Introduction .................................................................................................. 5-7
Courts ............................................. ..... ........................ ........................... 7
Bonds ........................................---------------------- ---------- -------------------- 8
Pardon Board ............................................................................................... 8
Criminal Procedure .............................. ............................................ 9
Criminal Procedure -.-.------.----------- -------.------.. 9
Police Department ..................... ................................................10-24
Policemen ....................................................................................................... 10
Policewomen ........................................ ........... ................. ... 16
Jail for Juvenile Delinquents.......................................................... ... 20
Venereal Clinic ........................................................................................ .. 21
Mental Cases ..................................................-------....---------- ..... 21
Crime Prevention Bureau ................................................................. .....4-27
Neighborhood Study of Adult and Juvenile Delinquency..................27-85
Boy Service Councils ............................................................................ .. 8
Commercialized Gambling .................................... .......................... ...... 85
Drinking .................................................................................................. 37
Motion Picture ............................................................... ....................... 9
R adio ........................................ .................................................................. 42
Press ................................... ...... .......................................... 42
Obscene Literature .......................................................... ...................... 44
Voting Machines .. .......................................................................... ... 45
Homes ......................... ....... ....... ...................................... 46
Schools ..............................................---------------- 46
Churches .................................... ....................... ............. 49
Conclusion ................................ ................................... ..................... 50
(RECOMMENDATIONS FOLLOW SUBJECTS)
THE REPORT of the Jacksonville Crime
Justice Commissio was presented to
the Jacksonville City Cox mission September
4, 1936.: 'The Jacksonville Crime -Justice
Commission was appointed by the Jackson-
ville City Commission, a out two years prior
to the above date, at the suggestion of
Honorable Scott M. Lofti then president of
the American Bar Ass nation, to make an
investigation of crime co editions in Jackson-
ville and report back to the City Commission
with its recommendation for improvement.
Originally, the Crime stice Commission
consisted of eleven members. Later, the
personnel was increased to fifty-five mem-
bers, including judges, lawyers, ministers,
business and professional men and women,
and its work was done by en sub-committees.
REPORT OF CRIME JUSTICE COMMISSION
To: Jacksonville City Commission,
Pursuant to your request and vth such facilities as have
been available to us we have mad an investigation of crime
conditions in Jacksonville with a iew to making such sug-
gestions as may seem to us to be practical in lessening
At first we were inclined to ke a hurried investigation,
dealing largely with law enforcement agencies. However,
we soon learned that if our labors were to be more fully
effective we would be compelled delve more deeply into
To crime in its many aspects there is no single cause and
within the scope of human endeavor there is no single remedy.
If it ever existed, that day has passed when the repression
of crime may be left entirely to the court, the judge, the
jailer, the policeman and the social worker. When society
and its constituent parts take ai honest and determined
stand behind the agencies mentijed, then we may find
something akin to an exception to the rule stated.
Crime may be greatly lessened and ultimately destroyed
by digging it up by its roots. This is to be done by pre-
ventive measures. We believe, the before, that anyone willing
to make a fair analysis of the problem, with all of its social
and economic angles, will admit tht the committee did not
go far afield when it divided its woek for consideration under
the following classifications, with which we shall deal specifi-
cally later in this report:
Courts Slum Clearance
Pardon Board Drinking
Criminal Procedure Moving Picture
Aid for Prosecutors Press
Police Department Obscene Literature
Crime Prevention Bureau Organized Rackets
Neighborhood Study of Homes
Adult and Juvenile Churches
While we are for the moment primarily interested in
crime and its suppression in Jacksonville, we cannot fail to
take notice of crime conditions throw ghout the United States,
of which after all, we are a political unit. In doing so we
can as a political unit, as well as ind viduals grasp more fully
and quickly the duty we owe to our city and our nation, or
rather to those individuals upon whose shoulders we have
unfairly placed the sole responsibility of extermination.
Some of the more interesting authenticated figures show
that in the United States twelve thousand persons are annu-
ally murdered; that one citizen in each eighty-four is as-
sailed by a criminal each year; that fifty thousand persons
are robbed; that forty thousand homes iare burglarized; that
five thousand homes and places of business are burned, de-
stroying property running into many millions of dollars; that
one hundred and twenty thousand assassins and murderers
roam at large; that there are more than four hundred thou-
sand men and women in the organized criminal underworld,
thus comprising what has been aptly referred to as a scarlet
army nearly four times the size of our regular standing army
Even though we should be completely oblivious to the
economic side of this condition, it takes little reflection to see
that this disease is slowly but surely eating its way into the
heart of our entire social structure. If left to run its course
it will know no limit and in its consuming path will fall what
we have been pleased to call our American ideal.
Annual Cost to Jacksonville $18,000,000
If we were to close our eyes to the social problem and the
human misery resulting therefrom and leave our interest to
be challenged only on a dollar or economic basis, does the
cost of crime justify an awakened public consciousness? Let
us see. To chase, capture, prosecute and house criminals the
cost is about $4,000,000,000 annually. To this in acts of
fraud, robbery, burglary, murder, arson, kidnapping, vice,
organized racketeering, embezzlement and the economic value
of the victim, is to be added $11,000,000,000, making a total
of $15,000,000,000 annually, or about one-half of our national
debt. On a basis of population, according to these figures,
the annual cost to Jacksonville is over $18,000,000. How long
is Mr. Average Citizen willing to take an inactive part and
indulge this annual cost? No person can escape paying,
whether by assessment or sacrifice, his portion. On the other
hand how long is Mr. Average Citizen willing to tolerate this
widening social scourge, taking its further burdensome toll
in untold suffering and by debasing American aims and ideals ?
Jacksonville is a fair average city. What applies to the
nation as a whole applies generally to us as shown by the
uniform crime report for the United States and possessions,
issued by the Federal Bureau of Investigation, being offenses
known to the police for the first quarter of 1936 and reading
Mam- Indian- Wima'cs
Jax Miami Tampa phis apell Delaw -
Murder .............. 9 11 6 20 10 2
Robbery .............. 44 70 8 150 109 8
Assault ........... 26 148 11 17 58 12
Burglary ....... 280 452 102 485 601 66
Larceny ................ 859 402 216 286 1180 148
Auto theft ............ 85 214 21 125 318 62
Therefore we feel that your body and other regularly con-
stituted authority may boldly ask every Jacksonville law-
abiding citizen the question: What are you going to do about
it? Again these same citizens may ask constituted authority
the same question. As we shall now attempt to point out
there are many ways in which this mutual responsibility may
COURTS, BOND AND PARDON BOARD
In our investigation dealing with the question of courts
we gathered first what we considered important statistical
information from the records of our own municipal court.
The period covered was for the months of January and
February, 1986. In addition our investigator, as a spectator,
attended the court sessions at intervals over a period of three
months. The sessions were presided over at different times
by Judges Anderson, lis and Copeland. Judge Anderson
was absent on account of having to be active in his cam-
paign seeking election to a State office. During the two
months mentioned 2,448 cases were handled and disposed of in
the following manner:
To U. 8. Authorities....... ............................. 41
To probation officer ..... .............. ............ 124
To county authorities --------------------------- 248
To shpe -............... ........- .........--- ...---.. 8
E aeapet ............... ................ ............................... 2
Dischra ed by court........................................... ... 419
Dischalged by police............... ........................ 42
Sent to prison farm.............................. 80
Senten suspended .................................. ..... .. 101
Fined ......-...........----......------------ -- 896
Fines suspended .. -------..................-...........--- ....- 92
Fines forfeited -.........-. ... ... .... .. 105
Cases continued ....... ........ ..... ........... .....- 88
Paroldd to parents........... ........ ............... 3
TotaL-.....-.. .....-.............. ---..2. .3
During the same period the bond record for the four classifi-
cations is as follows:
Cash .......................................................... ............... 128
Approved .......................... ..... ..... ........... 100
Security ............................................. ......................... 115
Face .......... .................................................... .. 97
After the transfer of 421 cases to other authorities there
were left a net of 2,022 cases for disposition in the Municipal
Court. Of this number 461 were discharged. In other words
one out of every five persons brought before the Court is
discharged. This is accounted for in large measure by
persons who do not appear as witnesses or to prosecute, and
by lack of sufficient evidence.
Since the appointment of this commission an ordinance
has been adopted prohibiting lawyers from signing bonds as
sureties. Of this we heartily approve. However, we are
informed that persons who are a part of the city government
are called upon to sign bonds and that in January and Feb-
ruary of the present year one such person signed twelve or
more. This appears to be an unfortunate and unfair annoy-
ance to holders of public office. The four classes of bonds
mentioned are defined as follows: Face bond is used in cases
where the police officer knows the offender. Appearance and
security bonds are signed by anyone known and approved
by the police department, or signed by a licensed bonding
company. The cash bond requires a deposit of cash.
The Pardon Board, as you know is compose of the
Municipal Judge, Mayor and President of the City Council.
The Board has a secretary. The records show that for the
first five months of 1936 a total of 846 petitions were pre-
sented and handled as follows:
No. Petitions Pardons Pardons
Presented Granted Denied Pending
January ........................ 157 104 31 22
February ........................ 136 94 24 18
March .......................... 163 102 28 38
April --.........---..-............. 154 94 32 28
May .............................. 236 183 37 16
846 577 147 122
It appears that 43 sessions were held during the period men-
tioned. The Mayor, possibly by reason of the press of official
business, attended relatively few of the sessions. The average
number of petitions considered at a session is 19 and pardons
were granted to over two-thirds of the petitioners. Aside
from having a representative attend a number of the sessions
we have made no attempt to analyse the merits of the 846
Based upon our investigation we recommend:
1. That the office of municipal judge be appointive in-
stead of elective; that his term of office be as long as he
faithfully performs his duties; that he be appointed by the
city commission or mayor subject to a two-thirds approval
by the city council; that the latter body retain the right of
removal or impeachment. We have no criticism to offer of
the manner in which the judges named have discharged their
duties. However, as long as the office remains elective we
believe there will be an attempt to subject it to an influence
from which it should be entirely free. The municipal judge
is often the first judge faced by many who fall into the abyss
of crime. The numbers, in fact, are large. It is at this
cross-road in the life of the first offender where the utmost
wisdom should be exercised free from all influences, friendly
or otherwise, if there is to be a lessening of crime. At times
leniency in this court may be as inadvisable as a too great
severity. Certainly experience over cumulating years is de-
sirable if the incumbent of the office is entirely free to scien-
tifically study and deal, compassionately or firmly, with the
problems coming before him. If Jacksonville wants to re-
duce crime we know of n better place to make a start.
2. That a city ordinance be adopted fixing a penalty upon
those swearing out warrantsin the recorder's office and then
failing to appear to prosecute.
3. That a city ordinance be adopted prohibiting any
one connected with the city government from signing bonds
4. That the City Pardoning Board personnel be changed
so that it will consist of the president of the city council,
the mayor and the chairman of the city commission and that
the Board act only when all members are present. The muni-
cipal judge by virtue of his office has the right to extend
clemency at the time of trial. He should not l#ave that right
a second time.
5. That the foregoing suggestions be referred to the
proper authority for further consideration.
Under the subject of Courts as suggested we have been
constrained to confine our efforts to our own municipality.
However, we believe your purpose is broad enough to enable
you to feel free to pass on to our Duval County State Senator
and Representatives the following legislative recommenda-
tions with reference to criminal procedure in our courts:
(a) To give State attorneys and county solicitors the
right to demand particulars of an alibi defense. In other
words to require advance notice when a defendant will use
an alibi or insanity for a defense.
