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Group Title: University of California Publications in American Archaeology and Ethnology ; Vol. 16. No. 4.
Title: Calendars of the Indians north of Mexico
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00054976/00001
 Material Information
Title: Calendars of the Indians north of Mexico
Series Title: University of California publications in American archaeology and ethnology
Physical Description: p. 119-176. : 3 fold. maps. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Cope, Leona, 1890-
Publisher: University of California Press
Place of Publication: Berkeley
Publication Date: 1919
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Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Bibliography: p. 169-176.
Statement of Responsibility: by Leona Cope.
General Note: Cover-title.
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Bibliographic ID: UF00054976
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Source Institution: University of Florida
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Resource Identifier: aleph - 000940842
oclc - 03183333
notis - AEQ2374
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Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Title Page
    Front Matter
        f
        Front Matter 2
        Front Matter 3
        Front Matter 4
    Table of Contents
        Table of Contents
    Main
        Page 120
        Page 121
        Page 122
        Page 123
        Page 124
        Page 125
        Page 126
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    Bibliography
        Page 169
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Full Text










UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA PUBLICATIONS
IN
SAMERICAN ARCHAEOLOGY AND ETHNOLOGY

Vol. 16, No. 4, pp. 119-176, with 3 maps. November 6, 1919


CALENDARS OF THE INDIANS

NORTH OF MEXICO


BY
LEONA COPE


UNIVERSITY OF CALIJFORNIA PRESS
BERKELEY


C- It.L5


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under the direct
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September, 1907 ...................................................... ... ..................... ........
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A ugust. 1910 ........ ..... ........................... .................... ........... .........................
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UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA PUBLICATIONS
IN

AMERICAN ARCHAEOLOGY AND ETHNOLOGY

Vol. 16, No. 4, pp. 119-176, with 3 maps. November 6, 1919






CALENDARS OF THE INDIANS
NORTH OF MEXICO
BY
LEONAPEq IL5


CONTENTS PAGE
Introduction .....................................-- ... .. -------------------......- .. 120
Basis of time reckoning ....................---------..------ .. ......- .... ...... 121
Astronomical ........-...--.................................... 121
Seasonal ......................-----------................. 123
Units of time reckoning ...... ..................... ... .. ........... .....- 124
The day and its subdivisions ............ ............................. 124
The "'week'' .......................................... 126
The m month ............ ................ .... ........ .. ......--------- ................. 128
The term used to express the period ......................... ................ 128
The duration of the period .............................................. 129
The recognition of the moon's phases ..........................-..-....----- 129
The week'" ..............................--- ..--- ..... ........... .... ... ......... 130
Variability -............... .......- .....-- .... ......-- ....--.... 130
The seasons ...................... ...... .. ................ ............. 132
The year ................................ ........ ... .....-... .................---- ------.......... .. 136
Methods of correction ....................... .. .......... .................. 137
Types of calendars ................................................................ 139
D descriptive type ................................................ ............... ..................... 140
Astronomical type ........................................... ................. 141
N um eral type ............................. ........................ ........ ................ 142
Similarities between the types ............................................ 143
Centers of development ..................... ---------- ---------------- -------- ......... 145
Diffusion ............ .......... ..- ... ........ ............................ ... 147
Calendar lists ....................... .. ..... ................ ............................ 149
Astronomical type ....................................... ...................... 149
N um eral type ..................................... ................. .. ............ 153
Descriptive type ...................................................... 155
Eskim o .................... ............ ... .......................... 155
N orthw est coast .............................. ........................................................ 156
Mackenzie and northern plateau .................................................... 157
California ........... ................................ ....................... 158
Southwest ........................................ -- ............- ... 158
Plains and southern plateau ............................................. .... .. .... 159
Northeastern woodland .................. .. .. ....... ... .................... 163
Southeastern woodland .................. .............. ................... 168
Bibliography ......................................... .............. 169
LIST OF MAPS
Map 1. Types of native calendars. (Frontispiece.)
Map 2. Beginning of the year.
Map 3. Some month names.










120 University of California Publications in Am. Arch. and Ethn. [Vol. 16


INTRODUCTION
The methods of time-reckoning which are used by the Indians
north of Mexico are remarkable for their simplicity and for the absence
of uniformity, the influence of local and economic conditions being
very prominent. In no case are these methods worthy of the name
calendar system in its usually accepted sense-that is, a series of years,
named or numbered from a definite fixed point, each subdivided into
several smaller units, and adjusted more or less accurately to the solar
year. In this paper, any native attempt, however crude, to designate
in a definite succession the different periods of time will be considered
a calendar or a calendrical system. This would of course include
almost any method of noting time divisions; but even the simplest of
such devices seems to contain the elements of time-reckoning, which
under the stress of necessity, or the elaborating influences of social
or religious organization, would develop into a more complex and
accurate system.
Evidences of such higher development are found in portions of
North America-notably among the tribes of the North Pacific Coast
and of the Southwest area, where fairly complex systems with an
astronomical basis are in use, which contrast with the very simple
non-intercalated and unregulated attempts of the Indians of the
Plains, and of Northeast and Southeast Woodlands.
Confusion in native reckoning often results from the fact that the
names for the lunar periods are taken from natural seasonal phe-
nomena, which of course vary in time of occurrence from year to year.
Further difficulties arise because a characteristic which gives name
to a "moon" may be prominent for a longer or a shorter time than
is occupied by the lunation.
Another interesting fact of note about these calendars is that they
were not used to record the passage of time; that is, the "calendar"
was not designed for recording the number of years or months or
days since a given event took place, or between two given events.
The Indians were able to keep.a fairly close count of the passage of
time within the current year, but beyond this all chronology was
indefinite. Since their occupations, food, and manner of life in gen-
eral varied according to the changes of nature, it is not strange that
they carefully observed the atmospheric and celestial phenomena, or
had acquired a practical knowledge of the instincts and habits of
animals, birds, and 'fishes.











Cope: Calendars of the Indians North of Mexico


The so-called historical "calendars"' annals, winter-counts,
notched sticks, and the like-will be given no consideration in this
paper, since they are concerned with the recording of events in a
vague historical sense rather than with time-reckoning. Moreover
they were the work of a few individuals and were not understood by
the people at large.


BASIS OF TIME RECKONING
ASTRONOMICAL
Although many tribes possessed some astronomical knowledge,
comparatively few used it as a basis for reckoning periods longer
than a moon. Everywhere the changing positions of the sun indicated
the divisions of the day, while the movement of the prominent con-
stellations, the Pleiades, Orion's belt, and Ursa Major, and the morn-
ing and evening stars,.marked the night divisions. The Eskimo judge
the passage of the dark season by the positions of the constellations;
the Point Barrow seal-netters, for instance, know that when Arcturus
has passed over to the east, dawn is at hand and seal netting nearly
over.' Elsewhere the constellations indicated only the subdivisions
of the night or the approach of dawn, which may be of ceremonial
importance.
There are some indications in the literature that a few of the
Indian tribes recognized the equinoxes, but in no case did the equi-
noxes directly enter into the time-reckoning.2
Doubtless all the Indians knew that the sun is higher in the
heavens in the summer than during the winter, and connected this
fact with the seasonal differences of heat and cold. Many of the
North Pacific Coast and Southwest Indians and the Eskimo used
the winter solstice as a starting point for their named series of luna-
tions; a few of the Plateau and Mackenzie tribes seem to recognize
periods when the sun is "dead" and when it is "returning." They
1 Murdoch, 41.
2 In the month names of the Nootka, "'Ay-yak-kamilh" (March or April)
and "Cheeyahk-kamilh" (October or November) each contains the element
"yak" or "yahk," which according to Sproat (p. 123) means "long" when
used in other combinations or alone. This might refer to the relative lengths
of days and nights. But "yak" evidently does not mean long here. Both
Sproat and Sapir (ms.) translate "Ay-yak-kamilh" as "when the herrings
spawn." Sproat has no translation for "Cheeyahk-kamilh"; Sapir gives
"cutting up moon" (fish cut up for smoking). In speaking of the Tewa,
Bandelier (p. 311) says the altars used in the kivas were green for the summer
months, and yellow after the autumnal equinox. But IIarrington, J. P. (p. 62)
finds no evidence of an observation of the equinoxes.


1919]











122 University of California Publications in Am. Arch. and Ethn. [Vol. 16

may have used this knowledge as a means of regulating their year.
Although there is no direct evidence of such use, still since these tribes
are geographically close to the North Pacific area where astronomical
knowledge enters definitely into the calendar, they may have been
influenced by this more exact method. Among many tribes there are
months named from the lengths of the days3 but the nomenclature in
no way affects the calendric system. The Plateau tribes have a period
of variable length which kept their calendar regulated, thus showing
they recognized the necessity of intercalation. The Indians of the
Southwest reckoned from the extreme points of the sun's path, and
their influence extended over into southern California in this as in so
many other respects.
Even where the solstice was recognized as a primary point, its
determination was more or less uncertain, for the Indian had no ac-
curate mechanical device to aid him. In Greenland and the Ungava
District the shadows cast by the rocks indicate to the Eskimo the time
when the sun has reached its lowest point.4 Direct observation was
practiced by the Northwest and Southwest tribes. The Kwakiutl
observe the winter solstice in the morning, when they notice the ex-
treme point on the horizon reached by the sun." The Nootka call
observing the solstices ho.'painkcn "to look after the sun." The ob-
server places a stick in front of himself, while another man places
a second stick in line with the first and the point of the rising of
the sun. The observation continues for several days. The period
when the sun remains quiet (literally: "sits down") for four or five
days before beginning its return journey, is called the solstice. The
observation of the solstice is of great economic importance. If one
wishes to be successful in the hunting season, he must perform cer-
tain magical rites when the days are getting longer and the moon is
waxing.' The Hopi have "priests skilled in the lore of the sun," who

3 As among the Onondaga (Beauchamp, 160):
Ses-ka-hah: sun goes for long days (June).
Ses-ka-go-nah: sun goes for longer days (July).
Tis-ah: little long day (December).
Tis-go-nah: longer day (January).
These periods do not mark the beginning of the year, or the grouping of the
months into seasons, and seem to be mere lunations.
4 Cranz, 211; Turner, 202.
5 Boas (letter).
6 Sapir (ms.). During the four days in which the sun is still, it is care-
fully watched. If it goes beyond the regular limit, the sun is thought to be
after fish in the water. This is a sign of an abundant supply of fish; but if
it comes to the regular limit, begins to go back and then returns, it is a sign
of approaching famine.











Cope: Calendars of the Indians North of Mexico


determine the time of the year for their various ceremonials by observ-
ing the exact place of the rising and setting of the sun. Of the thir-
teen points on the horizon, two are called "sun houses," one marking
the place of sunrise at the winter solstice, the other at the time of
the summer solstice.7 The Tewa also note the point at which the
sun rises but have not such an elaborate system as the Hopi. Their
method is to sight along race-courses or hills, or to note the place
of sunrise on the outline of the eastern mountains. From the Santa
Clara village the sun appears to rise at different places in a large
gap in the Santa Fe range, known as Wijo; the solstices are determined
from the apparent points of rising, but the precise method used is un-
known.8 The Zufii also carefully observed the solstices.

SEASONAL
The recurrence of the moon's phases-a phenomenon which all
uncivilized tribes observe-divides the year into "months," to each
of which the term "moon" is applied. Seasonal events, however,
usually give name to the "moons."
Among some of the Eskimo, seasonal occurrences form the only
basis of reckoning for the summer. The Ungava Eskimo seem to have
*disregarded lunations altogether.' Their periods are named from
terrestrial events, such as the breaking up of the ice, ripening of
salmon berries, and the time of reindeer crossing the river; there are
also references to the sun, its return and position in the sky. Several
periods may overlap, but there is a specific name for each. Since
more events happen in summer, there are more summer divisions. The
Point Barrow Eskimo, according to one account,10 have only nine
moons, and for the remainder of the year "there was no moon, only the
sun." The Greenland Eskimo also have difficulty with their summer
months; they depend on the growth of the eider duck, the size and
appearance of the seals, and the like, for the regulation of their
calendar when the moon is invisible."
A seasonal event furnished the starting point of the year among
the Indians of the Mackenzie, Plains, Plateau, Northeast and South-
east Woodlands areas, and sometimes elsewhere. The selection of this
7 Fewkes, 1897, 258-259.
s Harrington, J. P., 47.
9 Turner, 202.
10 Murdoch, 42. Simpson secured names for all twelve months: Simpson,
260-261.
11 Cranz, 211.


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124 University of California Publications in Am. Arch. and Ethn. [Vol. 16

initial event varies greatly: agriculturists seem to prefer the spring-
determined by the drying of the earth or the time for planting-or
the harvest time of their chief crop; hunting peoples often choose the
rutting season of some wild animal, but some prefer the beginning of
winter, and others spring-marked by the sprouting of the grass; sea-
going tribes sometimes take spring, but more often the beginning of
winter. Only among several maritime and agricultural tribes of the
Northwest and' Southwest is the year determined solstitially rather
than seasonally.


UNITS OF TIME RECKONING
THE DAY AND ITS SUBDIVISIONS
The day, as a unit of time reckoning, was of little importance.
Like most primitive peoples the Indians more often count by nights
than by days; there are no names to distinguish one day from another,
except as the direct result of European influences.12 The Navaho, for
instance, have taken over the Spanish "Domingo," and mention the
other days as so many days before or after "Domingo."'' The Kiowa
have also learned to recognize Sunday and count the second, third,
fourth, and fifth days after it; Saturday is known as "Little Sun-
day."14 The Tewa having adopted the entire week-series from the
Spanish,. do no counting from Sunday. The Spanish term for week,
"semana," is seldom used by them; Sunday frequently means week,
and Ja-i "time between [Sundays] is also used.15 The Dogribs have
obtained slips of paper on which the missionaries check each day of
the week, marking Sunday with a cross." With the help of this
device they know when to attend the mission services.
Often when the Indians agreed on a meeting at a particular time,
they arranged bundles of sticks, from which they destroyed one for
12Among the Central Eskimo: "the days of the month are exactly
designated by the age of the moon" (Boas, 1888, p. 648). The Seminole also
seem to have made some attempt of this sort: "these [days] are, in part at
least, numbered by reference to successive positions of the moon at sunset.
Ti-la-hls-ke pointed to the new moon, swept his hand from west to east
to the place the moon would be when he should go" (MacCauley, 525). Rad-
loff (307) says the Kaigani count their time by the moon's phases, and number
the days by the "sleeps." He gives fourteen terms, many of which are not
translated; the terms referring to the first and third quarters are considered
doubtful by Radloff.
13 Franciscan Fathers, 58-59.
14 Mooney, 1898, 365.
15 Harrington, J. P., 67.
16 Russell, 1898, 165.












Cope: Calendars of the Indians North of Mexico


each day or night as it passed. When the last stick was gone they
knew the appointed time had come. This method seems to have been
common in the Southeast Woodlands and the Southwest. When a
Ute or a Navaho wishes to indicate to a subsequent traveler how
long ago he passed a particular place, he places grass and flowers
on a pile of stones; the degree of withering roughly indicates the
passage of time." The Nascapee are said to use a rude sun dial. They
place a short stick upright in a sandy spot and draw a line where the
shadow falls, thus showing the position of the sun, and therefore
the time, at which the first party was there.'8 Gaudet speaks of send-
ing a Lake of the Woods Indian in winter to a camp about fifty miles
away. He followed the next day and noticed, in three different places,
two sticks placed in the snow in such a way that a line drawn between
them would indicate the position of the sun, and thus show the time
of day at which the Indian had reached the spot.'
Very often the same native term designates day-before-yesterday
and day-after-tomorrow. The day seems to begin with sunrise or day-
light; night, with sunset or the approach of darkness. The subdivisions
bf the day are indefinitely marked, varying in number from tribe to
tribe. Several examples will show the character of these divisions.
The StlatlumH have the following:20
plan tcEE'c p'cil: just as it comes day (day break).
plan aitl p'cil: just now morning (dawn).
plan tcEtl pfi'lmiq: just see things (daylight).
plan aitl Esket: just now day (broad daylight).
o'tska snu'kuma: outside sun (sunrise).
plan KaqE'qEtka: early morning.
kaiqA'tka: mid-way between sunrise and noon.
KEn ri'pa: noon or midday.
etc.

From the Navaho we have :21
haylkha (nt'ae) it is dawn.
nane"nlkhi or naneinlkhi (nt'ae) or nandzi'gai (nt'ae): it is daylight.
a'ltso hs"'id (nt'ae): it is full daylight.
qa'i'a: sunrise.
sh 'hinh, or qin 'sh. 'hidon'al, or t 'ado shH' hinida: shortly after sunrise.
di'hAdi'A: sun is well up.
nikh6'ldfi, or honidi'i: it is getting warm (approximately 8-10 A.M.).
etc.
17 Thompson, 118.
is Idem: from Hind, Explorations in Labrador.
19 Thompson, 118.
20 Hill-Tout, 1905, 155. Although numerous terms are given, Hill-Tout does
not consider his list exhaustive.
21 Franciscan Fathers, 37. A complete time circle for the twenty-four hours
is given.


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126 University of California Publications in Am. Arch. and Ethn. [Vol. 16

These examples may be taken as typical, since only minor differ-
ences appear, such as the number of the periods considered. Thus the
Netchillik seem to divide the day into only three parts: morning,
evening, and night.22
Several particularly interesting names of diurnal periods are:

ts'5 tat: "blue night" (morning), Tlingit.
yik hai't'aji: "leaning towards dawn" (probably a reference to the
milky way), Navaho.
tage: "straight up" (reference to the sun's position, meaning noon),
Tewa.
hezentagele: "morning straight up time" (9 or 10 A.M.), Tewa.
t'e'itage.i: "evening straight up time" (2 or 3 P.M.), Tewa.
skau'tlEnteut: "creeping up the mountain" (a reference to the line of
a shadow on the eastern mountains), StlatlumH.
ketcli'pkwa: "reached the top" (i.e., the line of shadow), StlatlumH.


