 81.9 7 8.& 71.0
-.04 i--. I-O5 9 i- I-- 7 i--.6 1 -- -06- -4 I-5 4


. 0s.8
-8.4 I-Ot


toeM ,Dlur i M w tp ue ,t ,-text. m %mt Intial kWiw ME M
to6". "InaiMM
xeouia I All = mgg







4

TABLz 2.--Macimum emperatuwes (ahrenseit).


Year I 1 I|




182 ............................. ...... 98 92 91 82 78 8s ....
180..... 74 81 84 84 90 9 9 6 95 89 82 78 71 96
1881..... 72 79 84 86 88 90 92 89 88 87 78 8 92
1882..... 77 78 78 84 90 90 92 89 89 84 80 74 9
188..... 74 81 82 88 91 92 90 92 ...... ...... ...... ..... ....
1889..... 80 80 84 88 98 101 97 96 96 88 79 68 101
1840..... 74 78 85 94 92 98 96 94 94 91 79 76 9
184 .... so 79 4 90 ............ ...... ...... ...... ......................
1844..... 78 79 87 98 91 89 96 94 90 84 79 76 96
1845..... 78 78 81 87 89 94 98 98 92 88 76 74 9
1846..... 71 68 80 84 98 95 98 90 90 82 79 76 95
1847..... 76 78 81 87 86 92 91 90 8 84 80 78 92
1848..... 75 79 84 84 98 88 91 91 89 80 78 78 98
1849..... 78 76 84 84 88 91 91 98 88 82 74 74 98
1850..... 79 78 82 86 89 91 97 95 .94 86 77 80 97
1851..... 88 82 79 84 82 95 94 90 84 88 88 77 96
1852..... 70 88 85 87 98 92 90 90 91 87 77 79 98
1858..... 74 77 84 80 92 91 91 98 89 84 79 71 981
1854..... 76 76 87 88 90 94 95 96 go 85 81 72 9
1855..... 74 77 88 89 101 89 96 92 91 86 82 78 101
1856..... 70 79 88 87 88 93 92 95 88 81 84 76 95I
1857..... 72 81 85 81 91 91 89 95 92 81 82 80 95
1858..... 77 77 88 86 91 92 96 94 86 85 79 78 96
1859..... 76 79 84 89 92 94 95 91 92 84 79 79 98
1860 ..... 76 79 88 92 92 97 98 98 89 87 80 72 98
1861........... 75 83 85 94 98 92 91 92 86 79 74 98
1866........... 78 86 96 96 100 ...... 102 99 88 84 77 102
1867..... 79 86 89 88 92 97 98 94 98 88 86 80 98
1868..... 81 78 90 92 97 98 101 97 94 88 85 72 101
1869..... 79 79 84 91 92 97 96 100 91 87 78 78 100
1870..... 82 80 87 91 95 95 97 94 98 87 85 78 97
1871..... 80 84 87 92 90 95 96 95 98 90 86 80 9
1872.... ... ............................ ............... ......... ............
1871..... ..... ............................................. 84 82 76 ....
1872..... 76 79 82 90 96 101 104 99 92 86 81 78 104
1873..... 76 79 82 89 94 96 96 95 95 88 83 79 96
1874 .... 77 81 87 91 98 99 98 100 92 86 88 79 100
1875..... 80 82 8 86 94 99 101 95 98 86 84 81 101
41876..... 80 88 82 88 95 99 101 98 97 88 82 71 101
1877..... 80 75 81 85 96 99 100 96 96 85 84 74 100
1878..... 74 74 86 87 98 96 97 98 92 85 80 74 98
1879...., 80 79 86 88 91 96 104 96 90 86 88 79 104
1880..... 77 81 86 91 95 100 97 96 91 85 82 78 100
1881 .... 72 78 80 88 96 99 99 96 94 48 88 79 99
1882..... 78 79 88 85 90 96 94 96 94 86 80 76 96
1888..... 76 88 9 s 88 90 95 98 94 90 92 88 78 96
1884..... 72 79 85 88 91 92 96 94 89 92 79 75 96
1885..... 78 78 79 88 89 96 95 94 92 85 81 76 1
1886..... 78 78 84 86 92 94 94 94 92 87 82 76 94
1887 .... 76 84 80 89 91 95 100 97 95 88 78 76 100
1888..... 81 82 84 88 98 96 96 96 92 86 88 74 18
1889..... 74 81 81 88 94 95 97 94 95 90 88 80 97
1890..... 80 88 85 88 89 97 96 94 92 90 84 80 97
1891..... 80 86 82 86 92 100 95 97 89 89 80 80 100
1892..... 77 78 84 88 91 94 96 96 92 88 85 80 96
1898..... 72 82 84 90 98 95 100 96 96 88 84 77 100
1894..... 79 80 87 85 95 92 98 96 96 90 82 8 96
1895..... 79 76 84 85 90 96 96 97 94 89 84 80 97
1806..... 75 79 88 92 95 97 100 96 96 87 88 74 100
1897:.... 76 84 82 88 98 99 99 99 94 89 88 80 99
1898..... 81 76 87 86 97 96 9 94 98 90 81 78 8 .
1899..... 78 81 86 85 96 97 96 98 98 87 81 76 98
1900..... 78 79 79 87 90 94 97 101 96 86 85 77 101
1901..... 7 75 82 8 98 94 97 98 92 84 79 76 97
1902..... 77 77 88 86 98 101 98 1 87 81 79 101
1908..... 78 81 80 82 98 90 97 97 92 8 81 76 97
1904..... 75 80 8 86 92 91 94 98 98 92 80 76 94
1906..... 75 79 81 88 92 95 94 91 94 86 81 78 95
1906..... 80 75 81 89 91 95 91 96 98 89 88 77 96
1907..... 77 77 91 88 89 94 97 95 94 87 88 78 97
Highest. 88 86 91 96 101 101 104 101 99 92 86 81 104
Lowest.. 70 68 78 80 82 88 89 89 84 80 78 68 9M