(b) To permit judges to comment upon evidence, tes-
timony and credibility of witnesses.
(c) To make bail-jumping a misdemeanor in misdemean-
or cases or other offenses less than a felony.
(d) To permit State attorneys and county solicitors to
impeach their own witnesses, to comment on failure of de-
fendant to testify and to have closing argument.
The legislature could also enact legislation:
(e) To provide for compensation for expert witnesses.
(f) To provide, when necessary, for a sufficient number
of assistants to enable State attorneys and county solicitors
to make proper investigation and to fully present the State's
(g) To enable a State attorney to summon a witness
from another county to appear before him.
There can be no denial of the fact that the great number
of criminals who escape punishment show that some refor-
mation must take place in the prosecution of criminals.
As shown by the following figures the number and dis-
position of major offenses in Jacksonville decreased for the
first half of the year 1936 over the same period for 1935:
January 1st to June 30, 1935
Uniform Classifcation of
or known Un-
1. Felonious Homicides: to Polie
a. Murder and non-negligent
Manslaughter ...................... 32
b. Manslaughter by negligence 11
2. Rape ... ..... ........ ...... ....... ....
3. Robbery .................................... 145
4. Assault to Murder...................... 104
5. Burglary-Breaking and Entering
a. Dwellings ............................. 216
b. Non-resident places ............ 279
6. Larceny-Theft, except auto:
a. $50.00 and over in value....... 286
b. Under $50.00 in value...........1458
7. Auto Theft ............................... 266
January 1st to June 30, 1936
Uniform Classification of Reporte
Offenses or know
1. Felonious Homicides:
a. Murder and non-negligent
Manslaughter ...---.........-........ 25
b. Manslaughter by negligence 9
2. Rape .................------....... 4
3. Robbery .............-....................... 79
4. Assault to Murder ..................... 83
5. Burglary-Breaking and Entering
a. Dwellings .......................... 310
b. Non-resident places ...-......--. 324
6. Larceny-Theft, except auto:
a. $50.00 and over in value....... 289
b. Under $50.00 in value-..........1312
7. Auto Theft .-.........-.................. 189
rFnJ'a I ;9A
Following is a tabulation showing officers
at both the Central and Riverside stations:
Chief of Police................................................ 1
Captains f- 2------------------------ --------- 1
Captains .......................................................... 2
Lieutenant ..--..............................................---------..........-- 3
Sergeants ......................................................... 3
Special Duty Patrolmen..................................... 5
Policewomen -....................---- ..........---..-- ............ 4
Docket Clerks ...................................................... 3
Wagon Guards ......... ----------...................... 3
Property Clerk ........................................- -......... 1
Jailor -.......-..-.......-........-------................... ..... 1
Matrons ............... ................-............-.............. 2
M mechanics -..-..............-....................................... 2
Sergeant in Charge---........................................ I
Sergeant (Special Duty Schools) ....-------............... 1
Patrolmen ............ -------................--......---.. 16
Patrolmen Motorcycle...---.............-----....... 8
Patrolmen Special Duty........................-....... 4
Clerk ....................... ...-------................-- 1
Painter ...........................................-------- 1
Sub-Total....................... .. ....-.....-..
Inspector ..-........- .......---.... ........................ .. 1
Captain ............. ..................... ... .........
Sergeant ....................... ............................ 1
Detectives (Cruising) .....................................16
Detective (Office Detail) ................................... 1
Detective (Wholesale Houses) ....-................... 1
Detective (Stolen Bicycles)............................ 1
Detective (Narcotics) ....................................... 1
Detectives (Homicides) .................................. 2
Detectives (Auto Thefts) ........................... 2
Detective Executive Clerk .......................... 1
Detective Clerk ...................... ......-.--- ......... 1
Detective Stenographer .................................. 1
Supt. Bureau of Identification......................... 1
Clerk Bureau of Identification...... ..... 1
Sub-Total..................... ..... 32
Grand Total ...................................... 151
Sergeant in Charge ................................... 1
Acting Sergeant ........................................ 1
Patrolmen ....... .......................- ................... 18
Patrolmen (Special Duty Schools)................ 4
Guards (Wagon) ............................... ........ 3
Sub-Total.... ................................. 27
Lieutenant ............... ................................... 1
Sergeants ......................... ....... 2
Detectives ............................................ ... 6
Sub-Total....................... ................... 9
Grand Total........................... ............
Cars and Motorcycles at Both Stations
Patrol Cars ............... .....--.. ....................31
Ambulance ................................ .... 1
Wrecker ........ .................................... 1
Paint Truck ............................... 1
Broadcasting and Receiving....................... 1
Patrol Wagon ..... .... -.......-- 1
Motorcycles ...............-- .....----- .......................10
Total cars and motorcycles-................... 46
Thus it will be seen that there are 190 officers, men and
women, in the police department. There are 57 patrolmen
working out of Central Station for two-thirds of the city's
population and eighteen working out of Riverside sub-station
for the other third. These patrolmen work on eight hour
shifts; so that from Central Station the number of men on
each shift is nineteen and from Riverside Sub-station, six.
So great has become the duties of the Traffic Officers,
who work out of Central Station, that a greater number of
men have had to be added to this department.
Thirty-two detectives work out of Central Station and
nine out of Riverside Sub-station.
The number of policemen in Jacksonville is slightly less
than 1.3 to every 1,000 persons, basing this city's population
at 146,259 according to the 1935 Florida State census. The
average city employs about one and one-half policemen for
every 1,000 inhabitants. For 57 cities between 100,000 and
250,000 population the average is 1.4 police per thousand
although Hartford and New Haven, Conn. has 2.5. New
York's average is said to be about 3. Miami Beach 6. Many
cities range from 5 to 8 depending upon necessity. For the
reasons hereinafter stated a necessity -exists here which
should take us slightly above the average instead of below it.
The following Associated Press article appeared in Times-
Union August 25, 1936:
WASHINGTON, Aug. 24, (AP)--Noting that cities
with a large number of policemen in proportion to their
population generally have less crime, the Federal Bureau
of Investigation. announced today a survey of forces
maintained in 1950 American communities.
The bureau, directed by J. Edgar Hoover, checked
up on the number of police employed in cities of more
than 250 population.
It said it found the average city employs about one
and one-half policeman for every 1000 inhabitants.
With 8.9 police per 1090 residents, Lawrence, N. Y,
was the best policed (nuferically) of all communities
Long Beach, N. Y., with 8.6 policemen for each
thousand inhabitants, was a close second.
Other cities which ranked considerably above aver-
age were Ocean City, N. J., (5.2 police per thousand);
Miami Beach, Fla. (6); Edgewater, N. J., (5.9); and
Margate City, N. J., (5.1).
At the other end of the list were State College,
Tamaqua Borough, and Leechburg, Pa., and Belding,
Mich, each with two tenths of ohe policeman for every
Among 37 cities of over 250,000 population, the
average was 2.1 police per 1000 inhabitants. Jersey City,
N. J., with 3.2, and Boston, with 3, led this group.
The 57 cities between 100,000 and 250,000 popula-
tion had an average of 1.4 police per thousand residents,
although Hartford, and New Haven, Conn., had 2.5.
The average for 103 cities between 50,000 and 100,000
population was 1.3 police per 1000 inhabitants. This
group was headed by Atlantic City, N. J., with 3.3 per
The average for 186 cities between 25,000 and 50,000
population was 1.2 police per thousand residents.
By reason of the fact that Florida attracts a floating
population of undesirables, especially during the winter
months, Jacksonville has strong reason to make her ratio
highh and the personnel of the police department of the highest
possible rank in moral fibre, training and equipment. The
type of men now in the department, as a whole, appear to be
of the type desired, and especially does this seem to be true
of recent additions, mostly a fine type of robust young men,
qualified mentally as well as physically.
There are of course a number of agencies, State, Federal,
county and city, charged with the apprehension of criminals,
but unfortunately there appears to be much duplication of
effort and insufficient cooperation and coordination.
The Federal Bureau of Investigation and other Federal
agencies have jurisdiction only of offenses within the Federal
laws, though, through their Laboratory and experts in Wash-
ington, they have recently been of considerable aid to the
State authorities in the examination of evidentiary objects,
and their relation to the crime for which the defendant was
being tried. They appear to be willing and do cooperate with
State and City agencies as far as it is possible for them to
In this City we have the Sheriff with a number of
deputies whose jurisdiction is throughout the County and the
County Detective. We have constables in each justice of the
peace district, and we have a force of policemen and police-
All State, County and City agencies, when a serious felony
has been committed, should be coordinated, if murder or rape,
under the State Attorney, if less than these capital offenses,
the County Solicitor. These officers respectively should con-
trol and direct the investigation as they will have to, later,
the prosecution. There have been many miscarriages of
justice because of poor and inadequate training in the obser-
vation of, gathering and preserving evidence.
There should be both in the Sheriff's office and in the
Police Department a small body of trained investigators, who
would be held responsible for the careful investigation of
every serious crime.
These men obtaining their training in a police school
similar to those in the great metropolitan centers or that
of the Bureau of Investigation in Washington. Later these
men could so teach the groups to which they belong that the
entire forces of the Sheriff and the Police Department would
become not only able to catch the breaker of the law, but to
observe, gather, preserve and report so ably that the'guilty
would not escape their just punishment.
The prosecuting officer should be notified promptly of
every serious offense and by himself, or his assistant, im-
mediately and on the spot, if practicable, direct the investi-
An automobile of sufficient size especially fitted with
every essential to an examination at the scene of the crime,
with instruments of precision for measurements, chemicals,
and all materials necessary for gathering and preserving evi-
dence, for blood tests, etc., and photographic and drawing
equipment would be of invaluable aid.
We find in all modern departments that there is a safe
place in which evidence is kept, both objects and documen-
tary, a competent system of recording and indexing, and a
trained person in charge. There should of course be kept
records of all crimes investigated, their nature, and the
persons guilty of their commission.
We find that the Police Department have rules, and that
the members thereof are required to study them and the
police manual. These rules and this manual should, from
time to time, as occasion demands be revised and frequent
examinations had thereon.
Citizens should be encouraged to render aid to the officers
of the law in the apprehension of suspected criminals and the
gathering and preservation of evidence of the crime for the
Law enforcing officers may by tact and courtesy earn and
keep the respect and good will of all citizens.
It is essential that citizens, and the various agencies for
the detection and prosecution of crime, should work harmon-
iously in fullest cooperation, if the most certain results at the
least cost are to be obtained.
There should be no question of politics, or political in-
fluence, in the appointment of men to positions in any law
enforcing agency. The positions should be filled solely on
merit and the appointments made after a thorough examina-
tion before an impartial board of examiners.
Through this department is carried on preventive and
protective work among women and children. It is a crime
prevention and welfare unit within the police department.
An important part of the work is patrol of the streets and
public places where anything which may be harmful to women
and children might occur. We report from an interesting
statement by Miss Elizabeth Thompson, one of our police-
"From experience in patrol work and in making in-
vestigations and adjustments in homes and neighbor-
hoods, the following has been gathered:
"Many of our boys are learning to gamble by play-
ing the slot machines. Several school boys have been
known to use their lunch money for this purpose and
gone hungry when they lost. One instance was reported
where two boys stole money from a woman's purse to
play the slot machines and lost. Groups of these boys
may be found any evening gathered around the machines
in the various bars and stores. There is a state law, as
well as a city ordinance, against allowing minors to
gamble in these places.
