Front Cover
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Chapter I: Alexander the Great
 Chapter II: Addison, Joseph
 Chapter III: Agassiz, Louis John...
 Chapter IV: Bacon, Francis
 Chapter V: Caesar, Caius Juliu...
 Chapter VI: Disraeli, Benjamin
 Chapter VII: Everett, Edward
 Chapter VIII: Farragut, David...
 Chapter IX: Gordon, Charles...
 Chapter X: Hannibal
 Chapter XI: Irving, Washington
 Chapter XII: Judson, Adoniram
 Chapter XIII: Knox, John
 Chapter XIV: Lincoln, Abraham
 Chapter XV: Morse, Samuel Finley...
 Chapter XVI: Newton, Sir Isaac
 Chapter XVII: Obookiah, Henry
 Chapter XVIII: Penn, William
 Chapter XIX: Quincy, Josiah
 Chapter XX: Rush, Benjamin
 Chapter XXI: Savonarola, Girol...
 Chapter XXII: Tennyson, Alfred
 Chapter XXIII: Ulfila
 Chapter XXIV: Vincent, Rev. John...
 Chapter XXV: Webster, Daniel
 Chapter XXVI: Xenophon
 Back Cover

Title: Stories of great men
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00055050/00001
 Material Information
Title: Stories of great men
Physical Description: 136 p. : ill., port ; 19 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Huntington, Faye, 1838-1923
Lothrop Publishing Company ( Publisher )
Publisher: Lothrop Publishing Company
Place of Publication: Boston
Publication Date: c1887
Subject: Kings and rulers -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Inventors -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Soldiers -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Publishers' advertisements -- 1887   ( rbgenr )
Biographies -- 1887   ( rbgenr )
Bldn -- 1887
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collective biography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: United States -- Massachusetts -- Boston
Statement of Responsibility: Faye Huntington ; illustrated.
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Funding: Preservation and Access for American and British Children's Literature, 1870-1889 (NEH PA-50860-00).
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Bibliographic ID: UF00055050
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: Baldwin Library of Historical Children's Literature in the Department of Special Collections and Area Studies, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
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oclc - 34728132

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Cover 1
        Cover 2
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Title Page
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Table of Contents
        Page 5
        Page 6
    Chapter I: Alexander the Great
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
    Chapter II: Addison, Joseph
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
    Chapter III: Agassiz, Louis John Rudolph
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
    Chapter IV: Bacon, Francis
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
    Chapter V: Caesar, Caius Julius
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
    Chapter VI: Disraeli, Benjamin
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
    Chapter VII: Everett, Edward
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
    Chapter VIII: Farragut, David Glasgow
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
    Chapter IX: Gordon, Charles George
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
    Chapter X: Hannibal
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
    Chapter XI: Irving, Washington
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
    Chapter XII: Judson, Adoniram
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
    Chapter XIII: Knox, John
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
    Chapter XIV: Lincoln, Abraham
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
    Chapter XV: Morse, Samuel Finley Breese
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
    Chapter XVI: Newton, Sir Isaac
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
    Chapter XVII: Obookiah, Henry
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
    Chapter XVIII: Penn, William
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
    Chapter XIX: Quincy, Josiah
        Page 103
        Page 104
    Chapter XX: Rush, Benjamin
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
    Chapter XXI: Savonarola, Girolamo
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
    Chapter XXII: Tennyson, Alfred
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
    Chapter XXIII: Ulfila
        Page 120
        Page 121
        Page 122
    Chapter XXIV: Vincent, Rev. John H., D. D.
        Page 123
        Page 124
        Page 125
        Page 126
        Page 127
        Page 128
    Chapter XXV: Webster, Daniel
        Page 129
        Page 130
        Page 131
        Page 132
        Page 133
    Chapter XXVI: Xenophon
        Page 134
        Page 135
        Page 136
    Back Cover
        Cover 1
        Cover 2
Full Text

.'* t




RmB o, id,

I -


NTOTE.- The Books in each of the series marked with a brace are connected stories,
Ester Ried Series By Pansy and
SEster Ried Asleep and Awake Her Friends
Julia Bied Listening and Ledvenfd
The King's Daughter A Sevenfold Trouble
Wise and Otherwise $1.50
Ester Ried Yet Speaking Juvenile Books
$1.50 each Tip Lewis and His Lamp
Chautauqua Series Little Fishers and their Nets
The Man of the House
Four Girls at Chautauqua Christie's Christmas
Chautauqua Girls at Home Miss Dee Dunmore Bryant
Ruth Erskine's Crosses Sidney Martin's Christmas
Judge Burnham's Daughters Twenty Minutes Late
The Hall in the Grove Only Ten Cents
Eighty-Seven $.o each
$1.50 each
g -See. $i.5o each' Grandpa's Darlings
General Series $1.,s
Chrissy's Endeavor Next Things
Her Associate Members At Home and Abroad
SHousehold Puzzles In the Woods and Out
The Randolphs $.0oo each
An Endless Chain Bernie's White Chicken
Three People Helen Lester
Interrupted Docia's Journal
A New Graft on the Family Tree Jessie Wells
Mrs. Solomon Smith Looking On Monteagle
Spun hrom Fact Couldn't be Bought
One Commonplace Day Mary Burton Abroad
The Pocket Measure Six Little Girls
Links in Rebecca's Life
Stephen Mitchell's Journey 75 cents each
"Wanted" Golden Text Stories
$I.5o each Her Mother's Bible
Cunning Workmen We Twelve Girls
Miss Priscilla Hunter Browving Boys
What She Said and What She Meant Dozen ofTlm (A)
$1.25 each Gertrude's Diary
Mrs. Harry Harper's Awakening Hedge Fence (A)
Side by Side
$2.oo Six O'Clock in the Evening
By Pansy and Mrs. Liv- Exact Truth
Helen the Historian
ingston Little Card
Divers Women 50 cents each
AuntHannahandMarthaandJohn The Pansy Primary
John Remington, Martyr Libraries
$1.5o each Pansy Primary Library No. 1.
By Pansy and Faye Hun- 30 vols., $7.50 net.
Pansy Primary Library No. 2.
tington 20 vols., $5.00 net.
Pansy Primary Library No. 3.
From Different Standpoints 12 vols., $3.00 net.
Modern Prophets Pansy Primary Library No. 4.
$2.50 each 12 vols., $3.00 net.


I "0 '














W HERE shall we begin? With "A" of
course, but there are so many great men
whose names begin with A, I don't know how
to select. However, I might as well go back a
good way in the world's history, and say Alex-
ander the Great. Since he was so great that
they added the word to his name, perhaps he
ought to head the list. Though mind, he is not
my idea of a great man, after all.
Who was he, what was he, and when did he
live? Three questions in one, and questions
which when well answered tell a great deal.
He was the son of King Philip of Macedonia,
and was born at Pella three hundred and fifty-
six years before Jesus came to this earth. His
father was a strong brave soldier, and his mother
was a strong fierce woman, and their son is said
to have been like them both. When he was


thirteen years old he had one of the greatest men
in the world for his teacher. This man's name
was Aristotle.
Another "A," you see; but I shall have to
leave you to discover his greatness for your-
When Alexander was sixteen, his father left
him to manage the country while he himself
went to war.
When he was eighteen he won a great victory
in the army. Very soon afterwards his father
was killed, and Alexander with his great army
fought his way into power, and made people
recognize him as ruler of the Greeks.
From that time on, for years, his story might
be told in one word, WAR. Battle after battle
was fought and won; cities were destroyed; in
Thebes, just one house was left standing, which
belonged to a poet named Pindar. I know you
are curious to hear why his house was spared,
and I know that the industrious ones will try to
look it up, and the lazy ones will yawn and say,
"Oh, never mind; what do I care? "
Alexander's next wish was to conquer Persia;
I am sure you would be interested to read the ac-
count of his triumphant march. The people


were so afraid of him that they would run when
theyheard that his army was coming; sometimes
without an attempt to defend their cities; and
all that Alexander would have to do when he
reached the town would be to march in and
take possession.
This series of battles was closed at a place
named Gordium.
Have you ever heard of the Gordian knot ?"
The story is, that at this place, Gordium,
there was a car or chariot, which had been dedi-
cated to the gods; and a certain god had said
that whoever should succeed in untying the knot
which fastened the pole of the car to the yoke,
should rule over Asia. No one had been found
who could untie it. But what did Alexander
do when he found he could not untie it, but cut
it in two with his sword! And the people ac-
cepted him as the man who was to rule!
War, war, war! The great Persian soldier,
Darius, had such a high opinion of his own large
army that he let Alexander get with his soldiers
to a point where they could fight, and could not
well be taken, and another great victory was the
end of the story. When Darius saw his mistake,
and tried to coax Alexander into being friends,