It is important from the Indian standpoint, because of certain
ceremonials, to recognize the divisions of the night. This is particu-
larly noticeable in the Southwest where the ceremonies are accom-
panied with complicated rites, for the singing of certain songs at
the proper time in the early morning is very necessary. Traces of
this idea are found in the rites of most Indians. Among the Maidu
the period just before dawn is determined by a shaman, from the
position of the stars of the Dipper.23
A strange custom prevails among the Greenland Eskimo, where
the ebb and flow of the tides mark the subdivisions of the day,24
with no reference to the sun and light. The daily change of the
sun's position is not so marked here as in the lower altitudes, and for
many months the moon and stars are invisible, while in the winter
the sun never rises above the horizon.



THE "WEEK"
Among several widely separated tribes we have evidence of the
division of the "moon" into periods roughly corresponding to our
weeks. These periods differ in length and method of determination.
The Zuiii "week" is approximately one-third of a month, and is
called topinto as'temtla, or "one ten";25 what the basis of such a

22 Amundsen, 45-47.
23 Dixon, 336.
24 Turner, 202.
25 Stevenson, 108.












Cope: Calendars of the Indians North of Mexico


period is, is unknown, nor does any similar period occur among other
tribes in North America, although in South America it was found
among the Peruvians.
The Wyandots2" use a much simpler arrangement. A lunation
has four parts, each with a name descriptive of the moon's appear-
ance, and also termed sawi'trat, "it begins again." The names of
the separate periods are as follows:

1. shwAte.di'cri'ce': it fills itself up full again (the full moon).
2. tusAu""ra': there again dark (i.e., it is becoming dark again).
3. sawAte."dicra.'mg't: the moon comes off again partly.
4. ya"dicrase" eye': new moon again.


They apply the term wa' trahi-'kwa' (it is turned over, as though
referring to a kettle) to the few days when the moon is invisible.
A peculiarity of this division of the month is that the subdivisions
mark the changing appearances occurring during the decrease of the
moon; there seem to be no subdivisions during the waxing; nor is
there a name for the entire time of increase, unless sAwite-'di'cri'ce'
covers this period. The translation might imply such an interpreta-
tion; but the explanation-the full moon-would apply only to the
few days preceding and following the exact time of the fullness.
The Malecites"7 divided the moon into nine parts. But these periods
were not definite time-divisions; they seem to describe the successive
changes in the moon's appearance and only in a general way refer
to intervals of time. The actual divisions are as follows:

1. nangusa: she is born (the new moon).
2. nenaghil: she grows (from the fifth to the sixth day of the moon).
3. kegan-de meghil: soon full (froni the eleventh to the twelfth day).
4. wemeghil: she is full.
5. pekinem: after being full (the sixteenth, seventeenth, and eighteenth
days).
6. utsine: she commences to die (the twenty-second and twenty-third
days).
7. pebassine: she is half dead.
8. metchina or sesemina: she is entirely dead (when nearly disappearing).
9. nepa: she is dead (no moon).

Among the Plains Cree, "all subdivisions of time [less than a
month] are denoted by the different phases of the moon as 'moon of
26 Barbeau (ms.).
27 Mechling, ms., quoting Vetromile: Abnaki and their History, 81.


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128 University of California Publications in Am. Arch. and Ethn. [Vol. 16

increase' (first quarter), 'half moon' (second quarter), 'more than
half round' (third quarter), 'full or round,' 'decreasing,' and
'dead'."28
It is interesting to compare Radloff's data concerning the Kaigani.29
Of the fourteen names given to the days or "sleeps" of the moon,
Radloff thinks that four may refer directly to the phases of the moon,
and that the remaining names refer to the number of the night:
1. ku'ng et a'mdsu: newer moon.
5. ku'nge i'nnujelg: fifth night, or first quarter(?).
9. ku'nge Keku ne algang: full moon.
13. ku'nge innujelg: the third quarter(?).

There is no other direct information which shows a subdivision
of the month into "weeks"; although the waxing and the waning of
the moon are quite generally recognized, since ceremonies are usually
held during the time of increase. The various vocabularies and dic-
tionaries give terms for the different phases of the moon, which may
have been regarded as definite periods of time, but exact evidence on
this point is lacking.


THE MONTH

The terms "month" and "moon" are used in this paper in refer-
ence to any short period of time which roughly corresponds to our
month. In nearly all cases, however, the basis of the month is the
lunation, counted either from the new or the full moon. Natural
phenomena gave names to the months; but the division of the year
into shorter periods is marked by the recurrence of some phase of the
moon, rather than by these phenomena. That the lunar phases do
form the real basis, is shown in several ways.
The term used to express the period.-In every case that there is
information, the expression for "month" is the same as for the
moon, and it often corresponds to that for sun. The Nootka30 have
a suffix, -q-Lmd, to denote a month. It means round object, that is,
"moon"; it is also used for dollar in the numeral forms. They have
in addition an independent word, hopal, which is the same term as for
moon and sun. The month is started from the new moon-the expres-
sion being, hmal atci tl, "it is joined or patched on." The Timucua
28 Hayden, 1863, 245.
20 Radloff, 307.
so Sapir, ms.











Cope: Calendars of the Indians North of Mexico


term for moon, acuhiba, literally means 'the one who tells"-or the
indicator (of time).3" There is no case in which the month term is
etymologically unrelated to that for moon.
The duration of the period.-The length of the month evidently
corresponds as closely to the lunation as offhand observation will per-
mit, even though its exact length in days is often unknown to the
natives. An old Quileute, being asked definitely about this point, said
there were thirty-two days to a moon. When he was shown the mistake
involved in such a reckoning, he maintained that his count was only
approximate.32 Some of the .Blackfoot are said to count twenty-six
days, some thirty days to a moon ;3 but since the period in which the
moon is invisible is considered the beginning of the next month, the
duration of the month must vary considerably. The Plains Cree
seem to disregard the days when the moon is invisible, for their
month begins when the new moon is first noticed, and ends when the
moon is no longer visible.34 The "Algonquins" are said to have had
twenty-eight days to a month, and thirteen months to a year.3 This
is very improbable. Such a reckoning would involve more careful
and accurate astronomical observations than the Indians were able to
undertake. Moreover, as far as the calendar is concerned, one cannot
make such general remarks as, "in all Algonquin tribes." There is
no phase of the calendric systems which holds for any group of
Indians. Variations occur even among the most closely related groups.
Most investigators state that the Indians were unable to tell the num-
ber of days in a month. This is indeed more probable, for there was
no occasion for such exactness, and without designations for the days,
it is difficult to see how they could keep account of the number of
days necessary to complete a "moon." No sequence of prominent
natural events would give even a rough correspondence to the luna-
tions; the seasons of the various fruits, berries, and wild game may
be of longer or shorter duration than a "moon"; and may vary in
length and time of occurrence from year to year.
The recognition of the moon's phases.-All uncivilized tribes dis-
tinguish the different phases of the moon. Among the North American
Indians, the new moon usually marks the first of the month, although
31 Gatschet, 1880, 473.
32 L. J. Frachtenberg (letter).
33 Wissler, 45.
34 Hayden, 1863, 245.
35 Schoolcraft, 1846, 85.


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130 University of California Publications in Am. Arch. and Ethn. [Vol. 16

the full moon is sometimes used. The waxing and the waning of the
moon were also noted. The Nootka are very particular in noticing
the solstices and the new moon, for it is important that the 'o.sLmLtc'
ceremonies take place in the waxing of the moon and the lengthening
of the days, otherwise the performance of these ceremonies causes
bad luck."3 This idea may explain the importance of these same
periods among certain other tribes, since the more complex and highly
developed the ceremonialism is,.the more careful the determination of
the solstices, the lunar phases, and the time-reckoning. The tribes
among whom the full moon marks the beginning of the "moon" are:
the Greenland Eskimo,37 certain tribes of Northwestern Oregon and
Western Washington,38 the Quileutes,39 Juanefio,40 Kiowa,41 Co-
manche,42 and Kansa.43 The Lenni Lenape used either the new or the
full moon.44
The "week."-In the' few instances, mentioned above, in which
the month is subdivided into "weeks," the phases of the moon deter-
mine the division.
Variability.-The sequence of the months is often given differently
by individuals of the same tribe. Some of the variations may be
due to a partial loss of meaning in the month names-that is, a ten-
dency toward conventionalization of the name; and to the fact that
the counts were all oral. An oral series readily admits of variations
between tribes, divisions of tribes, or even families. Dr. Radin men-
tions that two month names used by the Nebraska Winnebago differ
from those found among the Wisconsin Winnebago, thus indicating
a change in month designations ensuing from a change of locality
since about 1860.45
36Sapir (ms.). The "'o-stmetc'" ceremonies consist of "prayer, bathing,
and rubbing down with hemlock branches, rubbing one's self with medicines,
and undergoing various imitative actions which belong to the domain of
sympathetic magic." They are secret rites, usually performed at night, in
certain selected spots. Their purpose is to acquire magical power for a par-
ticular pursuit. There are many kinds of these ceremonies, each of which has
its appropriate month or portion of a month.
37 Cranz, 211.
as Gibbs, 1887, 213.
39 L. J. Frachtenberg (letter).
40 Boscana, 302.
41 Mooney, 1898, 368.
42 Schoolcraft, 1860, 236 (Burnet).
43 Hunter, 304.
44 Zeisberger, 1830, 108.
4s P. Radin (letter).











Cope: Calendars of the Indians North of Mexico


To quote again from the Nootka accounts-for we have exception-
ally good data for this tribe-Dr. Sapir says :46 "Not all families count
alike. One family is sometimes one month ahead, or one month behind
another. Sometimes they quarrel about what month it is, the names
being well known, but the exact order in which the months occur and
the exact time of the beginning of each month being somewhat open
to dispute. Each family should keep track of the months for itself
so as to know when to 'o-stmttc'. Sometimes one hunter tries to fool
another in order to produce bad luck for him. He might say: 'This
month is so and so.' The other thinks it is time to 'o.smttc' say for
hair seal. He is mistaken, and inasmuch as it is bad luck to 'o-simLtc'
for hair seal at that particular time, he fails to get many in the
hunting season."
A comparison of the different accounts given for the same tribe
occasionally shows remarkable differences in the sequence of the same
month names, and also substitutions. Both the Masset and Skidegate
Haida have a "between month"; among the former this occurs in
October, between the summer and winter series where it properly
belongs, as its name indicates; the Skidegate give it as April, in the
summer series. "Wit gias" (russetback thrush month) appears in
both divisions. In the Masset list it comes in March, while in the
Skidegate it falls in May. One name for the first month of the Masset
series, "Q!a'gAngias" (April) is almost identical with the second
winter month of the Skidegate, "Q !'GA nagias," (October).47 An-
other list obtained at Masset differs from this in having only twelve
moons-"Qofiqo'ns" (June) being omitted; and in calling the month
corresponding to our May, an-kUng-as (berry month) instead of
wa'al-gwalga-i (meaning that the weather is still somewhat cold). The
place of the "between month" in this list also appears before
"seZn gias" instead of between the summer and winter series.48
Similar results appear in comparing the two accounts of the Tlin-
git. A Sitka informant gave a list of thirteen months, beginning the
count in August; a Wrangell informant gave twelve months, begin-
ning the count in January. "Four names correspond exactly in
both lists, five other names are the same but are not applied to the

46 Sapir (ms.).
47 "'No explanation of its meaning could be obtained from the Masset divi-
sion; but the Skidegate say the first word refers to a part of the halibut near
the gills, and the second word to the backbone.'"-Swanton, 1903, 331-335.
48 Idem. Swanton compares with the results of his own investigations a
list obtained by Rev. J. H. Kean, a missionary at Masset.


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132 University of California Publications in Am. Arch. and Ethn. [Vol. 16

corresponding periods, and the names are sometimes interpreted differ-
ently."4" Dr. Swanton considers the Sitka order "probably more
ancient than the other" in regard to the beginning of the year.
A study of the calendars of the four Kwakiutl tribes-Nimkish,
Mamalelekala, Nakwartok, and Koskimo-brings out the same uncer-
tainty in the beginning and order of the month names.50
Simpson and Murdoch give accounts of the Point Barrow Eskimo
which agree fairly well; although Murdoch was told there were only
nine moons, and after the ninth '.'there was no moon, only the sun,"
while Simpson gives names for twelve. Simpson also places "depart-
ing to hunt reindeer" in January, before "great cold and new sun"
(February). Murdoch gives the same names with the order reversed.
Judging from the time of their actual occupations, Murdoch51 gives
the more reasonable sequence. There are other differences in these
two lists, also.
Numerous other examples might be given. Reference might be
made to the four Tewa villages (San Juan, San Ildefonso, Santa Clara
and Nambe) or to the several accounts of the Dakota, Winnebago,
Plains Cree, Eastern Cree, and Northern Saulteaux, since they show
that this tendency toward variation and confusion is confined to no
particular locality. The variations found in the simpler types of
calendars consist chiefly of differences in the selection of phenomena
for the month name. In the complex types, differences in the order
of the month series appear, but substitution of other phenomena also
occurs. The substitution is probably due to the general simplicity of
all the systems; simple calendars have made no advancement beyond
the need of designating separate periods of time, and the names have
formed no definite succession, so that any prominent natural phenom-
enon may supply the necessary name. The differences in the order
of the month series seem to result from a conventionalizing of the
names, whereby their significance is lost.

THE SEASONS
In general the seasons are independent units which sometimes
enter indirectly into the time reckoning, where there is a grouping of
the months into a summer and a winter series. The Ute calendar
is somewhat analogous to this grouping, in that it has the months as
49 Swanton, 1908.
so Boas, 1909, 413.
51 Simpson, 260; Murdoch, 42.












Cope: Calendars of the Indians North of Mexico


definite subdivisions of the seasons, the moons being known as "moon
of a particular season," "middle or big moon of that season," and
"last moon of that season."52
The Indian's season is determined by the more important changes
in the natural phenomena, the gradual approach of which makes it
possible for him to have as many seasons-that is to recognize as many
events-as he wishes.
The number of seasons recognized varies from two to eight; where
more than four are recognized the main seasons are subdivided
naturally. The periods in use among the Hare furnish an excellent
example :5
Description
of the period Native term Translation
Winter
with sun xay. = xare. = jya-kke' no translation
without sun kokkpawe'.= dae'kkpawe' no translation
Spring
little heat kollu-kkpage'. on the ice
with snow kollu-kke'zje'n
melting of snow uallh'lh'. =l'ukkie' thaw
germination toon. = toon- goden.wide' no translation
Summer
middle of inpe'. = chine'
summer
Autumn
first: falling ti-go'tlan.= fine earth
Sof leaves, or na-od'ede'kkpa earth becomes cold
second: falling t'u-yan-t'a-godit'e'n. =in little lakes
of snow the water freezes
ti-got"ena' earth is dead


The names for the seasons among all the tribes are descriptive,
depending in some measure on the type of culture the particular tribe
represents. A few examples taken at random will make this clear.
Among the Kiowa we have:"

1. sai'gya, or sita: winter.
2. so'n pa'te: grass springing; also: a'se'gya-an archaic term the meaning
of which is lost.
3. pai'gya, or pai'ta: summer (connected with the name for the sun).
4. pao'ngya: autumn (the name seems to refer to the thickening of the
fur on the buffalo); also: ai'defi-gylgu'adal-o'mgyai: when the
leaves are red.
52 Sapir (ms.).
.5Petitot, 1876a. The seasons are found in the "Dictionnaire" in alpha-
betical order, under the French names for the seasons.
54 Mooney, 1898, 366.


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134 University of California Publications in Am. Arch. and Ethn. [Vol. 16

The Nootka seasons are :55
1. t'laq"ci tl: it starts growing (early spring).
2. t'lo.p'l.tch": hot season (early spring and first part of summer).
3. aitch'citl: it comes near to rutting season (approximately August
and September).
4. ai'yi.te h": rutting season (early fall).
5. ai tch"'ato.'is: rotten fish float back down the river (late fall).
6. t's o'ite h": wash season (when everything is washed by rain and
snow).

The Occaneechi :56
1. budding or blossoming.
2. ripening.
3. midsummer.
4. harvest or fall.
5. winter.

As with us the seasons are rather vague and indefinitely marked.
The length also varies from year to year with the occurrence and dura-
tion of the natural phenomena which mark the seasons. How close
this dependence on the phenomena is, is well illustrated by LeClercq's
account of the Micmac:57 They say that the spring has come when
the leaves begin to sprout, when the wild geese appear. They
recognize that the summer has come when the salmon run up the
rivers, and the wild geese shed their plumage. They recognize that
it is the season of autumn when the water-fowl return from the north
to the south. As for the winter, they mark its approach by the time
when the cold becomes intense, when the snows are abundant on the
ground, and when the bears retire into the hollows of the trees."
The calendars of the Eastern Cree and Northern Saulteaux are
evidently closely related. Interesting variations have developed in
the names and number of the seasons recognized. The Eastern Cree
divide the year into eight seasons; the Northern Saulteaux recognize
but six, four of which bear the same names as the corresponding
periods of the Cree; the others have names similar to two in the Cree
list.58 The actual lists follow:

55 Sapir (ms.). This list is from the T'sica.'ath" tribe. Another informant,
from the Ho.pa tcas'ath" tribe, gave only four seasons corresponding to our
four, and omitting the third and fifth of the above list. These are probably
of only secondary importance, although the Tsica.'ath" informant insisted on
the six seasons.
56 Mooney, 1894, 34. The native terms are not given.
57 Le Clercq, 137. All information concerning the seasons is similar to this.
58 For the Eastern Cree see Skinner, 1911, 48; for the Northern Saulteaux,
ibid., 147.












Cope: Calendars of the Indians North of Mexico


Eastern Cree.
1. sigun:
"spring before open water."
2. miluskamin:
"spring after open water and
before summer.'
3. nipin:
"early summer."
4. me'gwanipmi:
"middle of summer."
5. tfkwagun:
"' early autumn.''
6. migiskau:
"late autumn."
7. pichipipun:
"early winter, just before frost.'
8. me'gwapipun:
"late winter."


Northern Saulteaux.
1. sigun
"' spring."
2. min'okomin:
"'between spring and summer.''