"Our young girls and small children are not safe
on the streets and in the parks alone. Cases are often
brought into court with charges of disorderly conduct,
improper proposals, assault and rape against vagrants
and perverts who spend their time in public parks and
on street corners. Too many children are spending their
time on the streets instead of in school. There are many
cases of truancy. Children are often picked up and
taken to school or home by policewomen where it is found
that the parents did not know they were not in school.
There is no truant officer connected with the schools at
"Girls as young as fifteen are employed as 'car hops'
at roadhouses and drink stands. They depend largely on
tips and are obliged to be nice to all customers, drunk
or otherwise. There are some proprietors who discharge
girls if they refuse the improper advances of men cus-
"Groups of colored boys roam the streets nightly,
thieving, plundering, fighting and breaking into stores
and residences. Because of the lack of funds and a place
of detention for these boys, they are released with a
warning, and in a few nights are back again on the same
charges. Many colored children are found begging on
the streets, either alone or begging for blind men. Col-
ored girls as young as eleven years are often picked up.
for soliciting white men on the streets at night.
"Up to November 1st, 1935 there were brought into
the station by offcers.and policewomen, 236 colored boys;
187 white boys; 61 colored girls and 58 white girls, all
under 17. Many of the colored boys repeated from three
to ten times. A number of the white boys were also
repeaters. The charges on these were disorderly con-
duct, profane language, fighting, runaway, assault to
murder, assault with intent to rape, rape, inmate of dis-
orderly house, drunk and disorderly, vagrancy, begging,
gambling and bolita selling.
"There is great need for more work to be done among
colored children in the way of: providing relief where
necessary, recreation, instruction and detention homes.
The work of the Boy Scouts and Girl Scuts should be
extended among both white and colored. As recom-
mended in other reports, funds for the Juvenile Court
work ought to be increased and a Juvenile Detention
building erected. They are being detained at present
in juvenile rooms at the city police station and in the
"Many of the above conditions could be greatly im-
proved if regular patrol work was carried on in the parks,
on the streets, in dance halls and other public places by
policewomen. There are not enough workers to do this
at the present time. The work has increased to such an
extent that all of the time of the four women is practi-
cally taken up with emergencies, ofaie interviews, in-
"The lack of homes, broken homes, husbands in jail
for drunkeness and non-support all contribute to the
delinquency of the children. A court of domestic rela-
tions in connection with the juvenile court could be set
up for this purpose.
"Disorderly women and prostitutes are scattered
through almost every section of the city. They live ih
rooming houses, apartments and (so-called) hotels. Many
of the latter have colored porters at the door who solicit
business for the women inmates and sell liquor wherever
possible. The porter receives a certain per cent of the
money taken in by the women. In most cases he re-
ceives no wages aside from what he takes in from the
above source. If an investigation were made it would
be apparent that these 'hotels' could not exist on the
legitimate business shown on the register. These places
are also hang-outs for thieves, racketeers, hold-up men
and vagrants. Most of the rooms and halls are filthy and
must be spreaders of disease. This has been the subject
of much criticism from tourists and visitors, especially
the porters at the doors.
"Among adults brought before the municipal court
a large percentage have venereal disease in some form.
A more complete system should be established for ex-
amination and treatment. Some treatment is given at
the city prison farm but it is not adequate nor satis-
factory. There are plans now being worked out in an
endeavor to improve this condition.
"If follow-up work could be done with women while
in the city prison farm and after their release, it would
result in great good and prevent many from repeating
the offense. An important step toward this end would
be the employment of a trained nurse, who is welfare
minded, as matron of the woman's quarters of the farm.
"Mental instability is prevalent among those coming
before the court and to the attention of policewomen.
Many times persons so afflicted are punished when they
should have treatment instead. Even a ward in one of
the city hospitals, where these people could receive ob-
servation and treatment, would be a wonderful improve-
ment. Detention quarters for the more advanced stages
should be provided, there being now no place to confine
them while waiting examination but the county jail.
"More attention needs to be given to the problem
girl over the juvenile age of seventeen. There is no
place to detain such girls while working out her case,
except the city jail or city prison farm. A detention
home for women over seventeen would take care of this
need. In this could be placed also those women held for
witnesses, for examinations, to be returned to other cities
and small offenders who should not be confined with the
hardened women criminals. -
"Liquor and drinking to excess is the cause of a
great amount of crime, from small beginnings to mur-
der. The docket book at the police station shows more
'drunk and disorderly' charges than perhaps any other
one thing. Drinking is on the increase among men,
women and young people. The lack of work, poverty
and the absence of other healthful, clean recreation and
pleasures all contribute to the forming of this habit.
"Poor literature has a harmful influence on the
mind, especially on growing boys and girls. The news
stands are loaded with trashy, degrading magazines. On
observing the business done in this sort of reading
matter, they must sell tons of it every month. Partial
remedy education and supervision."
The Women's Bureau of the present Department is our
nearest approach to a Crime Prevention Bureau, hereinafter
discussed. Attached hereto as Exhibits C and D are the
annual reports of this Bureau for 1984 and 1935, showing
the handling in 1934 of 918 cases of minors, 483 of whom
were under 17 years of age, and, in 1935, of 1167 cases of
minors, 607 of whom were under 17 years of age. In the
Juvenile Court, the reports of which for the years of 1934 and
1935 are attached as Exhibits E and F we find that in 1934,
764 children came before the court, 571 of whom for delin--.
quency, 193 on account of dependency, 377, were white and
387 were colored, 580 male and 184 female; in 1935, 811
children came before the court, 643 on account of delinquency,
168 on account of dependency, 351 were white and 460 colored,
615 male and 196 female.
The present Woman's Bureau consists of four patrol-
women and two matrons. These have because of emergencies
and the heavy work at headquarters been unable to do the
patrol work so necessary to the work of their Bureau. There
should always -be in attendance upon Municipal Court, an
efficient member of this bureau for juvenile and women's
cases. There is urgent necessity for an increase in personnel
in this Bureau.
Since the legalizing of the slot machine, the dangers to
youth have increased and, while the law makes it an offense
for the operator of a slot machine to knowingly permit a
minoi to play, many minors are playing. The opportunity
for more careful observation of the operation of these gamb-
ling machines, places where liquor is sold, dance halls, prize
fights and wrestling places, will materially diminish the
breaking of the law and afford a better protection for the
youth of the city.
We recommend specifically, respecting the policewomen's
bureau, the following:
(a) A Supervisor (one with a knowledge of police
and welfare work).
(b) A clerk for the bureau, so the policewoman
now in office can spend all of her time on policewoman's
(c) From four to six more policewomen that the
patrol work may not be neglected as it now is because
of the very small number of policewomen.
(d) Three efiient matrons (the Bureau now has
two); so that there'will be no time when there is no
matron on duty.
(e) There should be opportunity for the thorough
instruction of policewomen. The policewomen's quarters
should be cleaned and enlarged.
(f) If a crime prevention bureau is established the
Policewomen's Bureau would be, logically, a part thereof.
Jail for Juvenile Delinquents
It will be borne in mind that the person arrested charged
with an offense against the law may be entirely innocent,
but whether he is, or not, the place of his or her detention,
when, of necessity, he must be detained until trial, should be
not only safe but it should be clean and not unreasonably
uncomfortable. It should likewise be such that crime may
not be increased by such detention, that is that first and
youthful offenders should be segregated from the old offender.
We attach as Exhibit G a rough diagram of the present
Juvenile Jail at Police Headquarters.
The proximity of the sexes and of the races, the lack of
sufficient conveniences for nature's necessities are readily
apparent. The rooms are about 14 x 14 feet. Frequently
when a gang of ten or twelve boys are picked up at a time
they are placed in one room and there is not sufficient space,
or cots, and they have to double up the best way they can
until turned over to the Juvenile Court.
The walls are exceedingly dirty, scratched and marked
up. The window panes are broken out. Ventilation in the
boys and girls rooms (colored department) is very poor, there
being only one small window in each room about twelve feet
from the floor. The bathroom and toilets are in fairly good
condition. A matron on duty continually is necessary, but
there are times when this is impractical the resulting dis-
comfort to the inmates is considerable.
Children as young as five years picked up from the
streets are placed here.
Food is served twice a day, the first meal being late in
the morning. Each meal consists of cold canned pork and
beans, canned corned beef hash and two slices of dry bread.
This food as steady diet is not proper for any child, but,
especially with the younger children, it is inappropriate.
For these younger children and for those requiring, because
of their condition of health, another kind of food, it should
be provided. Especially should milk and cereals be provided
for this class, and some method of serving cooked foods.
While these children are not detained for long periods,
they should be humanly provided for,during detention.
The beds are fair, single cots with one sheet and mat-
tress. The mattresses appear to have been recently made
While this portion of our City Jail is devoted to juvenile
offenders, when a girl of seventeen and under twenty-one is
arrested she is placed with older women in the part of the
jail reserved for adults, unless, in exceptional cases, the offi-
cer on duty permits her, detention in the Juvenile Jail. This
placing of the first and old offenders together, experience has
shown to be very dangerous, to the first offender. Her own
degradation and disgrace seems to her so much greater and
the opportunity of her becoming like the old offender in time
We must stop crime at its source. Every effort should
be made to prevent it, but, when committed, efforts should be
re-doubled to prevent its repetition.
We recommend a thorough cleaning up of the Juvenile
Jail, the increase in the number of matrons making possible
the continuous twenty-four hour duty of a matron, an im-
provement in the kind of food and provision for its being
given to the children earlier in the morning. r
Venereal Clinic at Pecee Station
A very important service which could be rendered by the
Crime Prevention Bureau of the Police Department would be
the establishment of a clinic for the examination of those '
inmates of the jail who are detained awaiting trial and for
others on probation or who voluntarily submit themselves for
examination. A copy of a letter written by Dr. W W. Rogers,
Medical Inspector of Schools, to Mayor John T. Alsop, Sep-
tember 16, 1931, is attached as Exhibit H.
We are informed that an appropriation has been made of
$300 to open a clinic for the juveniles and white women for
treatment of venereal diseases in charge of Dr. Jones. This
clinic we understand has not yet begun its operations. It
cannot begin until there is sufficient personnel At present
the duties of the policewomen are such that they are unable
to devote the time necessary in the assistance of the physician
in this work. With an increased force, a special nurse should
be added, and this work can be commenced and the result
will be shown in the improved public health.
The City and County should have a detention home for
juveniles apart from the jail.
There should also be a detention home for women over
seventeen for both white and colored women. During the
time of their detention these women could and should be em-
ployed in sewing, laundry work, the canning of fruit and
vegetables from the City Prison Farm. It has been sug-
gested that the Intake City Prison Farm Woman's Quarters
be changed into a House of Correction.
A city and county wide parole system, under proper
supervision, for work among juvenile delinquents which are
contacted by the police and by other organizations.
The conion regarding the treatment of mental cases
is deplorable, there being no proper accommodations afforded
locally for these unfortunates. Neither the City nor the
County are equipped with a temporary place of detention
other than the City Prison Farm or the Duval County Jail.