by offering his daughter for the conqueror's wife,
and a great deal of land in the bargain, Alexan-
der replied that he would marry the daughter if
he wanted her, whether her father was willing
or not; and that all the land belonged to him.
Now comes a dreadful story of wrong. Alex-
ander heard that a plot to take his life had been
discovered by one of his men named Philotas,
but that he had not told of it for two days.
When asked why he did not, he said that the story
came from a worthless source and was not to be
believed. But Alexander did not trust him and
decided that he should be killed. As if this was
not enough, he had him tortured to make him
tell the names of others who were suspected.
It is said that Alexander stood by, and watched
the writhings, and listened to the screams of this
man who had fought by his side in many battles!
Yet he seemed sometimes able to trust people.
Once, when he was sick, word came to him that
his physician had been bribed to poison him.
When his next dose of medicine was ready,
Alexander laid the letter which told this story,
before his friend, the physician, then drank the
medicine, to show how fully he trusted him.
Before he was thirty-three years old this won-


derful, sad life was ended! I do not know any-
thing sadder than a great, bad man. I cannot
help wondering how it would have been if Alex-
ander had lived about three hundred years later,
and met Jesus Christ. Yet he might have
known Jesus as Abraham did, and David, and
Samuel, and all that long list of great men.
The story of his last sickness is very dreadful.
It seemed to have been brought on by his awful
grief over the death of a friend. But he had
such a strange way of grieving! All night he
would spend in drinking liquor, and all day he
lay and slept off its effects. But one morning
he found himself unable to rise, and he never
rose again. When he was asked who should
succeed him as ruler of the kingdom, he said,
" the strongest." But he gave his signet ring to
one of his generals named Perdiccas.
So closed this great little life. The greatest
soldier who ever lived, as men talk about soldiers,
but an utter failure in the sight of him who said:
"He that ruleth his own spirit, is greater than
he that taketh a city,"



W HEN I was a little girl, I sat listening
one day while several gentlemen who
were visiting my father, talked together, and
one of them told a queer story which interested
me very much, and called forth bursts of laugh-
ter from the gentlemen. Then, one said, "That
is almost equal to Addison's time."
Over this sentence I puzzled. The only per-
son whom I knew by that name was an old lame
man who lived at the lower end of a long strag-
gling street, and who was not remarkable for
anything but laziness. What could the gentle-
men who were visiting my father know about
him, and what did they mean by "Addison's
time ? I hovered around my father for quite
a while, looking for a chance to ask questions,
but there was no break in the conversation, so I
gave it up. Something recalled the matter to


me during the afternoon, and I asked a boy who
lived near us, and with whom I was on quite
friendly terms, if old Joe Addison had a clock
that was queer; explaining to him at the same
time why I wanted to know. He replied that
he had seen a very large and very ugly-looking
watch hanging in the shoe shop by old Joe's
bench, and that Joe called it his turnip, and
could take the outside casing all off, just as one
could take a thing out of a box. This then was
the explanation, I thought, but though we talked
it over very thoroughly, we failed to see any
connection between the story that the gentle-
men had laughed over, and old Joe Addison's
Something else came up to interest us, and we
forgot all about it. And it was more than a
year afterwards that I learned that my father's
friends did not refer to old Joe at all, but to
another Joseph Addison who was quite a differ-
ent character.
I want you all to become acquainted with the
real Joseph Addison; enough to know what it
means when you hear him mentioned.
So, if you please, set down his name in your
alphabetical dictionary: Joseph Addison.


He was born on a May-day, so it will not be
hard to remember so much of his birthday. But
how shall we remember the date ? Well, you
know the first figure of course, for as we count
time, it is always one. Now jump to six. Six-
teen hundred? Yes; that's it. Two more fig-
ures. What is the next figure to six? Set it
down. And the next figure to one? Set that
down. Now what have you? Sixteen hundred
and seventy-two. A little thinking will fix that
date so you will not be likely to forget it, and it
is really quite nice to know just when people
lived. Now what was Addison, that people are
remembering him for two hundred years? First
a scholar. Then he must have studied hard.
Also he was an author-a poet. When he was
about twenty-one he wrote a poem addressed to
Dryden. Just remember that man's name, will
you? Some day we will make his acquaintance.
Then he translated Latin poetry, and wrote sev-
eral descriptive poems. People do not seem to
have thought any of them remarkable, and for
my part I don't know how he made his living.
We next hear of him as a traveller. His
friends managed to get a pension for him from
the king,. which was to give him a chance to



travel and qualify himself to serve his Majesty.
Imagine our government giving a young man
a salary to travel around with, just so that he
might get ready to work for it! Joseph went to
France, and to Italy, and to Switzerland. Wait,
did I tell you where he was born? In Wilt-
shire, England. His father was a minister. I
don't think the government was so very good to
him, though, for it forgot to pay his salary, af-
ter the first year, and he had to pay his own
travelling expenses. He seems to have worked
hard at his writing, and some of the poems which
people read and admire to-day were written dur-
ing these journeys. One named the "Letter
From Italy." Some people think it is the very
best of all his poems.
When he was thirty-eight years old his life
began to grow brighter. His friends succeeded
in getting him a government office, and there
was a certain great duke about whose victories
Addison made a poem for which he was paid a
large price. From that time he steadily rose in
power. He became secretary to Lord Halifax,
and then entered Parliament. In this place he
knew one thing which great men do not always
learn. That was, how to keep still. He was


spoken of as the silent member." A good deal
of his writing is in the form of plays which were
acted in the theatres.
He had a friend named Richard Steele, with
whom we must sometime get acquainted. This
Mr. Steele was editor of a paper called The
Tattler, for which Addison wrote a great deal.
The paper which followed The Tattler was
named 7The A5ectator, and in these two papers
are gathered some of the finest writings of the
two men. Newspapers were not so plenty then
as now, and The Spectator became famous.
Everybody took it. Addison's essays which
were written for it are still read and admired.
When he was about forty-six years old, he
quarrelled with his old friend Steele, and they
took to writing against each other in the papers,
and calling one another names, like naughty
children. At least Steele did; I am not sure
that Addison ever stooped so low. He did not
live long after that. In fact, he died in the
June after he was forty-seven. He was buried
in Westminster Abbey in the Poets' Corner.
Now you have been introduced to him, I
hope as you grow older you will be interested
to study his character.



ISN'T that a pretty name? When he was a
little Swiss boy roaming about his home,
I wonder if his mother called him Louis or
Rudolph, or plain John? How many years
ago was that? Oh, not so very many. It
was one May day, in 1807, that he opened his
eyes on this world. I don't know very much
about his boyhood that can be told here. He
was always a good scholar. Everybody who has
anything to say of him seems to be sure of that.
And on questioning them, I find they mean by it
that he worked hard at his lessons and learned
them. No boy or girl must think that good schol-
ars are born so. Every one of them has to work
for their wisdom. Our boy studied at home. His
father was a minister. When he was old enough
he was sent away to the best schools within reach,
where he studied medicine. He became a


famous man, but not as a physician. The fact is
he was an ichthyologist. Ah, now I've caught
you! Who knows the meaning of that word?
Boys, are there any ichthyologists among your
friends? I asked a little girl what the word
meant. She did not know and turned to her tall
brother who was studying Latin. Humph!"
he said. "Of course I know. It is one who
understands ichthyology."
"But what is ichthyology? she persisted.
"Why, it is it is ichthyology, of course," he
said; and that is as much as he seemed to know
about it.
Really, I think we can do better than that.
An ichthyologist is one who understands all
about fishes. Think of the little slippery, scaly
things having such a long word as that belonging
to them! Where did they get it? Oh, go back
to the Greek language, and ask your father, or
your brother, or somebody, to tell you the Greek
word for fish, and you will be able to guess the
rest out for yourselves.
Well, Louis John Rudolph, when he was quite
a boy, was chosen by some scientific men to study
out the story of some fishes that were brought
from the Amazon River. You see he must have


had a good name as a student, or this honor
would never have come to him. It seems he
did his work well, and became so interested that
he went on studying fishes. When he was about
twenty-one, he began to write papers about their
curious and wonderful varieties, which showed
so much knowledge that scholars began to get
very much interested in the student, as well as
in his fishes. As the years went by, and the boy
became a man and was called Mr. Agassizhe
became known all over the world for his knowl-
edge in this direction; he grew more and more
interested. He found fishes everywhere. Fossil
fishes next began to interest him. What are
they? Why, fishes turned to stone. He found
them among the rocks of Switzerland. Very
little was known about them. Agassiz undertook
to find out all he could. I have not time, nor
room, to tell you the story of his long hard years
of work. I can only tell you that he succeeded.
His name is great, because he has been a great
helper to students. It is great for another rea-
son. The more he studied the wonderful works
of God, the more he seemed to learn to love and
trust God. The more he read of the rocks, and
the bones, scattered over the earth, the more


sure he was that the Bible was true. He came
to our own country when he was not much over
thirty years old, and lived there for the rest of
his life; always studying, and teaching others.
He became a professor in Cambridge University,
where he helped to build a monument for him-
self in the Museum of Natural History which
has helped and is helping so many students. He
was not an old man when he died only about
sixty-six years; but he did more work in those
years than most men accomplish who live to be



W HEN I was a girl in school, the teacher
used to give out topics once month for
essays. One evening she gave to Fanny Rhodes
this topic -" Bacon." Poor Fannie hated es-
says worse than any of the others, I believe, and
over this subject she fairly groaned. "As if
I could!" she said. But she did. In just a
month from the day the subjects were given
out, the essays were to be read. Fanny was
among the first to be called forward. I ought
to tell you that these monthly essays were not
passed in for correction until after they were
read. They were to be given to the school ex-
actly as they came from the author's hand. So
Fannie began:

The subject assigned to me for this month is
bacon. I do not see how it is possible for any


one to say much on such a subject. Everybody
knows all that there is to say about it. It is
simply the flesh of hogs, salted, or pickled, or

Before she had reached the close of this sen-
tence, the pupils were in such roars of laughter
that her voice was drowned. She looked around
upon us with such astonished eyes that the
thing grew all the funnier, and the boys fairly
Even the gentle teacher was laughing.
0 Fannie, Fannie !" she said at last. Did
you really think I meant pork ? "
Why, what else could you mean ?" said be-
wildered Fannie. And then we all laughed
"Why, Fannie," said Miss Henderson, "I
thought of course you would understand that I
meant Lord Bacon."
Lord Bacon repeated poor Fannie in dis-
may; I never heard of him."
So lest you too make the same mistake, I want
to introduce you, not to a piece of pork, but to
Francis Bacon, who was born in London con-
siderably more than three hundred years ago.
Isn't that a long time to be remembered ?