*Maximum thermometers were first und January 11,1874; prior to that date the maxd-
mum temperature in the table are from eye observationu.








actual differences for eaeh month between these two formulas,
and these values should be applied to the Bethune and Bald-
win means, and to the means of the first section, as a reduo-
tion to the true mean temperature. In ending these ooreo-
tions the formulas were applied directly to the Bethune reo-
ords, 1829-1888; the Baldwin records, 18M4-1846 and 1871,
and to the Signal Service records of 1872 and.1878. Sine&
January, 1874, the mean monthly and annual temperatures
have been obtained by the formula (mean max. + mean
min.) --2.
-Baromeric pressure.-The mean pressure for the year, at
sea level and under standard gravity, is 80.06 inches. In the
ourve of monthly means there are two maxims and two mini-
ma; the highest mean pressure is in January, with a second-
ary maximum in Jhly; the lowest mean pressure is in May,
with a secondary minimum in September. The highest pres-
sure ever recorded at this station was 80.70 inches, on January
23, 1888; the lowest, 29.06 inches, occurred during the
prevalence of a hurricane, at 6 p. m., August 27, 1898.
Temperature.-On the average January is the coldest month
of the year, altho the annual minimum temperature occurs
most frequently in December, and the lowest temperatures
ever recorded were in February. The mean temperature
reaches its lowest point during the first week of January, and
its highest in the second decade of July. The daily minimum
temperatures thruout the year nearly always occur about the
time of sunrise; the daily maximum temperature in winter
occurs about 2 p. m., in spring and late autumn at 1 p. m.,
and in August and September about noon. The greatest
number of consecutive days with the maximum temperature.
900, or above, was 81 days, in 1896, from July 20 to August
19, inclusive. The greatest number of consecutive days with
the minimum temperature 820, or below, was 8 days, in De-
cember, 1901, from the 16th to the 28d, inclusive.
Precipitation.-There are two rainy and two dry seasons.
The principal maximum occurs in September, with a second-
ary maximum in March. The dry months are April and No-
vember. The winter rains are generally due to the influence
of storms of the southwestern type. The summer afternoon
rains are largely in the form of thundershowers.
Abnormally high temperature in winter is usually followed
within thirty-six hours by rain. In summer high midday tem-
peratures are followed m the afternoon by thundershowers.
Snow occurs seldom, the low temperatures of winter being
due to the cold, dry, non-moishLe-bearing winds of anticy-
clones.
In July 82 per cent of the rains occur between 7 a. m. and
7 p. m., and 81 per cent of these, or 66 per cent of all the
rains of the month, occur in the afternoon-betwen noon
and 7 p. m. Only 18 per cent ae at night-7 p. to 7 a. m-
65 per cent of which are between midnight and 7 a. m. In
January the rains are more equally distributed between day
and night. In this month 64 per cent occur in the daytime-
between 7 a. m. and 7 p. m.---68 per cent of which re between