There are numbers of these persons brought before the city
court or taken into custody by county officers not insane
enough to be admitted into the State Institution, but so feeble-
minded as to properly require that they be placed in an ob-
servation home for several weeks. There being no such place
these persons are perforce released to roam about the streets,
where their malady may become serious and dangerous to
The very scanty means at the Jail for the care of these
cases requiring restraint, demands that relief be afforded by
increased facilities for handling the dangerously insane, be-
fore their transfer to the State Hospital for the Insane. In-
creasing liquor consumption bids fair to increase rather than
diminish this need.
It is a travesty of justice and an indictment of our civili-
Szation to place these mentally incompetent the sick in mind
with the malefactor.
Based upon the foregoing we make the following sug-
1. That the number of the police force of Jacksonville
should meet the ratio in keeping with the needs of our city
and more nearly in line with the standard of progressive
communities. It should be at least 1.5.
2. That appointment to and promotion in the Police
Department should be the result of merit and at no time
should politics or political influence affect either.
3. That coordination, cooperation, and harmony among
the several law-enforcement agencies should be had. This
may be accomplished through a properly organized Crime Pre-
4. That upon the occurrence of every serious crime the
prosecuting officer should be promptly notified and he should
thereafter direct the investigation thereof.
5. That a trained body of criminal investigators properly
equipped to collect and preserve evidence of crime, and a safe
place for the preservation of such evidence should be pro-
6. That a statistical record should be kept of all serious
crimes committed showing the nature of such crime, by whom
committed (if known), the method pursued by the per-
petrator, and a brief history of each case.
7. That Policemen and Policewomen should have a thor-
ough knowledge of the police manual and should be encour-
aged to perfect themselves in their profession.
8. That citizens should render aid to law-enforcement
officers and such officers by their tact, courtesy and courage
should win and hold the respect of the citizens.
9. That a place, separate and removed from any jail
should be provided for the temporary detention of juveniles,
whether delinquent, dependent, or pre-delinquent, under com-
10. That a place, or places, should be provided for young
female delinquents over seventeen, of both races; possibly
the Intake City Prison Farm Women's Quarters might be
available for such purpose.,
11. That until such places are provided for juveniles and
young women, the present portion of the city jail should be
repaired; a matron should always be on hand and in charge
thereof; the diet of the children should be more in keeping
with that which should be served to children, having regard
for the age of the child and his physical condition, and the
time of serving such meals should not be made as late in the
day as is the present practice. A sufficient amount of milk
and cereals should be provided for the younger children and
necessary appliances for the preparation of the food served.
12. That the first, or early, offender, should be segre-
gated from the old offender. Children detained because of
dependency, or other causes than offenses, should not be
placed with delinquent children.
13. That a Home for the Feeble-Minded is a necessity
and its erection and maintenance would greatly relieve the
State Hospital and the local County Hospital. Likewise suffi-
cient and fit places for the dangerously insane pending their
removal to the State Hospital should be provided.
14. That there should be a city and county wide juvenile
parole system under competent supervision. Here volunteer
workers would be of great value in aiding the law-enforce-
15. That there should be compulsory physical examina-
tions of all juvenile delinquents; and an opportunity afforded
to others, including adults, for such examination, where there
is any reason to suspect venereal disease. To this end the
appropriation for a Venereal Clinic at the City Jail should be
increased, so as to provide for the services of a competent
registered nurse to assist the physician in charge, and for
sufficient equipment and supplies to make such examination
and to afford such treatment as is necessary.
16. That young women and girls should not be per-
mitted to serve, commercially, beer and hard liquors.
V_.. That the gambling slot machines are a menace to
the community and should be abolished. As long as they
are permitted by law, there should be a rigid enforcement of
that provision thereof prohibiting their use by minors.
18. That an increased knowledge and interest upon the
part of citizens, generally, should be encouraged in their
Police and Fire Departments and there should be from time
to time fitting recognition by them of excellent work per-
formed either by the Departments as a whole or any in-
dividual, or individuals, thereof.
19. Last but not least is the urgent recommendation
that the right to employ, control and discharge policemen be
vested in a single authority, either the mayor, a supervisor
of police or the city commission. The present plan of having
control in the mayor and the right to hire and fire in the
city commission is not fundamentally correct. Regardless of
how efficient the chief of police and his men may be there
is naturally a divided sense of responsibility. This calls for
a charter change. It should be made as quickly as possible
and full authority vested in a single body or single person
as the people of Jacksonville may desire. In this manner
greater efficiency will result and Jacksonville will be made a
tough spot for the criminal.
CRIME PREVENTING BUREAU
In New York and in Los Angeles have been established
in their respective police departments "Crime Prevention"
bureaus or divisions. In New York the Bureau of Crime
Prevention is responsible for (a) Planning and Putting into
Operation measures for the prevention of delinquency, and
(b) Helping secure adequate social treatment for juvenile
delinquents and wayward minors. In order to accomplish
these aims, it has laid the foundation of its progress along the
following lines: (1) The putting into operation of social
treatment measures designed to bring about a change in the
behavior of delinquent and potentially delinquent minors who
come to the attention of the police. (2) The discovery and
attack upon situations, community conditions and individuals
contributing to the delinquency of minors. (3) The stimula-
tion of recreational activities and the promoting of all con-
structive forces in the community for the prevention of
crime. (4) The constant development of measure directed at
bringing about a different attitude in general on the part of
youth towards the law enforcing agencies and of the com-
munity toward the efficient treatment of incipient crime.
The Welfare Council of New York has continued to aid
the Bureau in developing its program. From the beginning
the leading social agencies in the city have given their cordial
support which has been so essential to the success of the
Crime Prevention Bureau's activities. In the Report of the
Bureau from which the above passages have been taken
appears the following: "The second objective of the Crime
Prevention Bureau is finding and removing community con-
ditions which make for delinquency. This is, of course,
a part of the Crime Prevention Offier's regular duties as a
police filcer, but it is focused particularly on violations of
laws and conditions which affect minors. Improperly run
amusement places where the morals of minors are likely to
be corrupted are kept under observation. Dance hals and
billiard parlors are visited. Motio picture theatres are
kept under observation with particular reference to the illegal
admission of children naccompanied by adults, darkened bal-
conies and the showing of pictures improper for children to
see. Neighborhood candy and cigar stores are visited and a
lookout kept for all harmful influences. When evidence war-
rants, arrests are made by Crime Prevention Officers, and a
great deal of information is secured which is turned over to
the Chief Inspector's office or to the Detective Bureau." .
"The Crime Prevention Offlcers have also been successful in
breaking up gangs composed of boys, many of whom were
well started on criminal careers. The Bureau's reports show
that the majority of these boys have been interested in whole-
some recreation and their careers of delinquency defnitely
aborted. Others will require direction and supervision over a
considerable period of time, while in the cases of some of the
leaders, arrests were made.
"While Court action is seldom taken by Crime Prevention
Offers, if it is resorted to, every effort is made to insure that
the experience is such that the child will gain, not lose, respect
for the law and law-enforcing agencies."
The splendid work of such a bureau is shown in the
complete report which we append to this report.
In Los Angeles this branch of the police department is
known as the Crime Prevention Division, and its principal
object is, likewise, the delinquent and potentially delinquent
Says the report of the Los Angeles Police Department
"There is every reason to believe that true crime pre-
vention which affects the careful diagnosis and effective
stabilization of the delinquent and pre-delinquent child is en-
tering a new era and that henceforth its growth will be even
more rapid than during the past two decades."
The Los Angeles Co-ordinating Council is stated as per-
haps the greatest single factor in the reduction of delinquency
in its evidence of the ever-increasing community concious-
ness of the problems faced by modern youth. A Council is
organized in each high school district. Every agency and
organization that is or can be interested in the welfare of
youth is invited to join. Its members are divided into three
.committees; those who are interested in working out the
problems of individuals are placed on the adjustment com-
mittee, they do no actual case work but serve as a clearing
house, referring each case to the agency best prepared to
give the necessary help and supervision; those who are in-
terested in character building and recreation are placed on
the character building committee, its work is to provide an
adequate leisure time program for the youth of the commu-
nity, broad enough in scope to draw into its protective fold t
all who need the program; those interested in community
betterment from the civic or environment committee, its
function is to make the community a better and more whole-
some place for children and young people, which is accom-
plished in both a negative and positive measure, either by
eliminating or minimizing the evil influence or by creating
and developing character-building resources of the commu-
Each Council is an entirely independent unit and is en-
couraged to solve its community problems in its own way.
The successful conduct of many worthwhile projects has been
concluded. Hundreds of children have been adjusted with-
out having their reputations injured by police and Juvenile
Court records. It has been estimated that one Council (there
are 48) saved the taxpayers $38,000 in eighteen months by
its work in reducing delinquency in that area.
There are many units of this Division (Crime Preven-
tion), such as the City Mother's Bureau, having to do with
thousands of cses of young people, domestic difficulties, etc.,
the Dance Hall Detail, whose duty it is to inspect and super-
vise all public dance halls, and the Men's and Women's Pro-
bation Offices, working with the Municipal Courts, contribute
largely to the success of the City's crime prevention program.
In Jacksonville, with added personnel and the cooperation
of the social agencies and other organizations interested in
youth, may be established such a Bureau, which, in our opin-
ion, will be the means of saving the taxpayers many thousands
of dollars and, what is far more important, the saving of the
Lives and usefulness of many who without restraining or
supervisory and sympathetic control will be lost to vice and
What was said in the closing paragraphs of the New
York report may well be repeated here.
"The histories of the young delinquents with whom the
Bureau is now dealing parallels those of the youth of most of
the notorious criminals. If these boys receive guidance,
severe action when necessary, but in any event understanding
from the police at the time of their first delinquencies, many
of them will unquestionably be kept from entering careers
"It is becoming increasingly evident as the President's
National Commission on Law Observance and Enforcement
stated in its report 'No city of considerable size can afford
to be without a unit which will devote its whole time to
"In a cosmopolitan city of 7,000,000 people the attack
on crime must be intelligent, persistent, many-sided and
wide-spread. The prevention of Juvenile Delinquency is one
of the most important phases. It is obvious that the home,
the school, the church and many other social institutions have
great influence on the behavior of children. However, the
Police Department, where the knowledge of crime is most
complete and intimate, is the place from which specific pre-
ventive measures must begin to radiate, a conclusion reached
by the most thorough studies of crime prevention which have
been made in this country."
We therefore feel that one of the most important recom-
mendations in this report is that you undertake and immed-
iately organize a Crime Prevention Bureau. That the bureau
be similar to those now in New York and Los Angeles as far
as this may prove practical. The bureau should consist of
three or more members from the Police Department desig-
nated by the Chief as the persons best qualified to serve.
An advisory board to include civilians could be appointed
upon recommendation of the Chief.
NEIGHBORHOOD STUDY OF ADULT AND
Among the studies of delinquency, probably the most
exhaustive and scientific have been made by Dr. Sheldon
Glueck of Harvard University assisted by his wife, Dr.
Eleanor Glueck, and a well-trained technical staff. Their
three outstanding works are "500 Criminal Careers," "500
Women Offenders," and "1000 Delinquent Boys."
While their data would not be exactly representative of
our city, they would, since human nature is somewhat uni-
form in its nature and reactions, apply in general terms to
Jacksonville or any other American city.
Here, for instance, is what they found in their study of
"1000 Delinquent Boys":
80% of them came from homes of poverty located in
neighborhoods where bad housing, bad social and
community conditions abounded.