3. nipin:
summer.''


4. tukwa'gin:
'' autumn.''


5. pit'cipipoun:
Indian Summer."
6. pipoun:
"'winter.'


The Southwestern tribes recognize but two seasons."9 Outside this
area, comparatively few tribes divide the months into two groups.
Close to regions of the two-season count we may find four, five, or six
seasons recognized by tribes of very similar culture. Where the two-
season count appears, it may mark the natural periods of cold and
heat-as among the Haida, Maidu, Navaho, Bannock, Blackfoot,
Arikara, Kiowa, and Choctaw; or the division may be determined by
the solstices, as seen among the Bella Coola, Makaw, Juanefio, Hopi,
Zufii, and Hano.
The Copper Eskimo0o do not recognize "months" but merely divide
the year into five seasons which vary in length from year to year:

1. oqiuq: (winter), middle of November till the end of February, when
the sun is either very low in the sky at noon, or does not rise at all.
2. opmyaqsaq: (early spring), from the beginning of March until the
latter part of April, when the snow first begins to melt.
3. opmyaq: (spring proper), from the first melting of snow until the
land is bare of snow.
4. auyaq: (summer), when the days are warm, the snow is off the ground,
and the lakes are free of ice.
5. oqiuqsaq: (autumn), when the weather becomes cold again, the lakes
freeze over, and the land begins to show signs of winter.

59 The Jemez distinguish the four seasons; the Tewa also speak of a spring
and an autumn but they are not considered real seasons (Harrington, J. P., 61).
They are doubtless obtained through contact with civilized peoples. Other
instances of borrowing are found among the Blackfoot and the Crow (Wissler,
44; Lowie, 242). Among the Blackfoot the months are definitely divided into
a summer and a winter series.
eo Jenness, ms.


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136 University of California Publications in Am. Arch. and Ethn. [Vol. 16


THE YEAR
The year may be regarded as the interval between recurrent events,
since no attempt is made to compute its length in days, and since
the number of moons is somewhat uncertain in the native mind.
Either solar or terrestrial events may determine the inception of the
year. The winter solstice forms the astronomical basis, but the ter-
restrial events vary in kind and time of occurrence, although spring-
time and the beginning of winter seem to be preferred. Climatic con-
ditions, the rutting season of various animals, and the harvest time,
furnish good starting points. This variation indicates that little
stress is laid upon which of the months begins the year-count, each
tribe or even family deciding which event shall mark the first month
of their year. For the distribution of the various periods which are
regarded as the first of the year, see map 2.
The usual designation for "year" is "winter." The Seminole
use the term "summer";61 the Yokuts, "world." The Nootka have
distinct suffixes for "year" and ''season"; that for year ''-q 'itcha,''
is, however, a derivative of that for season, "-'itch.a" ;2' the Wyandot
use the term "sAya'"de)'egya'," (again it overtakes).3
The Indian is usually unable to keep account of an interval of more
than two or three years; after that the reckoning becomes vague, and
if he is obliged to reckon by years he often becomes sadly confused.
The Eskimo of Melville Peninsula often repeat the term "alranee"
in order to express several years, or use the word "oonooktoot" to
mean a great many.64 The Point Barrow Eskimo say "ai-pa'-ni,"
which may mean two years ago, but as readily denotes twenty.
"Al-ra'-ne" is used for very indefinite times. The future is referred
to by the term "nana'ko nana'kun" (by and by) ; or, some reference
may be made to an expected event, such as the going of the ice.65
Although it is often loosely stated that the Indian could tell his age
by the expression "so many winters had passed over his head," or
that he was so many winters old, this expression is no doubt developed
through contact with civilized peoples. The expression more in keep-
ing with the Indian calendric systems is that found among so many
tribes: "I was so large when a certain event happened." This event
may be a year of famine, a year of some epidemic, the growth of a
61 MacCauley, 524.
62 Sapir (ms.).
63 Barbeau (ms.).
64 Parry, 556.
65 Simpson, 261; Murdoch, 43.














Cope: Calendars of the Indians North of Mexico


particular tree or grove, or some remarkable exploit. The Hupa judge
one's age by the condition'of the teeth. Such vague statements or
references as these are probably as near as the Indian, of himself,
ever came to considering his age.




METHODS OF CORRECTION

The Indian seems vaguely aware of the discrepancy between his
lunar reckoning and the solar year. Many tribes apparently have no
method of correcting their year count. In the calendars which have
only twelve months, the Indians may unconsciously lengthen a month
when it does not tally with the event for which it is named, or insert
another period. That the discrepancy was felt is shown by the fre-
quent references in the literature to discussions and quarrels as to
which month it is, or ought to be at a given time. The arguments
apparently continue in such cases until, through a comparison with
the natural phenomena, matters are set right. Among the Yurok, the
time for gathering acorns, "Nohsho," settles all disputes arising from
the fact that some individuals try to count thirteen moons, while others
count only twelve."6 Similar difficulties and methods of correction
would probably be found in practically all the calendars if full
information were available.
There is no definite distribution of the tribes using twelve and
thirteen moon calendars respectively. The Pawnee are said to have
twelve and thirteen months alternately-the intercalary moon being
inserted at the end of summer."7 The Central Eskimo have quite
an exact system, though simple and depending on easily recognized
phenomena. When the new moon and the winter solstice coincide, the
month "siringilang" (without sun) is omitted. This "month" is a
period of indefinite length ;"6 by the omission of it their count is kept
fairly exact, since they have thirteen months to the year.
The Ahtena69 and Luisefio,70 who have fifteen and sixteen divisions
of the year respectively, and the Eskimo of the Ungava District,71
have disregarded the lunations, and merely observe so many events.
G6 Kroeber (ms.). That "Nohsho" is not the beginning of the year, even
though it regulates the month series, is shown by the numeral nomenclature,
which makes this the eleventh month..
67 Dunbar, 744.
68 Boas, 1888, 644.
69 Baer, 100.
7o Du Bois, 162.
71 Turner, 211.


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138 University of California Publications in Am. Arch. and Ethn. [Vol. 16

When the year begins with some particular natural event, say the
harvest of some fruit, it is difficult to see how the moons fit in, unless
only the approximate time of the harvest is taken-varying a little
from year to year until the discrepancy becomes noticeable. In that
case perhaps another month is added, or the moon count may be sus-
pended for a time. The Malecites72 usually divide their year into
twelve lunar months; but when the moons became sufficiently far be-
hind the seasons, they inserted a moon between July and August which
they called "abonamwikizoos," or "let this moon go by."
The majority of the Northwest and Northern Plateau tribes have a
definite intercalary period, but its exact relation to the lunar periods
is not clear. The Bella Coola have a non-lunar period, of approxi-
mately six weeks at each solstice. Five months are counted between
these periods;73 but in what manner the regular count is resumed,
the evidence fails to show. The Kwakiutl call the winter solstice
"ts !d'tap !a" (split both ways).74 It serves as a period of adjustment
and since their solstices are carefully observed, no really serious error
can occur. The Haida have a "between month"75 which is probably
omitted when necessary. Often among the Northern Plateau peoples,
the latter part of the year is a period of variable length called the
"remainder of the year." This "balance" usually covers a period
roughly corresponding to. our July-October-the year count begin-
ning with the first of winter, or the rutting season of some wild
animal.76 In addition to the Plateau tribes, the StsEe'lis77 con-
sider the autumn as a period of variable length. The name applied
to this interval by the StsEB'lis, "umtsimuksEl," signifies the coming
together or meeting of the two points or ends of the year; the latter
part is often called "tEm yd'auk," or the time of the dying of the
salmon. The Northeastern Maidu may also recognize a "remainder
of the year," but it is doubtful. Dixon78 says: "Only nine moons or
periods were known, at least no others seem to be known at present."
He fails to correlate these periods with our months. The month
names of these Maidu reflect the gradually changing natural events,
72AMechling, ms., from Vetromile: Abnaki and their History (81-83). Vet-
romile gives data from a tribe which Mechling believes to be Malecites.
73 Boas, 1898, 41.
74 Boas, 1909, 413.
75 Swanton, 1903. Its place in the calendar is indefinitely fixed-in one
division it comes as a separate month between the summer and winter series;
in another, as a regular month, the second of the summer series; in a second
account of the first division it comes as the fifth of the summer series.
76 Teit, 1906a, 223; 1900, 237; 1906b, 517.
77 Hill-Tout, 1904b, 334.
78 Dixon, 317.











Cope: Calendars of the Indians North of Mexico


but there are two distinct breaks in the series. The first break occurs
between "se'minim po'ko" (seed moon), the first month of the year
count, and "tem tsa'mpautom pS'ko" (little tree freeze moon), the
second month. The other irregularity occurs between "b6'6kmen
po'ko" (trail breaking open) and "kiilo'kbepinem po'ko" (a reference
to the extreme heat, for the explanation is that old women-kiilo'kb--
are said to die of the heat this month). Between these two months
there are only two other periods, one referring to the spring; the
name of the other is untranslated. It seems safest to regard this
Maidu calendar as fragmentary.
The Aleuts79 have named one month tugid'igamak, or the "big
month." It corresponds to our January, and the explanation is that
it is longer than the others. It seems peculiar that it should be the
eleventh of their year count.
In the Southwest, at least among the Pueblos, the solstices, deter-
mined by careful observation, divided the year into two series of six
months each. The method of adjusting six lunations to a half year
is unknown. The few days which are unaccounted for were prob-
ably disregarded. They may have been occupied in observations of
the sun's position, and in waiting for it to rise at the proper point; for
the Zufiis--and probably the other Pueblo Indians-like the Nootka,
believe the sun to rise at the same point for about four days, the last
of which is the solstice.
As for the calendars of the Indians of other areas, there was no
definite provision for intercalation. The only indication that the dis-
crepancy was felt, is the occurrence of the thirteen-month year.




TYPES OF CALENDARS
If we use the nomenclature of the months and the basis of the year
as determining factors, the calendars of the Indians fall into three
classes:
1. Descriptive.
2. Astronomical.
3. Numeral.
Within each type there are minor variations, and even some over-
lapping between types where the tribes are closely connected, geo-
7 Wenjaminow, in Schiefner, 329. The "big month" is common among
many tribes, but there is no specific statement that its name elsewhere refers
to the length of the period.
so Stevenson, 108.


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139











140 University of California Publications in Am. Arch. and Ethn. [Vol. 16

graphically or culturally. There seems to be no definite linking of
the variations with each other, or with any particular feature of
the three types. In this general classification a number of tribes are
omitted because the evidence concerning them is insufficient to war-
rant a definite grouping; but in no case does the information available
conflict with the classification made. Map 1 shows the distribution
of the three types.

DESCRIPTIVE TYPE
It would be difficult to find a more simple form of time-reckoning
than this. The calendar consists merely of descriptive designations for
the lunar periods, the count commencing with some natural event of
importance to the Indian. There is no evidence of the use of astro-
nomical knowledge either for rectification of the year count or for
the annual starting point. The Mackenzie"' and Northeastern"2 and
Southeastern Woodland areas, know this type only. In the Southwest
it occurs among the Pima and the Navaho; but these are ''border"
tribes which differ in other respects from the intensive Pueblo form
of the Southwestern culture. It is interesting to note that these
two tribes have a simple calendar and are apparently uninfluenced
by the complex methods of the neighboring Pueblos. The Pima
begin the year at the time of the saguaro harvest, about the first of
June."s The beginning of winter (about October) marks the first of
the Navaho year.84 The Maidu of California, who also have this type
of calendar, commence their year with the spring when the flowers
bloom, or the tassels appear on the oaks.85 According to one account,"s
even the Tlingit of the Northwest Coast use a purely descriptive
nomenclature for their months.
In simple calendars such as these, there is no uniformity in the
choice of terrestrial events for names; they refer to the customs of
man, the habits of wild animals or birds, climatic conditions, or the
ripening of various fruits and berries. 'The beginning of the year
varies also.
An intermediate stage between the purely descriptive and the
astronomical classes of calendars is to be recognized in those which
8s Except the Ahtena, who have numeral designations, and'therefore come
under the third class. This exception is not strange, for the Ahtena are geo-
graphically close to the Northwestern tribes where numerals are common.
82 Including the Plains Cree.
83 Russell, 1905, 45.
s4 Franciscan Fathers, 58.
si Kroeber, ms.; Dixon, 217.
so Petitot, 1876b.











Cope: Calendars of the Indians North of Mexico


include thirteen or more periods in the yearly count. The larger
number of moons suggests a feeble attempt to correlate an essentially
lunar calendar with the solar year. Since this form of reckoning
does not definitely show an astronomical basis, it is regarded as a
variation of the purely descriptive type-unless additional features
place it in one of the two other classes. This thirteen-moon descriptive
subtype is confined to no particular area, but occurs sporadically.87
Thirteen-moon calendars are also found among tribes using the other
types.

ASTRONOMICAL TYPE
In the Northwest and Southwest areas, and among several Eskimo
groups, the descriptive system is used in combination with the recog-
nition of the solstices.
The solstices may mark the division of the months into a summer
and a winter series, as among the Bella Coola,8s Makah,89 Luisefio,90
Dieguefio," Zufii,82 and Hano;93 or merely the beginning of the year,
as among the Greenland,"9 Ungava"9 and Central Eskimo,"9 the
Nootka,97 and Tewa and Jemez ;9 or, one or both solstices may be non-
lunar periods for the purpose of regulating the year, as in the calen-
dars of the Aleut,"9 the four Kwakiutl tribes100-Nimkish, Koskimo,
Mamalelekala, and Nakwartok-and the Bella Coola.'o0
The rising of the constellations apparently marks the beginning
of the year among the Kaniagmiut Eskimo102-their first month being
named "kabjaxgun," or "the Pleiades begin to rise"; their second,
' tugaxgun" or tagegun,'' 'Orion rises "
87 The following are a few of the tribes which divide their year into thirteen
or more periods, apparently without an astronomical basis: Ahtena, Plains Cree,
Kansa, Blackfoot, Chippewa, Natchez, and Choctaw.
88 Boas, 1898, 41.
S8 Swan, 91.
9o Du Bois, 165.
91 Idem.
92 Stevenson, 108.
93 Fewkes, 1899,'260, 275.
94 Cranz, 211.
O5 Turner, 202.
96 Boas, 1888, 597; Hall, 323.
o7 Sapir (ms.). Sproat, 123, indicates a recognition of both solstices, but
not as marking the beginning of the year
.s Harrington, J. P., 61.
99 Wenjaminow, in Schiefner, 329.
100oo Boas, 1909, 412.
101 Boas, 1898, 41.
102 Dawydow, in Schiefner, 330.


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142 University of California Publications in Am. Arch. and Ethn. [Vol. 16

Month designations referring to the solstitial ceremonials often
replace the descriptive names. This ritualistic nomenclature has its
fullest development among the Hopi,103 who name each of their moons
from the chief ceremony of each period. On the Northwest Coast one
or more months are sometimes named.from ceremonials, or ceremonial
implications; but never the entire series.
It is by no means strange that the Eskimo should notice the winter
solstice and celebrate the sun's approach, for the arrival of the lumin-
ary means the promise of a radical change in their life, affecting every
phase of their activities. The tribes of the North Pacific Coast on the
other hand are essentially canoe using peoples. Here the winter sol-
stice attracts attention because of the storminess of the period. We
have evidence that its observance is of economic importance among the
Nootka,104 who in order to gain the greatest success in their hunting
and fishing, plan a series of 'o.sLmLtc' ceremonies for the year, as
already described. The general similarity in complicated ceremonial-
ism, the means of sustenance, and other phases of culture throughout
the North Pacific Coast, indicate that in this entire area economic con-
ditions coupled with magico-religious beliefs are fundamental to the
importance attached to the solstices. This also applies to the South-
west. Here we have an agricultural people, with rituals associated
with the sun's return and departure and with the growth of the crops.



NUMERAL TYPE

This type of calendar comprises those counts in which numeral
designations have partly or wholly replaced the descriptive terms.
It occurs only among the Northwest tribes and closely connected peo-
ples105-the northern Plateau and northern California tribes, and the
Eskimo of southern Alaska. The Yurok alone use the numeral desig-
nations with a definite astronomical basis; the months, numbered to the
tenth (after which descriptive terms are used), begin with the winter
solstice.

loa Fewkes, 1897, 254ff.; 1900, 631ff.; 1903, 20-23.
104 Sapir (ms.).
105 Ginzel, 148, gives a vague reference to ''der diinischen Forschungs-expedi-
tion von 1886" in which he claims that the Eskimo of East Greenland have
only numeral designations for their months. Another case of the use of num-
erals-although not in connection with the month series-is that of the North-
west Coast Kaigani who, according to Radloff (307), number their days.













Cope: Calendars of the Indians North of Mexico


Only the StsEelis10" combine numeral and ritualistic designations
in the same series. The Kaniagmiut107 and Aleutlos have merely a
trace of the numerals; the former name one month "agwinyx," or
the sixth; the latter number their first month, "kadu'gix," but some-
times apply a descriptive name. The Ahtena1'0 recognize fifteen small
periods in the year, with only numeral appellations. The Tlingit,
according to one account,110 designate their tenth and eleventh months
by the numerals, although descriptive terms are also used. The
Chilkat, a division of the Tlingit, "are said to count all their months,
instead of naming them."'11 The Lillooet, Shushwap, and Thompson
Indians (Lower Thompson and Spence's Bridge bands) number the
months up to the tenth or the eleventh ;12 sometimes descriptive terms
are used with these, and in many cases actually replace them. The
Lower Thompson make less use of the descriptive names. Among
all the Thompson tribes, the period immediately following the num-
bered months is of variable length, and termed the "remainder of
the year." The Klamath calendar counts over the fingers of the
hand"l-a method that seems to be a modification of the numeral one.
The Eastern Pomo and Huchnom introduce a few finger-named moons
among their descriptive ones. Of the Blackfoot, Wissler says: There
is little consistency in the nomenclature of the moons our infor-
mation implying that they were considered more by numerals than
by names.' He follows this statement with a list of descriptive terms,
divided into a summer and a winter series.114

SIMILARITIES BETWEEN THE TYPES

The descriptive element appears in practically all North American
calendars. Of the astronomical type, the Haida and the Tsimshian
are entirely descriptive except for the occurrence of a "between
month.""11 In the numeral groups the descriptive names occur either
in place of or along with the numbers. Only the Ahtena and Klamath
have the entire series of months numbered or "fingered." The Aleut
too Hill-Tout, 1904b, 334.
lo7 Wenjaminow, in Schiefner, 330.
0os Dawydow, in Schiefner, 329.
1o9 Baer, 100.
110 Swanton, 1908, 426.
111 Idem, 427.
112 Teit, 1906a, 223; 1900, 237; 1906b, 517.
113 Gatschet, 1890, 74-76.
114 Wissler, 44.
115 Even though the Tsimshian and one group of the Haida have only twelve
moons, including the "between month," they have been classed with the
astronomical type.


