• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Title Page
 Preface
 Table of Contents
 Introduction
 Natural background
 History of archaeological research...
 Archaeological sites
 Significant culture elements in...
 Chronology
 Observations
 Bibliography
 Maps and tables
 Back Cover














Group Title: Series in Anthropology - University of Colorado - no. 5
Title: The present status of the archaeology of western Mexico
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00054972/00001
 Material Information
Title: The present status of the archaeology of western Mexico
Series Title: University of Colorado studies. Series in anthropology
Alternate Title: Archaeology of western Mexico
Physical Description: 183 p. : illus., maps, tables. ; 26 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Lister, Robert Hill, 1915-
Publisher: University of Colorado Press
Place of Publication: Boulder Colo
Publication Date: 1955
 Subjects
Subject: Excavations (Archaeology) -- Mexico   ( lcsh )
Antiquities -- Mexico   ( lcsh )
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Bibliography: p. 61-66.
Statement of Responsibility: a distributional study.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00054972
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 03387730
lccn - 55062804

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Title Page
        Title Page
    Preface
        Preface
    Table of Contents
        Table of Contents 1
        Table of Contents 2
        Table of Contents 3
        Table of Contents 4
        Table of Contents 5
        Table of Contents 6
        Table of Contents 7
        Table of Contents 8
        Table of Contents 9
    Introduction
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
    Natural background
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
    History of archaeological research in western Mexico
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
    Archaeological sites
        Page 14
        Page 15
    Significant culture elements in the archaeology of western Mexico
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
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        Page 48
        Page 49
    Chronology
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
    Observations
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
    Bibliography
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
    Maps and tables
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
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    Back Cover
        Back Cover 1
        Back Cover 2
Full Text



























































+
572.06
C719a
no. 5








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",UNWIVFSITY OF, COLORADO, STUDIES ,
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S trial BOl: Fsq K. BAS ROBrT E GREOG, u.x P.M' -
PAoU. V. IHOMPso, ABRO. F. WALTroN


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THE PRESENT STATUS OF THE

ARCHAEOLOGY OF WESTERN
MEXICO:

A DISTRIBUTIONAL STUDY


BY
ROBERT H. LISTER


ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR OF ANTHROPOLOGY
UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO *





UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO STUDIES

Series in Anthropology

No. 5


UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO PRESS
BOULDER, COLORADO, MAY, 1955
Price, $3.00





















PREFACE
This study brings together the results of a survey of the majority of the works
dealing with the archaeology of Western Mexico. A great deal of the resulting
information has been plotted on the series of distributional maps and tables at the
end of the volume.
I am grateful to several persons who have critically examined the manuscript at
various stages in its preparation and who have made many helpful suggestions.
Thanks are extended to Dr. J. O. Brew, Peabody Museum, Harvard University;
Dr. Harry Pollock, Carnegie Institution of Washington; Dr. A. V. Kidder, II,
University Museum, University of Pennsylvania; and Dr. Gordon F. Ekholm,
American Museum of Natural History.
To Arq. Ignacio Marquina and Prof. Eduardo Noguera, both of the Instituto
Nacional de Antropologia e Historia, and Dr. Pablo Martinez del Rio, Escuela
Nacional de Antropologia, Mexico, D. F., I express appreciation for library
privileges granted in their respective institutions.
My wife, Florence Cline Lister, has given invaluable assistance in organizing
the large amount of bibliographic material and in the preparation of the manu-
script. Special thanks are due her for this assistance, and for her constant encour-
agement during the entire project.
ROBERT H. LISTER
BOULDER, COLORADO
OCTOBER, 1954













CONTENTS
Introduction ....................... ............................... 1
The Natural Background ............................................. 4
History of Archaeological Research in Western Mexico................... 8
Archaeological Sites ................................................. 14
Significant Culture Elements of the Archaeology of Western Mexico....... 16
Types of Archaeological Sites .................................... 16
Pottery ............ ......................... ... ............. 17
Vessel Shapes ............. ...... ................. ............ 17
Vessel Decoration ........................................ 24
Figurines ....................................................... 33
Pipes................ ................................... 36
Spindle Whorls ............. ..... ................. ............. 38
Miscellaneous Clay Items. ................................... ... 40
Stone Objects ............ ...... ............................... 40
Sculptured Stone................... .......... ................... 44
Bone Objects ..................................... ............. 45
Perishable Items. ................. ................................ 45
Shell Objects ............. ..... ................... ............ 46
M etal Objects ............ ............. .......... .............. 46
Disposal of the Dead ............. ............................... 48
Site Features.............. ........... ........................... 49
Chronology .................... .................. ... .... 50
Observations............... ....... ................... ...... 54
Bibliography.......................................... ......... 61
DISTRIBUTIONAL TABLES
Table 1. Types of Sites: Artificial Mounds ............................. 73
Table 2. Types of Sites: Low Mounds. ........ ........................ 73
Table 3. Types of Sites: House Outline................................. 75
Table 4. Types of Sites: Sherd Area. ............... ................ 75
Table 5. Types of Sites: Hillside Terracing. .................. ........ 75
Table 6. Types of Sites: House of Perishable Material ................. .. 75
Table 7. Types of Sites: Tomb .................... ............. 77
Table 8. Types of Sites: Stone Masonry ............................... 77
Table 9. Types of Sites: Mound over Quadrangular Masonry Enclosure .... 77
Table 10. Types of Sites: Mound over Contiguous Quadrangular Masonry
Enclosures. .............. .. .... ................... ...... 77
Table 11. Types of Sites: Structure in Cave ........................... 79











Table 12. Types of Sites: Use of Adobe................ ........... 79
Table 13. Pottery: Olla.............. .......................... 79
Table 14. Pottery: Jar.................... ........................... 81
Table 15. Pottery: Bowl. ................ .......................... 81
Table 16. Pottery: Plate ........................................... 81
Table 17. Pottery: Jug ........................................... 83
Table 18. Pottery: Comal. ................. ......................... 83
Table 19. Pottery: Miniature Olla .................................. 83
Table 20. Pottery: Tripod Vessels ...................... .............. 83
Table 21. Pottery: Molcajetes. .............. ..................... 85
Table 22. Pottery: Effigy Vessels ...................................... 87
Table 23. Pottery: Handled Teapot. .................................. 89
Table 24. Pottery: Stirrup-Handled Vessel............................. 89
Table 25. Pottery: Miniature Tripod Vessel.................. .......... 89
Table 26. Pottery: Pot Cover ............... ...................... 91
Table 27. Pottery: Censer ................. ........................ 91
Table 28. Pottery: Mold-Made Vessel. ................................ 91
Table 29. Pottery: Dipper ........................................... 91
Table 30. Pottery: Teotihuacan-Type Cylindrical Tripod ....... .......... 91
Table 31. Pottery: Teotihuacan-Type Tripod Plate ...................... 91
Table 32. Pottery: Tall Tripod ........................................ 91
Table 33. Pottery: Basket-Handled Tripod .......................... 91
Table 34. Pottery: Tripod Legs, Slab ................................... 93
Table 35. Pottery: Tripod Legs, Hollow Nub ........................... 93
Table 36. Pottery: Tripod Legs, Solid Conical ....................... 93
Table 37. Pottery: Tripod Legs, Wide Top ............................. 93
Table 38. Pottery: Tripod Legs, Cylindrical (Rattle) ..................... 95
Table 39. Pottery: Tripod Legs, Bulbous (Rattle) ....................... 95
Table 40. Pottery: Tripod Legs, Hollow Rectangle....................... 95
Table 41. Pottery: Tripod Legs, Painted Effigy........................ 97
Table 42. Pottery: Tripod Legs, Molded Effigy ......................... 97
Table 43. Pottery: Tripod Legs, Tall, Piano-Convex, Molded .............. 97
Table 44. Pottery: Tripod Legs, Loop. ................................ 99
Table 45. Pottery: Tripod Legs, Spider. .............................. 99
Table 46. Pottery: Tripod Legs, Mammiform .......................... 99
Table 47. Pottery: Tripod Legs, Hollow Wedge........................ 99
Table 48. Pottery: Annular Base, Simple Ring .......................... 101
Table 49. Pottery: Annular Base, Tall ................................ 101
Table 50. Pottery: Annular Base, Crown............................... 101
Table 51. Pottery: Annular Base, Perforated............................. 101
Table 52. Pottery: Annular Base, Potstand. ........... ................ 101
Table 53. Pottery: Red-Brown Utility Wares ............................ 103











Table 54. Pottery: Cream. .............. ....................... 105
Table 55. Pottery: Orange. ........................................... 105
Table 56. Pottery: Black .. ................................. 105
Table 57. Pottery: Polished Red. ............................ .. 105
Table 58. Pottery: Fugitive Red. ..... ............ ................ 105
Table 59. Pottery: Red-on-Brown Wares. .............................. 107
Table 60. Pottery: Black-on-Red Wares. ............................... 109
Table 61. Pottery: White-on-Red Wares ................................ 109
Table 62. Pottery: Black on White. .............. ................ 111
Table 63. Pottery: Red on Cream ................... ............. 111
Table 64. Pottery: Red on Orange. .. ................................. 111
Table 65. Pottery: Red on White. ............... ................ 111
Table 66. Pottery: Red on Gray. ........................... . 111
Table 67. Pottery: Aztec Black on Orange ................. ........... 113
Table 68. Pottery: Cholula Polychrome ............... ............. .. 113
Table 69. Pottery: Maroon on Cream. ................................ 113
Table 70. Pottery: Negative Painting. ................................ 115
Table 71. Pottery: Polychromes..................................... 117
Table 72. Pottery: Aztatldn Polychrome.................. ............. 117
Table 73. Pottery: Autlin Polychrome. ...... ........................ 117
Table 74. Pottery: Incised.................................. .......... 119
Table 75. Pottery: Incision Combined with Paint. ....................... 119
Table 76. Pottery: Hobnail Decoration. .................. .............. 119
Table 77. Pottery: Plumbate. ........................................ 121
Table 78. Pottery: Fine Orange. ...................... ... .. 121
Table 79. Pottery: Teotihuacan Thin Orange.. ......................... 121
Table 80. Paint Cloisonn6: Pottery. ................. ............. 123
Table 81. Paint Cloisonne: Gourd. ............................... .... 123
Table 82. Pottery: Stuccoed and Painted ............................. 123
Table 83. Figurines: Large, Hollow, Nayarit Type ....................... 125
Table 84. Figurines: Large, Hollow, Colima Type ........................ 125
Table 85. Figurines: Small, Solid, Depicting Action...................... 125
Table 86. Figurines: Small, Humans Bound to Flat Slab.................. 125
Table 87. Figurines: Nayarit Type, Without Paint....................... 125
Table 88. Figurines: Mazapan............. ....... ................ 127
Table 89. Figurines: Archaic ................. ...................... 127
Table 90. Figurines: Aztec. ................ ........................ 127
Table 91. Figurines: Teotihuacan. ................ .................. 127
Table 92. Figurines: La Venta. ... ................................ 127
Table 93. Figurines: Maya ............................. .......... 127
Table 94. Figurines: Miscellaneous, Solid, Hand Made .................. 129
Table 95. Figurines: Miscellaneous, Hollow, Hand Made.................. 129











Table 96. Figurines: Miscellaneous Animal Figures ....................... 129
Table 97. Figurines: Miscellaneous, Solid, Mold Made.: ................. 129
Table 98. Pipes: Apatzingn......................................... 131
Table 99. Pipes: Tzintzuntzan A ............ .... ...................... 131
Table 100. Pipes: Tzintzuntzan B................................... 131
Table 101. Pipes: Aztatln. .................. .................... 131
Table 102. Pipes: Culiacdn Effigy............ ........................... 131
Table 103. Pipes: Cocoyolitos ........................ ............ .. 131
Table 104. Pipes: Miscellaneous. ............................. ..... 131
Table 105. Spindle Whorls: Small, Bead-Like............................. 133
Table 106. Spindle Whorls: Miniature Vessels .......................... 133
Table 107. Spindle Whorls: Biconic ... ............................. 133
Table 108. Spindle Whorls: Biconic Incised.................... ....... 133
Table 109. Spindle Whorls: Conic Incised............................... 133
Table 110. Spindle Whorls: Cylindrical Incised ......................... 133
Table 111. Spindle Whorls: Disc. .............. ................... 133
Table 112. Spindle Whorls: Aztec III-IV ......... .................... 135
Table 113. Spindle Whorls: Truncated Cone............................. 135
Table 114. Clay: Whistle .......................................... 135
Table 115. Clay: Flute ................ ........................... 135
Table 116. Clay: Rattle. .................. .......................... 135
Table 117. Clay: Drum ..................................... ....... 135
Table 118. Clay: Seal, Stamp. .................................... 137
Table 119. Clay: Plaque ............................................ 137
Table 120. Clay: Stool. ............................................... 137
Table 121. Clay: Ball. ............................................. 137
Table 122. Clay: Candelero. ................ ....................... 137
Table 123. Clay: Wheeled Toy ................. ................... 137
Table 124. Clay: Ear Spool. ................ ....................... 139
Table 125. Clay: Pendant ................. ......................... 139
Table 126. Clay: Bracelet. ................. ........................ 139
Table 127. Clay: Bead. ................. ............................ 139
Table 128. Clay: Mask. ............................................ 139
Table 129. Stone Implements: Manos, Plano ........................... 141
Table 130. Stone Implements: Manos, Convex. ........................ 141
Table 131. Stone Implements: Manos, Piano-Convex ..................... 141
Table 132. Stone Implements: Manos, Overhanging Head .............. 141
Table 133. Stone Implements: Metates, Trough. ........................ 143
Table 134. Stone Implements: Metates, Trough, Feet .................. 143
Table 135. Stone Implements: Metates, Slab. .................. ...... 143
Table 136. Stone Implements: Metates, Slab, Feet ...................... 143
Table 137. Stone Implements: Plain Mortar. .................. ..... 145
Table 138. Stone Implements: Sculptured Mortar .................... 145











Table 139. Stone Implements: Pestle. .. .............................. 145
Table 140. Stone Implements: Table. ........ ....................... 145
Table 141. Stone Implements: Celt. ........ ................. 147
Table 142. Stone Implements: 34 Grooved Axe .......................... 147
Table 143. Stone Implements: Full-Grooved Axe. ........................ 147
Table 144. Stone Implements: Slab Axe ................ . 147
Table 145. Stone Implements: Effigy Axe ............................... 149
Table 146. Stone Implements: Effigy Vessel ............................ 149
Table 147. Stone Implements: Effigy Metate ........................... 149
Table 148. Stone Implements: Mace Head ................. ......... .151
Table 149. Stone Implements: Palette. .................................. 151
Table 150. Stone Implements: Fiber Beater. ................... ..... 151
Table 151. Stone Implements: Flake Knife .............. ............... 153
Table 152. Stone Implements: Chipped Artifacts...................... 153
Table 153. Stone: Bead. .............................. ............ 155
Table 154. Stone: M ask. .............. ............................... 155
Table 155. Stone: Pendant ..................... .............. 155
Table 156. Stone: Ear Ornament. ................. . . 155
Table 157. Stone: Onyx and Alabaster. .. .............................. 157
Table 158. Stone: Turquoise. .................. ... ............... 157
Table 159. Stone: Crystal. ................. ........................ 157
Table 160. Sculptured Stone: La Venta Style ............................ 159
Table 161. Sculptured Stone: Teotihuacan Style ....................... 159
Table 162. Sculptured Stone: Maya Style.................. ....... ... 159
Table 163. Sculptured Stone: Olmec-Teotihuacan Style................... 159
Table 164. Sculptured Stone: Miscellaneous Effigy ....................... 159
Table 165. Sculptured Stone: Miscellaneous Sculpture.................... 159
Table 166. Bone: Awl. .............. ................... . 161
Table 167. Bone: Bead............ .............. ............. 161
Table 168. Bone: Needle. . ................................... 161
Table 169. Bone: Notched Human. .............. ...................... 161
Table 170. Bone: M miscellaneous. ....................................... 161
Table 171. Perishable Items: Cloth. ................... ............... 163
Table 172. Perishable Items: Cord. .................................... 163
Table 173. Perishable Items: Basketry. .. ........................... 163
Table 174. Perishable Items: Sandals. .............................. 163
Table 175. Shell: Trumpet. .................. ........ . .. 165
Table 176. Shell: Ring ..................... ....................... 165
Table 177. Shell: Mosaic. .................. ................... ... 165
Table 178. Shell: Appliqu6 Sets. ................. ................... 165
Table 179. Shell: Lunate Ornaments .. ................................ 165
Table 180. Shell: Bead. ................... ....................... 167
Table 181. Shell: Pendant ................ ........................ 167











Table 182. Shell: Bracelet .................................... 167
Table 183. Metals: Copper ............... .......... ............ 169
Table 184. Metals: Gold ............. .............................. 169
Table 185. Metals: Galena ............................ ......... 169
Table 186. Metals: Iron (Including Pyrites) .......................... 169
Table 187. Burials: Flexed. ................ ........................ 171
Table 188. Burials: Full Length .............. ................... 171
Table 189. Burials: Urn Burial ....... ..... ....................... 173
Table 190. Burials: Cremation. .................................... .... 175
Table 191. Burials: Skull Only ................. ................... 177
Table 192. Burials: Tooth Mutilation. .. .............................. 177
Table 193. Burials: Teeth and/or Skull Painted ......................... 177
Table 194. Burials: Burial Furniture Associated ......................... 177
Table 195. Burials: Burial Mound. ...... .......................... 179
Table 196. Burials: In Open. ....................................... 179
Table 197. Burials: Beneath Floor. ................................ 179
Table 198. Burials: In Refuse ................. ..................... 179
Table 199. Burials: In Caves. ................ ...................... 179
Table 200. Burials: In Tombs. ................. ..................... 179
Table 201. Burials: In Room Fill. ................. .................. 181
Table 202. Burials: In Rock Crevices ................................. 181
Table 203. Burials: Stone Slabs Surrounding ............................ 181
Table 204. Burials: Secondary................ .... ..................... 181
Table 205. Burials: Ossuary ..................... .... .......... 181
Table 206. Burials: Radial Arrangement ................. ........... 181
Table 207. Burials: Stone Balls Associated ............................. 181
Table 208. Site Features: Corbeled Arch. ........................... 183
Table 209. Site Features: Skull Rack. ................................. 183
Table 210. Site Features: Chac mool............. ........ ............. 183
Table 211. Site Features: Chultun. ................. ................ 183
Table 212. Site Features: Ball Court ................ ............... 183

LIST OF MAPS
1. Western Mexico................................................. 68
2. Suggested Archaeological Provinces of Western Mexico ............... 69
3. Sites and Areas Included in Study ............................... .. 70
4. Types of Sites: Artificial mounds; Low mounds ...................... 72
5. Types of Sites: House outline; Sherd area; Hillside terracing; House of
perishable material .......................................... 74
6. Types of Sites: Tomb; Stone masonry; Mound over quadrangular ma-
sonry enclosure; Mound over contiguous quadrangular masonry en-
closures............ .. ..................... .............. 76











7. Types of Sites: Structure in cave; Use of adobe ..................... 78
8. Pottery: Olla; Jar; Bowl; Plate; Jug; Comal; Miniature olla........... 80
9. Pottery: Tripod vessels ........................................... 82
10. Pottery: M olcajetes. .............................................. 84
11. Pottery: Effigy vessels..................................... ........ 86
12. Pottery: Handled teapot; Stirrup-handled vessel; Miniature tripod
vessel................................. ...... ...... ............ 88
13. Pottery: Pot cover; Censer; Mold-made vessel; Dipper; Teotihuacan-
type cylindrical tripod; Teotihuacan-type tripod plate; Tall tripod;
Basket-handled tripod...................... .... .... ... ......... 90
14. Pottery: Tripod legs: Slab; Hollow nub; Solid conical; Wide top ....... 92
15. Pottery: Tripod legs: Cylindrical (rattle); Bulbous (rattle); Hollow
rectangle............................................... 94
16. Pottery: Tripod legs: Painted effigy; Molded effigy; Tall, piano-convex,
m olded ........... ... .... .. ....... ...... .. ..... .. . .. .. 96
17. Pottery: Tripod legs: Loop; Spider; Mammiform; Hollow wedge ....... 98
18. Pottery: Annular base: Simple ring; Tall; Crown; Perforated; Potstand. 100
19. Pottery: Red-brown utility wares. .. ............................ ... 102
20. Pottery: Cream; Orange; Black; Polished red; Fugitive red............ 104
21. Pottery: Red-on-brown wares............. .......... ......... 106
22. Pottery: Black-on-red wares; White-on-red wares .................... 108
23. Pottery: Black on white; Red on cream; Red on orange; Red on white;
Red on gray ..... .................. ........ ................. 110
24. Pottery: Aztec black on orange; Cholula polychrome; Maroon on cream.. 112
25. Pottery: Negative painting ........................................ 114
26. Pottery: Polychrome; Aztatlin polychrome; Autlin polychrome........ 116
27. Pottery: Incised; Incision combined with paint; Hobnail decoration..... 118
28. Pottery: Plumbate; Fine orange; Teotihuacan thin orange............. 120
29. Pottery: Paint cloisonne: Pottery, Gourd; Stuccoed and painted....... 122
30. Figurines: Large, hollow, Nayarit type; Large, hollow, Colima type;
Small, solid, depicting action; Small, humans bound to flat slab;
Nayarit type, without paint. .................. .................. 124
31. Figurines: Mazapan; Archaic; Aztec; Teotihuacan; La Venta; Maya.... 126
32. Figurines: Miscellaneous, solid, hand made; Miscellaneous, hollow, hand
made; Miscellaneous, animal figures; Miscellaneous, solid, mold
made................ ... ............................... 128
33. Pipes: Apatzingin; Tzintzuntzan A; Tzintzuntzan B; Aztatlin; Culiacan
effigy; Cocoyolitos; Miscellaneous. .................... .... .. 130
34. Spindle Whorls: Small, bead-like; Miniature vessels; Biconic; Biconic
incised; Conic incised; Cylindrical incised; Disc; Aztec III-IV; Trun-
cated cone .................................................. 132
35. Clay: Whistle; Flute; Rattle; Drum. ........ .. ......... ... .. ...134