90% of them came from broken, poorly supervised, or
76% came from homes where there was known and re-
corded criminality on the part of some other mem-
ber of the family father, mother, brother, or
90% were untouched by the character building agencies
or activities such as scouting, church clubs, or other
Considering the character of this social milieu, it is no
wonder that these boys remained delinquent. Of course, there
were other factors classified and analyzed; but these are
enough for illustrative purposes.
There is every reason to believe that a similarly thorough
and exhaustive study of Jacksonville's tragic little army of
delinquents would reveal the same story. In fact, all data
and evidence that we have gathered points undeviatingly in
This part of our report is based on a study of all the
cases handled through the Juvenile Court during the calendar
year 1935, numbering 509; and all the cases of adults ar-
rested by the police during the first three months of 1936
(except overparking cases) numbering 2591.
The 509 Juvenile cases (being under seventeen years of
age) are classified as to sex and color and are distributed on
this basis back into the school district from which they came.
The 2591 adult cases are similarly distributed into the
school districts. Districts were chosen so that it might be
determined where some specific remedial factors, such as
police, playgrounds, boy scouts troups and similar agencies
may be placed.
Through the courtesy and cooperation of Mr. Leon
Brower, in charge of the Statistical and Research Depart-
ment of the State Board of Social Welfare, the population
(estimated) was obtained in each school district. With this
basis we were able to compute rates per unit population, and
are able to isolate and point out these districts where the
delinquency and crime rates are highest.
Among colored Juvenile Court cases it was found that
the rate was 3.97 per thousand of the general population.
The rate among colored adults on the three months basis was
20.34 per thousand general population.
Among white Juvenile Court cases the rate, computed
as above, was 2.42; while the rate for white adults was 12.44.
It is of interest to note in this connection that, in a
study made of the participation in leisure time, recreational,
and character building activities, the rate of white participa-
tion was 34.7 per thousand as compared to a rate of 8.6
among the colored.
The following tables show in detail the distribution of
delinquency; first, for the white school districts, and next,
for colored school districts.
WHITE SCHOOL DISTRICTS
Do=*-t Df i.d-t
Dist No. Name and Address a 1P.
Church & Liberty Streets...................... 15 8 6 18
Ashley Street & Florida Avenue.. 7 5 2 1
Charles & Gilmore Streets............. 16 8 5 5
6-Mattie V. Rutherford
Fifth & Hubbard Street............... 18 4 0 2
Davis & Cedar Streets.................... 7 2 2 4
8-N. B. Springfield
16th & Franklin Streets................ 6 2 2 4
9-Fairfleld, Victoria & Albert St .... 8 8 0 2
Lackawanna & Shearer Ave.......... 2 1 7 6
11-Springfeld W, 9th & Perry Sts ..... 9 1 0 1
Herschell St. & Cherry................. 2 1 6 8
Lawton Ave. & Davis St............... 1 1 0 0
14-Grand Park, Ave. D. & Cannon St 8 1 0 0
Golfair A Springfield Blvd........... 1 1 1 1
16-Ortega-Baltic & Princeton Aves 0 0 0 0
21it Walnut St............................ 8 8 0 8
Gilmore & Aeosta Streets.............. 8 8 1 4
19-Murray Hill, Bitter 17th.......... 1 1 0 0
77 10469 4724
7 8271 2617
7 5671 8529
5 4981 251
2 5679 629
2 6071 1469
0 2484 2119
0 7806 520
2 6466 ......
6 8819 41
1 8796 282
1 2218 5687
0-\ 8411 2180
0 1142 28
4 5727 1081
dUelt WSMSrJ Cghd C40Ash C.
F. V. Popublth. Peoebif F=
WHITE SCHOOL DISTRIOY8
WHITE SCHOOL DISTRICTS-(Continued)
Delinquent Dependent Juvenile Cases Adult Cases
1)s.JNm duvennle Juvenile Adult White Colored er M White per M White
Dist. No. Name and Address M. P. M. F. M. F. Population Population patn Population
20-Fishweir, Herschell & Clyde......... 0 1 0 0 24 3 4666 212 1 per 4% M 5.78
Commonwealth & St. Clair............ 1 1 3 7 22 4 2033 1138 6.0 12.79
23-Norwood, 55th & Lem Turner Rd. 0 0 0 0 6 0 1135 ...... 0.0 5.29
24-10th & Market
10th & Market Streets................. 2 0 0. 4 45 2 3773 506 1.6 12.46
COLORED SCHOOL DISTRICTS
Dist. No. Name and Address M. F. M
Q 101-Stanton High,
Ashley & Clay Streets................... 38 3 1
102-Oakland, Bridier & Pippin St........ 11 2 0
103-LaVilla, Stuart & Church St......... 42 6 3
Lewis & Goodwin Streets.............. 17 4 3
24th & Franklin Streets............... 8 1 0
Diego Road & White Street........... 0 0 0
135-Davis Street, Davis & 12th Sts..... 10 1 1
Earnest & Owens Ave.................. 1 0 0
3rd & Bertram Streets.................. 5 0 0
146-Cookman, Davis & Fleming Sts. 18 6 4
Franklin & 4th Street................... 10 1 0
pendent Juvenile Caee Adult Cases
Juvenile Adult Colored White per M Cl. per M Col.
F. M. F. Population Population Population Pepulation
7 238 71 7000 10789
2 65 16 4268 4868
4 209 56 13329 ........
1 88 27 4731 20541
0 7 1 576 3797
0 5 2 629 5679
1 28 6 4861 ..
1 4 0 390 6098
0 30 5 2678 3309
3 112 27 10049 ........
4 48 9 6165 6044
The classified data from which the foregoing tables were
derived are transmitted with this report together with two
maps: one showing distribution of delinquency and crime
among whites and the other showing similar distribution
among the colored.
Through the courtesy of the Council of Social Agencies,
of the Jacksonville Community Chest, our committee has had
access to recent studies and maps made by that body in
fields of social pathology related to the subjects we are
considering. These studies embrace the following fields:
Health, as reflected by the maternal death rate, the infant
mortality rate, and the tubercular death rate; the Dependency,
or Poverty situation, as reflected by those on relief during a
given period; Housing, being data chiefly derived from the
Federal Housing Survey made recently and based largely on
the rental rates; Delinquency and Crime, based largely on
similar data used by our committee. There was also avail-
able a map showing the distribution of population in terms
of the relative proportions between white and colored.
A study of this data brought forward correlations, which,
though not unexpected, are significant
The areas of highest incidence for crime and delinquency,
as well as for other phases of socially adyerse conditions, cen-
ter in eight school districts. The area marked within which
these eight districts are located is blocked out in the maps
Characteristics of the Eighth District:
1. It is the area in which there is the heaviest propor-
tion of colored population. This ranges all the way
from 20% colored to 100% colored and averages un-
doubtedly well over 50%.
2. In this area the adult crime and juvenile crime go
hand in hand. The shaded areas indicating high
rates almost exactly coincide.
3. The housing in this area is uniformly bad in spots.
In one portion of this area, called Hansontown, the
net cost of municipal services exceeds the net income
from taxation $40,000 per year. This is a net loss to
tax payers as a whole.
4. The health conditions are consistent with the general
picture. Five out of the eight districts are the worst
in the city; two rate just a little better than the worst,
while only one approaches the standards of the city-
as a whole.
5. As might be expected these are the districts where
poverty and unemployment abound as shown by the
map outlining the homes into which relief goes.
And so, like a jig-saw puzzle, the pieces fall into place
and there is formed Jacksonville's map of misery, unhappi-
ness and crime. Homes established in inadequate tenen-
ments and shacks; poverty; adult crizninality and depravity
leading juvenile delinquency along by the hand.
Thus we are confronted with the problem of weeding out
the depressed area and especially those areas that may be
classed as slums where 90 per cent of criminals originate.
There can be no doubt that any slum area, the backwash and
dregs of social and economic maladjustments are prolific
breeding places for crime. Jacksonville, being the gateway
to Florida, must give a sincere and increasingly diligent hand
to slum clearance, which without it will grow to alarming
proportions. Crime as a rule has a grim background. It is
the background that must be improved. There must be
new environment, new interests and a new hope. Poverty,
drunkenness and crime go together.
We, therefore, suggest:
1. That playgrounds for supervised play be established
and added to those districts on the attached maps marked
Exhibits A and B where most needed. The question of
exact location and other details could be determined by the
playground and park department of the city. The minimum
needed at this time is possibly seven or eight. If money spent
in this direction will go to reduce this city's annual crime
bill of $18,000,000 then Jacksonville can afford to increase
her present investment in her relatively small annual outlay.
The records already show that supervised play in Jacksonville,
as elsewhere, has reduced delinquency in neighborhoods where
2. That both local organizations of Girl Scouts and Boy
Scouts be requested to examine the attached maps and the
survey just completed by the Social Service Agencies of the
Jacksonville Community Chest for the purpose of expanding
and establishing activities in those districts where most
needed. Said survey shows the extent of the activities of
those organizations at present in the several districts.
3. That the police department be requested to definitely
launch a program under which all boys, especially those de-
linquent, would recognize in him a friend. Recently in an
Eastern city the police played a ball game at one of the big
league parks and invited 2500 boys from the slum areas.
In other places they have been instrumental in promoting
and establishing swimming pools and other clean and health-
ful recreational facilities, personally conducting many con'
tests among the boys where the games develop fair play and
4. That the City Planning Board be requested to create
permanent sub-committees in -those districts where needed
to devise ways and means for slum clearance with particular
reference to better housing and the ultimate elimination of
those places which are commonly recognized as crime breed-
5. That boy service councils be organized in the dis-
tricts shown on said maps. Hon. W. S. Criswell, Juvenile
Judge, has said that he would take over the entire respon-
sibility for this work to be conducted on a voluntary basis.
An organization outline for the plan is as follows:
Seepe of Activity of Boy Service Cemlb
1. The work of this organization shall be confined
to delinquent white boys of Juvenile Court age, namely,
those under 17 years of age.
2. Each committee or group shall work within the
area of the elementary school district within which the
3. The Judge of the Juvenile Court shall furnish to
each committee the names, ages, and brief histories of
boys in its 'district who have been in court during the
past year, or, who are currently under the jurisdiction
of the court.
4. The committee may secure, from the principal
of the school, or from other sources, the names of boys
who are delinquent, or who are becoming delinquent.
Pattern, or Plan of Organimatio
1. The Judge of the Juvenile Court shall select and
appoint, in each elementary school district, a chairman
and two vice-chairmen. This committee of three shall be
responsible, in co-operation with the Judge, for the se-
lection of additional committee members. The comimit-
tee of three shall be known as "counsellors" and addi-
tional committee members shall be similarly designated.
The chairman shall be responsible for the work of the
counsellors in his district, shall make asignments, and
shall generally lead and direct the work of the committee
in his district, using, as he may deem necessary, his
vice-chairmen, and working, always, in close co-opera-
tion with the court, the official agency, in dealing with
the problems involved in each case.
2. The District committee shall meet either regu-
larly or at the call of the chairman for consultation,
mutual encouragement and to consider results.
3. The essence of this plan is that an individual
man, the counsellor, shall furnish example, guidance and
influence to an individual boy to the end that he may be
restrained and reclaimed from delinquency. Al the
suggestions and directions contained in this outline are
for the purpose of effectuating and facilitating this in-
tention and this end.
