Farming Systems Support Project
Institute of Food and
University of Florida
Gainesville, Florida 32611
Office of Agriculture and
Office of Multisectoral Development
Bureau for Science and Technology
Agency for International Development
Washington, D.C. 20523
TASK FORCE REPORT
ON LIVESTOCK IN MIXED
University of Florida, Management Entity
Farming Systems Support Project
TABLE OF CONTENTS
INTRODUCTION . . . .. . . .
List of participants . . . . . .
Definition of livestock . . .. . ..
ROLES OF LIVESTOCK . . . .
Food . . . . .
Non-food contributions . . .
Linkages of crops and animals . .
Importance of livestock to food production
ROLE OF DISCIPLINES, TRAINING, AND ORIENTATION IN
RESEARCH AND EXTENSION . . .
Disciplines . . . .
Training . . . . .
Orientation . . . .
METHODOLOGIES . . . . .
Approaches . . . .
Project management . . .
Extension . . . . .
Institutionalization . . .
Policy recommendations . . .
Public policies toward agriculture .
Specific policies toward institutional
Case studies and models . . .
Case studies . . . .
Models .. . . . .
TRAINING . . . . .
U.S. nationals . . . .
Host country nationals . . .
COMMUNICATION . . . . .
RECOMMENDATIONS . . . .
LITERATURE CITED AND BIBLIOGRAPHY FOR ADDITIONAL
APPENDIX Program associates with signed MOA support entities with
interest or experience in livestock (as of 11/23/83) . .
. .. 3
REPORT OF TASK FORCE ON LIVESTOCK IN
MIXED FARMING SYSTEMS
The Livestock Task Force (TF) on Mixed Farming Systems was charged
with developing recommendations for the Farming Systems Support Project
(FSSP). In preparing these, the TF considered appropriate strategies,
research methodologies, communication network development, and training
needs relative to the livestock component of farming systems. The TF
saw the livestock dimension of Farming Systems Research and Extension
(FSR&E) as being extremely important because most farming systems include
an animal component. Also, this area has received less attention than
crops and has, in general, been neglected in relation to its potential
contribution to the total family enterprise. Moreover, the TF recog-
nized the need for a larger cadre of experienced and trained practitioners
who can deal with the complexities of crop/animal relationships and the
multiple objectives of mixed farm operations.
The Task Force defined its scope of work to include a definition of
livestock; their roles or importance in integrated farming systems; the
role of disciplines, training, and orientation of specialists in FSR&E;
methodologies relating to approaches, project management, extension, insti-
tutionalization, policy, models, and case studies; training needs; and
recommendations to FSSP management for future action. Additionally, the
report contains a bibliography of farming systems studies dealing with
livestock and related topics and the identification of collaborating
institutions and program associates within the FSSP network. The TF
limited its scope of reference to livestock in crop/animal systems and
did not address completely the pastoral systems per se, though reference
is made to the agro-pastoral interface which characterizes some systems,
especially in Africa.
The TF held its first meeting with interested personnel from the Agency
for International Development in Washington, D.C., on June 29, 1983. Over
thirty individuals participated in a day-long discussion, which resulted
in identifying the issues and needs relative to livestock in farming systems,
clarifying the definition of livestock as far as this project is concerned,
and suggesting strategies and approaches for dealing with the interrelation-
ships of crop/animal systems. Subsequently, the TF conferred with several
members of the American Society of Animal Science during its annual meeting
in late July at Washington State University, where a portion of the program
dealt with livestock development in the Third World. In early August, some
members of the TF capitalized on the opportunity to interact with animal and
social scientists attending a conference at the University of Florida on
"Overcoming Constraints to Livestock Production in Sub-Saharan Africa."
Representatives from a number of universities, the International Livestock
Center for Africa (ILCA), FSSP, Winrock International, and AID participated
in discussions with the TF. The TF had access to the FSSP Task Force report
on Family Systems and Household.
Following the conference at KSU on "The Role of Animals in the Farming
System: Production, Products, Process," the TF completed the first draft
of its report. A second and final draft was submitted to the University
of Florida in February, 1984.
1. List of Participants
James W. Oxley, Chairman
Robert E. McDowell
John D. Wheat
James B. Henson
A. John DeBoer
Other participants during vari
Colorado State University
Kansas State University
Washington State University
ous meetings of the TF:
Southern Illinois University
University of Florida
2. Definition of Livestock
For this report, the term livestock includes both ruminants and non-
ruminants, including poultry. The definition implies the use of animals
for food as well as for non-food purposes, such as traction, transport,
fuel, and fertilizer.
B. ROLES OF LIVESTOCK
Livestock play an equal or more important role than crops in some
production systems; while in others, crops dominate. The ability of livestock
to make use of resources, such as crop residues, forage, and browse that
are not otherwise directly utilizable by humans into usable products, can
be an asset toward improving the efficiency of crop/livestock systems on
low resource farms. They are also used to lessen risk and as a hedge
*Acknowledgement is accorded a number of other AID employees who parti-
cipated in the general session of the initial meeting of the Task Force
in Washington, D.C.
The world population of ruminant species of animals, such as buffalo,
camels, cattle, goats, sheep, alpaca, deer, and antelope, that make some
contributions of food and non-food uses to humans is nearly 3 billion. In
addition, .62 billion pigs and 5.7 billion poultry are kept for food pro-
duction. Species lesser in number, like the horse, kangaroo, rabbit,
capybara, guinea fowl, pigeon, and duck, each contribute more than .5 million
kg of animal protein per year. These figures are exclusive of fish and
other marine life.
Although more attention has been given to meeting the world's food
needs through cereal grains than animal products, the contributions from
animals haveincreased steadily at a rate of 1.2 to 1.8% per annum. As
incomes increase slightly in developing countries, there is a dispropor-
tionately larger increase in demand for meat and other livestock products
compared to food grains and other staple foods. Presently, animal products
contribute over 56 million MT of edible protein and over one billion Mcal
of energy per annum to world food supplies. Milk and milk products are the
largest sources of both protein and energy,'followed by beef and fish.
The total protein from animal products globally is nearly equivalent to
that from corn and wheat and more than half that from all cereals. The
energy value is nearly equal to that from wheat and exceeds that from
By western standards, the consumption of livestock products in develop-
ing countries is low (milk less than .3 liter per day and meat 10-20 kg per
year). Nevertheless, these sources of protein are vital to human survival.