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144 University of California Publications in Am. Arch. and Ethn. [Vol. 16

and Kaniagmiut each have but one month numbered; the former apply
a descriptive name to the same month.
The occurrence of a thirteen-moon year shows some attempt to
solve the real problem of a calendar; and is but a little less refined
than the scheme of a "between month." As already stated, this
thirteen-moon count is here construed as a variation of the descrip-
tive type, since the method of intercalation is vague and apparently
based upon no astronomical idea. The calendars of the two other
classes often contain thirteen or more moons.
Many of the calendars in which the moons are numbered-either
wholly or in part-close the year with a non-lunar period of variable
length, which has no relation to the solstices. In the solstitial years
of the Bella Coola and.Kwakiutl, the non-lunar periods occur at the
solstices; the former use a period of about six weeks at each solstice.116
In the case of the Kwakiutl the name of one moon sometimes covers
two lunations; the adjustment is in midwinter."17 The "remainder
of the year" or indefinite period of adjustment occurs at different
seasons among the several tribes. Among the Thompson, Lillooet, and
Shushwap,11 the interval begins some time in September and con-
tinues into November. The eleventh month of the Aleut calendar is
somewhat longer than the others; it comes about January, and is
called the big month, "tugid'igamak."'ll
The distribution of the tribes using the numeral type of calendar
shows a remarkable grouping around the North Pacific astronomical
center, in which the calendars begin with the winter solstice, but the
numeral calendars are not solstitial-except among the Yurok. The
Tlingit begin the year in August,120 with the tenth and eleventh months
(the only numbered ones) occurring in May and June. The Aleut
have the first month numbered. It comes in March.121 The sixth
month of the Kaniagmiut falls in January.122 The Chehalisl23 num-
ber the months from the fifth to the tenth inclusive, a period corres-
ponding to our February-July, so that their year begins about Octo-
ber. The Thompson, Lillooet, and Shushwap"12 commence their year-
nlo Boas, 1898, 41.
117 Boas, 1909, 412.
1's Teit, 1906a, 223; 1900, 237; 1906b, 517.
11 Schiefner, 1856b, 329.
12o Swanton, 1908, 425-427. The Wrangell informant, who gave no numeral
designations, said the year began in January.
121 Schiefner, 1856b, 329.
122 Schiefner, 1856a, 330.
123 Hill-Tout, 334.
124 Teit, 1906a, 223; 1900, 237; 1906b, 517.











1919] Cope: Calendars of the Indians North of Mexico 145

counts in November, numbering the months up to the tenth or the
eleventh. Descriptive names are applied to some. Although most of
the Shushwap entered their winter houses (the event which marked
the beginning of the year) a month earlier than the Thompson Indians,
they began the year-count with the same month, and called it by the
same name referring to the occupation of the winter houses.


CENTERS OF DEVELOPMENT

From this review of the types of calendars it appears that there
are two definite areas in which relatively complex systems are in
use: the North Pacific Coast and the Southwest; and a third with a
calendar which is quite simple but nevertheless worked out on an
astronomical basis: that of the Eskimo. Beyond the influence of these
centers the simplest methods prevail-variegated by local conditions
and colored more or less by the general habits of each people. The
elements which indicate a higher development of the calendric systems
are as follows:
1. A recognition of the solstices, and their use in the calendrical
system.
2. A definite intercalary period.
3. The division of the year-count into two series, a summer and
a winter series of months.
4. The naming of the moons by numerals and after ceremonies.
Since these features have been previously discussed, only a few
general remarks are necessary here, in order to compare the several
areas.
Both in the Northwest and Southwest the solstices are assigned a
definite place in most calendars, and all the Eastern and Central
Eskimo-except the Copper Eskimo125-base the beginning of the
year on the solstitial period.
A definite intercalary period appears only among the North Pacific
Coast and Northern Plateau tribes. It may take the form of a
"between month," a period named for one or both solstices, or a
variable "remainder of the year," each of which has been discussed
elsewhere. Of the Eskimo, the Central tribes alone have a definite
period of intercalation or rather the opposite; but even this depends
upon an easily recognized phenomenon: as explained above, their
month "siringilang" is omitted whenever the new moon and the
winter solstice coincide.
125 Jenness (ms.).


I












146 University of California Publications in Am. Arch. and Ethn. [Vol. 16

The division of the year into two groups of months is common to
the Northwest and Southwest, but since it occurs in several other
places,121 little importance can be attached to it, beyond the fact that
in combination with other factors it may help build up a more ad-
vanced system. The Southwestern tribes use the two series of months
with the solstices as pivots, and sometimes there is a repetition of the
winter month names for the summer months.127 In these matters the
tribes of Southern California have probably been influenced by those
of the Southwest. The Diegueiio repeat the month designations;128
the Juanefio'2 and Luiscfio,130 however, fail to do so. In the North-
west the repetition of the month designations within the year never
occurs; the summer and winter groupings occur in comparatively few
tribes, among some of which they correspond with the natural seasons.
We have already seen that the numeral nomenclature is confined
to the Northwestern and closely related tribes; and that a ceremonial
nomenclature is common to both the Northwest and the Southwest
tribes-although more highly developed in the latter. The nature
of the ceremonials differs, reflecting the type of culture. In the
Southwest the ceremonies are symbolic of weather conditions favorable
to the agricultural pursuits, and of the planting, growth, and harvest
of the crops. The Northwest tribes have magical rites suited to the
pursuits of a seagoing people.
In summary, the regional types of calendars may be defined thus:
Northwest: solstices pivotal; months in two series; intercalation of
non-lunar period; months often numbered, occasionally named for
ceremonies.
120 Other tribes in which the summer and winter series of months are found:
Maidu (Kroeber, ms.).
Bannock (Clark, 260).
Blackfoot (Wissler, 44).
Arikara (Maxmillian, 1906, 393).
Choctaw (Byington, 146).
Kiowa (Mooney, 1895-96).
In all these cases the division is seasonal.
127 Fewkes, 1897, 258. Fewkes gives the Hopi reason for the repetition of
the month names-an interesting hint dropped by a priest: "When we of
the upper world are celebrating the winter Pa moon, the people of the under
world are engaged in the observance of the Snake or Flute, and vice versa."
These ceremonials of the two worlds are synchronous. "That is the reason
we make the Snake or Flute pahos during the winter season, although the
dance is not celebrated until the corresponding month of the following summer.'
Compare the list of Kiowa months in Mooney, 1898, 365-370.
128 Du Bois, 162; Gifford, 1918.
129 Boscana, 303-304.
130 Du Bois, 162.












Cope: Calendars of the Indians North of Mexico


Southwest: solstices pivotal; months in two series, sometimes with
duplicating names; designations seasonally or ritualistically descrip-
tive.
Central Eskimo.: year begins with winter solstice; sometimes cor-
rection of lunar series at this period; month names descriptive.
Remainder of the continent north of Mexico: no use made of sol-
stices; no intercalation or system of correction; month names descrip-
tive of seasonal events, very rarely numeral or of ceremonial signifi-
cance; rarely in two series.


DIFFUSION
There are certain similarities in the month designations used by
the various tribes, due to similar modes of life, climatic conditions,
or to diffusion. References to cold and heat, spring and autumn,
animal, bird, or fish life, wind, fruits and berries, are found in prac-
tically all calendars. A few instances will show the peculiar forms
taken among different tribes:


Native term
chup'-wik

vcenan 1'e'n tchitcho5c
ghar u wue sa


tl'in-tche'-te'w'6

Ho"'ga umubthi ike

(Native term not given)
kakakano
(Native term not given)
tcokiapik
su'dlivwifi

ku'-bvi-jikh-pig-fi-wik

nits'i'ts'6si, or
nlch'i'ts'8'si
yh'ishji'-shch'ili
ses-ka-hah
vcenan nan e'ne'itchi
te' ey
ka'ui tso'n po'ko
(Native term not given)


Translation
mush ice forms (October-No-
vember)
month dog is cold (January)
rabbit eats quickly (Decem-
ber) (meaning the days are
getting short)
tail of the dog stretches out
to the fire (January)
snow drifts into the tent of the
Honga (January)
freezing rivers (November)
pattering showers (February)
rise of waters (April-May)
rainy month (July or August)
time for working, i.e., sewing
(October)
time for setting seal nets
(October)
light or slender wind
(November)
I insert the small grains (June)
sun goes for long days (June)
month of the long day (July)
(day continued)
ground burning moon (July)
moon of the nosela5 of the little
serpent (November)


Tribe
Eskimo of
Lower Yukon
Loucheux
Tahltan


Hare

Omaha

Mandan
Maidu
In Southern California
Pima
Eskimo of
Point Barrow
Unalit

Navaho

Navaho
Onondaga
Loucheux

Maidu
Arikara


131This use of "nose" is perhaps explained by the Thompson Indian calen-
dar ''tenth moon," or, laxaks, "first of the run," or "nose" of ascending fish.
Teit, 1900, 237.


1919]











148 University of California Publications in Am. Arch. and Ethn. [Vol. 16

In addition to such general designations there are others widely
distributed over an area where a particular phenomenon occurs.
References to berries are numerous throughout the north-central part
of the continent; a salmon nomenclature, in Alaska, the North
Pacific Coast, and the Northern Plateau; wild rice designations,
in the vicinity of the Great Lakes among the tribes who to a great
extent depend upon the rice for food; sore eye names, from the north-
ern part of the Mackenzie region down through the Plains. But it is
remarkable that comparatively few tribes are represented in the sore-
eye nomenclature, and that other hunting tribes, living in localities
which have severe winters, never mention sore eyes. References to
birds, their migrations, eggs, and moulting, are found chiefly among
the northern peoples, although goose and eagle nomenclatures are
widely scattered. These designations are absent from the California
area, even though bird life must have been of great importance to the
Indians of this region.
An excellent example of diffusion is shown by the numeral designa-
tions: Aleut, Kaniagmiut, Ahtena, Tlingit, Chilkat, StsE''lis, Shush-
wap, Thompson, Lillooet, Modoc, and Yurok.
Underground houses were common among the Northern Califor-
nians and tribes inland of the North Pacific Coast, but only the latter
have references to the underground house in their month designations.
Even here they occur among but four tribes: the Thompson, Lillooet,
Shushwap, and Chilcotin.
The rutting seasons of the various wild animals give names to the
months among the hunting peoples of the Plains, Mackenzie, and
Plateau regions. The Osage calendar has very few other names.182
Often occurrences not affecting native life occasion moon names,
as is shown by the frog nomenclature. -The frogs, whose croaking
in the springtime is of course noticeable almost everywhere, are men-
tioned by the Delaware, Malecite, Eastern Cree, Montagnais, Plains
Cree, Dakota, and Omaha.
Many other examples might be given, but these will show that local
influences play an important part even in the centers of higher develop-
ment.
Map 3 reviews the distribution of several specific elements of
month designations.
132 Maximilian, 1906, 300.















Cope: Calendars of the Indians North of Mexico


CALENDAR LISTS
ASTRONOMICAL TYPE
The following tribes use the astronomical type of calendar: Bella
Coola, Dieguefio, Haida (Masset and Skidegate), Hano, Hopi, Jemez,
Kwakiutl (Koskimo, Nakwartok, Nimkish, and Mamalelekala), Luisefio,
Makah, Netchilli, Nootka, Piskwaus, Salish, Si'ciatl, Tewa, Tusayan,
Yurok, and Zufii. For the Yurok month list see the numeral type of
calendar. The Luiseiio and Diegueio lists are not given, for it is
impossible to correlate them with our months.
Netchilli (Amundsen). *1. kapidra, it is cold, the Eskimo is freezing. 2.
hikkernaun, the sun is returning. 3. ikiakparui, the sun is ascending. 4. avonivi,
the seal brings forth her young. 5. nechyialervi, the young seals are taking
to the sea. 6. kavaruvi, the seals are shedding their coats. 7. (first part)
noerui, reindeer bring forth their young; (second part) ichyavi (1), birds are
brooding. 8. ichyavi (II), the young birds are hatched. 9. amerairui (I), the
reindeer is migrating southward. 10. amerairui (II). 11. akaaiarvi, the Eskimo
lay down food depots. 12..hikkern illun, the sun disappears.
Haida, Masset (Swanton). 1. tin qofia's, black bear month. 2. xit gias,
laughing goose month. 3. wit gias, russet-backed thrush month. *4. ea'nsga-i
la' qofias, month berries are forming; or, q!a'gAn gias, halibut month. 5. wa'al
gwalga-i, means weather is still somewhat cold. 6. qofiq'ns, great month.
7. s'en gias, killer whale month. (Because the noise caused by the stripping
of the bark from the cedar trees is like the blowing of the killer whales).
8. k!i's'als, said to have received its name from the fact that animals begin to
get fat. 9. qA'lga qofia's, ice month. 10. q!e'daq!edas, between month. 11.
djA qofia's, digging month. 12. q5'ao gia'fia', standing to defecate. 13. Igitu'n
qofia's, goose month.
Haida, Skidegate (Swanton). 1. sqalgofi gida's, young fish. 2. sqalg6'fl q!a'-ias,
old fish. *3. tA'xet gias, sockeye month. 4. Ge'tGa q!h'-idas, between month.
5. wit gias, russet-backed thrush month. 6. cAn caln'n qoans, many ripe berries.
7. waI Gal qoans, many potlatches. 8. halwa'l qoans, means that many salmon
were then dried. 9. xo'lcao qoans, means that salmon jerk about in creeks to
let eggs out. 10. q!A' GAna gias, probably many halibut were then taken.
11. k!is'als, said to be a contraction of the word for empty entrails (refers to
animal intestines in which salmon eggs and grease were kept). 12. qofi gi&'di
Gt'das, signifies that food is almost gone.
Tsimshian (Boas). 1. the intervening month. 2. spring salmon month.
3. month when olachen is eaten. 4. month when olachen is cooked. 5. (7).
6. egg month. 7. salmon month. 8. humpbacked salmon month. 9. (1).
10 spinning top month. *11. falling leaf month. 12. taboo month.
Kwakiutl, Nimkish (Boas). 1. wa'E'nx, spawning season. 2. tsux.usfm, first
olachen run. *3. q!wa'lE'nx, raspberry sprouting season; or, emaewaWL!Enx,
olachen fishing season. 4. q!EmdzEk!unx, raspberry season. 5. gwA't!Enx,
huckleberry season. 6. nEk!u'nx, sallalberry season. 7. wul'tslEnx, season

The moons are throughout given in the order which they occupy in our
calendar year. That is, 1 is approximately January and 12 December. The
asterisk denotes the moon regarded by the tribe in question as beginning the
series or opening the year.


