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 Front Cover
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Conference report
 Introduction
 Conference description
 Workshops
 Posters
 Lists of participants






Group Title: Innovations and partnerships : working with natural resource management, gender and local communities in the tropics
Title: Innovations and partnerships
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE PAGE TEXT
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00054841/00001
 Material Information
Title: Innovations and partnerships working with natural resource management, gender and local communities in the tropics : conference report, March 31 - April 1, 1995
Alternate Title: Working with natural resource management, gender and local communities in the tropics
Physical Description: 49 p. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Schmink, Marianne
Russo, Sandra L., 1948-
Conference: Latin American Conference, 1995
Publication Date: [1995]
 Subjects
Subject: Natural resources -- Management -- Congresses -- Tropics   ( lcsh )
Women in conservation of natural resources -- Congresses -- Tropics   ( lcsh )
Genre: conference publication   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Language: English and Spanish.
Statement of Responsibility: edited by Marianne Schmink and Sandra L. Russo.
General Note: Typescript.
General Note: At head of title: 44th Annual Latin American Studies Conference.
Funding: Electronic resources created as part of a prototype UF Institutional Repository and Faculty Papers project by the University of Florida.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00054841
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida
Resource Identifier: aleph - 002765268
oclc - 52926292
notis - ANP3306

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page I
    Title Page
        Page II
    Table of Contents
        Page III
    Conference report
        Page 1
    Introduction
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Conference description
        Page 3
        March 30
            Page 3
            Page 4
            Page 5
            Page 6
            Page 7
            Page 8
            Page 9
        March 31
            Page 10
            Page 11
            Page 12
            Page 13
            Page 14
            Page 15
            Page 16
            Page 17
            Page 18
            Page 19
            Page 20
            Page 21
            Page 22
            Page 23
            Page 24
            Page 25
            Page 26
            Page 27
        Conclusion and lessons learned
            Page 28
    Workshops
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
    Posters
        Page 34
        Page 35
    Lists of participants
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Acronyms
            Page 48
            Page 49
Full Text



44th Annual Latin American Studies Conference


Innovations and Partnerships:
Working with Natural Resource Management,
Gender and Local
Communities in the Tropics





Conference Report
March 31 April 1, 1995

Edited by Marianne Schmink and Sandra L. Russo






UNIVERSITY OF
FLORIDA








44th Annual Latin American Studies Conference


Innovations and Partnerships:

Working with Natural Resource. Management,

Gender and Local

Communities in the Tropics







Conference Report
March 31 April 1, 1995


Edited by Marianne Schmink and Sandra L. Russo




Co-sponsored by
Women in Agricultural Development Program
Women's Studies Department
Tropical Conservation and Development Program
Center for Latin American Studies








Table of Contents


L Conference Report
Introduction ........................................... 1

II. Conference Description
M arch 30 ...................................... ...... 3
Welcome and Introduction
Keynote Address
Voices from the Field: Brazil Global Climate Change Partners
Voices From the Field: Peru Pacaya-Samiria Partners
Discussion Groups: Sharing Experiences and Innovations
March 31 .... ....................................... 10
Plenary presentation
Country Roundtable: Peru
Country Roundtable: Brazil
Country Roundtable: Ecuador
Thematic Roundtable: Hezlth, Gender and Environmental Linkages
Thematic Roundtable: Parks and People
Thematic Roundtable: Working with Stakeholders
Thematic Roundtable: The Donor and Policy Perspectives
Strategies For Innovating Effectively: Discussion Groups
Plenary: Strategies, Networking and Summary

Conclusion ......... ................................. 28

Lessons Learned .......................................... 28

III. Appendices
29
Workshops ...........................................29
In English
In Spanish

Posters .... ..... ................................ 34

Lists of Participants .......................................... 36


Acronyms








I. Conference Report


Innovation and Partnership: Working with Natural Resource Management,
Gender and Local Communities in the Tropics

Introduction

The 44th Annual Latin American conference was held in Gainesville March 30-April 1, 1995,
sponsored by the MERGE (Managing the Environment and Resources with Gender Emphasis)
project of the Tropical Conservation and Development (TCD) program. Financial support for the
conference was provided by the U.S. Office of Education, the University of Florida (UF), the
MacArthur Foundation, and USAID-Brazil, as well as other organizations that sponsored travel
to the conference by participants. There were 117 registered participants, including 44 from
Latin- America. Participants represented conservation organizations, government agencies,
universities, donors, and field projects from twelve countries: Brazil, Burkina Faso, Peru,
Ecuador, Guatemala, Mexico, Dominican Republic, Belize, Bolivia, Chile, Tanzania, the United
Kingdom, and the United States.

The objectives of the conference were to: (1) bring together field practitioners, adminisi'ators,
and academic researchers working with natural resource management (NRM), community
participation and gender, (2) bring together partners of the MERGE project, (3) maximize
discussion and interaction, (4) maximize voices from the field, (5) exchange innovative
presentations, and (6) share methodologies for working with gender, CP and NRM. To reach
these objectives, the conference design format included a variety of sessions that provided
opportunities for hearing the many different voices present at the two-day conference, followed
by a day-long series of methodological workshops. As part of the MERGE program, the
conference was preceded and followed by a planning retreat for UTF faculty, staff, and students
as well as representatives from partner organizations in Ecuador, Peru and Brazil. With support
from the MacArthur Foundation and USAID, MERGE is collaborating in several sites in these
countries to strengthen the understanding of gender issues in natural resource management
projects, and to develop and test gender analysis research and training materials.

The themes of integration, innovation, and collaboration were addressed from many different
perspectives during the three days of the conference and workshops. Although not new concepts,
their implementation in field level projects addressing gender, local community needs, and natural
resource management strategies are still relatively rare. Participants spoke about their attempts
to integrate gender, community participation, and natural resource management. A second focus
was on experiences with partnerships or coalitions of organizations of different types working
together in the same field site. The conference provided an excellent opportunity for people from
different countries to learn from one another's experiences.








I. Conference Report


Innovation and Partnership: Working with Natural Resource Management,
Gender and Local Communities in the Tropics

Introduction

The 44th Annual Latin American conference was held in Gainesville March 30-April 1, 1995,
sponsored by the MERGE (Managing the Environment and Resources with Gender Emphasis)
project of the Tropical Conservation and Development (TCD) program. Financial support for the
conference was provided by the U.S. Office of Education, the University of Florida (UF), the
MacArthur Foundation, and USAID-Brazil, as well as other organizations that sponsored travel
to the conference by participants. There were 117 registered participants, including 44 from
Latin- America. Participants represented conservation organizations, government agencies,
universities, donors, and field projects from twelve countries: Brazil, Burkina Faso, Peru,
Ecuador, Guatemala, Mexico, Dominican Republic, Belize, Bolivia, Chile, Tanzania, the United
Kingdom, and the United States.

The objectives of the conference were to: (1) bring together field practitioners, adminisi'ators,
and academic researchers working with natural resource management (NRM), community
participation and gender, (2) bring together partners of the MERGE project, (3) maximize
discussion and interaction, (4) maximize voices from the field, (5) exchange innovative
presentations, and (6) share methodologies for working with gender, CP and NRM. To reach
these objectives, the conference design format included a variety of sessions that provided
opportunities for hearing the many different voices present at the two-day conference, followed
by a day-long series of methodological workshops. As part of the MERGE program, the
conference was preceded and followed by a planning retreat for UTF faculty, staff, and students
as well as representatives from partner organizations in Ecuador, Peru and Brazil. With support
from the MacArthur Foundation and USAID, MERGE is collaborating in several sites in these
countries to strengthen the understanding of gender issues in natural resource management
projects, and to develop and test gender analysis research and training materials.

The themes of integration, innovation, and collaboration were addressed from many different
perspectives during the three days of the conference and workshops. Although not new concepts,
their implementation in field level projects addressing gender, local community needs, and natural
resource management strategies are still relatively rare. Participants spoke about their attempts
to integrate gender, community participation, and natural resource management. A second focus
was on experiences with partnerships or coalitions of organizations of different types working
together in the same field site. The conference provided an excellent opportunity for people from
different countries to learn from one another's experiences.








The three-day conference format included the following sessions:


Plenary presentations: Each day of the conference began with a provocative presentation that
addressed some of the challenges faced in integrating gender, local communities, and natural
resource management. "Gendered Environments, Gendered Methods: Landscapes, Lifescapes,
Livelihoods and Life Histories" was the title of the keynote address presented on March 30 by
Dianne Rocheleau (Clark University) and Julio Morrobel (Instituto Superior de Agricultura,
Dominican Republic). Kent Redford and Paquita Bath (The Nature Conservancy) presented
"Natural Partners" on March 31.

Voices from the Field: Two presentations were made by organizations working in partnerships
through the USAID-funded Global Climate Change program in Brazil and in the Pacaya-Samiria
reserve in Peru. This was an opportunity for those working on the ground with communities to
share their experiences and methodologies for doing applied work.

Roundtable discussions: Seven roundtable discussions included presentations by individuals
working in specific countries (Peru, Brazil, and Ecuador) and on cross-cutting themes (Health,
Gender and En .ironment Linkages; Parks and People; Working with Stakeholders; and Donor
and Policy Perspectives).

Discussion groups: Each afternoon, small discussion groups were formed to discuss innovations
related to environment, gender, and partnerships, and issues and strategies to overcome problems
in innovating.

Workshops: April 1 was devoted to workshops for hands-on learning of innovative gender tools
and methodologies. The workshops, some offered in English and some in Spanish, included:

Environmental Dispute Resolution: Tools for Partnership
Carteles y Dibujos Sencillos: Herramientas visuales para facilitar discusi6n
comunitaria
La Fotografia Social como una Herramienta para el Proceso de Planeaci6n
Participativa en Actividades de Conservaci6n y Desarrollo
S Herramientas para la Validaci6n de Genero en Proyectos de Foresteria
Comunitaria
Introduction to Gender Analysis: Activity Profile and Seasonal Calendars
G6nero y Consideraciones Socio-econ6micas em Monitoramiento y Evaluaci6n
Participatory Rural Appraisal So what's all the fuss about?!?
A Guide to the Process of Participatory Research
S Project Learning Tree (PLT)
Taller de Sensibilizaci6n

Posters and displays Throughout the conference period, a room was set aside for participants to
display posters, videos, slides, and training materials.








II. Conference Description


March 30

Welcome and Introduction

The conference began with a welcome and introduction by Terry McCoy, Director of the Center for
Latin American Studies; John Lombardi, President of the UF; and Marianne Schmink, Professor of
Latin American Studies and Anthropology and Co-Director of the Tropical Conservation and
Development program. Terry McCoy welcomed participants to the 44th Annual Latin American
Studies conference and introduced President Lombardi. President Lombardi, a Latin American
historian, commended participants on their commitment to important issues facing the region and
the world. Referring to the conference title, he pointed out that words like "innovation",
"partnership", "natural resources", "gender" and "community participation" represent both
significant, positive goals as well as empty-catchwords that easily can be manipulated to further
development and conservation agendas that do not benefit rural communities. He challenged the
conference participants to move beyond facile slogans to confront the real challenges implied in the
conference title.

