. WINTER IN THE NORTH.
IV. maAit Kvrxan
WHERE TO GO
DANIEL F. TYLER.
, "Those opinions only are to be approved which the lives of those who hold
HOPCRAFT & CO.,
12/ & /23 South 5th Ave.,
Entered according to Act of Congress, in the Office of the Librarian of
of Congress, Washington, D. C., by HorcuATr & Co.
Five Winters ago, the writer of this pamphlet went to Florida,
out of health. Receiving great benefit the first year, he purchased
a cottage at Green Cove Spring, to which place he was strongly
recommended by a friend in New York. Becoming more and
more attached to the spot, he has ventured to publish his ob-
servations in this simple (orm, hoping thereby to extend the bene-
fit to others.
He also hopes-by attracting good people to Green Cove-
to add greatly to its material prosperity. Hitherto this most desir-
able location has made itself known through its own merits only,
no efforts having yet been made to bring it into general notice;
consequently, many tourists have passed it by altogether.
You may, at first sight, be a little disappointed. The general
aspect of things is, perhaps, primitive, and somewhat strange to
the Northern eye. Yet this is not unpleasing; and the place has
awonderfulcapacity for growing upon one's affections. A single
Winter passed there confirms your love for it. You always want
to go back to it again. You realize a moral, as well as a physical
benefit, from'ihis communion with the primitive world.
The author has endeavored, in this pamphlet, to state simple
facts. If anything here seems too highly colored, it should be at-
tributed wholly to the writer's affection for the place; or as a sort
of mental thank-offering for restoration to health.
NEW YORK, SEPTEMBER, 1880.
a ., II~~1SM'dr0-
GREEN COVE SPRING,
OLAY 00., FLOBIDA.
Be sure to go to Green Cove Spring, and take a plunge
in the swimming-pools there," said an old friend in New York,
to the writer. Gren Cove is the most enjoyable place in Florida,"
he continued; "and there is where to g."
To the Florida tourist nothing can be in greater contrast than
to get out of the dusty cars at Jacksonville, and be transferred to
the deck of the St. John's River steamer. Very soon you are
steaming away up the river, with a softbreezefanningyour cheek.
After leaving Jacksonville behind you, the river gradually broad-
ens out until it attains the magnificent width of five miles. In
less than three hours you reach Green Cove Spring, thirty miles
south of Jacksonville.
Man is a sort of semi-amphibious creature-he loves the water.
Consequently one of the first things which attaches the new comer
to Green Cove, is the discovery that the whole river front is
not taken up by steamboat wharves, stores and warehouses.
The most attractive walk there, is along the banks of the river,
with not a thing to obstruct the vision but the overhanging bran-
ches of the trees. Beautiful vistas continually open out upon the
river, as you stroll along through Lover's Walk," and the eye
reaches over the blue expanse of water to the distant shore,
WHERE TO GO IN FLORIDA,
meeting occasionally, along the horizon, with a flock of white
curlews, giay herons or mallard ducks.
Above you are the lofty branches of the live oak, the magnolia
and the cypress. Long festoons of gray Spanish moss hang sus-
pended from ten thousand forest trees, or wave gracefully in the
gentle breeze. And, if it happens to be February, the air is filled
with- the rich fragrance of yellow jasmine, which blooms in that
month-a far sweeter perfume to many than that of the orange
Sitting upon an old log in these primeval woods, you lift your
hat from your brow, expand your chest, and drink in with delight
the balmy air you have travelled more than a thousand miles to
FLORIDA A NORTHERN STATE. 7
Surely-to the sensitive invalid, to the over-taxed student, or
to the worn and weary business man, seeking rest and recruit-
ment--no place on earth can surpass this lovely retreat
A great source of comfort to sojorrners at Green Cove is the
absence of dust and mud. No matter how dry or how rainy the
day may be, one is not blinded and tortured by clouds of the one,
or puddles of the other of these common destroyers of human
FLORIDA A NORTHERN.STATE.
It may almost be said with truth that Florida is a Northern
State as regards population, so many Northerners are now resid-
ing there. You see it in the very newness of things. Settlements
of Northern and Western people may be found in many parts,
but especially along the St. John's River, the great central artery
of the State.
The new comers are starting orange-groves, and planting
bananas, sugar-cane, fig-trees, guavas, Japan-plum, &c., &c.
But the State appears primitive yet.
It seems to me that a most paying investment for the new
settlers along the St. John's River, would be the raising of early
strawberIes, peas, cucumbers, beets, potatoes, &c., for the New
York, Philadelphia and Boston markets, because transportation
is speedy and direct from this region to the Northern markets,
and the first early vegetables bring the highest prices. This ought
to be a profitable employment for the farmer while awaiting the
growthof his orange and lemon groves.
When the railway trains and steamers from the North arrive in
Jacksonville, it is amusing to hear the exclamations of delight,
and the spontaneous outbursts of those who have never been
in Florida, and who left home only a few days before, and in
a snow-storm perhaps. But when upon the broad and beautiful
St. John's, sailing on towards Green Cove Spring, the exclama-
tions of pleasure and surprise are more numerous still.
In the winter of 1877, when I crossed the Hudson at New
York, en route for Florida, muffled in a heavy overcoat, I stood
outside upon the deck watching the falling snow-flakes and list-
ening to the huge cakes of floating ice butting the ferry-boat.
8 WHERE TO GO IN FLORIDA.
Two days and a few hours later brought me where ripe
oranges were hanging on the trees, mocking birds were singing in
the branches, and all living things seemed basking in the sunlight
Mavrelous change / and in so short a time!
March is the month when the orange tree blossoms. It is a
beautiful picture to see a large tree in full bloom, and at the
same time, ripe oranges clustered amongst the blossoms. The
dark glossy-green of the old leaf, and the delicate fresh verdure
of the new leaf, are also to be seen upon the tree at the same time.
Indeed, sometimes you see blossoms, green fruit, and ripe fruit,
all upon the tree at once.
CHANCES IN TKMZRAThII.
CHANGES IN TEMPERATURE.
"The air nimbly and sweetly recommends itself to our gentle senses."
Those who come to Florida, expecting that there will never
be any changes in temperature greater than ten degrees, or that
the air is dead with perpetual sameness, will find themselves
mistaken. There are not infrequent changes of 1o, IS, or 20 de-
grees, and more, in as many hours, perhaps. But the change is
in a very different range of the thermometer from the changes at
the North during the same months. It will be. for instance, from
moderate to warm-say from 500 to 75, or viee ave, while at
the North the change will be one that fearfully racks a delicate
organism. It will be a sudden jump from cool to below the
At the North, in February, the invalid is languidly gasping
for breath over a coal fire, or breathing the noxious airs of the
furnace, or the sewer and the gas-pipe. In Florida he may be
warmly wrapped, it is true, and sometimes sitting by a pine knot
fire; but his life is mostly out-of-doors, breathing fresh pure air,
while the genial sun shines down upon him, and the green tre"s
and birds welcome him to a new life.
At the North, during the winter, there are only about five
or six pleasant, sunny days in a moqth when I can enjoy being
out of doors. In Florida this is exactly reversed-there are gen-
erally twenty-five sunshiny days to five cloudy or rainy days in
It is a great wonder that man, with all his boasted superior-
ity of brain, should so long put off acting with the instinct wis-
dom of the bird, who migrates to warmer climes from the ,nhos-
pitable snow-clad and ice-bound regions of the North, during
those months when nature seems striving (over a large portion of
the globe) to freeze out and utterly to destroy all living things.
The following figures were taken at the Clarendon Hotel, at
Green Cove Spring:
AVERAGE TEMPERATURE, SEASON OF 1877-8.
6A.M. 1 M. 6P. M. 6A.M. 1. 6P.M. 6.. A. M. 1r 6 P.M
Nov., 57' 73' 65 JAI" 54 65 6' MALCH, s 5 75' 72*
Dsc., .58 685 630 Fai., 58 70 66* Art., 6S 770 74
WHERE TO GO IN FLORIDA.
An old European traveller (from England), sitting upon a
Green Cove piazza five Winters ago, in company with the writer,
told him that he had been to every salubrious climate on the
globe, and that Florida surpassed them all. This wonderful
climate," he said, only needs to be known, to be sought for by
tourists from all parts of the world."
GREEN COVE WARM SULPHUR SPRING.