What about him ? Why, he was a very learned
man. A lawyer who wrote books that the law-
yers of to-day study carefully.
Also he wrote essays on a great variety of sub-
jects -essays that scholars in these days read
and enjoy. In fact, as I look them over, I
see many sentences which girls and boys might
enjoy before they are old enough or wise enough
to be called scholars. Isn't that a queer idea,
that you must be quite wise before people will
say of you he, or she, is a scholar ? "
I have been reading Lord Bacon's essay on
"Cunning," and it certainly shows that the peo-
ple who lived hundreds of years ago, were at least
as cunning as they are now.
Listen to this: It is a point of cunning, when
you have anything to obtain of present despatch,
to amuse the party with whom you deal, with
some other discourse, that he may not be too
much awake to make objections.
I knew a secretary who never came to Queen
Elizabeth of England, with bills to sign, but he
would always first put her in some discourse of
state, that she might the less mind the bills."
And this: The breaking off in the midst of
that, one was about to say, as if he took himself


up, breeds a greater appetite in him, with whom
you confer, to know more."
Did you never hear girls talk together accord-
ing to this hint ?
"Girls, it was the queerest thing you ever
heard of! And then Minnie said but dear me!
I don't suppose I ought to tell you that "
At which the girls are almost sure to say,
"Oh, yes, do! We'll never repeat it in the
It is my opinion that a great many boys and
girls must have studied Bacon very carefully.
Here is another wise saying: "In things that
a man would not be seen in himself, it is a point
of cunning to borrow the name of the world :
beginning, 'the world says,' or, there is a
speech abroad.'"
If Lord Bacon were living in these days, he
would know that the way to do it would be to
commence all such sentences with Why, they
say," etc. Have you never wondered who
"they" were, who are all the time saying such
important, and often such disagreeable things ?
Lord Bacon says, "I knew one that when he
wrote a letter, he would put that which was
most material in the postscript; as if it had been




a by matter." I have received just such letters
as thit, and sometimes they are from boys and
girls. Remember, the great Lord Bacon does
not say that it is a wise thing to do, but a
point of cunning."
I do not find that he wrote about getting into
debt, but perhaps he did, for he certainly knew
a great deal about it. He has the name of hav-
ing been all his life in debt to some of his friends.
So, wise man as he was, like most other men, we
can, as soon as we begin to study his life, find
something to avoid, as well as something to copy.
Yet we are to remember him as a wonderful
man. Here is what one writer says of him: A
man so rare in knowledge, of so many several
kinds, ended with the facility and felicity of
expressing it in so elegant, significant, abundant
and yet so choice a way of words, of metaphors,
of allusions, perhaps the world has not seen
since it was a world." That sentence was writ-
ten long ago, yet men think much the same of
him still.
He was not only a lawyer, but a philosopher.
Now just what does that word mean ? Do you
know? I thought not. Let us go to the dic-
tionary and see. Philosopher : one devoted to


philosophy." Very well, Webster, but what is
philosophy ? Look again. Philosophy : the
love of, or search after wisdom." Why, that is
extraordinary Then we may all he philoso-
phers But Vebster says a great deal more about
the word. If you have a bit of the philosopher
in your nature, I think after reading this article,
you will go at once to the dictionary, and have
more wisdom after you have carefully studied the
word Philosophy than you had before. Here is
one more definition of the word, to give you a
hint of what Lord Bacon filled his time with.
Philosophy: The science of things divine and
human, and the causes in which they are con-
I wonder if you now feel introduced to this
great man ? Enough so, certainly, not to think of
him as a piece of pork It is more than two hun-
dred and fifty years since he died. He was not
an old man, only about sixty-five, I believe ; yet
he had done a great deal of work, and will be
remembered, I suppose, as long as there are books
to read.



O UR Alphabet would not be complete if we
left out one of the most remarkable men
that ever lived. Perhaps we shall discover why
he is called a remarkable man.
Let your thoughts go back along the years to
dhe first years you can remember anything about,
to the times of which your father and mother or
perhaps your grandfather and grandmother have
told you. Farther than that. Go back in the
pages of history even farther than the history of
the years when our Saviour was on earth. That
is a long time to think back, is it not? But our
record tells us that Caesar was born one hundred
years before Christ. He must have been a dili-
gent student, for he became learned in philoso-
phy and science, and thoroughly understood all
the arts of war. Those of you who have pro-
gressed so far in your Latin studies, are familiar


with his history of the wars he waged with the
Ielvetii, a nation which occupied what is now
Switzerland, and with a king called Ariovistus.
This was a German king who had crossed over
the line into Gaul, and if you have read the story
of these wars, you know something of his pecu-
liarity as a historian, as well as something of his
skill in carrying on war. For seven years he
waged war in Gaul, in the meantime invading
Britain. After this the Senate at Rome com-
manded Casar to disband his army and return
to Rome. This lie refused to do except under
certain conditions which were refused ; and the
Senate further declared that unless his army
was disbanded by a certain day Cdesar would be
considered a public enemy. When he heard of
this decree he called his soldiers together, and by
his eloquence made them feel that both he and
they had been treated badly, and then he deter-
mined to go on. It was not lawful for a general
to lead an army into the province of Rome unless
upon occasions of coming in great triumph.
Now I presume you have heard it said, when
a person has gone too far in some undertaking
to retreat, that he "has crossed the Rubicon."
The Rubicon was a small stream which formed



the boundary between Gaul, where CResar had
been all this time with his army, and the Roman
province. After he had made up his mind what to
do, lie led his soldiers across this little river. It
was not much to do, but it was the important
step which decided his future course.
I cannot tell you all that followed; how the
leaders at Rome were terrified at the approach
of the famous general, and fled pursued by Cdesar,
who soon was made dictator of Rome. A little
while after, hearing of a chance for a conquest
in Asia Minor, he set out for Tarsus and pres-
ently sent back that famous message Veni,
vidi, vici!"--"I came, I saw, I conquered!"
He came back to Rome after some further tri-
umphs in Africa, and ruled fifteen years. Though
he gained his position of power unlawfully, he
ruled wisely and appears to have sought to pro-
mote the welfare of his State. He made many
good laws and carried forward many schemes
for the general good. Among his undertakings
was the revision of the calendar, in which he was
assisted by some wise men who suggested the in-
troduction of leap-years to make up for the six
hours which were running behind every year.
But he had many enemies, and these conspired


to take his life. When he was fifty-six years old
he was assassinated in the Senate chamber.
Among those who conspired against him was
Marcus Brutus, who had been his friend, and
when Casar saw the hand of Brutus uplifted
against him he exclaimed, "-Et tu Brute!"-
"Thou too Brutus! and fell down dead.
It has always seemed to me that there is a
whole world of sadness in those three little
words Thou too Brutus !" There is love and re-
proach and despair. When a chosen friend turns
against us we feel that we are undone.
Well, what have we found out about Casar's
greatness ? He was great in generalship, great in
statesmanship, and great in oratory, and Macan-
lay says, "He possessed learning, taste, wit, elo-
quence, the sentiments and manners of an ac-
complished gentleman." What was lacking to
make him truly great?