TA___ S.-Mimum temperatures (bArsaheet).





A AJ A"J -i


L8a.....
182...
181.....
18S2 ....
18S .....
1888....
18M.
1887...
1888....
1838.....
1840... .
1841.....
1842....
1848.....
144.....
1845....
1846.....
1847.....
1848. .
1840.....
1849....
185.....
181.....
1858.....
18 .....
1861.....
1858.....
1857.
1858....
185.....
1860...
18 .....
1882....
1868.....
1864.
las.....
186....
1867....
L1s8.....
1867...
18 :.....
1870....
1871...
1872...

1871....
1872....
1878.....
1874....
1875....
1878.....
1877....
1878....
1879.....
1880.....
1881....
1882.....
188 .....
1884.....
1885.....
1868.....
1887....
1888.....
1889 ...

189.....
188g....
189.....
1895.....
1896.....
187....
1898....
17.....
1809 ....
1900.....
1901....
L10. ....
1908.....
1908....
1904....
1905.....
1907.....
Highet.
Lowrest..


o



8

U



so
2S5




127

32
23







20
28

24
16
20








24
32
20
a1











28




24


21
21

24
1
a















28
27


24


15
2
a











32
s1
21
24








15
24












21
24
10
1is




24
21
24
15

24
31





24
81
14



18







8


* Minimum thermometers were first ued January 11,1874; prior to that date the nflnimum
temperature in the table are from eye observations.










noon and 7 p. m.; while of the 86 per cent that occur at
night, 67 per cent are between 7 p. m. and midnight. This
computation is based on the time of occurrence and not on the
amount of fall.
Damaging droughts have been known in all the months of
the year, except August. and- September. On an average of
TAnra 4.--1*4paton, iEs i*ks.


-Yar. i I i s


1u ...
1~ ...
186...
18. ...
18M...
18...
187...
rau...
.18...
In...
191...
18M...
1.7...
18(...
Is...
1870...
1871...
Av'g*.
1O....
871...
1878...
187...
1876...
187...
1w...
1878..
1878...
18i ...
1880...
ist..
188...
18M...
1882...
IW...

INC...
18881...
188...
1891...

180...
1897...
18...
1801...
1900...
1901...
1.....
190...
1905...
1906...
1907...
Av'gt.
Gr'st


esonalt: Winteor .; spring, 10.07; summer, 1&64; autumn, 14.77.
T Indiaet amort too imUll tomeuaure.
*Bldrtn reordA
tSlgal Servie a Wether Bureau record
iTotadLof motl s on this line.


a8 I L ......