The Duties of Counsellors
1. The counsellors shall serve as friend and guide
to any delinquent boy, either before or after court
appearance when assigned to. this service by the chair-
man of the committee.
2. He shall investigate the circumstances and in-
fluences producing the delinquent behavior, such as ad-
verse home conditions, bad parental example or neglect,
bad associates, harmful habits or attitudes, etc.
3. He shall strive to develop and bring out in the
boy right attitudes toward his home and parents; to-
ward his Church and religious agencies; toward the
law, the courts and the other governmental agencies;
toward society and his own problems generally. In brief,
he shall strive to develop the attitudes and qualities of
a good citizen.
4. He shall give vocational guidance and advice and
to help find employment when that is the indicated need.
5. He shall make written reports to the chairman
monthly and shall confer with him when, and if, it is
desirable to do so.
6. He shall confine his efforts to the assigned. If
any action seems necessary to abate bad neighborhood
conditions adversely affecting the boy life of the com-
munity such action shall only be taken after considera-
tion by the committee and in such manner as the
7. He shall stay with his boy through trouble. If he
gets into court, he shall be there, as a friend, when his
case is heard. If he is committed to a correctional in-
stitution, he shall keep in touch with him. When he
returns he shall be ready to meet him and give him
support and encouragement in his new start.
Cautions for Counsellors
1. Avoid getting the name of being some sort of
"officer" or official.
2. Do not discuss your boy's problems or your
dealings with him except with persons who may be help-
ful to you. The relationship should be confidential. The
less publicity or loose talk about the counsellor's activi-
ties the better.
3. Be careful in dealing with the boy's parents.
Some will appreciate your help; some will resent it; some
will tend to lean on the counsellor unduly and pas their
parental responsibility on to him which is a tendency
that should not be encouraged.
4. Money, or material relief to the boy or his family
should be extended only through the committee. This
is a protection to the counsellor that he will do well to
5. Do not be discouraged if you should fail or par-
tially fail. Some apparent failures turn out surprisingly
well later on. Changing human nature is a tedious pro-
cess that challenges the best that is in any man.
While we have found nothing to indicate that there are
any organized "rackets" in Jacksonville under which any
officials or anyone else are involved in taking percentages of
receipts we do find that the city is in the clutches of a wave
of gambling such as it has possibly never known before, worse
than the average person could possibly imagine, and appar-
ently little, if anything, is being done about it. This same
condition, we understand, is sweeping many parts of the
country. Slot machines and what is known as bolita have
doubtless intensified the condition here. When the legisla-
ture sanctioned slot machines the impression was created and
apparently accepted by gambling interests, if not some offi-
cials, that here was the liberal or wide-open signal sign. It is
something that is developing bad moral and economic re-
sults. Merchants, save those who have elected to operate
slot machines, are generally feeling the effect of the daily
loss of many hundreds of dollars that would otherwise go
into the regular channels of trade for food, clothing, furni-
ture and homes. Gambling is, on an enormous scale, "chisel-
ing" profits from legitimate business. Embezzled funds are
often thus used. The pantry is depleted and the milk bottle
often left empty. Undernourishment and disease result.
Any community that is beguiled into the belief that such an
unrestrained liberal spirit is a sound way in which to build
a city is building on sand.
Let us, for the moment, consider the cost of commer-
cialized gambling in the United States, taking the year 1985
and including such devices as horse races, dog races, gamb-
ling houses, lotteries, slot machines, punch boards, and num-
berless games and rackets.
Six Billions In Cash
While accurate figures are not available on all classes
of gambling by reason of the fact that much of it is done in
law violations, a fair estimate can be made by reckoning from
legalized gambling. Howard McClellan, in an issue of the
well-known magazine American Business, says that "So vast
was the revenue from gambling during 1935 that many will
regard as an outrageous imposition on human credulity the
figure which represents the total sum of money wagered. As
nearly as it can be approximated, the figure stands at
$6,600,000,000 all in cash."
Continuing further the writer said:
"Business men whose legitimate enterprises traveled
a rocky road in 1935 probably will gasp loudest and
deepest; particularly, when they retrospectively contem-
plate the great quantities of consumer goods, shoes,
clothing, food, shelter and other necessaries of life which
might have been purchased if, say, half of the $6,600,-
000,000 had been diverted during the slack year of 1935
into the channels of legitimate trade.
"How much richer public treasuries might have
been had the billions spent in wagering flown through
the arteries of trade. No business men need be reminded
of the Government's desperate need of revenue to meet
relief and recovery bills during 1935.
"According to Dr. Jerome Davis, Yale authority on
economic trends and one of the few savants to make a
serious study of the financial side of gambling, the
amount of money illegally is two to eight times greater
than the amount bet at race tracks. To thousands of
persons who cannot leave their work to get to race
tracks, or who have not the money to spend for admission
to tracks and transportation, the horse parlor is the
only place where they may do their betting.
Why, it may be asked, was legal betting permitted
during hard times? The answer: Chiefly because or-
ganized proponents of gambling convinced legislators
that one sure way out of the depression was to let people
bet legally, tax their wages, and apply the vast sum
collected in taxes to the problems of relief and recovery.
It is not on record that gamblers ever before displayed
so keen an interest in the problem of human relief,
though it is known that their chief aim in life is to
relieve the most people of the most money via the short-
est and surest route."
If the above figures are anywhere near correct, then
Jacksonville's monthly average is over a half million dollars,
or to be exact $8,044,245 annually, using the same average
per capital based on population as the average applied to the
whole of the United States. Again we say, and advisedly,
that Jacksonville is a fair average city.
The bolita situation here with the negro population bor-
ders on a conditions close to pitiful.
The police department, it is believed, knows of the wide
operation here and if given positive instructions and co-
operation on the part of all officials and the public, could
materially wipe out this economically unhealthy condition,
provided of course the legislature repeals the slot machine
act and gives no further support to legalized gambling. The
police can and should immediately stop children from play-
ing slot machines. Legalized commercial gambling is sure
to place more and more of our people on relief. If the legis-
lature thus deliberately does that which creates the ultimate
need for relief, then the legislature should provide for such
relief and not permit the responsibility for care to be un-
loaded upon the shoulders of those who in no manner are
1. That this part of this report be called to the attention
of the Duval County delegation in the Legislature. We believe
that the slot machine act should be repealed; that its own
evils are only a part of what it does as an opening wedge to
make America gambling conscious, children and all There
is no way to tell of the great human misery the slot machine
and its influence will bring to our people.
2. That the gambling condition and its deplorable con-
sequences to legitimate trade and our fellow beings be used
as an illustration of the importance of making the changes
hereinabove suggested in connection with the charter change
to place hiring, firing and control of the police department
under one head.
One of the ablest Circuit Court Judges to sit on the bench
in Florida and a man who for many years tried many cases
in Duval County where the penalty was a penitentiary sen-
tence or death, said to your committee that 75 per cent of the
criminal cases before him involved in some form, liquor. Our
investigation has not revealed any direct connection between
crime and liquor dispensing places. However, we do find that
the days of the old saloon are back. They are not only back
but have brought with them a new class of patronage over
the brass rail, women. It will be recalled that in Miss
Thompson's report above, attention is called to the fact that
drinking is increasing among women, ages 17 to 25. Whether
or not this extension of the use of liquor will extend crime
remains to be seen. It is safe to predict that it will not tend
to reduce crime. Commercialized liquor sales encourage more
liquor consumption. An increase in this direction brings
poverty and despair to many homes and individuals. Here
crime may find a fertile place to breed. Therefore the im-
-portance of holding in restraint this commercialized activity
cannot be over-emphasized. If crime is to be reduced all of
those things that help to produce it must likewise be reduced.
Here is another instance where we must go from effect back
We find a number of violations of the law. Many places
have a license to sell light wines and beer, but are selling
liquor without paying the heavier tax. Revenue is being lost
and an unfair practice permitted in competition with those
who pay. Sunday law violations are also permitted. If dis-
respect of the 18th Amendment increased all law violations,
then by the same process of reasoning disrespect of--our
present liquor laws will bring about the same result. Respect
for law is important: The people through their representa-
tives make the laws. To disobey them destroys self-govern-
ment by the people. If a law is not right the quickest way to
bring about its repeal is through strict enforcement.
1. That the City Council provide for reasonable regula-
tion in the conduct of the commercialized business of selling
2. That the laws be strictly enforced by the police de-
3. That every federal license be checked and before a
city license is issued evidence should be submitted showing
state and county license corresponding to business that the
city license calls for, and that at all times a large placard shall
be kept prominently displayed near the front of the building,
stating whether light wines and beers are permitted or
whether liquor, wine and beers are permitted.
4. That all places selling either one be arranged so that
the interior can be seen at all times from the sidewalk, and
that the above placard can be seen, and that no closed in
booths be allowed.
5. No license shall be transferred, nor shall a license
be issued until satisfactory evidence has been received that
the party is a law abiding citizen.
6. Should continued complaints as to the character of
the place be received, the license shall be revoked and for-
7. That girls and boys under certain ages not be per-
mitted to serve intoxicating drinks at sandwich stands nor
at other places.
8. That the city considerthe matter of naming a special
prosecutor to deal with the gambling and drinking violations
in Jacksonville so that both may be brought to a fair level
and until the more permanent measures suggested may be put
into effect. We believe conditions in the city justify this
course not only for the sake of certain moral standards but
as well for the sake of business generally. Such a move
would also be of inestimable benefit to the efforts of the
police department and municipal judge.
Of deep significance is the verse of Alexander Pope:
Vice is a monster of so frightful mien,
As to be hated needs but to be seen;
Yet seen too oft, familiar with her face,
We first endure, then pity, then embrace.
What is known as visual education has found a place in
our educational systems upon the theory that projected ob-
jects on a screen make more vivid and lasting impressions
upon the child's thought; that in this manner it is easier to
engage the child's attention. There is merit to this view.
If it operate as effectively in the motion picture theatre as.in
the school room then the apathetic complacency of parent is
challenged in the lines quoted, because of what the child sees
in the average picture today. Drinking scenes are so often
shown that the natural impression is that it is not only
socially correct, but the smart thing to do.
Sometime one is tempted to believe that it represents a
form of paid advertising. The anomalous thing about it is
that the quantity pretended to be consumed would be physi-
cally impossible and prohibited by the picture producers them-
selves, and the persons who are supposed to consume it are
often total abstainers as a means of protection to health and
professional career. Perhaps the public is beginning to won-
der whether there is a motive element behind pictures of this
type. At(ji y rate they register their impressions, create
more drinking in homes, at parties and in parked automobiles.
More drinking creates poverty and poverty breeds crime.
Gangland pictures, fine automobiles and good clothes of
the movie gangster may easily cite imitation if the visual
education theory is correct. Could the parent today say that
there is nothing to fear by permitting the child to be made
familiar with the atmosphere of the night club and shady
dance hall. It would be an unnecessary waste of space to
review or name some of the pictures holding the dangers
mentioned. "White Cargo" is an outstanding example. These
pictures are seen, must be seen, by all who turn to this
form of mental diversion or recreation.
We find that parents use motion picture theatres as con-
venient parking places for children for many hours at a time
with obviously little or no thought to the type of picture
shown. (See page 46).