Marianne Schmink mentioned the more than fifty-year history at the UF in teaching, research, and
collaborative work in Latin America. The University has a strong background in interdisciplinary
programs in tropical agriculture, agroforestry, and biological conservation, as well as a focus on
women in agriculture and conservation. The MERGE program builds on two programs that began
ten years ago: Women in Agricultural Development (WIAD) and Tropical Conservation and
Development (TCD). The MERGE program seeks to integrate conservation and management of
natural resources, community participation, and gender. It promotes collaboration between groups
and organizations, fostering coalitions for joint projects. It seeks to learn from innovative
experiences in the field. Integration, collaboration, and innovation were the three features of the
MERGE approach underlying the conference program. The more than sixty persons listed on the
conference program represented many voices that would be heard over the three days, through
exchanges, discussions, and an attempt to begin synthesizing learning from field experiences in
many different sites.

Keynote Address

Dianne Rocheleau (Clark University) presented the opening Keynote Address entitled "Gendered
Environments, Gendered Methods: Landscapes, Lifescapes, Livelihoods and Life Histories",
followed by commentary by Julio Morrobel (ISA). She spoke of the need to cross frontiers of
policy, culture, personality and discipline in order to construct a broader, more adequate science that
could "reinvent" the ecosystems of the future for a common world, linking local and global
concerns. She spoke of her personal voyage, illustrated by images from the countries where she has
carried out field work. Beginning with an initially static focus on natural resources, her commitment
to participatory approaches gradually taught her to see the previously "invisible" groups such as the
poor, near landless peasants, and women. Her face-to-face encounters with them led her to








II. Conference Description


March 30

Welcome and Introduction

The conference began with a welcome and introduction by Terry McCoy, Director of the Center for
Latin American Studies; John Lombardi, President of the UF; and Marianne Schmink, Professor of
Latin American Studies and Anthropology and Co-Director of the Tropical Conservation and
Development program. Terry McCoy welcomed participants to the 44th Annual Latin American
Studies conference and introduced President Lombardi. President Lombardi, a Latin American
historian, commended participants on their commitment to important issues facing the region and
the world. Referring to the conference title, he pointed out that words like "innovation",
"partnership", "natural resources", "gender" and "community participation" represent both
significant, positive goals as well as empty-catchwords that easily can be manipulated to further
development and conservation agendas that do not benefit rural communities. He challenged the
conference participants to move beyond facile slogans to confront the real challenges implied in the
conference title.

Marianne Schmink mentioned the more than fifty-year history at the UF in teaching, research, and
collaborative work in Latin America. The University has a strong background in interdisciplinary
programs in tropical agriculture, agroforestry, and biological conservation, as well as a focus on
women in agriculture and conservation. The MERGE program builds on two programs that began
ten years ago: Women in Agricultural Development (WIAD) and Tropical Conservation and
Development (TCD). The MERGE program seeks to integrate conservation and management of
natural resources, community participation, and gender. It promotes collaboration between groups
and organizations, fostering coalitions for joint projects. It seeks to learn from innovative
experiences in the field. Integration, collaboration, and innovation were the three features of the
MERGE approach underlying the conference program. The more than sixty persons listed on the
conference program represented many voices that would be heard over the three days, through
exchanges, discussions, and an attempt to begin synthesizing learning from field experiences in
many different sites.

Keynote Address

Dianne Rocheleau (Clark University) presented the opening Keynote Address entitled "Gendered
Environments, Gendered Methods: Landscapes, Lifescapes, Livelihoods and Life Histories",
followed by commentary by Julio Morrobel (ISA). She spoke of the need to cross frontiers of
policy, culture, personality and discipline in order to construct a broader, more adequate science that
could "reinvent" the ecosystems of the future for a common world, linking local and global
concerns. She spoke of her personal voyage, illustrated by images from the countries where she has
carried out field work. Beginning with an initially static focus on natural resources, her commitment
to participatory approaches gradually taught her to see the previously "invisible" groups such as the
poor, near landless peasants, and women. Her face-to-face encounters with them led her to








recognize the multiple dimensions of their activities, life stories, and environmental histories, and
to focus on the relation between gender and natural resource management in different contexts.

Local knowledge is rich and complex, and is organized and practiced at different scales. There is
no "average" person's perspective, but rather different knowledge types. The complex local
landscape is made up of niches that are distinguished by the gender, age, and other characteristics
of resource users. Talking to women and listening to their "dreams" caused her to change her vision
of resource and land use strategies. She began to look both within and beyond the farm and
household to understand gender issues in resource management. For example, after land reform
programs in Kenya confined them to small private lots, women concentrated on protection of
germplasm biodiversity in their home gardens. Poor households also adopted migration as part of
their strategies to maintain access to land.

The insights from these encounters led to an attempt to invent a broader science that would integrate
complex realities, and new approaches that would allow scientists to put their ideas on the table for
local discussion, without imposing their perspectives. For example, in addition to convening
meetings, researchers can participate in and learn from local peoples' own meetings. They can also
learn from the life histories, drawings and dreams o' local peoples and can integrate insights from
these into everyday practice and practical changes in landscapes and livelihood systems and in
policy advocacy at national and international scales.

In his commentary, Julio Morrobel emphasized the importance of trying to generalize from specific
experiences. He described his experience of working in partnership with Dianne Rocheleau in the
Dominican Rzpublic, in a participatory approach to understanding the different perspectives on
division of labor, resource use, and property rights. In their project methodology, they used
interviews and questionnaires, informal group interviews, and family life histories, which proved
to be the most useful tool to collect the most information regarding the perspectives of different
family members. His perception is that the people themselves were allowed to reflect on and
analyze their own reality. These techniques provided a solid basis to define the major issues for
formal questionnaires. Their most important goal was to allow the community to see the research
as a common project, in which the doors would be open for future collaboration.

The focus on gender differences permitted a better understanding of the division of labor throughout
the seasonal calendar of resource use, and made women feel more comfortable in participating in
the project. Women's knowledge and activities were validated through the research process. Power
relations do not disappear when women are interviewed separately; women continued to behave as
if their husbands were still present. More reliable responses were sometimes given by women in
household interviews with their spouse present, while in other cases, the group interview or
individual interview worked best. Since each reality is different, these different approaches allowed
the researchers to analyze gender differences and common interests, both of which are important.

Voices from the Field: Brazil Global Climate Change Partners

Eileen Muirragui (GENESYS-Brazil) introduced the session by describing the Global Climage









Change (GCC) program sponsored by USAID in Brazil since 1990, and the collaboration by
GENESYS (based at The Futures Group) in working to integrate gender and socioeconomic
concerns into the program since 1992. The GCC program was an example of the attempt to "think
globally, act locally" in natural resource management projects in the Brazilian Amazon region. She
emphasized the need to use other senses besides the "voice", including the need for a new vision,
using the special "gender glasses" to see the "invisible" resource managers, and the special "gender
ears" to hear their silences.

GENESYS-Brazil, along with the Rede Brasileira de Sistemas Agroflorestais (REBRAF) worked
with local "gender specialists" in five Brazilian non-governmental organizations (NGOs) based in
the Amazon, which work in partnership with the UF, Woods Hole Research Center (WHRC), and
the World Wildlife Fund (WWF). Representatives from some of these organizations participated
in the session. While the GENESYS program is ending, these activities will continue to be
supported through collaboration between WWF, UF's MERGE program, and Brazilian NGOs.

Denise Garrafiel, Nazare Macedo, Francisco Cartaxo Nobre, and Abib Araujo of PESACRE


ATIVOADXES [ 'AM &A


*
: ~1~


(Pesquisa e Extensdo em Sistemas Agroflorestais do Acre) presented a dramatic skit and puppet
show to illustrate the use of "sondeios" (Rapid Rural Appraisal) and community discussions to bring









local people into the planning process. Their lively presentation demonstrated the kinds of
communications strategies that are especially useful in field settings, as distinct from academic
conferences. PESACRE is an NGO that works in collaboration with the University of Florida in
the GCC program.

Marli Mattos and Katia Carvalheiro of WHRC and IPAM. a newly-formed Brazilian NGO, spoke
about their partnership with grass-roots organizations, the inclusion of gender in their activities, and
their innovations in integrating gender, community participation and natural resource management.
They clarified that their activities represented innovations for them, if not for all present at the
conference. Their project involves a socioeconomic study of "caboclo" riverinee) communities in
which the research team, from the beginning, trained a group of producers, both women and men,
to participate actively in the research project including discussing and defining the content of the
study. They learned to calculate the size of their lots using simple instruments, and participated in


interview teams with technical researchers. The results of the research were summarized on simple
posters (displayed at the conference) that promoters used in community discussions. Research
findings revealed the importance of desegregating data by gender to better understand who uses the
natural resources and who does what within the production system. It also revealed some of the
particular problems faced by women, such as high rates of miscarriage and a trend for out-migration.

John Butler (WWF) described activities carried out in three Amazonian sites in collaboration with
GENESYS, the Instituto Sociedade, Populaqgo e Natureza (ISPN) and several other Brazilian








NGOs. Legally required socioeconomic surveys were carried out in three protected conservation
units inhabited by a few scattered families. Each of the month-long surveys involved mixed gender
teams of locals and outsiders, collected general socioeconomic information and, in one case,
information specific to women. He emphasized the challenge of collecting data in areas of difficult
access with few resources, and the importance of strengthening the capacity of local groups to
understand the use of data rather than relying on outside experts. There is a need to reconcile
participatory data collection techniques with the need to strengthen technical capacity for additional
data collection.

Voices from the Field: Peru Pacaya-Samiria Partners

Eduardo Durand, Merlin Vasquez Garcia, and Betty Rios Nufiez of the Fundaci6n Peruana para
la Conservaci6n de la Naturaleza (FPCN) presented some aspects of their three-year collaboration
with The Nature Conservancy (TNC) in the Pacaya-Samiria site. FPCN has sought to coordinate
efforts with USAID, TNC, WWF, state agencies, and universities.

The area of influence of the Pacaya-Samiria reserve encompasses some 400,000 inhabitants,
including 21,000 li\ ing inside the protected area. This includes both native gro ps (Cocaima and
Cocamilla) and mestizos, descended from migrants and colonists. They rely strongly on natural
resources for their livelihoods through hunting, fishing, collecting and extraction, varying with the
flood seasons. The focus of FPCN work has been to increase monetary income and reduce pressure
on natural resources, and to foster local resource management and reserve protection using
participatory methods. Community Centers for Conservation and Development (CECODES) are
established to reach communities through participatory evaluations, diagnoses, and planning.

FPCN has adapted its workshops, by shortening to six days, in order to stimulate more participation
by women in these community activities. Because women tend not to talk when men arc present,
FPCN now includes separate sessions to discuss women's participation, income-generating ideas,
particular problems, and their vision of the management of reserve areas.

Jos6 L6pez Parodi and David Freitas discussed their work in the Programa Integral de Desarrollo
Pacaya-Samiria. The program is funded by WWF-Denmark, a consortium working in two zones
distinct from those of TNC/FPCN. The objective of the program is to work with local communities,
giving priority to improvement of their living conditions rather than strictly focusing on
conservation priorities. Social conflict in the zones has stemmed from: the concept of the
"marginalization" of indigenous and rural populations; the assumption of "empty" protected areas;
and the presumption that local populations need to be taught to manage resources. WWF has sought
to create methodologies to work with communities to support their autonomous political
organization (recognizing that conservation is political) and to promote "social conservation"
(resource conservation by local populations).

Of the 80% of the population that is indigenous, many seek to become "mestizo" (and therefore
"invisible" natives). On the other hand, WWF is working with twenty communities that have
become "indigenous" through legal procedures. Two local development and conservation








associations have been formed to give local communities a political voice. Communities face a
conflict between subsistence needs and market linkages. For example, most of the $20-30 million
in income from fisheries goes to four or five large intermediaries. Outsiders are the ones creating
pressures on resources, not the locals. Moreover, agriculture provides so little income that
communities must depend on forest resources. It takes four months to produce a field of corn worth
$2(X). while the same amount can be earned in two weeks through forest extraction.