1919]












150 University of California Publications in Am. Arch. and Ethn. [Vol. 16

of? 8. XE'msxEmsde, past, [that is empty] boxes? 9. l'xEm, wide face.
10. 'mEgwa'ba e, round one underneath, that is the moon after "wide face."
11. gwa'xsEm, dog salmon month. 12. q!l'xeala, cleaned, that is of leaves.
i3. ts!a'tap!a, split both ways (the winter solstice).
Kwakiutl, Mamalelekala (Boas). 1. em'tewAlits!Enx, season of floods? 2.
ema'emawa'LEEnxeenf, near to olachen fishing season. *3. tE'mk. inx, tree
sprouting season. 4. q!EmdzEk!unx, raspberry season. 5. gwh't!Enx, huckle-
berry season. 6. nEk!u'nx, sallalberry season. 7; wule'ts!Enx, season of?
8. xE'msxEmsde, past, [that is empty] boxes? 9. l8'xEm, wide face. 10.
emEgw,'bAbe, round one underneath, that is the moon after wide face. 11.
wule'ts!Enx, season of? 12. q!i'xeala, cleaned, that is of leaves. 13. ts!a'tap!a,
split both ways (the winter solstice).
Kwakiutl, Nakwartok (Boas). 1. waeE'nx, spawning season. 2. En6'la,
elder brother. 3. tW'kwab'6e, under, that is under elder brother. 4. B'dabA'e,
next one under, that is next one under elder brother. *5. sEmx.usEm, trying oil
moon. 6. nE'mnhla, sockeye month [?]. 7. Aa'tsaeya, between good and bad
weather [?]. 8. g'ElEnx, raspberry season. 9. 'n5'endlasna'qag-ila, eldest
brother. 10. helats!a, right moon? 11. xA'kwalil, sweeping houses, that is, for
winter ceremonial. 12. mg'g.a'ya, staying in dance house 13. ts!W'tap!a, split
both ways (the winter solstice).
Kwakliutl, Koskimo (Boas). 1. wi'la'wa, ? 2. q!Egux.uLi', nothing on it?
3. q!E'nu, no sap in trees. 4. g5'lEnx, raspberry season. 5. gwi't!Enx, huckle-
berry season. 6. nEk!u'nx, sallalberry season. 7. mETalalasgEm (ts!a'tap!a),
southeast wind moon. 8. nE'mnAla, sockeye moon. 9. Ena'la, elder brother.
10. tb'kwabbe&, under, that is under elder brother. 11. dzEx.udzEwi'tsEm, pile
driving moon. 12. wa''mitsEm, fish in river moon. 13. ts!a'tap!a, split both
ways (the winter solstice).
Bella Coola (Boas). 1. sx6lE'mx.EnEm. 2. alab'nstimdt. 3. siaq'u'm. 4.
siqib'lx.. 5. sin5'moak.. 6. seE'mt, summer solstice. 7. si'Lxum. 8. sexexe'mut.
9. sinuL1A'lsEmtEnEm. 10 tsi sitak.ins tsEau Anafilikuts'ai'x.. 11. 1Emulen.
12 sEmmt, winter solstice.
Nootka (Sproat). 1. hy-yeskikamilh, month of the most snow. 2. kahs-sit-imilh.
3. ay-yak-kamilh, when the herrings spawn. 4. outlohkamilh, month when
the geese leave for the lakes to breed. 5. oh-oh-kamilh, in this month strange
geese from a distance fly high on their way to inland lakes. 6. tahklahdkamilh,
before the end of this month salmon berries have begun to ripen. 7. kow-
wishimilh, many salmon berries ("this moon stays for two days"). 8. aho-sitsis.
9. satsope-us, named from the salmon so called. 10. enakonsimilh, evidently
from the salmon so called. 11. cheeyahk-amilh. *12. mah-mayksoh, elder
brother (this month is nearer our November than December). 13. kathlahtik,
brother (this moon "does not travel, but stays for two days").
Nootka, Ho'.ai'th.a tribe (Sapir). 1. qala-tiki', younger (same term as for a
man's younger brother. 2. hayt.sqaqNimd, moon. 3. q'.dx.sitmd, water becoming
muddied moon. 4. 'a.ya.qbmd, herring spawning moon. 5. ho.'uqumd, migratory
birds congregating on the rocks moon. 6. t'a.ktla.t'othmd, bead stringing
moon. 7. qawactmtl, salmon berry moon. 8. '.a.sitsas, bees (and wasps) (make
nests) on the ground. 9. sat'sopas, tyee salmon come up. 10. hmnk'o.'astmil,
dog salmon moon. 11. t'ci.ya.qbmd, cutting up moon (fish cut up for smoking).
*12. 'ma.'mt.qso, older (brother or sister).
Nootka, Tsica.'atha tribe (Sapir). *1. hayasktqtmd, stormy moon. 2.
q'a.lxsitmtl, dirty water moon. 3. '.a.yaqnmd, herring spawning moon. 4.
'.o.tl'.o.kwmd, going off one after another moon (refers to the migration of
various kinds of ducks). 5. hoya.qtmdl, flying up in the air moon (refers to












Cope: Calendars of the Indians North of Mexico


passage of the California geese). 6. '.a.sitsas, bee daughter (refers to the
swarming of the bees). 7. t'a.k'tla.'tak't-.mtl, stringing salmon berries on
fine stems of maidenhair fern moon. 8. sat'sopas, tyee salmon daughter.' 9.
hentko.'astmal, dog salmon moon. 10. t'ci.ya.qtmtl, cutting up moon. 11.
qala.ttk', younger brother of male. 12. 'ma.'mt.q'so', oldest (brother, sister).
Makah (Swan). 1. a-a-kwis-put'hl, month the whale has its young. 2.
kluk-lo-chis-to-put'hl, month the weather begins to grow better, days longer,
and the women go alone for firewood. 3. o-o-lukh-put'hl, month the fin-back
whales arrive. 4. ko-kose-kar-dis-put'hl, month of sprouts and buds. 5. kar-
kwuch-put'hl, month of the strawberry and the salmon berry. 6. hay-saik-
toke-put'hl, month of the red huckleberry. 7. kar-ke-sup-he-put'hl, month of
wild currants; gooseberries, and sallal. 8. wee-kookh, season of rest. 9. kars-
put'hl. 10. kwar-te-put'hl, month for catching a kind of rock fish. 11. cha-
kairsh-put'hl, season of winds and screaming birds. *12. se-hwow-as-put'hl,
month the California gray whale makes its appearance.
The Makah reckon their year from the time the days begin to lengthen.
The time they begin to shorten is also noted.
Siciatl (Hill-Tout). 1. tEm k.aikQ, eagle time. 2. tEm nEm, time when big
fish lay eggs. 3. tEm sA'tskai, budding time. 4. tEm slem, named from a large
migratory bird. 5. tEm tsE'iHtse'6II, the diver loon month. 6. tEm k-WeEk.wEl,
salmonberry time. 7. tEm saiuq, redcap raspberry month. 8. tEm ta'ka,
sallalberry time. 9. tEm ok.wA'lEnuH, time when fish stop running. 10.
tEm palk.a'l'nuH, time when leaves fade. 11. tEm Qa'setcin, time when fish
leave the streams. 12. tEm kwit6'.
Salish (Hale, in Gallatin). 1. skhuwusus, cold. 2. skiniramun, a certain
herb. 3. skaputru, snow gone. 4. spatlum, bitter root. 5. stagamawus, going
to root the ground. 6. itkhwa, camass root. 7. saantkhlkwo, hot. 8. silamp,
gathering berries. 9. skilues, exhausted salmon. 10. skaai, dry; or, kinui-
etkhluten, house building. 11. keshmakwaln, snow. *12. siislikwn.
Pisklwaus (Hale, in Gallatin). 1. skiniramun. 2. skuputskiltin. 3. skasulku.
4. katsosumtun. 5. stsaok. 6. kupukalukhtin. 7. silump. 8. tshepumtum
9. panpatkhlikhen. 10. skaai. 11. sustikwu. *12. skwusus.
Tewa, San Juan (Harrington). *1. 'ojip'o, ice moon. 2. depihcep'o, moon
when coyotes are frightened, (cliffs fall down and coyotes are startled). 3.
tswvqwirisitsap'o, lizard belly cut month (because it is said that lizards' navel
cords are then cut). 4. kapabep'o, month when leaves break forth. 5. kassp'o,
tender leaf month. 6. kak'ump'o, dark leaf month; or, sa7qwamp'o, St. John
month. 7. p'ewep'o, month of ripeness; or, santiagllp'o, St. James month.
8. tatsap'o, wheat cutting month. 9. k'arip'o, take home month. 10. kajemup'o,
month of falling leaves. 11. hce we'gep'o, month when all is gathered in. 12.
np' ap'o, Christmas month, literally "ashes fire."
Tewa, Santa Clara (Harrington). *1. 'ojip'o, ice moon. 2. bodop'o, crazy
moon (because of boisterous weather; probably adapted from the Spanish
febero loco). 3. kapabep'o, month when leaves break forth. 4. -- 5.
k' u7kop'o, corn planting month. 6. nampap'o, agriculture month; or, saqwamp'o,
St. John month. 7. kwcejip'o, horse month; or, santiagup'o, St. James month.
8. tatsap'o, wheat cutting month. 9. hcrp'ep'o, all ripe month; or, k'unt'ep'o,
month when corn is taken in. 10. p'ojep'o, harvest month. 11. hwwe'gep'o,
month when all is gathered in. 12. nup' ap'o, Christmas month, literally "ashes
fire. "
Tewa, San Ildcfonso (Harrington). *1. 'ojip'o, ice month. 2. wap'o, wind
month. 3. kapabep'o, month when leaves break forth. 4. kawarep'o, month
when leaves open. 5. k'ujkop'o, corn planting month. 6. sai7qwamp'o, St. John


1919]













152 University of California Publications in Am. Arch. and Ethn. [Vol. 16

month. 7. santiagup'o, St. James month. 8. ta tsap'o, wheat cutting month.
9. 'ap'opap'o, month when sirup is made. 10. kajemup'o, month of falling
leaves. 11. hewe'gep'o, month when all is gathered in. 12. nup'ap'o, Christmas
month, literally ''ashes fire."
Tewa, Namb6 (Harrington). *1. 'ojip'o, ice moon. 2. k'osindisitsap'o,
lizard belly cut moon (because it is said that lizards' navel cords are then cut).
3. kapabep'o, month leaves break forth. 4. kawarep'o, month when leaves
open. 5. k'u(7kop'o, corn planting month. 6. saqwamp'o, St. John month.
7. santiagup'o, St. James month. 8. tatsap'o, wheat cutting month. 9. p'ewep'o,
month of ripeness. 10. kajemup'o, month of falling leaves. 11. hwewe'gep'o,
month when all is gathered in. 12. nup' ap'o, Christmas month, literally ashes
fire."
Jemez (Harrington). *1. sekfup'f, flying ant moon. 2. hudap'a, cedar dust
wind month. 3. no'otsup'A, small leaf moon. 4. no'otap'a, big leaf month.
5. tsak'up'A, baby antelope month. 6. saFwap'&, St. John month. 7. satejagup'&,
St. James month. 8. pakwap'A, festival month. 9. -- 10. hatsip'a,
husking month. 11. pttipakwap'h, fall and winter festival month. 12. numisap'A,
Christmas month.
The difficult orthography of Harrington has been somewhat simplified in the
foregoing five lists.
Zuhi (Cushing in Harrington). *1. i'-koh-pu-yai-tchun, growing white crescent,
or i-shoh-k' o'a-pu-yi-tchun, crescent of conception. 2. ta-ylim-tchu-yH-tchun,
because boughs are broken by the weight of descending snow. 3. o-nan-u'l-ak-
k'ia-kwum-yli-tchun, snow lies not in the pathway. 4. thli'-te-kwa-na-k'ia-tsa-
na-yf-tchun, moon of the lesser sand storms. 5. thli-te-kwa-na-k'ia-thla'-na-
yl-tchun, moon of the greater sand storms. -6. ya-tchum-kwa-shi-am-o-na, cres-
cent of no name. 7. --- yellow. 8. -- blue. 9. ----, red.
.10. -- white. 11. -- iridescent or variegated. 12. -- black.
Zuii (Stevenson). 1. taiyamchu, limbs of the trees broken by snow.
2. o'nlinulakiakwam6, no snow in road. 3. tHli'tekwakiatsanna, little wind
month. 4. 'Hli'tekwakiathlan'na, big wind month. 5. kwash'ilimme, no name.
6. '7. 8. ---. 9.--- 10.------. 11.-- .
*12. i'kopu, turning or looking backward (the sun father pauses awhile before
returning).
For the summer months the names of the winter months are repeated.
Hano (Fewkes). 1. elo-p'o, wooden cup moon (refers to cups made of wood,
used in a ceremonial game). 2. ka'uton-p'o, singing moon. 3. yopobi-p'o,
cactus flower moon. 4. pu'fika-p'o, wind break moon. 5. sefiko-p'o, to plant
secretly moon (refers to planting of sweet corn in nooks and crevices, where
children may not see it, for the "Niman Katcina". 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, nameless
moons, or a repetition of five winter moons. *11. ce'fii-p'o, horn moon (possibly
a reference to the Aaltu of the New Fire ceremony). 12. tfiltai-p'o, winter
solstice moon.
The months from June to October are nameless, that is they repeat the
designations for the winter months.
Hopi (Fewkes, 1897). 1. pamii'iyamf. 2. powa'mii'iyawf. 3.
ii'ciimii'iyawfi. 4. kwiyaomii'iyawfi. 5. hakitonmii'iyawfi. 6. kelemii'iyamf.
7. kyamii'iyami. 8. pamii'iyamf. 9. powa'mii'iyama. 10. hiiiikmii'iyamfl.
11. ii'ciimii'iyamfi. 12. kelemii'iyamfi (this month is nearer our November).
*13. kyamii'iyamil.
The second part of October, number eleven above, is said to be called tiihoe.
This would make fourteen months to the ceremonial year. The word miiiyamu
means moon.













Cope: Calendars of the Indians North of Mexico


Hopi (Fewkes, 1903). 1. pamiiryawfi. 2. powamiiryawf. 3. iiciimiiryawi.
4. 5. kyamiiryawfi. 6. ----- 7. pamiiryauf. 8. powamiiryauf.
9. No name. 10. No name. *11. kelemiiryawfi. 12. kyamiiryawfl.
The Hopi year is solstitial. The winter solstice ceremonies mark the begin-
ning of the year.

NUMERAL TYPE
The following tribes use the numeral type of calendar: Aleut,
Kaniagmiut, Lillooet, Modoc, Shushwap, StsE6'lis, Thompson (Lower
Thompson and Spence's Bridge Bands), Tlingit, and Yurok. The
Ahtena, who also use the numerals, are not listed, since the names of
the months are not given.
Aleut (Wenjaminow, in Schiefner). 1. tugid'igamak, the great month (it is
longer than the others). 2. anulgi'lak', sea raven month; when one hunts the
uril with nets. *3. kadu'gix, the first; or, kisagu'nak. 4. agaluji'gix-k'isagu'nak';
also sada'gan k'agik, when one is outside the houses. 5. ic'ic'xux; or,
c'ig'um tugida', flower month. 6. 'cagali'lim tugida'; or, c'agaligi'm tugida',
young animal month. 7. sad'i'gnam tugida, month the young animals become
fat. 8. ugnam; or, uxnam tugida', the warm month. 9. c'vu'lim tugida'.
10. kima'dgim tugida', hunting month. 11. kima'dgim kaqin tugida', month
after the hunting month. 12. agalgu'gak; or, agalga'luk', when one hunts
sea lions.
Kaniagmiut (Dawydow, in Schiefner). 1. agwinyx, the sixth month.
2. kypnyxc'ik, when one cuts up dried fish into pieces. 3. kwigit-annit, the ice
breaks. 4. manixe'ixwak, the raven lays eggs. 5. manixc'ic'ak, the birds
which stayed on the island during the winter lay eggs. 6. kaig jaat, the sea
robins have their young. 7. managxat. *8. kabjaxgun, the Pleiades begin to
rise. 9. tugaxgun; or, tagegun, Orion rises. 10. kanc'aun, frost on the grass.
11. kawus'auc'i, snow appears on the mountains.' 12. kaglagwik, the rivers and
sea freeze.
Tlingit, Sitka'informant (Swanton). 1. t!a'waq di'si, goose month. 2. s!ik
di'si, black bear month. 3. hin th'nax kayn'ni di'si, month in which sea-
flowers, etc., begin to grow. 4. q!ega kaya'nt di'si, real flower month. 5. djinka'ta,
tenth month. 6. dji'nkat wanS'ka, eleventh month; also xdt di'si, month of
salmon. 7. Atga' daxUt di'si, month when everything is born. 8. The first part,
At gata' di'si, month in which everything born begins to fatten; *the second
part, cix.iyi', because all birds then come down from the mountains. 9.
dis yA'di, small moon or moon child. 10. dis Len, big moon. 11. qoqR'ha dis, the
month in which people have to shovel snowv away from their doors. 12.
CA'nAx dis.t
StsEilis (Hill-Tout). 1. tEm t'sE'lEwestEl, season for putting the paddle
away. 2. tl'ka'tsEs, fifth. 3. t'qu'mEs, sixth. 4. tsau'ksEs, seventh. 5. t'kA'tshs,
eighth. 6. toqEs, ninth. 7. apa'lEs, tenth. 8. umtsE'muksEl, the coming together
or meeting of the two ends of the year (this name includes September also,
although the latter part is often named differently as here indicated under 9).
9. tEm yh'auk; time of the dying of the salmon. *10. tEm ph'k.uk, spring salmon
spawning time. 11. tEm kwa'loq, dog salmon spawning season. 12. tEm mO'tla;
or, smftld's, dancing season.

t Compare the Tlingit months as given by the Wrangell informant, listed under
the descriptive type. Swanton regards the list given by the Sitka informant as
probably the more ancient.


1919]












154 University of California Publications in Am. Arch. and Ethn. [Vol. 16

Lillooet (Teit). 1. Third moon; or stexwauzi'ken, middle month-middle
of back or ridge. 2. Fourth moon; or, enu'tskatEn, coming out time or place.
3. Fifth moon; or "skwelkwa'l, green moon; or, eskaptsd'l, real spring or Chinook
wind month. 4. Sixth moon; or, esla'k6lkwallt, leaves green. 5. Seventh moon;
or kwo'ltus esku'klep, when strawberries are ripe. 6. Eighth moon; or
kwblixtcu't, ripen self. 7. Ninth moon; or, spantsk, summer. 8. Tenth moon;
or, Laq a ests8'qaza, the salmon come. 9. Eleventh moon; or, ests'pEq, boiling
(the Lillooet boil salmon and make oil). 10. Rest of the year; or, Llwb'lsten,
fall or autumn. *11. First moon; or, enu'lxten, going in time or place. 12. Second
moon; or, tca'uamuxs tceni'ken.
Shushwap (Teit). 1. Third moon; or, pelkutlami'n. 2. Fourth
moon; or, peska'pts, spring [winds] month. 3. Fifth moon; or, pesx.ii'xem,
[little] summer [moon]. 4. Sixth moon; or, pelteke'liaiten. 5. Seventh moon;
or, peltepa'ntsk, mid-summer [month]. 6. Eighth moon; or, pelka'kaldEmex,
getting ripe month. 7. Ninth moon; or, peltemelik, autumn month. 8. Tenth
moon; or, peltex.ele'lx.tEn. 9. Eleventh moon; or, pelx.etci'kenten. 10. Balance
of the year; or pelw6'llsten. *11. First moon; or, pelx.alu'lxten, going in time.
12. Second moon; or pestitO'qem.
Thompson, Spence's Bridge Band (Teit). 1. Third moon. 2. Fourth moon;
or, pEsqa'pts, spring [winds] month. 3. Fifth moon; or, nxu'itin, coming forth
time (people come out of winter houses). 4. Sixth moon. 5. Seventh moon.
6. Eighth moon; or, kWEkwb'kwiit, they are a little ripe (the plural diminutive
form of "kwiit" meaning ripe). 7. Ninth moon; or, tOxwauzsi'kbntin, middle
time (because of the summer solstice). 8. Tenth moon; or Laxa'ks, first of run,
or "nose" of ascending fish. 9. The next moon; or, kwisu'I [poor], fish,
kekaitka'in, they reach the source. 10. The rest of the year; or, Lwa'istin, fall
time. *11. First moon; or, tcuktcukt. 12. Second moon; or, n'i'lxtin, going
in time.
Lower Thompson (Teit). 1. Third moon; or, wawi't ta sn'ulx., last going in.
2. Fourth moon; or, nxu.xuet, little coming out; or, skapts, spring or warm
wind. 3. Fifth moon; or, n'ulx.wa'uas, going in again. 4. Sixth moon; or,
nxu'it, coming out. 5. Seventh moon. 6. Eighth moon. 7. Ninth moon. 8. Tenth
moon. 9. Eleventh moon; or, kokauxEmu's, to cook food a little. 10. Autumn.
*11. First moon. 12. Second moon; or, n'ulx., going in time.
Modoc (Gatschet). 1. txo'powatka; thumb. 2. spe'luishtka, index finger.
3. ta'txelam, middle finger. 4. ga'ptselam, ring finger. 5. ga'ptsatka, little
finger. 6. txo'powatka, thumb. 7. spe'luishtka, index finger. *8. txo'powatka,
thumb. 9. spe'luishtka, index finger. 10. ta'txilam, middle finger. 11. ga'ptsilam.
ring finger. 12. ga'ptsatka, little finger.
Yurok (Kroeber). *1. kohtsewets, first (this month occurs about Christmas).
2. na'aiwets, second. 3. nahkshewets, third. 4. fourth. 5. fifth. 6. sixth.
7. seventh. 8. knewoleteu, eighth. 9. pia' ago (pia means red berries; pia'
ago was given by four informants); also, kererwerk (given by three inform-
ants). 10. wetlowa, tenth (given by three informants); also, le'lo'o, the
Karok "new year's" ceremony (given by one informant). 11. nohksho,
nohsho', nosho, beginning to camp out to gather acorns(?), (given by three
informants); also, hohkemo' (given by one informant). 12. hohkemo, acorns
fall (given by two informants); also, ka'amohsher (given by one informant);
also, ka'amo (given by one informant). 13. ka'amo, bad cold (given by two
informants).