2.71 410 W7.
48 IW I .81
1.45 &40 4&4
2.18 2.65 0.t
L.U LU 4&4
IEM L 4&MG
.0m I2.0 61. o
&M 1OS LOW
0.80 LO ......
a0.10 I I ......
0.40 &0 5 .Lt

8.29 1.38 GL
M I.M aW
O.@ 8.# 8r 8
1.0 I.Mi. n

107 2 561.81
&8.. m ......
L7 4.81 M.2 7
188 4.M O.87
2.M4 0.95 0.
.18 0.I 8 I0.
*1 ICi lL a


1.10 8.9 I.S
4.1s62a 48 St.


141 Lam R
0 0.4 48.18



to4 4.14 6.0
.a0 7.7 a1s.6
0.97 0.8 t4.M
0.10 i LOO9
4.16 2.88 6.18
0.81 T. 48.M
1.8 a 1.7 47.8t
.4S8 2.90 41.M
01.76 .0 s.2,
. 8.72 0.81 .84
8.l2 L18 M6
4.6 117 46.1
1.M 4.M e.eL
1.84 4.74 6.71
07M 0 188 .87
LOS 8.00 MI .
0.U9 17S 54.M
4.18 180 8.65
8.83 I1 88.05
.MS LI 4e6
400 .65 M.77
0.01 LM 6.M0
L9 4.9 46.07
SM L04 IgtllSI
AM.0 7.76 8100
0.01 T. 87.88






8

one year in four precipitation is quite insufficient at some
stage of the crop-growing season. The greatest drought in
the history of the station prevailed from October 27, 1889,
to February 28, 1890, during which period there fell only
1.65 inches of rain, this being a minus departure from the
normal of 10.5 inches. Between November 23,1889, and Jan-
uary 1, 1890, merely a sprinkle (amount too small to measure)
fell.
Relative Humidity.-The mean relative humidity, at three
different hours of observation, computed from records for 17
or 20 years, is given in Table 5, and is plotted in fig. 1. The
mean of the three series is also computed and plotted.
0J F M A M J J A S 0 N D Y



IS -- --- -- / -





74 -,-\ --/-







60






.- e rete hmt at Jaonle, F a gen in Te











are from the northeast and 25 per cent from the southweet,
the remaining 35 per cent being more or less equally dis-
72- -^-i- -- ------


J ------------y--------

M2I'-- -- Z -_-^
'4 --- -- -- -- --

1o \--- --- -- ---- i
12.----------------------= --------I--
fI--^ -- -- -- -- ------

5---.----- P --


Sr--- -3c-- --- -- -- -- -- -- -- ---


FiG. 1.- Mean relative humidity at Jacksonville, Fla., as given In Table 5.
Wind.-The prevailing winds are from Ihe northeast during
the colder months of the year,, and from the southwest in
summer. For the year, as a whole, 40 per cent of the winds
are from the northeast and 25 per cent from the southwest,
the remaining 35 per cent being more or less equally dis-