An evaluation conducted last year revealed that work which focused on women-only themes was
not accepted by the community, but seen as a concern of outsiders. Courses are being planned for
both men and women, using a different perspective based on gender and local perceptions.

Richard Bodmer and James Penn (UF) described a natural resource management project focused
on subsistence uses of wildlife and palms, carried out in Pacaya-Samiria by UF in collaboration with
FPCN and WWF. The research seeks to measure the impact of human use on wildlife and to assist
communities in developing management programs. Research on wildlife populations, hunting and
wildlife consumption are linked to extension programs focused on wildlife management. Books
with color plates showing local wildlife provide good "ice breakers" for communication with local
community members. The project works with the whole community, including all fCmily members,
in its extension program.

Hunters participate in data collection, analysis, evaluation of impact, and elaboration of management
plans. They have learned to collect biological information on weight and sex of animals collected,
and to record this information along with date and location of capture. Entrails that normally are
discarded by hunters now are collected for study of stomach contents, and of reproductive tracts.
Hunters also have learned to remove and label skulls, which provide important age-specific data
useful for evaluating population trends. Women participate in cleaning skulls since they are in
charge of preparing brain soup, a local favorite. The growing skull collection, a key resource for
on-going biological analysis, is housed in a museum in Iquitos which local people are encouraged
to visit.

Five extension workers are working with UF to develop agroforestry systems and experimental
planting of aguaje palm for sustainable use. The palm, which is an important food source for both
people and game, is threatened by habitat destruction. Three communities (200 families) are
participating in the experiments. Seeds of both native and exotic fruit species (which take from six
weeks to six months to germinate) are distributed for agroforestry use. At the same time, the project
is working gradually to change practices of those who cut the aguaje palm, which takes six to ten
years to fruit.

The project also works with schools, mothers' clubs, and producer groups. Community members
are already busy with their activities and have their own ideas about alternatives for the future. The
participatory methodology requires living with the people, being a part of the community, being
flexible, and not imposing ideas.








Discussion Groups: Sharing Experiences and Innovations


The discussions on the first day focused on innovations. The discussion group leaders were asked
to elicit information from the discussion groups based on a series of questions:
What innovations did you find exciting:
from today's presentation?
from somewhere else?
Why did you find the innovation exciting?
What makes the innovation useful or potentially useful?
What elements make the innovation possible:
charismatic individual
several groups worked/working together
community involvement
government policy or support
international support-
other?
List the constraints that may exist for the innovation.


Plenary: What Have We Learned from our Experiences and Innovations

At the end of the day, two discussion group leaders presented a summary of their group discussions.

Elba Fiallo (Fundaci6n Natura) raised the question of different concepts of gender. There are no
simple recipes for applying the concept; it must be adapted to each situation. The process requires
time and work, in order to see the whole system and how men and women are integrated. Project
personnel need to change their own attitudes and behavior; they need to use the "gender glasses."
Infonnation must be returned to communities, trying to simplify language to make knowledge
accessible to them. How many cases of conservation project failure were due to their not reflecting
community needs? What is the real meaning of participation?

Susana Balarezo (FTPP-FAO) questioned what constitutes innovation in focus and methods.
Participatory methods are important for work at the local level, and may also be innovative when
used by biologists. Gender analysis is innovative when it is used in work with communities, and
helps to question power relations in the society. Participatory methods are important at the micro
level, but when adopted as macro-level strategies (such as the World Bank Participatory Rural
Appraisal approach) the topics are defined in advance. The ideas and information from the
community should be inputs into policy decisions. The risks of participatory methods include their
potential use to manipulate or control power, and the creation of "false confidences." On the other
hand, in disentangling internal relations within the community they can help to generate projects and
provide better knowledge of how the community functions. What is the future sustainability of
participatory work with communities? This depends on national policies, available resources, and
other factors.








March 31


Plenary presentation

The second day of the conference began with an introduction by Marianne Schmink. She
reminded participants of the remarks by President Lombardi regarding the concepts of "innovation",
"collaboration", resource management", "community participation" and "gender": these are
somewhat worn-out concepts with many different interpretations. The conference is an opportunity
for multiple voices and perspectives to be heard, but not necessarily to reach consensus. What is
innovative for some, may not be for others. The ideas being discussed are not new, but their
implementation in practice still is not very common. If we respect the diversity of each situation,
then each experiment represents an adaptation, an innovation. The objective is not to achieve
agreement on appropriate options but to listen and think critically as a collective of persons with
distinct visions and different voices.

UF-MERGE is like the host that invites everyone to a potluck dinner party. They set the table and
invited each guest to bring their local dishes so that they all could savor them, and discuss the details
of their preparation. The. did not expect to come up wi'" a "cookbook" but perhaps with a menu
of options. So far in the conference, this menu included, among other items: brain soup; the
definition of projects through dreams; ways to simplify the data collections process (which may not
serve our academic ends); and critical reflection by communities regarding technical projects. The
objective was not to achieve agreement on the appropriate options but to listen and think critically
as a collective of persons with distinct visions.

The conference's first day featured "Voices from the Field" from Brazil and Peru (and others). On
the second morning, it began with a presentation from two representatives of the Latin American
division of a U.S.-based conservation agency. Kent Redford (formerly of UF) and Paquita Bath,
both of TNC, gave a joint presentation entitled "Natural Partners." Their provocative statements
elicited lively discussion.

Kent Redford reflected on how to conceptualize people-nature relationships. Is "nature" merely
a human construct? Are people (especially indigenous folks) really a part of nature? Are women
somehow closer to nature? The literature on gender issues demonstrates the need to disaggregate
the "black box" of households, communities, and production systems, but it leaves the "nature" box
untouched, viewed as a generic set of trees. Successful partnerships to address gender and natural
resource management will require exploding the "green box" as well. This means disaggregating
natural biodiversity by levels or components (genes, species, higher taxonomic levels, communities,
ecosystems) and analyzing the impact of human activities in terms of composition, structure and
function of different components.

Strategies for biodiversity protection also must be analyzed separately for different land use types.
The principal argument made in this regard is that ten percent of the earth's surface needs to be
protected in order to achieve sustainability of the remaining ninety percent. From this perspective,
the people are outside the park looking in. An alternative approach is to protect the ten percent but








to look outward, seeing the remaining ninety percent as differentiated land uses, different models
of successes and failures. Learning from these experiences can help improve the returns both to
human needs and to biodiversity conservation. For example, the areas set aside in Brazil and
Colombia for indigenous reserves are far greater than those in conservation units. It is imperative
to work with organizations of native groups to find ways to meet cultural and economic needs, and
still conserve some components of biodiversity in indigenous areas. In TNC's Parks in Peril
program, much of the work takes place outside the parks, to help build "site constituencies" for
protected areas.

Constructing effective "natural partnerships" means not blaming others but rather recognizing limits
and setting aside wishful thinking in favor of mutual understanding. Each indigenous group has its
own ideas, concepts and ways of thinking. Biodiversity conservation, as defined by TNC, may not
even appear on their list of priorities. It is essential to understand the different agendas and to focus
on areas of overlap, such as the sustainable economic management of important species.

Women play key roles in working with natural systems, perhaps more than with money and
property. Their focus is on family survival. They are tied in particular ways to environmental
degradation. Vet we all rely on biodiversit; in complex ways that link people, animals, trees, and
germplasm. The special "glasses" and "ears" most needed are those that can help to see and hear
the "voiceless" parts of the natural system.

Paquita Bath spoke about her trajectory from a women-and-development specialist to a
conservationist. Working as part of the MERGE program with UF, TNC's programs with Fundaci6n
Antisuna (FUNAN) and the Facultad Latinomericana de Ciencihs Sociales (FLACSO-Ecuador)
entail creation of a dialogue among different paradigms and values. TNC's position is that
protection of natural areas is the most effective form of conservation, but is not sufficient. They
also must work with sustainable development initiatives, incorporating a gender perspective, while
maintaining the essential conservation focus.

Their approach follows four guidelines: (1) to assist people in sustainable development outside
parks; (2) to engage only to reduce threats and to displace harmful activities; (3) to engage only to
improve protection and to ensure perceived benefits for the local population; and (4) to engage in
collaboration only with experienced and locally successful development organizations.

TNC has few social scientists; their local partners are experienced but often lack academic expertise.
Sustainable development is a "slippery slope"; it is easy to lose the focus on conservation goals, for
example, by creating women's income-generating projects that bear no relationship to protected
areas. The argument that human needs should be met first, then conservation can be assured, is
problematic. First, the "human magnet" problem means that more people will be drawn into an area
where livelihood opportunities improve, thus increasing pressure on resources. Second, there are
multiple needs that cannot always be addressed. She is leery of conservation organizations meeting
human needs, which tends to lead to the notion that human needs require further biodiversity loss.
In fact, ecosystems are meeting human needs the world over. The problem is the devastation of
ecosystems.








Collaboration with local organizations in important. Conservation organizations also need to be
involved (to wear the "nature" glasses). Among the other requirements for successful sustainable
development initiatives are: (1) better tools for exploratory work, such as Participatory Rural
Appraisal (PRA) and needs assessment; (2) focus on a few areas of comparative advantage; (3)
include analysis of population and reproductive health: (4) an important intermediary role for local
NGOs ("participation" is not common in the conservation vocabulary); (5) attention to policy issues,
such as credit: (6) learn from and document experiences.

Country Roundtable: Peru

Avccita Chicchdn, Rosario Lanao and Zoila Arredondo, of Conservation International (CI), spoke
about their work with the MERGE project to integrate gender into activities in the
Tamibopata-Candamo zone of Peru. Victor Zambrano, of the Fundaci6n Agraria del Departamento
de Madre de Dios (FADEMAD), contributed the perspective of a federation of local communities.

Avecita Chicch6n began by describing CI's program in Peru, which began in 1989, with a field
office established in 1992. The mission of the program is to reconcile human needs with
conservation, focusing on the Tambopat'/Madre de Dios zone, an are., of low population density
with several protected areas. The Tambopata-Candamo Reserve Zone (ZRTC) was created in 1990
at the initiative of conservation groups and caused a negative reaction from local communities
represented by FADEMAD. With CI support, local groups began to participate in a dialogue in
which different perspectives were heard. In April of 1991, a regional forum (facilitated by Eduardo
Durand) provided an unprecedented experience of community consultation and a "democratization"
of the conservation concept, freeing it from the dominion of specialists.

The proposals that emerged from the discussions included:

1. The concept of the ZRTC as transitory, a period when planning for the zone would
be pursued through participatory workshops in Puerto Maldonado and other
locations. Workshop participants would discuss what the zone is, its benefits, and
how to manage it.

2. Studies of ecological, social, and economic potential.

3. Proposal of a National Park as part of the internal zoning of the ZRTC. This
proposal was the fruit of a series of local meetings to reach agreement on the
boundaries and purposes of the park.

4. Development of resource use plans outside the park area.

There were many challenges to the participatory planning process. Two social sectors did not
participate: indigenous people and women. CI began to develop mechanisms to encourage their
participation, including the use of social photography as a tool (the subject of a conference
workshop). FADEMAD's leaders asked CI for assistance in stimulating greater participation by








women. CI began helping to organize meetings with women and to collect literature on women and
gender issues, in which they found little on gender and conservation. The MERGE project provided
linkages to others concerned with these issues.