D ECEMBER, 21, 1805, there came into the
home of a Jewish family in London a lit-
tle boy baby. They gave this little boy a long
name, but it is a good name, and you will at
once, upon hearing it, recall one of the most in-
teresting stories of the Old Testament. Perhaps
you have already guessed the name-Benja-
min. The father was Isaac Disraeli, a wealthy
Jew, and the author of several valuable books.
The young Benjamin grew up and began to
write, publishing his first work when he was
twenty-one years old. And this first book is
considered a work of remarkable merit.
He soon became interested in politics and
was a candidate for Parliament when he was
about twenty-seven years old. But he was
defeated not only the first time but again and
again. But not discouraged, he continued to


work towards the point which he desired to gain,
and in 1837 he took his seat in the House of
Commons. He continued to hold his seat in
that legislative body until his death, when he
was not attending to the duties of higher of-
He was called to very high positions; in-
deed to the highest honors that England has
to offer her subjects. He was Chancellor of the
Exchequer, which is an office corresponding to
the Secretary of the Treasury in the United
States. He was also prime minister in the
Queen's Cabinet.
He was a man of great industry, and in ad-
dition to his public labors he wrote several
novels which rank high as specimens of literary
excellence. However, as a statesman and an
orator he will be longest remembered. And
right here I want to tell the boys an incident of
his career which interests me, showing his deter-
mination and persistence in overcoming his own
The first speech he made after becoming
a member of Parliament was a very poor one.
It is said that his manner as well as his words
were so pompous and pretentious and his ges-


tures so absurdly ridiculous that the House was
convulsed with laughter. In the midst of his
speech he closed abruptly and took his seat, say-
ing with the ring of resolve:
"I shall sit down now and you may laugh,
but the time will come when you will listen to
me! "
And that time did come He delivered some
famous speeches in the House of Commons, and
as a debater he led his party.
Boys, we build oftentimes upon our failures!
We need not be discouraged if we are not suc-
cessful at first. Many of our great men have
made wretched work of their first efforts in the
line of their ambition. But rising above their
despondency, setting themselves at work anew
with increased energy, they have conquered.
So may you! Disraeli was admitted to the
peerage in 1876, and was known as Lord
Beaconsfield. Afterwards, because of some great
service rendered to his country while he was a
member of the Congress of Berlin, the Queen
made him a Knight of the Garter. This is the
very highest order of knighthood in the gift of
the sovereign.
Perhaps some of you boys know something


about the Reform Bill" which passed the
House of Commons in 1876, and which gave to
every householder the right to vote. By this
law a great many thousand men, nearly all of
them working men, were made voters. Disraeli
was the originator, and, the most earnest ad-
vocate as well, of that bill, which, by his energy
and power in debate was pushed through.
Disraeli died a few years since, and perhaps
no statesman or author's death has ever called
forth more newspaper notices and eulogies than
You will find it interesting to study the life
and character of this man, whom not only Eng-
land and England's sovereign honored, but who
received many tributes of respect from the press
of our own land.



SE have many records of great men, born
in poverty, and with limited educa-
tional advantages, rising from obscurity to em-
inence, by their own efforts. Such we style
" self-made men," and in these sketches of great
men we shall have occasion to speak of some of
these, but our E is not such an one. Edward
Everettwas the son of a clergyman, and had in
his youth the best of educational privileges.
That these were not misimproved may be
inferred from the fact that he was twice the
" Franklin Medal Scholar" in the Boston public
schools. He graduated from Harvard Univer-
sity when not quite eighteen years old. That
was in 1811. You will observe that I have not
gone far back in the history of the world for
a subject. This man lived in the present cen-
tury, indeed, it is only about twenty years since


he died. Young as he was, he was made Pro-
fessor of Greek Literature at Harvard, a very
few years after his graduation. But he went
abroad before taking the professor's chair, in
order to prepare himself better for the duties
of the position. However, this preparation was
to serve him in other capacities. Not very long
did he serve the University in that way; his
countrymen had other work for him. He had
delivered some brilliant lectures at Harvard,
but an oration delivered during the last visit of
Lafayette to this country, settled the question,
if any doubt yet remained as to his eloquence;
it was on that occasion pronounced matchless,
and the people of Massachusetts determined
that such powers ought and should be made
to do service in the political world. At the call
of the people he left the seclusion of college
walls and entered public life as a Representative
in Congress. Later he was recalled from Wash-
ington to be the Governor of his State. After-
wards he travelled again in Europe, and settled
himself in an Italian villa, with the purpose of
carrying out a fondly cherished scheme of writ-
ing history. But again he was called into public
life; first as United States Minister to the Court


of St. James; then when he again hoped to
settle to private life he was prevailed upon to
accept the Presidency of Harvard College, which
lie held for three years; then before he could
set about his cherished scheme of labor he was
chosen Secretary of State under President Fill-
more. This was his last official service, though
he was not permitted to retire into private life.
For ten years he used his wonderful oratorical
powers in the promotion of public good; now,
it was a lecture in behalf of some benevolent
enterprise, now, in commemoration of some his-
torical event, or again, a eulogy upon some
eminent personage. When the scheme was
afoot of securing Mount Vernon to be held by
an association for the people of the United
States, Edward Everett devoted his time, his
energies and his unequalled eloquence to the
accomplishment of that purpose. He travelled
over the length and breadth of the land, and
spoke thousands of times to appreciative audi-
ences upon the "Character of Washington,"
and as the results of that long and wearisome
journeying, he contributed to the cause over
sixty thousand dollars. But with the first peal
that heralded the beginning of the war a theme


yet more inspiring was given him. The shot
fired at Sumpter reached his ear, and on the
twenty-seventh of the same month he was ready
with a speech that rang out from Chester Square
with no uncertain sound. But before the bells
rang out "peace" he had ceased to speak-his
lips were mute in death. Less than a week
before he died-in January, 1865-he spoke
in Faneuil Hall in behalf of Freedom.
In Boston, where his death occurred, there
were demonstrations of profound sorrow; the
flag at Bunker Hill, as well as all the flags of
the city, was hung at half-mast. The church
where the funeral services were held was
crowded and the streets near the church were
thronged with those anxious to pay respect to
the memory of the gifted man; "the minute
guns at the Navy Yard and on the Common
boomed slowly. The church bells solemnly
tolled, and the roll of muffled drums and the
long, pealing, melancholy wail of the wind
instruments filled the air."
Why the mourning? And why do we call
him a great man? His country had honored
him by choosing him to fill positions of trust,
he was a scholar, a brilliant writer and eloquent


speaker. Perhaps any one of these things would
have made him what men call great, but this
which has been said of him is worth more than
position, scholarship, or eloquence: he will
longest be remembered as one whose every word
and gesture was untiringly and grandly em-
ployed in animating his hearers to the best and
loftiest ends."
There have been other men gifted in speech,
with power of swaying the minds of the multi-
tudes who came to listen to their eloquence, of
whom this could not be said. Men who when
called by their countrymen to use their power
for the country's good, have thought more of
furthering their own selfish purposes than of a
nation's honor and prosperity, have thought
more of the applause of the admiring throng
than of the uplifting of the human race. Shall
we not then give honor to one who so cheer-
fully laid aside his own cherished plans, ever
ready to serve the public, doing his work so
well in varied capacities, and of whom it could
be said that "the annals of the country must be
searched in vain to find one who had done more
to advance every public interest and patriotic
cause ? "



r HE portrait of Admiral Parragut presents
to view one of the finest faces I have ever
seen ; it is a face I would choose to hang upon
the walls where you boys could look upon it
every day of your lives. Even the pictures upon
our walls are our educators; they help to make
us what we are; then let us hang up the faces
of the good, the noble and the true. Let us
choose carefully, that only pure and ennobling
influences may be thus shed into our hearts.
David I I ,-..;: Farragut was descended from
an old Spanish family, one of the conquerors of
earlier times, a Don Pedro. -1-is mother was of
a good old Scotch family, and it may be that he
inherited from one side that adventurous, fear-
less nature which carried him through so many
victories, and from the other side that sturdy
independence and _rr.I.1 faith which was so


characteristic of him. When quite a boy he
entered the United States Navy as a midship-
man. His father was an army officer, and Ad-
miral Farragut tells the story of his own greatest
victory in life in this way. He had accompanied
his father upon one occasion as cabin boy. He
"I had some qualities which I thought made
a man of me. I could swear, drink a glass of
grog, smoke, and was great at a game of cards.
One day my father said to me, as we were alone
in the cabin, 'David, what do you intend to
"'I mean to follow the sea!'
Follow the sea! Yes, be a poor miserable
drunken sailor before the mast, kicked and
cuffed about the world, and die in some fever
hospital in a foreign clime.'
"'No,' I said,' I'll tread the quarter deck and
command as you do.'
"'No, David; no boy ever trod the quarter
deck with such principles as you have and such
habits as you exhibit. You'll have to change
your whole course of life if you become a man.'
My father left me and went on deck. I was
stung with the rebuke and the mortification-


was that to be my fate, as he had pictured it?
I said,' I'll never utter another oath I'll never
drink another drop of intoxicating liquor I'll
never gamble '"
And those vows he kept until his dying day.
This was when he was ten years old, and though
he lived to be a great naval commander and
won many victories, I think you will agree with
me that this was the greatest of all. You know
that he that ruleth his spirit is greater than he
that taketh a city." And, too, without this
triumph over his own spirit, do you think he
would have won those other battles which have
made him famous?
During the Civil War he was put in command
of an expedition against New Orleans and soon
compelled that city to surrender. For this
service he was promoted to the rank of rear-
admiral. It was two years later that, as has
been said, he filled up the measure of his fame
by the victory of Mobile Bay." In the heat of
the conflict the admiral lashed himself high in
the rigging of his flag ship, so that he could
overlook the scene and direct the movements of
his fleet. If you wish to see the brave old man
in the supreme moment of his life, you must


read the account of that battle. He himself
said, in speaking of the moment when to hesi-
tate was to lose all and to go forward seemed
destruction, and he had prayed, 0, thou Cre-
ator of man who gave him reason, guide me
now. Shall I continue on, or must I go back?
A voice then thundered in my ear, 'Go on!'
and I felt myself relieved from further respon-
sibility, for I knew that God himself was leading
me on to victory."
He was honored by receiving the thanks of
Congress for his services and by promotion.
But worn out with his severe labors in the ser-
vice of his country he was soon called to the
higher reward. His work was done. His last
Victory was the victory over death, for he died
the death of the Christian; the God whose
guidance he invoked in the midst of the smoke
and din of battle, gave dying grace to the old
hero. He was born in East Tennessee, in 1801,
and died at Portsmouth, N. H., in 1870. We
are told that from boyhood he was thoughtful,
earnest and studious. He was one of the best
linguists in the Navy, and whenever his duties
took him to foreign ports he ,spent his spare
moments in acquiring the language of the natives.