9

tribute among the six other principal directions of the
compass.
During winter 75 per cent of the winds are from a north-
erly quadrant, northeast to northwest. In spring 55 per cent'
are from a southerly quadrant, southeast to southwest. In
summer 80 per cent of the .winds are southerly, southeast toi
southwest, with southwest largely predominating. In autumn
fully 90 per cent of the winds are northerly, northeast to
northwest.
During periods of abnormally high temperature in late
spring, summer, and early autumn the winds are light and
from a westerly quadrant; at other seasons from northeast to
southeast. During periods of abnormally cold weather the
winds are from the north or northwest in spring; from west
to northwest in winter; and from northeast in summer and
autumn.
The wind velocities are least about sunrise, when the tem-
perature gradients are weakest. After 6 a. m. there is a
gradual increase in velocity until the afternoon maximum is
attained at 8 o'clock; thereafter there is a gradual decrease
in velocities until about midnight. In summer the highest
wind velocities are generally from the south or southwest, and
occur in short thundersqualls. In winter the maximum velQoi-
ties, as a rule, are from the southwest and west
Weather.-The highest percentage of sunshine occurs during
the months of least rainfall-April and November. In January
and February cloudiness is greatest in the early morning and
late in the afternoon, the skies being usually clear to cloud-
less at midday. July is the month of least sunshine. Long,
drissling rains are of greatest frequency during December.
The average yearly sunshine is 50 per cent.
Fros.-With cloudless sky, calm or very gentle breeze, and
relative humidity 65 per cent or more, a light frost will form
when the air temperature near the ground is as high as 45,
and with a temperature of 86* the deposit will be heavy.
There is practically no danger of frost in this vicinity be-
fore the last decade of October, and a killing frost has n6var
occurred in autumn before the second decade of November.
The latest light frost in spring in the past fifty years was
April 28, and the latest killing frost April 6.
Cold waves at Jacksonvile.-Notable freezes and minimum
temperatures:
or.
1885, February 8.................................. 8
187, January 19 .................................. 16
1870, December ........................... 19
1880, December 80............................. 19
1886, Jnuar 19 ................................. 15
1894, December .9 ................................ i1
189, February 8................................ 14
189, February 18................................ 10
1900, February 18............. .................... 18
1906, January 8.................................. 17
1766. John Bartram, the botanist, says the night of January
2 was the fatal night that destroyed the lime, citron, and
banana trees in St. Augustine, together with many curious'







evergreens up the river that were nearly twenty years old, and
many flowering plants and shrubs that were never before hurt.
Bartram, who was then camping on the St. Johns River above
Volusia, says the morning of January 3 was clear and cold;
thermometer 260, and wind northwest. The ground was frozen
an inch thick on the banks of the river.1
1799. The temperature was very low.'
1828. On April 6 a heavy frost was very destructive to vege-
tation; the temperature at Picolata, Fla., was as low as 28.'
1835. The great freeze, par excellence, occurred on Febru-
ary 8 of this year, when the temperature went as low as 8 at
Jacksonville. The St. Johns River was frozen several rods
from the shore and afforded a spectacle as new as it was dis-
tressing. All fruit trees were killed to the ground and many
of them never started again, even from the roots.'
1845. On December 21 a temperature of 200 was recorded
at Jacksonville.
1852. January 13 a cold wave prevailed and the temperature
was as low as 200.
1857, January 19mnd 20. Ice two inches in thickness formed
on pools and along the margin of the river on the morning of
the 19th, when the temperature fell to 160; some people tried
to skate. It was the coldest day since the great freeze of 1835.
On the morning of the 20th the temperature was as low as 18.
1868 and 1870. On December 25,1868, and again on Decem-
ber 24, 1870, freezes occurred with temperatures of 20 and
190, respectively. During these freezes many young buds
were killed, young orange seedlings were frozen to the ground,
and much fruit was destroyed.
1873, 1876, and 1879. The freezes of January 19, 1873, mini-
mum temperature 240; December 3, 1876, minimum 240; and
January 7, 1879, minimum 250, wrought havoc to fruit, but
did no lasting harm to trees.
1880. On December 30 the temperature fell to 19, and great
damage resulted to oranges, lemons, limes, guavas, and other
fruit then on the trees. The trees were not greatly injured.
1886. Very great damage was done to fruit and young trees
by the freeze of January 12.
1894. The freeze of December 29 killed all fruit on the trees,
together with many'young trees. Some of the more hardy
fruit trees, altho damaged greatly, shortly after the freeze
showed signs of recovery.
1895, February 8. This freeze was remarkable in that it fol-
lowed so closely that of December 29 of the previous year.
There was little fruit left to be injured, but all fruit trees were
killed to the ground.
1897. On January 28 the temperature fell to 210, and young
fruit stock was damaged and vegetables nearly destroyed.
1899, February 13. The minimum temperature on the morn-
ing of the 13th was 100, and all fruit trees, many of which
were just beginning to recover from the freeze of 1895, were
killed. Young stock and vegetables of every description were
destroyed. Some forest trees were also killed. The tempera-
ture was below freezing all day, the highest point reached