For example, consumption of .3 liter of milk, 25 g of meat or one egg per day
enables people to consume .7 to 1.4 kg of cereals or tubers. When plant
protein such as cowpeas is used, the intake of cereals or tubers must be
reduced 30-40% to maintain adequate protein consumption. Thus, the avail-
ability of animal products permits cropping for highest production from
land variable in fertility and rainfall.
2. Non-Food Contributions
Throughout the developing countries animals perform a number of social,
ritual, and economic functions (Table 1).
Classification: of Contributions of Livestock to Human Welfare
milk, meat, eggs, prepared products
agriculture, cartage, packing, herding, power
irrigation pumps, threshing grains, passenger
fertilizer, fuel, methane gas, construction,
grazing, seed distribution
fallow between crops, plants in waterways
exhibition, fighting, hunting, racing, status
symbol, religious, barter, ceremonial
horns, hooves, bones for processing into feed
supplements and other products
ready source of cash for daily needs and
Source: McDowell, 1980 (with modification)
The relative importance of these contributions varies according to ethnic
group, country and ecological conditions. In Africa, for example, the
estimated annual value of production from livestock is $10 billion, with
50 percent attributed to offtake such as meat, milk, fiber and skins, and
50 percent from services or other benefits such as manure, traction,
transport, and barter.
Animals play.an increasingly important part of the labor pool in land
preparation and related endeavors. Approximately 200 million animals
generate 100 million horsepower of energy from animal traction per day.
India uses 70 million bullocks, 8 million buffalo, one million camels, and
one million horses for land preparation, cartage, packing, threshing of
grains, and power for irrigation. Nearly 70% of the farms in Thailand
and the Philippines use animals in preparation of lands for crops. Sub-
Saharan Africa presently has nearly 15 million draft animals with numbers
expanding rapidly. Overall, the use of draft animals for traction is on
the increase in almost all developing countries and is contributing sig-
nificantly to expanding agricultural production and reducing the drudgery
of hand labor, especially as costs of other sources of power have sub-
stantially increased in recent years.
The majority of farmers in developing countries depend on manure
to improve soil fertility. On small farms where cultivation is by hand,
farmers prefer manure to chemical fertilizers because it improves soil
structure. Crop farmers frequently depend on pastoral herders to graze
their livestock at night on land destined for cropping.
More than 200 million MT of manure are used annually as fuel.
Currently, India is the largest user with over 80 million MT of buffalo
Sand cattle manure. In several countries, the sale of dung cakes for fuel
to urban centers provides more than half the total cash income per family.
Manure serves other useful purposes, such as fertilizer for fish
ponds, plastering walls or floors of houses, an adhesive for building
blocks, the making of poultices for wound healing, and the production of
methane gas. The latter has wide potential, but has met with limited
application thus far.
In addition to their value for food and traction, animals play an
important role in recreation, religion, and social custom. Cock fighting
and fighting between male buffalo or rams are popular. Livestock,
especially goats, poultry and sheep, are widely used for celebrations
of births, marriages, or religious occasions.
Horns, hooves, skins, and hair are employed in cottage industries;
and fat trimmed from carcasses may be used as cooking fuel or in making
As compared to land, livestock are relatively easy to obtain and
can be converted into cash. Such conversion is reversible, whereas the
loss of land through sale is apt to be irreversible." Animals increase
in value through time. This means they have the equivalent of an interest-
earning capability which makes them a substitute for cash savings.
Animals also provide opportunities for landless families to secure
both employment and income.
3. Linkages of Crops anr Animals
The production systems which involve crops and animals are numerous.
In some systems, crops are the dominant feature and means of income and/or
generation of subsistence requirements, while in others livestock dominate
with cropping components playing a minor role.
Ten major small holder crop/livestock systems have been identified
in both Africa and Asia and four in Latin America (McDowell and Hildebrand,
1980). Most of these systems are designed for intensive use of scarce
resources. For these 24 systems, 40-90% of the feed for livestock comes
from crop residues, spoiled fruits, tubers or vegetables, and brans from
the preparation of grains for human consumption. In many of these systems
there is a strong tie between crops selected and the suitability of their
residues for use by animals. A major reason for poor acceptance of improved
varieties of cereal grains by low resource farmers has been the lowering
of quantity of crop residues and a rather marked reduction in nutritional
value for livestock due to plant lignification. In some instances the
dominant crop and its residues are a major factor in the selection of animal
species for the system. An example is the higher density of swine and
buffalo in paddy rice areas, buffalo being the best for utilizing rice straw,
and swine for the use of rice bran. In essence, the nutrient flow through
crop/livestock systems is vital to the operation of limited resource agri-
culture; hence, crop/animal .relationships are critical to its efficiency.
Figure 1 illustrates the close integration of crops and livestock on
small farms in the highlands of Ethiopia. The crops provide food, some
construction materials' cash income, and feed for livestock. The livestock
provide traction for land preparation; transport from field to household
and to villages; manure for dung.cakes to serve as household fuel, direct
application to crops, or adding to residual crop materials for composting;
food in the form of milk or meat; income from sales of animals or products;
and wool for family needs or production of goods for sale.
In low rainfall areas, food security is extremely important;-hence,
a high dependence on animals (95%) as illustrated from Mali in Table 2.
As rainfall increases (Agropastoral Systems), dependence on animals as a
food source may decline; but contribution of other services, such as traction
On Farm: FALLOW
Figure 1. Crop/livestock farm in highlands of Ethiopia, permanent cropping, high-level integration of crops and livestock (Dash lines crops or
animals to market shows high reliance on home use crops and livestock). Adapted from McDowell and Hildebrand 1980.
Table 2. Major characteristics of livestock production systems in Mali.
System Pastoral Agropastoral
Flood plain Rainfed Irrigated Rainfed cash/
Subsystem Dryland grazing & millet rice subsistence
Pure cropping cropping cropping cropping cropping
livestock (% grobs
can be quite
400-800 500 (irrigation)
cultivates own crops: work oxen important
and consumes crop residues
no fixed base
sale milk/animals sale animals/grain
high wet season
(sells rice) (cash crops)
low, short distances during cropping
season, permanent base
*Total livestock units
Source: Adopted from Wilson, 1982.
and fertilization, may rise. In these systems there is a strong linkage
between pastoralists and agriculturalists. There is a barter system of
milk from pastoral herds for grains. Agropastoralists make their crop
residues available to herders in exchange for manure.