This wonderful spring is located in the Park opposite the
Clarendon Hotel. The water boils up from a large fissure, some
twenty feet below the surface, at the rate, it is said, of three thous-
and gallons per minute. It is as clear as a diamond, and the
effect is most beautiful at noonday, when the sun shines directly
into the spring, and objects can be seen at the bottom tinted with
the prismatic hues.
The basin of the spring is about twenty feet in diameter. It is
greatly to be regretted that no exact analysis of the water has yet t
been made, but, Dr. Applegate tells me. a qualitative analysis
shows the following components: Calcium carbonate, calcium
sulphate, magnesium carbonate, silica, sodium sulphate, potas-
sium sulphate, alumina silicate of, and organic matter.
The swimming pools are only a few feet from the basin of the
spring, and the water flows through them in an immense volume,
but so quietly as hardly to be observed. These pools are about
25 feet wide and 75 feet long. with a row of dressing rooms on
one side and stairways descending into the water, which is four
feet deep. The ladies have a separate pool, and further along
there are smaller pools for private bathing.
The tourist will find nothing in Florida more delightful than a
bath in this water, the natural temperature of which is about 78'.
For invalids, who cannot enjoy the open air pools, hot and cold
sulphur baths are provided at the Clarendon."
Ladies who enjoy bathing should not forget to take their bath-
ing suits with them, as swimming in the pools is a great sport
at Green Cove, and those who cannot swim may easily learn
under the tuition of Miss Smith, the obliging Managress of the
GRZKE COVE WARM SULPHUR SPRING.
It is said that you can enjoy these swimming baths every day in
Winter. Certainly it has seemed odd enough to me, just after
reading a letter from home telling ot a severe snow storm, to go
and take my bath, with the accompanying chorus of mocking
birds in the surrounding trees.
Dr. Rogers writes me: For bathing this water is not excel-
led in its cleansing powers, and it leaves the skin in its softest and
best condition. During the past twelve Wintqrs I have, with the
WHEKE TO GO IN FLORIDA.
most gratifying results, regularly prescribed the drinking of this
water for the various chronic affections of the liver and kidneys.
It is especially valuable idtthe early stages of Bright's disease of
Dr. Colmar says: Surprising cures in cases of neuralgia,
nervous prostration, rheumatism, and liver and kidney com-
plaints, have been effected by the water of this famous White Sul-
phur Spring. The most widely known physician of Jacksonville
-at one time a hopeless invalid-was restored to health, and to
long years of laborious and lucrative practice, by the use of its
waters, after having in vain tried other remedies. If this water
is allowed to remain in a clean glass vessel for twelve hours
or more, it becomes as inodorous, tasteless, and clear as the
purest distilled water-hence its wonderful action upon the kid-
As Dr. Colmar says, this water, standing for some hours in a
clean vessel, becomes tasteless and clear as distilled water; so
that, in the hotels and private residences, it is iced and used upon
the dinner table. The value of such a spring is hardly to be esti- ,
mated. In the one case, drink it from the boil in the spring and
you get its medicinal effects. In the other case, let it stand
until the gases escape, and you have a crystal drinking water.
Let any reasoning mind consider for a moment, and decide
whether or n6-when Florida becomes more widely known by
tourists and health seekers-Green Cove is destined to become
the favorite resort of the State, and the most desirable permanent
abiding place to be found in the South. It is a mere question of
FLORIDA JUST BECOMING KNOWN.
It will not surprise one that Florida is only just beginning
to be known when a few facts are considered. Firstly-It was
not admitted as a State until the year 1845, although containing
the oldest city of the Union. Secondly-The long Indian wars
kept the State in a continual turmoil until a very recent date.
The Seminole war was not officially declared closed until May
WHERE TO LOCATE.
8th, 1858. So that between the ending of the Indian wars amd be-
ginning of the great civil war in z861, there was but a short period
of three years. Thus, from its unsettled condition, Florida was
almost wholly unknown by people-generally, until the Northern
soldiers who were quartered there in 1862-3 and 4 returned home
to tell of its wonderful climate and picturesque woods, its soft,
balmy air and surprising healthfulness, its beautiful flora and gor-
geous birds of plumage. This tempted many of them to return
after the war closed, and was the primal cause of thousands of
Northerners going there, finally to make it their home.
The American Cyclopaedia speaks of Florida as follows:
Garden vegetables are produced in the greatest abundance.
The driest seasons are relieved by heavy dews, and the sun that
would bake the earth in other parts, and wither vegetation, is
here so tempered by the pervading moisture as to cover the sur-
face with perennial verdure.* The prairies afford excellent pas-
ture. Here cattle require little care fron.their owners, and no
housing in Winter; and in most parts of the State hogs fatten
without any other support than that which they derive from the
roots and mast of the forest. Deer of various kinds abound,
and smaller game is found in all parts of the country. The coast
waters are productive of the finest fish, including the sheepshead,
grouper, red fish, mullet, green turtle and oysters; and the numer-
ous lakes and rivers of the interior.teem with fresh water species."
Certainly, Florida possesses one thing which money can never
buy or labor create-that is, Climat. We cannot make it come
to us. The only alternative for us, is to go to it.
WHERE TO LOCATE.
It will surprise many to know that Florida is larger than either
of the great States of New York, Ohio or Pennsylvania. Much of
the land in the State, therefore (although very cheap), is far away
from the markets and from lines of travel and transportation.
*The "peradl moisure" s suftdent to neutraize the air, but not to
make It "dmp." Without the dews vegetaio would wither-Florida would
bearid. ee a great dstincton between ciency ad over-plus."
Let tibe o&ed.
WHIRlE TO GO IN FLORIDA.
This is not the case with the large body of land at Green Cove
Spring, owned by Col. Houston Clinch, of Savannah, which is
now being sub-divided into lots of a size suitable to the require.
ments of settlers. These lands are right upon the central lie of
transportation-the St. Yohn's River.
This tract of land-bounded on the east by the St. John's, apd
on the north and west by Governor's Creek, as shown on the
map of the St. J lh'River-was granted by the Spanish Crown
to Don George I. F. Clarke, the Surveyor General of the Colony.
When Florida was ceded to the United States, this entire grant,
excepting fifteen hundred acres, was purchased from Clarke by
General Clinch, of the U. S. Army, who was at that time in
command of the troops stationed in the Southern Department."
About 50 years ago, General Clinch had a town laid off upon
the river bank, not far from the upper end of the grant, which
was called "Bayard."
In the immediate vicinity of this site the ruins of an old Span-
ish fort can still be plainly traced, although covered, as they are,
by the forest trees which have grown over them during the three
centuries of time elapsing since the fort was stormed and dis-
mantled by the French. The incidents connected with this event
characterize it as one of the most heroic and brilliant exploits
of that chivalric and adventurous era.
The "town of Bayard did not long survive its birth and
christening, meeting an untimely end at the outbreak of the Sem-
inole War in 1835.
The grant, however, has ever since been known as the
"Bayard tract," and has remained in the family of General Clinch.
Almost every variety of soil can be found on this tract, from
the heavy alluvial of the hammocks, to the lighter, but surpris-
ingly productive soil of the highlands.
The hammocks Nave always been recognized as being ex-
tremely valuable for agricultural purposes, provided they could
be drained; but as they were liable to be overflowed by heavy
rains, their cultivation has never been attempted.
In the month of May, x88o, Col. Clinch employed a compe-
tent engineer to run several lines of level from the river to the rear
of the tract, when it was ascertained-to the surprise of every one
--that these hammocks, lying from a mile, in some cases, to half
WHER TO LOACTL
a mile in others, from the river, were to 4o feet above high
water mark. Their thorough drainage, therefore, became only a
question of expense.
S Work was at once begun to effect this by digging canals and
ditches, and already a great deal has been accomplished. A canal
about half a mile long and ten feet deep in many places, connect-
ing a large body of hummock with the river," shows the pine
land through which it is cut to be a dark gray loam on the surface,
underlaid by clay, which rests at a depth of from 3 to 5 feet, upon
a bed of rich shell marl interspersed with the bones and teeth of
fish and animals. Arrangements are making to deliver this marl
at the river to purchasers. It can be utilized as a fertilizer in
the vicinity at a cost almost inappreciable. Mr. Bemis, as
Agent for Col. Clinch, has also for sale several miles of river
front, which includes many of the most beautiful sites for resi-
dences to be found on the St. John's. Among these are the lots
fronting on the famed St. David's Path." All letters of inquiry
will receive prompt attention, and should be addressed to C. C.
Bemis, Esq., Agent, Green Cove Spring, Clay Co., Florida.