His eyes were somewhat weak and the members
of his family were kept busy reading to him, in
those times when he was off duty. He was
thoroughly versed in all matters relating to his
profession. The study of the character of a
man like Admiral Farragut will be a help to any
boy in the formation of his own character. The
grandeur and nobility of mind, the bravery and
steadfastness of soul manifested in his public
life are an example to the boys of the present



G ORDON, Grant, Greeley, Garfield, Glad-
stone such an array of names as sound
in my ears when I think of this alphabetical list
of great men! We have come to a letter that is
prolific in subjects, and it is hard to choose. I
would like to have you study the characters of
the great men whose names I have written
down above and there are others -great inen
whose initial letter is G Gough, Garrison,
Garibaldi-indeed there seems to be no end to
the list! At present we will speak of only one.
I have headed the list with the name of Gordon,
not intentionally, but it seemed to come first.
Was that because he is greatest? Pehaps not.
My boys, there are noble men in this list, some
of them your own countrymen, who have done
much for humanity.
General Charles George Gordon was an Eng-


lishman, but his fame has gone into all the
earth; his example, his Christian faith and
courage, is ours to emulate. He belonged to a
military family and was educated for the army,
entered his country's service at twenty-one, and
distinguished himself in the Crimean War.
Afterwards he was attached to an expedition of
the French and English into China at a time
when there was a rebellion in progress, and
upon application of the Chinese government to
the English for an officer to lead their forces in
suppressing this rebellion, Lieutenant Gordon
was appointed to the command, and it was at
that time that he began to be called Chinese
Gordon," a name by which he has been widely
known. He was successful in suppressing the
revolt which is known as the Tai-ping Rebellion.
The Chinese government were loud in their ex-
pressions of esteem and gratitude and would
have rewarded him right royally, if he would
have accepted the reward of money; as it was,
they gave him" a yellow riding-jacket to be worn
on his person, and a peacock's feather to be car-
ried in his cap; also four suits of uniform proper
to his rank in token of their favor and desire to
do him honor."



As he refused their money, the leading officials
called upon the British ambassador and desired
to know what would please the man who had
done so much for them and would not be re-
warded. They were puzzled over the conduct of
a man who seemed to be prompted by a motive
other than military glory or pecuniary reward.
There has been printed a letter written to his
mother about this time which shows a strong re-
gard for his parents' feelings and wishes and a
desire to put down the rebellion for the good of
humanity. It was several years later that he was
appointed English governor of the Soudan.
He was offered a large salary, but would accept
only a moderate sum. This position gave him
an opportunity of fighting the slave trade. He
sailed up the Nile to Khartoum, and from that
city he went still farther into the interior of
Africa, into the midst of a people so degraded
and wretched that he wrote "what a mystery,
is it not, why they were created! A life of fear
and misery night and day!" And it was his
happiness to minister to the needs of these
It is said that he gave away more than half of
his small salary to soften the lot of the poor


creatures, and he was so kind and gentle with
them and so considerate of their needs, that un-
used as they were to a governor who treated them
with kindness, they became devoted to him,
proving over again that kindness will win even
a savage heart.
During the few years he remained governor
of the Sondan he was earnest in his fight
against the slave dealers and accomplished
much, but because the Khedive from whom he
received his appointment did not support his
measures, he finally resigned and returned to
England. It was a sad day for the Soudan
when he left; I have not time,to tell you how
affairs in that far-off country grew worse and
worse, until in January, 1884, General Gordon
was sent the second time to command the Sou-
dan. It is said his coming was welcomed by
the people who remembered his former kind-
ness and that they "fell on their knees before
him and kissed his hand as he passed along the
streets." Many of you have read how the brave
General was at length driven into Khartoum
and forced to cut off from communication with
the outside world. And finally relief being
delayed the city was taken by the rebels and


General Gordon killed. Thus in following the
path of duty he went straight to his death. He
fell in the city which he had sought to defend.
He died at his post.
Boys, the life and death of this man may
teach valuable lessons. There is always an
attraction in stories of the exploits of a brave
soldier, but when you can write after that word
brave the other and best adjective of all,
Christian, we seem to have passed the highest
eulogy. General Gordon was eminently relig-
ious. It is said of him that he read scarcely
anything but the Bible; and that "he was
simply a Christian with his whole heart, and his
religion went into the minutest details of his
Once when waiting in loneliness and weari-
ness on the Upper Nile, for steamers which
were delayed, he wrote: "I ask God not to
have anything of this world come between him
and me; and not to let me fear death, or feel
regret if it comes before I complete my pro-
gramme. Thank God, he gives me the most
comforting assurance that nothing shall disturb
me or come between him and me."
Whatever may be our political opinions, what-


ever we may think of the work he was set to
do, and in doing which he lost his life, we are
sure of one thing, this man's devotion to duty
was supreme and absolute. And death found
him not shirking or hiding from duty and from
danger, as ever fearless and bold, walking in the
line of what he considered his duty. A chival-
rous Christian soldier has ended his warfare, leav-
ing behind a fragrant memory, a shining ex-
ample of Christian faith. He believed in his
Leader, and followed with implicit trust, seek-
ing not for glory, yet his heroic death has cov-
ered his name with glory.



OW we will go back through all the years
that have rolled away since Christ came
to dwell upon the earth for a time. And yet
further back in the history of the world we will
look for our great man. Two hundred and
forty-seven years before Christ, so the chronicle
runs, one of the greatest generals, and one of
the most interesting characters of antiquity, was
born at Carthage.
And where is Carthage, does some one ask?
Ah! we must ask, where was Carthage ? your
school maps of modern geography do not indi-
cate the location of this ancient city, which was
great and powerful, and situated upon the north-
ern coast of Africa, near the site of the modern
city of Tunis. In the annals of ancient history,
Carthage figures largely, although no record of
its early history has been discovered. The city


was destroyed 146 B. c. Another Carthage was
built upon the same site, which in its turn was
destroyed 647 A. D.; and of this second Carthage
we are told that "few vestiges of its ancient
grandeur remain to indicate its site except some
broken arches of a great aqueduct which was
fifty miles long."
At the time when our hero was born, the first
Carthage was one of the two great and powerful
cities of the world. It was about that time
that Rome and Carthage began a war for the
possession of the beautiful and rich island of
Sicily. This was the first Punic War. The
Carthagenians were defeated and obliged to give
up the island to the Romans.
Hamilcar, a Carthagenian general, burning
with thoughts of revenge, took his young son
Hannibal into the temple and made him lay his
hand upon the altar and swear eternal enmity
to Rome ; thus the boy grew up with this one
absorbing passion filling his young soul -hatred
to the Romans. When his father died, lie suc-
ceeded to the command of the armies, and soon
engaged in what is known as the second Punic
War. He led his army across Spain and crossed
the Pyrenees and marched through Gaul. You


see his object was to enter Italy from the North,
but the Alps lifted their proud heads, seeming
to be an insurmountable obstacle lying right
in the path of this great army, like a long and
frowning battlement. Would you not think the
soldiers' hearts must have quailed as they looked
up to the snow-capped peaks and realized that
unless these were surmounted their expedition
must fail !
Four little words tell the story- he crossed
the Alps !" But how much of iron resolution,
of endurance, of suffering, of loss of life, and of
perseverance lies behind that sentence! Those
who know the Alps, and who also know what it
means to lead an army through difficult passes,
tell us that it was an undertaking of tremen-
dous magnitude, and it would not have seemed
strange if after undergoing such fatigue and
hardship, the army had been defeated by the Ro-
man forces which awaited them at the foot of
the southern slope. But this was not the case.
Hannibal was the victor not only in many minor
engagements, but at last he obtained a complete
victory at a place called Canne, where he de-
stroyed the Roman army. This battle has been
considered his greatest exploit in the line of


fighting. The spot where this bloody battle
was fought is called the field of blood, and when
we know that forty thousand men were slain
there, we would almost expect to see even to
this day, the soil stained with blood, and surely
the stain if washed out of the soil cannot be
washed out of the history of those nations.
Hannibal is spoken of in history as one of the
most extraordinary men that ever lived. His
crossing the Alps, his generalship when opposed
to disciplined and powerful forces, his sustain-
ing himself in the enemy's country for fifteen
years, with a large army without calling upon
his own country for aid, his power over his
forces, which were made up of different nation-
alities, holding them subject to his authority,
and keeping down discontent and mutiny, show
him to have possessed remarkable powers and
great genius. In his unflinching enmity to Rome
he was true to the teachings of his childhood.
From his babyhood he had been taught this les-
son, that he must hate this enemy of his coun-
try, and to lift Carthage to a height of power
and wealth above Rome, was the aim of his life.
He knew that unless Rome could be destroyed
there was always danger for Carthage. They