4. Importance of Livestock to Food Production
In Africa, changes in livestock numbers and in cereal output indicate
a significant correlation between the two. Production figures show that
each additional animal entering the cattle population is associated with an
additional .25 ha of cropland and approximately 200 kg of incremental grain
output per year as well as about 30 kg of meat and 38 liters of milk per
year. These observations for Africa are evident elsewhere. In India's
northwest states where very significant increases in wheat and rice have
occurred, there have been corresponding increases in milk output. The
reason for the association of livestock production and food grain output
are related to several factors. One of these is capital. On low resource
farms cash flow is limited, leaving little or no money to invest in fertilizer,
better seed, pesticides, or irrigation. In the absence or resistance to the
use of credit, increases in food grain production can come about only by
finding money to purchase inputs for crop production. More frequently,
this is achieved through increased income from the sale of livestock or
Another reason for the complimentary relationship between livestock and
crop production is the role of animals in providing traction. Recent evidence
from Africa shows a marked increase in the crop area cultivated per family as
bullock numbers increase. Considerable research has now been initiated to
try to improve efficiency in the utilization of animals for traction. This
includes improved nutrition, better equipment, and more efficient harnesses
for the animals.
If one accepts the fact that there is an important association between
increased food grain and livestock production, the time has come to con-
sider the technical alternatives. This will require efforts to structure
technology that will be useful as a part of existing systems or can be
used as effective changes for modifications. Even so, for us to capitalize
on this association will require a much closer integration among disciplines
directing attention to farming systems.
C. ROLE OF DISCIPLINES, TRAINING, AND ORIENTATION IN FARMING SYSTEMS RESEARCH
AND EXTENSION (FSR/E)
The emphasis on a FSR/E approach in no way diminishes the need for
well-trained scientists working under the traditional disciplines in
animal science, veterinary medicine, crop sciences, and social sciences.
The use of FSR/E for crop-animal system research does imply, however,
that a) these scientists need to respond to the findings of the FSR/E
descriptive and diagnostic stages in the formulation of their research
programs and b) their scientific results must be passed on to the subject
matter specialists within the context of how this research is of relevance
to the specific farming system in question. Thus, both the inputs into,
and the outputs from, the traditional disciplinary research program must
be modified. Diagram 1 represents this:
Current trends or > Disciplinary -- Reporting of scientific
fads within discipline Research papers to professional
FSR/E approach > Animal, plant, Reporting of applied
Priority problems v urinary and results to subject
identifiedatia aences matter specialists
farm level social sciences for direct applica-
tions to FSR/E team
The training and retraining needs are most acute for the members of
the FSR team and the subject matter specialists. The needs for disciplinary
specialists and problem-solving specialists are more in the area of orienta-
tion rather than in retraining. Another area which the TF recommends that
high priority be placed is on the role and function of communication
specialists within the overall program.
Effective research on crop/livestock systems requires a very high
degree of communication, cooperation, and coordination between plant, animal,
and social scientists; between disciplines; between researchers and farmers;
between farmers, subject matter specialists, and researchers; and between
subject matter specialists and problem-solving specialists. Scientists
tend not to be particularly skilled at working out these communication
needs; and the role of experienced, skilled communication specialists
would be crucial in both the design and implementation of the FSR/E
approach to mixed crop/livestock systems.
Orientation is-high priority for disciplinary specialists and problem-
solving specialists. This is best done by specific courses showing the
steps involved in FSR/E approach, use of case studies to show flows of
information, and the role of specific disciplines.
Documentation which sets out the conceptual, methodological, and
disciplinary aspects of a FSR project applied to animals, delineating the
entire research and on-farm testing process is very limited. Most reports
referring to methodological and conceptual issues are not put in the con-
text of actual research project and do not grapple with actual problems
of survey design, data processing, research planning and interpretation of
research results. Furthermore, much of our documentation dealing with
research projects fails to provide the background leading to the initiation
This section is concerned with some of the approaches being employed
in livestock/crop oriented FSR projects and discussions of methods of
incorporating contributions of livestock into farming systems studies.
Bernsten, et al. (1983) enumerates and discusses the typology of livestock
systems and lists current farming systems activities with major livestock
components underway by various organizations.
Even though a livestock component has been included in a number of
FSR programs (Bernsten et al, 1983), those with the most definitive pro-
jects will be used to illustrate the approaches employed: The International
Livestock Centre for Africa (ILCA) with headquarters in Addis Ababa,
Ethiopia; Winrock International, Morrilton, Arkansas; and the Centro Tropical
de Investicacion y Ensenanaza (CATIE), headquartered at Turrialba, Costa
Following some preliminary experimentation, all three organizations
have adopted the approach recommended for FSR by Norman (1982) in that
investigations are conducted in four successive stages: 1) descriptive
(diagnostic), 2) design, 3) testing, and 4) extension. Multidisciplinary
teams are usually employed with the basic team consisting of an economist,
a sociologist or anthropologist, an animal scientist, and agronomist. On
occasion other disciplines may be included, such as a range management
specialist, a veterinarian, or a human nutritionist. Insofar as possible,
the teams remain intact throughout the four stages in order to validate
results as fully as possible. The objectives set for each stage are
illustrated in Table 3.
Stages of Farming Systems Research Employed by ILCA
in Pastoral Systems Research
1. Descriptive and Diagnostic
research managed and
Natural, livestock and human resources:
production systems constraints, in
order of priority; research require-
ments; assessment of chances of
Component research; design of improve-
ments through on-station experimenta-
tion or from existing knowledge
Researcher and producer management
of improvements; producer acceptance
Evaluation of technical and socio-
-economic impact of improvements
Source: ILCA 1983
The objective of the descriptive stage is to identify constraints to
achieving farmer goals and objectives. The process commences with an
understanding of the total farming system, including crops and trees as
well as assessment of the role and performance of the animals. Constraints
to animal production are defined as opportunities for potential change--
albeit at the region, family, farm, or enterprise level--which could
substantially improve its productivity as defined by farmers. This
stage of FSR is accomplished by applying in a sequential manner rapid
appraisal methods, single-visit surveys, monitoring typical farms with
farm records and case studies.