The spring water at Green Cove is unexcelled for purity and
healthfulness. The markets are near by; and early strawberries,
peas, beans, tomatoes, lettuce, potatoes, radishes, squashes,
turnips, cucumbers, melons, etc., should find a ready sale.
Market gardeners are much wanted in Florida.
I have always found Green Cove healthy, and I know of no
pleasanter spot for a residence, Moreover, it promises to be
one of the most growing places in the State.
The town is fully organized, with its Mayor and Council. The
citizens are peaceful and industrious; and I have many times
remarked, that I have never lived in a more honest community.
There are three or four churches. The interior of the new Epis-
copal Church, finished in native woods, is really beautiful. Green
Cove is the county town. Honest, industrious and peace lov-
ing citizens are wanted there, and will be warmly welcomed and
WItERE TO GO 1t4 PLO3IDA.
It is one of the wonders to a Northern man that anything at
all will grow in the sandy soil of Florida. But this soil is
not like other sand, and when we see such products as the
Orange, Lemon, Banana, Guava, Fig, Pomegranate, Japan Plum,
Citron, Lime, Sugar Cane, Cotton, Sweet Potato, and the pro.
fuse growth of melons and vegetables, faithlessness dies.
Climate seems to offset an apparent lack of richness in soil.
I believe that the thrifty farmer of the North and West, with
a little experience, can succeed well in Florida. I believe that
plentiful manuring and watering will more than repay the expense
and trouble. A small wind mill, to water plants in March, April
and May, would seem to be the wisest expenditure of money a
market gardener could make, and yet you see comparatively
few there. The expense of living in Florida is very small, and
the life is all out of doors. There are no long, severe, tempestu-
ous Winters to provide against. All over the State you will find
Northern men and women, who have been living there from 1
five to fifteen years, and who could not be induced to return
North. One man-a German-told me he "would not return to
New York toremain the balance of his life for a million of dol-
lars!" The death of his wife and several children at the North had
driven him to Florida.
Many persons, upon their first arrival in Florida, seem disap-
pointed that the flora of all the year is not visible upon the very
day of their coming. Florida, the land of Flowers," they say
-" Where are the flowers ?" Tourists generally arrive just at
the time of year when Nature is resting, as it were, in the dead
of winter, and they expect too much.
Besides, the State is very new in respect to ornamental culti-
vation. It is primitive yet. Most of the people there are engaged a
in the practical rather than the ornate. They are seeking a live-
lihood, and have little time tor the cultivation of flowers, and the
natural flora there commences later. The Yellow Jasmine, for
instance, blooms in February, the Orange and Cherokee Rose in
March, the Oleander, Pomegranate, Woodbine, Honeysuckle
and Sweet Olive in April, and the Magnolia, Cape Jasmine and
+ Sweet Bay Tree in May, and so on.
Yet the eye is delighted, whatever month you may arrive there,
with a perennial foliage; and those who wander away into the
deep woods, may find many beautiful lilies, flowering shrubs.
WHERE TO GO IN FLORIDA.
and tiny woodland blossoms hid away, to be sought after like all
The reason why most of the fashionable tourists to Florida see
little of the rich native bloom (which gave its name to the State)
is, that they do not go where the wild flowers grow-that is in the
woods; and those who do go into the woods most frequently do
so upon their very first arrival-in December and January.
If they wander through the woods in February, but more es-
pecially in March, April and May, they will see what the discov-
erers of the Continent saw, and they, too, will name it the "Land
Sometimes a strong west wind will blow pollen from the pines
and shrubbery along the banks of the river in great quantities.
This spreads over the surface of the water, forming a sort of green
scum alongshore, and it is amusing to see how alarmed some
timid northerners grow about it, lest they should at once con-
tract malaria. But the thing is of course perfectly harmless, and
the morrow's trade wind, agitating the river, dissolves it like mist
before sun. How can a broad river, flowing to the sea,
(whose surface is daily lashed into little waves and white-caps
by the trade winds,) retain or collect decayed vegetable matter
like a stagnant pool ? Common sense rejects the idea. A deal
of nonsense is talked about "malaria" in Florida. One may run
a risk if sleeping upon boughs on the margin of swamps in the.
wild woods, as some enthusiastic huntsmen do, in "camping
out." But even these return, after a long trip, bronzed like an
Indian, with every outward evidence of perfect health. And
consider the army once camped in the Okeechobee region, or at
the edge of the "Everglades." Let sensible people read General
Lawson's comparative health tables, printed hereafter, and be
ST. DAVID'S PATH.
This lovely walk is worth a journey to Green Cove Spring to
enjoy. My ideal of Florida was never realized until I had wan- s
dered through its shady aisles. It has repeatedly been pro-
nounced by travellers to be one of the most beautiful woodland
SST. DAVID'S PATH.
scenes in the world, and is often called Lovers' Walk," from a
legend prevailing that bachelors and maidens who dare to bravo
its precincts in company, are sure to come out lovers.
It is said to be nearly two miles in length, but does not seem
more than half that distance to the delighted pedestrian. The
walk winds through the forest, along the banks of the St. John's,
from Green Cove Spring to Governor's Creek, within sight of the
well-known resort of Magnolia.
No picture from the camera can ever give more than a faint
Idea of this romantic spot. It is arched and embowered on each
side by lofty Magnolias, Live Oaks, Cypress, Wild Azalia, Indian
Pipe Stem, Briarwood and Gum Tree, and the ground is carpeted
with acres of palmetto shrub. Intertwined in the branches are
WHEWRf TO Go IN FWILIDA.
thousands of vines, wild grape, gourd, morning glory, trumpet
vine and yellow jasmine.
% Festoons and draperies of Spanish moss overhead are contin-
nally waving to and fro in the passing breeze. Here and there
spots of blue sky are seen through the openings in the foliage;
birds sing and chirp in the branches, and beautiful vistas open
out upon the river at each turn of the path. Every tint of ver-
dure delights the eye, from the delicate feathery cypress leaf to
the dark glossy green of the magnolia grandiflora.
Every now and then you pause in delight to look back into
the forest through and along great cathedral aisles, or into some
woodland bower overarched with vines and Spanish moss.
In the afternoon the rays of the declining sun, glancing through
the varnished leaves and hanging moss produce the most beauti-
And at night, when the full moon is overhead, darting its
silver beams through the 'forest, and playing witchery with the
fancies of the young Well I think I had better drop the
subject here, and simply advise all lovers of nature to go there
and romance for themselves.
ALLIGATORS AND BIRDS.
The Florida tourist will be disappointed at not seeing more.
alligators and beautiful birds of plumage along the St. John's.
Except in distant flocks, it is rare, any longer, to see such birds
as the white and the gray heron, the pink curlew and the scarlet
flamingo along the banks of the river.
One must penetrate into the distant huting grounds of the
State to find then now in any numbers. During the past twelve
years, so many full-fledged and un-fledged huntsmen have been
permitted to fire indiscriminately from the steamers' decks, that
the alligators and birds have fled from this terrible field of slaugh-
ter to distant retreats, where they may enjoy some degree of
safety. So that the traveller on the St. John's is now deprived of a
It was no uncommon thing, two or three years ago, to see the
most gorgeous birds shot down from a lofty branch, by a good
AuJ.4TOpS AnD nIDs*,
marksman on the steamer's deck. This was mere wanton de-
struction, for the birds were of course left to decay on some wild
bank. And the poor alligators have been so peppered with bul-
lets, that they have mostly gone to parts unknown.
If the Legislature of the State should pass a prohibitory law
in respect to shooting from the steamers' decks, it would be hu-
mane and wise-and the sooner te better Then, perhaps, the
birds of plumage would return again, in a few years, to delight
the eyes of thousands of travellers on the St. John's-and the
Legislature of Florida would score one in the grand march of en-
WH1i1 TO GO IN YLORIDA.
WHY FLORIDA IS NOT BARREN.
The curious student of geography will find, by consulting his
map of the world, that the same parallels of latitude which pass
through the great Desert of Sahara also pass through Florida,
and, to a reflecting mind, the questions arise: "Why is not
Florida as uninhabitable as Sahara "Why is vegetation there
so luxuriant?" "Why do flowers bloom with such surpassing
loveliness?" "Why is the air so balmy during those trying
months of February, March and April ?"
Is it not because of the large bodies of water which surround
and intersect it? On one side the Gulf of Mexico, on the other
the Atlantic; and running up and down through the State, .the
great St. John's, three, four and five miles in width.