Rosario Lanao discussed how CI was developing the MERGE project in Peru. In her view,
innovation involves taking risks, as they are doing in this project. CI carried out a stakeholder
analysis for the MERGE project and identified interest groups from the state, grass-roots
federations, NGOs, church groups, and academic institutions. CI will work directly with
FADEMAD, but since the institutional context is much broader, they need to maintain flexibility,
seeking to strengthen inter-institutional connections.

The workplan includes: fostering inter-institutional connections; training in gender analysis (four
courses thus far); documentation of workshops; creation of a database; dissemination of materials;
and testing of gender analysis tools in the field. They intend to analyze interests in each key
resource -- brazil nuts, turtles, palms -- by gender, and to explore different perceptions. Projects that
have been identified for a gender focus include soil management with legumes, turtle management,
agroforestry extension, credit, and forest management.

Zoila Arredondo described the situation in her home region of Tambopata, where isolation has led
to creativity in problem-solving, an interest in sustainable resource use in small areas, and
small-scale industry for regional consumption. Pushed by poverty, in recent years Andean migrants
began to arrive in search of gold, brazil nuts, and timber. This increased the region's social and
cultural heterogeneity. Locals became increasingly concerned with environmental destruction.

Forty years ago, women gradually began to be incorporated into work and political organizations
and positions. In the 1970s and 1980s, women began to appear in more public roles. When she
began her work with CI in early 1995, she was aware of women's rights issues bUl; confused about
the gender concept. Recognizing the need to integrate both genders in the MERGE project, CI
sponsored a workshop in Puerto Maldonado for a group of highly-motivated men and women. They
learned that gender did not mean "women" but rather the relationship between men and women.
This dissemination of ideas within local organizations opened the doors for future work. The
dynamic, participatory methods used involved participants rather than boring them.

The MERGE project will help to create ways to work together to improve resource use, including
working through the educational system to reach children. Tools and creativity are needed to adapt
to each group or community. The goal is to change attitudes, if not of 100%, then perhaps in 40%
of the trainees.

Victor Zambrano, FADEMAD President, spoke as the representative of the men and women of
rural Madre de Dios, including 5,000 family units organized in committees, associations, etc.
FADEMAD originally was oriented to political demands but has shifted its concerns to sustainable
development and conservation goals since 1989-1991. During this crucial transition phase, the
organization almost died.








Since that time, FADEMAD has taken on a truly participatory role, with a philosophy based on
three principles.

1. Diversify production and productivity, not through adoption of "packages" or
"recipes" but by seeking alternatives.

2. Promote autonomous development, rather than paternalism. They must become their
own protagonists; no one else will be concerned about their poverty.

3. Promote adequate resource management, through work oriented to the grass-roots.

This is FADEMAD's own philosophy; the state role is minimal and its economic capacity limited.
FADEMAD took up the challenge of defining its own future path, hiring its own technical team,
carrying out research and managing its own projects, training its own people and developing
marketing alternatives. The gender work sponsored by MERGE has filled a long-standing gap
through the support of CI and UF professionals, as well as technical advisor Richard Piland
(FADEMAD/CI). The technical work is based on the group's political work. They no longer need
intermediaries: he -rsonally knows many people in the conference auditorium who have supported
FADEMAD.

Within the family, all roles are important. FADEMAD has secured funding from MacArthur
Foundation, CI, USAID, and Inter-American Foundation (IAF) for a credit program. People must
make a commitment to take responsibility for their own production; not just men but women must
also be involved. The loans, and their terms, are assumed by both. People's participation can mean
real change.

Within the ZRTC, the organized population is protecting areas and proposing new protected areas
-- demanding the creation of a National Park by the state, in an area they previously wanted to
invade. It is important not to lose sight of "personal histories", dreams that can crystallize in
practical conducts that can multiply, to regional, national and international strategies -- such as the
Association of Amazonian Extractive Workers (ATEA), which unites workers across national
borders in Peru, Bolivia and Brazil.

Country Roundtable: Brazil

Suely Anderson (REBRAF) began the roundtable discussion with some reflections on her
experience working with partnerships as part of the GENESYS program in Brazil. Based in Rio,
she helped to construct a bridge between national government organizations, community and
grass-roots organizations, universities in Brazil and abroad, and local, national and international
NGOs.

The elements that favor partnerships include: common objectives; geographic location; history of
joint work, affinity; opportunity, availability, financial resources; and existence of a supporting
program such as the GCC. Factors that lead to success in partnerships include: mutual respect;








regular, reliable communications; time; commitment; vision, innovation; gratitude; and the
possibility of strengthening organizations.

The second speaker was Andre Guimarfes, who described the research model developed by
IMAZON, an organization founded five or six years ago in Belem to carry out work in an area of
large scale environmental impact in eastern Amazonia. IMAZON has twelve young researchers
(28-32 years old) from diverse technical areas. The organization's research priorities were defined
through a systematic analysis of obstacles to sustainable use of extraction of timber and non-timber
forest products, agriculture, ranching, artesanal gold mining, and industrial mining. Current
priorities focus on timber, and on agriculture, cattle ranching and mining in "altered areas".

The main objective of IMAZON is to decrease or stop deforestation in Amazonia, and to plan future
development and expansion. The focus is on natural resource use economics in eastern Amazon.
The research model involves the following steps:

1. Research on resource use activities of great importance (agriculture, ranching,
logging, mining);
2. focus on 1'miting factors (credit, technology, transportation);
3. consider various activities together (regional economics);
4. focus on policies that affect resource use; and
5. how to implement policy/legislation, such as requiring GIS monitoring to ensure
environmental regulation compliance.

IMAZON's history began with a focus on purely biological research, followed by a decision to
invest in economic studies, then a focus on policies. Now they recognize the need to strengthen the
social perspective, and for more participative research. Elements gleaned from this conference will
enrich their discussions of these new directions.

Roberto and Noemi Torro spoke about their work with the Associaqao em Areas de Assentamento
no Estado do Maranhao (ASSEMA) and the Associacion das Mulheres Trabalhadoras Rurais de
Lajo do Junco (AMTR) two peasant organizations in the eastern state of Maranhao. Similar
organizations exist in other Brazilian states. These are both separate women's organizations,
composed of women who work cracking babassu nuts, and mixed groups of men and women.

Babassu is an important resource for large numbers of people: some 400,000 families depend on
babassu, and some 500,000 women and children work cracking the nuts in a large area of babassu
secondary forests, approximately 40,000 acres. These are "second chance" (secondary growth)
forests, less fragile than primary, where babassu are dominant. Women and children work
individual or in groups collecting the nuts, but the product of the cracking is taken individually.
Men are the decision-makers in agricultural production, but women work in agriculture also. The
families plant rice underneath the babassu palms, then other crops.

The current population is a mixture of migrants, former slaves, and former indigenous groups who
suffered from agrarian violence due to land conflicts in the 1970s and i980s. At the end of the








1980s when violence lessened, a strong resistance movement regained access to land and other
resources. The inhabitants then faced the problem of how to manage a limited land base to support
a fixed population. The need to explore new production systems led to the creation of ASSEMA.
The organization is seeking alternatives to the model of individual plots of land, promoted by
INCRA, the national colonization and land reform agency. They have formed sales cooperatives
for babassu, bananas, rice, corn, and manioc flour, as well as experimenting with new technologies
for extracting babassu oil. Inter-state meetings are held every two years to discuss strategies.
ASSEMA and AMTR have received financial support and technical assistance from government and
non-governmental agencies, and seek to represent grass-roots organizations in making demands for
changes in public policy. The groups' local leaders and outside technical advisors are inexperienced,
and the group has learned through trial-and-error.

Roberto Porro described ASSEMA as a coalition of organizations representing social movements
that questioned the rules of access to babassu, and the destruction of babassu palms through
deforestation. Women's roles have been decisive and more visible than among other groups such
as the rubber tappers. Women carry out the empates, or non-violent protests, against forest clearing,
and also participate in later stages of conflict. When men were forced into hiding, women kept the
economy of ,heir families and villages goira for months at a time.

Land consolidation led to agricultural and economic programs that sometimes provoked conflicts
internal to the family. Programs that favored agriculture caused men to cut down babassu forests
for agricultural production, even though these enterprises were not economically viable given
limited land. The current challenge is to find alternatives to forest clearing.

Sustainable development projects with an agroextractive focus are needed to give babassu a renewed
importance in policies. But so far there is a lack of proven technological models and no research.
One current proposal is to improve four agroextractive cooperatives in existence for four years to
market babassu oil and charcoal, as well as the soap made by the women. The goal is to reinforce
production for both family use and market. Technical assistance is part of a strategy to strengthen
grass-roots organizations.

Country Roundtuble: Ecuador

The Ecuador roundtable represented eight different projects: Susana Balarezo, Wilma Roos and
Ineke Van De Pol of the FAO; Norma Mena (CEPLAES); Blanca Arce (CONDESAN); Maria
Helena Jervis and Paulina Arroyo (FUNAN); Jorge Recharte and Susan Poats (FLACSO), and Elba
Fiallo (Fundaci6n Natura). The thematic focus of the group included protected area activities,
institutional relations, strategic training focused on community participation and gender, and the
development of methods and strategies. Elba Fiallo introduced the groups and explained their
relationships.

Ecuador is a country of rich biodiversity and a high rate of deforestation. In protected areas,
thinking has evolved from a focus on preservation to conservation strategies involving people living
in and around protected areas, including indigenous people and migrants. The challenge is how to








incorporate these people into the process. Management plans must incorporate different social
actors into the planning process, establishing different commitments by distinct groups. Support
committees composed of governmental and NGO representatives take responsibility for specific
areas. Productive projects focused on sustainable agriculture still need to incorporate gender
considerations.

Paulina Arroyo described a participatory conservation project that FUNAN is beginning at the
Antisana site. FUNAN was created in 1991 during the transition in thinking from preservation to
conservation, and is committed to a vision of participatory management of the Antisana Ecological
Reserve. How to do this? They will incorporate gender analysis into their project for local
participation. The project planning stage began in early 1995 in two communities where they have
identified key actors and begun pilot projects that they hope will multiply. Ultimately, the
community should be capable of taking over the methods/tools/ways of thinking introduced by the
project for their own planning purposes. Community participation and gender analysis are
innovations for FUNAN, for conservation organizations, and for the communities where they are
working. They hope to demonstrate positive results.

.C"an Poats described the steps involved in building a collaborative coalition in Ecuador, as part
of the MERGE initiative. The conference was the first collective event that stimulated the group
coalition to plan a collective presentation. The geographic area covered by the various organizations
is large, but all are based in Quito, so their collaboration begins there. They carried out a
stakeholder analysis to clarify existing institutional connections in order to define common
objectives. There were connections between ecological NGOs and projects, national and local
government agencies, universities, and international donors. The ties between them consisted of
collaboration in activities, flows of funds, and participation in conservation movements. The
organizations were grouped around four foci: forestry, conservation, agriculture, and social
sciences. The stakeholder analyses permitted the group to analyze the linkages among
organizations, and explore areas of rich, dense connections as well as those where they needed to
be strengthened. For example, CEPLAES' work, which had a urban focus, had relatively few
collaborative linkages.

The common interests defined by the groups began with a focus on gender and forestry. FLACSO
and FUNAN invited other Ecuadorean organizations to sit at the MERGE "table", bringing in
CEPLAES through participation in the conference. Although from different paths, the groups have
come together with a focus on gender and now call themselves "Ranti-Ranti" ("to receive by giving"
in Quechua). Examples of collaboration include: CONDESAN and FLACSO will work together
to incorporate gender analysis within studies of family labor use; in the Vermejo community at
Antisana, FUNAN will use community mapping techniques learned by FLACSO, with technical
assistance from the UF and TNC. Susan Poats is documenting these interactions as part of the
MERGE project.