The design stage involves a systematic process of identifying,
evaluating (on paper) and fitting technologies to the existing system that
results in a conceptual model of proposed alternatives. A careful blend of
inputs and ideas for this task are derived from the current technology and
suggestions of farmers and the conduct of component research on an institu-
tionally controlled area and on farms. Usually a high priority by farmers
is more and better quality feed for animals which readily involves evaluation
of cropping programs.
Testing of alternatives is carried out by introducing changes within
the farmer's system in two phases: 1) research managed, producer executed
trials; and 2) producer managed, producer executed trials. Between phase
1 and 2, the farmer's management, reactions, and degree of satisfaction
usually result in refinements of the original design. Due to the biological
nature and socio-economic aspects of animal systems, the testing stage
has major implications for the number of replications, the type of
changes to be considered, the time frame required for the system to
make the transition and for observing some impact, particularly for
Since traditional station methodologies frequently do not integrate
and test new technology adequately for small-farm practices, new testing
on-station methodologies needs to be developed. To accomplish this, it
may be necessary to establish units representative of farmer units on
experiment stations with the participation of farmers and farmer advisors.
This methodology is being explored by ILCA in conjunction with on-farm
testing in Ethiopia and shows.much promise for FSR with a livestock
component (Gryseels and Anderson, 1983).
The extension stage is to accomplish two major functions: 1) influence
administrators or policy makers of domestic institutions and to train
extension agents and others concerned with program implementation; and
2) to participate in area-specific development programs using previously
demonstrated alternatives. The three institutions are participating
effectively in 1), but their policies on phase 2) are unclear. Neither
CATIE nor ILCA have a mandate for direct technology transfer to farmers.
The same generally holds for Winrock's projects to this time. Since the
programs of the three organizations are still working principally in stages
1-3 and phase 1 of stage 4, the extent of involvement or policy on partici-
pation in extension has not become a major issue.
Experience will no doubt lead to adjustments in methodology for FSR by
ILCA, CATIE, Winrock, and others; but it is gratifying that largely through
independent actions the three organizations have arrived at similar objectives
and methodologies. Since the projects place heavy emphasis on cropping,
closer study of the methodology and the results from CATIE, Winrock, and
ILCA may be one solution to the current dilemma of the incorporation of
livestock into FSR programs.
The present program of the Animal Production Department of CATIE
focuses on cattle, swine, and goat production systems. Winrock has dealt
almost exclusively with sheep and goats. ILCA is concerned with camels,
cattle, goats, and sheep in both pastoral and agro-pastoral systems.
Experiences to date at CATIE, including some description of methodology,
are reported by Avila (1984), Avila,.et al. (1982), and CATIE (1978).
A report by Bernsten (1982) gave a framework for, approaches to FSR Ey
Winrock International. The recent paper by DeBoer, et al. (1983) on a
dual-purpose goat research project in western Kenya is reasonably complete,
but the work has not yet progressed to the stage where specific methodologies
have been worked out for the various components to the point that a definite
process for technology transfer is defined. In addition to Winrock's
involvement with documentation of mixed farming systems (Winrock, 1982) in
general and for sheep and goats (Winrock 1983a), it has been involved in
several studies of the potential for livestock improvement under mixed farm
systems employing further testing of methodology (DeBoer 1983a, Soedjana,
et al. 1983, Winrock 1980).
These studies have revealed the importance of research teams to
systematically sort through the multiple roles served by animals and the
intricate relationship between crops and livestock and focus their research
on a limited number of topics which show good promise of having the greatest
impact on farmers' welfare. Winrock's approach to an effective FSR program
stresses the need to adopt suitable methodology and networks to help in
identifying "on the shelf" items of technology appropriate for each
ILCA, too, has a number of reports: a) characterizing the systems
approach, e.g. Stewart (1983); b) with emphasis on findings from stage 1
(Table 3), e.g. Nicholson (1983), ILCA (1978), ILCA (1981), Von Kaufmann
(1983), and several reports dealing with stages 2 and 3, e.g. Wilson
(1982 and 1983), de Leeuw and Peacock (1982), Konandreas, et al. (1983).
Among the more advanced studies on FSR with animal emphasis is ILCA
Bulletin No. 16 (1983). It describes recommended methodology for stages
1, 2, and 3 and gives results based on experience in five countries
(Ethiopia, Kenya, Mali, Niger, and Nigeria). In this report the use of
low-flying aircraft surveillance in FSR is described.
ILCA has conducted several workshops on FSR and conducts training
courses annually for Africa Nationals.
The prospects for emphasis on a livestock component in FSR are rising.
Several U.S. universities, as well as institutions in Europe, are moving in
this direction. The Task Force suggests tthat the FSSP program can serve an
important role by monitoring approaches employed in order that more effective
evaluation analyses can be made.
2. Project Management
Effective project management in the field is one of the essential
ingredients to insure integration of livestock into cropping systems. In
this context, management covers a spectrum of activities and qualities
including, among others, an effective team leader with both administrative
and programmatic skills who also has an appreciation of FSR/E; organization
of project activities to promote continual interaction by all disciplines
in the team; and orientation and training of team members, both host-country
and U.S., who do not have a background in FSR/E.
Both U.S. and host-country scientists must have a general background
and understanding of FSR/E and be willing to address a research and
development approach that involves such a systems orientation. Failure to
incorporate scientists with such a background and interest will insure lack
of wholehearted support and ultimately impact negatively on the success of
the project. If the group does-not have an FSR/E background, then orienta-
tion activities need to be carried out. Even if the team has a background
in FSR/E, it will be necessary to come to an agreement on the specific
approach to be taken, which will require adaptation of FSR/E theory to the
existing environment. Project leadership must insure that these matters
are addressed. (See the section on the role of disciplines, training, and
In order to address the multiplicity of issues associated with both
crop and livestock production in the systems approach, there should be at
least one social scientist, plant scientist, and animal scientist on each
team. As an example, when conducting a diagnostic survey, these three
general disciplinary areas should be represented in order to have a holistic
view incorporated into the survey. There must also be mechanisms for these
individuals to continue to interact, along with the other members of the
team, in addressing issues relevant to the program/project. In this regard,
there should be a formal mechanism through which the scientists representing
all of the disciplines can interact, discuss, review, monitor, and evaluate
the ongoing efforts by the team. Proposed activities should be discussed
by the group as a whole to insure that all aspects are properly addressed
and to allow true interdisciplinary input. Periodic reports should be
given to the group by the individual scientist or groups of scientists in
order to keep everyone up-to-date on the progress and to insure input from
all the disciplines. Seminars, research progress reports, etc., are some of
these mechanisms. The management of the team must insure that the necessary
.environment and mechanisms are in place to foster these interactions.