Why then think that Florida must be damp and unhealthy?
Without this expanse of waters, Florida might rb an arid desert ike
Sahara: with it, it is a perpetualgarden. The very thing of which
the unthinking complain is that which renders Florida air so
pure, balmy and-delicious, and its soil so fruitful in a literal sense.
The Spanish Moss," which hangs in such profusion from
the branches of the trees, it was once thought was an indication
of damp and unhealthy localities. Now, how*cr, just the oppo-
site theory prevails, and appears to be correct: that wherever
the Spanish moss thrives, all superfluous dampness is absorbed by
it; and it is now considered unwise to remove it. Being an air
plant, without roots, it lives wholly upon the air, and takes its
sustenance from the atmospheric moisture, drinking up and
exhausting the overplus. This moss does not love the swamp,
however. Observe the beautiful, thick and luxuriant specimens
-ten feet long--which you find along the high banks of the St.
John's, at Green Cove. Compare these with the thin and sickly
fragments hanging upon the trees in swampy regions (which seem
to be struggling for bare existence) and be convinced that this
moss, like mankind, thrives best in healthy places. It likes
neither the desert nor the swamp.
IS FLORIDA A SICKLY COUNTRY.
IS FLORIDA A SICKLY COUNTRY?
From tIe Flrida New Yorker.
"Very high authority, Surgeon General Lawson, of the regular
army, closes an official report with the remarkable sentence: 'In
short, it may be asserted, without feat of refutation, that Florida
possesses a much mote agreeable and salubrious climate than any
other State or Territory in the Union.' The statistics in his
bureau demonstrated that 'malarial diseases here are of a much
milder type than elsewhere.' The death rate he found among
the troops serving in the
Middle United States............ to 36 of Remittent Fever.
Northern do ............. ito 51 "
Southern do .......... ... to 54
Te As .......... ....... ......... to 78
Califocsia....... ...... ......... Ito "
Wew Mexico. ................... I o 14
Florfa................ ....... .... to 87 "
The average annual mortality of the whole Peninsula, Surgeon
General Lawson 'found to be 2.o6 against 3.05 in other por-
tions of the UnitedStates.'"
WHAT TO WEAR.
It is most difficult to get Northerners, who have never been
South to appreciate the fact that Northern Florida is not a tropi-
cal climate. (Indeed, the entire State is far north of the tropic of
Cancer, and it is the same distance from Green Cove Spring to the
Equator as it is to Greenland, or the extreme northern coast of
Labrador.) No matter what you tell people before they have
wintered in Florida, however, you still find them expressing sur-
prise that in December, January and February the weather is
frequently quite cool-so that a pine knot fire on the hearth is
comfortable. Roasting to death" is the impression which seems
to prevail in most Northern minds when speaking of the Florida
climate, whereas the testimony of New Yorkers who have lived
the year round in North Florida is, that it is not as hot there,
even in July and August as it is in the City of New York,
24- WHERE TO GO IN FLORIDA.
although the Summers are long. I have heard it repeatedly
stated that such a thing as a sun stroke was never known in the
State. In the afternoons the trade winds spring up, and the nights
are quite cool.
People going there should remember that, in.the Winter
months, warm clothes are needed. Even overcoats and shawls
are necessary for travellers, and for the invalid always requisite to
be carried along.
Perhaps, if the reader will take his map of North America and
glance at it a moment, this idea can be more strongly impressed
upon his mind. Look for parallel 20 of north latitude. It will
be seen that it passes through the lower end of Cuba. Then run
your eye up to parallel 30 of north latitude-you will see that it
passes through Florida, just where Green Cove Spring is located,
Then look further northward to parallel 4o, and you will observe
that it passes through the City of Philadelphia. If, therefore, the
weather in December is hot in Cuba and freezing in Philadel-
phia, you may reasonably expect it to be temperate at Green
Cove Spring, half way between Philadelphia and Cuba.
And it is this very thing which, to health and pleasure seekers,
is so delightful-a temperate climate, neither scorching hot nor
freezing cold. The birds ascertained this fact before men did,
and they wisely availed themselves of their instinct knowledge.
When it is considered that the tourist or the invalid can go from
the North to Green Cove in less than three days; that letters from
home pass in the same time; that a telegraph message can reach
him in a few moments, and that the climate is unexcelled, it
seems a wonder that so many persons should cross the seas to
distant and inaccessible places, in search of what is so near athand.
It needs no prophetic vision to see that the next two or three
decades of time will exhibit to the traveller of that day beautiful
Winter seats of Northern gentlemen dotted all along the ever
verdant shores of the St. John's River. Indeed, many are already
to be seen on either bank of the river as the steamer plies
Surely no Italian moonlight scene, or fabled night upon the
Mediterranean, can possibly excel the rising of the full moon on
the St. John's, as seen from the piazzas of the west bank of the
river in the month of January.
A WORD TO THE WISE.
A WORD TO THE WISE.
The winter home of Mr. Thaddeus Davids, of New York, at
the commencement of St. David's Path," overlooks a magnifi-
cent expanse of water. I doubt if there is a finer site on the St.
John's. The eye reaches twelve miles down the river, and even
further in the opposite direction. It is like a fine lake. The
grounds about the house contain large forest trees and picturesque
clumps of palmetto. The orange grove in therear has, I believe,
more than a thousand trees, some large and some small, many of
which were in bloom last spring. A profusion of vegetables,
fresh from Mr. Davids' gardens, are upon his table daily in the
Few there are of the wealthy men of the North Who have dis-
covered how best to enjoy the declining years of life. They
sacrifice too much time to. money-getting. They should take a
wEREM To GO IN FLORIDA.
trip to Green Cove Spring, a stroll through St. David's Path,"
a look at this model winter home, investigate out-of-door life in
Florida, and then decide whether or no, Mr. David's example
here is worth following.
When a man is far removed from the contentions of a busy
life, and his mind is leftropen to the healthful influences of na-
ture, he is apt to pause awhile, and to reflect upon this problem
of life. He sees-as in a vision-an array of human experiences
passing in his mind's eye. Here are some, with well-matured
plans, closing life in disappointed hopes. There are others suc-
cessful to the last, but dying too soon to enjoy. Here, again, are
others, who still go on heaping up more and more riches as they
near the end of life. As if they had not enough already.
He wonders that all mankind cannot learn the philosophy of
the "golden mean," and he concludes to take some rational en-
joyment himself, before it is too ate.
ADVICE TO INVALIDS.
1st. Find out the cause of your disease, and remove it at once
if you can.
zd. If the cause is found in the severity of Northern winters,
your remedy is to live there no longr, but move to Florida, and
make it your home. It is absurd to expect a disease of years
growth to be cured in a few months, and by returning soon to
the place where it was contracted.
3d. If you cannot leave the North altogether, do the next best
thing-leave it for the winter months. Go to Florida on Novem-
ber Ist, and stay until June z5th. Above all, do not return home
in April or May. They are the most treacherous months in the
4th. If your case is considered hopeless by your physician, it
seems foolish to go to Florida to die; therefore, do not wait and
put of going there year after year, until your case becomes hopeless.
Self-preservation is thefirst law. Other considerations are merely
5th. If your case is not hopeless, but is only very bad, my
advice is to go to Florida at once, buy a small plot of ground,
live there all the year round, plant orange trees and bananas, and
snuff up new life from the soil. One gentleman told me his case
was pronounced hopeless twenty-six years ago. He bought a
place, worked in the soil, never returned North, and is now alive
6th. When you arrive in Florida, do not fret yourself and
waste your remaining vitality by restlessly travelling from one
place to another. This is the worst thing you can do. Find a
comfortable spot, stay there until June I5th--es and territ.
Bask in the sunlight all day long. e carefulof yor wdit, and
act like a sane man. The most irrational people I have ever seen
are the invalids who visit Florida. When they arrive there they
feel so much better that they do everything they ought not, and
rarely a thing they ought to do. T7ey will a let nature Agt
7th. Take plenty of warm clothing .and underclothing, and
upon your first arrival there, do not begin at once to eat a dosen
oranges daily, simply because they taste good. So much of
S acidity taken into the system every day, and long continued, will
make a well man ill.
8th. The hardest thing for an invalid to bear is to be confined
month after month in a close room, breathing artificial air, and
eating and drinking the products of an apothecary's shop. In
Florida he may live in the sunlight, breathe pure air, and leave
most of his drugs behind him. Why not stop the use of drugs
entirely in Florida, that they may be more potent when requisite
to be used again at the North ?