Wilma Roos (FTPP-FAO) described the training strategy adopted in their training program, which
focused on community participation and gender analysis in natural resource management.
"Mapping" of forest resources by gender led to the analysis of gender differences in interests in both








exotic and native tree species that have multiple uses. Technical workers need to have an open
vision to recognize women's high level of participation in production and management of seedlings
and plants. The project focuses on different levels of training audiences, including peasants,
technical extension workers, and academics. The gender focus is not as simple as women's role in
tree planting; there is still a need to develop and adapt adequate tools and methods.

Susana Balarezo (FTPP-FAO) described the need for multiple training methods in gender analysis
for different needs, audiences, and timing. Methods can come from different sources and find new
future uses. Their project tries to practice a dynamic approach drawing from both bottom-up and
top-down experiences to create of constellation of options useful for all kinds of organizations. The
bottom-up approach comes from the need for participatory methods oriented to community needs.
To address academic concerns, another level of training is appropriate.

In preliminary meetings they reviewed the range of diagnostic and planning methods, such as PRA
and strategic planning, which generally did not include a focus on gender. The challenge is to
incorporate gender analysis into these abstract methods in order to reach other organizations.
Innovation in gender analysis tools requires an orientation to community participation that uses
different tools for -fferent actors, and finding ways to complement training eYnertise and expand
coverage to more communities. FAO has produced a variety of tools including a Methodological
Guide for participatory forestry projects, a tool box, videos, case studies, tools for "gender
validation" and others. The national committee that coordinates FAO projects and discusses policy
issues defined gender as the number one theme in forestry projects.

Thematic Roundtable: Health. Gender and Environmental Linkages

Irma Silva-Barbeau (SANREM-CRSP) discussed her work as a nutritionist in several countries.
Democracy, empowerment, and sustainability are the words that summarize her approach: full and
equitable participation in government and management decisions, and the right to access information.
Globally, there is now recognition of the interdependence of environment and economics, and of
the pros and cons of modern agriculture. To date, approaches to agricultural development
frequently have left women out of the process; the linkages between agriculture, health, nutrition,
and the environment are not adequately studied.

Beginning in the late 1970s, farming systems research focused on the micro-conditions on-farm,
studying each element in isolation but analyzing some linkages between agriculture and health
through the consumption needs of farm households. The sustainable development model goes
beyond fanning systems to focus on the ecological scale, such as watersheds, and the linkages
between components, such as cropping systems with biotic and abiotic factors and the human
system. Still, more attention is needed to the connections with health, and gender issues. Water
systems provide one of the key connections (such as in the Philippines). A newer model must be
constructed that focuses on the interrelations among these spheres. For example, in Africa, cycles
of environmental change influence the availability of water and food and can lead to specific health
problems such as those that stem from eating unripe fruit.








Gender should be a cornerstone of such research, people-centered research that looks not only at
women's roles but at gender issues more broadly in ethnic groups and age classes. The implicit
objective is to have food all year, but the stated objective is nutritional well-being. This is linked
to water, to biodiversity and to food availability, as well as to land tenure and to traditional health
systems. The PLLA (Participatory Landscape Lifescape Appraisal) approach is like PRA but at a
different scale, with a focus on nutrition and health. The objective is to see how to link sustainable
health and nutrition, because sustainable agriculture or development cannot occur without
sustainable health.

Norma Mena (CEPLAES) and Maria Nieves Rico (Casa de la Mujer La Morada) discussed their
participation in a project financed by the MacArthur Foundation with the International Center for
Research on Women (ICRW), in four countries. The Casa de la Mujer la Morada was the first
feminist organization in Chile. They initially used quantitative techniques but recognized the need
to use qualitative tools as well. Through the ICRW project they are developing a common
methodology with other organizations (such as CEPLAES) to study environment, gender and
population.

"hey use an integral, holistic concept of environment as natural system, and as a constructed
system (the effect of human activity), with attention to social, political and gender factors. They
seek to understand how gender subordination is related to environmental issues. In Chile, the study
focuses on a poor urban neighborhood and the relationships between labor, environment, gender and
population. Women's principal environmental links stem from their reproductive role and from
their control over environmental risks. Their population links stem from biological reproduction
and female migration patterns. Gender analysis focuses on daily routines, such as management and
control of environmental risks, domestic tasks, care for family health, water control, etc. These
activities link productive and reproductive functions and impact on health and environment.
Women often pay a high price in tei ms of work, time, and mental health.

The project also seeks to influence policy through the use of environmental indicators. They have
carried out technical environmental diagnoses in the communities as well as surveys and focus group
discussions involving women and leaders. Both technical and participatory studies reached similar
inclusionss regarding problems of garbage, dust, and housing quality. Standard health indicators
generally do not permit discrimination of environmental risks among family members. Most effects
are due to poverty, which leads to environmental vulnerability and risks such as dust and garbage
that women manage relatively well. Their policy-oriented study of these environmental risks
involved an interdisciplinary team in order to see whether quantitative and qualitative results were
similar. They sought to measure economic costs but especially the mental health costs for women.

Norma Mena (CEPLAES) described her organization's work in the semi-urban community of La
Angelica in Quito, Ecuador, as part of the same MacArthur-funded project. The major
environmental risks faced by this poor community of rural-urban migrants include water
management, garbage, and drainage. Lacking basic services, the population used water from
streams, tanks, rain, and trucks. The more urbanized zone had more services. These risks were
complicated by poor management by the families.








The study sought to measure environmentally-related family health problems, such as skin problems
due to poor water management. They collected survey information on diseases and socioeconomic
characteristics of women and their families, as well as samples of water from different sources to
test their quality for human use. They found that water sold from trucks often was contaminated
during transport and water from streams contained bacteria. They sponsored a workshop to discuss
recommendations for water treatment.

The health survey focused on malnutrition, gastrointestinal diseases, vaginal and respiratory
infections, and family planning practices, all of which are women's responsibilities. The study
found that women were in charge of garbage when their children were small, but children took over
later. There was a low correlation between poor risk management and health conditions. To the
extent that environmental risks affected families, they led to greater consciousness and better
management. It also appeared that women with more environmental diseases had greater stress and
less autonomy.

Donald Sawyer (ISPN) discussed his experience in research on health in the Amazon region.
Health has not received the attention needed in areas of sustainable development, gender, and
environment. Cc -"munities are universally concerned with health, which is P basic need. Women
have placed themselves as managers of natural resources but there are few studies of gender, health
and environment linkages.

What is a "healthy environment"? It involves women's own health, their attention to the
environment, their treatment of others' health and their reproductive health conditions, among
others. For example, access to good water, reproductive and sexual rights, access to contraception,
and migratory health conditions are all factors. Women are actively involved with health posts and
as midwives and medicinal plant experts who can treat diseases without the need to purchase
medicines. Women's grass-roots participation is a key aspect of environmental health.

Thematic Roundtable: Parks and People

Deborah Lima Ayres (Estaqco Biol6gica de Mamiraud) spoke of the great responsibility borne by
those who live near parks, who may or may not derive benefits from the parks. The Mamiraud
project covers an area of 1.2 million hectares in the Brazilian Amazon Basin that was declared a
protected area in 1990. In 1991 a group of researchers and extensionists began to work there. The
major challenge is to prepare a Management Plan to present to the state government.

The objectives of the Mamiraud project include biodiversity preservation, research, and
improvement of living conditions of local peoples. They work with people who live inside the park
and around its borders. The management plan will include zoning (including an area of total
preservation) and rules for resource use across the mosaic of areas. The Plan is being designed with
the community's participation, and for this reason is a mosaic design. Annual meetings are held of
all people involved in the reserve.

The components of the project include terrestrial and aquatic systems, community participation and








socio-economic research, GIS database management, core operations, and the Sociedade Civil
Mamiraui. Supporting and partner institutions include CNPq-MCT; SEMACT-AM; MPEG (Museu
Paraense Emilio Goeldi); UFPa; INPA-MA; IBAMA; ABC (Academia Brasileira de Ciencias). The
main sources of outside financial support include: ODA-UK; WWF; WCS; and EEC. The project
adopted a strategy of multiple donors.

The Mamiraud program seeks to address the following general questions related to the Management
Plan:

1. What is the size of the area to be allocated for sustainable economic exploitation that
will allow the population to survive in adequate health conditions?

2. How can the local population participate in the management of the reserve? How
can conflicts between local residents be mediated?

3. How can the project contribute to improve the existing public health services?

4. How should resourc-s be managed by the popular t'n? How can population growth
be controlled in the reserve?

5. What are the socioeconomic alternatives (such as ecotourism) to be presented to the
population to help reduce the impact on biodiversity?

6. How can the economic program contribute to biodiversity protection and
management of the area?

Marise Reis described her work with the Mamiraui project since 1991. She participated in a
general survey of the population, covering religion as well as social, political, and economic
characteristics. The survey sought to identify who would be the reserve's users. At the same time,
they were concerned to give the local population a voice in the management of the ecological
reserve, a decision which the population increasingly supports, despite the existence of conflicts.
Factors which contributed to this support were: 1) the provision of fiscal and legal support to the
reserve, and 2) the establishment of a communications system through a floating radio station.

The Catholic church assisted in this initial phase. The project also brought together all the
government agencies working in the region. The idea was to strengthen the communities by linking
them to these agencies. The project has sought to involve the communities and to respond to their
needs. All project research and extension activities were explained clearly to the sixty communities.
For example, after the socioeconomic survey, the project provided up-dated maps and extension
brochures that addressed problems with subsistence cropping. In addition, a representative
community body was created, which has held three large general assemblies. The results included
selection of forms of representation and formation of sectors to be represented by sectoral
coordinators. The assembly has focused on the functioning of the region's lake system:
reproduction and maintenance of fish species and habitat, as well as commercial fisheries.








Large-scale fishing has been prohibited. Today the project enjoys greater trust by the communities.
These steps have fostered a good relationship.

Brenda Mayol spoke of her work in the Pet6n peninsula of Guatemala. Spanish is not her first
language. She spoke of the concept of "center": the nucleus of the center of the snake, or the
woman. Her organization, IXSHEL, is the first civil society managed by women. They have started
to sensitize children using the lunar calendar to orient the establishment of an agroecological system,
based on women's knowledge.

ISXHEL has four components in its work with women: agroecological, cultural, revolving fund,
and ecotourism. The agroecological program includes agroforestry systems and captive breeding
of fauna, around the kitchen yard. Working with TNC, they receive funding to increase the value
of these activities in accordance with cultural values. The park and the people are complementary.
Yet conservation organizations often are paternalistic and patriarchal. There are disputes over land
rights. IXSHEL proposes the need to assure the subsistence of the families and develop ecotourism.
The latter is a key to responding to market opportunities given the diversity of Mayan cultural
resources.

David Barkin of the Universidad Aut6noma Metropolitana, Unidad Xochimilco, (Mexico)
discussed the project to transform the region of the monarch butterly, located at 150 kilometers from
Mexico City, which is visited annually by 100,000 persons. This is a well-studied region, but in
1976 it was "discovered" by conservationists. The WWF provided $250,000 to found an NGO
called "Monarca" whose goal was to protect the butterfly through an exclusive and exclusionary
strategy.