In order for the above to occur in the most effective way, the project
must have good leadership that has an understanding and an interest in
incorporating the FSR/E approach involving both crops and livestock. It is
sometimes difficult to have project leadership that has a background in
both crops and livestock, but the individual in charge must have an apprecia-
tion of both in order for them to be appropriately addressed in all aspects
of the project undertaking. The Team Leader must have an understanding
of team building, must have the respect of the team members, based upon
both administrative and programmatic skills and must provide the impetus. and
support for the host country as well as U.S. staff in order to create an
optimal climate for the conduct of the activities. Project management must
also provide the team with the necessary infrastructural and other support
requirements in order for the team to be able to carry out their activities.
Especially important is the provision of transportation and fuel and the
maintenance of.vehicles, buildings, and equipment.
In terms of project management relating to the existing administrative
and support structures in the host country, it is the usual case that crop
activities and livestock activities are based in separate divisions of the
Ministry of Agriculture. Therefore, the team should make an effort to
incorporate individuals from the relevant existing institutional organiza-
tions in such a way that they feel "ownership" of the project and will
participate in both the short- and long-term activities.
The project, especially an FSR/E project, must be continually monitored
and must change based upon evolving information and ideas that are de-
veloped over time. The experiences gained should provide guidance to
change the project to make it more effective. Project management is para-
mount in insuring that such occurs.
For livestock to be successfully incorporated into FSR/E, it is impera-
tive that there be a linkage among the institutions responsible for crops
research, livestock research, and the institute responsible for extension
programs. This likely will not be easily accomplished since within existing
organizations, livestock, range, crop, and extension leaders generally are in
different ministries and frequently do not interact. Therefore, efforts must
be made to bring these different components together and minimize institutional
obstacles to the effective formation of research teams.
Once the linkage exists, extension personnel will likely serve in
three major roles. First, in cooperation with the research specialist,
they would convey research findings and needs from local cooperating
farmers to the research station for testing under a wider variety of
conditions. The second major role would be relaying experiment station
results to the local farmers; and the third should be taking results of
on-farm and experiment station research to other farmers in the region.
Extension responsibilities to farmers can be carried out through
personal visits, seminars, short courses, or field days, such as those
held by ILCA in demonstrating the technology of using wooden plows,
harness and yoke modified for a single ox used for crop production (Gryseels
and Anderson, 1983).
Unless there is active and early extension involvement in FSR/E, the
project will fail.
The effective incorporation of livestock into mixed farming systems
will depend upon the institutionalization of the FSR/E approach within the
existing host country organizations. This is frequently difficult due to
the fact that there is a lack of understanding and appreciation of the
concept and implementation of FSR/E. As already mentioned, livestock and
crop activities are generally administered through different divisions of
the Ministry of Agriculture or even different ministries. This separation
frequently establishes an environment of competition for limited resources,
rather than support for the activities, which results in the livestock and
crop-oriented scientists and organizations actually working against each
other rather than being mutually supportive. Because of this separation,
the career structure for host-country scientists is usually oriented along
discipline or commodity lines. Recognition and advancement in rank by the
host country scientists is usually determined by a peer system which is
commodity or discipline oriented. This results in a lack of understanding
of FSR/E activities and a lack of a reward system for individuals who are
directing their efforts into integrated crop-livestock production. Because
of this, it is important that the activities of the individual host-country
scientist be such that when they carry out FSR/E activities, they are also
able to produce publications and other means of recognition within their dis-
cipline. Ultimately, it is hoped that the existing organizations and peer
scientists will recognize FSR/E as a scientific thrust for which rewards are
justified and given. Failure to address these problems will result in host-
country scientists who will not wholeheartedly support the FSR/E approach.
As indicated above, most research institutions in developing countries,
as well as in the U.S. are oriented along disciplinary and commodity lines.
This means that a farming systems approach is unusual, is frequently new,
and will not be accepted immediately by the host country institutions and
scientists. It is frequently the case that a specific FSR/E project will
have more resources at its disposal over the short term as compared to
other projects financed by the host country. This may result in an
atmosphere of antagonism or defensiveness among host-country scientists.
In order to overcome this and other problems, an approach to institutional-
izing FSR/E must be based upon interaction, mutual understanding of the
activities and involvement of FSR team scientists with those oriented to
discipline and commodity activities. One approach is to utilize farming
systems as an on-the-ground testing area for feedback to the discipline
or commodity groups. Another approach is for the FSR/E group to serve as
an on-the-ground implementor for the findings of the discipline or commodity
group--in short, to define and implement mutual benefits from FSR/E,
commodity, and discipline-related activities as they are mutually supportive.
This requires leadership and understanding, especially on the part of the
FSR/E scientists, of the necessity and sensitivity of defining and
implementing bridging mechanisms that will benefit not only the systems
activities, but the.commodity and discipline ones as well. (See section
on the role of disciplines, training, and orientation.)
5. Policy Recommendations
Two sets of policy recommendations can be distinguished: a) public
policy toward agriculture in general and b) specific policies toward the
institutional framework under which farming systems research and develop-
ment programs are carried out.
a. Public Policies Toward Agriculture. It is commonly recognized
that economic policies in developing countries discriminate against the
agricultural sector, particularly the smallholder component. Therefore,
FSR/E programs must operate under conditions where the client group faces
difficult economic conditions. The perceived risk of trying a largely
unproven practice generated through the FSR/E program is often too great
or the complementary inputs needed to obtain full benefit from the tech-
nology cannot be afforded. This is particularly true for livestock,
since the animals) may represent the largest single non-land asset
controlled by the farmer. Where draft power is important, the loss of
the'use of an animal for even a few weeks may be disastrous.
Another facet which is-seldom recognized is that the major economic
policies which influence the economic status of the smallholder sector
are seldom formulated or implemented by the Ministry of Agriculture or
Ministry of Livestock. General economic policies such as exchange rates,
money supply, interest rates, taxation, tariff rates, import quotas,
export quotas, export taxes, and rationing of foreign exchange are under
the control of Ministries of Finance, Economic Planning, or Foreign Trade
plus Central Banks. The influence of smallholders is felt even less.at
these agencies than at Ministries dealing with agriculture and livestock.