And this our life, exempt from public haunt, finds tongues in trees,
Books in the running brooks, sermons in stones, and good in everything."
-As YVe Lihe It.
No lover of nature should ever go away from Green Cove
Spring, without taking a row on "Governor's Creek." It is a
good plan to hire a row-boat directly after dinner, instruct the
boy to row it to the mouth of the creek, and await you there.
Then you can stroll through "St. David's Path," meeting the
boat just at the junction .of Governor's Creek and the St. John's
river. Thus you can have a lovely walk through the woods--
shady all the way-besides the row upon the creek.
WHERE TO GO IN FLORIDA.
At first you glide 'under
the old draw bridge, then
past and through an immense
field of huge lily-pads, where
S I the pathway in the water is.
S about wide enough for the
boat to pass--then out again
into the broad creek. It is
most important to select a day when the wind is not blowing hard.
as you will soon perceive, for the refections in the uater are the
chief attraction, and the surface should be wholly unrippled.
Now, as the boat glides along towards the old'mill, you begi
to see the reflections. The water is like a French-plate mirror
and the smallest leaf upon a lofty branch, or the tiny twig at the
top of the highest trees perfectly mirrored in the stream beneath.
All the colors of the sky and the passing clouds, all the neu-
Stral tints upon the trunks of trees, the fungus, lichen, and mosses
of the forest, the over-hanging branches and flowering shrubs, the
clustering vines along the shore, every bird that sings upon the
outspread branch, all the lily-pads, every visible thing upon and
above the water, is daguerreotyped in perfection. No picture
could be more minute, moreexquisite.
When you come to those parts of the forest where the trees
have been cut away, and the view opens back into the country, a
marvelous effect is produced; the land seems to be reflected in
the water for half a mile back from the shore. Trees and objects
standing far away from the creek are most plainly refleted--the
same as if at the water's edge. The effect is phenomenal. for you
seem to be looking und~ the land, as into the fabled grottoes of
the Naiads, or the embosoined homes of the Water Nymphs. If
, there be any poetry in the soul of man this lovely semi-tropical
scene is sure to arouse.it.
As your boat glides along the creek, past the old mill, and far
up into the narrow stream, where the branches are within reach
of your hand, you instinctively pause-rest upon your oars-sit
still and hold your breath in the midst of profound silence.
SWild and undressed nature is about you on every side. The
primeval forest is there-the same as it has stood and perpetuated
itself for untold ages. Above you is the blue sky, Nothing hu-
man is near save the occupants of your own boat. Imagination
pictures a thousand strange fancies then. You listen for the song
of the tropical bird, for the howl of some wild beast in the tangled
forest, or perhaps for the war-whoop of an Indian brave, which,
but a few years ago, blanched the skin of the pale-face upon this
very spot. Your fancy pictures over yonder, a bark canoe glid-
ing noislessly out from that leaf-covered nook, and rounding the
curves of the stream until it passes out of sight. And as the day
wanes you linger there, loth to turn back hiBeward, until the
loud bark of a huge bull-frog awakens you to thk fact that even-
ing is at hand, warning you to go.
Be sure to pause on the way at the red clay bank, on the left,
going up; it gives you one of the most beautiful reflections upon
WHERE TO GO IN FLORIDA.
the creek. And you will find as you are rowing along back tow-
ards the St. John's river again, that the effects of the declining
sun produce most gorgeous picturesin the water on all sides and
at every turn. A frieifd from the North exclaimed while reluct-
antly leaving Governor's Creek one day, "this is, indeed, worth
coming all the way to Florida to see."
WINTER SEATS, ETC.
Among the winter seats at Green Cove may be named the
MR. THADDEUS DAVIDS, of New York, has extensive grounds,
with young orange grove and gardens, and has erected a beauti-
ful residence on the banks of the river.
DR. CARY A. TRIMBLE, of Columbus, Ohio, has a very pretty
cottage, a thriving orange grove and ornamental grounds.
MR. JNO. S. HARRIS, of Ravenswood, L. I., and DR. J. W.
APPLEGATE, of Indiana, (owners and proprietors of the Claren-
don") have, for a number of years, made Green Cove their winter
COL. HOUSTON CLINCH, of Savannah, is just starting an ex-
tensive orange grove.
DR. ROGERS, of Pomfret, Conn., has lately built a very unique
cottage at the Magnolia end of St. David's Path, and is now resi-
dent physician at Green Cove.
GENERAL S. F. BARSTOW, U. S. Army, has lately purchased a
corner lot opposite the Spring, and proposes to build this year.
MR. EDGERTON, of Long Island, has a snug cottage and exten-
sive grounds on Magnolia St.
MRS. DUNCAN, of Philadelphia, has a cottage on Main St.,
and some very fine orange trees.
MR. G. R. KELSEY, of West Haven, Conn., has a cottage and
pretty grounds on Front Street, with an outlook on the river, and
MR. SMITH, of the same place, has a cottage and small orange
wnIrl SEATS, ETC.
Mas. RuFus C. REED, of New York, has a cozy little house on
the Cove, with some fine orange trees on her grounds.
MR. LUCAS MIUHOBERAZ, late proprietor of Hotel San Carlos,
at Havana, is now erecting a cottage. upon.a lot opposite die
MR. PAGE, of Ohio, has some fine lots on Palmer and Mag-
nolia Streets, and will build the coming year.
MR. DANIEL F. TYLER, of New York, has a cottage fronting
on the St. John's, (adjoining Riverside,") lately purchased by
him of Judge Bullock, of Bristol, R. I.
A little back from the town, MR. C. C. BEMIs has a farm and
orange grove; and MESSRs. GOULD BUTLER, of New York, and
JOHN ARDEN, of Providence, and Rzv. MR. ELLIS, of Illinois,
have bought places and started orange groves. Ma. LucAS, also,
has a market garden there. Out on this fine ridge of ground a
large settlement is fast growing up.
CAPT. HENRY HENDERSON, one of the Florida pioneers, for
, many years a resident of Green Cove, is, I believe, from Northern
New York. He has resided in Florida for more than half a cen-
tury. Being now past fourscore years of age, and a hale and
hearty old gentleman, he is a fine specimen of what Florida clim-
ate does for longevity.
CAPT. PORTER, from Oneida County, N. Y,, is another old
resident having been in Florida more than thirty-five years.
IS FLORIDA OVER HUMID ?
Last winter I was told by a young chemist from Philadelphia,
who had been testing the humidity of the atmosphere at Green
Cove, that he was astonished to find his instruments recording a
less humid air than that of admitted dry places in higher latitudes,
I regret that I have not his figures for publication here.
But the very first winter I passed in Florida, my mind was
operated upon chiefly by my own sensations, and practical obser-
vations there. To me it seemed very dry indeed.
In wandering in the woods at Green Cove I had observed that
the lichen, commonly called tree moss," and the fungus upon
old logs in the woods, appeared drier than I had seen it in other
WHERE TO GO IN FLORIDA.
places. Also that the roofs of old houses and sheds there, did
not seem to collect green-mould and thick mossy deposits, as in
localities that were called "dry" elsewhere. Those simple evi-
dences, to me, were better arguments than idle talk and mere
But, to cover the ground more fully, I give the reader the
benefit of the following extract from an article published over the
initials of C. J. K." in the Jacksonville Sun and Press.
"Mentone, on the Mediterranean, is a celebrated climatic re-
sort, and is recommended because it possesses a comparatively
"dry atmosphere." It is admitted by all that Minnesota pos-
sesses a dry climate. Hence we shall judge Florida by these
MEAN RELATIVE HUMIDITY.
pr c pr c pr c pr c pr c pr c
875. ........................ 75.7 7.2 69.o 70.3 76.071.5
1876. ... ........... 67.7 68.2 69.1 67.2 73.976.1
1877. .................. .......... 72 2 7.967.6 69.370.5 74.1
1878 ........ ................... 76.2 .5 67.7 68.772.474.5
1879.... .. .... ..... ..... 74.1 72.865.3 69.7 72.374.2
Mean for 5 years ................. 73.2 67.7 69.0173. 74.2
Mean for 5 years for States.... ... 70.4 72.1
From the above data it will be found that the atmosphere of
peninsular Florida, which Dr. Jones of Minnesota says is "load-
ed with moisture," contains but I A per cent. of moisture in ex-
cess of that of Minnesota for the entire year.