36. Clay: Seal, stamp; Plaque; Stool; Ball; Candelero; Wheeled toy.::...... 136
37. Clay: Ear spool; Pendant; Bracelet; Bead; Mask ..................... 138
38. Stone Implements: Manos: Piano; Convex; Plano-convex; Overhanging
head............... ..... ...... ........... ... .. ............ 140
39. Stone Implements: Metates: Trough; Trough, feet; Slab; Slab, feet..... 142
40. Stone Implements: Plain mortar; Sculptured mortar; Pestle; Table..... 144
41. Stone Implements: Celt; % grooved axe; Full-grooved axe; Slab axe.... 146
42. Stone Implements: Effigy axe; Effigy vessel; Effigy metate............ 148
43. Stone Implements: Mace head; Palette; Fiber beater ................ 150
44. Stone Implements: Flake knife; Chipped artifacts.................... 152
45. Stone: Bead; Mask; Pendant; Ear ornament ........................ 154
46. Stone: Onyx and alabaster; Turquoise; Crystal. ...................... 156
47. Sculptured Stone: La Venta style; Teotihuacan style; Maya style; Olmec-
Teotihuacan style; Miscellaneous effigy; Miscellaneous sculpture..... 158
48. Bone: Awl; Bead; Needle; Notched human; Miscellaneous ........... 160
49. Perishable Items: Cloth; Cord; Basketry; Sandals .................... 162
50. Shell: Trumpet; Ring; Mosaic; Applique sets; Lunate ornaments....... 164
51. Shell: Bead; Pendant; Bracelet ................................... 166
52. Metals: Copper; Gold; Galena; Iron (including pyrites) ............... 168
53. Burials: Flexed; Full-length. ...................................... 170
54. Burials: Urn burial. ............................................... 172
55. Burials: Cremation................. .. ...... ................ 174
56. Burials: Skull only; Tooth mutilation; Teeth and/or skull painted;
Burial furniture associated ................... .................. 176
57. Burials: Burial mound; In open; Beneath floor; In refuse; In caves; In
tombs; In room fill; In rock crevices .................. .......... 178
58. Burials: Stone slabs surrounding; Secondary; Ossuary; Radial arrange-
ment; Stone balls associated................................... 180
59. Site Features: Corbeled arch; Skull rack; Chac mool; Chultun; Ball
court ............................................... 182

LIST OF TEXT FIGURES
1. Vessel shapes................ .. ............................... 18
2. Vessel supports............ ................................ 23
3. Pottery, Cojumatlin, Michoacn ................................ 25
4. Pottery, Guasave, Sinaloa..................................... .. 26
5. Pottery, Culiacan, Sinaloa .................................... .. 27
6. Pottery, Tuxcacuesco-Zapotitlin zone, Jalisco ....................... 28
7. Pottery, Apatzingin, Michoacin. ............... ............... 29
8. Large hollow figurines. ................ ........................ 33
9. Mazapan style figurines........... ........................ 34
10. Archaic style figurines. ................ ........................ 35











11. Figurines, Tuxcacuesco-Zapotitlan zone, Jalisco....... ................ 36
12. Figurines, miscellaneous. ........... .............. ............ 37
13. Figurines, Apatzingin, Michoacdn........................ ........ 37
14. Pipes ..................... ................ ............ 38
15. Spindle whorls............... .............. ........... 39
16. Grinding implements ............... ............ ............ 41
17. Stone objects.................. ............... ............ 42
18. Chipped-stone objects ............. ........ .. ............ 43
19. Bone and shell objects .............. ......... ... ........ 45
20. Copper objects. .................... ........... ........... 47
CHARTS
1. Traits of Chronological Significance. ................... ............ 51
2. Chronological Chart of Sites and Areas ............................... 52
3. Chronological Chart of Archaeological Provinces ......... ............. 53














The Present Status of the Archaeology of
Western Mexico

INTRODUCTION
The great number of problems and lacunae in the archaeology of Western
Mexico is known to most students of New World archaeology. It is very difficult
to obtain a description of the components of the prehistoric cultures of the region;
the limits of culture areas, and their temporal ranges, are to a large extent un-
known; and some of the articles considering various aspects of the prehistory of
the area are tucked away in journals and papers that are difficult to obtain.
In an attempt to gain a more complete view of the archaeology of Western
Mexico, a review of the literature pertaining to the region has been made, and an
attempt to evaluate it in the light of the present state of Mesoamerican archaeol-
ogy has been undertaken. I have tried to record some of the salient features of the
archaeology of this large area on a series of distributional maps, hoping to bring
together in this manner material from a number of sources and to present it
concisely and graphically. The distributional information has been analysed, and
a group of tentative conclusions, or observations, has been set forth.
At the very start, let me make it clear that I realize fully the shortcomings of a
study of this sort, but also that I believe that there is considerable good to be
obtained from such an approach. The difficulties involved in this type of under-
taking are many. Some parts of Western Mexico are still complete blanks as far as
archaeological information is concerned. Many sources of information are ex-
tremely poor, having been prepared by persons untrained in archaeological
"know-how", and in most cases the classificatory systems and terminology em-
ployed by early writers differ from current usage. Some reports have such in-
complete descriptions of archaeological items that it is almost impossible to
utilize the information in a study of this type. There are few areas where any sort
of chronology has been developed, and in many cases the areal extensions of
cultures are not known with any degree of certainty.
One may note, too, that a number of erroneous ideas have been perpetuated
about the prehistory of this section. Many people conveniently place most of
Western Mexico in a "Tarascan" culture area; many museum collections are so
labeled; and some of our college classes so taught. The excellently made large
hollow figurines from Colima, Nayarit, and Jalisco, which have attracted con-
siderable attention, usually have been attributed to the "Tarascans" without
second thought. Actually, the area occupied by the Tarascans and over which
their influence spread is but a relatively small section centering around the lake
region in highland Michoacin.










UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO STUDIES


The difficulties enumerated above are but few among many; however, on the
credit side of the ledger we do have the recent work of Armillas, Bernal, Borbolla,
Brand, Ekholm, Garcia Pay6n, Gifford, Isabel Kelly, J. C. Kelley, Moedano,
Noguera, Weitlaner, and others, which furnishes us reliable information about
many sections of the territory under study.
Most of the conclusions of the more recent workers are accepted in this report,
but I have taken the liberty of reinterpreting some of the earlier material. Where
I have re-evaluated the work of others, I assume full responsibility for my beliefs.
I have attempted to reassign the dates of certain phases, sites, and cultural
horizons in order to fit them into the recent chronology suggested by Caso.1 This
classification, some of the dates of which appear to be substantiated by Carbon
14 findings, divide Mesomerican prehistoric cultural development into seven
horizons:
Historic horizon-1200 A.D.-1520 A.D. Abundant historic information on this
horizon; pre-Columbian and post-Columbian codices and chronicles, reports by
Spanish religious and military persons and native historians; most traits of
Toltec horizon carried over; new and independent groups gain control; Aztecs.
Toltec horizon-900 A.D.-1200 A.D. Metal and bow and arrow appear; new
forms of writing, counting, and calendar system; new gods; influence of Tula
widely felt; great migrations.
Classic horizon--400 A.D.-900 A.D. Great cultures of Mesoamerica flourished;
Teotihuacan, El Tajin, Monte Alban, Old Empire Maya; intercultural contact and
exchange although local cultures retained distinct personalities; art styles, pottery,
writing and calendar highly developed.
Formative horizon-200 B.C.-400 A.D. Large metropolitan centers; pyramids;
organized priesthood; sophisticated society; pantheon of gods; complex pottery.
Archaic horizon-1000 B.C.-200 B.C. Population becomes concentrated in
centers; organized religious cults; representations of gods; writing; calendar.
Primitive horizon-5000 B.C.-1000 B.C. Development of agriculture; invention
of pottery; semi-sedentary life.
Prehistoric horizon-25,000 B.C.-5000 B.C. From the first settling of Meso-
america to the discovery of agriculture and pottery.
No claim of definitiveness is made for the distributional study presented in this
paper. It is merely an attempt to gather together and present systematically the
archaeological data available on Western Mexico. Information for this study
primarily has been obtained from published accounts. In a few cases, personal
information has been employed. Certainly the analysis of the contents of museum
collections and the many private collections in the region, as well as the unpub-
lished notes of a number of workers in this field, would add considerably to this
1 Caso, 1953, pp. 226-237.











ARCHAEOLOGY OF WESTERN MEXICO


study. For instance, the inclusion of a section dealing in detail with pottery designs
would be very significant, but such research would entail the examination of many
large pottery collections, which I have not attempted. Undoubtedly errors,
primarily of omission, will be found. In an endeavor to cover as large an area as is
here considered, and to include as many archaeological traits as possible, I have
probably made some mistakes. However, it is hoped that this paper will present
to the non-specialist in this area a general summary and that the specialist can
at least employ the distributional maps to plot in additional information now
available and which will become known in the future.
In developing hypotheses about cultural distributions, contemporaneity of
cultures, and the relationships between areas, I have taken into consideration such
diagnostic traits as the use of metal, pipes, and particular types of pottery wares.
Heavy reliance was placed upon those culture traits appearing in Western Mexico
which are known to have originated in other areas and whose cultural affiliations
and approximate temporal positions are fairly well established. It should be
pointed out that the distributional study is meant to cover only the area that I
will define as Western Mexico; however, in a few instances general statements
about the distribution of certain traits outside this region have been included.
The accompanying illustrations are intended to serve as samples of the types of
material remains recovered from archaeological sites in the region. By no means
do they cover all types of artifacts included in the distributional study, nor do they
show the great variation that is apt to occur within a single item. An attempt has
been made to portray important and typical items and also, in some cases, to con-
vey an idea of the range of artifacts which were fashioned from certain materials.
A few illustrations have distributional significance since they show particular
items that are known to occur at several localities in Western Mexico. Of course,
some figures and charts are meant to clarify and augment the text. Unless other-
wise noted in the legend, illustrations of pottery vessels have color indicated in
the following manner: red represented by black, brown represented by stippling,
white represented by white.
Footnotes have been kept to a minimum in the text of this paper, since the
tables which accompany the distributional maps have complete references to each
map entry. Thus, when traits which are included on the maps are discussed, no
footnote references are made.














THE NATURAL BACKGROUND
For the purpose of this study, Western Mexico will be defined as including
practically all of the state of Sinaloa, as far north as the Rio Fuerte; the south-
western portions of the states of Durango and Zacatecas; the states of Nayarit,
Jalisco, Aguascalientes, Colima, Michoacan, and Guerrero; and the western por-
tions of the states of Mexico and Guanajuato. The area embraces all, or parts,
of eleven western states.
The surface configuration of Western Mexico is dominated by part of the ex-
tensive highland area which in its entirety extends from the border of the United
States southward to the Isthmus of Tehauntepec.2 Actually this highland, which
is very complex in its geologic structure and surface forms, may be considered to
consist of two chief parts: a central plateau and a dissected border.
The central plateau extends to the south as far as the edge of the Balsas valley
and is marked by more or less continuous mountains in which interment basins
occur. The lowest of the interment basins, about 5000 feet above sea level, is the
one in which the city of Guadalajara is located. The basin of Toluca, just to the
west of Mexico City, is the highest, standing 8600 feet above sea level.
The southern part of the central plateau is not deeply dissected by streams,
although most basins are drained by rivers which reach the sea. Lack of active
stream cutting is due to the damming of the drainage by volcanic activity. This
region contains one of the greatest arrays of volcanic forms to be observed any-
where on earth. There are new volcanic cones, such as Paracutin, Michoacan;
there are volcanoes which, for the time being have ceased to be active, and whose
sides are being eroded by water action; there are remains of old volcanoes long
since quiet; and scattered throughout the zone there are all the associated vol-
canic phenomena cinder cones, lava flows, accumulations of ash, hot springs,
and mineralogical zones where a variety of ores are to be found.
The drainage of the area where this volcanic activity is concentrated has been
blocked and ponded. In the interment basins there are many shallow lakes and
swamps. Between the basins much of the land is composed of gently rounded hills
through which the rivers have cut deep, narrow valleys. In this part of Mexico
most of the rain occurs in the summer, between June and September, during which
period rain falls almost every day. So cloudy is the summer season that the
maximum temperatures are experienced in May rather than July. The winters are
dry. Weather cold enough to cause crop failures may occur even in summer.
Each of the basins in this central plateau Toluca, Guanajuato, Jalisco, and
Aguascalientes has been a population center since before the Spanish Conquest.
The basin of Toluca, the highest in the region, is the first of a series of basins which
'Discussion of the geography of Western Mexico is based upon two sources: James, 1942; Sanders, 1921.











ARCHAEOLOGY OF WESTERN MEXICO


are drained to the Pacific through the Rio Lerma. The center of the Toluca ba-
sin is very swampy.
Leaving the Toluca basin, the Rio Lerma enters a narrow gorge from which it
emerges into the upper part of the basin of Guanajuato. The floor of this basin is
made up of drained lake beds and soils noted for their fertility, formed on accumu-
lations of volcanic ash.
Still farther to the west, down the valley of the Rio Lerma, lies the basin of
Jalisco. It contains several small inactive volcanic cones, and its soils have been
produced by the weathering of volcanic flows and ash falls. In the lowest part of
the basin is Lake Chapala, into which the Rio Lerma empties. The Rio Santiago
flows from Lake Chapala northwestward to the Pacific. The gorge is quite im-
passable to man; however, a route which more or less parallels the river has been
the main line of travel from the central area of Mexico to the whole northwest for
a number of centuries.
The Aguascalientes basin is formed by the valley of the Rio Verde, a tributary
of the Santiago. It is considerably smaller than the basins previously mentioned.
In Western Mexico the western and southern margins of the highlands are
deeply dissected by vigorous stream cutting, and here the topography is extremely
rugged. On folded and faulted structures, the streams have cut steep-sided and
narrow-bottomed valleys. The western border, known as the Sierra Madre Occi-
dental, is composed of deep longitudinal valleys, oriented roughly north and
south, where the streams have been able to excavate rapidly along the weaker
strata or along zones which have been crushed by faulting. These longitudinal
valleys are separated by steep-sided ridges, through which the rivers pass in
narrow gorges. The Sierra Madre Occidental is one of the major mountain barriers
in the Western Hemisphere. It is so difficult to penetrate that it forms a distinct
separation between the highland proper and the Gulf of California and the Pacific
coast.
The southern dissected border of the highland region is much wider than that
on the west. To the south of the great volcanic region, the Rio Balsas has opened
a deep basin well into the Tierra Caliente along the northern border of Guerrero,
and the tributaries extend like fingers back into the higher country on either
side. Directly south of Mexico City, this basin is only 1600 feet above sea level.
South of the great valley of the Balsas lies the eroded plateau of Guerrero, Oaxaca,
and southern Michoacan, known as the Sierra Madre del Sur. This highland
surface, 6000 to 8000 feet above sea level, is preserved only in a few narrow, even-
topped ridges. The streams have cut intricate patterns of deep valleys, producing
a terrain in which very little flat land is to be found. The coastal zone is generally
narrow, sandy, hot, and dry; however, this lowland section extends considerably
inland in Colima. The altitude of the region determines the general nature of the











UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO STUDIES


vegetation cover and of the crops. No part of this area is deficient in moisture,
although most of the rain comes in summer, and the winters are dry.
Along most of the west coast there is a lowland which varies in width from
less than ten to more than fifty miles. In a few places, mountains descend with
very steep slopes almost to the water's edge. The northern coastal states of Sinaloa
and Nayarit, west of the western front of the Sierra Madre Occidental, slope
toward the Gulf of California and the Pacific Ocean through country broken by
ranges and basins. A series of terraces and flows of lava have been cut by the
streams descending from the Sierra Madre into isolated mesas and plateaus
interspersed with flat valleys. A narrow lowland parallels the coast. The summers
in this area are very hot and sometimes rainy; the winters are mild and very dry.
The places where water is available have been spots of concentrated settlement
since prehistoric times.
The first Spanish explorers who penetrated the region found a sedentary farming
people who were raising maize, beans, and squash on the flood plains, and fishing
peoples who were exploiting the extraordinarily fine fishing grounds off the coast.3
The eastern side of the west coast is bounded by the extremely rugged terrain
of the Sierra Madre Occidental, across which there are few developed routes of
travel. The colonial road, connecting the major centers of Spanish settlement
with Arizona and California, descended from Guadalajara to the coast in the
state of Nayarit and then ran northward.
Those portions of Durango and Zacatecas that fall within the limits of this
study form a transitional zone between the semi-arid basin and plateau country
to the north and the more humid central plateau to the south. It is an area con-
taining basins and plateaus which stand at approximately the same altitude as
those of the central area in the state of Mexico. Durango has an elevation of 6200
feet above sea level; Zacatecas is about 9000 feet in altitude. Spanish silver-
mining communities were established in this area as early as 1548.
Western Mexico, like most of Mexico, is a region of such rugged surfaces and of
such contrasts of altitude within short distances that the climatic conditions and
the cover of natural vegetation have very spotty and irregular patterns. As in
other mountainous areas, there is a general vertical zoning of climate and vegeta-
tion due chiefly to the decrease of temperature with increasing elevations.
Warmest areas of Western Mexico occur along the shore of the Gulf of Cali-
fornia in southern Sinaloa and in the deep valley of the Rio Balsas. In both re-
gions, temperatures in the warmest month average above 85 degrees. The lowest
temperatures in Western Mexico are experienced on the highlands. Cold air
masses from northern North America sweep southward as far as Mexico City,
bringing crop-killing frosts. The Balsas valley is frost-free, although the highlands
a Sauer, 1935, pp. 18-22.










ARCHAEOLOGY OF WESTERN MEXICO


on either side of it are subject to more than twenty days of frost each year. The
west coast is generally free from frost south of the northern border of the state of
Sinaloa.
Rainfall statistics indicate that the coast of Western Mexico, south of northern
Sinaloa, receives between twenty inches and forty inches a year. That part of the
central plateau falling within our area of study, and its southern border, also
averages twenty inches to forty inches of rain each year. In a few places along the
high western dissected border of the plateau, and in a few spots on the plateau,
annual precipitation averages as high as forty inches to eighty inches each year.
The vegetation of the north coast of Western Mexico is composed of desert
plants and shrubs, which give way to scrub forests, characterized by thorny
legumes and cacti, as one progresses southward. This scrub forest continues over
most of the Sierra Madre del Sur. Owing to semi-aridity, large stretches of the
western border of the highlands are almost without vegetation, and considerable
areas are covered with desert shrubs and grasses. Where rainfall is sufficient,
extensive scrub forests occur on the lower slopes. Above 4500 feet, this vegetation
gives place to oak forests which flourish up to 8000 feet, beyond which conifers
dominate. The central plateau contains many zones of vegetation. High plains of
the interior suffer from lack of rain, being grass-covered where there is sufficient
moisture and suitable soil, and barren where the soil is alkaline or sandy or where
local topography most completely cuts off precipitation. Foothills bordering plains
also are generally devoid of timber. Lower slopes of mountains are covered with
scrub forests. Spruce and fir forests clothe the upper slopes of some of the higher
ridges; the escarpments and borders of the plateau have a belt of deciduous
trees below the pine forests. Timberline is at an altitude of 11,000 to 13,000 feet.















HISTORY OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESEARCH IN WESTERN MEXICO
The following table, listing the majority of the works on Western Mexico
archaeology, presents a picture of the history of archaeological research in the
area. Organized scientific research might be said to have started with the work of
the University of California in Sinaloa and Nayarit in 1930. Dr. Isabel Kelly,
working originally with the University of California group, has contributed more
information on the archaeology of Western Mexico than any other single person.
The table is arranged chronologically according to the date of the research
whenever such information is available. When this knowledge is lacking, publica-
tion dates are employed.

CHRONOLOGICAL LIST OF IMPORTANT WORKS ON THE ARCHAEOLOGY OF WESTERN MEXICO


Authority Work

Guillemin Notes Archdologiques Ethno-
Tarayre graphiques Vestiges laissds par
les Migrations Americaines
dans le Nord du Mexique.
Charney Ancient Cities of the New World.

Le6n Studies on the Archaeology of
Michoacan.
Plancarte Archaeological Explorations in
MichoacAn, Mexico.



Starr Little Pottery Objects from Lake
Chapala, Mexico.
Lumholtz Unknown Mexico.



Hrdlicka The Region of the Ancient Chi-
chimecs.



Batres Visita a los Monumentos Ar-
queol6gicos de La Quemada,
Zacatecas, Mexico.
Pepper Yacatas of the Tierra Caliente,
Michoacan, Mexico.
Gamio Los Monumentos Arqueol6gicos
de las Inmediaciones de Chal-
chihuites.


Research


Travels in Mexico and Central
America, 1880's.
Reconnaissance and limited ex-
cavations for many years.
Excavations by Plancarte near
Jacona in 1889. Article trans-
lated by W. H. Holmes from
several letters received from
Plancarte.
?

Reconnaissance, surface collec-
tions, and limited excavations
in western Mexico between the
years 1890 and 1898.
Reconnaissance, surface collec-
tions, and small scale excava-
tions in northern Jalisco and
southern Zacatecas during 1898
and 1902.
Reconnaissance, limited excava-
tions.

Excavations near Apatzingan,
Michoacan in 1904.
Reconnaissance, surface collec-
tions, and limited excavations
in 1908.


Publication
Date
1867












ARCHAEOLOGY OF WESTERN MEXICO


Authority


Work


Spinden An Ancient Sepulcher at Placeres
del Oro, State of Guerrero,
Mexico.
Galindo Bosquejo de la Geograffa Arque-
ol6gica del Estado de Colima.
Mena & La Nueva Zona Arqueol6gica.
Aguirre

Noguera Ruinas Arqueol6gicas del Norte
de Mexico.


Caso Informe Preliminar de los Ex-
ploraciones Realizados en
MichoacAn.
Noguera Exploraciones Arqueol6gicas en
las regions de Zamora y Patz-
cuaro.
Sauer & Aztatlin.
Brand

Disselhoff Note sur la R4sultat de Quelques
Fouilles Archdologiques faites
A Colima (Mexique).
Kelly Excavations at Chametla, Sina-
loa.

Garcia Manera de Disponer de los Muer-
Pay6n tos entire los Matlatzincas del
del Valle de Toluca.
Garcia La Ceramica del Valle de Toluca.


Pay6n

Borbolla

Mason

Brand

Garcia
Pay6n
Ekholm


Arqueologia del Sur de Durango.