The economic planners and decision makers must be made more aware of the
national consequences of continuing neglect of the smallholder sector
and the agricultural sector in general.
b. Specific Policies Toward Institutional Structures. The pervasive
problem is separation of research functions by disciplines and commodities.
While this is appropriate for many types of effective research, strict
adherence to these lines of authority when a program is trying to improve
the flow of technology to farms creates problems. The FSR/E approach
constantly labors under bureaucratically imposed constraints. There are
short-run and long-run recommendations related to these problems:
(1) Short-run: The approach should be to create effective
programs that will illustrate the benefits of the FSR/E approach
and will ultimately bring about long-term changes in the bureau-
cracy. Short-term programs can proceed on the basis of informal
groups of scientists, usually requiring donor support, but with
a common interest in applying their disciplinary knowledge
to small farm problems within the framework of the FSR/E
approach. Other short-term programs have been carried out in
conjunction with the International Agricultural Research
Centers (IARCs) and by universities. The latter often operate
under a less restrictive structure than the research agencies
.(2) Long-run: The challenge is to bring about effective reor-
ganization of research, extension, and development groups within
Ministries to effectively blend their overlapping functions into
FSR/E programs. This requires one group to assume overall control
of these efforts and sufficient budgetary flexibility to form groups
to work on specific farming systems with clearly stated objectives.
There also need to be linkages to local government agencies to
insure support at the implementation levels. (See section on
6. Case Studies and Models
Case studies can be important to the FSR concept in several ways,
i. identifying key elements needed for success in a FSR project
ii. documenting lessons learned from FSR projects
iii. developing and testing materials for the training of practitioners
iv. developing guidelines for the conduct of research on farms
v. developing-ways for using evaluation analyses and supporting
data to communicate to administrators results and perspectives
vi. broadening the outlook for those lacking experience in FSR with
an animal component; studies from livestock/crop farm FSR can
be an especially useful tool in the FSSP.
a. Case Studies. Although case studies can have wide application in
FSR, the Livestock Task Force proposes that the initial focus be to develop
better means of communication with key personnel in order to have greater
impact from research in farming systems.
Administrators need to know what the farming systems approach is and
where it fits into the profile of agriculture for their country; finally,
they will need information on what administrative arrangements are required
to implement the approach. We must assume that these administrators will
take a national or at least a regional perspective and that they will weigh
the advantages and disadvantages of investment and organization focused on
smallholders in comparison to other forms of agriculture. In the past, the
claims of smallholders have generally been ignored in favor of commercial
and export agriculture; but on the assumption that the situation is changing,
a case must be made in terms that administrators understand, and the case
must not be overstated.
Practitioners refer to the relatively few research workers in govern-
ment ministries, experiment stations, and in the colleges of agriculture,
along with extension workers, who are able to view smallholder systems
in a holistic fashion and to understand their dynamics with a view to
implementing specific innovations. Their efforts will be influenced
from decisions made by senior administrators. If these decisions are
favorable, the practitioners must be trained to apply the approach in a
true multidisciplinary manner.
Administrators and practitioners are central to farming systems for.
several reasons. Integrated farming systems research will simply not move
unless they support it. Second, even if they are favorable, they must
integrate FSR into their programs and policies. A third, and probably
the most important, is that case studies can be used on groups representing
various disciplines as a "neutral focus" for discussions on how they might
develop closer collaboration. Normally when either administrators or
scientists representing various disciplines get together, there is a
tendency to promote the importance of individual disciplines leading to
competitiveness rather than objective discussions. Assuming this is a
general problem, we must find modes of communication that will stimulate
active participation in discussions and lead to multiple linkages among-
To best serve the above-mentioned audiences, the utilization of case
studies will be required at all levels. It is proposed that the FSSP give
priority to the selection of one or more institutions to take the lead in
preparation of several case studies.
An example of a case study of FSR/E approach applied to livestock
improvement has been recently documented (Sambrani, et al. 1982). This
particular research/extension program was carried out as a collaborative
effort between the Small Ruminant Collaborative Research Support Program
(SR-CRSP), the Research Institute for Animal Production, and the Directorate
General of Livestock Services in West Java, Indonesia. The objective was
to establish reasons for the low productivity of intensive small ruminant
production systems and to derive specific packages of technology that were
feasible under the constraints of these mixed farming systems. Following the
initial agro-ecosystem characterization, the group focused on three of the
predominant systems found--upland cropping systems with sheep, lowland
cropping systems with sheep and goats, and plantation-based systems, also
with both species. Because of the seasonal factors involved and the long
production cycles involved, the diagnostic stage extended over 18 months.
Full-time field assistants were placed in the village to collect information
on animal performance, forage production and quality, and socioeconomic
factors impinging upon small ruminant production decision making. Much of
this work was linked to the central laboratory in Bogor.
Gradually, a pattern began to emerge. First, the lambing/kidding
interval was excessively long. Litter sizes and lamb/kid survivability
were good. Growth rates of individuals were highly variable, even within
pens. The composition of feed offered varied a great deal between seasons,
but overall quantities and quality of feed offered did not show large
variation between farm and between season. Small ruminants were basically
a means of converting excess farm labor into a saleable product. Finally,
animals were generally held as a form of savings and not sold at the
optimum economic age.
The research team initially did not consider animal health as a
serious constraint given the full confinement system under which the
animals were kept most of the year. However, the high variability of weight
gains observed indicated that parasite load should be considered. Thus, a
fourth institution, the Research Institute for Animal Health, was asked to
assist. Their research confirmed that routine parasite control would be
needed as part of an improvement program.