But it is the five cold months which interest invalids, and during
this period peninsular Florida offers a drier climate than Mentone
ktLLATIV knAN HtriMDt 13
RELATIVE MEAN HUMIDITY.
_______ 0 a. X a
pr c pr c pr pr pr cpr c pr c
Mentone.............. 3 71.8 74.2 72. 70.773.372.4
Augusta, Ga .... ..... 71.872.673.0 64,7 62.868.9
Breckenridge Minn..... 5 76.983.276.881.879.51796
Duluth, Mjnn.......... 5 74.072.x 72.773.371 .o72.6 74.3
St. Paul, Minn ........ 5 70.373.575.270.767.171.3
Jacksonville, Fla....... 5 71.969.370.268.563.968.8
KeyWest, Fla..........5 77.178.7 78.977.272.276.8 72.7
Punta Rassa........... 5 72.773.2 74.2 73.7 69 972.7
From the above reliable data, it will be seen that the mean
relative humidity of Mentone exceeds that of Jacksonville by
nearly four per cent. Three stations in Minnesota have a mean
of 74.3, and three stations in peninsular Florida a mean of 72.7,
showing a percentage of x.6 in favor of Florida, and 5.5 per cent.
in favor of Jacksonville over Minnesota, and 2.5 per cent. in favor
of Jacksonville over St. Paul."
There appears to be in some quarters, an effort to misrepresent
Florida, but It will not avail. Florida can take care of itself,
never fear, with the aid of the able men now there, and who are
going there yar after year. True merit (for selfish purposes) is
often decried -misrepresented, scandalized. But it is patient
withal. It waits for the truth to enlighten the public. This
comes at last. And then merit rests upon an enduring founda-
tion. The real cause of wonder should be, not that Florida lacks
dry su--with its sandy soil, its warm sun and its miles upon miles
of piny-woods-but that it is not as dry as the Desert of Sahara,
in the same latitude. Florida needs all the moisture it has, and
more too. It seems about as absurd to charge Florida.with over-
humidity, as it would be to complain of a lack of ice in Green.
WHERE TO GO IN FLORIDA.
ST. MARY'S EPISCOPAL CHURCH, GREEN
COVE SPRING, FLORIDA.
The need of an'Episcopal Church at Green Cove Spring having
long been felt, a few church people .
determined, in 1878, to make an
effort to supply this want. After
obtaining the sanction and effec-
tive co-operation of the Bish-
op of the Diocese, sub-
scriptions and dona-
tions were solicited
and obtained. The
work on the Church
was commenced in
the year 1878; and, -
ST. MARY'S EPISCOPAL CHURCH, GREEN COVE SPRING, FLA.
EPISCOPAL CHURCH. GREEN COVE SPRING.
now, through the liberality of friends, Green Cove possesses
one of the prettiest church buildings in the diocese. It stands
upon the river bank, on land given by Mr. Thaddeus Davids, and
is within easy walking distance of all parts df the town. The
plan of the church was furnished by the Bishop, and is by Mr.
Haight, of New York. Though not imposing externally, it is
beautiful inside. A triple chancel window and two lancet win-
dows opposite, all of stained glass, are the work of Mr. Colgate,
of New York, and were given (as were the other windows)by Mrs.
John Dore, of New York, in memory of her husband, who had
much enjoyed the winters passed at Green Cove.
Many handsome special gifts have been made to the church,
among which are two beautiful embroidered Altar Cloths, a Silver
Communion Service, a Bible, and Prayer-books for altar service,
an Illuminated Diptych, a handsome Cross and Lecturn for the
altar, a Bishop's Chair, a Cross for the Church Spire, a Chancel-
rail, etc., etc., etc.
Mr. Davids has built a substantial dock for the benefit of the
guests at Magnolia.
The seats in the church are comfortable and are free to all. It
is expected that service will always be held there during the sea-
son of visitors. The music is particularly good. Mrs. Clinton
Davids, a resident of Green Cove, who is a thorough musician,
kindly takes charge of it, and always manages to have an efficient
Though not yet quite finished, the church has no debt. The
first service in St. Mary's was held on Sunday, March 9th,
1879, when the Rev. Mr. Aspinwall, of Bay Ridge, L I. offi-
It is astonishing to witness the interest felt by nearly every-
one with whom you converse about Florida. People are at once
attentive to all that is said. Thousands of Northerners have never
been there, and they eagerly ask many questions about it, some
o.f which are not easy to answer. For instance:
1st. WHAT DOES AN ORANGE GROVE COST? A s eW: All sorts
of prices. A poor man may buy an acre of ground from $5 to
WHERE TO GO IN FLORIDA.
$Ioo, plant the trees, wait from six to ten years, raise vegetables
in the meantime, and thus have his own grove. But an old grove
with 500 full-bearing trees, is worth many thousands of dollars.
2d. WHAT DOES IT COST TO GO TO GREEN COVE? Answer:
From New York, by ocean steamer, about $26. By rail about
$33. From the Western States, from $45 to $70, I believe.
3d. CAN WHITE MEN WORK OUT IN THE HEAT OF THE DAY ALL
SUMMER ? Answer. Many say they never miss a day in the year,
even the first year they arrive there; but I think it best to be pru-
dent the first year or two.
4th. Is FLORIDA SICKLY IN SUMMER? Answer: No place on
earth is exempt. They sometimes have fevers, mainly contracted
by a wretched diet and careless living, but said to be compara-
tively light and easily cured. With proper living one can keep
perfectly well. So the veteran pioneer theFe (Capt. Henderson)
5th. CAN A POOR MAN MAKE A LIVING AT ONCE? AnswIer: If
a good workman, yes. I should think it easier to get a livelihood
there than anywhere else I know of. But lazy and shiftless per-
sons had better stay away. The community is too new to sup-
6th. WHAT IS THE PRICE OF LABOR THERE? Answer: I think
it is from half a dollar to one dollar per day, according to the
7th. WHAT DOES LUMBER COST? Answer: There is a saw-
mill at Green Cove, and lumber costs from $ro to $15 per thousand.
8th. WHAT IS THE PRICE OF FREIGHT? Answer: There are so
many lines to Florida that it is very cheap. I have sent an im-
mense packing case from New York to Green Cove for one dol-
lar, and a barrel of flour costs from 30 to 40 cents freight from
9th. IS THERE A POST OFFICE AND TELEGRAPHa STATION THERE?
Answer: Yes, both. Mr. Thos. Roberts is the postmaster,
loth. ARE TAXES Low? Answer: Yes; they are about one
per cent., I think, and the law permits the owner to fix the value.
It is said there are thirty States_in the Union where taxes are
iith. Is THERE A PHYSICIAN AT GREEN COVE? Answer: Yes,
Dr. Rogers is there during the winter months, and also Dr. W.
D. Colmar, who resides there permanently. and has a drug store
in connection with his practice.
xnth. Dogs AN ORANGE GROVE PAY? Ans r: Few things
pay better, as the. Florida orange is the highest priced in market.
You cannot send too many oranges north from Florida. Let us
have them cut up, like peaches, on our breakfast table. They
ought to be so plenty as to put them in the New York market at
2 cents, instead of 6 to 8 cents each. A great many oranges are
sold in market and called Florida Oranges." This is a great
fraud upon the public. In a few years I expect to see the Florida
orange rule all others out of market in price, as they now do,
and always will, in flavor.
13TH. Do YOU NEED TO BUY MUCH LAND? Asurwr:. No. The
idea is, many farmers, with a little land each. These are the men
who are welcomed-good workers, no matter how poor they are.
x4th. Do YOU HAVE FROST IN FLORIDA ? Answr:. Yes, not
infrequently in the months of December, January and February.
Young Orange trees, when unprotected, are sometimes injured
by it as far south as the Indian River region and beyond. Many
contradictory things are told us in Florida, and we know not at
first what to believe. This results from too great local enthu-
siasm and a laudable anxiety to attract desirable neighbors.
That the climate and soil of Green Cove is adapted to the orange
is shown by the thrifty condition of the young groves there.
Hundreds of wild orange trees, growing until recently on the
Bayard tract," prove also that this region is the natural habitat
of the orange. Nearly all of these wild trees, except those too
large to be easily handled, have been transplanted into groves
elsewhere to be budded on. The raising of wild orange trees In
large nurseries ought to become a lucrative business at Green
Cove. They are, even now, growing very scarce everywhere.
x5th.ARE THERE ANY STORES AT GREEN COVE ? Answer: Yes,
several. You can purchase about all you need there. And this
is a potent reason for settling there instead of at some point
away from all conveniences and from all society-a mistake that
many persons make in order to buy land a little cheaper. Is it
not a good idea to own less land at a better place ?