Late Archaeological Sites in Dur-
ango, Mexico.
Notes on the Geography and
Archaeology of Zape, Durango.
Zona Arqueol6gica de Tecaxic-
Calixtlahuaca. Primera Parte.
Results of an Archaeological Sur-
vey of Sonora and Northern


Sinaloa.
Ekholm Prehistoric "Lacquer" from Sina-
loa.
Ekholm Excavations at Guasave, Sinaloa,
Mexico.


Research Pt

Excavations by Niven in 1910.
Reported by Spinden.

Reconnaissance, surface collec-
tions in 1921.
Excavations, surface collections
at Chupicuaro, Guanajuato in
1926.
Reconnaissance, surface collec-
tions, and limited excavations
in Zacatecas and Chihuahua in
1926 and 1927.
Reconnaissance, surface collec-
tions, and excavations near
Zacapu in 1929.
Reconnaissance, surface collec-
tions, and excavations in Mi-
choacAn in 1930.
Reconnaissance and surface col-
lections in Sinaloa and Nayarit
in 1930.
?


Reconnaissance, surface collec-
tions, and excavations in Sina-
loa in 1935.
Excavations near Toluca between
the years 1929 and 1935.

Reconnaissance, surface collec-
tions, and excavations between
the years 1929 and 1935.
Reconnaissance and surface col-
lections in 1935.
Reconnaissance and surface col-
lections in 1936.
Reconnaissance and surface col-
lections in 1936.
Based on background studies prior
to excavations.
Reconnaissance, surface collec-
tions, and excavations in Sonora
and Sinaloa in 1937.
Excavations in Sinaloa in 1937.


Excavations in 1937.


publication
Date
1911


1922

1927


1930



1929


1931


1932


1932


1938


1941


1941


1945

1937

1939

1936

1939


1940

1942












UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO STUDIES


Authority Work

Acosta Exploraciones Arqueol6gicas Re-
alizadas en el Estado de
Michoacan durante los afios de
1937 y 1938.
Borbolla Antropologfa Tzintzuntzan-Ihu-
atzio. Temporadas I y II.


Noguera Explorations in El Opefio, Micho-
acan.
Brand Recent Archaeologic and Geo-
graphic Investigations in the
Basin of the Rio Balsas, Guer-
rero and Michoacan.
Ekholm Ceramic Stratigraphy at Aca-
pulco, Guerrero.
Goggin An Archaeological Survey of the
Rio Tepalcatepec Basin, Mich-
oacin, Mexico.
Hendrichs Es el Arco de Oztuma de Con-
strucci6n Azteca?
Kelly Excavations at Culiacan, Sinaloa.


Lister


Cerro Oztuma, Guerrero.


Lister An Archaeological Survey of the
Region about Teloloapan,
Guerrero.
Moedano Estudio General Sobre la Situac-
i6n de la Forteleza de Oztuma.
Osborne An Archaeological Reconnais-
sance in Southeastern Micho-
acan, Mexico.
Garcia Los Monumentos Arqueol6gicos
Pay6n de Malinalco, Estado de Mex-
ico.
Ross Some Pottery Types of the High-
lands of Western Mexico.


Acosta Exploraciones en Tula, Hidalgo,
1940.
Borbolla Exploraciones Arqueol6gicas en
Michoacin. Tzintzuntzan.
Temporada III.


Research Publication
Date
Excavations at Tzintzuntzan and 1939
Ihuatzio in 1937 and 1938.


Surface collections and excava- 1939
tions at Tzintzuntzan and Ihu-
atzio, MichoacAn in 1937 and
1938.
Excavations near Zamora, Micho- 1942
acin in 1938.
Reconnaissance and surface col- 1942
elections in 1939.


Excavations in 1939. 1948

Reconnaissance, surface collec- 1943
tions in 1939.

Reconnaissance in 1939 (?) 1940

Reconnaissance, surface collec- 1945
tions, and excavations in Sinaloa
in 1935 and 1939.
Reconnaissance and surface col- 1941
tions in 1939.
Reconnaissance and surface collec- 1948
tions in 1939.

Reconnaissance and surface collec- 1942
tion in 1939.
Reconnaissance and surface col- 1943
elections in 1939.

Excavations during the years from 1946
1936 to 1939.

Based on the Lumholtz collection Unpub-
in the American Museum of lished
Natural History, New York,
1939.
Excavations in 1940. 1940


Excavations in 1939 and 1940.












ARCHAEOLOGY OF WESTERN MEXICO


Authority

Ekholm


Work

Archaeology of Northern and
Western Mexico.


Moedano Estudio Preliminar de la Cerd-
mica de Tzintzuntzan, Tem-
porada III.
Acosta Los Ultimos Descubrimientos Ar-
queol6gicos en Tula, Hidalgo.
Armillas Oztuma, Guerrero, Forteleza de
los Mexicanos en la Frontera
de Michoacan.
Weitlaner Expeditions in Western Guerrero:
and The Weitlaner Party, Spring
Barlow 1941.
Brand An Historical Sketch of Geog-
raphy and Anthropology in
the Tarascan Region.

Caso El Complejo Arqueol6gico de
Tula y las Grandes Culturas
Indigenas de Mexico.
Ekholm Tula and Northwestern Mexico.


Lister



Lister

Corona
Nufiez
Acosta


Kelly


Kelly


Archaeology of the Middle Rio
Balsas Basin, Mexico.


Excavations at Cojumatln,
MichoacAn, Mexico.
Collares Tarascos del Museo
Michoacano.
La Tercera Temporada de Ex-
ploraciones Arqueol6gicas en
Tula, Hidalgo, 1942.
The Archaeology of the Autlin-
Tuxcacuesco Area of Jalisco.
The AutlAn Zone.
Excavations at Apatzingan,
Michoacan.


Kelly The Archaeology of the AutlAn-
Tuxcacuesco Area of Jalisco.
The Tuxcacuesco-Zapotitlan
Zone.
Noguera Exploraciones en Jiquilpan.


Research Publication
Date
Summary of the archaeology of 1940
these regions based upon per-
sonal observation and source
materials.
Excavations in 1939 and 1940. 1941


Excavations in 1941. 1941

Reconnaissance in 1941. 1944


Reconnaissance and surface col- 1944
elections in 1941.

Documentary research as well as 1943
reconnaissance and excavations
in Michoacan and Guerrero in
1939 and 1941.
Excavations at Tula, Hidalgo, in 1941
1940 and 1941, and many years
of field work in most of Mexico.
Based on field work in north- 1941
western Mexico.
Reconnaissance, surface collec- 1947
tions, and excavations in Guer-
rero and Michoacan in 1939 and
1940.
Surface collections and excavations 1949
in 1939 and 1941.
Based on collections in the Mu- 1941
seum of Michoacan, Morelia.
Excavations in 1942. 1944


Reconnaissance, surface collec- 1945
tions in 1939, 1940, and 1942.

Reconnaissance, surface collec- 1947
tions, and excavations in 1941
and 1942.
Reconnaissance, surface collec- 1949
tions, and excavations in 1939,
1940, and 1942.

Excavations at Jiquilpan, Micho- 1944
acan in 1942.











UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO STUDIES


Authority

Hendrichs


Work

Por Tierras Ignotas.


Margain Zonas Arqueol6gicas de Quere-
taro, Guanajuato, Aguascali-
entes, y Zacatecas.
Noguera Estado Actual de los Conocimi-
entos acerca de la Arqueologia
del noroeste de MichoacAn.
Noguera Relaciones que muestran Los
Vestigios Arqueol6gicos del
Centro de Mexico.
Acosta La Cuarta y Quinta Temporadas
de Excavaciones en Tula,
Hidalgo, 1943-1944.
Kelly West Mexico and the Hohokam.


Kelly



Porter &
Balmori
Balmori &
Pifia Chan
Borbolla


Porter



Borbolla



Toscano,
Kirchhoff
& Borbolla


Ceramic Provinces of Northwest
Mexico.


La Cersmica de Chupfcuaro.

Complejo Funerario en Chupf-
cuaro.
Problems de la Arqueol6gia de
Chupicuaro.

Pottery Found at Chupicuaro,
Guanajuato.


Arqueologia Tarasca.



Arte Precolombino del Occidente
de Mexico.


Weitlaner Exploraci6n Arqueol6gica en
Guerrero.
Gifford Surface Archaeology of Ixtlan del
Rio, Nayarit.


Research Publication
Date
Reconnaissance and surface col- 1945
elections in the Rio Balsas Basin
between the years 1937 and
1943.
Reconnaissance and surface col- 1944
elections in 1943.

Excavations in 1942 and 1943; re- 1948
connaissance and surface col-
lections for many years.
Reconnaissance in Queretaro and 1944
Guanajuato in 1943.

Excavations in 1943 and 1944. 1945


Based on field work in western 1944
Mexico.
Reconnaissance, surface collections 1948
and excavations from Sinaloa to
Michoacan between the years
1935 and 1944.
Excavations in 1944 (?). 1945

Excavations in 1945 (?) 1948

Reconnaissance, surface collec- 1948
tions, and excavations in 1944
and 1945.
Excavations at Chupicuaro in 1944 1948
and 1945; collections in the
Museo Nacional and Museo
Michoacano.
Reconnaissance, surface collec- 1948
tions, and excavations in
MichoacIn between 1937 and
1946.
A catalog of an exhibition of ar- 1946
chaeological items from western
Mexico held in Mexico City in
1946. Diego Rivera's collec-
tion formed bulk of exhibition.
Reconnaissance, surface collec- 1948
tions, and excavations in 1946.
Surface reconnaissance and study 1950
of collection in University of
California Museum of Anthro-
pology in 1946.












ARCHAEOLOGY OF WESTERN MEXICO


Authority Work

Armillas Arqueologia del Occidente de
Guerrero.
Barlow Tres Complejos de CerAmica del
Norte del Rio Balsas.
Covarru- Tipologia de la Industria de Pie-
bias dra Tallada y Pulida de la
Cuenca del Rio Mezcala.

Moedano Breve Noticia Sobre la Zona de
Oztotitlan, Guerrero.
Miller Ceramica de la Cuenca del Rio
Lerma.
Bemal Nuevos Descubrimientos en Aca-
pulco, Mexico.
Marquina Arquitectura Prehispanica.


Research Publication
Date
Reconnaissance and surface col- 1948
tions in western Guerrero.
Reconnaissance and surface col- 1948
elections in northern Guerrero.
Based on examinations over a 1948
period of 20 years of collections
of stone material from the Rio
Balsas basin.
Reconnaissance. 1948

Reconnaissance and surface col- 1948
tions along the Rio Lerma.
Limited excavations and study of 1951
private collections.
A section reviews the archaeology 1951
of western Mexico.













ARCHAEOLOGICAL SITES
The Atlas Arqueol6gico de la Republica Mexicana and other publications list a
total of almost five hundred archaeological sites for Western Mexico. This is a
fairly large number, but undoubtedly it is only a small portion of the sites that
actually exist. However, in the search for material to include in this distributional
study, it has been possible to include items from only forty-six sites and areas,
since only from these is there enough reliable information suitable for our pur-
poses. These sites are fairly well distributed over the area and may be considered
representative.
Those sites and areas upon which this study is based are listed below, and they
are located on Map 3.
1. Guasave, Sinaloa
2. Culiacin, Sinaloa
3. Chametla, Sinaloa
4. Southern Durango
5. Chalchihuites, Zacatecas
6. Zape, Durango
7. Totoate, Jalisco
8. La Quemada, Zacatecas
9. Southern Nayarit Hinterland
10. Caxcana, Zacatecas-Jalisco
11. El Teul, Zacatecas
12. Juchipila, Zacatecas
13. Coastal Jalisco
14. Ameca, Jalisco
15. La Gloria, Guanajuato
16. Autlin, Jalisco
17. Tuxcacuesco, Jalisco
18. ZapotitlAn, Jalisco
19. Sayula-Zacoalco, Jalisco
20. Northwest Lake Chapala, Jalisco
21. Cerro Esquintla, Michoacin
22. Cojumatlin, Michoacin
23. Jiquilpan, MichoacAn
24. El Opefio, Michoacin
25. Zamora, Michoacan
26. Colima
27. Tepalcatepec, Michoacan
28. Zacapu, Michoacin
14











ARCHAEOLOGY OF WESTERN MEXICO 15

29. Chupicuaro, Guanajuato
30. Apatzingin, Michoacin
31. Tacambaro, Michoacin
32. Tzintzuntzan, Michoacin
33. Upper Rio Lerma, Mexico
34. Calixtlahuaca, Mexico
35. Los Placeres del Oro, Guerrero
36. Coyuca de Catalan, Guerrero
37. Middle Rio Balsas, Guerrero
38. Oxtotitlan, Guerrero
39. Teloloapan, Guerrero
40. Malinalco, Mexico
41. Northern Guerrero
42. Costa Grande, Guerrero
43. Acapulco, Guerrero
44. Yestla-Naranjo, Guerrero
45. Zumpango, Guerrero
46. Texmilincan, Guerrero














SIGNIFICANT CULTURE ELEMENTS OF THE ARCHAEOLOGY OF
WESTERN MEXICO
TYPES oF ARCHAEOLOGICAL SITES
Archaeological sites in Western Mexico vary in nature from simple sherd areas
to very elaborate ceremonial centers containing pyramidal structures, masonry
buildings, and hillside terracing.
The building of artificial mounds is a trait very common in most of Western
Mexico. In some sites, such as in the coastal valleys of Sinaloa, the mound is
simply a low dirt platform seemingly built to raise a habitation above the flood-
water level of a low-lying valley. The majority of the artificial mounds, however,
take the general form of truncated pyramids which served as bases for structures
built of perishable materials. Some pyramids are made solely of dirt, others have
a dirt core with a stone facing, and still others have a rubble center with a masonry
veneer. In some sites, bits of stucco have been found on the stone faces. Large
artificial mounds are known as far north as La Quemada, Zacatecas, and possibly
in the vicinity of Durango, Durango. At La Quemada there are truncated pyra-
mids similar to those pertaining to cultures of central Mexico.
The ydcatas of Michoacan, a unique combination of rectangular and circular
platforms, have become well known. However, in parts of Michoacan, the Taras-
can term ydcata is applied to all types of stone and earth mounds, not merely to
the type of structure described above which is found at Tzintzuntzan, Ihuatzio,
and Parangaricutero. Some Michoacin artificial mounds apparently were built
as platforms for religious structures, but other contain burials or mark burial
grounds.
Another center for artificial mounds, and perhaps the area in which the largest
structures of this type occur, is in the Middle Rio Balsas basin of Guerrero.
Throughout most of that region mounds of all sorts are referred to as momuxtlis,
a Nahuatl term. Frequently several large truncated pyramids are grouped to-
gether to form what must have been religious or civic centers.
Low sherd-covered mounds, marking former dwelling sites, are widely scattered
over Western Mexico. They vary in size from small areas denoting a single-
habitation site to extensive areas representing a village grouping. Frequently
outlines of stones mark the foundations of houses at such sites.
The terracing of hillsides, presumably for agricultural purposes, seems to have
been practiced aboriginally in Western Mexico. Also, the terracing of hillsides and
small natural mounds was undertaken at many of the sites said to represent
religious and village centers. The terraces provided level areas for the building of
houses and other structures on the sloping hillsides.











ARCHAEOLOGY OF WESTERN MEXICO


Stone masonry did not extend to Sinaloa, but it appears elsewhere in Western
Mexico. Commonly encountered are sites which consist of mounds of dirt and
rubble covering a single quadrangular masonry enclosure or, more rarely, several
contiguous rooms. Usually these structures are referred to as dwelling places of
the upper class or priests. Their frequent association with pyramidal structures
would make such an explanation seem plausible. However, some of these enclos-
ures, which seem purposely to have been filled with rubble or dirt, present a
problem as to their use. Possibly they represent a technique used in constructing
platforms. Future excavation in some of these structures will no doubt supply the
answer to this problem.
The great sites of Calixtlahuaca and Malinalco, both in the state of Mexico,
exhibit excellent examples of stone masonry as well as artificial mounds and
terracing. La Quemada, Zacatecas, also has similar features. The structures hewn
out of rock at Malinalco, Mexico, are unique in Mesoamerica.
Masonry tombs and shaft graves were prepared at many places in the southern
part of Western Mexico. It is supposed that in most cases they may have been
reserved for particular classes of people since they do not occur as the only type
of burial place in any region.
The only structures in caves are noted in southern Durango and Zacatecas.
Near Chalchihuites, Zacatecas, and in the Mesquital valley of Durango, habita-
tions and storage chambers built of adobe were constructed in caves. Many of the
storage structures are very small. The erroneous identification of these as houses
has led to the growth of the idea, still widespread in that section, that they were
occupied by pygmies.
Knowledge of the architectural features of archaeological sites in Western
Mexico is restricted by the fact that only a few sites possessing architectural
remains have been excavated and reported upon.

POTTERY
Pottery is outstanding among archaeological remains in Western Mexico. It is
found in some form and in varying quantities at every site included in this survey.
Analysis of the pottery has been most important in determining such areal dis-
tributions, temporal relationships, and trade connections as are known for the
cultures of Western Mexico. The occurrence in this region of well-recognized
trade wares from other parts of Mesoamerica assists greatly in postulating a
chronology for the area.

VESSEL SHAPES
Forms of pottery vessels run a gamut of shapes from the simple bowl to the
handled teapot. Common to the entire area is the bowl-shaped vessel; olla- and










UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO STUDIES


a b c d e






h k n






o p r s $
FIGoUE 1. Vessel shapes, a, olla; b, bowl; c, bowl with tall annular base; d, tripod molcajete;
e, tripod bowl; f, tall tripod jar; g, small-mouthed jar; h, jar; i, bowl with simple ring base; j,
pot rest; k, vertical-sided bowl; I, stirrup-handled vessel; m, handled teapot; n, miniature tripod
bowl; o, basket-handled tripod bowl; p, pot cover; q, dipper; r, plate; s, small jar; t, tall tripod.
Not to scale.

jar-shaped vessels probably have similar distributions, although our distributional
map does not show these forms to be present in western Guerrero. Their apparent
absence there is most likely due to brevity of report rather than actual non-
existence.
A unique occurrence of miniature ollas and associated miscellaneous objects of
pottery along the northwestern shore of Lake Chapala, Jalisco, should be men-
tioned, for, although they have been previously described, their cultural con-
nections remain unknown. Most of the small ollas are very crude unslipped vessels
of a coarse gray paste. Some have tripod legs, and the majority have a decoration
consisting of a filleted band about the body of the olla. Associated with the ollas
are other small pottery objects, such as animal effigies, spoon-shaped specimens,
disc-shaped stamps, and cylinder-shaped censers, all unique to the Lake Chapala
locale. An explanation for these interesting objects is that they represent votive
offerings which perhaps were thrown into the water to propitiate a deity.
Tripod vessels are found distributed over all of Western Mexico. This form
normally consists of a bowl set upon three supports, or legs, and is a well recog-











ARCHAEOLOGY OF WESTERN MEXICO


nized feature of "Mexican" ceramics. Its occurrence in the New World is most
prevalent in central Mexico, whence it has an almost continuous distribution
southward through Central America and into a large part of South America. The
form also occurs sparingly in the Mississippi River Valley of eastern United States.4
In the Valley of Mexico the tripod has a long history, extending from the lower
Archaic6 to the Spanish Conquest.6
The earliest occurrence of tripod vessels in Western Mexico appears to be at
Chupicuaro, Guanajuato, a site that has been equated in time with Ticoman in
the Valley of Mexico. This correlation would place Chupicuaro in the Formative
horizon. According to Kelly, tripod vessels in Colima are contemporaneous with
the Teotihuacan III period, of the Classic horizon, but die out to reappear in
immediately pre-Conquest times.7 In Guerrero, this shape likewise appears during
mid-Teotihuacan times. However, over the remainder of Western Mexico the
tripod seemingly was first developed or introduced at approximately 900 A.D.
Of the well-reported areas, southern Sinaloa was the last to utilize this form. It
does not appear there until after 1300 A.D.; prior to that time the annular base
was very popular in that vicinity.
A specialized form of the tripod which may be of importance in helping to
establish temporal relationships in Western Mexico is the molcajete, or chile
grinder. MAfoia hrs are bowls normally having three legs, whose floor is incised,
scored, punched, or otherwise roughened to form a grinding surface. Probably in
prehistoric times, as today, they were associated with the preparation of chile or
tomato sauces. In the Valley of Mexico, the history of this highly characteristic
vessel apparently starts in the Toltec horizon. However, in the Huasteca region
of northeastern Mexico, it is said to occur as early as the early Formative horizon.8
In Western Mexico the molcajete appears almost contemporaneously through-
out the southern provinces. It never became important in the north. Its presence
in Sinaloa is noted by only seven sherds at Chametla and by a probable occurrence
at Culiac~n; a few sherds of such vessels have been observed in southern Durango.
It is apparently wanting in northern Jalisco and south-western Zacatecas. Where
the molcajete is found in Western Mexico it seems to be associated with cultures
dating post-900 A.D.
Kelly is of the opinion that the earlier types have punched or gouged floors,
later specimens being incised.9 A parallel progression occurs in Colima, and at
Apatzingan, Michoacin; western Jalisco, highland Michoac6n, and Guerrero
have only incised-floor molcajetes.
4Linn4, 1929, pp. 111-117.
SVaillant, 1930, pl. V, a,b.
6 Vaillant, 1932, pp. 12-13.
Kelly, 1944, p. 208.
SEkholm, 1944, pp. 343, 423-425.
9 Kelly, 1947, p. 90.











UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO STUDIES


Linn6 states that the molcajete form is thickly scattered over Mexico and Central
America, but beyond there only on the coast of Ecuador and in several places east
of the Andes. He also points out that its geographical distribution indicates that
the vessel became more widely spread only in later times.'1
Flat-shaped vessels are not common in this part of Mexico. Plates are reported
to occur only at Totoate and AutlAn in Jalisco and in southern Nayarit; comals,
or flat cooking dishes, are known at Chalchihuites, Zacatecas, and Cojumatlin,
Michoacdn. The comal is another vessel form scattered over Mexico, Central
America, and South America." In Mexico and Central America, it is associated
with the preparation of maize cakes (tortillas) and in eastern South America with
the making of maize and manioc bread.
The jug or small-mouthed jar occurs, as a characteristic shape, only in northern
Sinaloa. It is a form with a globular body and tall narrow-mouthed neck.
Effigy vessels, excluding large hollow figurines, are not characteristic of Western
Mexico in its entirety. Only in two areas, Chupicuaro, Guanajuato, and Colima,
are specimens of this type found in any number. From the remainder of the region
but few effigy vessels have been reported. Guerrero seems to lack the form com-
pletely.
The Chupicuaro effigies, although occasional consisting of a vessel in full
zoimorphic form, are more apt to be produced by the addition of small animal
heads or simply modeled human facial features to the rims or sides of ordinary
vessels. In contrast, the Colima effigies show a preponderance of true anthropo-
morphic and zoomorphic forms, as well as an occasional vessel with naturalistic
figures appended. These Colima effigies are without doubt some of the finest
modeled vessels in Mexico and are found associated with the famous hollow
figurines from the province. Perhaps the most famous collection of such specimens
belongs to the Mexican artist, Diego Rivera. Figures in his collection include
men depicted in various everyday tasks, warriors in armor, deformed persons,
dogs, dogs wearing masks, monkeys, turtles, armadillos, sharks, pelicans, ducks,
parrots, tarantulas, and lizards. Such strange combinations as fish with human
heads and turtles with dog heads also are noted. These vessels usually have a
small opening either in the head of the figure or, if the figure possesses a tail, in the
end of the tail. Normally they are made of polished redware.
The Colima effigies and large hollow figurines are found in tomb burials and are
believed to have belonged to the Ortices phase, which represents the earliest
ceramic complex in the state.12 In terms of Mesoamerican chronology, the Ortices
phase can be dated as contemporaneous with Teotihuacan III, since one Colima
10 LinnS, 1929, pp. 28-32.
n Linn6, 1929, pp. 159-162.
12 Kelly, 1948, p. 65.











ARCHAEOLOGY OF WESTERN MEXICO


tomb is said to have produced a restorable vessel of Teotihuacan Thin Orange
ware.18 Thus a bit of evidence to assist in working out the culture history of West-
ern Mexico is obtained.
Next to be considered is a trio of vessel shapes that can safely be assigned, at
least in part, to the Tarascan culture. Handled teapots, stirrup-handled vessels,
and miniature tripod vessels all have been recovered at Tzintzuntzan, Michoacin,
the Tarascan capital at the time of the Spanish Conquest. They probably date
from the time of the Tarascan Empire, an immediately pre-Conquest horizon.
The handled teapot form is unique. It has a globular body with a small rimmed
opening at the top. A vertical loop handle is affixed to either side of the opening,
and a curved tubular spout is located on the shoulder of the vessel.
Stirrup-handled vessels have globular bodies, a hollow vertical loop handle with
a small bowl-like opening at the top, or a loop handle. This shape of vessel is
fairly common at Tlatilco, an Archaic site in the Valley of Mexico, and also is very
reminiscent of certain Peruvian forms.14 There is no indication at present that it
can be judged to be as early in Michoac6n as it is in the Valley of Mexico and
elsewhere.
As stated before, all three of these forms have been found at Tzintzuntzan,
Michoacan. Their occurrence in other areas may be explained by documentary
evidence dealing with Tarascan migrations and conquests. A late Tarascan expan-
sion westward probably accounts for the presence of handled teapots and minia-
ture tripod vessels at Autlin and Sayula-Zacoalco, Jalisco. Periban, at no great
distance north of Tepalcatepec, Michoacan, where handled teapots and miniature
tripod vessels also occur, was colonized about 1500 A.D. by four hundred settlers
sent there by Coltzantzin, Tarascan "king".1 Handled teapots and stirrup-
handled vessels are known from Coyuca de Catalln, Guerrero, which is said to
have been an important Tarascan colony during the latter part of the fifteenth
century.'1
Pot covers, or tapaderas, shaped like inverted bowls with four legs and various
styles of handles on top, are restricted to northern Michoacin, southern Jalisco,
and Colima. They presumably functioned as covers for burning incense, having
been placed either over a censer or over a stone on which the incense was burned.
At Apatzingan, Michoacan, the chronological position of the pot cover has
been determined by Kelly's excavations.'7 There it occurs predominantly in the
Tepetate phase (approximately 1000-1300 A.D.) during which time it appears
frequently in graves. Its relative position at other sites has not been defined as
SKelly, 1944, p. 212.
1 Porter, 1953, p. 40.
1i Kelly, 1947, p. 200.
16 Brand, 1943, p. 41.
17 Kelly, 1947, p. 70.











UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO STUDIES


yet. Most specimens have been recovered by amateurs and reported upon by
investigators who have examined private collections. In time, as archaeo-
logical knowledge increases, the pot cover should prove useful in tracing local
relationships.
Another vessel form associated with the custom of burning incense, the censer,
is little known in Western Mexico. Isolated occurrences have been recorded at
Cojumatlin, Michoacan, and Chupicuaro, Guanajuato.
Dippers have a scattered distribution ranging from northern Sinaloa to central
Michoacan. A few specimens are shaped like ladles, having small bowls, with
horizontal handles attached. The majority of the dippers, however, are shallow,
more or less flat-bottomed, carinated vessels.
Two vessel shapes common to the Teotihuacan culture in the Valley of Mexico
have been found on the coast of Guerrero the cylindrical tripod and the tripod
plate. The first is a modified type of the Teotihuacan vessel with flat bottom,
vertical sides, and hollow rectangular legs. The second form consists of a shallow
plate with tall plano-convex legs, up to twenty centimeters in height, and with a
flat exterior decorated with a molded and cut-out naturalistic or geometric de-
sign. Such vessels are strong indicators of Teotihuacan connections with the west
coast of Mexico. However, as it is becoming well known that Teotihuacan-type
ceramics are widespread in Mexico, it cannot be said that the west-coast relation-
ships with the Valley of Mexico were necessarily direct.
Tall tripod vessels are not common in Western Mexico. One specimen from
Cojumatlan, Michoacan, is unique in having convex legs which meet at the lower
extremities to form a triangular base or platform upon which the vessel rests.
Tall tripods also occur at Chupicuaro, Guanajuato.
It already has been pointed out that the distribution of tripod vessels in Western
Mexico is widespread. An examination of these specimens shows them to have a
great variety of supports, or legs; so, in an attempt to recognize significant regional
or cultural variations, a classification of these leg forms has been undertaken. The
results appear on a series of the distributional maps. A few suggestive statements
about tripod supports may be presented now, and it is believed that more research
into this trait may prove fruitful in the future.
The most extensively used form is the solid conical leg. At Apatzingin, Michoa-
can,"8 and Autlin-Tuxcacuesco, Jalisco,'1 it is the earliest form of support. Whether
this type of leg will appear in early levels at other sites must await additional
field work and reporting.
Tall, plano-convex legs, previously mentioned in the discussion of Teotihuacan-
type tripod vessels, are limited in their area of use to the Costa Grande of Guerrero.
18 Kelly, 1947, p. 91.
1g Kelly, 1949, p. 102.











ARCHAEOLOGY OF WESTERN MEXICO


j k m
FIGURE 2. Vessel supports. a, cylindrical leg, rattle; b, bulbous leg, rattle; c, conical leg; d,
hollow-nub leg; e, anthropomorphic effigy leg; f, zoomorphic effigy leg; g, mammiform leg; h,
slab leg; i, loop leg; j, wide-top leg; k, potstand; 1, low annular base; m, tall annular base. Not to
scale.

Hollow rectangular legs, also considered to be a Teotihuacan type, are likewise
found only on the Guerrero coast.
An unusual form, the loop leg, is restricted to the Middle Rio Balsas basin and
environs in Guerrero. These legs are fashioned exactly like loop lugs but are
placed beneath the vessel as supports. This tradition still may be observed in the
vicinity of Zumpango del Rio, Guerrero, where vessels with loop legs are made
today.
Effigy legs, anthropomorphic and zo6morphic in nature, painted and/or molded
in decorative technique, are confined to the southern half of Western Mexico. The
molded type prevails and has a rather extensive spread in southern Mexico. It has
been recognized as far south as Costa Rica and Nicaragua. It seems to be a rela-
tively late style and, according to Mesoamerican terminology, does not appear
before Toltec times.











UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO STUDIES


A second form of vessel support, the annular base, including potstands, has a
scattered distribution in Western Mexico. In the Valley of Mexico annular forms
occur in the lower Archaic, but they do not become general until Toltec or Historic
times,20 and may be considered essentially late. In the Maya area this form is
both early and widespread.21
In the Autlan-Tuxcacuesco area of Jalisco the annular base occurs as early as
900 A.D., and it precedes the use of tripod vessel supports. The presence of the
annular base in Jalisco at that time may imply that annular bases did not diffuse
to Jalisco from the Valley of Mexico, but presumably reached the west via other,
and probably more direct, southerly contacts.22 An examination of the reports on
Apatzingan, Michoacan, and Chametla, Sinaloa, shows that in those regions
annular bases preceded tripod supports.
On the evidence, therefore, of a few bits of knowledge, it is suggested that
annular bases antedate tripod supports in Western Mexico.

VESSEL DECORATION
Utility vessels throughout Western Mexico are predominantly red to brown in
surface color. Their use extends from what are recognized to be some of the
earliest phases of culture, such as the Chumbicuaro phase at Apatzingdn, Michoa-
can, (400-600 A.D.) to the Conquest. It should be noted that brown utility wares
are commonly found in the cliff dwellings of northwestern Chihuahua just outside
Western Mexico as we have defined it. These wares are similar to types of pottery
found in the Mogollon cultures of southwestern New Mexico, and some may be
considered early Mogollon, Thus it is probable that brown wares comprise the
earliest forms of pottery in a large part of Mexico and part of the American
Southwest.
The development of vessels with other types of monochrome decoration, and
with incised monochromes, appears to precede the bichrome and polychrome
complexes at Tuxcacuesco, Jalisco; Apatzingin, Michoacan; Chupicuaro, Guana-
juato; northern Sinaloa; Middle Rio Balsas basin, Guerrero; and Colima. The
presence of an early monochrome horizon over all of Western Mexico may be the
case. However, data from Chametla, Sinaloa, indicate that there a polychrome
ware was contemporaneous with the monochrome horizon. And there is no trace
of an underlying monochrome in the Culiacin zone of Sinaloa,2 or at Ixtlan del
Rio, Nayarit.24
Red-on-brown decorated wares are found over all of Western Mexico from
2o Vaillant, 1932, p. 14.
't Kelly, 1947, p. 103.
2 Kelly, 1949. p. 103.
28 Kelly, 1949, p. 104.
Gifford. 1950, p. 185.











ARCHAEOLOGY OF WESTERN MEXICO


0 0

FIGURE 3. Pottery, Cojumatln, MichoacAn. a, Cojumathin polychrome; b, Chapala, polished
red on brown; c, Zapotlin brown incised. All after Lister, 1949. One-third natural size.

Guasave, Sinaloa, on the north to Texmilincan, Guerrero, on the south. Several
persons previously have considered the possibility of a widespread red-on-brown
horizon extending over Western Mexico. Also the possibility of a relationship
between all red-on-brown wares from the Hohokam region of southern Arizona
southward through Western Mexico to the Mixteca area of Oaxaca has been
suggested.25
Red-on-brown pottery is restricted to certain areas and periods in the Mexican
highlands. In the Valley of Mexico, the Mazapan and Coyotlatelco wares, both
red-on-browns, were not made before the Toltec period, dated from about 900 to
1200 A.D. Red-on-brown wares were common in the old Matlatzinca region in
the valley of Toluca. A form of red-on-brown pottery belonging to the late poly-
chrome period is found in the Mixteca region of Oaxaca. In the western highlands
it is very common about Chupicuaro, Guanajuato, around Lake Chapala, and in
northern Jalisco. Both in the Middle Rio Balsas basin and in the region near
Acapulco, Guerrero, there are red-on-brown wares. It is the dominant decorated
ware in the parts of Zacatecas and Durango included in this study. Lastly, along
the coastal lowlands of Western Mexico red-on-brown wares occur in middle
horizons throughout Colima and Nayarit, Apatzingen, Michoacin; Tuxcacuesco,
Jalisco; and Guasave, Culiacin, and Chametla, Sinaloa.
The majority of the wares mentioned have a certain uniformity of color, design
patterns, and shapes, suggestive of some relationship. Ekholm points out the
similarity between some of the vessels collected by Lumholtz in western Michoa-
can and Guasave Red on Brown, and furthermore indicates his belief that all of
5 Ekholm, 1942, pp. 48-49; Brand, 1944, p. 349; Kelly, 1944, p. 206; Porter, 1948, pp. 43-44.











UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO STUDIES


0 c
FIGURE 4. Pottery, Guasave, Sinaloa. a, Guasave red on buff; b, Cerro Isabel engraved; c,
El Dorado incised. All after Ekholm, 1942. One-third natural size.

the Sinaloa red-on-brown wares are related to those of Michoac6n and the Valley
of Mexico.26 Ross, in reporting on the Lumholtz collection, obtained by Carl
Lumholtz in his travels through Western Mexico between 1890 and 1898 and now
housed in the American Museum of Natural History, remarks on the striking
similarity between vessels from Atoyac, Jalisco, and the Lake Chapala region and
Mazapan red-on-brown ware.27 The Cojumatlin, Michoacan, red-on-brown also
has a number of characteristics suggesting relationships with Mazapan ware and
with Matlatzinca red-on-brown.28 Both Kelly29 and Brand80 have claimed to find
the red-on-browns of Zacatecas and Durango similar to those of Sinaloa.
It therefore appears that we have an excellent, well-documented case for a Toltec
horizon red-on-brown pottery tradition in Western Mexico. Relationships have
been suggested and a temporal span, based on Mesoamerican chronology, postu-
lated. The question of the place of origin of red-on-brown ware is yet to be settled.
Ekholm is not very specific when he states that the pottery probably originated
"somewhere in western Mexico","1 but Brand selects the general area between
the Lerma and Balsas rivers or in the vicinity of Lake Chapala as his choice.82
Porter believes that Chupicuaro, Guanajuato, may have been the center of origin
of red-on-brown wares.83 The writer will not comment upon this problem, believing
that additional stratigraphic work is necessary before more conclusive information
on the origin of red-on-brown pottery in Western Mexico can be set forth.
28 Ekholm, 1942, p. 48.
27 Ross, n.d., p. 76.
28Lister, 1949, p. 37.
29 Kelly, 1938, p. 42.
so Brand, 1939, p. 102.
a8 Ekholm, 1942, p. 49.
2 Brand, 1944, p. 349.
8' Porter, 1948, p. 44.











ARCHAEOLOGY OF WESTERN MEXICO


0 C
FIGURE 5. Pottery, Culiacan, Sinaloa. a, Early Culiac9n polychrome; b, Culiacan incised ware;
c, Aztatlan complex, red-rim decorated ware; All after Kelly, 1945a. One-fourth natural size.
Colors represented as follows: White: white; black: black; red: vertical hatch; orange: closed
stipple; buff: open stipple.

There is a more or less continuous distribution of red-on-brown wares from the
Hohokam region of southern Arizona to central Mexico. This style of decoration
appears to occur earlier in the Hohokam than in central Mexico; however, the
more recent chronologies for central Mexico, which are allowing considerable
more antiquity for the cultures in that region, are bringing the traits more into
contemporaneity in the two culture areas. It is certainly possible that red-on-brown
pottery decoration may be a tradition that spread over this large expanse of
territory. Basic similarities have been noted, but there are specializations in
design motives and vessel shapes which vary regionally within the limits of this
distribution.
Black-on-red wares do not appear to be very diagnostic. Their distribution is
scattered, and, from present indications, we are dealing with several different
wares. The type is early in Colima and Tuxcacuesco, Jalisco,34 but at other sites
such as Teloloapan, Guerrero, where it is associated with Aztec wares, it is late.31
White-on-red wares have a limited spread in the area under consideration,
being known from northern Guerrero, northern Michoacan, southern Jalisco,
southern Nayarit, and southwestern Zacatecas and Durango. Wherever occurring,
they seem to have relatively late associations. Although no over-all relationships
are suggested at present, there do seem to be connections between the white-on-
red wares found at Tepalcatepec and Tzintzuntzan, Michoacan; Sayula-Zacoalco,
Jalisco; and along the Middle Rio Balsas, Guerrero. This similarity may be
34 Kelly, 1949, p. 67.
36 Lister, 1948a, p. 113.











UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO STUDIES


FIGURE 6. Pottery, Tuxcacuesco-ZapotitlAn zone, Jalisco. a, Autlan white on red; b, Tuxca-
cuesco black on red; c, Terrero red on buff; d. Autlin polychrome; e, Toliman red on brown.
All after Kelly, 1949. One-fourth natural size. Colors represented as follows: white: white; black:
black; red: vertical hatch; orange: stippled hatch; buff: open stipple. Weathered areas indicated
by broken horizontal lines.

explained by the concept that this was a Tarascan ware in that locality and was
spread over the region occupied by their empire.
The other types of bichrome wares do not lend themselves very well to con-
clusive statements. One may note the confinement of black-on-white types to the
Rio Balsas basin and adjacent highlands in Guerrero. It has been pointed out that
the distribution of this black-on-white ware, with its peculiar loop legs, coincides
with the old territory of the Chontals, who may have been responsible for its
manufacture.
Maroon-on-cream ware, which was limited to the states of Mexico and Guerrero,
has been described as a Matlatzinca ware."6 Its territorial spread and its associa-
tion with wares identified as being late tend to confirm this belief.
Negative painting, or the technique of decorating pottery by means of "lost
color" or resist painting, is a well-known Mexican trait which appears first in the
upper Archaic, and which by Teotihuacan I times is plentiful." Noguera discusses
this technique in some detail, pointing out its great distribution from Mexico to
South America.88 He states that it is found in widely separated areas in Mexico:
*6 Garcia Pay6n, 1941b, p. 227.
87 Noguera, quoted by Kelly, 1944, p. 209.
is Noguera, 1935, pp. 58-60.











ARCHAEOLOGY OF WESTERN MEXICO


FIGURE 7. Pottery, ApatzingAn, MichoacAn. a, Chila polychrome; b, San Vicente molcajete;
c, Delicias red on brown. All after Kelly, 1947. One-fourth natural size. Colors represented as
follows: Black: black; red: vertical hatch; brown: stipple.

Jalisco, the valley of Toluca, Tula, Hidalgo, Cheran and Zamora, Michoacin,
Teotihuacan and Ticoman in the Valley of Mexico, as well as in the Maya area.
Noguera concludes that this technique seemingly had its origin in the western
highlands and spread from there to the Valley of Mexico.
In our area of interest negative painting makes its earliest appearance at El
Opefio, Michoacin, a site believed to be contemporaneous with the lower Archaic
of the Valley of Mexico." It is found in the Teotihuacan III-equated Ortices
phase of Colima.40 In the Caxcana zone of Zacatecas-Jalisco, the technique is
associated with the red-on-brown pottery horizon,41 as it is in southern Nayarit.4
At Apatzingin and Tzintzuntzan, Michoacan, it is essentially late.43 Negative
painting is not believed to have been used in Sinaloa or Guerrero.
On the evidence of known data, one might conclude that negative painting had
an important center in the western highlands of Mexico. Its use was continuous
over a long period of time, and it may have spread from Western Mexico to the
Valley of Mexico.
Polychrome pottery in Western Mexico had an extensive range and a long
period of use. If the dating of Chupicuaro, Guanajuato, is correct, the polychrome
ware found at that site is the earliest in Western Mexico, dating from the Forma-
tive horizon.44 At Chametla, Sinaloa, two successive polychrome styles antedate
so Noguera, 1948, p. 38.
40 Kelly, 1944, p. 209.
41 Kelly, 1949, p. 209.
42 Gifford, 1950, p. 218.
4' Kelly, 1944, p. 209.
Noguera, 1948, p. 38.










UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO STUDIES


the Aztatlin complex,46 and they are believed to be as early as 800 A.D. Poly-
chrome wares from highland Michoacin are believed to have belonged to the
Toltec horizon.4" The majority of polychrome wares scattered over the remain-
der of Western Mexico are still later and are confined to the Historic horizon.
Two fairly extensive cultural complexes in Western Mexico have well-made,
characteristic polychrome wares. The Aztatlan complex is known to exist in
northern Sinaloa and in Nayarit, and it possibly extends to coastal Jalisco. It is
best represented at Guasave, Sinaloa, where Ekholm excavated a rich burial
mound containing not only everyday material but also items associated with re-
ligious ceremonial. Aztatlin Polychrome is present over this entire area, and it is
considered by Ekholm to show strong Mixteca-Puebla influence from the central
highlands of Mexico.4 According to Mesoamerican chronology, it is estimated that
the Aztatlin cultural complex existed in Sinaloa from about 1000 to 1200 A.D. To
summarize, Aztatlin Polychrome is a fairly late ware, of short duration, highly
characteristic of the general Sinaloan area. It is associated with a distinctive cul-
tural complex showing affiliations with the Mixteca-Puebla culture of the central
Mexican highlands.
The second cultural complex exhibiting a characteristic polychrome ware is the
Autlin complex of Colima and southern Jalisco. Autl6n Polychrome is not as
uniform a type as the Aztatl6n ware, but some reliability may be placed upon it
as a "key style". It is late, coming to the time of the Conquest.48
While considering polychrome wares, I should point out that Cholula Poly-
chrome, another relatively late ware, abundantly distributed throughout the
Puebla area, Tlaxcala, and the Chalco district of the Valley of Mexico, is present
in the Yestla-Naranjo, Guerrero, zone.
The practice of combining incision with painted decoration generally may be
considered a northern trait in Western Mexico, with the exception of an isolated
example on the Costa Grande of Guerrero. The earliest known instance of this
trait occurs in the Apatzingan phase at Apatzing6n, Michoacan,49 which may be
dated at from 600 to 800 A.D. There, incision is combined with red-on-brown
painted decoration. In southwestern Zacatecas and Durango, where Chalchihuites
type culture is encountered, a gray or brown incised ware with red pigment filling
the incisions is characteristic. Most of the other occurrences of this sort have
incising combined with polychrome painted decoration and are late, being rele-
gated to Toltec or more recent times.
In both the Archaic and the Classic periods in the Valley of Mexico this tech-
45 Kelly, 1944, p. 218.
4 Noguera, 1948, p. 38.
47 Ekholm, 1942, p. 128.
4 Kelly, 1949, p. 31.
49 Kelly, 1947, p. 92.