were rivals and one or the other must go down
and this was why he waged such an uncompro-
mIising war against Rome.
But our hero who set out to conquer Rome
was at last conquered. After many years of
success in Italy, a danger threatened his own
Carthage. The Romans had determined to
carry the war into Africa; and Hannibal was
obliged to hasten home to defend the city. He
met the Roman forces under Scipio at Zama,
and was defeated and forced to sue for peace.
He would not have yielded, but his countrymen
compelled him to accept the terms which Rome
offered, humiliating though they were. After
this, troubles followed him, and finally when
he was about sixty-five years old the Romans
having gained in power and supremacy demanded
his surrender, he fled from Carthage, and at last
seeing no hope of escape or relief, he killed him-
self by opening a little cup hidden in a ring, con-
taining a drop of poison, which he swallowed.
While we cannot approve his course, know-
ing as we do, in this Christian age, that there
are better things to live and labor for than the
carrying out of a plan of revenge and hostility
towards an enemy, we must admire many things


in the character of Hannibal. His courage, his
patriotism, his unflinching devotion to the cause
he had sworn to live and die for and his faith-
fulness to what he believed to be his duty, or as
he would probably have expressed it his destiny.
We must pity him that when he had grown old,
disappointed and discouraged, he had no other
resource in his troubles but to plunge himself
into an unknown world by his own act. In
those days of darkness, before the light of the
Gospel was shed upon the world, it was consid-
ered a brave act to take one's own life when ir-
retrievable disaster had befallen. While learn-
ing our lessons from the admirable traits in our
hero's character, be thankful that we have that



A MONG the memoirs of my childhood none
are more vivid than those connected with
the school which I attended up to my tenth
year; the schoolhouse, the teachers, the scholars,
but above all the school books are well remem-
bered. That was a proud and happy morning
somewhere about my eighth birthday when I
first carried my new American Manual to school.
Now you are puzzled; you have no idea what
sort of a book that was. They went out of use
long ago, though in this district of which I write
the old books were retained longer than in many
more favored sections. The American Manual
was a book of selections of prose and verse for
the use of reading classes, and it was through
that old book, that I became familiar with the
name and writings of Washington Irving. My
first lesson in pathos was The Widow's Son;"


the sad story of George Somers "impressed me
strongly and helped to form a taste for that kind
of reading. There was no biographical sketch
of the author in those old books, and it was not
till long afterwards that I learned anything
about the writer of one of my favorite sketches.
Washington Irving was a native of New York
City. He was of Scotch descent and early
orphaned ; in consequence of the death of his
father his education was conducted by his older
brothers, himself being the youngest son of the
family. It is said that he was once in the pres-
ence of General George Washington for whom
he was named, and that the great man patted
the little boy on the head upon that occasion.
From this you will have some idea of when our
author lived. He was born in 1783, and you will
remember that General Washington did not die
until 1799, so that it is not impossible that this
story may be true. As to what that august
patting may have had to do with his future
career, I cannot guess, though he might thereby
have been inspired with a lofty ambition.
I am sorry to have to tell you that as a school-
boy Washington Irving was more fond of read-
ing stories and books of travel than of the study

I 9



of his lessons; indeed it is hinted that he read
his favorite books slyly, during study hours.
However that may be, he managed to pick up
considerable knowledge of books and of the
art of composition, though he did not at first
choose literature as a profession, but took up the
law and failing in this he undertook commercial
pursuits; making a failure in this line also, he
seemed driven into literature which had hereto-
fore been only a pastime. I have spoken of a
pathetic sketch which struck my childish fancy;
but perhaps Irving is quite as well known
through his humorous writings as any. The
History of New York by Diedrick Knicker-
bocker" has been called "the most original
and humorous work of the age." He spent much
time abroad and was honored by the friendship
of even crowned heads and received many
honors; among these was a gold medal bestowed
by the British crown for eminence in historical
Irving never married, and when a little past
fifty he settled at his country home, Sunnyside,"
on the Hudson, his sister and her family his com-
panions. But for all his devotion to a country
life, Irving soon after accepted the office of Min-


ister to the Court of Spain, and left his beautiful
Sunnyside to spend four years at Madrid. Dur-
ing these four years he wrote delightful letters
to his friends at home, telling his nieces who
doted on their uncle, all about the dress and man-
ners of the Spanish ladies.
lie returned home in 1846 to spend the re-
mainder of his life in retirement, occupying him-
self upon his last and greatest work, The Life
of Washington, the fifth volume of which ap-
peared just before the author's death in 1859.
We may not know the secrets of his life, but his
biographers tell us that the lady whom he ex-
pected to marry died early and that he mourned
her loss always and that upon his death bed his
thoughts turned towards his early love. He was
fond of horseback riding and 'kept up the habit
of taking long rides until he was an old man, and
one day, when he was about seventy, he was
thrown from his horse, receiving severe injuries.
However, he seemed to recover from the effects
of this fall and lived to be seventy-six years old,
failing gradually until the end came; the light
went out and one of our greatest American
writers had crossed over to the other side.



BORN AUG. 9, 1788,
DIED APRIL 12, 1850.

T HIS tells the story; indeed it tells the story
of all of us. We are born, we die, and
the years which are counted in between the two
dates, filled with the work we do, whether we
do good or evil, make up our record, and stand
as our monument, or if we have not built well
lie as a tumbling mass of ruins.
The inscription which I have copied is cut
upon a marble tablet erected in the church in the
town where the Missionary JudSon was born. If
we had only that record our imagination would


fill it out. But we are not left to fancy him
growing up an earnest Christian, going out in
his young manhood to a heathen land preaching
and translating the Gospel and at length dying
on shipboard. We have a complete record of
his life and we learn that he was the son of a
New England clergyman. That he was an un-
usually bright boy and learned to read the Bible
when he was three years old! One incident of
his boyhood is rather amusing. He was very
fond of solving riddles and puzzles; and on one
occasion when he had worked some time over
a newspaper puzzle and succeeding in solving it,
had copied out his answer and carried it to the
post-office. But the postmaster gave the letter
to the boy's father, fearing that some mischief
was brewing. The father with his accustomed
courtesy and sense of propriety would not break
the seal, but commanded his son to open and
read the letter. The father called for thenews-
paper containing the puzzle and studied the boy's
work. But he said nothing then or ever after
either of reproof or commendation, but the next
day he informed Adoniram that as he was so
apt at solving riddles he had purchased for him
a book of puzzles, and that as soon as he had


solved all it contained he should have one more
difficult. The boy was delighted; what boy who
delights in riddles and puzzles would not be de-
lighted with a new book of puzzles! But imagine
if you can the boy's disappointment when he dis-
covered the book to be a school text book on
Well, arithmetic sometimes proves a puzzle,
even to bright boys. He was always a faithful
student. He graduated at Brown University
with the highest honors, being the valedictorian
at commencement. So exemplary was his course
while in college that the college president wrote
to his father a letter of congratulation upon hav-
ing such an amiable and promising son.
A year after graduation young Judson entered
a theological seminary. At the time when he
dedicated himself to the service of God, he con-
secrated himself to the work of preaching the
Gospel. But it was some time afterwards that
he began to think about being a missionary. A
printed missionary sermon preached in England
was the means of turning his thoughts to the
heathen. One day while walking alone in the
woods meditating and lifting his heart to God in
prayer for direction, the command "Go into all


the world and preach the Gospel to every crea-
ture," came to him with a new power and mean-
ing, and he then resolved to obey the command.
I suppose you have all heard the story of the
haystack prayer-meeting, when four young men
consecrated themselves to the work of carrying
the Gospel to the heathen. About the time that
Mr. Judson gave himself up to the work, he was
thrown into the society of these four young men
and together they planned as to ways and means
of carrying out their purpose.
There were many and great difficulties in the
way of carrying out their scheme. You may.
wonder why the way should have been so diffi-
cult; there was at that time no foreign mission-
ary society in America to send them into heathen
lands. You must remember that it was seventy-
five years ago that these young Christians were
fired with the spirit of missions, and though it
may seem strange to you, it is a fact that the
Christian people of our land had not yet had their
attention turned to the work of foreign missions.
The command Go into all the world," had not
reached their hearts; though the words of Christ
had stood in their place in the record of our
Saviour's life, yet their meaning had not yet


dawned upon the hearts of his followers. And
I fear that even now in our own day there are
many Christians who overlook the words or read
them without thought of their full meaning.
It was when the desire of these students was
brought before the association of Congregational
churches of Massachusetts that the matter was
considered by that body, and as the result the
board of commissioners for foreign missions was
organized. In weakness and with many misgiv-
ings this mother of American foreign mission-
ary societies was organized, but it has grown to
be a power in the world of missions. Afterwards
Mr. Judson became a Baptist, and together with
a Mr. Rice set in motion events which led to the
formation of the American Baptist Missionary
Union, another society in the interests of the
foreign work.
At length after many trials and a long weari-
some journey Mr. Judson and his wife found
themselves in Burmah, which was to be the field
of their labors. For nearly forty years this de-
voted man labored to light up that dark country
with the Gospel light. Perhaps the most impor-
tant work of his whole life was the translation
of the Scriptures into Burmese. In his autobi-