Green Cove is admirably located as an objective point for
tourists, there are so many pleasant jaunts to be enjoyed therefrom.
A TRIP TO ST. AUGUSTINE: Start off about zz o'clock A. M.;
arrive at St. Augustine in a few hours ; stay all night, and return
UPPER ST. JOHN'S TRIP: If desired, the steamer can be taken
at Green Cove, and the excursionist may go to Enterprise, on
Lake Monroe, and back again to Green Cove, remaining on the
steamer all the time. This trip takes about three days, and is
one of the most beautiful excursions in Florida.
OCLAWAHA RIVER TRIP: This celebrated excursion requires
three or four days. Oclawaha steamers start from Palatka.
Steamers from Green Cove to Palatka daily. Distance, about
TRIP TO MANDARIN : At Mandarin is the winter home of Mrs.
Harriet Beecher Stowe. It is distant from Green Cove about
twelve miles-a very pleasant trip.
TRIP UP BLACK CREEK: This excursion takes all day, and is
very picturesque. A little steamer is chartered by a pleasure-
party at Green Cove for about twelve dollars, and the party can
picnic in the woods at the old deserted village of Middleburgh.
The scenery along this creek is equal to that of the Oclawaha
River, and alligators which have been frightened from the St
John's, may here be seen.
TRIP TO FT. GEORGE ISLAND : This is a very pleasurable jaunt,
and takes all day. The Island lies at the mouth of the St. John's
River. Fishing there is very fine, and the drives on the Island
There are many other beautiful excursions near by for picnics,
fishing, sporting and alligator hunting, and I am told that the
drives and horse-back rides through the pine woods are very fine.
ADVICE TO NEWCOMERS.
BY J. S. PARKER.
ADOPTED BY THE FLORIDA FRUIT GROWERS ASSOCIATION.
Immigration to Florida, during any month of the year, is atten-
ded with as little risk as a residence in New York during the
To commence farming, every month in the year is a good time.
WHI E TO GO IN FLOkIDA.
JANUAXY.-Attend the Fruit Growers convention and Fair; set
out asparagus roots and sow seeds; dig stumps; make fences; paint
the house; make repairs and clean up generally; set out orange
trees and plant Irish potatoes; gather and market oranges, grape
fruit, limes, citrons and lemons; put out shade trees; make hot
beds for early spring vegetables; plant all hardy vegetables.
This is the best month to set out grape cuttings.
FEBRUARY.-Set out grape vines; plant Irish potatoes, corn,
cucumbers and squashes; make a hot-bed to propagate sweet
potatoes ; transplant shade trees ; finish breaking up the ground;
by the 15th plant sugar cane; hoe the garden; clean the grass
from the fences to prevent fire from reaching them : gather and
market oranges, lemons, citrons, lines and bananas.
MARcH.-Sow oat, peas and turnips ; plant corn ; pick black-
berries and strawberries; plant Irish potatoes; make trellises in
the vineyard; bythe r5th plant melons, cucumbers, squashes,
radishes, beans and pumpkins ; gather and market oranges,
limes, lemons, ciftons nd grape fruit.
APRIL.-Pick 'blackberries and strawberries; plant melons,
pumpkins, cucumbers,.kra, squashes, corn and lettuce; hoe the
grape-vines and-4 nse ; set out Guinea grass s sow cow-peas
and corn for fodder; gather oranges, etc.
MAY.-Hoeing; plant sweet potatoes.; dig Irish potatoes; sow
corn for fodder; gather and ship vegetables; pick strawberries,
blackberries, buckleberties and plums.
JUNE.-Dig Irish potatoes; gather the grapes, melons, toma-
toes and vegetables generally; sow cow-peas; plant sweet pota-
toes; gather plums, peaches and huckleberries.
JULY.-Market the grapes, melons, peaches and figs; set out
orange trees (except sour orange stumps); plant sweet potatoes.
AuGusT.-Transplavt and bud orange trees; sow cow-peas and
corn for fodder; make beds and sow seed for cabbage plants;
gather pomegranates, grapes, peaches, melons; stiRk slips for
SEPTrMB.-Hoe.out th nursery of orange trees; plow and
Shoe the vineyard; set out Guinea grass; sow corn for fodder; sow
cabbage, turnips, celery, radish and lettuce ; set ot strawberries;
commence the winter garden; gather and market corn.
OCTOBER.-We commence digging sweet potatoes; prepare
ADVICE TO NEW COMERS.
ground for cabbages, and set out plants; extend the winter gar-
den; harvest cow-peas; fill the barns with hay; brand the calves;
fill the woodshed and whitewash; set out strawberries; make
guava jelly; sow oats and rye. During the last of the month
begin to transplant orange trees.
NOVEMBER.-Finish making hay; dig potatoes ; cut the Guinea
grass; make sugar; work at the winter garden; continue planting
orange and other fruit trees; plant strawberries; begin marketing
oranges; prune grape vines immediately after first hard frost.
DECEMBER.-Make sugar; bank the seed cane or plant it; hoe
the garden; chop wood; grub and clear ground; pick and market
oranges, lemons, citrons and limes ; protect young nursery stock
and tender plants from frost; continue planting orange and other
fruit trees; plant grape vines, English peas and Irish potatoes.
HOW TO GO TO FLORIDA.
ROUTES TO FLORIDA OVERLAND.
Savannah, Florida and Western All-Rail Route."
N. Y. City, 315 Broadway.
Chicago, Office P. C. & St. L. R. R.
St. Louis, Office of 0. & Miss. R. R.
Detroit, Office ot L. S. & M. S. R. R.
(See Advertisement hereafter.)
Piedmont Air Line Rpilr'd, via Richmond, Charlotte and Atlanta.
New York, No. 9 Astor House and 944 Broadway.
Philadelphia, Cor. Broad and Chestnut Streets.
Boston, 228 Washington Street.
Magnolia Route, lia Augusta and Yemasee.
Office, 347 Broadway, New York City.
Kennesaw Route, via. Washington, Lynchburg, Knoxville, Dal-
ton, Atlanta, Macon and Jesup.
New York, No. x Astor House, and 303 and 944 Broadway.
Boston, 203 Wasington Street.
Philadelphia, 70a Chestnut Street.
Atlantic Coast Line Railway, via Richmond, Wilmington, Char-
leston and Savannah.
New York, No. I Astor House and 944 Broadway.
Philadelphia, 5ot or 838 Chestnut Street.
Boston, 205 of 3o6 Washington Street.
Cincinnati, X7, Wlnut Street.
Baltimore and Ohio Railroad.
New York, 261 and 3r5 Broadway.
Boston, 219 Washington Street.
Philadelphia, 7oo and 838 Chestnut Street. '
STEAMER ROUTES TO FLORIDA.-
Savannah S. S. Line, Wednesday and Saturday. New Pier 35,
- River, foot Spring Street. See Advertisement hereafter.
Office, Geo. Yonge, 409 Broadway, New York.
Charleston S. S. Line, Wednesday and Saturday. .Foot of Park
Place, Pier 27, North River.
New York, B. D. Hassell, 317 Broadway.
Boston, 54 Central Wharf.
SAILING VESSELS TO FLORIDA.
Mallory Line for Fernandina and Jacksonville, Fla.
Foot Burling Slip, East River, New York.
Old Dominion Line, 197 Greenwich Street, New York.
Chesapeake Bay Line Steamers.
New York, 229 Broadway.
Philadelphia, 828 Chestnut Street.
Boston, 306 Washington Street.
Baltimore, 157 West Baltimore Street.
Inland Steamer Route from Savannah Office.
Fernandina Line, Pier 3 North River, New York.
Philadelphia and Savannah Steamers. Pier 22, Philadelphia.
Office, 416 So. Delaware Avenue.
FROM NEW YORK TO JACKSONVILLE.
Warren Ray's Line, Pier 15, East River.
Slaght, Bailey & Co.'s Line, 78 South Street.
Despatch Line-G. H. Squire, 91 Front Street.
W. H. Van Brunt, i65 Maiden Lane.
James A. Van Brunt, 75 South Street.
FROM NEW YORK TO ST. AUGUSTINE.
Bentley, Gildersleeve & Co., x59 Maiden Lane.
FROM NEW YORK TO TAMPA, FLORIDA.