The packages that are being developed focus on three very specific
areas: reduction of lambing/kidding interval, improvement of the protein
proportion of the diet on a year-round basis, and a routine animal health
treatment focusing on internal parasites. These are being discussed with
farmers at a series of monthly meetings, where discussions are lead by a
scientist from a specific discipline. Feedback from the farmers about
specific problems that may arise has been excellent. Problems such as a
shortage of good quality rams/bucks and lack of farmer access to these
animals have been discussed as well as farmer problems in detecting heat
in the ewes/does. High protein trees and shrubs are being planted and
evaluated by the farmers. Control groups for the parasite treatment
program are being set up. All this work is being closely monitored by
the farmers in conjunction with the village-based staff of the research
A series of 30 working papers describing all aspects of this program
are available from Winrock International.
b. Models. Further justification for focusing on the communication
aspects is that researchers in different organizations have often identified
sets of variables which go beyond the usual farm management models of the
previous decade. Often several of the variables are incidental to the
focus of the research. This is especially true where there is a strong
focus on animal science technology. The technology may be sound, but
usually it has undergone only limited testing on farms; hence, a high
dependence on inputs of other disciplines, particularly economics, is
warranted to assist in the projection of the economic feasibility of the
proposed innovation (Gutierrez, 1983). This would entail development of
models for either analysis of data or for projecting the results of apply-
ing technology to small farm situations. Models for projected application
could become a part of a case study or could be used as another means for
communication on the projected contribution of livestock to various farming
In situations where experiment stations have several disciplines working
together, small computers could be a very effective means of developing
desirable interactions among staff. For example, if after the preliminary
analysis of the data, individual scientists were to gather around a computer,
projections on the influence of variables could be tested promptly. This
would enable the group to interact in a much more precise fashion than
in the general discussions. Experience in the past has shown that tech-
nicians representing various disciplines will discuss mutual problems and
the possibilities of closer linkages, but unfortunately this does not get
much beyond the dialogue stage. Objective use of computers would enable
much sharper focus on the potential contributions of the various disciplines
to a projected change.
Numerous field locations overseas are acquiring small computers.
Programs to assist in evaluating data gathered by multidisciplinary teams
is a high priority need. Another worthy role for the FSSP is to catalog
computer programs which can be useful in processing FSR data. ILCA, for
example, views programs for small computers as an urgent need to bring
national organizations of Africa into active FSR.
1. U.S. Nationals
Training received by U.S. personnel should include an integrated,
holistic view of livestock production as well as information relating to
farming systems. This training must reflect an appreciation and hopefully
experience in a systems approach to research. The leaders must recognize
that problems facing livestock-crop interactions are multi-dimensional,
and this must be taken into account if educational institutions are to
provide relevant training.
Case studies and models for projected applications of FSR/E can be
used separately or jointly as means of training those interested in the
contribution of livestock to various farming systems.
Short courses, seminars, symposiums and other special meetings can be
held at U.S. universities through strengthening and program support grants
-allowing an exchange of knowledge and experiences. Slide-tape modules are
additional aids valuable to training in FSR/E.
These training modules should include at least the following subjects
and types of information and are equally applicable to U.S. as well as
host country nationals:
a. Introduction--Background to animal agriculture. Source: Fitzhugh,
et al.--Role of Ruminants in Support of Man (1978).
b. Roles and functions of animals. Several sources: McDowell (1978);
Fitzhugh, et al. (1978); Winrock (1982); and others.
c. Mixed farming systems. Sources: McDowell and Hildebrand (1980),
Winrock (1982), various publications by Hart, Bernsten, and
others (including ILCA).
d. Conceptualization of research problems dealing with mixed farming
systems. Sources: Some of those cited in (b) above. Work at
ILCA is also relevant here.
e. Conduct of research. Sources: The Kenya dual purpose goat paper
(DeBoer, et al., 1983) and Bernsten's (1982) illustrations of the
parallels between crops and livestock. The ILCA work also
represents a fairly complete package that could be worked into
f. Research methodologies, especially regarding field testing.
Source: several case studies of ILCA, Winrock, and CATIE.
g. Extension programs. A module to develop extension procedures
to deal specifically with livestock in mixed farm systems.
h. Maintenance of adequate nutrition for livestock, including a
year-round feed supply, effective use of crop residues, etc.
i. Basic livestock management.
j. Improved animal health, including internal and external parasites.
k. Animal traction, including animal care, harness, appropriate
implements, and selection and breeding for stronger animals.
Source: Gryseels and Anderson (1983).
1. Selecting for increased meat, milk, and/or fiber production.
m. Marketing of livestock and crops.
The Task Force can provide further suggestions for assistance on the
above proposed topics for training modules. Also, the pool of program
associates of the FSSP network is another available resource for this task.
2. Host Country Nationals
The training received by developing country scientists in the U.S.,
and in the western world generally, is a mirror image of the western educa-
tional system and orientation, with limited emphasis on the systems approach.
In the case of the crop and livestock disciplines, the integration of the two
within the subject matter presented at universities is generally limited or
lacking. Therefore, both the host country as well as U.S. individuals who
are being trained, generally have had an education that has lacked incorpora-
tion of a systems concept. Instead, the training has tended to be quite
specialized, focusing on small areas of research, especially for the Ph.D.
Because of the above, individuals who plan to participate in projects
on livestock in mixed farming systems should be provided access to courses,
seminars, workshops, and other training endeavors that will allow them to
become familiar with the FS process. Selected U.S. universities and
International Agricultural Research Centers are important and relevant
resources for such training. The training should include on-the-ground
experience in conducting surveys, in defining domains, etc., so that the
individuals have an understanding of not only the theoretical, but the
practical application to actual situations. In addition, the research
undertaken should be relevant to the host country and should emphasize.the
combination of both crops and livestock in the systems context.
Whenever possible, research should be conducted in the home country
of the trainee. Special courses more relevant to developing country
environments and situations should be utilized. An opportunity for the
trainee to interact with a functional FSR/E group that incorporates both
crops and livestock should be provided. (See previous section for suggested
In addition to formal degree and non-degree training in the developed
countries, in-country (and regional) workshops, seminars, and conferences
on FSR/E are extremely beneficial for project staff, both scientific and
support. Such activities can also serve as important mechanisms to inform
host-country commodity and discipline-oriented scientists and organizations
about FSR/E and the potential benefits from the integration of crops and
livestock in a systems approach. The FSSP can make significant contri-
butions to many of the above-listed types of training on a need and
Communication is essential and should be aimed at acquainting all
people involved with the potential opportunities and responsibilities of
including livestock in FSR/E. Those included in the in-country communica-
tion network are government leaders, -including those in the different
ministries, research personnel and extension specialists, and the
cooperating farmer or farm family. (See FSSP Task Force Report on Family
Systems and Household.) A network of institutions such as USAID, univer-
sities, ministries, private foundations, and IARCs, should be established
to encourage a closer link among the people interested in and working
with livestock in FSR/E projects.
In a broad sense, all activities included in extension as well as
the other aspects of this task force report pertain to communication.