Some motion picture producers have apparently con-
cluded that the box office is best served by appeal to the
lower standards of life. Others take it appears the contrary
view, hold to the clean pictures and in our opinion build on
a firmer foundation. Those producers who will not volun-
tarily respect certain social standards are headed toward
legislative rebellion. In the well-known magazine Liberty,
issue of June 6, 1936, George M. Cohan, a veteran actor-play-
wright speaks his mind about some sins of his profession in
a most interesting article under the penetrating caption "Dirt
for Dough's Sake." Among other things he says:
"Through a year I suppose I read a couple of hun-
dred plays. It's my experience that they're growing
progressively dirtier. Reading this rubbish, sometimes
I think I've found out what happened to all the nasty
little boys who used to scrawl obscenities on fences."
Continuing he observes:
"You can't lay down any hard-and-fast rules for the
theatre that genius cannot change or contradict success-
fully. Just as the new idea that you must have sex and
profanity to pack 'em in is wrong, so is the old idea that
you must have a theme of reclamation or love interest
for a hit. The most thrilling performance I ever saw
was the elder Guitry in Pasteur a play based on
Pasteur's discovery and application of his hydrophobia
cure and the jealousy his success aroused among his
fellows of the French Academy of Medicine. There was
no female character in the cast. I understood hardly
a word; but you didn't have to know French to under-
stand Guitry he was magnificent.
"Incidentally, I had him booked for an American
tour until Sacha, his son, intervened. I'd stake my
reputation that he'd have captivated the theatre lovers
of this country.
"These great European performers are so infused
with the tradition of their theatres that cheapness and
bawdiness are anathema. And the public of the great
over there cherish their reputations to the point of rever-
"It'sithe memory of the fine players, of David War-
field, of Maude Adams, and scores of others, together
with a confidence that other fine talent is growing and
will come to do equally fine things it is this combina-
tion that lets us hope. I think a day will come when an
amazing genius like Noel Coward will find his best work,
Cavalcade, far more worth doing than some of the tracts
he seems to like. Or Clifford Odets, the newest sensation,
who seems unwilling to restrain his vigor from vicious
expression, may use his powers for real entertainment.
"Ive always admired the classic crack 0. Henry
made when somebody thought to flatter him by calHng
him the de Maupassant of America.
That's wrong,' said 0. Henry. "I never wrote an
unclean line in my life'"
Then in his inimitable way he adds:
Meanwhile, since Ive been beefing about the pigsty
school of authoring and acting, what, you may ask, is
the remedy? Quite simple. Do as old Major Funk-
hauser in Chicago used to do. When there's disorderly
conduct on the stage, give it exactly the same treatment
it gets anywhere else. Call the eow!"
Incidentally any aside from the question of the effect bo
certain types of pictures on the minds of the movie patron,
child and adult, we believe that when a movie house makes
one of its box office attractions what is commonly known
as "bank nite" it lowers the standard of the theatre in its
field of art or higher purpose and at the same time fosters
upon the public a thing harmful inits influence.
1. That this part of this report be sent to the Motion
Picture Producers & Distributors Association, 28 West 44th
Street, New York City and to Mr. Will Hays, at the same
address as Jacksonville's protest. Standing alone It may
not be significant. As one among many it may be.
2. That the Crime Prevention Bureau, hereinabove sug-
gested, if and when organized, itself organize an inter-
organization committee composed of representatives of va-
rious local organizations and a cross-section ct our people,
the purpose of which will be to make it clear that the "Dirt
for Dough's Sake" is not a fair standard; that a great ma-
jority of us do want and will supportcdean pictures.
3. That local theatre managers be furnished by the
Crime Prevention Bureau copies of section 7581 Compiled
General Laws of Florida 1927, reading as follows:
"Whoever imports, prints, publishes, exhibits, dis-
plays, sells or distributes any book, pamphlet, ballad,
printed paper, stereopticon, moving picture, slide or film,
or other thing, containing obscene language or any ob-
scene prints, figures, pictures or descriptions manifestly
tending to the corruption of the morals of youth, or
introduces into any family, school or place of education,
or buys, procures, receives or has in his possession any
book pamphlet, ballad, printed paper, stereopticon slide
or moving picture film, or other thing, either for the
purpose of sale, exhibition, loan or circulation, or with
the intent to introduce the same into any family, school,
or place of education, shall be punished by imprisonment
in the State prison, not exceeding five years, or in the
county jail not exceeding one year, or by fine not ex-
ceeding one hundred dollars. (Ch. 1637, Sub-Ch. 8, Acts
1868, Sec. 15, amended by Ch. 7859, May 28, 1917, Sec.
This statute suggests that if the movie is not to take
responsibility where the public welfare is incidentally con-
cerned then public welfare will have no alternative except to
ultimately take steps where the movie is incidentally con-
What has been said about the movie and what may be
hereinafter said about the Press applies in large measure
to the radio. From the public's point of view the latter
offers a distinct advantage, a turn of the dial brings silence,
but it is this silence which will make the radio less pro-
ductive of sponsoring accounts and less profitable to the
sponsor. The radio has, it appears, two classes of programs,
one commercial and the other sustaining. As a rule, the
latter, paid for and selected by the radio companies offer a
higher standard. The radio is being forced to come some-
what under government control, which in this instance, has
advantages. Nevertheless radio has no choice except to
clean house and keep it clean. As a visitor to the quiet
sanctuary of the fire side "Dirt for Dough's Sake" will not
work here even in theory.-
In instances it is a known fact that radio is fast becom-
ing an effective instrument to be used in locating and appre-
On the question as to whether the press should carry
essential crime news for its readers there can be little doubt
or debate. However, on the question of the manner in
which it is handled by many newspapers and the detrimental
effect of so handling, there is great divergence of opinion.
We subscribe to that school of thought which holds, First,
that the press should carry significant crime news, and Sec-
ond, that crime news should be treated as any other news,
strictly as news. The public has an interest in knowing of
the commission of a crime, the apprehension of the criminal
and his punishment. The criminal at large and the crimin-
ally inclined may take notice. The public, too, should know
that there is a social problem of this character. Nevertheless,
when a newspaper begins to exploit reader interest by sen-
sationalizing crime, its own commercial interest then finds
conflict, in a measure at least, with public welfare. The
press, in our opinion, has great power to lessen crime but it
does not have the responsibility of a reform agency. On this
point Marlen Pew, editor of Editor and Publisher is quoted
"The processes of reform will be slow, but they can
only start when. society takes a constructive, and there--
fore searching, view of the causes of human delinquency.
If only 10 per cent of the newspaper space that is given
to crime effects were to be devoted, for the next 10
years, to a discussion of slentiicmeans of prevention,
public opinion in America would be revolutionized.
"To effect this, science and not the press must lead
the way. The press deals with 'news'. It does not make
Recently in recording the proceedings at the 1986 Con-
vention of the American Bar Association, an Associated Press
story in the Florida Times-Union had the following to say:
"Earlier a proposed statute to prevent 'newspaper
interference with criminal justice was placed before
the association by Philip Lut, Jr. attorney genes of
Indiana, as eminent lawyers and journalits essiled the
'publicity evil' attending celebrated trials.
"The most serious criticism of American criminal
procedure today is that the judges of the courts permit
newspapers to usurp the court's own functions and du-
ties," Lutz told the section of criminal law in his report
as chairman of the committee.
Thomas D. Thatcher of New York, former Solicitor
General of the United States, in an address before a
concurrent meeting ao the conference of Bar Association
delegates, called upon the press of the country to support
the association in ridding the courts of the "pubicity
evil." His appeal was echoed by Sir Willmott Lewis,
American correspondent of The London Times, and by
Attorney Frank J. Hogan of Washington, D. C.
"fhose judicial proceedings in which American
criminal justice most needs to be a calm investigation of
the truth," Attorney General Lutz, declared, "ae, on
the contrary, most violently 'hippodromed and panicked'
by the press."
The following is an interesting observation by another
"Unnecessary details about crime, spread glamor-
ously before all types of readers in newspapers, are
proved by case histories to have incited impressionable
youths and subnormal adults to the commission of kid-
naping, extortion, robbery, murder and similar offenses.
"Admitting that the number oa readers affected in
this way is hard to determine, social workers fnd men-
national handling of crime in the press a troublesome
cause of crime. In some cases they find that the step-
by-step explanation of a criminal's methods by an ex-
pert police reporter has been a suggestive course in
crime for boys who fancy they can avoid the pitfalls
of those caught."
We believe the local press has always made a sincere
effort to co-operate with the courts and other law-enforce-
ment authorities in the suppression of crime. The news-
papers here naturally feel that there is a reader demand for
such details as they now use in crime news. If their sub-
scribers do not feel the same way about it they have the
privilege of voicing their objections direct,-to the press.
To do so would manifest a spirit of co-operation with the
press and the movement to reduce crime.
1. That the public make known to the press its views
on crime news, whether those views be in accord with or con-
trary to the views hereinabove expressed.
2. That this part of this report be sent to the Jackson-
ville press as representing the views of the Jacksonville
Crime Justice Commission.
The recent publicity given to the sale of obscene litera-
ture shipped into Jacksonville and the several arrests which
followed caused almost the complete withdrawal of it. The
character of this literature is far more base than the average
person suspects. It could only tend to degrade the thoughts
of anyone reading it and especially boys. Much of it is not
permitted in the mails because of the utter indecency of the
stories and illustrations.
We suggest that the following ordinance and sections of
the state Statute be called to the attention of those persons
and firms with licenses to sell periodicals and to whom such
licenses may be issued in the future:
Ordinance S-168. Bill 8-238
AN ORDINANCE PROHIBITING THE DISPLAY
OF ANY BOOK, PAMPHLET, PRINTED PAPER OR
OTHER THING CONTAINING OBSCENE PICTURES
BE IT ORDAINED BY THE MAYOR AND CITY
COUNCIL OF THE CITY OF JACKSONVILLE:
Section 1. That from and after the passage of this
ordinance, it shall be unlawful for any person, firm or
corporation, to display to the public view any book,
pamphlet, printed paper or other thing containing any
obscene prints, figures, pictures, language or descrip.
tions, manifestly tending to the corruption of the morals
of youth, either for the purpose of sale or otherwise
Section 2. Any person violating any of the provi-
sions of this ordinance shall, on conviction in a munici-
pal court, for each conviction, be punished by fine not
exceeding $25.00 or imprisonment not exceeding ten
days or by such fine and imprisonment in the discretion
of the court.
Section 7581. PUNISHMENT FOR PUBLISHING
AND DISTRIBUTING.-Whoever imports, prints, pub-
lishes, exhibits, displays, sells or distributes any book,
pamphlet, ballad, printed paper, stereopticon, moving pic-
ture, slide or film, or other thing, containing obscene
language or any obscene prints, figures, pictures or de-
scriptions manifestly tending to the corruption of the
morals of youth, or introduces into any family, school or
place of education, or buys, procures, receives or has in
his possession any book, pamphlet, ballad, printed paper,'
stereopticon slide or moving picture film, or other thing,
either for the purpose of sale, exhibition, loan or circula-
tion, or with the intent to introduce the same into any
family, school, or place of education, shall be punished
by imprisonment in the State prison, not exceeding five
years, or in the county jail not exceeding one year, or by
fine not exceeding one hundred dollars. (Ch. 1687, Sub-
Ch. 8, Acts 1868, Sec. 15, amended by Ch. 7859, May 28,
1917, Sec. 1.)
Section 7582. CONFISCATION OF OBSCENE
BOOKS, ETC. Whenever any one is convicted under
the preceding section, the court in awarding sentence
shall make an order confiscating said book, pamphlet,
ballad, printed paper, picture, slide, film, or other thing
and authorize the executive offer of the court to de-
stroy the same. (Ch. 7369, Acts 1917, Sec. 2.)