Benner & Pinkney, 19 Old Slip.
Overton & Hawkins, 163 Maiden Lane.
FROM NEW YORK TO FERNANDINA.
Abiel Abbot, 53 South Street.
J. A. Van Brunt, 75 South Street.
Overton & Hawkins, 163 Maiden Lane.
Warren Ray & Co., 62 South Street.
Slaght, Bailey. & Co., 78 South Street.
E. D. Hurlbut & Co., 85 South Street.
FROM NEW YORK TO PENSACOLA.
Benner & Pinkney, 19 Old Slip.
Slaght, Bailey & Co., 78 South Street.
Evans, Ball & Co., 36 South Street.
This house is well furnished and provided, and is located on
the St. John's, near the entrance to St. David's Path." It will
be open to accommodate those who desire to remain in Florida
late in the season, or all the year round. The facilities at Green
Cove Spring for bathing, boating and pleasure excursions ren-
der it a delightful resort during the summer months as well as
the Winter. Residents of Georgia, the Carolinas and elsewhere,
will find the cool summer breezes blowing over the St. John's
upon the piazzas, and into the open windows of this house,
most refreshing. The proprietor and his family make it their per-
manent residence, and will strive to have it seem "like home"
to their guests.
For rooms, &c., and for information, address as above.
C'1RENDON + JpI0rL,
G-REE'.T COVE S:PRING-,
OPEN FROM DECEMBER TO MAY.
ADDRESS BY MAIL OR TELEGRAPH,
HARRIS & APPLEGATE, Proprietors.
This Hotel is the largest on the St. John's, south of Jacksonville; is provi-
ded with Electric Bells; and its appointments are equal to any Hotel in Florida.
Billiard Saloon and Bowling-Alley attached. Two large Cottages, belonging
to the Hotel, and very near bye, furnish more private quarters to those whoso
ST. CLAIR HOTEL,
GREEN COVE SPRINGS,
A. L MELLEN, Proprietor.
Duris Summer at Grand Usion HBfd, Sarato, N. Y.,
Late of EMoat Hotel, Frrandina, Fla., Royal Victoria, Nasas, N. P., and
Hamilton Hotel, Bermuda.
I take easure n announcing to y former friend, patrons, and to all
visitors to Florida, that I have assumed the Propietorghp of the St. Clair
Hotl,located at one of Florida's most Delihtful Io, Gren Cove Springs,
fmo for its healthful and liferenewing Baths, and its delicious, even Cli-
mate. Its elevated position commands the Finest View of the beautiful St.
John's River, while the house is surrounded with Charming Grounds, filled
with Orane and other ropl tree a plant. Light and Comfortable
Rooms dar front Verada, Electric ellad other Conveniences,
together with a Culinary Department which cannot be excelled by any Hotel
in the South. The picturesque "St. David's Walk" to Mmiles
long, commences at the Lawn of this Hotel; Croquet, Billiard and Bowlng
Alley connected with the House. The opportunity for Boating, Fishing, Gun-
ning and.Driving i unsurpassed.
2 UMS : $3.00 and $4.00 per Day.
Special Rates by the Week or Month.
A. L. MELLEN, Proprietr.
Leve & Alden, Auts, Broadway, N. Y., State Street, Boston, Tol
South tbh St., Philadelphia. Aso at Savannah, acbonville and Fernandina.
LEAVE &ALDEN'STOURIST OFFICES,
NEW YORK: 207 BROADWAY
BOSTON, 5 State St. PHILADELPHIA, /01 South 5th St.
Montreal, Canda, 202 St. Jamhe Street,
SAVANNAH, Ga. Cor.Bull &ferariSt s JACKSONVILLE. FIk.,, St $ret,
FERNANOINA, Fla., Egmont H6br. .
SELL SINGLE AND EXCLUSION CKETS
At LOWEST RATES, over the
MOST POPULAR ROUTES
TO AND FROM
?ILL WI]VTR IE1
Bermuda, Nassau, N. P., Cuba, Mexico, St. Thomas,
Porto Rico, Antigua, Guadaloupe, .Marg
tinique, (arbadoes & Trinidad.
THu AMERICAN TOURIST GAZETTE, Published Monthly, contains Descrip-
tive and Illustrative articles in reference to all of the above-named Points. which
can be bd from any of their Agents. The GAZETTE also contains a List of
Strictly First-Class Hotels in Florida, Bermuda, Nassau, N. P., Cuba, Mexico
and West India Islands, accepting Leve's Hotel Coupons, which are sold at
$3.oo per Day Ticket. *
Messrs. LEVE & ALDEN are the General Agents of the Allen Line of Royal
Mail Steamers. Shortest Sea Route to and from Europe.
Every Tourist Invalid or Traveller will find it to their advantage by calling
for Tickets and Information at the above named Offices of i
LEV &d ALDEN.
207 BROADWAY, NEW YORK.
HE$ o A)r 0. I0 Ii0,.
THE POPULAR ROUTE BETWEEN
\NEW WYOR K N FILOID1,
CONSISTING OF THE NEW IRON STEAMSHIPS
"GATE CITY," "CITY OF SAVANNAH,"
Capt. DAGGETT. Capt. FLErETooD.
"CITY OF COLUMBUS,"
"CITY OF MACON," CITY OF AUGUSTA,"
Capt. KEMProN. Capt. NICKIRSON.
New York at Saannah, eery Wednesday ali Satriay,
NEW STEAMhBOAT "FLORIDA,"
Of the Inside Route, between SAVANNAH and PALATKA, making close
connections at the same wharf in Savannah. Steamers alo connect with the
SAVANNAH, FLORIDA & WESTERN RAILWAY,
Running between SAVANNAH and JACKSONVILL Each Steamship being pro-
vided with an Electric Light, there is no delay in Savannah River by Night.
All of the above vessels have been completed since 1877. They are of great
strength and speed, and the accommodations for passengers are unsurpassed.
RUBIING TIME tbtwiel NHe Yort ail Jacitaillle, EIGHTY HOUS.
For Circulars ad other information, apply to
H. Ernaet urphy, G. X. Sorrel, A., GO. Tong, Ag.,
Tki. Ag.,yaeeksrville, Fla. Savaemal, Ga. Nef Pir 35, N. R.,N.Y
----*- .A.Exijvv.AY' C. -----
The Only All Rail Route To and From loriia!
eOUJIRpN 7ND 9geW3pI-WEWEiTWH IgeRgIP7.
Entire Trains through Without Change between Savannah and Jacksonville
Pullman Palace Sleeping Car daily between Savannah and Jacksonville.
The Elegant Parlor and Sleeping Cars of the Eufaula Line Daily between
Montgomery, Alabama, and Jacksonville, Florida, via Savannah, Florida and
Sleeping Cars daily between Savannah and Albany.
Close connection at Jacksonville Daily (Sundays
Excepted) for Creen Cove Springs, St. Augus-
tine, Palatka, Enterprise, and all Land-
ings on St. John's River.
TSzz CrLD SzFALZSiB
Open for Travel All The Year Bound.
EXTENSIVE RENEWALS OP STEEL RAILS HAVE
BKEN MADE SINCE LAST REASON.
TRACK & EQUIPIMBNTS IN FIRST-CLASS CONDITION.
We take pleasure in announcing to our connecting lines and to the traveling
public generally, that the CUT-OFF," between WAYCROSS on the line of the
S. F. & W. and JACKSONVILLE, FLA., 76 miles long, is now in course of rapid
construction. The saving of distance by the "CuT-OFF" between Savannah
and Yacksonville will be nearly zoo miles, and the time between the two cities
shortened by eight hours. The run will be made in six hours.
SPECIAL ATTENTION GIVEN TO INVALIDS. .
T(rTIKETTi on Sale at all Railroad Offices, and by Steamship Lines
1 UJ from Boston, New York, Philadelphia and Baltimore.
PsiaSENGER TAZINS ALL A EQUIPPEDI WITH
Westinghouse Air Brakes and Miller Platforms.
Steel Raila I Safe Bridges I Bmooth Track r
C. D. OWENS, JAS. L. TAYLOR,
Gen. Agent, 3z5 Broadway, N. Y. Gen. Passenger Agent,
J. M. CLEMENT, Savannah, Ga,
Agent, 424 South Delaware Ave., J. E. DRAYTON, Agent,
Philadelphia. Jacksonville, Fla
J. B. Andrews, Agent, J. H. GRIFFIN,
43 German Street, Baltimore. Passenger Agent.