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being 27. The facilities in hand were insufficient to protect
vegetables against such severe cold, altho the low tempera-
tures were accurately forecast.
1900. On February 18 the minimum temperature was 18,
and much damage resulted to early vegetables.
1901 and 1905. The freezes of December 21, 1901, minimum
temperature 200, and of January 26, 1905, minimum 17, dam-
aged vegetables very much.
1906. On December 24 a minimum temperature of 24 was
recorded, and considerable damage resulted to plants and
vegetables.
Notes on snow and sleet.-In 1774 there was a snow storm
that extended over most of Florida. The inhabitants long
afterwards spoke of it as an extraordinary white rain.'
1852, January 13. Snow fell all the forenoon. The total
amount was one-half inch (unmelted).
1855, February 28. A few flakes of snow fell.
1868, January 29. Light sleet fell during the night.
1869, February 28. There was a flurry of snow in the fore-
noon.
1873, January 10. A few flakes of snow fell at 7:25 a. m.
1875, February 4 and 5. Light sleet occurred between mid-
night and sunrise on both these dates.
1879, January 4. Sleet began at 7 p. m. and turned to rain
at 8:30 p. m. On the following morning (the 5th) everything
out of doors, such as trees, shrubbery, etc., was covered with
ice. The weight of the ice broke the limbs of many orange
trees.
1892, December 27. Light snow flurries occurred at inter-
vals during the day.
1893, January 18. Sleet and snow fell in this city shortly
after midnight. It began as sleet, turned to snow, and then
to rain.
1895, February 14. At 6:22 p. m. light sleet began to fall,
continuing about five minutes, when it turned to snow; snow
ended in five minutes. Light snow began again at 7:20 p. m.,
and ended at 8 p. m.
1899, February 12 and 13. At 9:45 p. m. of the 12th, rain
changed to sleet, and this to snow at 10:15 p. m. Snow con-
tinued during the night, ceasing before sunrise on the 13th.
At 7 a. m. of the latter date snow on the ground was 2 inches
deep, with a temperature of 100. In sheltered places the snow
remained unmelted for several days.
1901, December 16. Light snow flurries occurred at 1 p. m.,
and sleet fell at intervals during the afternoon.
1907, February 7. A light snow flurry occurred in the im-
mediate vicinity of the city during the early afternoon.
Hurricanes.-The season of greatest frequency of hurricanes
is from September 1 to October 15. During September the
mean track of these storms lies near and almost parallel to the
east Florida coast. The dates on which tropical storms pre-
prevailed in the vicinity of Jacksonville are as follows:
1 Extracts from a paper read before the Florida State Hortioultural
Society by Maj. Geo. B. Fairbanks, May 8, 1895.