Section 7583. OFFICER TO SEIZE BOOKS, ETC.
-Whenever any officer arrests any person charged with
any offense under section 7581 it shall be his duty to
seize said book, pamphlet, ballad, printed paper, picture,
slide, or film, or other thing, and take the same into his
custody to await the sentence of the court upon the trial
of the offender. (Id. Sec. 3.)
The result of the recent investigation by the County
Commissioners in finding many names considered illegal
registrations and the experience of many years are sufficient
to justify the installation of voting machines. The idea
should now need little argument in its favor. They are an
absolute necessity. We believe it to be one of the many
things which will go to create greater respect for law.
Greater respect for law means less crime.
And strongly urge the installation of voting machines.
The Duval County delegation to the legislature should take
steps looking toward the amendment of present legislation
so that the requisite number of machines may be installed as
quickly as possible by county and city.
HOME, SCHOOL AND CHURCH
It is not generally known that because of outside influ-
ences 20% of criminals come from so-called good homes,
homes where there has been amply food and clothing; that
the average age of the criminal is 23; that the largest age
group is 19; that the average age of hold-up men at Sing
Sing is 19; that most criminal careers are well under way by
18; and that the problem children begin to give trouble be-
tween the age of 6 and 10.
Parents are often blind to evil influences on their child-
ren. One of the investigators of this committee visited for
a period all local motion picture theatres where pictures deal-
ing with stories of crime were shown. An excerpt from one
of his reports reads as follows: "The picture was a picture
of criminal record, with a murder trial, lots of shooting, bar-
rooms and drinking." During the period from 1:30 to 3:00
he "found 39 children under 15 years of age admitted un-
accompanied by adults, (mostly under 12 years of age) and
9 children accompanied by adults."
We have learned of instances where unnecessarily severe
punishment and fruitless attempts of parents to place children
in activities or fit them for careers for which they are not
fitted by temperament or otherwise has resulted in sad con-
sequences for both parent and child.
Parents are often oblivious to the fact their own conduct
or lack of guidance is registering on the thought of the adol-
escent child. The instruction that impresses the child most
is by example. In the words of a well-known poet: "Though
an able speaker charms me with his eloquence, I say, I'd
rather see a sermon than hear one, any day."
It is interesting to note that the total of crime in the
United States annually far outweighs the costs of public
education. The latter amounts to $2,500,000,000.00 while
the former ranges upward of $15,000,000,000.00. It is said
that the annual per capital costs averges for every inmte of
Federal and State penal or reformatory institutions 875.00,
while for every child in public schools it is $W800. This is
not only shocking but almost alarming and if no other in-
formation were available should be sufficient to justify pa-
rents and teachers in rising in rebellion against this condition.
There are about 25,000,000 pupils in the schools in the
United States. They will ive with and lelp make the future.
Closely linked to the home in guidance is the schooL'
A war on crime in these two institutions can go far in
preventing crime. It is an individual class-room service
teachers may render in the cause of humanity to help eradi-
cate crime. It is here that the child may be given individual
attention when it is found that the attitude of the child is at
cross-purposes with those things that would add to his social
and spiritual development, or more specifically his ability to
think right. Often just a word "spoken in season" will open
up an entirely new avenue of thought to a child. Deans for
boys and girls in schools are killing posts of great importance
to the youth of the nation.
We find that commercialized interests in the neighbor-
hood of schools often place temptation in the path of school
children. At one place cigarette packages are broken and
cigarettes sold at a penny each to accommodate the purse. In
a number of the schools specific instances of delinquency were
investigated with the result that the complete lack of or poor
home environment was found largely responsible. The schools
have classes in civics, teach the Federal Constitution, respect
for law and character building. The senior high schools have
deans for girls. It would be difficult to estimate the great
good accomplished, as suggested, especially in guidance to
those girls without the right home influence. We believe
that this work on an even larger scale should be carried on in
both the elementary and secondary schools. We believe that
this work for boys, done by assistant principals, should like-
wise be extended.
Dr. Henry Lester Brewer, a former president of the
National Educational Association has said that:
"The school has too often been led to glorify such
life goals as 'get ahead,' 'be somebody,' 'money is the
best measure of success,' and 'money opens all doors.'
This emphasis has been pressed upon teachers by the
citizens of our individualistic and acquisitive society.
"As people generally become more unselfish and
socially minded, the school will be freer as a character-
forming agency. Its efforts will tend to diminish or-
ganized and individual crime which is deliberate in
"Within recent years school subjects have been gen-
erally revised to stress the cooperative and unselfish
aspects of social life. Extra-curriculum activities, hob-
bies, music, art, and dramatics have been given a larger
place so as to develop individual interests and to divert
surplus time and energy into socially constructive pur-
suits. Visiting teachers and regular staff members have
given much time to the elimination of conditions in homes
and communities which contribute to delinquency. Every
aspect of school life has been focused upon the individual
child so as to help his to find a happy place as a part of
a wholesome society."
The following is added by Dr. John M. Brewer, a Director,
Bureau of Vocational Guidance, Harvard Graduate School of
"It is my firm conviction, based on many years of
teaching in the public schools and on work with boys'
clubs, summer camps and settlements, that the schools
of our nation must be radically reorganized in order to
render their best service toward preventing the causes
"Such reorganization need not involve greater ex-
pense, but it does involve a re-examination of the aims
of education with a view to the introduction into curri-
cula of subjects. designed to build up right attitudes
toward crime in the pupils.
"The prevention of many causes of crime cannot
be accomplished without wider and better forms of voca-
tional guidance. A very large part of crime is voca-
tional life gone wrong.
"When will educators give us a school system which
misses none of the following?
"1. Vocational guidance for every child, to teach
him why and how to earn an honest living, and why and
how to cooperate in bringing to pass a better economic
"2. Effective guidance in the citizenship of school
life and of other juvenile activities, teaching the wisdom,
knowledge and skill of law making and administrative
"3. Guidance in working out and applying stand-
ards in leisure-time activities.
"4. Guidance in the discussion and solution of moral
and ethical problems, with application first to present
issues in the life of youth, and, second, to every kind of
adult activity, including the home, citizenship, work and
"The school or college which neglects an effective
attack upon these problems is not only resigning a large
part of its educational duty; it is actually, through this
neglect, contributing to the cause of crime."
Such expressions from such eminent authorities show
that the school actually has a duty to perform in the reduc-
tion of crime, a duty that needs specific attention from school
board, superintendent, principal and teacher.
If the question should be asked: "What institution is
most capable of successfully combatting the ravages of
crime?" unquestionably many voices would reply, the church,
sincerely backed by its millions of members. The church
itself may not be fully conscious of its own great power in
this direction with the consistent support of its members.
When that power is aroused and surges forward the crime
army will be found to be not only greatly outnumbered, but
less formidable as an enemy to a national life of safety and
sound economic prosperity.
The Intense misery and suffering criminals bring upon
themselves give great weight to the following words of Dr.
Hugh S. Neagill, general secretary of the International Coun-
cil of Religious Education in saying that to remove the causes
of crime "We must establish as widely as possible in the
minds of all persons that to deliberately violate any law of
God and of nature is not only wrong but foolish and self-
destructive, for no one can violate dMch a law without suffer-
ing the inevitable consequences os such violation upon his
own character, personality and life."
1. Not less politics, but more politics of the right sort;
that qualified men and women become more active in our
system of government by offering themselves, when occasion
requires for public offae Our form of government is pri-
marily and essentially political a government "of, by and
for the people."
2. That if the principle of simple honesty is violated
when the man or woman in the church or home is called upon
to take part in the functions of government such as in the
performance of jury duty or to exercise his or her right of
franchise at the ballot box, then government and its benefits
must collapse regardless of how sound the theory at it may
be. Our form of government does not cause it to operate
automatically as experience has taught.
That no group or community effort for relieving
want and the building of character should ever be permitted
to fail for want of citizen interest and support. The success
of such efforts are always a challenge to crime. The exist-
ence of every social service agency is a "stop" signal to
4. That this part of this report be referred to the Min-
isterial Alliance of Jacksonville, to any churches not repre-
sented therein, to The Duval County Federation of Parent-
Teachers Associations and to the Duval County Board of
5. That the School Board be requested to give special
and immediate consideration to the question of increasing
the dean personnel for boys and girls both the secondary
schools and for a number of the elementary grades.
6. That the School Board and the Duval County delega-
tion in the legislature give consideration to the preparation
and introduction of laws creating attendance officers for
both white and colored children, unless the School Board can
work out a more effective solution of this problem.
7. An effective thing done by a Parent-Teacher Associa-
tion in another state was a city-wide movement under which
children were prevailed upon to meet in a public park bring-
ing with them their toy firearms out of which a large bonfire
was made. The children responded to the appeal on a basis
of patriotism in helping in the fight against crime. The event
was publicized with a fine effect on both young and grown-ups.
Incidentally we find that the city ordinance against the sale
of firearms is ineffective, largely because permits to pur-
chase do not seem difficult to obtain and principally because
it seems they may be purchased from mail order houses
and sent in by express.
We hope that our recommendations And any criticism
in this report will be considered of a constructive nature.
It is offered in a spirit of cooperation rather than condemna-
tion. In some instances we might have been tempted to be
more specific and even assume the role of prosecutor, but we
have concluded that that part should be left to regularly
constituted authority with whom we are trying to cooperate
and we believe that the course we have followed will result
in the greatest good to the greatest number.
Another thing, we believe that the quality of thought
which built this nation is deeply imbedded in the character
of our people and that our future is safe in American tradi-
tions, however it would be the height of folly and a departure
from the wisdom that has guided us to close our eyes to the
operation of forces hat are proving so measurably damaging
to our children, oerlhomes and our businesses.
No one on the &ime Justice Commission lays claim to
being a deep student of sociology or criminology. However,
among the number of our ten sub-committees there is repre
sented a variety of experience in many walks of Mfe. With
this background the task was approached from a practical
point of view. We trust you and other interested authorities
may find the definite recommendations worthy of adoption and
that they may be the means of helping to solve, in a measure,
a social problem in our city which so vitally concerns the
person and property of each of us.
We have found all authorities, city, state, county and
Federal ready at all times to assist in a work in which we
have been entirely free to act in accordance with our own
views and planning. We commend you for taking the first
step toward a more intensified effort to improve conditions
here when you appointed the commission and we await with
interest your next step. In it you have our assurance of
Yours most sincerely,
JACKSONVILLE CRIME JUSTICE COMMISSION
LEE GUEST, General Chairman
A. S. BEVILLE, (Deceased, at time report
Chairman sub-committee on Schools
FRED S. CATES,
Chairman subcommittee on
Press and Obscene Literature
W. S. CRISWELL,
Chairman sub-committee on Neighborhood
JOSEPH K. DAVID,
Chairman sub-committee on Churches
JAMES T. ETHEREDGE,
Chairman sub-committee on Motion Pictures
MARCUS C. FAGG,
Chairman sub-committee on Co-ordination
GEORGE COUPER GIBBS,
Chairman sub-committee on Law
B. K, HALL,
Chairman sub-committee on
Gambling and Drink
FRANCIS M. HOLT,
Chairman sub-committee on Courts
JOHN W. KEYES,
Chairman sub-committee on Negro