ographical notes are two brief records which
stand for years of hard labor :
1832, December 15, sent to press the last
sheet of the New Testament in Burmese;" and,
" 1834, January 31, finished the translation of
the Old Testament."
While the work of translation was going on,
when the New Testament was about completed,
Doctor Judson was at Ava, the capital of the
Burman Empire; war had broken out between
Burmah and England, and as a foreigner, Doctor
Judson was arrested and thrown into prison. At
first he was put into the death prison, but after-
wards was removed to an outer prison, but was
kept heavily ironed. Mrs. Judson, alarmed for
the safety of the manuscript,buried it under the
But at length she was permitted to see her
husband, and fearing that the dampness of the
soil would destroy the manuscript they devised
means for its preservation. Mrs. Judson made
a sort of pillow, not at all luxurious, lest some
one should envy him and take it away ; but she
sewed the manuscript up in matting, and for
months Doctor Judson slept with the precious pil-
low under his head. At one time when the prison-


ers were thrust again into the inner prison, every-
thing was taken from them and the missionary
feared that he should never again see his beloved
manuscript. But the pillow proved so hard that
the jailer threw it back into the prison, doubtless
thinking that if the prisoner could find any com-
fort in that, he was welcome to it. Once again
the precious package was taken from him and
this time thrown away. But the Providence
that watches over all the interests of his children
put it into the heart of a Burmese convert to
pick it up as a souvenir of his beloved missionary
teacher whom he supposed was about to be put
to death, never dreaming that it contained any-
thing of value; and months afterwards he re-
stored it to Doctor Judson. And in due time it
was printed and given to the Burman world as
a precious legacy from one who loved them more
than life.
In all the years of his missionary labor Doctor
Judson visited his native land but once. He
brought three children to America to be edu-
cated and himself after a short sojourn returned
to his work. But his arduous labors, together
with his intense sufferings during the period of
imprisonment, had enfeebled his constitution,


and three years after his return he died on ship-
board as he was taking a short voyage in search
of health, and was buried at sea.
Doctor Judson's life of consecration, his self
renunciation, can but influence the hearts of all
who make it a study. I have heard of a young
man who was so impressed upon reading the life
of this wonderful man, that he went out into a
field and there alone with Christ gave himself up
to the service of the Lord. The era of foreign
missionary work began with the hour when the
few Christian students at Williams and Andover
gave themselves to the work.
A conscientious decision may revolutionize
the world.



SWANT to take you back to the sixteenth
century, into rugged Scotland, and into the
rugged times of that period of its history. I
want to introduce to you a man of whom it was
said, "No grander figure can be found in the
history of the Reformation in this island, than
that of Knox."
John Knox was a boy when the Reformation
movement began in Germany; indeed it was ten
years after that when he was ordained a priest.
It was twelve years later that he avowed him-
self a Protestant, and thus incurred the wrath of
the Cardinal. He was of course obliged to with-
draw from St. Andrew's, where he held the posi-
tion of teacher, and seek a place of refuge. This
he found with a friend named Hugh Douglass.
And the old ruins of the chapel at that place are
still called Knox's Kirk." One of his beloved


friends was tried, and condemned to the stake
for heresy. The Cardinal whose anger he had
roused was killed about that time, and Knox
was suspected of having a hand in it; and, hav-
ing been tried, was condemned to the galleys.
For about a year he suffered as a prisoner and
from illness. After he was set free he went to
a town on the borders of England, were he suc-
ceeded in turning the hearts of many to the views
of the Reformers. Always as he had opportu-
nity he defended the cause of the Reformation.
He was raised to a post of honor by King Ed-
ward, receiving the appointment of King's Chap-
lain. lie was offered a bishopric, but declined
that honor. At Edward's death he was again in
danger. Because the new sovereign was not in
sympathy with the views which lie was advocat-
ing, and not thinking it wise to throw away his
life, he went to the Continent; he was for a time
pastor of a church in Geneva, he became a friend
of Calvin and spent two or three peaceful years.
When he returned to England the Scottish
clergy burned him in effigy, and he was not well
received even in England. Elizabeth was now
upon the throne, but this did not seem to make
matters much better for Knox.


Now I cannot tell you in the little space given
me about the stormy times that followed his re-
turn to Scotland. He believed that the time had
come when the Reformation in Scotland must be
established, and he fought bravely with tongue
and pen for its success. The young and beauti-
ful queen of Scotland tried her powers of pleas-
ing upon the heroic man who had dared to speak
plainly of the sins even of the court. But the
faces of angry men could not move him, neither
could the beauty of the young queen charm him,
nor her tears melt him." He continued to preach
according to his convictions, and kept it up with
no lessening of power until a short time before
his death. But about 1570 his strength declined;
but though growing weaker physically, he seemed
to lose none of his intellectual and spiritual vigor.
He spoke in public for the last time November
9, 1572, and died on the twenty-fourth of the same
month, holding up his hand to testify of his ad-
herence to the faith for which he had lived and
preached and toiled, and in which he was now
dying. I think the more you study the character
of this man, the more you will admire it. If he
seemed rough, remember he lived in rough times.
If he was intolerant, it was an age of intolerance,


and his intolerance was exercised only where he
felt that the truth was assailed.
Carlyle says: Nothing hypocritical, foolish
or untrue can find harbor in this man; a pure
and manly, silent tenderness of affection is in
him; touches of genial humor are not wanting
under his severe austerity. A most clear-cut,
hardy, distinct and effective man; fearing God
without any other fear. There is in Knox
throughout the spirit of an old Hebrew prophet-
spirit almost altogether unique among modern

-- ---; I l':,, ::-__" -" ',,

fp. I.



SF course; who should it be if not our Lin-
coln? The name is a household word in
all our homes, and I doubt if I can tell you any-
thing which you do not already know about this
great man; the story of his life and his deeds are
familiar to every schoolboy. His features are
well known to you all, for there is scarcely a
home that has not his portrait upon its walls.
In 1809 Abraham Lincoln was born in a lonely
cabin on the banks of a small river or creek in
Kentucky; born to poverty, hardship and obscu-
rity, born to rise from obscurity, through pov-
erty, hardship and toil to the highest point of an
American boy's ambition. He early learned the
meaning of privation and self-denial. The ac-
counts of his early life are somewhat meagre,
but he has told us himself that he had only about
one year of school-life. Think of that, you boys


who are going steadily forward year after year,
from the primary school through all the inter-
mediate grades up to the advanced, then to the
academy, thence to college, and afterwards to

_--* _-_-


law and divinity schools, think of Abraham Lin-
coin's school privileges and be thankful for your
own. And more, show your appreciation by
your improvement of your advantages.
Like many of our great men, Lincoln was
what we style a self-made man, and yet it seems
that he owed something of his making to his
stepmother. His own mother died when he was
a small boy, and the new mother who sometime


after came into the family was very helpful to the
boy, encouraging him in his love of books, and
under her guidance he became a great reader,
devouring every book he could lay his hands
upon. Did it ever occur to you that it might
be an advantage to some of us if we had fewer
books ? Driven back again and again to the
few, we should read them more carefully and
make the thoughts our own, and perhaps the


stock of ideas gathered from books would even
exceed that which we gain from the multitude
of books we have in these days of bookmaking.
Whether you read much or little, few books or
many, boys, read with careful thought. Take


in and digest thoroughly the thoughts presented
to you.
Well, this young man had but few books, but
he seems to have laid by a number of ideas
which should develop in time into acts which
were to startle the world and overthrow exist-
ing institutions. He worked through his early
manhood and boyhood with his hands, some-
times on a farm, sometimes as a clerk in a coun-
try store. Now as a boatman, now at clearing
up and fencing a farm.
It was while engaged in this last-mentioned
employment that he earned the title afterwards
given him in derision by his political opponents,
" The rail splitter ;" but I suspect that he could
have answered as did the boy who in the days
of prosperity was taunted with having been a
bootblack, "Didn't I do it well ?"
At length the way opened -or, as I think, he
by his exertions forced a way to study law, and
he began his practice of the profession in Spring-
field, Ill.
I ought to have told you, however, that be-
fore his admission to the bar he served in the
Black Hawk War as captain of a company of
volunteers. He soon gained distinction as a


lawyer, but presently became interested in poli-
And from that time his history is closely
identified with that of his country. To tell you
of the leading incidents even of his career would
be to give you in a nutshell the history of the


United States for that period. His noted con-
test with Stephen A. Douglas, his election to the
presidency, his re-election, his celebrated Eman-
cipation Proclamation, all these matters belong
to the story of the stirring events of those years
of our history. Then came the sad ending of
this noble life; the cruel assassination of the


beloved President, and the great man of the
Boys, you who have studied his character,
can you tell me what made Abraham Lincoln
great ?