Cope: Calendars of the Indians North of Mexico


DESCRIPTIVE. TYPE

The following tribes use the descriptive type of calendar: Arikara,
Bannock, Beothuk, Blackfoot, Carrier, Choctaw, Cree (Eastern and
Plains), Dakota (including Teton, Sisseton, Eastern), Delaware, Dog
Ribs, Haida, Hare, Iroquois, Kansa, Kiowa, Lenape, Loucheux, Lower
Yukon Eskimo (and those south of the Yukon delta), Maidu, Male-
cite, Mandan, Micmac, Montagnais, Muskokee, Nah-ane, Natchez,
Navaho, Ojibwa, Omaha, Onondaga, Osage, Oto and Iowa, Pawnee,
Pima, Point Barrow Eskimo, Saulteaux, Sauk and Fox, Seminole,
Shushwap, Slavey, Tahltan, Tlingit, Tse'kehne, Tsilkoh'tin, Unalit,
Ute, Winnebago, Yuchi.
ESKIMO
Point Barrow Eskimo (Murdoch). 1. ida'sugaru, (the compound cannot be
analyzed, but is probably related to cold); or, sfikfinyatyia, little sun; or,
sfikfinyasu'garu. 2. audla'ktovwifi, time for starting out-to hunt reindeer.
3. sfiksila'bwi, time for starting to come home. 4. umi'sirbwifi, time for mak-
ing ready the boats. 5. kau'kerbwifi, time. for fowling. 6. yigniabwifi, time
for bringing forth-laying eggs. 7. 8. -- 9.
*10. su'dlivwidi, time for working, sewing. 11. su'dlivwif aipa, second time for
sewing; or, su'dlivwifi kifiu'lia, succeeding sewing time. 12. kaibwid-wi, time
for dancing.
Murdoch was told that for the summer months "there was no moon only
the sun." Compare Simpson's account of the Point Barrow Eskimo.
Point Barrow Eskimo (Simpson). 1. au-lak'-to-win, departing-to hunt
reindeer. 2. ir'-ra shu'-ga-run sha-ke-nat'-si-a, great cold (and) new sun.
3. e-sek-si-la', wing. 4. kat-tet-a'-wak, returning (from the hunting ground)
for whale. 5. ka-wait-piv'-i-en, birds arrive. 6. ka-wai-a-niv'-i-en, birds
hatched. 7. ka-wai'-lan pa-yan-ra'-wi-en, (young) birds fledged. 8. a-mi-rak'-si-win.
9. it-ko-wak'-to-win. *10. shud'-le-wing, sewing. 11. shud'-le-wing ai-pa, sew-
ing. 12. kai-wig'-win, rejoicing.
Unalit (Nelson). 1. wi'-wik, to turn about. 2. nai-ikh'-chik, the time first
seals are born. 3. ti-gig'i-lukh'-chik, time of creeping on game. 4. kip-
nfikh'-chik, time of cutting off (from the appearance of sharp lines where the
white of the ptarmigans' bodies is contrasted with the brown of the new
summer neck feathers). 5. kai'-ikh-tug'-o-wik, time for going in kaiaks.
6. no-Akh'-chilg-f-wik, time of fawn hunting. 7. kofi-in'-ni-g'e'-nUt ifi-ij'-f-vi-it,
time of geese getting new wing feathers. 8. kuj'-u-gut ifi-ij'-f-vi-fit, time for
brooding geese to moult. 9. im-i-ghai'-ghfi-wik, time for velvet shedding. 10.
ku'-bvi-jfkh-pfig'-i-wik, time for seal nets. 11. fik'-whi'-tfig'-fi-wik, time for
bringing in winter stores. 12. chau'-i-fig'-fi-wik, time for the drum.
Eskimo, Lower Yukon, near Mission (Nelson). 1. u-i'-wfk, season for top
spinning. 2. a-ki-luh' st-a'-gu-wik, time of offal eating; or, i-gi'a-luh'-lftkh,
cold moon. 3. kup-nfikh-chfk, time of opening upper passage ways into the
houses (said to be an old term, when it was much warmer than now, and when
the sun began to melt the snow a month earlier than at present). 4.
tif'-i-mi-ikh'-lhu-fig'-f-wik, birds come. 5. tfi'-i~-mi-ag'-fi-wik, geese come. 6.
man-it'-En-u'-tit, time of eggs. 7. nfik'-sfg'-o-wik, time of salnion. 8. u-ko'-go-


1919]












156 University of California Publications in Am. Arch. and Ethn. [Vol. 16

li-sig-fi-wik, time for red salmon; or, tifi'-1-mi-at' ifi-u'-tit, water fowl moult.
9. tifi'-f-mi-at tfi'-u'-vi-At, time for young geese to fly. 10. Am-i-gai'-gu-wik,
time for shedding velvet from reindeer horns. 11. chup'-whik, mush ice forms.
12. ka'-gi-tigh'-ii--wik, time of muskrats. 13. chai-fgh'f-wik, time of the feast.
Eskimo, south of the Yukon delta (Nelson). 1. wi'-wik, named from a
certain game of the top. 2. i-gah-lfkh'-lfk, time of much moon, that is long
nights. 3. uii-6gh-o-wik, time of taking of hares in nets. 4. kup-nfkh'-chfik,
time of opening of summer doors. 5. tifi-mi-agh'-fi-wik, arrival of geese.
6. chi-sigh'-fi-wik, time of white fish. 7. tfg-i-yik'-pitkka-gu'-ti, time of braining
salmon. 8. tifi-fi-mi-fitifi-u'-ti, geese moult. 9. ku'-gi-yutifi-u'-ti, swans moult.
10. tifi-u'-ti, the flying away. 11. am'-i-gha'-ghftn, time of velvet shedding.
12. name was not obtained.

NORTHWEST COAST
Tlingit (Petitot). 1. -- 2. *3. avulini-vik, time when
the sun is weak. 3. amapolik-epvik, time of the yellow-hammer of the snow.
5. (first part) kpiblalep-vik, time of the break up of the ice; (second part)
tigmiyepvik, time of the geese. 6. neuptop-vik, time of the long days. 7.
kpiblalepvik, time of the porpoise. 8. itqaoyat, the moulting. 9. -
10. tqikolcepapk, formation of the ice. 11. tchipkpe'n'epe'-lapk, the sun
disappears. 12. kpayviyivik, time of the houses.
Tlingit, Wrangell informant (Swanton). *1. t!''wAq di'si, goose month. 2.
s!ik di'si, black bear month. 3. gAt di'sl, silver salmon month. 4. AtgA daxet
yi'na di'si, month before everything hatches. 5. AtgA daxet di'si, month every-
thing hatches. 6. caxey6', meaning unknown. 7. At gath di'si, month when
the geese can't fly. 8. qoqA ha' dis, month when all kinds of animals prepare
their dens. 9. dis ya'di, moon child or young moon. 10. dis Len, big moon.
11. At qdwn' disi, month when all creatures go into.their dens; or, cS'nax dis,
said to mean the same. 12. sAx-la di'si, ground hog mother's moon.
Haida (Harrison). 1. tan kungas, bear month. 2. lthkittfin kungas, goose
month. 3. yhitkaas kunkas, laughing goose month. 4. whitgaas, foreign goose
month. 5. tihell6 kungas, time that flowers blossom. 6. hinskaila kungas,
berries begin to ripen this month. 7. hanalung kungas, berries are quite ripe
this month. 8. chin kungas, salmon month. 9. kishalsh kungas, dog salmon
month. 10. kalk kungas, ice moon. 11. chiE kungas, bears begin to burrow
in the ground this month. 12. kwioug6 kungas, very cold month; or,
gwougiangAs kungas, the weather is too cold to sit down to relieve themselves.


MACKENZIE AND NORTHERN PLATEAU
Tahltan (Emmons). 1. sartses lar, bad month, referring to the weather;
also middle month. 2. denotenna, little crust comes on the snow. 3. iht si sa,
wind month. 4. khlee ten narsa, the dog runs over the crust of the snow.
5. ih azee e sa, running month. 6. a ya ze sa, young (born) month. 7.
a chi zee sa, moulting (birds) month. 8. da death e sa, ground hog gets white
hair; animals fatten. 9. hos.talh e sa, ground hog in prime condition; the
animals fatten. *10. men ten tchet ly, little cold. 11. men ten tche, big cold.
12. ghar uwue sa, rabbits eat quickly (this is a reference to the short days).
Carrier (Morice). 1. sa-tco, big moon. 2. tcez-sal, the root of this word
is now meaningless. "sal" means small. 3. tcez-tco, the root of this word is
now meaningless. "tco" means large. 4. cin-uza, moon of the spring.
5. tekus-uza, moon of the carp. 6. tafir-uza, moon of the summer. 7. ke'sol-uza,












Cope: Calendars of the Indians North of Mexico


moon of the land locked salmon. 8. thallo-za, moon of the red salmon.
9. pit-uza, moon of the bull trout. 10. I oh-uza, moon of the white fish.
11. panren not'sakei, during its half one navigates. 12. sa-tco-din.ai, next to
the big moon.
Tse'ke'hne (Morice). 1. int'sih-sa, moon of the wind. 2. yastese-sa, moon
of the snow storm. 3. ahta-inza, moon of the golden eagle. 4. patq6-inza,
moon of the wild goose. 5. sas-inza, moon of the black bear. 6. monoh-tce'-
the-ole, moon when they take to the water. 7. ho'ke-ta, the buffalo ruts.
8. Etsiz-inza, moulting moon. 9. sa-tsetle, little moon. 10. sa-tcl, great moon.
11. E'ka.i, the fat (of animals) disappears. 12. me-tho'nthen-tsatle, what
freezes is covered with bare ice.
Tsilkoh'tin (Morice). 1. --- 2. 3. moon when
one comes out of the subterranean huts. 4. moon of the sucker.
5. --- 6. --- 7. --- moon of the Kes or white fleshed
salmon. 8. -- moon of the red fleshed salmon. 9. --- 10. ---
11. --- moon all enter the subterranean huts. 12. moon of ice.
Morice gives only the main peculiarities of the Tsilkoh'tin calendar. H1e
has placed this partial list of the Tsilkoh'tin month names immediately after
the Carrier and the Tse'kehne calendars, thereby implying a similarity between
the Tsilkoh'tin, Carrier and Tse'kehne.
Nah.ane (Morice). 1. sa-t'se'slhie, month of the middle (of the year).
2. tcenon-thene, the snow is a little frozen over. 3. iht'si-sa, month of the wind.
4. tlhi-penetse'-e, moon, which the dog uses for .barking. 5. ih.aze-sa, month
in which all the animals leave their winter retreats. 6. coyaz-e-sa, month of
the little ones. 7. metcitc-e-sa, month in which they moult. 8. ti'ka-e-sa, month
in which they fatten. 9. hosthelh-e-sa, month of the female marmot. 10.
moen-then-tsetle, month of small ice. 11. mcn-then-tco, month of big ice.
12. kmcrh-urwomsse, month in which the rabbit gnaws.
Hare (Petitot). 1. tl'in tch6-t64w, the tail of the dog lengthens out to the
fire. 2. nin-ttsi-ratch8, great wind. *3. b6m6n, tl'in. nat'i6, moon the dog suffers;
or, Ilin. yat'iw, moon the dog yaps; or, ara-tchon."ay, the moon turns on its bed.
4. nafwin.-nate, snow blindness reigns. 5. nafwin.-enllu, month snow blindness
is contracted; or, b6m@n. t'6-goxin., month of thaw. 6. ep'i6 gun.sa, moon of
eggs. 7. ettchiw gunsa, moon of moulting. 8. b6dzi-tch8 d6-in"a gun-s.a large
reindeer return from the sea. 9. I'ug6 gunsa, moon of fish. 10. 6tsen-gun.sa,
moon in which food spoils. 11. tap6-tten. d6"a gunsa, moon the reindeer go up
into the wooded plateaus. 12. t'A-en."a gun.sa, reindeer arrive upon the lakes
of the interior.
Loucheux (Petitot). 1. vce-nan 1'6n. tchilchpo, moon when dog is cold. 2.
t'adha-s.i6, moon of ice. 3. chi8-z6tche s.id, moon of eagles. 4. vcenan 1'6n yitchi,
moon in which dog barks. 5. vcenan ll'u-tidji6, moon of the break up of ice;
or, vcenan atopwo, moon of the sea. 6. venan y6d6tcheadh, moon of moulting.
7. vcnan nan-6n6"-itchitd"ey, moon of the long day (day continued). 8. vce-
nan-ti-itchill, moon of the rutting of reindeer. 9. vcenan nill'utiya, moon of the
chase. 10. nikuticha s.i6, moon of warmth. 11. toevis.i6, moon of the mountain
goats. 12. voenan s.i(-nakudhot, moon in which the sun is dead.
Dogribs (Russell). 1. e't-se sa, cold sun. 2. nit-se sa, small wind sun.
3. nit-se-cha sA, big wind sun. 4. win-di-thi-che-ko si, the dogs travel with
tails up sun. 5. ne-wik-fin sa, sore eyes sun. 6. wen-A-ki sa, egg sun. 7.
win-a-chy-ko" sa, the wing feathers are moulted sun. 8. w6n-At sh, the caribou
enter the woods sun; also, wbn-di-e-in-e-ti sh, the berries are ripe sun. 9.
win-a-chi si, the caribou are abundant in the woods sun. 10 Bk-olA-chin-co sa,


1919]













158 University of California Publications in Am. Arch. and Ethn. [Vol. 16

paddle shoulder sun (this name alludes to the practice of striking a scapula
against trees in luring moose at this season). 11 win-de-ton sj, the ice sets
fast sun. 12. -- ["Sun" obviously stands for "moon" in this list and
the next.]
Slavey (Russell). 1. e-toz-in-e-cho-ke sa, new year's sun. 2. ni-tsyA sa,
small wind sun. 3. t6-to" sho sa, eagle sun. 4. ni-tsya-cho sa, big wind sun.
5. be-ken-ot-o-to-ni-no"-ta sa, the geese arrive sun. 6. chi-m6-Ab-5-ya sa, the
ducks are laying sun. 7. b6-k6-chi-5-yA-ttn-n6-ti sa, the berries ripen sun.
8. colon-ye-k6n-ak-e-ne-i-a s5, moose rutting sun. 9. -- 10. thlu-i-kA-
tse-de-ti sa, fishery sun. 11. -- 12. --
Shuswap (Dawson). 1. pil-ta-t6'-a-kum, midwinter month. 2. pil-tshik'-
in-tin. *3. pis-kapits', spring. 4. pis-whi-a-whoom, grass month. 5. pit-la-kat'-
lai-a-hin, root digging month. 6. pit-ta-ppnsk, strawberry month. 7. kal'-kul-
tum-ah, berry month. 8. pil-tum-hlik, salmon month. 9. pil-ta-kl6-lahin',
month when salmon get bad. 10. pil-tloo-alitstin', month when deer travel.
11. pilwhatl-ootlin, month when they return from hunting. 12. pil-kwootl-a-mine',
remaining at home month.

CALIFORNIA
Northwestern Maidu (Dixon). 1. into, drying up (?). 2. omi hi'ntsuli, squint
eye rock (?). 3. ko'no, wife. *4. wi'nflti (the exact meaning of this term is
unknown, but it is probably related to "i'ti" which means black oak).
5. tem di'yoko, said to mean having fawns. 6. nhm di'yoko, big month.
7. ka'ui tso'n po'ko, ground burning month. 8. es'lakum po'ko, middle month.
9. ma'tmennin po'ko, bread month. 10. ba'paboko (the meaning is unknown).
11. bo'ly6 (the exact meaning is unknown, but the word is probably related to
"bo" which means trail). 12. sAp (the exact meaning is unknown; the word
is related either to '"s'l" meaning fire, or to "sap i"'' meaning four).
Northeastern Maidu (Dixon). 1. tetem tsampautom pd'ko, big tree freeze
moon. 2. kana'ipinom po'ko, under burn moon (the wood will burn only under-
neath). 3. bd'8kmen po'ko, trail breaking open moon. 4. bo'mtetnom p6ko,
sitting down along trail moon. 5. konom p6'ko (the meaning is unknown).
6. -- 7. 8. kiilo'kbdpinem po'ko (kiilo'kbb means an old
woman. Old women are said to die of the heat in this month). *9. se'meni'm
po'ko, seed moon. 10. -- 11. -- 12. tmin tsa'mpautom pS'ko,
little tree freeze moon.
Northwestern Maidu (Kroeber). 1. yeponi, ceremonial initiate "because there
is sickness"; or, bompene, two paths. 2. kakakano, pattering showers. *3.
shawi; or, sha kono, flowers bloom. 4. laila, grass grows. 5. konmoko, seeds,
fish and geese are caught. 6. nengkaukati, hot. 7. tumi, smoky. 8. temsimi,
acorns begin to ripen. 9. kummenim shemmeni, winter acorns are gathered.
10. shawodo, black acorns are cached. 11. yapakto, divided (the winter is half
gone). 12. omhinchuli, ice lasts throughout the day.