The university, working with the community, sought to develop ways to balance conservation and
sustainable regional development. Since research was prohibited by the NGO, local students
became involved as a way of strengthening the community's role. David Barkin and Gonzalo
Chapela have written a book about the project entitled Monarcas y Campesinos: Un proyecto de
desarrollo sustenahle (Mexico: Centro de Ecologia y Dessarrollo, 1995).

Ecotourism as the principal objective is a disaster, it must be a complementary activity to others
seeking to diversify local production. Local products and services must be developed to respond
to different market patterns, both local and worldwide. For example, half of the food consumed in
the region is imported. Local participation (coordinated but decentralized) is essential in order to
create political pressure in crisis situations. They have innovated with e-mail communications,
which is easier than traditional means. The project has shown that "ecotourism" is not a magic
word, but has both good and bad aspects. Local structures are necessary to ensure coordination,
communication, and participation.

Several points were taken up in the general discussion following these presentations. One point
was that many parks are an illusion. For example, when there are minerals underground, nothing
can be done to keep governments from extracting them. However, it is possible to negotiate with
concessionaries. Another point of discussion was the difference between outsider and local








perspectives on park management.


Problems with ecotourism were discussed. Tourism is an export product like any other, and must
be managed with care. Ethical issues arise when cultures are changed in order to save them. On
the other hand, groups should not be paid to stay as they are. Tourists must be willing to pay a fair
price (not less, but more than a Hilton hotel) and to adopt a culturally sensitive perspective, or they
are not welcome.


Thematic Roundtable: Working with Stakeholders

Ginny Seitz (Virginia Polytechnic Institute) and Anne Dix (University of Georgia) presented their
work on the USAID-funded program in Integrated Pest Management Collaborative Research
Support Program (IPM CRSP) in Guatemala. The primary goal of the IPM CRSP is the reduction
of pesticide residues on agricultural exports to the U.S. Broccoli, for example, has become a
rapidly-expanding export crop in the Guatemalan highlands where the introduction of non-
traditional crops has radically changed traditional technologies and production systems.

The presentation centered on the community of Chilasco, Baja Verapaz, where "broccoli fever"
began about seven years ago. There is an analogy with "gold fever" because of the loss of control
over production and knowledge. Broccoli fever has affected many members of the community
because they see the opportunity to have cash incomes never before possible. This has encouraged
farmers to push more crops per year in their fields and to increase the use of inputs recommended
and sold to them on credit. As market pressure intensifies, farmers become less concerned about
the long-term maintenance of their resources, or about what the loss of traditional production (e.g.,
basket-weaving) is going to mean to future generations, particularly if the broccoli market becomes
saturated.

Anne and Ginny stressed the importance of understanding the interests of all potential stakeholders
in the project, including farmers, women, children, export companies, government agencies, and
NGOs. Pesticides are not controlled as intended by the manufacturers; knowledge about safe use
and potential harmful effects is not reaching those who use the chemicals. The biological research
being done by the IPM CRSP is done within the context of socioeconomic research which focuses
on community problems and issues. There are special problems associated with involving women
in this research process: the local hierarchies of power effectively exclude women's interests from
being heard in community-level groups. Women's situation is made more complicated in that the
forces of modernization, brought by contact with the exporters and the loggers who come through
the community, have also brought wage jobs for the women of Chilasco, in packing plants or as
workers on plantations. Although women are increasingly involved in wage labor, they may be
losing control over household resources and income strategies that are more ecologically sustainable.

Pablo Muench described a government program entitled Conservation and Development in the
Lacandon Forest, which is financed by the World Bank and managed by the Secretariat for Social
Development (SEDESOL). This is part of a decentralized program in four states of Mexico. In








Chiapas, there is special national and international interest due to the high level of biodiversity of
the forest, as well as the extreme poverty and the diverse social groups involved, mostly indigenous
and migrants. Land use change has led to environmental degradation and increased threats to
biodiversity. The region also is geopolitically important because of its position on the border with
Guatemala, where there is a cultural link with the Mayan peoples, as well as the existence of
refugees, a strong church involvement, and militarization.

Since 1991, an inter-institutional committee has been working to stimulate producer participation,
and a technical group was established to define the relationships between conservation and
development goals. By 1995, over $10 million dollars had been spent on four programs: social
development (education, health); production; conservation (focused on technical assistance in the
Lacandon Biosphere Reserve); and infrastructure.

An evaluation currently is underway to assess the linkages between community associations,
technical experts and government workers.- Workshops and surveys have been carried out to
evaluate the program, with a focus on five questions: 1) Is there broad social participation? 2) Is
the program founded in local culture? 3) Is it sustainable? 4) Is training occurring? 5) Are local
organizations in charge of th program?

The results are rather discouraging. Only 35% of the projects (9 or 10 out of 30 evaluated) were
found to be "relatively good" on these measures. Another 53% were found to have serious
problems, and the remainder were "average". The evaluation results showed the need for greater
social participation. Now funds are being channelled directly to local organizations. Unfortunately,
due to the armed conflicts in the region these resources flows are biased by counterinsurgency
efforts. The technical team must defend access to resources for the women's projects, which are
now at a standstill.

In the discussion, he added that 43% of the official institutions in charge of planning and execution
suffered from poor design and an inability to adjust to changing conditions. The institutions that
performed better were those focused on social development. Those such as the Instituto Nacional
Indigenista, which used more participatory approaches, were relatively successful. The worst
projects were those focused on conservation.

Luz Maria Rodriguez S., a veterinarian who is pursuing a Master's degree in Rural Development,
has worked with indigenous women under the Chiapas program. They have provided materials,
technical assistance, and training of community promoters to support projects in baking, vegetable
production, poultry raising, and sewing. Out of 600 communities in the region, all have access to
the training programs and forty have received material support.

These small projects represent a beginning for women's active community participation, and can
stimulate the formation of women organizations. Due to the difficult conditions in the region, few
women are working in the project. Community women themselves have been doing the work and
learning from their own mistakes. The project has had an impact in raising women's expectations
and interest in participating, and giving them a chance to express themselves. The focus of the








program has not been on gender issues. Many of the women do not speak Spanish, and either
idealize or demonize outside experts. Through the project they have had an opportunity to learn
about and defend their rights.

Angelica Flores described her work in family therapy and environment, with Heifer Project
International (HPI), Peru. Entitled "Gender, family and ecodevelopment", the project uses general
systems theory principles and seeks to harmonize relations within the family and with the
ecosystem. The goals are to identify attitudes and limitations; to work with men and women in the
family, community and ecosystem; to provide follow-up support; and to strengthen the gender focus
in people-oriented work of national NGOs.

Heifer Project International is a livestock support program; her work with people is a parallel to the
technical work. It seeks to stimulate changes in attitude related to human conduct. In base
communities where HPI is involved, she works with students and teachers in animal programs, with
veterinarians, and with community promoters. The program includes: a one-day sensitivity
workshop; two one-day reflection workshops analyzing family and community relations; and
monthly follow-up support visits for two years. Currently they are following fourteen professionals
and ten couples during the support phase. It is '-nortant to note that the program takes into account
the values and cultures of the people that they work with both during both the planning and the
actual work.

During the discussion Angelica clarified that her approach is not to train or educate, but to facilitate
reflection and analysis of the personal attitudes in the family, work, community and environment.
There is no ideal imposed, but rather participants seek to "feel good" in their roles, especially gender
ones. They may be well-defined but there still are problems in male-female relations. The concept
of "equilibrium" may be positive or negative in confronting change and crisis.

The general discussion focused on gender: is the concept a way to manipulate attitudes, a lack of
respect for local cultures? In some cases the gender focus may be rejected because it is different
from the indigenous concept. Different strategies may be appropriate for different situations.
Sometimes it is better to talk with the couple, because women may censor themselves more when
alone. But these dynamics vary with the context, with forms of expression, personal styles, and the
fora available for discussion.

Another point discussed was how to cross local-global levels of stakeholders? Meetings can be
organized at local, regional, and micro-regional levels. "Peasant study trips" allow producers to
visit other locations. These opportunities for exchange and discussion can allow communities to
define common interests and to strengthen their bargaining relations with the government.

In Chiapas, relations between communities and the government have ranged from "blackmail"
(demanding resources in exchange for compliance), to resistance (the Lacandon who say they have
been conserving natural resources for 500 years and do not need to be taught), to rebellion by those
who sabotage the program as revenge for the historical destruction of their resources by outsiders.








Thematic Roundtable: The Donor and Policy Perspectives


This roundtable presented the experiences of donors and reflections on conservation and
development issues in the context of politics, as well as how politics affects the perspectives of
donors.

Carlos Perez described CARE as a worldwide relief and development organization established in
1945. CARE has programs in agriculture and natural resources (ANR), food security, primary
health care, population, small economic activity development, and emergency relief. CARE's ANR
program started in the 1970s with soil conservation and agroforestry projects in Africa to prevent
desertification. Since then, CARE has carried out development projects in Asia and Latin America
as well. Currently it has 95 ANR projects whose goals are to contribute to increasing the food
security and income levels of poor farmer households, while preserving or restoring the natural
resources. Conservation of natural resources activities range from on-farm soil and water
conservation (coupled with low-external input technology), to watershed management, to
management of buffer zones around protected areas in tropical forests.

CARE has always worked "-nsely with community-based and governmental organizations. In the
late 1980s, CARE's partnerships were increasingly broadened to include non-governmental
organizations with which it currently implements projects. Today 55% of CARE's projects provide
funds, technical assistance and/or management and strategic planning training to partner NGOs.
CARE influences local policies through its work with partner organizations (local community
efforts, discussion workshops, and paralegal support for land tenure disputes) but does not get
directly involved iA advocacy in developing countries.

Amy Shannon reported that the MacArthur'Foundation has an annual budget of $180 million, of
which $15 million goes to the World Environment and Rescurces program. In 1988, species
diversity was defined as the focus of the program and eleven priority bio-regions were chosen for
investment over approximately ten years. The strategy involves a three to four year funding cycle.
In Latin America, the program focuses on the Maya Forest in Mexico, Guatemala, and Belize, the
Tropical Andes, and the Atlantic Forest of Brazil.

The Foundation's Environmental Program supports biodiversity conservation and related issues,
including local institutional development. Under a special funding program entitled "Gender and
Natural Resource Management" the Foundation funded the MERGE project (UF, in collaboration
with CI, FLACSO, and TNC), as well as several other projects represented at the conference.

Beth Miller spoke about her work with Heifer Project International (HPI), a small NGO with a
fifty-year history and a budget of about $8 million, based in Little Rock, Arkansas. The focus is on
livestock development to increase peoples' well-being, which originally began with exporting dairy
heifer cattle from the U.S. to "hungry" places. The organization responds to requests from the field
over a three-year funding cycle; currently it supports 300 projects focusing on such diverse livestock
as goats, rabbits, fish, earthworms and bees. Donors and funds from American churches and
individuals are in decline so new partnerships are important. Projects are carried out in








collaboration with local partners ranging from indigenous organizations, to regional producer
organizations, single communities, the SANREM CRSP, and USAID recipients such as the Land
O'Lakes cooperative.

HPI has always focused on assistance to families and communities, but the gender focus has helped
bring women into the development process. Gender now constitutes one of twelve cornerstones of
the organization's functioning (along with concerns for the humane treatment of animals, the
environment, and others). They give preference to work with indigenous species (such as alpacas
in the Andes) and disadvantaged or minority groups. The four-page planning form includes one
item related to gender. The Women in Livestock Development (WILD) program is HPI's gender
focus.