ARCHAEOLOGY OF WESTERN MEXICO


nique was used to a slight extent. But it is only in the Puebla region, on certain
forms of Cholula Polychrome, and in the Cerro Montoso culture of Vera Cruz
that it was used very effectively." Ekholm makes a strong case for a relationship
between the Sinaloan painted and incised wares and those mentioned above from
the Mixteca-Puebla zone. This relationship is based not only on decorative meth-
ods but design motives as well.61 The Cojumatl6n, Michoacdn, pottery with this
technique of decoration likewise shows decided similarities to Mixteca-Puebla
wares. 6
Hobnail decoration on the surface of pottery vessels is found only in the Autldn-
Tuxcacuesco zone and in the area northwest of Lake Chapala, both in Jalisco.
This trait appears to be significant in the latter zone, where Ross notes its presence
among several characteristics that are common both to the Mazapan culture and
the local culture.
Aztec black-on-orange pottery, the majority of which may be classified as type
IIIa, appears as a trade ware at Calixtlahuaca, Mexico, and in central Guerrero.
The spread of this ware in Guerrero may coincide with the conquests of Monte-
zuma I in Morelos and Guerrero shortly after 1440 A.D. Vaillant assigns this type
of Aztec black-on-orange pottery to the early Aztec III period, dating 1403-
1455 A.D.6,
Plumbate pottery is the most important ware in Western Mexico as far as
chronological connotations are concerned. This ware has been the subject of a
recent detailed study by Shepard, who reviews its wide geographical distribution.64
It has been reported as far south as Tola, Nicaragua; Copan, Honduras; and the
Chiriqui province of Panama. The northernmost example pointed out by Shepard
is the famous turkey effigy jar collected by Lumholtz at Tepic, Nayarit. Despite
the great territorial expansion of plumbate, it has been shown to have a very re-
stricted span in time. Thompson's scheme, wherein he places plumbate between
987 and 1204 A.D. seems to have been generally accepted.66
Perhaps no ware in Mesoamerica assumes such importance as plumbate. Its
better-known type, the Tohil, was spread in trade over a great range, a circum-
stance which furnishes valuable archaeological evidence for the correlation of
cultures with which it is associated. Also, since its associations indicate a relatively
short period of manufacture, estimated at between one hundred fifty years and
two hundred fifty years, it is one of the most outstanding ceramic "index fossils"
for this region.
The Lumholtz collection, according to Ross, contains thirty-three examples of
so Ekholm, 1942, p. 60.
1 Ekholm, 1942, p. 127.
a2 Lister, 1949, pp. 96-97.
a3 Vaillant, 1941, p. 95.
SShepard, 1948.
65 Thompson, 1941, p. 103.











UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO STUDIES


plumbate ware, from the states of Nayarit, Jalisco, Colima, and Michoacin.
Additional reported finds in Western Mexico include Cojumatlan, Michoacan;
Costa Grande, Guerrero; and Texmilincan, Guerrero. The presence of plumbate
in these areas of Western Mexico will be of value when an attempt is made in a
later section of this paper to develop a chronology for the region.
There is one reported occurrence of Fine Orange pottery in Western Mexico. It
is said to have been found at Texmilincan, Guerrero, together with plumbate. The
contemporaneity of these wares has long been established by their association in
deposits at Chichen Itza, Yucatan."6
Teotihuacan Thin Orange pottery is known from only two areas in Western
Mexico, Colima and Sayula, Jalisco. However, the reported presence of an ex-
ample of this ware in an Ortices-phase tomb in Colima is potentially of great
temporal significance. Through this association, Kelly suspects the Ortices phase
as being contemporaneous with Teotihuacan III of the Valley of Mexico."
The next trait to be considered, paint cloisonne, seems to be more at home in
Western Mexico than in any other part of Mesoamerica. The known range of
distribution of the technique is from northern New Mexico to Peru.68 In Western
Mexico, this style of decoration is found over most of the western highlands,
seemingly centering in Jalisco and southwestern Zacatecas. Ross lists forty-four
specimens of pottery with paint cloisonne in the Lumholtz collections. Two areas,
Guasave, Sinaloa, and Apatzingin, Michoacin, have yielded gourds decorated in
this style.
Ekholm points out that all paint cloisonne reported until 1942 is of post-
Classic date"5 and probably was not made earlier than 900 A.D. However, we now
have evidence that the technique of paint cloisonne may have been practiced as
early as Teotihuacan times in Western Mexico.60 Two magnificent pottery jars
treated in this manner were recovered from a grave at Jiquilpan, Michoacin.
Also in this grave were a number of items with strong indications of Teotihuacan
affiliations. Some doubt may be cast upon this association, however, since the
find was made by amateurs who may have interpreted the evidence erroneously.
To support Ekholm's belief in the relatively lateness of paint cloisonne, there are
a number of instances of the occurrence of this trait in the plumbate-ware period.
The stuccoed and painted technique of decoration may be present at Tzint-
zuntzan, Michoacan, although it is not characteristic of Western Mexico. The
writer is including such terms as "in fresco", "al fresco", and "in secco" under
the heading "stuccoed and painted" ware. This pottery treatment is found
Shepard, 1948, p. 133.
7 Kelly, 1948, p. 65.
Ekholm, 1942, p. 95.
6s Ekholm, 1942, pp. 95-96.
so Kidder, 1946, p. 219.











ARCHAEOLOGY OF WESTERN MEXICO


a b
FIGURE 8. Large hollow figurines, a, Colima type; b, Nayarit type. Both after Marquina,
1951. Approximately one-sixth natural size.

abundantly from the Valley of Mexico southward as far as Costa Rica."e In the
Valley of Mexico it is not recorded on post-Classic vessels.62 Elsewhere it seems to
have a comparable antiquity. Borbolla notes the presence of "al fresco" in the
lowest Tarascan horizon in the Michoacin highlands.6' Whether he refers to the
stuccoed and painted technique or cloisonne is not clear, since in Mexico the term
is sometimes used interchangeably.
FIGURINES
A group of associated figurine types found in southern Nayarit, central Jalisco,
and Colima is outstanding in Western Mexico. The best-known of these types are
the large hollow varieties depicting dogs and other animal and human figures.
Human beings are represented as hunchbacks, musicians, warriors, seated in-
dividuals, and there is an enormous range of action figures. The Colima specimens
are considered aesthetically and technically far superior to those from southern
Nayarit and Jalisco. They are finely modeled of red clay and normally are well
polished. The Nayarit specimens, centering about Ixtlan del Rio, are larger than
those from Colima, differ in detail, and commonly carry painted decoration.
1L Kidder, 1946, p. 218.
5 Kidder, 1946, p. 219.
3 Rubin de la Borbolla, 1948, p. 31.











UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO STUDIES


FIGURE 9. Mazapan-style figurines, a, Cojumatlin, Michoacin: after Lister, 1949; b, Apatzin-
gin, Michoacin: after Kelly, 1947; c, Tuxcacuesco zone, Jalisco: after Kelly, 1949. Approxi-
mately one-half natural size.

North of Lake Chapala, Jalisco, a variant of the Nayarit type is found without
painted decoration.
Both the Colima and Nayarit large hollow figurines are found associated with
small solid figurines depicting women grinding on metates, holding children, or
carrying jars; warriors, musicians, and so on. These action figures sometimes are
a composite, and groups of individuals are portrayed in dancing poses or in placid
domestic scenes. Also, from both areas under discussion come small figures ex-
tended and bound to a flat surface, interpreted either as captives or as infants in
cradles.
The large hollow figurines of Colima are characteristic of the Ortices phase,
which, as has already been pointed out, is equated with Teotihuacan III. Further-
more, Kelly hazards the guess that the Ortices phase of Colima and the large
hollow figurines from Nayarit are roughly contemporaneous.64 Gifford places the
Nayarit figurines at approximately the same time as Late Teotihuacan." How-
ever, the fact that Corona Nufiez has found Mazapan figurines apparently as-
sociated with large hollow figurines near Ixtlan del Rio, Nayarit," suggests a
somewhat later time, the Toltec horizon, for their occurrence. The possibility of
a continuous distribution of traits common to both southern Nayarit and Colima
is also suggested. The continuity should be sought along the string of lakes
sprawled intermittently through the Jaliscan plateau virtually to the frontier of
Colima.
A variety of figurines known to be characteristic of certain recognized Mexican
cultures is found scattered over Western Mexico.
The Mazapan type, a slab, mold-made figurine, ranges from the vicinity of
64 Kelly, 1948, pp. 66-67.
66 Gifford, 1950, p. 238.
6s Corona Nufiez, n.d., Ms.











ARCHAEOLOGY OF WESTERN MEXICO


b
FIGURE 10. Archaic-style figurines, a, Chupicuaro, Guanajuato; b, El Opefio, MichoacAn; c,
Acapulco, Guerrero. All after Marquina, 1951. Approximately one-half natural size.

Mazatlan, Sinaloa,67 to Acapulco, Guerrero. Because of its cultural connections,
it serves as a fine "time marker" in Western Mexico.
Archaic types of figurines are reported from a large number of sites and are
especially numerous in the states of Mexico and Guerrero, with isolated examples
occurring at El Opefio, MichoacAn, and Chupicuaro, Guanajuato. Archaic types
C and D are reported to occur at El Opefio, which serves as a basis for correlating
the site with Zacatenco and Copilco in the Valley of Mexico.8" Some Chupicuaro
Archaic figurines have been identified as Vaillant's type H-IV,69 assignable to the
late Archaic horizon. Most of the other recorded instances merely are references
to "Archaic types" in the published reports.
Diverse findings of Aztec, Teotihuacan, La Venta-style, and Maya-style
figurines also are listed for Western Mexico. Objects, including figurines, made
or decorated in La Venta style, are so frequently picked up in Guerrero that
Covarrubias believes them to have been manufactured locally.
A large number of miscellaneous figurines, predominantly hand made, occur in
Western Mexico. For the most part they are restricted in geographical spread
and are characteristic only of certain phases, local cultures, or areas. Usually
7t Ekholm, personal communication, 1953.
Noguera, 1942, p. 533.
*6 Vaillant, 1931, p. 353.











UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO STUDIES


a b c
FIGURE 11. Figurines, Tuxcacuesco-Zapotitlan zone, Jalisco. a, Tuxcacuesco-Ortices type; b,
Tuxcacuesco diamond-eyed type; c, Tuxcacuesco dish-faced type. All after Kelly, 1949. One-half
natural size.

they do not have a wide enough distribution to be important in tracing cultural
connections.
Undoubtedly as more archaeological work is completed in Western Mexico,
information about figurine complexes and their cultural implications will be
obtained, but at present such knowledge is very scanty. Attempts have been
made to establish a Tarascan type of figurine, but I hesitate, because of conflicting
accounts, to include such a style in this paper. Certainly a comprehensive study
of the figurines of this area will prove to be of great value.
PIPES
According to present information, clay pipes have two principal centers of
distribution in Western Mexico Sinaloa and Michoac6n. They appear to be
lacking in most of Nayarit, Jalisco, and Colima. In Sinaloa they are fairly abun-
dant in the Aztatlin complex. The strong influence from highland Mexico upon











ARCHAEOLOGY OF WESTERN MEXICO


q5


b a
FIGUPE 12. Figurines, miscellaneous, a-b, CuliacAn, Sinaloa; a, Pancake-head type; b, heavy-
bodied type. c-d, Autlan zone, Jalisco; c, red-slab type; d, painted in style of AutlIn polychrome;
e-f, Chametla, Sinaloa; e, red-face crested type; f, white-filleted type; a-b, after Kelly, 1945a;
c-d, after Kelly, 1945b; e-f, after Kelly, 1938; a-d, one-third natural size; e-f, one-fourth natural
size.







b










C

FIGURE 13. Figurines, Apatzingan, Michoac4n. a, Caparal type; b, Chila type; c, Llano slab
type. All after Kelly, 1947. Three-eighths natural size.

Aztatlin culture is apparent in the incised decoration of some of the pipes found
in Sinaloa, which is in the Mixteca-Puebla tradition. However, this does not
necessarily imply that the trait of pipe making reached the west coast from a
central Mexican hearth.
In Michoacin, pipes would appear to make a somewhat later appearance than











UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO STUDIES


FIGURE 14. Pipes. a, Guasave, Sinaloa: after Ekholm, 1942; b, Culiacan, Sinaloa: after Kelly,
1945a; c, Apatzingin, Michoacin: after Kelly, 1947; d, Highland Michoacan type: after Kelly,
1947; e, Chametla, Sinaloa: after Kelly, 1938. One-fourth natural size.

in Sinaloa. They occur in late horizons at Cojumatlin, Tzintzuntzan, Apatzingan,
and Tepalcatepec. Immediately south of the Michoacin border, in Guerrero,
pipes were also found to be late at Coyuca de Catalan. The Tzintzuntzan pipes
are assignable to Tarascan manufacture. Their spread coincides, in part, with the
known Tarascan Empire.
The presence of pipes in the Chalchihuites culture of Zacatecas and Durango
may be due to contacts between that culture and the Aztatl6n complex of Sinaloa.
Kelly believes that the two distinct clusters of pipes indicate that we must
reckon with two separate developments of pipe-smoking in Western Mexico the
earlier in association with the Aztatlan complex in Sinaloa, the later in western
Michoac6n.70
SPINDLE WHORLS
It is almost impossible to deal with spindle whorls with any satisfaction from
archaeological reports alone. Many articles merely mention the presence of
spindle whorls and have no additional description or only a brief discussion of
them. However, on the evidence of information gathered from those reports that
do discuss spindle whorls in some detail and from personal observations, I have
tried to classify them arbitrarily by shape and decoration and to make a few com-
parative statements.
Spindle whorls are relatively late in Western Mexico, as is the case in the Valley
To Kelly, 1944, p. 209.












ARCHAEOLOGY OF WESTERN MEXICO


b c d e












g h j k










m n 0
FIGURE 15. Spindle whorls. a, c-e, g-i, biconical; b, j, cylindrical; f, small, bead-like; k, 1, n,
conical; m, truncated cone; o, disc; a-d, Apatzingin, Michoacan: after Kelly, 1947; e-f, Autlan,
Jalisco: after Kelly, 1945b; g-j, Tuxcacuesco-Zapotitlan zone, Jalisco: after Kelly, 1949; k, 1,
CuliacAn, Sinaloa: after Kelly, 1945a; m-o, Cojumatlan, Michoacan: after Lister, 1949. One-half
natural size.

of Mexico. Vaillant states that, except in the form of perforated sherds, they are
completely unknown in the early cultures of the Valley.71 They do not seem to
have been made prior to Classic times anywhere in Mesoamerica.
Spindle whorls make their earliest appearance in Western Mexico in the early
Chametla phase in Sinaloa,72 and in the Tuxcacuesco phase in Jalisco.7 However,
they are not numerous in either of these cases. It is not until the general Toltec
horizon is reached that spindle whorls become present in numbers.
At a few sites there are indications that plain-surfaced spindle whorls preceded
It Vaillant, 1934, p. 100.
73 Kelly, 1938, pp. 52-53.
71 Kelly, 1949, p. 125.










UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO STUDIES


those with incised decoration, but actual precedence cannot be affirmed with any
degree of finality. Illustrations reveal a few similarities in incised designs on
whorls from Cojumatlan and Apatzingin, Michoacan, and Tuxcacuesco, Jalisco,
which may indicate some sort of relationship. Aztec-type spindle whorls are found
in the Yestla-Naranjo zone of Guerrero.

MISCELLANEOUS CLAY ITEMS
Several of the distributional maps record the existence of a variety of miscel-
laneous items of clay. Our distributions probably do not give the correct pictures
of the occurrence of these specimens, although it is the best that can be obtained
from the literature. But few of the items warrant comment.
Clay masks appear to be a peculiar development of the Aztatlin culture of
Sinaloa, and they are unlike anything in other parts of Mesoamerica. They have
been found at Guasave and Culiacan.
A word of clarification about the reported candeleros. The Costa Grande speci-
mens are in true Teotihuacan tradition and are believed to show affiliations with
that culture. The Sinaloa specimens, however, are of an entirely different type.
A number of pottery fragments found at Cojumatlin, Michoacan, present
evidence for the presence of wheeled toys at that site. Recovered were fragments
of dog heads, hollow bodies, and wheels, which when reconstructed form a legless
toy dog resting on four wheels attached to axles extending through the front and
hind quarters of the figure. Toys on wheels, apparently the only use to which the
wheel was put in the New World during aboriginal times, have been reported
from the Valley of Mexico, Vera Cruz, Oaxaca, and Panama. Their occurrence in
northwestern Michoacan adds considerably to their known distribution. Most of
the recorded specimens are assignable to the Toltec horizon, although some of the
examples from Vera Cruz may be of earlier date.

STONE OBJECTS
One important feature in respect to types of manos, or hand-held grindstones,
in Western Mexico is apparent. The Aztatlin complex of Sinaloa possesses a
unique type, the overhanging-head variety. This mano is long and slender and
extends out over the edges of the metate, or lower grinding stone. The edges of
the mano are turned down and act as guides to hold the mano on the metate
when it is being used. Among the other styles present, the plano-mano is the most
widespread, although examples of convex and plano-convex types also occur.
Metates in Western Mexico show one, and possibly two, areas of specialization.
In Sinaloa, where the overhanging-head mano was present, only the slab metate
was employed. However, this slab metate could be either plain or tripod. Western










ARCHAEOLOGY OF WESTERN MEXICO


C o


b









f
FIGURE 16. Grinding implements. Manos shown in top, cross-section, and side views; metates
shown in side and cross-section views, a, overhanging-head mano; b, convex mano; c, piano mano;
d, slab metate; e, trough metate; f, slab metate with tripod feet; g, trough metate with tripod
feet. Approximately one-sixteenth natural size.

Guerrero also may be an area where a single type of metate seems to be dominant.
There, the legless slab type apparently is typical.
The remainder of Western Mexico shows a scattered pattern of the four types
of metates: trough, trough with legs, slab, slab with legs. Some sites even yield
all the types. An idea has grown up among many students of American archaeology
that "Mexican" metates are characteristically tripod. Our distributional study
certainly points out the error of this idea. There are more instances of plain-
trough and plain-slab metates in the area than there are occurrences of legged
varieties. A tetrapod slab metate is typical of southern Nayarit,74 and also is
found in southern Sinaloa.75
The relationship between the use of the mortar and pestle and the use of the
metate and mano in Western Mexico is not clear. There are only two instances
where mortars or pestles are reported unassociated with metates and manos,
and there are seven cases in which metates and manos are found without mortars
and pestles. At the majority of sites, however, both metate and mano and mortar
and pestle were utilized, apparently contemporaneously. Present information
gives us no leads as to which might have been earlier.
Concerning celts and axes, we find that the celt predominated in the southern
part of Western Mexico, the axe being more characteristic of the northern section.
"7 Corona Nufiez, n.d., Ms.
75 Kelly, 1938, p. 61.










UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO STUDIES


a oLD :- D







/~~~~~~--- IV\^^ :r^^^ --T
9


FIGURE 17. Stone objects. a, pendant; b, e, beads; c-d, mace heads; f, pestle; g, celt; h, three-
quarter grooved axe; i, bark beater; j, mortar; a, h, Guasave, Sinaloa: after Ekholm, 1942; e,
Cojumatlin, Michoacan: after Lister, 1949; b-d, f, g, i, j, Tuxcacuesco-ZapotitlIn zone, Jalisco:
after Kelly, 1949; b, e, one-half natural size; a, c, d, g, h, i, one-fourth natural size; f, j, one-sixth
natural size.

This fact accords with the general assumption that the celt is common to the
Mesoamerican cultures. Ekholm believes that the three-quarter-grooved axe
probably spread into Mexico from the southwestern United States.76 Effigy axes
also have a northern spread.
Mace heads, or club heads, are grouped in Michoacan and Jalisco. Their earliest
appearance would seem to be at Jiquilpan where they can be equated with Teoti-
huacan times in the Valley of Mexico." They continued in use up to the time of
the Conquest.
Small stone palettes have been recovered at several localities. Armillas suggests
that they have an affinity with Hohokam paint palettes of southwestern United
States, but neither Kelly nor Ekholm concurs in this belief.78
Fiber-beaters of stone are most numerous in southern Michoacin and the Middle
Rio Balsas basin of Guerrero; however, an isolated specimen was found at Cha-
metla, Sinaloa. Linn6 has an excellent discussion of the use and distribution of this
implement.79 His map shows the stone fiber-beater to be scattered over most of
Mexico and Central America. In Mexico it does not seem to have been made
before the time of the Classic horizon.
7' Ekholm, 1942, p. 107.
7 Noguera, 1944, p. 49.
i7 Kelly, 1949, p. 140; Ekholm, in Armillas, 1948, p. 76.
7' Linn6, 1934, p. 203.











ARCHAEOLOGY OF WESTERN MEXICO


k



g h i 1
FIGURE 18, Chipped-stone objects, a-b, flake knives; c-d, scrapers; e-j, projectile points; k-1,
projectile points or knives. One-half natural size.

Ornamental objects, such as beads, pendants, and ear ornaments of stone, are
much more numerous in the southern part of Western Mexico than in the north.
They occur in largest numbers in the states of Guerrero and MichoacAn, where
the use of jade or "green stone" commonly is reported.
Stone masks have a concentration in Guerrero. Covarrubias recently has
written of these items together with other examples of stone carving.80 Unfortu-
nately, practically all of these specimens have been obtained by local "treasure
seekers" who have exhibited no interest in materials associated with the masks.
In fact, the exact provenience of the majority of these items is unknown. Co-
varrubias's stylistic classification of the masks and other stone items from Guerrero
will be mentioned later in this paper.
The employment of the single-flake obsidian knife may be said to have been
universal over Western Mexico. Where it is not reported, it is probably owing to


0s Covarrubias, 1948, pp. 86-90.










UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO STUDIES


lack of information rather than absence of the trait. Kelly points out that obsidian
cores, from which flake knives were struck, are unknown on the west coast,
although the knives do occur. Cores are not known from Sinaloa, Nayarit, Colima,
and part of Michoacan. Kelly also says that it is unreasonable to believe the
obsidian flake knives are to be regarded as intrusive throughout this great stretch
of coast, but it does present a problem.81
Chipped-stone artifacts, such as projectile points, blades, and scrapers, also are
believed to have been utilized over the entire area. However, they are not found
in any numbers at sites in Sinaloa. They are abundant in the Chalchihuites
culture of Zacatecas and Durango, and the site of Cojumatlin, Michoacin,
yielded many such items. Some reports give brief descriptions of such objects,
others merely mention the presence of chipped artifacts, and still others completely
ignore this class of material. From the information available, the following ten-
dencies are apparent.
There is a general uniformity of chipped-stone artifacts over the entire area.
Projectile points frequently are side notched, side and basal notched, or stemmed.
Often they were made by retouching obsidian flake knives. Size range is very
great, but the majority would appear to have been of a size suitable for employ-
ment on arrows. Large leaf-shaped blades and triangular points may have been
affixed to spears or used as knives. Scrapers of both side- and end-variety are
known. Obsidian was the material most generally used.

SCULPTURED STONE
Sculptured stone is very prevalent in the southern half of the area under con-
sideration. Specimens of this type range from small anthropomorphic and zoimor-
phic effigies to large stelae; however, the preparation of the latter seems to have
been limited to central and southern Guerrero.
As was mentioned previously, Covarrubias, who has been collecting sculptured
stone items from Guerrero for over twenty years, recently has pointed out their
cultural connections based upon stylistic studies.82 He sees in the Guerrero stone
work the following principal styles: La Venta, Teotihuacan, a combination of La
Venta-Teotihuacan style, and a purely local style. In my opinion, based on the
findings of this study, it would appear likely that we have definite La Venta
and Teotihuacan influences in Guerrero, that probably the two styles were
blended in the area, and that finally a purely local style developed. It is regretted
that the circumstances under which these stone objects occur are unknown. Since
La Venta culture probably had a long history of development from Archaic times
well into the Classic horizon, the undocumented finds give us little chronological
81 Kelly, 1949, p. 139.
82 Covarrubias, 1948, pp. 86-90.











ARCHAEOLOGY OF WESTERN MEXICO


\ d e O1a DCO
f g





Sh k
a b
FIGURE 19. Bone and shell objects. a-b, bone awls: after Lister, 1949; c, shell bracelet: after
Kelly, 1949; d-g, shell beads: after Ekholm, 1942; h, tinkler: after Ekholm, 1942; i, elongated shell
bead: after Kelly, 1949; j-k, disc-shaped ornaments: after Lister, 1949; a-g, i-k, one-half natural
size; h, one-fourth natural size.

perspective. One must hope that future work will determine the association of
these sculptured stones with other cultural objects.
La Venta-style and Teotihuacan-style stone work has been reported in High-
land Michoacan. Moedano reports Maya-like sculpture on large monoliths at
Oxtotitlan, Guerrero.
BONE OBJECTS
Western Mexico appears to follow the Mesoamerican pattern of utilizing bone
only to a small extent for implements. Nowhere, with the possible exception of
CojumatlAn, Michoacin, do bone implements occur in any numbers. The absence
of artifacts of bone may in part be accounted for by its relatively perishable
nature, but nevertheless the meager use of such material seems to be clearly
indicated.
Notched human bones, especially femurs, are not uncommon, and are especially
numerous at Tzintzuntzan and Zacapu, Michoacin, in late horizons. Borbolla
has discussed this trait and remarked that these bones cannot all be classed as
muscial instruments. He believes many of them must have been connected with
some sort of burial ceremony.83 Notched human bones are found over most of
Mesoamerica.4
PERISHABLE ITEMS
Perishable items rarely occur in Western Mexico since most explored archaeo-
logical sites are in the open and unprotected from the elements. The few instances
0 Rubin de la Borbolla, 1939, p. 113.
Kidder, 1946, p. 154.










UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO STUDIES


in which such material fortuitously has been preserved merely give us an inkling
of a class of material which must have been very important to the aborigines, but
which is very seldom recovered by the excavators. Impressions of cloth, cord,
and basketry in clay give clues to the former presence of such items, and bits of
actual cloth were found preserved at Guasave, Sinaloa. From the dry caves of
southern Durango fragments of basketry, cloth, sandals, and cordage have been
collected. However, these materials have been but little studied.

SHELL OBJECTS
The only hiatus in the distribution of items made of shell in Western Mexico
occurs in southern Sinaloa. Worked shell is plentiful at Guasave, but it is scarce
at Culiacan, and entirely lacking at Chametla. In Nayarit, ornaments of shell
appear once more, and then continue into Guerrero. Ekholm has demonstrated
that the amount of shell work and certain types of workmanship present at
Guasave are reminiscent of the Hohokam culture of southern Arizona.86 In
Zacatecas and Durango, shell work found at sites of Chalchihuites culture also
demonstrates similarities to Hohokam culture. It seems likely that the abundance
of shell work and the occurrence of similar types of ornaments in both southern
Arizona and northwestern Mexico indicate a spread of Hohokam influence south-
ward. The remainder of Western Mexico may exhibit the general central Mexican
tradition for working shell, which is known from earliest Archaic times.
Shell-appliqu6 sets, usually employed in combination with slate or pyritic
elements, are limited in extent to central Michoacan and the Balsas basin of
Guerrero. At Apatzingan, Michoacan, they are a distinctive manufacture of the
Delicias phase, which may give a chronological position equal to Teotihuacan
III.86 At other sites the trait would appear to be more recent.
Lunate ornaments of shell were rather widely used, having been noted in
Colima, Jalisco, and Michoacin. The only datable occurrence is at Apatzingan,
Michoacin, where they appear in the earliest phase and again in the terminal
period.87
Shell trumpets are found over a large part of Western Mexico.

METAL OBJECTS
Metal-working serves as another "index fossil" in determining a chronology for
Western Mexico. It occurs over practically all of the region and is associated with
cultures belonging to the Toltec horizon or later. Therefore, it is not earlier than
900 A.D.
85 Ekholm, 1942, p. 111.
8* Kelly, 1947, p. 115.
SKelly, 1949, p. 132.











ARCHAEOLOGY OF WESTERN MEXICO


,. ? .
b fe












k I
FIGURE 20. Copper objects, a-g, bells; h, rattle; i, tweezers; j, ring; k, hook; 1, pendant; m-n,
needles; a, b, j, Guasave, Sinaloa: after Ekholm, 1942; c, f-g, m, n, Cojumatlan, Michoacan:
after Lister, 1949; d, e, Tuxcacuesco-Zapotitlan zone, Jalisco: after Kelly, 1949; h, i, k, Apatzin-
gan, MichoacAn: after Kelly, 1947; 1, CuliacAn, Sinaloa: after Kelly, 1945a. Natural size.

Metal-working likely had its origin in Ecuador or Peru, and various techniques
were transmitted up the Pacific coast to Panama and Costa Rica, where important
gold-working industries were founded. From there, metal-working apparently was
introduced into Oaxaca, Mexico, and then the art spread into central and Western
Mexico.
After the technique of metal-working reached Western Mexico, the use of
copper became quite common. Gold was much rarer and had a more restricted
distribution. Silver was seldom utilized; only from Ixtlan del Rio, Nayarit, is it
reported in Western Mexico.s8 Both copper and gold were fashioned into a variety
of ornaments. From copper such items as bell-shaped beads, plain beads, pendants,
finger rings, ear ornaments, and rattles were made. A few articles, more utilitarian
in nature, including tweezers, hooks, and needles, also were prepared from copper.
The lost-wax method of casting commonly was employed, but several other
techniques were known.
Despite the frequent mention in early written accounts of the great amount of
gold in Western Mexico, not many archaeological specimens of precious metal
have been found. This fact was discussed by Borbolla,"8 who says that despite the
a Corona Nufiez, n.d., Ms.
9 Rubin de la Borbolla, 1944, pp. 127-138.










UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO STUDIES


great wealth of gold items attributed to the Tarascans by documentary sources,
very few items of the metal have come to light. He wonders if the writers of the
documents were not frequently in error in their identification of the metal objects
and mistook copper for gold. He notes, in addition, that the Tarascans apparently
were familiar with the process of gilding, and that objects made by that technique
may have lost their gold coating through weathering after burial. Then they would
appear as copper items when encountered by archaeologists. Borbolla thus has
suggested two possible reasons to account for the discrepancy between docu-
mentary sources and archaeology about gold in the Tarascan area.
In Michoacin, iron pyrite was used as an element of applique sets; elsewhere it
appears as beads and pendants, or in mirrors. When used in applique sets, the
pyrite was combined with shell and originally was sewn to cloth backing. These sets
previously were mentioned in the section dealing with shell objects.

DISPOSAL OF THE DEAD
Mortuary practices of Western Mexico reveal that in no region was there
practiced only one form of burial. However, in certain sections there are distinct
tendencies to favor particular forms. In Sinaloa, secondary urn burial was the
dominant type. Extended and flexed interments were the most common customs
in western Nayarit and lowland Michoacan. Highland Michoacin is the only
section where cremation may be considered important. Both cremation and in-
humation have been recognized in Guerrero, but whether one type will prove to
be more typical than the other cannot be stated at this time.
It would seem that the practice of inhumation, flexed or extended, was the
earliest type of burial in Western Mexico. The Archaic culture of the Valley of
Mexico possessed this type of burial almost exclusively.9 At Tuxcacuesco, Jalisco,91
and at Apatzingin, Michoacin,92 the custom of full-length burials preceded the
practice of flexing the corpse.
Secondary urn burial seems not to have been used to a great extent in Meso-
america. Its presence in the Aztatlin complex of Sinaloa represents the greatest
known concentration of the trait in Mexico. Whether it is the practice in the
Mixteca-Puebla zone, which apparently had a strong influence on the AztatlAn
culture, is not known. The trait appears sporadically in Michoacin and Guerrero,
but frequently consists of the burial of cremated remains in urns.
Cremation does not occur in Sinaloa, and is found but sparsely over the re-
maining area. According to Linn6, cremation goes back to Toltec times in Mexico.9"
In some sections of the country, it was reported to be a ritual exclusively reserved
for chiefs, and it may have been the case in highland Michoacan.
9o Vaillant, 1935, pp. 253-54.
91 Kelly, 1949, p. 191.
o9 Kelly, 1947, p. 175.
9 Linn6, 1929, p. 226.










ARCHAEOLOGY OF WESTERN MEXICO


It was a common habit throughout Western Mexico to place burial furniture,
consisting predominantly of pottery, with the dead. Scattered instances of painted
skulls and burials of skulls alone suggest the taking of trophy heads.The custom
of tooth mutilation was most commonly practised in highland Michoacin.
Types of graves are numerous, and their distribution is variable in the western
part of Mexico. The preparation of graves in the open, adjacent to ceremonial
structures or villages, was the most common.
Specially prepared burial mounds have been noted at several localities in
Western Mexico. The richest such site excavated to date, and one that has fur-
nished a great amount of information about the archaeology of the west coast of
Mexico, is located at Guasave, Sinaloa.
The practice of surrounding the corpse with slabs of stone and, in some cases,
of placing additional slabs over the body has a more or less continuous distribu-
tion in the central part of Western Mexico. This method of burial apparently was
contemporaneous at Apatzingin, Michoac6n, and Tuxcacuesco, Jalisco.
The tombs of southern Nayarit, dug down into hard clay and frequently
reached by a short stairway, sometimes contain several burials apparently in-
terred at successive times. Many of these burial places have been sacked by local
"collectors" seeking the fine hollow figurines and metal ornaments which they
frequently contain.
SITE FEATURES
A few features found at archaeological sites in Western Mexico, which may
become more significant as additional information is obtained, should be recorded.
Corbeled arches are said to occur near Oxtotitlan, Guerrero, and in the Yestla-
Naranjo zone, Guerrero. In both instances, the reports merely mention the fact
of their occurrence and do not go into detail. Moedano also speaks of the presence
of Maya-like sculpture at Oxtotitlan.
At Tzintzuntzan, Michoacan, and Calixtlahuaca, Mexico, skull racks, tzom-
pantlis, were found. Several chac mools have been recovered in highland Micho-
acan.
Weitlaner mentions that at a site in the Yestla-Naranjo zone of Guerrero there
are ten to twelve "bottle-shaped" excavations resembling the chultuns of the
Maya region. They are 2.5 meters deep and 2 meters in diameter.
Ball courts are said to have been located at Jiquilpan, Michoacin, the Middle
Rio Balsas and the Costa Grande of Guerrero, and in southern Durango. Most
identifications are based on surface indications or upon the finding of stone rings.
Their greatest distribution would appear to be in Guerrero, where courts as well
as stone rings are encountered. Since the Guerrero courts have not been tested,
they cannot be identified as to type.













CHRONOLOGY
The preceding section has pointed out that certain archaeological traits ap-
pearing in Western Mexico seem to have chronological significance. Especially
important are those traits which have been assigned dates or placed in particular
culture stages in the Valley of Mexico, or which fit into a general Mesoamerican
cultural classification. Of course, the problem of contemporaneity of archaeological
traits found in central and southern Mexico and in various parts of Western
Mexico is realized. The probability of time lags in the spread of particular traits
from south to north, and the question of survivals of certain traits or traditions in
peripheral areas, both make the preparation of even a tentative chronology, such
as this, most difficult. As a rule I have equated traits and cultures in Western
Mexico with the general Mesoamerican archaeological horizons with which they
seem to correspond. We do not have enough information at this time accurately to
consider survivals and temporal lags in the distribution of culture elements in
this area. To summarize this chronological information and to present it in con-
densed form Chart 1 has been prepared, in which are listed some of the archaeo-
logical traits noted for Western Mexico and believed to be of temporal importance.
Future research probably will bring about many changes, but, based upon present
knowledge, the arrangement presented in the chart gives one a general idea.
Finally, in an endeavor to give a picture of the archaeology of Western Mexico
as a whole, Charts 2 and 3 have been prepared, in which cultures and phases of
cultures tentatively are placed in chronological arrangement based upon the
association of such items as have been listed in Chart 1, and in a few cases upon
the stratigraphic arrangement of cultural remains found in some of the more
carefully excavated sites. A column showing Caso's Mesoamerican chronology is
included on each chart for comparative purposes.
Chart 2 shows those sites and areas included in this study for which chronologies
have been suggested, or for which estimations of temporal position can be made.
Chart 3 offers a suggested classification of the archaeological sites and areas of
Western Mexico into archaeological provinces. Some provinces have been set up
on documentary evidence, as in the case of the Tarascan Empire, and others
upon the distribution of similar culture elements as traced by archaeological survey
and excavation. The range of cultures in time and, if possible, the period of flores-
cence in each province also are suggested.













ARCHAEOLOGY OF WESTERN MEXICO


ARCHAI C FORMATIVE CLASSIC T O L T E C
0 4 0 0 0 8
Uo o0 -


HISTORIC


CHART 1. Traits of chronological significance. Horizontal columns indicate approximate time
spans.















UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO STUDIES


o0 o0 00 0o O


____________________ _____ Guosove. Sin.,
SCulloc n. Sin.
.--_- __- Chometlo, Sin.
__So. Durongo
S Cholchhultes, Zoc.
SZope. Dgo.
Totoote, Jol.
Lo Quemodo. Zoc.
So. Noyorit
Coxcano, Zoc-Jol.
Juchipllo, Zac.
Coostol Jolisco
Ameco, Jol.
Lo Gloroa, Gto.
Autln, Jot.
Tuxcacuesco-Zopotltldn, Jal.
Soyulo-Zocooklo, Jol.
NW Loke Chapolo, Jol.
Cerro Esquintlo, Mich.
S Co)umotlid Mich
Jiqullpan, Mich.
El Opeto, Mich.
Zamoro, Mich.
Collma
Tepolcatepec, Mich.
Zacopu, Mich.
Chuplcuoro, Gto.
Apotzingdn, Mich.
Tzintzuntzon, Mich
Upper Rio Lermo, Mex.
Colixtlohuoco Mex.
Los Ploceres del Oro, Gro
Coyuca de Catol6n, Gro.
Middle Rio Bolsas, Gro.
Teloloopon, Gro.
Malinalco, Mex.
No. Guerrero
Costa Gronde, Gro.
Acapulco, Gro.
_Yestlo-.Noronjo, Gro.
Texmllincon, Gro.
I I I I
FORM A T I V E TOLTEC
A R C H A I C1 CLAS SIC HISTORIC
I i


CHART 2. Approximate temporal span, indicated by shading, of cultures at various sites and
areas.
















ARCHAEOLOGY OF WESTERN MEXICO


I W1 i -r i i ~ 7 T 7 T 1 *'1


DATE
1520
1400

1300-
1200
1100-
1000-
900-
800 -
To-
700-
600-


S1 !1 :1-


ZA



w z

a:


0



t-
0
o



I-

0



U-







0-


a
0:



0







a
4


CHART 3. Approximate periods of cultural development in the archaeological provinces. Darker
shading indicates greater intensity of cultures.














OBSERVATIONS
The present summary of the archaeology of Western Mexico is as much an
acknowledgment of the lack of information as it is a record of achievement to
date. It is too early to attempt any definite conclusions; therefore, let me again
remind the reader that all conclusions are to be regarded as tentative, or, better
yet, as observations on the present status of Western Mexico archaeology. It will
be a long time before the final chapter on this subject is written. Many blank
spots exist, and some areas previously reported upon should be reexamined.
Excavation will be necessary in a great many areas in order to establish temporal
differences which are not apparent from surface reconnaissance. It also should be
borne in mind that the vastness of Western Mexico and the roughness of the
terrain have hindered past work and probably will cause future investigations to
progress very slowly.
As yet, few sites assignable to the Prehistoric or Primitive horizons have been
recorded, but the amount and nature of archaeological research certainly do not
rule out the existence of many more such finds. J. C. Kelley, working in the
vicinity of Durango, Durango, recovered a channel-flaked point which, in its
general appearance, appears to be a rechipped specimen of a Clovis Fluted point."
Unfortunately, it was a surface find, and no other traces of occupation were dis-
covered in the vicinity; however, it indicates, in all probability, that the ancient
hunting cultures of the terminal Pleistocene are to be found in Western Mexico
as well as in adjacent areas.
Kelley also located in southern Durango a site reminiscent of the Cochise sites
in southern Arizona.95 Buried fire hearths were found lying on the surface of one
alluvial formation and covered by a later alluvial deposit. Some of these hearths
were exposed in a creek bank and others were being plowed up in a nearby field
where the overlying deposit was rather thin. No pottery was found in the occupa-
tion layer. A great number of shaped and unshaped manos and a number of basin-
shaped metates were found. Although the grinding implements are not identical
with the Cochise type, Kelley believes that the general nature of the site and the
emphasis on grinding stones are suggestive of the Cochise culture.
An article by Hewes telling of a brief reconnaissance on the shores of Lake
Cuitzeo, Michoacin, points out the possibility of finding cultural horizons as-
sociated with the remains of extinct mammals, and also the possibility of dis-
covery of human skeletal remains equally ancient in that area.96
Sites containing remains similar to Archaic material of the Valley of Mexico
are not numerous, but they are noted in the highlands of Michoacin, in Guerrero,
94 Lorenzo, pp. 394-395, 1953.
95 Kelley, personal communication, 1953.
96 Hewes, 1950, p. 182.











ARCHAEOLOGY OF WESTERN MEXICO


and in the valley of Toluca, Mexico. It would seem that a general Archaic horizon
eventually may be defined for at least the southern portion of Western Mexico.
Over this zone, various types of hand-made clay figurines are numerous. Some of
these have been identified as Archaic types, others are listed as "Archaic style",
and many of them are unclassified. Archaic horizon tombs at El Opefio, Michoacan,
are important since tombs of that age are not common in Mesoamerica. The only
other occurrences reported are in the Miraflores phase of Kaminaljuyu, Guate-
mala, and Monte Alban I, Oaxaca.
Chupicuaro, Guanajuato, at least had its beginnings in the Formative horizon.
Trade ware from Chupicuaro has been found at Ticoman and Cerro del Tepalcate,
both Formative-horizon sites in the Valley of Mexico.
Items associated with the Teotihuacan culture are found at several places in
Western Mexico. The reported finding of a Teotihuacan III Thin Orange vessel
in an Ortices-phase tomb in Colima has served as a means of giving tentative
dates to several complexes in Colima, Nayarit, and Michoacin. Earlier Teoti-
huacan material has been collected from sites in Mexico and Guerrero.
Some people look to Western Mexico for the origin of Teotihuacan civilization,
one of the great manifestations of the Classic horizon. Several investigators have
pointed out that early Teotihuacan in the Valley of Mexico contained elements
common to the cultures that flowered in Michoacan, Jalisco, and Guanajuato."
This similarity is noted in the material found embedded in the adobes of which
the Pyramid of the Sun at Teotihuacan is constructed. Several pottery styles,
negative painting, and figurine types are believed to present evidence for the
presence of the West Mexican complex in early Teotihuacan culture. It is possible
that this western influence spread into the Valley of Mexico at a time when the
culture of the Formative horizon was declining and that Teotihuacan culture
developed as a result of a fusion of the culture from the west and the Formative.
It was during the succeeding period, the Toltec, that the cultures of Western
Mexico appear to have flourished. Current opinion would indicate that many sites
in Western Mexico existed, or reached a cultural peak, during that span of time,
900-1200 A.D. The Toltec horizon in the Valley of Mexico is characterized by
the presence of many contemporaneous ceramic groups, indicative of considerable
immigration of tribal units and the infiltration of various culture elements. The
area north and west of the Valley of Mexico is generally looked upon as the place
in which most of these cultures originated. Pressure of tribes from this region
may have resulted in such events as the destruction of Tula, Hidalgo, and certain
emigrations from central Mexico southward. Archaeological evidence would tend
to confirm the beliefs outlined above, for this certainly seems to be the period of
greatest cultural expansion in Western Mexico.