SOUTHWEST
Navaho (Franciscan Fathers). 1. y5s n'lt'hs, probably melting of snow.
2. atsa' biya'zh, eaglets. 3. w6zhch'I'd, the meaning is obscure. 4. dich'i'1,
short corn; or, t'chil, tiny leaves; or, t'lch'il, small feathers of eagles.
5. dftso, tall corn; or, titso, large leaves; or, t'A'tso, large feathers of eagles.
6. yl'ishshjsch'ili, I insert the small grains. 7. naeeshjli'stso, the big sugar-
cane. 8. binint'l'ts5'si, light ripening. 9. binint'l'tso, the great ripe or harvest.












Cope: Calendars of the Indians North of Mexico


*10. ghHji, back to back (when the white of winter and the yellow of summer
meet, turning their backs to each other, the one to proceed, the other to
retrace the steps). 11. nlts'i'ts'8'si, light or slender wind. 12 nlts'i'tso', much
or big wind.
Pima (Russell. Informant, Kh'mil tkak). 1. aufpa hiAsik, cottonwood
flowers. 2. aufpa i-ivakitak, cottonwood leaves. 3. kol i-ivakitak, mesquite
leaves. 4. kol hihsik, mesquite flowers. 5. kai tcokolik, black seeds on the
saguaros. *6. harsany paihitak marsat, saguaro harvest moon. 7. tcokiapik,
rainy. 8. rsopol usapik, short planting. 9. varsa kakatak, dry grass. 10.
huhokiapk', winter begins. 11. oam, yellow. 12. kA&-mak, leaves falling.
Pima (Russell. Informant, Antonio Azul). 1. ku-utco s'hupiteik, big winter.
2. khmaki, gray. 3. tcu-utaki, green. 4. oam, yellow. 5. kh-hk, strong. 6.
*6. pelkany paihitak marsat, wheat harvest moon. 7. harsany paihitak, saguaro
harvest. 8. tcokiapik, rainy. 9. rsopol usapik, short planting. 10. varsa
kakatak, dry grass. 11. vi-ihainyik, windy. 12. ovalik, smell.


PLAINS AND SOUTHERN PLATEAU
Arikara (Maximilian). 1. Moon of the seven cold nights. 2. Moon which
kills or carries off men. 3. Moon in which wild geese return. 4. Moon of
vegetation. 5. --. 6. -. 7. ---. 8. ---. 9.--
*10. Moon in which leaves fall. 11. Moon of the nose of the little, serpent.
12. Moon of the nose of the great serpent. The summer months of the Arikara
have no names.
Mandan (Maximilian). 1. Moon of the seven cold days. 2. Pairing moon.
3. Moon of the weak eyes. 4. Moon of the wild geese; or, moon of the break-
ing up of the ice. 5. Moon in which maize is sown; or, moon of flowers.
6. Moon of ripe service berries. 7. Moon of ripe cherries. 8. Moon of ripe
plums. 9. Moon of ripe maize. 10. Moon of the falling leaves. 11. Moon
in which the rivers freeze. 12. Moon of the slight frost.
Matthews (70-72), judging from his own observations, thinks that the
Mandan and the Minitaree have no "formal names for the lunar periods,
although they often connect the moons with the natural phenomena; and that
they are aware that twelve lunations do not complete the year."
Mandan (Will and Spinden). 1. Moon of the seven cold days. 2. Moon of
the rut of the wolves. 3. Moon of the sore eyes. 4. Moon of game; or, moon
of the river break up. 5. Moon of sowing; or, moon of flowers. 6. Moon
of ripe June berries. 7. Moon of ripe choke cherries. 8. Moon of ripe wild
plums. 9. Moon of ripe corn. 10. Moon of the fall of the leaves. 11. Moon
of the freezing of the rivers. 12. Moon of the little cold.
Dakota (Keating). 1. we tahre, hard moon. 2. weehata we, raccoon moon.
3. wishta wasa we, sore eyes moon. 4. mahahahandi we, hunting moon.
5. mahahakanda we, oviparous game moon. 6. wajustechasha we, strawberries
moon. 7. tschanpasha, cherries moon. 8. tatanka kehowa we, moon of the
rutting of the buffalo. *9. wajopi we, moon of the commencement of the wild
rice. 10. siushtaupi we, the end of the wild rice. 11. takehuhu we, the rutting
of the deer moon. 12. tahechapshon we, deer shedding its horns moon.
Dakota (Hayden). 1. pte-iku-la-wash-te-yu-ta-wik, time when young buffalo,
in utero, are good to eat. 2. shunk-a-ma'-ni-tu-ga-nash'-ki-wik, when the wolves
go mad. *3. ma-ga-ga'-li-wik, moon geese come up from the south. 4. pe-i'-
to-i-wam-pi-wik, when the grass springs up. 5. shunk-a-ma-ni-tu-6in-6a-tin-wik,
when the wolves have their young. 6. pte-ki-u'-ha-wik; rutting time of buffalo.


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160 University of California Publications in Am. Arch. and Ethn. [Vol. 16

7. 'Cam'-pa-sha-wik, when the cherries are red. 8. bam'-pa-sa-pa-wik, black
cherry month, when the cherries are red. 9. ba7-wak'-pe-hi'-wik, when the
leaves become yellow. 10. Ean-wak-pe-inh-pa, when the leaves fall. 11. wik-to-
ka-i-ba'-mi-na, when the first snow falls. 12. pte-yu'-kta-ha-shi'-na-wash'-te,
when the robes are good.
Dakota (Schoolcraft). 1. Severe or hard moon. 2. Moon in which racoons
run. 3. Moon of the sore eyes. 4. Moon in which the geese lay eggs. 5. Moon
for planting. 6. Moon for strawberries and for hoeing corn. 7. Midsummer
moon. 10. Moon in which corn is gathered. 9. Moon in which they make wild
rice. 10. Moon of the running of the does. 11. Moon of the running of the
does (this month has the same name as the preceding one). 12. Moon in
which the deer shed their horns.
Dakota (Gordon). 1. wee-te-rhee, the hard moon, that is the cold moon.
2. coon moon. 3. moon of the sore eyes. 4. maga-oki-da-wee,
moon in which geese lay eggs; or, wokAda-wee, egg moon; or, wato'papee-wee,
canoe moon. 5. wo'-zu-pee-wee, planting moon. 6. -- strawberries
moon. 7. -- moon in which the geese shed their feathers; or, chang-ph-
sapa-wee, choke cherry moon; or, mna-rchh-rcha-wee, red lily moon. 8. wasu'-
ton-wee, ripe moon. 9. psin-na-ke'-tu-wee, ripe rice moon. 10. wh-zu'-pee-wee,
or, wee-wa-zu-pee, moon in which wild rice is gathered and stored for winter
use. 13. ta-kee-yu-hrh-wee, deer rutting moon. 12. ta-he'-cha-psing-wee, moon
in which deer shed their horns.
Dakota (Neill). 1. wi-teri, hard moon. 2. wicata-wi, raccoon moon. 3.
istawicayazan-wi, sore eyes moon. 4. magaokadi-wi, moon in which the geese
lay eggs; or, wokada-we, or, watopapi-wi, moon in which the streams are again
navigable. 5. wojupi-wi, planting moon. 6. wajustecasa-wi, moon in which
the strawberries are red. 7. canpasapa-wi and wasunpa-wi, moon in which
the choke cherries are ripe and the geese shed their feathers. 8. wasuton-wi,
harvest moon. 9. psinhnaketu-wi, moon in which the wild rice is laid up
to dry. 10. wi-wajupi, or, wazupi-wi, drying rice moon. 11. takiyura-wi, deer
rutting moon. 12. tahecapsun-wi, moon in which the deer shed their horns.
Dakota (Riggs). 1. wi-tehi, hard moon. 2. wibata-we, raccoon moon.
3. is'tawi6ay-azan-we, sore eyes moon. 4. magaokada-wi, moon in which geese
lay eggs; or, wokada-wi, and, watopapi-wi, moon streams again become navi-
gable. 5. woiupi-wi, planting moon. 6. waius'teias'a-wi, moon strawberries are
ripe. 7. cajpasapa-wi, and wasulpa-wi, moon choke berries are ripe and geese
shed feathers. 8. wasutom-wi, harvest moon. 9. psiihnaketu-wi, moon rice is
laid up to dry. 10. wi-waiupi, drying rice moon. 11. takiyuha-wi, deer rut-
ting moon. 12. tahecaps'u7wi, moon when deer shed horns.
Dakota (Beltrami). 1. onwikari-oul, moon of valor. 2. owiciata-oui, moon
of the wild ,oats. *3. wistaocia-oul, moon of the bad eyes. 4. mograhoandi-oul,
moon of game. 5. mograhocandh-oul, moon of the nests. 6. mojusticiascih-oul,
moon of strawberries. 7. champaseid-oul, moon of the cherries. 8. yanlankakioci-
oul, moon of the buffaloes. 9. wasipi-oui, moon of the oats. 10. sciwostapi-oul,
second moon of oats. 11. takiouka-oul, moon of the roebuck. 12. abesciatakskk-
oul, budding of the roebuck's horns.
Teton Dakota (Clark). 1. Moon in which the skin of the foetus of the
buffalo is beginning to color. 2. Moon in which the hair gets thick on the
foetus of the buffalo; or, man's or hard moon. 3. Sore eyes moon. 4. Moon
in which the ducks come. 5. Moon in which the grass begins to get green
and some roots are fit to be eaten. 6. Moon in which corn is planted. 7. Moon
in which buffalo bulls are fat. 8. Moon in which buffalo cows are in season.













Cope: Calendars of the Indians North of Mexico


Bannock (Clark). 1. Black smoke, that is cold. 2. Bare spots along trail.
3. Little grass, or grass first comes up. 4. -- 5. -- 6. -
7. -- 8. --. 9. -- 10. ---. *11. Running season
for game. 12. Big moon.
Clark does not.correlate the Bannock month list with our months. He
says that there are no names for the months after the season gets warm.
Uintah Ute (Sapir). 1. togut.omum.agat.ogute, middle winter moon; or,
avat.omum.agat.ogutc, big winter moon. 2. pinaromum.agat.ogutc, last winter
moon. 3. tamam.agat.ogutc, spring moon. 4. avat'.intamam.agat.ogutc, big
spring moon. 5. pinaramam-agat.ogutc, last spring moon. *6. tatcam.agat.ogutc,
summer moon. 7. togut.atcam.agat.ogutc, middle summer moon. 8. pinaratcam.-
agat.ogutc, last summer moon. 9. yiv"anam.agat.ogutc, fall moon. 10.
togu't.irugwam.agat.ogutc, middle fall moon; or, avat.m'vanam.agat.ogutc, big fall
moon. 11. pineiYiv"anam.agat.ogutc, last fall moon. 12. tomum.agat.ogutc,
winter moon.

NORTHEASTERN WOODLAND
Micmac (Rand). 1. boonamooeegoos. 2. AbigiinAjit (perhaps the snow
blinder). 3. segowgoo's. 4. piinmdiimooigoo's. 5. agesegoos'. 6. nibilnegoos'.
7. pskooegoos'. 8. kesagawegoos'. 9. mAjowhtoogweegoos'. 10. wegowegoos'.
11. skools. 12. iikchegoos', the great or most excellent month because of
Christmas.
Miamac (Mechling). 1. bunAdAm igfi's. 2. abigina'djit. 3. sigowigfi's. 4.
pinddimwigfi's. 5. agzi'g'is. 6. nibinigi's. 7. apsgwigfi's. 8. kisaywigfi's.
9. madjo'yatwigil's. 10. wige'wig'ufs. 11. skills. 12. '"'djuyuldjnwigfis.
Beothuk (Gatschet). 1. kobshuneesarnut. 2. kosthabono'ng bewajowit.
3. manamiss. 4. wasumaweeseek. 5. bedejanmish bewajowite. 6. wasumaweeseek.
7. kowayaseek. 8. wadawhegh. 9. wasumaweeseek. 10. godabonyegh. 11.
godabonyeesh. 12. odasweeteeshamut.
Gatschet says that it seems doubtful to him that April, June, and September
were all called by the same name.
Malecite (Mechling). 1. piadiwiswigi'zus, probably the month when the
branches of the pine and fir trees break off with the cold. 2. tigwa'stunigizus,
month in which it is getting towards spring. 3. agluzunwi'sit, the month in
which things are scarce. 4. panadamuwigi'zus, month in which birds begin to
fly. 5. sigunamigwigi'zus, month when fish come up. 6. skawswewigi'zus,
month in which everything is in bloom. 7. teuwaxpigi'zus, month in which
the frogs are in the water. 8. wik6'wigi'zus, month in which everything is
ripe. 9. madjBwidolkgigi'zus, month in which the animals begin to rut. 10.
tagwA'gigi'zus, the height of autumn. 11. giwA'djigi'zus, it is a lonesome month.
12. ktigi'zus (the latter part of November and the first part of December).
13. midjigi'zus, bad month.
Malecite (Mechling, from Vetromile). 1. onglusamwessit, it is hard to get
a living. 2. taquask nikizoos, month in which there is a crust on the' snow.
3. pnhodamwikizoos, month in which we catch fish. 4. a musswikizoos, month
in which we catch fish. 5. kikkaikizoos, month in which we sow. 6. muskoskikizoos,
month in which we catch young seals. 7. atchittaikizoos, month in which the
berries are ripe. 8. wikkaikizoos, month in which there is a heap of eels on
the sand. 9. mantchewadokkikizoos, month in which there are herds of mooses,
bears, etc. 10. assebaskwats, there is ice on the banks. 11. a bonomhsswikizoos,
month in which the first fish comes. 12. ketchikizoos, the long month.


1919]













164 University of California Publications in Am. Arch. and Ethn. [Vol. 16

Eastern Cree (Skinner). 1. gishe'papiwate'kimumpizun, month in which
the old fellow spreads the brush. 2. ce'pizun, old month. 3. migisupizun,
eagle month. 4. miskipizun, gray goose month. 5. aligipizun, frog month.
6. sagipukawipizun, month in which the leaves come out. 7. opaskwuwipizun,
month in which the ducks begin to moult. 8. opunhopizun, month in which
young ducks begin to fly. 9. we'we'opizun, wavy or snow goose month.
10. opinahamowipizun, month in which the birds fly south. 11. kaska'tinopizun,
month in which the rivers begin to freeze. 12. papiwatiginashispizun, month
in which the young fellow spreads the brush.
Explanation of the references to "the old fellow" or the "young fellow
spreading the brush": winter causes the pine needles to fall on the snow,
forming a covering like pine boughs laid on the floor of a wigwam for bedding;
the laying is called "spreading."
Eastern Cree (Harmon). 1. kush-a-pa-was-ti-ca-num o pes-im, extreme cold
month. 2. kee-chay o pes-im, month in which the young birds begin to chirp;
or, kich-ee o pes-im, old month. 3. me-ke-su o pes-im, eagle month. 4. nis-ka
o pes-im, goose month. *5. i-iche pesim, frog month. 6. o-piwA-wh we pes-im,
month in which the birds begin to lay eggs. 7. o pus-ko we pes-im, month in
which birds cast their feathers. 8. o-pA-ko we pes-im, month in which young
birds begin to fly. 9. wa-wis-kis o pes-im, month in which moose cast their
horns; or, a-pin-nis-ko o pes-im, month the leaves fall off the trees. 10.
o-no-chi-kit-o-wa o pes-im, the rutting month; or, o-ke-wa-ow-o pes-im, month
the fowls go south. 11. ay-e-coop-ay o pe-sim, hoar frost month; or kus-kut-te-no
o pes-im, ice month. 12. pa-watch-e-can-a-nas o pes-im, whirlwind month.
Harmon says there are thirteen months, but he gives only twelve in his list.
Eastern Cree (Mackenzie). 1. kushapawasticanum o pishim, extreme cold
moon. 2. kichi pishim, big moon, or old man. 3. mickysue pishim, eagle moon.
4. niskaw o pishim, goose moon. *5. atheiky o pishim, frog moon. 6. oppinu
o pishim, moon in which the birds begin to lay eggs. 7. aupasken o pishim,
moon in which birds cast their feathers. 8. aupahou o pishim, moon in which
the young birds begin to fly. 9. waskiscon o pishim, moon in which the moose
deer cast their horns. 10. wisac o pishim, rutting moon. 11 thithigon pewai
o pishim, hoar frost moon; or, kuskatinayoui o pishim, ice moon. 12.
pawatchicananasis o pishim, whirlwind moon.
Montagnais (McKenzie). 1. tshipishime, the great moon. 2. epiche'-na-mas-kui
pishime, snow falls from the leaves. 3. mitisu pishime, eagle moon. 4. nishique
pishime, bustard moon. 5. uabikum pishime, budding moon. 6. ui-sha-ku
pishime, rutting moon. 7. pinaue'u pishime, moulting moon. 8. ushe'kau
pishime, caribou horns cast their moss. 9. uatshe'tshi pishime, the leaf turns
yellow. 10. penatshi pishime, the leaf falls. 11. takuatche pishime, the fall
moon. 12. t-she'-pa-peu pishime, the hard or severe moon.
Montagnais (Petitot). 1. nilttsi sa, ts616, little month of wind, or, mene kli
dbdhi sa, hard moon. 2. nilttsi-sa-tchbp, great month of wind. *3. b6ni l'in.-
th6li, month the dog sweats, or, d6ttan.ni-tch8 za, month of eagles. 4. t'6n-tssi-
kkb-na-izAl6, ice hangs in needles. 5. b6ni etchbdhi, month of moulting, or,
b6ni-6g'Szb, month of the sea; or, t'en-ttsi-'tla na"a, end of the ice, or, ttsald sa,
month of frogs. 6. b6ni-6ttch6dhi, moulting, or, enial"az-tsl66, small departure
of reindeer. 7. enil"az-tch6, great departure of reindeer, or, b6ni-nal"assi, month
of departure. 8. kdnu-za6, month of gentle heat. 9. b6ni tb pedAli, month of
rutting, or, 6gun.tchinb sa, month of the shoulder blades of reindeer. 10.
bdni-tsi"l6i, month of the foetus, when the roe carries her young, or, intts6-na6
sa, month of the roe of the elk or moose deer. 11. nni sa ots614, small month