SONG before he reached the pinnacle of his
fame, Samuel Finley Breese Morse passed
many quiet summer hours on the pleasant
wooded borders of the ravine overlooking the
peaceful Sconondoah; and even to this day if
you wander through the beautiful Sconondoah
wood and hunt out its sequestered nooks, you
will find here and there, cut deep in the rugged
bark of old forest trees, the initials S. F. B. M.,
carved by his hand more than half a century
Professor Morse was born at Charlestown,
Mass., in 1791. He was the son of a Congrega-
tional clergyman, who was the author of a series
of school geographies familiar to our fathers and
mothers in their schooldays. He was educated
at Yale College, and, intending to become a
painter, went to London to study art under Ben-


jamin West; but becoming interested in scien-
tific studies he was for many years president of
the National Academy of Design in New York.
He resided abroad three or four years. On re-
turning home in 1832 the conversation of some
gentlemen on shipboard in regard to an experi-
ment which had recently been tried in Paris
with the electro-magnet, interested him and
started a train of thought which gave him the
conception of the idea of the telegraph. The
question arose as to the length of time required
for the fluid to pass through a wire one hun-
dred feet long. Upon hearing the answer, that
it was instantaneous, the thought suggested itself
to Prof. Morse that it might be carried to any
distance and be the means of transmitting intelli-
gence. Acting upon the thought, he set to work,
and before the ship entered New York harbor
had conceived and made drawings of the tele-
graph. He plodded on through weary years
endeavoring to bring his invention to perfection,
meeting on every hand jeers and ridicule and
undergoing many painful reverses in fortune;
but for his indomitable will, he would have
given up his project long before he succeeded in
bringing it before the public, for all thought it


a wild scheme which would amount to nothing.
In 1838 he applied to Congress for aid that
he might form a line of communication between
Washington and Baltimore. Congress was quite
disposed to regard the scheme a humbug. But
there was a wire stretched from the basement of
the Capitol to the ante-room of the Senate
Chamber, and after watching the madman," as
Prof. Morse was called, experiment, the commit-
tee to whom the matter was referred decided
that it was not a humbug, and thirty thousand
dollars was appropriated, enabling him to carry
out his scheme. Over these wires on the 24th of
May, 1844, he sent this message from the rooms
of the U. S. Supreme Court to Baltimore:
" What hath God wrought! and connected with
this message is quite a pretty little story. Having
waited in the gallery of the Senate Chamber till
late on the last night of the session to learn the fate
of his bill, while a Senator talked against time, he
at length became discouraged, and confident that
the measure would not be reached that night
went to his lodgings and made preparations to
return to New York on the morrow. The next
morning, at breakfast, a card was brought to him,
and upon going to the parlor he found Miss


Annie Ellsworth, the daughter of the Commis.
sioner of Patents, who said she had come to
congratulate him upon the passage of his bill.
In his gladness he promised Miss Ellsworth that
as she had been the one to bring him the tidings,
she should be the first to send a message over
the wires. And it was at her dictation that the
words, What hath God wrought ? were sent.
Success was now assured; honors and riches
were his, and those who had been slow to be-
lieve in the utility of his invention were now
proud of their countryman and delighted to do
him homage. Upon going abroad again he was
received more as a prince than as a plain Ameri-
can citizen, kings and their subjects giving him
honor. It may be believed that even in his
wildest flights of fancy Professor Morse did not
dream of the rapid spread of the use of his in-
vention, or look forward to the time within a
few years, when the telegraph wires would
weave together the ends of the world and form
a network over the entire Continent.
A few years ago, the only telegraph wire in
China was one about six miles in length, stretch-
ing from Shanghai to the sea, and used to in-
form the merchants of the arrival of vessels at


the mouth of the river. A line from Pekin to
Tientsin was opened a short time since. The
capital of Southern China is in communication
with the metropolis of the North, and as Canton
was connected by telegraph with the frontier of
Tonquin at the outbreak of the late political
troubles, the telegraph wires now stretch from
Pekin to the most southern boundary of the Chi-
nese Empire, and China, ever slow to adopt for-
eign ideas, is crossed and re-crossed by wires ; we
may say the thought which came to Prof. Morse
upon that memorable voyage has reached out and
taken in the whole world.



E VERY body in nature attracts every other
body with a force directly as its mass and
inversely as the square of its distance." This
has been called The magnificent theory of
universal gravitation which was the crowning
glory of Newton's life." I doubt not many of
you have struggled manfully with this law as
laid down in your school-books, and, having
conquered it, and fixed the principle in your
minds to stay, you may like to know something
about the philosopher himself. In 1642, a puny,
sickly baby was supposed to be moaning away
its young life in Lincolnshire, England.
This child's name was Isaac Newton. He be-
longed to a country gentleman's family. His
father having died, his mother's second mar-
riage occasioned the giving of the child into
the care of his grandmother. As he grew older


he gained in health and was sent to school.
Having inherited a small estate, as soon as he
had acquired an education which was considered


sufficient to enable him to attend to the duties of
one in his position, lie was removed from school
and entrusted with the management of his es-


tate. However, this young Newton developed a
passion for mathematical studies which led him
to neglect the business connected with his estate.
He busied himself in the construction of toys
illustrating the principles of mechanics. These
were not the clumsy work which might be ex-
pected from the hands of a schoolboy, but were
finished with exceeding care and delicacy. It is
said there is still in existence two at least of
these toys; one is an hour-glass kept in the
rooms of the Royal Society in London.
Isaac Newton's mother was a wise woman in
that she did not discourage his desire for the
pursuing of his studies and for investigation.
She did not say, Now, my son, you must put
away these notions and attend to your business.
You have a property here which it is your duty
to manage and enjoy. You should find satis-
faction in your position as a country squire and
consider that you have no need of further study."
On the contrary, this mother allowed her son
to continue his studies; he was prepared for
and entered the college at Cambridge when he
was eighteen. From that period until his death,
at eiglrt-fii-. he devoted himself unweariedly
to mathematical and philosophical studies.


You all know the story of the falling apple.
He had been driven by the plague in London to
spend some time at his country-seat in Wool-
strop, and while resting one day in his garden
he saw an apple fall to the ground. Suddenly
the question occurred, Why should the apple fall
to the ground ? Why, when detached from the
branch, did it not fly off in some other direction ?
And where do you suppose he found the an-
swer ? Read the first sentence of this article
and see if you find it there! The truth had been
the controlling power of all the falling apples
since the creation, but it had never before been
understood or formulated; perhaps this discovery
of the law of universal gravitation gave him more
renown than all his other labors put together.
He met with a sad misfortune, later, when, by
the accidental upsetting of a lighted candle, the
workof twenty years was destroyed. The story
as told by a biographer is, that Sir Isaac left his
pet dog alone in his study for a few moments,
when the candle was overturned amongst the
papers on the study table. It is further told as
an evidence of the calmness and patience of the
great man, that he only said, "Ah! Fido, you
little know of the mischief you have done!"


But although he was so quiet under the great
loss, the trial was almost too much for him;
for a time his health seemed to give way, and his
mental powers suffered from the effects of the
shock. He died in 1725, and was buried in
Westminster Abbey.



A FEW years ago I copied from a marble
slab, imbedded in the earth upon a grave
in a quiet country cemetery at Cornwall, Ct.,
the following inscription:

DIED FEBRUARY 17, 1818, AGED 26.

His arrival in this country gave rise to the
Foreign Mission School of which he was a worthy
member. He was once an idolator and designed
for a Pagan priest; but by the grace of God, and
by the prayers and instructions of pious friends,
he became a Christian. He was eminent for
piety and missionary zeal; was almost prepared
to return to his native island to preach the Gos-
pel when God called him. In his last moments
he wept and prayed for his Ow-hy-hee," but
was submissive to the will of God and died with-


out fear, with a heavenly smile on his face and
glory in his soul.
This remarkable young man was early made
an orphan by the cruel massacre of both father
and mother during a fearful struggle of two
parties for the control of his native island,
Hawaii. His younger brother was also slain while
the boy of our sketch was endeavoring to save
him by carrying him upon his back in his flight.
Obookiah was taken prisoner and made a mem-
ber of the family of the man who had murdered
his parents. After a year or two he was dis-
covered by an uncle, and his release from the
hands of his enemy secured. His uncle was a
priest and he entered upon the work of prepar-
ing his young nephew for the same service.
This preparation was very different from the
preparation of young men in Christian lands for
the work of the Gospel ministry. One part of
his duty was to learn and to repeat long prayers ;
sometimes he was forced to spend the greater
part of the night in repeating these prayers in
the temple before the idols. But Henry was
not happy; he had seen his parents and little
brother cruelly murdered, and thoughts of the
terrible scene and of his own lonely and orphaned


condition preyed upon his mind continually.
But he had passed through still another sad ex-
perience. Before peace was restored in the
island he was again taken prisoner together with
his father's sister. He succeeded in making his
escape the very day which had been appointed
for his death. His aunt was killed by the enemy,
and this made him feel more sad and lonely than
before, and he resolved to leave the island, hop-
ing that if he should succeed in getting away
from the place where everything reminded him
of his loss he might find peace if not happiness ;
and this is how he was to be brought under
Christian influences in Christian America. He
sailed with Captain Britnall and landed in New
York in the year 1809. He remained for some
time in the family of his friend the captain, at
New Haven. Here he became acquainted with
several of the students in Yale College, who were
at once interested in this young foreigner. From
one of these friends he learned to read and write.
His appearance was not prepossessing or
promising. His clothes were those of a rough
sailor and his countenance dull and expression-
less. But he soon showed that he was neither
dull nor lacking in mental power.

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