7 Vaillant, 1938, pp. 541-42; Noguera, 1935, p. 78.











UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO STUDIES


Items believed to be significant in defining a horizon in our area of study equiva-
lent to the Toltec horizon are enumerated below:
1. Mazapan-style figurines.
2. Red-on-brown pottery.
3. Fine Orange pottery.
4. Plumbate pottery.
5. Cloisonn6 pottery.
6. First use of molcajetes.
7. First use of copper.
At Tula, Hidalgo, just outside our region of consideration, the great Toltec
center of Tula prospered during this period. Acosta's excavations have proved
that Tula, Hidalgo, achieved its greatest importance during Toltec times. The
outstanding significance of the Tula research has been to show that the legendary
capital of the Toltecs, Tollan, should not be identified with Teotihuacan but with
Tula. It is apparent that the two sites were not contemporaneous. Teotihuacan
had run its course in pre-Toltec times, and the legendary Toltec rulers of the
native chronicles actually had their seat of power at Tula.98
During the three-hundred-year period prior to the Conquest, the Historic
horizon, there is ample evidence of flourishing civilizations in Western Mexico,
but they do not appear so numerous as during the preceding horizon. One might
suggest that after Toltec times there was a tendency for the development of
larger centers over at least the major portion of the territory. The growth of the
Tarascan Empire in Michoacan, the ultimate developments at Calixtlahuaca and
Malinalco, Mexico, attributed to the Matlatzinca, and the establishment of
Aztec garrisons and colonies all bear out this hypothesis.
Now that a few general observations have been made, let us examine some of
the more specific connotations and problems of the archaeology of Western
Mexico and divide the area into tentative archaeological provinces. Numbers
designating the provinces coincide with those used on Chart 3.
I. A province has been postulated by Kelly to include the area from Guasave,
Sinaloa, on the north down as far south as southern Nayarit, and it probably
includes the coast of Jalisco as well."9 This area was the home of the Aztatlin
cultural complex during the Toltec horizon. Ekholm has demonstrated a funda-
mental relationship between the AztatlAn complex and the Mixteca-Puebla of the
central Mexican highlands.'10 Evidence for the route of spread of Mixteca-Puebla
traits from central Mexico to Sinaloa has been found in the valley of Toluca,
Mexico, at Cojumatlan, Michoacin, and at Ixtlan del Rio, Nayarit. Thanks to
Acosta, 1940, 1941, 1942-44, 1945; Linn6, 1942, pp. 197-203; Kidder, 1946, p. 251.
*9 Kelly, 1948, p. 69.
lo0 Ekholm, 1942, pp. 125-132.










ARCHAEOLOGY OF WESTERN MEXICO


the AztatlAn complex, certain traits derived from the high cultures to the south
appeared in Sinaloa before they penetrated Jalisco and Michoacin.
II. Another major archaeological province may be composed of the regions of
southern Nayarit, through Ameca and Sayula, Jalisco, to Colima. The Autlan-
Tuxcacuesco zone of Jalisco also may be included in this area. Kelly has written
of the more obvious resemblances between the grave material of the Nayarit
hinterland and the tomb artifacts of Colima's Ortices horizon, and it has been
predicted that when the intervening areas are better known, the now discrete
distribution may prove to be continuous. The hypothetical sub-stratum account-
ing for these similarities would constitute an "early" horizon, presumably on a
Teotihuacan III level.'10 Gifford, basing his opinion upon surface reconnaissance
in the vicinity of Ixtlan del Rio, Nayarit, holds that early Ixtlan, with its large-
hollow-figurine complex, should be equated in time with early Chametla, which
in turn may be considered contemporaneous with late Teotihuacan.'10 Therefore,
it is suggested that these cultures date from the Classic horizon; however, the
rather frequent finding of Mazapan-style figurines in the vicinity of Ixtlan del
Rio would show that cultures there were thriving in Toltec times as well.
III. The group of sites in western Durango, southwestern Zacatecas, and
northern Jalisco mainly Chalchihuites, Totoate, La Quemada, Caxcana,
Juchipila, and several others in the vicinity of Durango, Durango may prove
to make up a cultural unit which could be called Chalchihuites. They all seem to
have existed contemporaneously, and cloisonn6 pottery has been found in most
of them. This province possibly extended north to the region of Zape, Durango;
however, in that area Chalchihuites culture had become attenuated and peripheral
and had lost much of its fine quality. From present indications, Chalchihuites
culture falls, at least in part, within the Toltec horizon. This fact is shown by
presence in the culture of copper, a well-developed red-on-brown pottery style,
and cloisonn6 pottery. The resemblances between some traits at La Quemada
and Chalchihuites and certain traits occurring in Michoacan for example, the
type of masonry construction, pottery shapes, and figurines may designate
relationships. Here again, however, additional investigations are needed.
In southern Durango the presence of cliff dwellings and other structures in
caves may indicate an extension down the Sierra Madre Occidental of elements
found farther to the north in northern Durango and Chihuahua.
IV. In the vicinity of Lake Chapala, in Jalisco and Michoacan, developments
are found indicative of a connection between the culture of that region and the
Mazapan culture of the Toltec horizon. Such connections are indicated by the
following elements:


101 Kelly, 1948, p. 69.
102 Gifford, 1950, p. 238.











UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO STUDIES


1. Red-on-brown pottery decorated in Mazapan tradition.
2. Plumbate pottery.
3. Mazapan-type figurines.
4. Molcajetes.
5. Hobnail decoration of pottery.
At CojumatlAn, Michoacan, Mixteca-Puebla elements appear stratigraphically
later than Mazapan material.
V. Borbolla has set up a culture area, or province, centering about Lake Patz-
cuaro, Michoacin, which he considers to be Tarascan. Most of his conclusions are
based on excavations at Tzintzuntzan. He describes three levels of Tarascan
culture, the earliest of which he calls pre-Tarascan, and seemingly equates it with
late Teotihuacan. The middle period is characterized by Tarascan culture and is
correlated with "pre-Aztec", which might be interpreted as Toltec times. His late
period coincides with the Tarascan Empire and is immediately pre-Conquest in
time. A group of characteristics peculiar to Tarascan culture, principally the
upper level, are listed by Borbolla,103 as follows:
1. Ydcatas, the combination of rectangular and circular stone platforms.
2. Predominance of negative decoration of pottery.
3. Unusual vessel forms, such as handled teapots, miniature tripods, and
stirrup-handled vessels.
4. Great use of pipes.
5. Abundance of metal work, especially in copper, in the most recent stage.
6. Well-developed lapidary art.
Please note the absence of large hollow figurines, popularly attributed to the
Tarascans.
VI. Apatzingin, Michoacin, might be considered an orphan province, according
to present knowledge. Kelly's report does not affiliate it with any other area, but
suggests that when more is known of western Michoacin and the neighboring
part of Guerrero, external ties may be recognized. '0 A fairly long and rich culture
sequence has been outlined, showing continuous development from the Classic
horizon to the time of the Conquest.
VII. Chupicuaro, Guanajuato, likewise stands alone. For years, the excellent
and unique polychrome vessels from this site were considered Tarascan, but this
classification has not been borne out by archaeological investigations. Archaic
H-IV figurines have been found there, and Vaillant identified a sherd at Ticoman,
in the Valley of Mexico, as trade ware from Chupicuaro. The recent finding of
Chupicuaro polychrome sherds at Cerro del Tepalcate near Tlatilco in the Valley
of Mexico also suggests considerable antiquity for the site. A Formative-horizon
age is indicated.
lot Rubin de la Borbolla, 1948, pp. 29-33.
104 Kelly, 1948, p. 69.











ARCHAEOLOGY OF WESTERN MEXICO


VIII. Along the upper Rio Lerma drainage in the valley of Toluca, and south-
ward in the state of Mexico, there are numerous remains of the Toltec horizon
which can be attributed mainly to the Matlatzinca people. At Calixtlahuaca
and Malinalco there are remains, that extend back to pre-Classic times. However,
the great building period at MalinaIco dates from the Historic horizon. At Calixtla-
huaca there are successive building periods which started in Classic times and
continued until immediately before the Conquest. These two sites are more
typical' of central Mexico than they are of Western Mexico. Most of the upper
Lerma region came under Aztec influence shortly before the Conquest.
Although information is scanty for most of Guerrero, the following three
archaeological provinces tentatively may be designated.
IX. Middle Rio Balsas basin possesses rich archaeological remains indicative
of a long period of occupation, perhaps from Archaic times. Covarrubias has
collected many examples of La Venta stone sculpture from this section of Guerrero,
and Maya-like stone work and a corbeled arch are reported from Oxtotitlan.
Aztec and Tarascan fortifications and garrison sites are known to have existed
prior to the Conquest, revealing a quarrel over the area by two major powers.
X. The Costa Grande of Guerrero shows strong Archaic and Teotihuacan
affiliations, as well as intrusive elements from the south. Certain resemblances
between pottery styles in this area and those originating in Nicaragua and Costa
Rica have been pointed out. Thompson also has remarked on the surprising
similarity between some of the pottery of coastal Guerrero and that of the Maya
zone.105
XI. The third province of Guerrero consists of the Yestla-Naranjo district,
which contains late archaeological material exhibiting connections with the
Cholula area of Puebla and with the Aztec culture.
Of Western Mexico as a whole it may be observed that there are several indi-
cations of trade relations, or actual contacts, between it and other areas in Meso-
america. The presence of plumbate pottery shows trade relationships with the
peoples of southern Mexico or Central America; however, plumbate pottery
probably reached Western Mexico through a number of "middle men" in the
intervening area. Guerrero shows a rather strong influence from the regions to the
south. It is probable that La Venta culture extended into southern Guerrero
from the Isthmus of Tehuantepec. The likenesses between the pottery of Guerrero
and that of Nicaragua and Costa Rica and the Maya area have been noted above.
Maya-like sculpture and a corbeled arch in Guerrero would also indicate southern
connections. Pottery vessel-supports found at Cojumatlin, Michoacin, are
practically identical with specimens found in Puebla and Oaxaca. This likeness
may be traced as far south as Costa Rica and Nicaragua. Mixteca-Puebla ceramic


10e Thompson, in Ekholm, 1948, p. 103










UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO STUDIES


traits are apparent at Cojumatlin, Michoacin, and in the AztatlAn complex of
Sinaloa and Nayarit. The technique of working metal most certainly reached
Western Mexico from a southern source.
A number of traits believed to have had their origin in the Valley of Mexico are
found in Western Mexico, but, having been discussed above, they will simply be
listed here:
1. Archaic figurines.
2. Teotihuacan-style stone carving.
3. Several Teotihuacan vessel shapes.
4. Teotihuacan Thin Orange pottery.
5. Aztec figurines.
6. Aztec pottery.
However, the fact that certain traits were found both in the Valley of Mexico
and in Western Mexico does not necessarily imply relationships between the two
areas. Some of the Valley traits were quite widespread; hence connections could
have been with an area other than the Valley of Mexico.
Finally, we are left with the following archaeological elements which apparently
are native to Western Mexico.
1. Large hollow figurines, or effigy vessels, of the Colima-Nayarit style.
2. Cloisonn6 painting on pottery and gourds.
3. Red-on-brown pottery.
4. Ydcala-type platforms.
5. Shell and pyrites applique sets.
Only red-on-brown pottery was widespread in its distribution; other traits listed
above had limited areas of use.
















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LNnr, S.
1929 Darien in the Past, Goteborg.
1934 Archaeological Researches at Teotihuacan, Mexico, Ethnographical Museum of Sweden,
new series, No. 1.
1942 Mexican Highland Cultures, Ethnographical Museum of Sweden, new series, No. 7.
LISTER, ROBERT H.
1941 "Cerro Oztuma, Guerrero." El Mexico Antiguo, 5: Nos. 7-10, Mexico.
1947a "Additional Evidence of Wheeled Toys in Mexico." American Antiquity, 12: No. 3.
1947b "Archaeology of the Middle Rio Balsas Basin, Mexico." American Antiquity, 13:
No. 1.
1948a "An Archaeological Survey of the Region about Teloloapan, Guerrero." El Occidente
de Mexico. Cuarta Reuni6n de Mesa Redonda sobre Problemas Antropol6gicos de Mexico
y Centro America, Mexico.
1948b "Summary of Excavations at Cojumatlan, Michoacan." El Occidente de Mexico.
Cuarta Reunion de Mesa Redonda sobre Problemas Antropoldgicos de Mexico y Centro
America, Mexico.
1949 "Excavations at Cojumatlan, MichoacAn, Mexico." University of New Mexico
Publications in Anthropology, No. 5.
LORENZO, JOSE L.
1953 "A Fluted Point from Durango, Mexico." American Antiquity, 18: No. 4.
LUnHOLTz, CARL
1902 Unknown Mexico. 2 vols., New York.
MARGIN, CARLOS R.
1944 "Zonas Arqueol6gicas de Queritaro, Guanajuato, Aguascalientes y Zacatecas." El
Norte de Mexico y El Sur de Estados Unidos: Tercera Reuni6n de Mesa Redonda sobre
Problems Antropol6gicos de Mexico y Centro America, Mexico.
MARQUINA, IGNACIO
1951 "Arquetectura Prehispanica." Memorias del Instituto Nacional de Antropologia e
Historia, I, Mexico.
MASON, J. ALDEN
1937 "Late Archaeological Sites in Durango, Mexico. From Chalchihuites to Zape." 25th
Anniversary Studies Philadelphia Anthropological Society.
MENA, RAMON AND PORnIRIO AGUIRRE
1927 "La Nueva Zona Arqueol6gica (Chupicuaro, Gto.)." Revista Mexicana de Estudios
Historicos, 1: No. 2, Mexico.
MOEDANO, HUGO
1941 "Estudio Preliminar de la Ceramica de Tzintzuntzan: Temporada III." Revista
Mexicana de Estudios Antropol6gicos, 5: No. 1, Mexico.
1942 "Estudio General Sobre la Situaci6n de la Forteleza de Oztuma." 27th Congreso
International de Americanistas, 1, Mexico.
1948 "Breve Noticia sobre la Zona de Oztotilan, Guerrero." El Occidente de Mexico.
Cuarta Reuni6n de Mesa Redonda sobre Problemas Antropol6gicos de Mexico y Centro
America, Mexico.
MILLER, E. FLORENCE
1948 "CerAmica de la Cuenca del Rio Lerma." El Occidente de Mexico. Cuarta Reuni6n
de Mesa Redonda sobre Problemas Antropologicos de Mexico y Centro America, Mexico.
NOGUERA, EDUARDO
1930 "Ruinas Arqueol6gicas del Norte de Mexico." Publicaciones de la Secretaria de Educa-
ci6n Pablica, Mexico.












ARCHAEOLOGY OF WESTERN MEXICO


1931 "Exploraciones Arqueol6gicas en las Regiones de Zamora y Patzcuaro, Estado de
MichoacAn." Anales del Museo Nacional de Arqueologia, Historia, y Elnografla, Epoca 4,
7.
1935 "Antecedentes y Relaciones de la Cultura Teotihuacana." El Mexico Antiguo, 3:
No. 5-8, Mexico.
1942 "Exploraciones en "El Opefio", Michoacan." 27th Congreso Internacional de Ameri-
canistas, 1, Mexico.
1944a "Exploraciones en Jiquilpan." Anales del Museo Michoacano, No. 3.
1944b "Relaciones que Muestran Los Vestigios Arqueol6gicos del Centro de Mexico."
El Norte de Mexico y e Sur de Estados Unidos: Tercera Reuni6n de Mesa Redonda sobre
Problems Antropol6gicos de Mexico y Centro America, Mexico.
1948 "Estado Actual de los Conocimientos Acerca de la Arqueologia del noreste de
MichoacAn." El Occidente de Mexico. Cuarta Reunicn de Mesa Redonda Sobre Problemas
Antropologicos de Mexico y Centro America, Mexico.
OSBORNE, DOUGLAS
1943 "An Archaeological Reconnaissance in Southeastern MichoacAn, Mexico." American
Antiquity, 9: No. 1.
PEPPER, GEORGE H.
1916 "YAcatas of the Tierra Caliente." Holmes Anniversary Volume, Washington.
PLANCARTE, F.
1893 "Archaeologic Explorations in MichoacAn, Mexico." American Anthropologist, o.s., 6.
PORTER, MURIEL
1945 "Estudio de la Ceramica: La Estratigrafla." Revista Mexicana de Estudios Antro-
pologicos, 7, Mexico.
1948 "Pottery Found at Chupicuaro, Guanajuato." El Occidente de Mexico. Cuarta ReuniOn
de Mesa Redonda sabre Problemas Antropoldgicos de Mexico y Centro America, Mexico.
1953 "Tlatilco and the Pre-Classic Cultures of the New World." Viking Fund Publications
in Anthropology, No. 19, New York.
PORTER, MURIEL AND ELMA BALMORI
1945 "Estudio Preliminar de la Ceramica de Chupicuaro, Gto." Revista Mexicana de
Studios Antropoldgicos, 7, Mexico.
Ross, VIRGINIA L.
n.d. "Some Pottery Types of the Highlands of Western Mexico". M.A. Thesis, Yale
University, [1939].
RUBfN DE LA BORBOLLA, DANIEL F.
1939 "Antropologia Tzintzuntzan-Ihuatzio: Temporadas I y II." Revista Mexicana de
Estudios Antropologicos, 3: No. 2, Mexico.
1941 "Exploraciones Arqueol6gicas en Michoacan: Tzintzuntzan: Temporada III."
Revista Mexicana de Estudios Antropologicos, 5: no. 1, Mexico.
1944 "Orfebreria Tarasca." Cuadernos Americanos, 15, Mexico.
1946a "Arqueologia del Sur de Durango." Revista Mexicana de Estudios Antropol6gicos,
8: Nos. 1, 2, 3, Mexico.
1946b "Los Tarascos." Arte Precolombino del Occidente de Mexico, Mexico.
1948a "Arqueologia Tarasca." El Occidente de Mexico. Cuarta Reunion de Mesa Redonda
sobre Problemas Antropol6gicos de Mexico y Centro America, Mexico.
1948b "Problemas de la Arqueologia de Chupicuaro." El Occidente de Mexico. Cuarta
Reunion de Mesa Redonda sobre Problemas Antropologicos de Mexico y Centro America,
Mexico.












UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO STUDIES


SANDERS, E. M.
1921 "The Natural Regions of Mexico." Geographical Review, 11.
SAUER, CARL
1935 "Aboriginal Population of Northwestern Mexico." Ibero-Americana, No. 10.
SAUER, CARL AND DONALD BRAND
1932 "Aztatlin: Prehistoric Mexican Frontier on the Pacific Coast." Ibero-Americana,
No. 1.
SHEPARD, ANNA O.
1948 "Plumbate, a Mesoamerican Trade Ware." Carnegie Institution of Washington
Publication No. 573.
SPINDEN, H. J.
1911 "An Ancient Sepulcher at Placeres del Oro, State of Guerrero, Mexico." American
Anthropologist, 13.
STARR, FREDERICK
1897 "Little Pottery Objects from Lake Chapala, Mexico." University of Chicago Depart-
ment of Anthropology Bulletin, No. 2.
TARAYRE, E. GUILLEMIN
1867 Notes Arqueologiques Ethnographiques Vestiges Laisses par les Migrations Americaines
dans le Nord du Mexique.
THOMPSON, J. ERIc
1941 "A Coordination of the History of Chichen Itza with Ceramic Sequences in Central
Mexico." Revista Mexicana de Estudios Antropol6gicos, 5: Nos. 2-3, Mexico.
TOSCANO, SALVADOR
1946 "El Arte y la Historia del Occidente en Mexico." Arte Precolombino del Occidente de
Mexico, Mexico.
VAILLANT, GEORGE C.
1930 "Excavations at Zacatenco." Anthropological Papers, American Museum of Natural
History, 32: pt. 1.
1931 "Excavations at Ticoman." Anthropological Papers, American Museum of Natural
History, 32: pt. 2.
1934 "Excavations at Gualupita." Anthropological Papers, American Museum of Natural
History, 35: pt. 1.
1935 "Excavations at El Arbolillo." Anthropological Papers, American Museum of Natural
History, 35: pt. 2.
1938 "A Correlation of Archaeological and Historical Sequences in the Valley of Mexico."
American Anthropologist, 40: No. 4.
1941 Aztecs of Mexico. New York.
VARIous AUTHORS
WEITLANER, R. J.
1948 "Exploraci6n Arqueol6gica en Guerrero." El Occidente de Mexico. Cuarta Reuni6n
de Mesa Redonda sobre Problemas Antropol6gicos de Mexico y Centro America, Mexico.
WEITLANER, R. J. AND R. H. BARLOW
1944 "Expeditions in Western Guerrero: The Weitlaner Party, Spring, 1941." Tlalocan, 1.