Cope: Calendars of the Indians North of Mexico


of cold, or, djidsh in.sa, month of fishing with a hook. 12. nni-sa-tch6p, great
month of cold, or, l'u6-sa, month of fish.
Northern Saulteaux (Skinner). 1. djiba'piwutkizis (djiba means morning).
2. kje'kizis, big moon. 3. mikisi'ukizis, eagle moon. 4. niki'kizus, moon in which
the geese come, or goose moon. 5. man'gokizis, loon moon. 6. sagibu'kkaokizis,
budding leaf moon. 7. woskunitci'kizis, unripe berry moon. 8. atiktemi'nikizis,
ripe berry moon. 9. pazikohoikizis, moon in which the young ducks begin to
fly. 10. pimahamoikizis, moon in which the birds begin to fly south. 11.
kuskutinikizis, freezing moon, or lakes and rivers freezing moon. 12
pichipiponikizis, moon that winter begins.
Ojibwa, Long Lake, Ontario (Waugh). 1. ge'nose', long moon. 2. abtabogi'zts,
half the winter month; or, onb'benagi'zLs, can walk on the crust of the snow
month. 3. nymAb'ynygi'z's, sucker month. 4. "yki'gi'zls, goose month; or,
.bokw'gymegi'zis, breaking snowshoe month. 5. mangogi'zts, loon month. 6.
bagm'di'nogi'zis, lakes opening up month. 7. a'btga'nogi'zts, flowers coming out
month. 8. skandji'gi'zms, berries not yet ripe month. 9. a'bteni'b nogi'zts, half
the summer month. 10. ame'gsygi'zLs, trout month. 11. adtkame'gogi'zls,
white fish month. 12. ekadyno'gi'zts, lakes frozen up month. 13. bldjibtbo"gizts,
first part of the winter month.
Ojibwa, from Nipigon, Ontario (Waugh). *1. anamkoda'dL'z, the new year, or
the beginning of the year. 2. abta'btbo'm, half the winter. 3. namebmrgi'zls,
sucker moon. 4. niki'gi'zms, geese moon. 5. ma'vgogi'zts, loon moon. 6.
ww'bygwa'nigi'zts, flower moon. 7. minygi'zms, berry moon. 8. abteni'btnogi'zes,
half the summer month. 9. namegwtse'sagi'zes, small trout moon. 10.
kltcname'kLtsegi'zts, big trout month. 11. adikyme'gogi'zls, white fish moon.
12. minido' gizms, spirit moon. 13. kLtcige'onzi, long days and nights moon.
Ojibwa (Wilson). 1. muhnedoo keezis, spirit month. 2. nuhma'bene keezis,
sucker month. 3. ona'hbune keezis, month of the crust of the snow. 4.
babooquada'hgiming keezis, snow-shoe breaking month. 5. wa'hbegoone ke'ezis,
month of the flowers. 6. oda'8mene keezis, the strawberry month. 7. misque'emene
keezis, the raspberry month. 8. meen keezis, the bilberry month. 9. muhno'omene
keezis, the wild rice month. 10. pena'hque keezis, month of the falling leaves.
11. kushku'dene keezis, the freezing month. 12. mu'hnedoo keezisoons, little
spirit month.
Ojibwa (Baraga). 1. manito-gisiss, moon of the spirit. 2. name'bini-gisiss,
moon of the suckers. 3. ona'bani-gisiss, moon of the crust on the snow. 4.
bebokwe'dagiming-gisiss, moon of the breaking of snow-shoes. 5. wabigon-
gisiss, moon of the flowers and blooms. 6. od8imini-gisiss, moon of strawberries.
7. miskwimini-gisiss, moon of raspberries. 8. min-gisiss, moon of whortle
berries. 9. manominike-gisiss, moon of the gathering of wild rice. 10. binhkwi-
gisiss, moon of the falling of the leaves. 11. gashkadino-gisiss, moon of freez-
ing. 12. manito-gisissons, little moon of the spirit.
Ojibwa (Keating).33a 1. nanabushe kisis (the name of a fabulous char-
133 Diacritical characters have been omitted.
acter)X 2. kacha kisis, great moon; or kanosis kisis, long moon. *3. mekissawe
kisis, eagle moon; or, namapinne kisis, carp moon. 4. nepenesa kisis, summer
birds; or, onapamo kisis, freezing moon; or, nekeg kisis, wild goose moon.
5. sagipakawe kisis, opening leaves moon. 6. otaemene kisis, ripe strawberries
moon. 7. menine kisis, huckleberry moon. 8. apittanenepene kisis, midsummer
moon. 9. amanoso kisis, rutting moon. 10. penakwe kisis, falling leaves moon.
11. oshekepippon kisis, the approach of winter moon; or, takwahke kisis, the
hardening of the earth moon. 12. pippon kisis, winter.


1919]













166 University of California Publications in Am. Arch. and Ethn. [Vol. 16


Ojiblwa (Beltrami). 1. kitei-manito--uisis, moon of the great spirit. 2.
wamebinni-quisis, moon of the coming of eagles. 3. onabanni-quisis, moon of
the hardened snow. 4. pokaodaquimi-quisis, moon of the snow-shoes. 5.
wab!gon-quisis, moon of the flowers. 6. hodheimin-quisis, moon of the straw-
berries. 7. mikin-quisis, moon of the blue fruits. 8. wathebaqul-quisis, moon
of the yellow leaves. 9. inaqui-quisis, moon o fthe falling leaves. 10. bima-
hamo-quisis, moon of the migratory game. 11. kaskadinb-quisis, moon of the
snow. 12. manito-quisis, moon of the little spirit.
Winnebago -(Schoolcraft). 1. honch-wu-ho-no-nik, little bear's time. 2.
honch-wee-hutta-raw, big bear's time. 3. mak-hu-e-kee-ro-kok, raccoon run-
ning time. 4. ho-a-do-ku-noo-nuk, fishrunning time. *5. me-tow-zhe-raw, drying
of the earth. 6. maw-ka-wee-raw, digging of the earth or planting time.
7. maw-o-a-naw, hoeing corn time. 8. maw-hoch-ra-wee-daw, corn tasseling time.
9. wu-toch-aw-he-raw, corn popping or harvest time. 10. ho-waw-zho-ze-raw,
elk whistling time. 11. cha-ka-wo-ka-raw, deer running time. 12. cha-ka-wak-
cho-raw, deer's horns dripping time.
Winnebago (Radin). 1. First bear month. 2. Last bear month. Z. Raccoon
breeding time. 4. Fish month. 5. Drying of earth month. 6. Digging of earth
month. 7. Cultivating month. 8. Tasseling month. 9. Elk whistling month.
10. Pawing of earth month. 11. Deer breeding month. 12. Deer shedding
horns month.
Radin does not believe "much stress is laid upon which of the months begins
the year."
Sauk and Fox (Blair). 1. chuckee muqua keeshis, little bear month. 2.
tuc-wun-nee keeshis, cold month. 3. pa-puk-qua keeshis, sap month. 4. a-paw-
in-eek-kee keeshis, fish month. 5. ue-kee-kay keeshis, planting month. 6.
pa-la-nee keeshis, first summer or flowering month. 7. na-pen-nee keeshis, mid-
summer month. 8. mish-a-way keeshis, elk month. *9. tue-wot-thu keeshis,
first frosty month. 10.. amulo keeshis, .rutting month. 11 puccume keeshis,
freezing month. 12. kiche muqua keeshis, big bear month.
Iroquois (Cuoq). 1. tsiotorkowa, great cold. 2. enniska, small moon.
3. enniskowa, great moon. 4. oneratokha, small leaves. 5. oneratakowa, large
leaves. 6. oiarika, fruit a little ripe. 7. oiarikowa, fruit well ripe. 8. seskeha.
9. seskehow. 10. kentenha, little hard times. 11. kentenkowa, great hard
times. *12. tsiotorha, little cold.
Iroquois (Barbeau, from Hewitt). 1. dis-go'-na, great or longer days. 2.
ka-nii'q-to-ha, somewhat immersing the leaves. 3. ka-nhg-to-go'-na, thoroughly
immersing the leaves. 4. heq-sat-i, slight freezing. 5. hya-i-hii, fruits begin
to ripen. 6. sis-ke-ha, (?). 7. sis-ke-gd'na, (?). 8. kii-tde'a, (?). 9. kb"-t'"'-
go'-ni, (?). 10. tco-tho-we-ha, again it is somewhat cold. 11. teo-tho-we-go'-na,
again it is greatly cold. 12. dis-a', short days.
Iroquois (Barbeau, from Gibson). 1. disgf'na (the principal month, mid-
winter begins the first new moon after). 2. ganil"da'ha', leaves falling to the
water. 3. gani'du'gina, great falling, leaves under the water now. 4. he.sfitl,
bushes, shrubs and plants begin to grow again. 5. u'niaiguna'; or, hiaha',
berries begin to ripen. 6. sisge'ha', plants growing. 7. sisgegfi'na', almost
everything growing up and bearing something. 8. g P"d"'a', food beginning to
form. 9. ghndO"'a'gi'na, great season when everything is bearing food.
10. djutuweha', beginning of cold weather. 11. djfitfiwgfiwa', beginning of
very cold weather. 12. disa'.
Iroquois (Barbeau, from Shea). 1. dziotaragona, moon of great cold. 2.
tichha, windy month (?). 3. tichk8na, very windy (?) month. 4. ganerattoha.














Cope: Calendars of the Indians North of Mexico


5. ganerattogona. 6. ichakka. 7. hiarig6na. 8. chereskeha. 9. chereske'gona.
10. kentenha. 11. kentengBna. 12. dziotore'ha, cold month.
Iroquois (Barbeau, from Stacey). 1. djordor'kowa. 2. aniska. 3. anisgowa.
4. onerh'do'ga. 5. onera'dogowa. .6. ohiariha. 7. 8. sisge'a'.
9. sisgego'wa'. 10. ganta"'ha. 11. ga"ta"go'wa. 12. djodora.
Iroquois (Barbeau, from Skye). 1. disgil'na. 2. gana'du'ha'. 3. ganidu'gfina'.
4. he-sitfi. 5. hiaiigfina'. 6. sige'ha'. 7. sis'gegfina'. 8. gi"d6"'a'. 9. gande"agf'"a'.
10. djutuweha'. 11. djutiiwegfina. 12. dish'.
Onondaga, Iroquois (Shea). 1. dziotaragona. 2. tichha. 3. tichkbna. 4.
ganerattoha. 5. ganerattogbna. 6. ichakka. 7. huarighna. 8. ehereske'ha.
9. chereske'gona. 10. kentenha. 11. kentengsna. 12. dziotore'ha.
Onondaga, Iroquois (Beauchamp). *1. tis-go-nah, longer day. 2. ka-na-to-ha,
winter leaves fall. 3. ka-na-to-go-nah, winter leaves fall and fill large holes.
4. e-sut-ah, warm and good days, but not planting time. 5. o-yea-ie-go-nah,
strawberries ripe and leaves in full size. 6. ses-ka-hah, sun goes for long
days. 7. ses-ka-go-nah, sun goes for longer days. 8. ken-ten-ah, the deer sheds
its hair. 9. ken-ten-go-nah, the deer in its natural fur. *10. chut-ho-wa-ah,
little cold. 11. chut-ho-wa-go-nah, large cold. 12. tis-ah, little long day.
The religious year, according to Beauchamp, begins with the White Dog
Feast in January or February; in other ways the year begins in the fall when
the Indian goes out to hunt. Beauchamp follows the latter order. I have indi-
cated both.
Delaware (Heckewelder). 1. Mouse or squirrel month. 2. Frog month.
*3. Shad month; later, running of sap or making sugar. 4. Spring month.
5. Planting month. 6. Fawn month; or month the deer bring forth their young;
or, month in which the hair on the deer changes to a reddish color. 7. Summer
month. 8. Month of roasting ears. 9. Autumn month. 10. Gathering or harvest
month. 11. 12. Hunting month.
Delaware (Beauchamp). 1. Squirrel month. 2. Month of frogs. *3. Shad
month. 4. Planting month. 5. Time for hoeing corn. 6. Month in which the
deer become red. 7. Time for hilling corn. 8. Named from the condition of
the corn which is in the milk. 9. First month of autumn. 10. Harvest month.
11. Month for hunting. 12. Time when bucks cast their horns.
Delaware (Zeisberger). 1. anixi gischuch, squirrel month. 2. tsqualli
gischuch, frog month. 3. m'choamowi gisehuch, shad month. 4. quitauweuhewi
gischuch, spring month. 5. tauwinipen gischueh, beginning of summer.
6. kitschinipen gischuch, summer month. 7. yugatamoewi gischuch, month in
which Indian corn is gathered. (According to Loskeil.) 8. sakauweuhewi
gischuch, deer month. 9. kitschitachquoak, autumn month. 10. pooxit, month
of vermin. 11. wini gischuch, snow month. 12. m'chakhocque, cold month, the
month when the cold makes the trees crack.
Zeisberger thinks the Lenni Lenape have no real beginning for the year,
except as the result of European influence.
Tribe uncertain (Zeisberger). 1. ground squirrels come out of their holes.
2. squalle gischuch, month of frogs. *3. choame gischuch, shad month.
4. hackihewi gischuch, planting month. 5. The name signifies the month in
which the hoe is used for the Indian corn. 6. The name signifies the month in
which the deer become red. 7. Time for raising the earth around the corn.
8. winu gischuch, the corn in the milk-ready to eat. 9. First autumn month.
10. Harvest month. 11. Hunting month. 12. Time when the bucks cast their
horns.


1919]












168 University of California Publications in Am. Arch. and Ethn. [Vol. 16

Delaware (Zeiszerger). 1. anixi gischuch, mouse month. 2. schqualle
gischuch, frog month. 3. chwame gischuch, shad month. 4. 5.
ehackihewi gischuch. 6. -- 7. nipeni, summer month. 8. winaminge
gischuch, month of roasting corn. 9. -- 10. ----. 11. ---
12.--

SOUTHEASTERN WOODLAND
Choctaw (Bushnell). 1. -- 2. hashe kapo'sha, moon of the snow.
3. hash'mahale, moon of the wind. 4. tans h.ashe, corn planting moon.
5. 6. 7. hash' luwak, moon of fire. 8. 9.-
10. 11. *12. una'fa hashe.
Choctaw (Byington). 1. hash hoponi (January-February). 2. chafiskono,
from hohchafo iskitini, little famine (February-March). *3. chafo chito,
from hohchafo chito, big famine (March-April). 4. hash koi"chush (April-
May). 5. hash koichito (May-June). 6. hash mali (June-July). 7. hash
watullak, or (taken from an earlier list) hash watonlak (July-August).
8. tek i"hashi (August-September). 9. hash bihi (September-October). 10.
hash bissa (October-November). 11. hash kaf (November-December). 12.
hash takkon (December-January).
"Muslcogee" (Loughridge). 1. rv'fo-cu'sh, winter's younger brother. 2.
ho'tvlh-hv's6, wind month. 3. tasa'-hcuce, little spring month. 4. tasa'hce-ra'kko,
big spring month. 5. kh-hv's, mulberry month. 6. kv'co-hv's6, blackberry
month. 7. hi'yuch, little harvest or summer month. 8. hi'yo-ra'kko, big harvest
or summer month. 9. otowo'skuc, little chestnut month. 10. oto-wo'skv-ra'kko,
big chestnut month. 11. eho'lW, frost month. 12. rv'fo-ra'kko, big winter.
Seminole (McCauley). 1. cla-ffits-u-tsi, little winter. 2. ho-ta-li-ha-si, wind
moon. 3. ho-ta-li-ha-si-Clak-o, big wind moon. 4. ki-ha-su-tsi, little mulberry
moon. 5. ki-ha-si-qlak-o, big mulberry moon. 6. ka-tco-ha-si. 7. hai-yu-tsi.
8. hai-yu-tsi-clak-o. 9. o-ta-wiis-ku-tsi. 10. o-ta-wiis-ka-glak-o. 11. i-ho-li. 12.
cla-fo-clak-o, big winter.
Yuchi (Speck). 1. s'ilatcpi', ground frozen moon. 2. ho'da dzo', wind moon.
3. wid'"I sine"', little summer. 4. wide'jei', big summer. 5. dece5' nendzo, mul-
berry ripening moon. 6. cpa'co nendzo', blackberry ripening moon. *7. wag'"'kyi,
middle of summer. 8. tse'ne aga', dog day. 9. tsoga' li'ne-tseee, hay cutting
moon. 10. tsote5'ho"stiine', corn ripening moon. 11. -- 12. ho'ctA"d'H'kyd,
middle of winter.
Natchez (Swanton). 1. Cold meal. 2. Chestnuts. *3. Deer. 4. Strawberries.
5. Little corn. 6. Watermelons. 7. Peaches. 8. Mulberries. 9. Maize or great
corn. 10. Turkeys. 11. Bison. 12. Bears.













1919] Cope: Calendars of the Indians North of Mexico 169



BIBLIOGRAPHY

UNPUBLISHED MATERIAL
(For this unpublished material I am indebted to various ethnologists, as
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RADIN, PAUL
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SWANTON, J. R.
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WAUGH, F. W.
Ojibwa Calendar. (Obtained from Ojibwa at Long Lake [Hudson Bay
Post], Thunder Bay District, Ontario, summer, 1916.)
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1919] Cope: Calendars of the Indians North of Mexico 173

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