Jennett Myvett, of the Belize Enterprise for Sustainable Development (BEST), described her
organization's goal as improving the quality of life for the people of Belize through enterprise
development. The organization's tenth anniversary is next week. With funding from the MacArthur
Foundation, USAID, Inter-American Foundation (IAF), and others they support projects involving
credit and business management training. They currently support three Community Banking
programs, ard three more are to be inaugura*d. They work with groups, not with individuals, and
credit is available through a revolving fund. Their natural resource management project focuses on
women.


The general discussion focused on the appropriate role for foreign assistance, its links with U.S.
interests, and ways to measure impact. NGOs come to depend on external resources, which support
middle class NGO employees. More coalitions are needed at the local level.

Strategies for Innovating Effectively: Discussion Groups

The discussions on the second day focused on partnerships. What is a partnership? How does one
work? How can partnerships be used to innovate and overcome problems in integrating gender,
natural resource management, and community participation? Questions which were posed were:
What types of partnerships did you find exciting?
from today's presentation
from somewhere else or from your own work
Why did you find the partnerships exciting?
What elements made the partnerships possible?
What are the challenges faced when forming partnerships?


Plenary: Strategies. Networking and Summary

Due to lack of time, each discussion leader (Jorge Recharte, Ginny Seitz, Pablo Muench, Eileen
Muirragui) gave a brief summary of their group's discussion.








The conference was closed at 5:30. The next day, April 1, was devoted to workshops. A list of the
workshops is found in Appendices.

Conclusion

The conference objectives were met as participants were able to engage in detailed discussions,
present their experiences in a variety of ways, network, and learn new approaches and techniques
for dealing with gender in natural resource management. Participants left the conference excited
about their work and recognizing that there are many others engaged in similar activities. Among
certain participant groups, like that of Ecuador, the conference also served to bring participants
together and to give them common objectives. It thus not only permitted people to report on
partnerships, it strengthened ties and helped everyone to realize the high level of innovation that
already existed, of which they are a part. UF, CLAS, and MERGE were very pleased with the
results of the conference.

Lessons learned

People enjoy and app eciate having the opportunity fnr discussion and interactior.

2. Despite explicit attempts to build in time for discussion, there was still not enough time
allocated as, evidenced by the need to cut short the plenary discussions sessions.
3. A less formal atmosphere encouraged more participation.

4. There were some important missed opportunities:
Poster session poor room, no scheduled time for viewing, which did not conflicted
with other events.
No time for formal closure on conference should have summarized what wa.
shared and how it was shared.
Plenary discussions sessions were cut or cancelled due to overly tight schedule, thus
there was also no complete closure on each day.

5 Workshops were very popular.
Not fully integrated into conference.
Participants were frustrated by being able to attend only one or two workshops due
to scheduling conflicts and having only a single day for all workshops.
Since workshops were on the last day, there was no closure for them and therefore
little chance to discuss and compare what was learned.








WORKSHOPS (in English)
Innovations and Partnerships: Working with Natural Resource
Management, Gender and Local Communities in the Tropics

Saturday, April 1, 1995

Throughout the final day of the conference several exciting workshops were available. Each
workshop provided a practical, hands-on learning environment in which participants were actively
involved. A brief description, time and location of each workshop is provided below.

Environmental Dispute Resolution: Tools for Partnership
Presented by Christine Pendzich, Center for Environmental Dispute Resolution

The workshop considered the basic premises and strategies for environmental dispute resolutions.
A practical exercise was included on the strategies or options of whether to negotiate or not.
Participants considered how environmental dispute resolution could help in innovation and
partnerships in their own situations.

Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA): So What's All the Fuss About?
Presented by Irene Guijt, International Institute for Environment and Development

"It's just old wine in new bottles." "Anyone can do it." "It's a quick approach to development."
"It's just fancy methods." These are some of the myths about Participatory Rural Appraisal
(PRA), ryths that have arisen because too much is expected (and promised), too fast, and
without thinking through the implications of participatory development. The workshop looked
at some of the myths about and merits of PRA, reflecting on the practical applications and the
key challenges for its future development. It focused on how PRA can help to understand the
linkages between gender relations and environmental concerns and change. The workshop
included practical exercises and case study materials (including video) from southern Brazil.

Project Learning Tree (PLT)
Presented by Nancy Arny, University of Florida

Project Learning Tree (PLT) is an internationally recognized program designed to raise awareness
and promote critical thinking about trees, forests, and human interactions with the environment.
Participants who attended the entire workshop experienced PLT first hand and received copies
of the comprehensive PLT materials.

Gender Analysis: Activity Profiles and Seasonal Calendars
Presented by Elena Bastidas and Cristina Espinosa, University of Florida

The workshop introduced a gender analysis perspective in relation to natural resource
management and conservation. After an overview of the main gender analysis tools, Activity
Profile and Seasonal Calendars were presented in detail: definitions, data gathering and









limitations. A group exercise was used to reinforce the analysis of the main characteristics, uses and
limitations of these tools, which can be adapted to various research and management settings and
goals.


Guide to the Process of Participatory Research
Presented by Mary Rojas, Rojas International Consultants


The workshop was based on a publication written in 1994 by Mary Hill Rojas, Social Scientis and
Gender Specialist, with Anne-Marie Urban, Latin American Caribbean Advisor for USAID's Office
of Women in Development, for DESFIL (Development Strategies for Fragile Lands), a centrally-
funded project of USAID. The workshop outlined some of the steps and lessons learned in
participatory research in examining the role of gender in the sustainable management of fragile
lands. The lessons learned are illustrated by examples from an ECOGEN (Ecology, Community
Organization, and Gender) USAID-funded research project of Clark University that was conducted
in southern Honduras. The workshop was interactive and included tools for gender analysis, for
example, the use of sketch maps, activity calendars, community timelines, and content analysis. The
workshop participants were guided through a research project from the conceptual framework to
working in the field, ending with data analysis and suggestions for returning the research to the
communities. The participants had the opportunity to practice each step in a participatory manner.










Innovaciones y Cooperacidn: Trabajando con el Manejo de Recursos Naturales,
Ginero y Comunidades Locales en los Trdpicos
TALLERES (en Espafiol)
SABADO, 1 de ABRIL

Durante el ultimo dia de la Conferencia tuvimos algunos talleres muy interesantes. En cada
taller los participants tuvieron la oportunidad de intervenir e involucrarse activamente y
aprender a trav6s de experiencias pricticas. A continuaci6n hemos preparado una pequefia
descripci6n de cada uno de los talleres.

Resolucion de Conflictos Relacionados con el Medio Ambiente: Herramientas de
Cooperacion
Presentado por Christine Pendzich, Center for Environmental Dispute Resolution

Este taller consider las premises bAsicas y las estrategias para la resoluc16n de conflicts sobre
el medio ambie-,*. Incluy6 un ejercicio prdc ico sobre la estrategia opcional de si se debe
negociar o no. Los participants discutieron c6mo la resoluci6n de conflicts del medio
ambiente puede ayudar en la innovaci6n y cooperacion en sus propios contextos y situaciones.

Carteles y Dibujos Sencillos: Herramientas visuales para facilitar la discusi6n comunitaria
Presentado por Karen Kainer, University of Florida

En la prictica, lo fundamental de la extension es tener comunicaci6n en los dos sentidos. En
comunidades rurales donde la gente no tiene la costumbre de compartir sus ideas y opinions con
xtranjeros (gente que no vive en la comunidad), las imigenes visuales pueden ser usadas en
varias formas para abrir un espacio que no amenace al diilogo abierto. Los carteles y dibujos
son herramientas de extension que tambidn entretienen y pueden ser fabricados para necesidades
y situaciones especificas. Este taller cubri6 una variedad de casos en carteles y dibujos sencillos
que podian servir en la extension rural. Los participants tambidn tuvieron la oportunidad de
aprender y practical algunas t6cnicas de disefio muy sencillas.

La Fotografia Social como una Herramienta para el Proceso de Planeaci6n Participativa
en Actividades de Conservaci6n y Desarrollo
Presentado por Richard Piland, Conservation International

La fotograffa social puede ser una herramienta 6til para obtener informaci6n y fomentar
discusi6n en una amplia gama de t6picos relacionados con la conservaci6n y desarrollo entire
residents rurales. En este taller se present un proyecto de fotograffa social que se llev6 a cabo
por CI-Peru y la Federaci6n de Nativos Madre de Dios (FENAMAD) en 1993. En este proyecto
se distribuy6 un cierto n6mero de cimaras simples con instrucciones para que los miembros de
esta comunidad tomaran fotos relacionadas con el uso de recursos naturales y problems actuales
en sus respectivas comunidades. Los resultados se presentaron en talleres comunitarios y








sirvieron para obtener informaci6n que se utiliz6 en el process de planeamiento de conservaci6n.
La metodologia promovi6 un alto grado de participaci6n de los miembros de la comunidad.
Asimismo las imigenes producidas de esta manera proveyeron un material rico para analisis
posteriores y para otros proyectos. Este taller explore las posibilidades para el uso de esta
metodologia en contextos diferentes.

Herramientas para la Validaci6n de Genero en Proyectos de Foresteria Comunitaria
Presentado por Wilma Roos y Susana Balarezo, Programa Bosques, Arboles y
Comunidades Rurales

En el Ecuador hay cuatro proyectos sobre el manejo de Bosques en la Comunidad (FAO). Estos
se encuentras involucrados en la elaboraci6n y prueba de una herramienta participativa de
revalidaci6n de genero que proveerd a proyectos y organizaciones la posibilidad de medir el
punto hasta el cual las perspectives de g6nero estin incluidas en las actividades del proyecto.
Como resultados del proyecto se elaborardinrrecomendaciones sobre c6mo mejorar la situaci6n
existente. Despu6s de haber sido discutida en el campo, con organizaciones locales y en el
Seminario en Florida, esta herramienta seri puesta a prueba en cuatro proyectos de bosques, dos
-e los cuales se encuentran en el Ecuador y los otros dos :" otros pauses latinoamerica:,os. La
version final (ya puesta a prueba) con los cuatro studios de caso sera presentada en un
seminario que se Ilevard a cabo en septiembre de 1995 en Quito, Ecuador.

Taller de Sensibilizaci6n
Presentado por Angelica Flores, Heifer Project International

Objetivo:
Que los participants logren percibir las aspects positives y negatives que tienen en su vida
personal, familiar, communal y/o professional. Se trat6 de reforzar los aspects positives e iniciar
cambios en los negatives para lograr un equilibrio en el manejo personal, familiar, comunal y/o
professional y sus interrelaciones con el ecosistema.
Metodologia:
El recurso metodol6gico es el "Enfoque de Sistemas". Este recurso metodol6gico, como un
intent innovador, nos permit complementary los aspects del comportamiento human (con el
cual el ser human se relaciona dentro de su familiar, comunidad y con el ecosistema), con los
aspects t6cnicos, en la perspective de lograr una mejor calidad de vida.