MAPS 1-59

TABLES 1-212












UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO STUDIES


MAP NO. 1












ARCHAEOLOGY OF WESTERN MEXICO


MAP NO. 2


SUGGESTED ARCHAEOLOGICAL
PROVINCES OF WESTERN MEXICO

I. Sinaloa-Coastal Jalisco
II. Nayarit-Jalisco-Colima
III. Durango-Zacatecas
IV. Lake Chapala
V. Tzintzuntzan
VI. Apatzingtn

VII. Chupicuaro
VIII. Upper Lerma
IX. Middle Balsas
X. Costa Grande
XI. Yestla-Naranjo


WESTERN MEXICO


OS00 2Ciles
SCALE


MAP NO. 2











UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO STUDIES


MAP NO.3

SITES AND AREAS
INCLUDED IN STUDY


WESTERN MEXICO

0 S L Miles
SCALE












ARCHAEOLOGY OF WESTERN MEXICO


MAP No. 3
Sites and Areas Included in Study
1. Guasave, Sinaloa
2. Culiacin, Sinaloa
3. Chametla, Sinaloa
4. Southern Durango
5. Chalchihuites, Zacatecas
6. Zape, Durango
7. Totoate, Jalisco
8. La Quemada, Zacatecas
9. Southern Nayarit Hinterland
10. Caxcana, Zacatecas-Jalisco
11. El Teul, Zacatecas
12. Juchipila, Zacatecas
13. Coastal Jalisco
14. Ameca, Jalisco
15. La Gloria, Guanajuato
16. Autlan, Jalisco
17. Tuxcacuesco, Jalisco
18. Zapotitlin, Jalisco
19. Sayula-Zacoalco, Jalisco
20. Northwest Lake Chapala, Jalisco
21. Cerro Esquintla, MichoacIn
22. Cojumatlan, Michoacan
23. Jiquilpan, Michoacan
24. El Opefio, Michoacan
25. Zamora, MichoacAn
26. Colima
27. Tepalcatepec, Michoacan
28. Zacapu, Michoacan
29. Chupicuaro, Guanajuato
30. Apatzingin, Michoacan
31. Tacambaro, MichoacAn
32. Tzintzuntzan, MichoacAn
33. Upper Rio Lerma, Mexico
34. Calixtlahuaca, Mexico
35. Los Placeres del Oro, Guerrero
36. Coyuca de Catalan, Guerrero
37. Middle Rio Balsas, Guerrero
38. Oxtotitlan, Guerrero
39. Teloloapan, Guerrero
40. Malinalco, Mexico
41. Northern Guerrero
42. Costa Grande, Guerrero
43. Acapulco, Guerrero
44. Yestla-Naranjo, Guerrero
45. Zumpango, Guerrero
46. Texmilincan, Guerrero







UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO STUDIES


MAP NO. 4
TYPES OF SITES


Artificial mounds
* Low mounds


8
I


WESTERN MEXICO
S 00 Miles
SCALE


/












ARCHAEOLOGY OF WESTERN MEXICO


TABLE 1
Types of Sites: Artificial Mounds
(See Map 4)
3. Chametla, Sinaloa. Kelly, 1938, 5.
4. Southern Durango. J. C. Kelley, unpublished information, 1953.
7. Totoate, Jalisco. Hrdlicka, 1903, 392.
8. La Quemada, Zacatecas. Hrdlicka, 1903, 436.
9. Southern Nayarit Hinterland. Lumholtz, vol. 2, 1902, 304.
11. El Teul, Zacatecas. Hrdlicka, 1903, 427.
12. Juchipila, Zacatecas. Hrdlicka, 1903, 433.
16. Autlin, Jalisco. Kelly, 1945b, 23.
23. Jiquilpan, Michoacan. Noguera, 1944, 37.
25. Zamora, Michoacan. Plancarte, 1893, 79.
27. Tepalcatepec, Michoacan. Goggin, 1943, 46.
28. Zacapu, MichoacAn. Caso, 1929, 449.
29. Chupicuaro, Guanajuato. Mena & Aguirre, 1927, 56.
30. Apatzingan, Michoacan. Kelly, 1947, 172.
32. Tzintzuntzan, Michoacan. Acosta, 1939, 85.
34. Calixtlahuaca, Mexico. Garcia Pay6n, 1941b, 212.
35. Los Placeres del Oro, Guerrero. Spinden, 1911, 30.
36. Coyuca de Catalan, Guerrero. Lister, 1947b, 71.
37. Middle Rio Balsas, Guerrero. Lister, 1947b, 69.
39. Teloloapan, Guerrero. Lister, 1948a, 111.
40. Malinalco, Mexico. Garcia Pay6n, 1946, 14.
42. Costa Grande, Guerrero. Weitlaner, 1948, 80.
43. Acapulco, Guerrero. Ekholm, 1948, 95.
44. Yestla-Naranjo, Guerrero. Weitlaner, 1948, 78.
TABLE 2
Types of Sites: Low Mounds
(See Map 4)
2. Culiacan, Sinaloa. Kelly, 1945a, 12.
3. Chametla, Sinaloa. Kelly, 1938, 4.
12. Juchipila, Zacatecas. Hrdlicka, 1903, 432.
16. Autlin, Jalisco. Kelly, 1945a, 24.
17. Tuxcacuesco, Jalisco. Kelly, 1949, 20.
18. Zapotitlan, Jalisco. Kelly, 1949, 20.
27. Tepalcatepec, Michoacan. Goggin, 1943, 46.
29. Chupicuaro, Guanajuato. Porter & Balmori, 1945, 97.
30. Apatzingan, Michoacan. Kelly, 1947, 172.
36. Coyuca de Catalan, Guerrero. Lister, 1947b, 71.
37. Middle Rio Balsas, Guerrero. Lister, 1947b, 70.
43. Acapulco, Guerrero. Ekholm, 1948, 95.











UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO STUDIES


MAP N0.5
TYPES OF SITES


& House outline
* Sherd area
* Hillside terracing
* House of perishable material


WESTERN MEXICO

o0 20wl Miles
SCALE








TABLE 3
Types of Sites: House Outline
(See Map 5)
4. Southern Durango. Mason, 1937, 133.
6. Zape, Durango. Mason, 1937, 140.
7. Totoate, Jalisco. Hrdlicka, 1903, 392.
12. Juchipila, Zacatecas. Hrdlicka, 1903, 431.
17. Tuxcacuesco, Jalisco. Kelly, 1949, 204.
18. Zapotitlan, Jalisco. Kelly, 1949, 204.
27. Tepalcatepec, Michoacan. Goggin, 1943, 48.
35. Los Placeres del Oro, Guerrero. Spinden, 1911, 30.
36. Coyuca de Catalan, Guerrero. Lister, 1947b, 71.
37. Middle Rio Balsas, Guerrero. Lister, 1947b, 69.
TABLE 4
Types of Sites: Sherd Area
(See Map 5)
1. Guasave, Sinaloa. Ekholm, 1942, 38.
4. Southern Durango. Mason, 1937, 132.
19. Sayula-Zacoalco, Jalisco. Kelly, 1948, 63.
22. Cojumatlan, Michoacan. Lister, 1949, 15.
30. Apatzingan, Michoacan. Kelly, 1947, 172.
36. Coyuca de CatalAn, Guerrero. Lister, 1947b, 71.
37. Middle Rio Balsas, Guerrero. Lister, 1947b, 70.
39. Teloloapan, Guerrero. Lister, 1948a, 117.
TABLE 5
Types of Sites: Hillside Terracing
(See Map 5)
4. Southern Durango. Mason, 1937, 133.
5. Chalchihuites, Zacatecas. Gamio, 1910, 476.
6. Zape, Durango. Mason, 1937, 140.
7. Totoate, Jalisco. Hrdlicka, 1903, 397.
8. La Quemada, Zacatecas. Hrdlicka, 1903, 436.
9. Southern Nayarit Hinterland. Corona Nuflez, n.d., ms.
17. Tuxcacuesco, Jalisco. Kelly, 1949, 188.
18. ZapotitlAn, Jalisco. Kelly, 1949, 188.
21. Cerro Esquintla, Michoacan. Lister, 1949, 15.
27. Tepalcatepec, MichoacIn. Goggin, 1943, 46.
30. ApatzingAn, MichoacAn. Kelly, 1947, 172.
34. Calixtlahuaca, Mexico. Garcia Pay6n, 1941b, 65.
35. Los Placeres del Oro, Guerrero. Spinden, 1911, 30.
36. Coyuca de CatalAn, Guerrero. Lister, 1947b, 71.
37. Middle Rio Balsas, Guerrero. Lister, 1947b, 69.
40. Malinalco, Mexico. Garcia Pay6n, 1946, 13.
44. Yestla-Naranjo, Guerrero. Weitlaner, 1948, 78.
TABLE 6
Types of Sites: House of PerishablelMaterial
(See Map 5)
1. Guasave, Sinaloa. Ekholm, 1942, 122.
2. Culiacan, Sinaloa. Kelly, 1945a, 18.
3. Chametla, Sinaloa. Kelly, 1938, 6.
7. Totoate, Jalisco. Hrdlicka, 1903, 391.
17. Tuxcacuesco, Jalisco. Kelly, 1949, 189.
18. Zapotitlan, Jalisco. Kelly, 1949, 189.
22. Cojumatlan, Michoacan. Lister, 1949, 88.
36. Coyuca de CatalAn, Guerrero. Lister, 1947b, 71.
75












UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO STUDIES







TABLE 7
Types of Sites: Tomb
(See Map 6)
9. Southern Nayarit Hinterland. Lumholtz, voL 2, 1902, 295.
23. Jiquilpan, Michoacan. Noguera, 1944, 37.
24. El Opefio, MichoacAn. Noguera, 1942, 574.
25. Zamora, MichoacAn. Plancarte, 1893, 82.
26. Colima, Kelly, 1948, 65.
28. Zacapu, Michoacin. Caso, 1929, 447.
32. Tzintzuntzan, MichoacAn. Borbolla, 1939, 99.
39. Teloloapan, Guerrero. Moedano, 1948, 105.
42. Costa Grande, Guerrero. Weitlaner, 1948, 87.
44. Yestla-Naranjo, Guerrero. Weitlaner & Barlow, 1944, 372.
TABLE 8
Types of Sites: Stone Masonry
(See Map 6)
4. Southern Durango. Borbolla, 1946, 114.
5. Chalchihuites, Zacatecas. Gamio, 1910, 481.
7. Totoate, Jalisco. Hrdlicka, 1903, 391.
8. La Quemada, Zacatecas. Hrdlicka, 1903, 436.
9. Southern Nayarit Hinterland. Lumholtz, vol. 2, 1902, 304.
11. El Teul, Zacatecas. Hrdlicka, 1903, 427.
12. Juchipila, Zacatecas. Hrdlicka, 1903, 432.
15. La Gloria, Guanajuato. Margain, 1944, 146.
17. Tuxcacuesco, Jalisco. Kelly, 1949, 188.
18. Zapotitlan, Jalisco. Kelly, 1949, 188.
23. Jiquilpan, Michoacan. Noguera, 1944, 38.
25. Zamora, Michoacan. Plancarte, 1893, 79.
28. Zacapu, MichoacAn. Caso, 1929, 448.
34. Calixtlahuaca, Mexico. Garcia Pay6n, 1941b, fig. 2.
37. Middle Rio Balsas, Guerrero. Lister, 1947b, 69.
39. Teloloapan, Guerrero. Lister, 1948a, 111.
40. Malinalco, Mexico. Garcia Pay6n, 1946, fig. 21.
44. Yestla-Naranjo, Guerrero. Weitlaner, 1948, 78.
TABLE 9
Types of Sites: Mound over Quadrangular Masonry Enclosure
(See Map 6)
5. Chalchihuites, Zacatecas. Gamio, 1910, 477.
7. Totoate, Jalisco. Hrdlicka, 1903, 394.
17. Tuxcacuesco, Jalisco. Kelly, 1949, 188.
18. Zapotitlan, Jalisco. Kelly, 1949, 188.
23. Jiquilpan, Michoacan. Noguera, 1944, 38.
25. Zamora, Michoacin. Plancarte, 1893, 79.
30. Apatzingin, Michoacan. Kelly, 1947, 173.
44. Yestla-Naranjo, Guerrero. Weitlaner, 1948- 78.
TABLE 10
Types of Sites: Mound over Contiguous Quadrangular Masonry Enclosures
(See Map 6)
5. Chalchihuites, Zacatecas. Gamio, 1910, 478.
7. Totoate, Jalisco. Hrdlicka, 1903, 395.
8. La Quemada, Zacatecas. Hrdlicka, 1903, 438.
17. Tuxcacuesco, Jalisco. Kelly, 1949, 188.
18. Zapotitlan, Jalisco. Kelly, 1949, 188.
30. Apatzingan, Michoacin. Kelly, 1947, 174.
37. Middle Rio Balsas, Guerrero. Lister, 1947b, 69.
39. Teloloapan, Guerrero. Lister, 1948a, 713.
42. Costa Grande, Guerrero. Weitlaner, 1948, 82.
77











UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO STUDIES


MAP N0.7
TYPES OF SITES

Structure in cave
Use of adobe


/
I


WESTERN MEXICO

SCALE 100 00
SCALE












ARCHAEOLOGY OF WESTERN MEXICO


TABLE 11
Types of Sites: Structure in Cave
(See Map 7)
4. Southern Durango. Borbolla, 1946, 113.
5. Chalchihuites, Zacatecas. Gamio, 1910, 474.
12. Juchipila, Zacatecas. Hrdlicka, 1903, 432.
TABLE 12
Types of Sites: Use of Adobe
(See Map 7)
4. Southern Durango. Borbolla, 1946, 114.
5. Chalchihuites, Zacatecas. Gamio, 1910, 474.
6. Zape, Durango. Brand, 1939, 94.
TABLE 13
Pottery: Olla
(See Map 8)

1. Guasave, Sinaloa. Ekholm, 1942,80.
3. Chametla, Sinaloa. Kelly, 1938, 29.
4. Southern Durango. Mason, 1937, 130.
5. Chalchihuites, Zacatecas. Gamio, 1910, 485.
6. Zape, Durango. Brand, 1939, 101.
9. Southern Nayarit Hinterland. Corona Nufiez, n.d., ms.
11. El Teul, Zacatecas. Margain, 1944, Chart III.
14. Ameca, Jalisco. Ross, n.d., 38.
19. Sayula-Zacoalco, Jalisco. Ross, n.d., 38.
20. Northwest Lake Chapala, Jalisco. Ross, n.d., 39.
22. CojumatlAn, MichoacAn. Lister, 1949, 43.
23. Jiquilpan, Michoacan. Marquina, 1951, 264.
24. El Opefio, Michoacan. Noguera, 1942, fig. 7.
26. Colima. Ross, n.d., 39.
27. Tepalcatepec, Michoacan. Goggin, 1943, 50.
28. Zacapu, MichoacAn. Marquina, 1951, 254.
29. Chupicuaro, Guanajuato. Porter & Balmori, 1945, 107.
30. ApatzingAn, MichoacAn. Kelly, 1947, 83.
32. Tzintzuntzan, MichoacAn. Moedano, 1941, 26.
34. Calixtlahuaca, Mexico. Garcia Pay6n, 1941b, 219.











UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO STUDIES


MAP NO. 8
POTTERY


* Olla
A Jar
a Bowl
* Plate
4 Jug
v Comal
b Miniature olla


WESTERN MEXICO

SSCAL Mes
SCALE


0^4








TABLE 14
Pottery: Jar
(See Map 8)
1. Guasave, Sinaloa. Ekholm, 1942, 74.
4. Southern Durango. Mason, 1937, 130.
7. Totoate, Jalisco. Ross, n.d., 35.
9. Southern Nayarit Hinterland. Corona Nufiez, n.d., ms.
11. El Teul, Zacatecas. Margain, 1944, Chart III.
16. Autlin, Jalisco. Kelly, 1945b, 36.
17. Tuxcacuesco, Jalisco. Kelly, 1949, 99.
18. Zapotitlan, Jalisco. Kelly, 1949, 99.
20. Northwest Lake Chapala, Jalisco. Ross, n.d., 39.
22. Cojumatlan, MichoacAn. Lister, 1949, 31.
25. Zamora, Michoacan. Plancarte, 1893, 83.
26. Colima. Ross, n.d., 39.
27. Tepalcatepec, MichoacAn. Goggin, 1943, 50.
29. Chupicuaro, Guanajuato. Porter & Balmori, 1945, 106.
30. Apatzingan, Michoacan. Kelly, 1947, 77.
34. Calixtlahuaca, Mexico. Garcia Pay6n, 1941b, 227.
36. Coyuca de Catalan, Guerrero. Lister, 1947b, 72.
37. Middle Rio Balsas, Guerrero. Lister, 1947b, 73.
TABLE 15
Pottery: Bowl
(See Map 8)
1. Guasave, Sinaloa. Ekholm, 1942, 46.
2. Culiacan, Sinaloa. Kelly, 1945a, 27.
3. Chametla, Sinaloa. Kelly, 1938, 11.
4. Southern Durango. Mason, 1937, 130.
5. Chalchihuites, Zacatecas. Gamio, 1910, 485.
6. Zape, Durango. Brand, 1939, 101.
7. Totoate, Jalisco. Hrdlicka, 1903, 395.
9. Southern Nayarit Hinterland. Ross, n.d., 39.
11. El Teul, Zacatecas. Margain, 1944, Chart III.
12. Juchipila, Zacatecas. Hrdlicka, 1903, 433.
16. Autlan, Jalisco. Kelly, 1945b, 36.
17. Tuxcacuesco, Jalisco. Kelly, 1949, 46.
18. ZapotitlAn, Jalisco. Kelly, 1949, 46.
19. Sayula-Zacoalco, Jalisco. Ross, n.d., 30.
20. Northwest Lake Chapala, Jalisco. Ross, n.d., 30.
22. CojumatlAn, Michoacan. Lister, 1949, 21.
23. Jiquilpan, MichoacAn. Noguera, 1944, 40.
24. El Opefio, Michoacan. Noguera, 1942, 580.
25. Zamora, Michoacan. Plancarte, 1893, 80.
26. Colima. Ross, n.d., 23.
27. Tepalcatepec, MichoacAn. Goggin, 1943, 50.
28. Zacapu, Michoacan. Caso, 1929, 447.
29. Chupicuaro, Guanajuato. Porter & Balmori, 1945, 106.
30. Apatzingan, MichoacAn. Kelly, 1947, 44.
32. Tzintzuntzan, MichoacAn. Moedano, 1941, 26.
37. Middle Rio Balsas, Guerrero. Lister, 1947b, 72.
44. Yestla-Naranjo, Guerrero. Weitlaner & Barlow, 1944, 365.
46. Texmilincan, Guerrero. Garcia Pay6n, 1941c, 354.
TABLE 16
Pottery: Plate
(See Map 8)
7. Totoate, Jalisco. Ross, n.d., 29.
9. Southern Nayarit Hinterland. Corona Nufiez, n.d., ms.
16. Autlan, Jalisco. Kelly, 1945b, 52.












UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO STUDIES












ARCHAEOLOGY OF WESTERN MEXICO


TABLE 17
Pottery: Jug
(See Map 8)
1. Guasave, Sinaloa. Ekholm, 1942, 74.

TABLE 18
Pottery: Comal
(See Map 8)
5. Chalchihuites, Zacatecas. Gamio, 1910, 485.
22. Cojumatlan, Michoacn. Lister, 1949, 46.

TABLE 19
Pottery: Miniature Olla
(See Map 8)
20. Northwest Lake Chapala, Jalisco. Lumholtz, vol. 2, 1902, 463.
TABLE 20
Pottery: Tripod Vessels
(See Map 9)
1. Guasave, Sinaloa. Ekholm, 1942, 52.
2. Culiacin, Sinaloa. Kelly, 1945a, 37.
3. Chametla, Sinaloa. Kelly, 1938, 20.
4. Southern Durango. Mason, 1937, 130.
5. Chalchihuites, Zacatecas. Gamio, 1910, 485.
6. Zape, Durango. Mason, 1937, 141.
7. Totoate, Jalisco. Ross, n.d., 78.
9. Southern Nayarit Hinterland. Ross, n.d., 38-39.
14. Ameca, Jalisco. Kelly, 1948, 61.
16. Autlin, Jalisco. Kelly, 1945b, 36.
17. Tuxcacuesco, Jalisco. Kelly, 1949, 47.
18. Zapotitlan, Jalisco. Kelly, 1949, 47.
19. Sayula-Zacoalco, Jalisco. Kelly, 1948, 63.
20. Northwest Lake Chapala, Jalisco. Ross, n.d., 75.
22. Cojumatlin, Michoacan. Lister, 1949, 21.
23. Jiquilpan, Michoacan. Noguera, 1944, 50.
25. Zamora, Michoacan. Plancarte, 1893, 79.
26. Colima. Ross, n.d., 71.
28. Zacapu, Michoacan. Caso, 1929, 450.
29. Chupicuaro, Guanajuato. Porter, 1948, 43.
30. Apatzingan, Michoacan. Kelly, 1947, 44.
32. Tzintzuntzan, Michoacan. Moedano, 1941, 30.
34. Calixtlahuaca, Mexico. Garcia Pay6n, 1941b, 219.
37. Middle Rio Balsas, Guerrero. Lister, 1947b, 72.
39. Teloloapan, Guerrero. Lister, 1948a, 108.
41. Northern Guerrero. Barlow, 1948, 91.
42. Costa Grande, Guerrero. Weitlaner, 1948, 80.
43. Acapulco, Guerrero. Ekholm, 1948, 99.
44. Yestla-Naranjo, Guerrero. Weitlaner, 1948, 80.










UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO STUDIES


MAP NO. 10
POTTERY

Molcajetes


WESTERN MEXICO

0 00 20CMiles
SCALE












ARCHAEOLOGY OF WESTERN MEXICO


TABLE 21
Pottery: Molcajetes
(See Map 10)
2. CuliacAn, Sinaloa. Sauer & Brand, 1932, 38.
3. Chametla, Sinaloa. Kelly, 1938, 25.
4. Southern Durango. Personal observation, 1954.
9. Southern Nayarit Hinterland. Corona Nufiez, n.d., ms.
16. Autl&n, Jalisco. Kelly, 1945b, 36.
17. Tuxcacuesco, Jalisco. Kelly, 1949, 59.
18. Zapotitlin, Jalisco. Kelly, 1949, 59.
19. Sayula-Zacoalco, Jalisco. Kelly, 1948, 63.
20. Northwest Lake Chapala, Jalisco. Ross, n.d., 75.
22. Cojumatlan, Michoacin. Lister, 1949, 38.
26. Colima. Kelly, 1948, 65.
27. Tepalcatepec, MichoacAn. Goggin, 1943, 50.
28. Zacapu, MichoacAn. Caso, 1929, 450.
29. Chupicuaro, Guanajuato. Porter, 1948, 43.
30. Apatzingan, Michoacan. Kelly, 1947, 52.
37. Middle Rio Balsas, Guerrero. Lister, 1947b, 72.
39. Teloloapan, Guerrero. Lister, 1948a, 108.
42. Costa Grande, Guerrero. Weitlaner, 1948, 82.
44. Yestla-Naranjo, Guerrero. Weitlaner, 1948, 80.











UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO STUDIES


MAP NO.11
POTTERY


Effigy vessels


WESTERN MEXICO

O0 S E0Miles
SCALE












ARCHAEOLOGY OF WESTERN MEXICO


TABLE 22
Pottery: Effigy Vessels
(See Map 11)
1. Guasave, Sinaloa. Ekholm, 1942, 74.
2. Culiacan, Sinaloa. Kelly, 1945a, 105.
3. Chametla, Sinaloa. Kelly, 1938, 26.
9. Southern Nayarit Hinterland. Kelly, 1948, 57
14. Ameca, Jalisco. Kelly, 1948, 58.
17. Tuxcacuesco, Jalisco. Kelly, 1949, 85.
18. Zapotitlan, Jalisco. Kelly, 1949, 85.
19. Sayula-Zacoalco, Jalisco. Ross, n.d., 49.
20. Northwest Lake Chapala, Jalisco. Ross, n.d., 49.
23. Jiquilpan, Michoacan. Noguera, 1944, 49.
24. El Opefio, MichoacAn. Noguera, 1942, 579.
26. Colima. Ross, n.d., 71.
29. Chupicuaro, Guanajuato. Porter & Balmori, 1945, 105.
30. Apatzingan, Michoacan. Kelly, 1947, 77.




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