Consequently, the importance of proper and thorough communication must be
at the forefront in all planning and implementation stages of.FSR/E. The
FSSP has a special role it can play in the communication dimension of
farming system research and development.
The Livestock Task Force strongly draws attention to the fact that
animals form an integral and essential part of limited resource farming
systems in most of the developing countries and that efforts should
be made by FSSP to create awareness of the importance of their integration
among training institutions, the IARCs, and government agencies. To
that end several recommendations are proposed:
1. That FSSP entertain proposals from one or more universities or
institutions, preferably within the FSSP network to develop a
series of training modules, as suggested in the section on
training. Modules with slides, tapes, or movies should be
produced or at least narrated by AV personnel with expertise
in this area.
2. That case studies be considered as a means of training and of
improving communications and developing policy guidelines.
3. That case studies be developed from those projects that are
successful in institutionalizing the FSR/E approach within the
existing host country organizations.
4. That FSSP entertain proposals from one or more universities
or institutions to'develop guidelines for the preparation of
case studies to serve the needs of the program.
5. That the FSSP entertain proposals from one or more universities
or institutions, preferably within the FSSP network to develop
a handbook or set of guidelines on the conceptual, methodological,
and disciplinary aspects of FSR/E involving livestock. Materials
and information from case studies training modules and other
sources can serve as basis for the handbook for use among
trainers, planners, evaluators, administrators, and practitioners.
6. That FSSP encourage FSR projects to include a livestock
component where it is evident that animals play a role in the
7. That the FSR/E design and implementation teams be composed of
at least a plant, animal, and social scientist.
8. That individuals qualified to become degree candidates be
brought to U.S. universities for schooling. These would be-
come the long-term directors of the projects.
9. That individuals who are not degree candidates be brought to
the U.S. for brief visits to observe and study some systems-
type, crop-livestock operations in the U.S. or sent to appropriate
IARCs or other institutions or agencies.
10. That FSSP encourage universities involved in development projects
to offer at least one FSR/E course and that the course make
reference to livestock in mixed farming systems.
11. That in Africa, research and/or extension personnel be trained
in their own working area or sent to ILCA, IITA, or other
IARCs to participate in short courses or internship programs.
12. That short courses and special training and orientation meetings
be held at local research stations and village centers in
developing countries where the FSR/E program is to be conducted.
Slide-tape modules developed by FSSP should be used by leaders
with FSR/E experience during these training sessions.
13. That the extension component be incorporated at the design state
of FSR/E projects.
14. That FSSP sponsor a workshop on research methodologies related
to livestock in mixed farming systems.
15. That one of the objectives of the FSSP network be to monitor
approaches in FSR and circulate at least annually a bibliography
on methodologies employed with the objective of more effective
16. That FSSP appoint a task force if and when appropriate to develop
recommendations on those farming systems which include water
fowl and/or fish.
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PROGRAM ASSOCIATES WITH SIGNED MOA SUPPORT ENTITIES WITH
INTEREST OR EXPERIENCE IN LIVESTOCK
(Including Animal Science, Veterinary Medicine,
Animal Breeding and Animal Systems) as of 11/23/83
MOA (With Years
ram Associate Entity Area of Expertise Therein in Parenthesis)
n, George ISU Vet Microb & Asia (3+); Africa (10+)
listen, Richard WI Ag Economics Asia (3); Africa (2+);
Latin America (?)
:kelsberg, Paul 0. ISU Animal Science Asia (.1);
Near East (.1)
rgton, Evert WI Range Sci/ Unknown
nelius, Steve UMN Animal Science/ Unknown
Charles MSU Vet Med Africa (2)
)o, Bo UMN Animal Science/ Asia (.25)
iy, Robin CSU Agronomy (Forages) Africa (5)
Latin America (3)
ns, Robert MSU Animal Science Africa (?); Asia (?);
Latin America (?);
total of 6 years
oer, Alvin J. WI Ag Economics Asia (3+); Africa
zhugh, Henry A. WI Animal Breeding Latin America,
dman, Bill SIU Animal Industriesf Unknown
sen, Jorgen VPI Vet Med Unknown
t, Robert D. WI Agronomy/Crop Latin America (6);
Ecology Africa (?)
nson, Harold UMC Animal Systems Unknown
16. King, Thomas B.
17. Koch, Berl A.
18. Kornegay, E. T.
19. Marsh, Will
20. McCarthy, F.
21. McDowell, R. E.
22. Mitchell, George
23. Morris, Roger
24. Olson, Howard
25. Oxley, James W.
26. Perry, Brian
27. Schillhorn Van Vern,
28. Sollod, Albert
29. Sutherland, Thomas M.
30. Thawley, D. G.
31. Vandepopuliere, Joe.
32. Vogt, Dale
33. Ward, Gerald M.
34. Wheat, John D.
35. Wilson, Kim J.
Entity Area of Expertise
PSU Animal Sci/Admini-
KSU Animal Nutrition
VPI Animal Science
UMN Animal Health Econ-
VPI Animal Science
CU Animal Science
UOK Animal Science/
UMN Vet Med/
SIU Animal Industries
CSU Animal Science/
VPI Vet Medicine
MSU Vet Medicine
DAI Vet Med/
CSU Animal Breeding
UMC Animal Systems
UMC Animal Systems
UMC Animal Systems
CSU Animal Science
KSU Animal Breeding/
MSU Animal Science
Therein in Parenthesis)
Latin America (?)
Africa (4); Asia (2)
Asia (9); Latin
Near East (?)
Asia (2), Africa
Asia, Near East
Africa (2+); Latin
America (.25); Asia (.2)
Latin America, Asia
(Total 3 years)
MOA (With Years
Program Associate Entity Area of Expertise Therein in Parenthesis)
36. Wilson, Terry PSU Vet Med/ Latin America (6)
37. Yazman, James WI Animal Science Latin America, Asia
1. DAI = Development Alternatives, Inc.
2. IADS = Int'l Agricultural Development Service
3. RTI = Research Triangle Institute
4. WI + Winrock International
1. CSU = Colorado State University
2. ISU = Iowa State University
3. KSU = Kansas State University
4. MSU = Michigan State University
5. PSU = Penn State University
6. SIU = Southern Illinois University
7. UOK = University of Kentucky
8. UMN = University of Minnesota
9. UMC = University of Missouri
10. VPI = Virginia Polytechnic Institute
11. CU = Cornell University