18
1830, August 1-16. 1880, Oetober 8.
184", October 5-6. 1881, August f7.
1846, October 12 1881, October 6.
1848, October 12. 1882 September 10-11.
1861, August 18. 1889, October 11.
1856, October 9. 1885, October 10-11.
1854, September 8. 1888 September 9.
1871, August.17-18. 1888, October 11.
1871, August 4. 1898, une 15-16.
1878, October 6-7. 1893, August 27.
1874, September 28. 1893, October 12.
1876, September 16. 1894, September B6.
1878, July 11-12. 1894 October 9.
1878, September 9-11. 1896, September 29.
1878, October 31-32. 1897, September 21.
1879, October 16. 1898, October 2.
1880, August 29-80. 1899, October 5.
lbrnadoes and waterapoutsg-These phenomena are of rare
occurrence in this part of the State.
1872, March 10. Shortly after midnight a violent wind and
rainstorm past over the city. Two and a half miles north a
tornado unquestionably occurred; its path varied from three-
quarters to 1 mile in width, and extended from a point a short
distance west of the Panama road to the St. Johns River.
Large trees were uprooted or twisted off; several dwellings
and barns were demolished, the inmates being more or less
seriously injured, and some stock killed. Itis stated that the
tall grass was out off as if by a mower and banked against
prostrate trees by the wind.
1874, August 6. At 8:80 a. m. a waterspout was observed in
the river about 4 miles southwest of the ity. It began in a
cloud which approached the river from the southwest. Just
prior to the oompletidn of the spout the water was greatly
agitated; but when thei funnel-shaped cloud united with the
water the agitation quickly subsided and the surface of the
river resembled a mirror. This phase lasted fifteen minutes,
when the column gradually drew away from the water and con-
tracted in diameter, rolled itself into a ball and rapidly dis-
appeared into the cloud.
1882, September 10. A tornado occurred at Darbyville, Fa.
(about 30 miles west .of Jacksonville), at 9:50 p. m., causing
great destruction. Several buildings were blown to pieces,
seriously injuring five or more persons. Large trees were
uprooted, and numbers of cattle and hogs were killed.
1888, April 18. A large waterspout was reported as having
occurred about 2 miles up the river at 10:25 a. m.
1907, April 18. A severe hail and windstorm swept over
the city at 8:40 p. m. On the south side-of the river the
storm assumed the nature of a tornado, causing much damage
to Diiieland Amusement Park and to several manufacturing
plants. A tugboat was sunk and the captain drowned, and an-
other man was blown from a pile driver and downed. No
very serious damage resulted in the city, except the breakage
of glass by the hail.
Auroras.-The aurora light has not been observed here since
1882. There appears to hate been a period of special fre-
quency from 1870 to 1877.










1859, August 28. The auroral light was plainly visible dur-
ing the early evening.
1859, September 2. Brilliant aurora during the evening and
night; the entire heavens were illumined. Many amusing in-
cidents are told of how the more ignorant inhabitants imagined
the end of the world was at hand.
1870. The aurora borealis was very brilliant on September
24, and it was again observed on October 14 and 25.
1872, February 4. The aurora was visible from 7:25 p. m.
until nearly 9 p. m. It was in the form of one complete arch,
with streamers projecting upward. The streamers were of
TABLE 6.-Daes of front.

Light frost. Killing frost.
Year. -
First Last First Lst
in autumn. In spring. in autumn. in spring.

184.................... October 80S March 22 December 12 February it
1845B................... November 4 February 9 November 28 February 8
1846 .................. Nvembr 2 January 2 November 26 January 25
18 .................... November 14 April 19 November 29 January 2
18 ................... October 26 M ch 2 December 11 March 2
1856 ................... December 8 March 29 December 17 February 5
187...................... October 26 April 22 November 20 January
1858..................... November 10 Aplh 28 None Mrch 8
189....................... Nove 0 ember Nov January 24
180 .................. November 8 March 14- November 2 None
S1861.................... December 24 18 ................
1866..................... November 24 March 80 December 11 February 16
1867..................... November 18 March 16 None February 10
1868.................... November 2 March 5 November 21 January 81
1869...................... October 28 April 14 November 22 March 1
1870..................... November 16 April 18 De ebr February 22
1871...................... November 17 February 20 ber January 10
1872...................... November 16 March 4 No ber 1 February
1873................... October 21 March 6 Nov r 20 March 6
1874...... ........... December 8 January 18 December 8 January 9
1875.................... October 28 February' 12 December 16 February 6
1876 ...................... November 20 March 22 December 1 March 22
1877..................... November 12 February 21 November 30 January 6
1878 .................... November 29 Mach 5 December 28 February 12
1879..................... November 4 pril 6 November 21 January S0
1880...................... November 16 April 18 November 16 None
1881..... ................ November 4 April November 25 April 2
1882.................... November 15 February 6 December 17 February 6
1883.................... November 8 March 28 December 16 Mrch 18
1884...................... November 2 February 21 December 8 February 21
188..................... November 16 March 19 November M March 10
188..................... October 29 March 11 December Mach 11
1887 .................... October 81 April 2 november 21 January 19
1888...... ............... November 11 March 1 ecember February
1889........... .......... November 29 April 8 November February 8
1800....... .......... November 1 March 17 December 2 M ch 17
1891...................... November 18 April 6 November 18 April 6
1892...................... ..October 26 April 16 November 12 MWarbch 0
1898..................... November 16 Mrch 20 November 2 March 5
1894................ .... November 7 March 81 November 12 March 17
1896......... .......... November 21 April 5 December 4 February 17
1896...................... October 19 April December 22 M ch 21
1897...................... November 4 January 80 December 6 Janury 80
1898..................... October 28 April 8 December 8 February
1899...................... November 6 April 11 December 9 M ch 8
1900...................... November 10 April 14 None February 2
1901.................. October 17 April 22 December 16 March 7
1902..................... November 28 April 1 December 2 February 18
1908...................... October 25 February 2E November 19 February 18
190...................... November 14 March 15 December 29 February 12
1906...... ...... ........ November 2 April 17 None. February 16
1906..................... November 12 March 2 November 18 None
1907...................... October 29 April 15 December 5 February 9

Average ................ November. 8 March 19 December 4 February 14

Earliest frost in autumn, October 17. Latest frost in spring, April 8. Earliest killing
frost in autumn, November 12. Latest killing frost in spring, April &








rose tint. Again, on October 14 there was an aurora of mod-
erate brilliancy about 7 p. m. *
1876, May 2. Polar bands were visible in the northwest dur-
ing the evening.
1877, June 4. The aurora borealis was visible from 8 until
10 p. m. When it was first observed it resembled, a band of
reflected light extending from N. 20 E. to N. 400 W., with the
center of the arch not more than 256 above the horizon.
There were no streamers.
1882, November 17. The auroral light was observed from
.8:16 to 9:05 p. m. The color was a uniform pale red tint ex-
tending to the height of 80 and from 1100 W. to 200 E
The display was well marked, and attracted general attention.
Earthquakes.-The occurrence of earthquake shookp in this
vicinityis of much interest. In the records of this offie men-
tion is made of these, as follows:
1879, January 12. At 11:40 p. m. slight earthquake shocks
were felt thruout the city and continued thirty seconds The
motion appeared to be from northwest to southeast, and a
rumbling noise was reported to have been heard during the
shocks. Earthquake shocks were felt in Lake City, Fla., at
the same time.
1886, August 31. Earthquake shocks were felt in this city
from 8:52 p. m. to 9:08 p. m. The first vibrations were light,
but were continuous for a minute and a half, when three or
four severe shocks occurred in quick succession, the most
violent of which was at 8:53:80 p. m. This building (the
Astor Building) vibrated with the shocks and seemed to move
from east to west, as the swaying of a railroad train along a
straight track, with now and then a sudden lurch, as it the
train had turned a sharp curve. The windows, doors, and
furniture rattled, and it was difficult for one to stand without
support. Distinct earthquake shocks were felt in the city on
September 1, at 8:80 a. m. and 8 p. m.; on the 8d, at 10:08
p. m.; 5th, at 10:16 and 10:18 p. m.; 8th, at 12:84 p. m.;
9th, at 12:47 p. m., and on October 22, a shook was felt thru-
out the city at 4:24 a. m., lasting fifteen seconds, and with
energy sufficient to rattle dishes, windows, etc.
The great earthquake shook began in the city of Charleston
within a few seconds of 8:51 p. m., ninetieth meridian time, on
August 81, 1886.
1898, June 20. An earthquake shook was felt at 10:07 p.m.
The duration was about ten seconds and the motion vibratory
and continuous, direction northeast to southwest, intensity
moderate. -




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