Genero y Consideraciones Socio-econ6micas en Monitoreo y Evaluaci6n: C6mo
desarrollar pianos de M & E para proyectos de recursos naturales y de conservaci6n
Presentado por Eileen Muirragui, GENESYS

Existe una demand cada vez mayor, por parte de los proyectos que financial programs de
recursos naturales y conservaci6n, de hacer un andlisis del impact que tienen dichos programs
sobre la gente que vive y trabaja en las comunidades involucradas. Este taller present una
herramienta de monitoreo y evaluaci6n desarrollada por el proyecto GENESYS (Gender in
Economic and Social Systems/G6nero en Sistemas Econ6micos y Sociales) para: 1) analizar el








efecto del proyecto en hombres y mujeres; 2) establecer un sistema para la recolecci6n de
informaci6n y distribuci6n de 6sta; y 3) organizer el contenido y la fluidez de la informaci6n que
se necesite para decisions sobre actividades futuras. Especificamente, los participants en este
taller consideraron lo siguiente:

1) i,Qud es lo que yo quiero? (Objetivo)
2) i,Qu6 es lo que analizo? (Indicativo)
3) i,A d6nde quiero legar? (Metas)
4) i,Cual es mi punto de partida? (Base)
5) iC6mo analizo? (Fuentes de informaci6n y datos)
6) j,Cudindo analizo? (Tiempo)
7) i,Quidn lo hard? (Responsabilidad)
8) i,Cuinto costardi? (Costo)
9) i,Qud mis necesito considerar? (Comentarios)

Esta herramienta se construye con una metodologia M & E tipica, introduciendo el uso de
indicadores que analizan la involucraci6n de los participants y la toma de decisions; g6nero y
otras dimensions sociales, y el impact econ6mico y sobre los recursos naturales de los
proyectos.


ii








POSTERS


7



pr-



fa *:* '-^
s^ W ^i r
r ~i t~8i..js& l


FADEMAD
Puerto Maldonado, Peru

FAO-Ecuador-DFC
Quito, Ecuador

FAO-FTPP
Quito, Ecuador

FAO-FTP
Cochabamba, Bolivia

Fundaci6n Antisana
Quito, Ecuador

Fundaci6n Peruana para la
Conservaci6n de la Naturaleza
Iquitos, Peru


-g **,


Belize Enterprise of Sustained
Technology-Best
Belmopan, Belize

Casa de la Mujer La Morada
Santiago, Chile

CEPLAES
Quito, Ecuador


ra,
;B~i~
rr~

b"


<


a,








CONDESAN
Quito, Ecuador

Conservaci6n Internacional
Puerto Maldonado, Peru

Facultad Latinoamericana de Ciencias
Sociales-FLASCO
Quito, Ecuador

Genesys-The Futures Group
Montclair, Virginia

Heifer Project International
Little Rock, Arkansas

PESACRE
Acre, Brazil

Proyecto Heifer-Penr
Lima, Peri

Richard Bodmer
Pacaya Samiria

The Nature Conservancy
Arlington, Virginia

Women in Development (WID)
SAID
Washington, D.C.

World Hole Research Center
(WHRC/IAPM)
Belem, Brazil

World Wildlife Foundation-Brazil
Brasilia, Brazil

WWF-AIF/DK
Program Pacaya-Samiaria
Iquitos, Peri





List of Participants


Christina Allen
University of Florida
1616 SW 1st. Ave.
Gainesville. FL 32601
Tel (904) 372-7773

Kimberley Almeida
152 Dauer Hall
University of Florida
Gainesville, FL 32611
Tel (904) 392-2423
Fax
Email barley@ufcc.ufl.edu

David Freitas Alvarado
Program Pacaya-Samiria
WWF-AIF/DK
Drasil 362
Iquitos, Peru
Tel (519) 423-3355
Fax (519)423-3355

Suely Anderson
REBRAF
Rua Sambaiba 699-1-701 Leblon
22450-140 Rio de Janeiro-RJ
Brazil
Tel. (55-21) 294-1538
Fax (55-21) 521-1593

Blanca Arce
CONDESAN
Casilla 17-16-219
Quito, Ecuador
Tel (593) 222-0533/34


Fax
Email


(593) 250-7422
xainfo@fagro.ecx.ec


Heliodoro Arguello
University of Florida
297-13 Diamond Village
Gainesville, FL 32693
Tel (904) 846-56996
Email helio@nervm.nerdc.ufl.edu


Zoila Arredondo
Conservaci6n Intemacional
Dos de Marzo 144
Puerto Maldonado
Peru
Tel (511)440-8967

Paulina Arroyo
Fundaci6n Antisana
Mariana de Jesis y Carvajal
Casilla Postal 17-03-1486
Quito, Ecuador
Tel (593) 243-3849/51
Fax (593) 243-3851
Email correo@funan.ecx.ec

Loukas Arvanitis
School o; forest Resources
and Conservation
University of Florida
PO Box 110410
Gainesville, FL 32611-0420
Tel (904) 846-0887
Fax (904) 846-1277
Email lga@gnv.ifas.ufl.edu

Susanna Noemi Balarezo
FTPP-FAO
Ave. 12 de Octubre 1470 y Wilson
Apartado 17-12-833
Quito, Ecuador
Tel (59-3) 250-6267
Fax (59-3) 250-6267
Email carlos@ftp.ecx.ec

Revathi Balakrishna
Program Director
Women in International Development
Virginia Polytechnic Institute
1060 Litton Reaves Hall
Blacksburg, VA 24061-0334
Tel. (703) 231-6338
Fax (703) 231-6741
Email rbalakr@utml.cc.vt.edu


C








David Barkin
Universidad Aut6noma Metropolitana
Apdo. 23-181
16(XX) Xochimilco DF
M6xico
Tel 724-5100


Fax
Email


724-5235
barkin@cueyatl.uam.mx


Elena Bastidas
2901-304 SW 13th Street
Gainesville, FL 32608
Tel (904) 846-5099
Fax (904) 392-8634
Emi! diegol@gnv.ifas.ufl.edu

Paquita Bath
The Nature Conservancy
Latin Americ.wCaribbean Region
1815 N. Lynn Street
Arlington, VA 22209
Tel (703) 841-4186
Fax (703) 841-4188

Alfredo Begazo
University of Florida
PO Box 141932
Gainesville, FL 32614
Tel (904) 392-902

Eliana Binelli
University of Florida
4613 SW 44th Lane
Gainesville, FL 32608
Tel (904) 392-7242

Sue Blythe
Peace Education Now
PO Box 4157
Gainesville, FL 32613
Tel (904) 376-0642
Fax
Email peacednow@aol.com


Richard Bodmer
University of Florida
CLAS/TCD
PO Box 115531, Grinter 304
Gainesville, FL 32611-5531
Tel (904) 392-6548
Fax (904) 392-0085
Email bodmer@tcd.ufl.edu

Charlene Brewster
Food and Resource Economics Dept.
PO Box 110242
University of Florida
Gainesville, FL 32611
Tel (904) 392-1870

Shari Bush
Anthropology Dept.
PO Box 117305
University of Florida
Gainesville, FL 32611
Tel (904) 392-2031
Fax (904) 392-9272

John Butler
World Wildlife Fund-Brazil
SHIS EQ QL. 6/8
Conjunto E. 2o. Andar
71620-430
Brasilia, DF Brazil
Tel (55-61) 248-2899
Fax (55-61) 248-7176
Email wwfbrafo@ax.ape.org

Connie Campbell
University of Florida
MERGE/TCD
PO Box 115531
Grinter 304
Gainesville, FL 32611
Tel (904) 371-8151
Fax (904) 392-0085
Email merge@tcd.ufl.edu








Katia Carvalheiro
WHRC/IPAM
Cond. Resid. Embrapa
Rua Jari #1
Trav. Eneas Pinheiro s/n
CEP 66.095.100
Bel6m, Para
Brazil
Tel (55-91) 22


Fax
Email


26-9368


(55-91) 249-1534
whrcbraz@mcimail.com


Avecita Chicch6n
Conservaci6n Intemacional
Program Peru
Chich6n 858-A, Lima 27
San Isidro, Perti
Tel (511) 449-89


Fax


'67


(511) 440-8967


Peter Cronkleton
Dept. of Anthropology
University of Florida
Gainesville, FL 32611
Tel (904) 395-6420
Email ufpcronk@pine.circa.ufl.edu

Maria D'Araujo
University of Florida
Gainesville, FL 32611

Jon Dain
MERGE/TCD
PO Box 225531
304 Grinter Hall
University of Florida
Gainesville, FL 32611-5531
Tel (904) 392-6548
Fax (904) 392-0085
Email jdain@tcd.ufl.edu


Martha Ellis Davis
Center for Latin American Studies
University of Florida
Gainesville, FL 32611
Tel (904) 392-0375

Frederick Davis
University of Florida
3020 SW Archer Road #33
Gainesville, FL 32608
Tel (904) 377-1654

Barbara Decker
Box 4351
Dar-es-Salaam
Tanzania
Fax (255)514-6525

Nancy Diamond
Office of Women in Development (WID)
SA-38 Room 900
Washington, DC 20523-3802
Tel. (703) 816-0257
Fax (703) 816-0266
Email ndiamond@usaid.gov

Anne Dix
Institute of Ecology
University of Georgia
Athens, GA 30602
Tel (706) 208-9931
Email adix@uvg.edu.gt

Eduardo Durand
Fundaci6n Peruana para la
Conservaci6n de la Naturaleza
Pacaya Samiria Project
Napo 449
Iquitos, Peri
Tel. (51-9) 423 8754


(51-9) 423-3949


Fax








Valencia Elide
University of Florida
13526 Broad St.
Bronksville, FL 34601
Tel (904) 799-1264
Fax (904) 796-3385

Jos6 R. Espaillat
Agronomy Department
PO Box 110500
Gainesville. FL 32611
Tel (904) 392-2849
Fax (904) 392-1840
Email jose@gnv.ifas.ufl.edu

Lionel Espinosa
Soil and Water Science Dept.
283-3 Corry Village
Gainesville, FL 32603
Tel (904) 846-5987
Fax (904) 846-5987
Email lae@gnv.ifas.ufl.edu

Hilary Sims Feldstein
CGIAR Gender Program
C/o IFPRI
1200 17th St. NW
Washington, DC 20036-3006
Tel (202) 862-8180
Fax (202) 467-4439
Email H.feldstein@cgnet.com

Elba Fiallo
Fundaci6n Natura
Am6rica #5653 y Ugandes,
Quito, Ecuador
Tel (593) 244-7341
Email bindix@natura.ecx.ec.


Angl6ica Vega de Flores
Proyecto Heifer/Peri
Solitario de Sayan No.437
Urbanizaci6n Maranga
Lima 32, Peri
Tel. (51-1) 451-9710
Fax (51-1) 451-5745

Merlin Vasquez Garcia
Fundaci6n Peruana para la
Conservaci6n de la Naturaleza
Napo 449
Iquitos, Peni
Tel. (51-9) 423 8754
Fax (51-9) 423-3939


Denise Garrafiel
PESACRE
Caixa Postal 277
69908-970 Rio Branco
Acre, Brazil


Tel
Fax
Email


(55-68) 224-1599
(55-68) 223-1724
pesacr-@ ax.apc.org


Christina Gladwin
Food and Resource Economics Dept.
PO Box 110240
University of Florida
Gainesville, FL 32611-0240
Tel (904) 392-5071
Fax (904) 392-3646
Email chg@gnv.ifas.ufl.edu

Andre Loubet Guimaries
Amazonian Institute of
Man and Environment
IMAZON
Caixa Postal 1015
CEP 66.017-000 Belem/Para
Brazil
Tel (55-91) 235-4214
Fax (55-91) 235-0122








Irene Guijt
International Institute for
Environment and Development
IIED
3 Endsleigh St.
London, WC 1H ODD
United Kingdom
Tel. (44-171) 388-2117
Fax (44-171) 388-2826
Email iiedagri@gn.apc.org

Dorota Haman
104 Rogers Hall
University of Florida
Gainesville, FL 32611
Tel (904) 392-8432
Fax (904) 392-4092
Email dorota@agen.ufl.ed,'

Peter E. Hildebrand
Food and Resource Economics Dept.
PO Box 110240
Gainesville, FL 32611-0240
Tel (904) 392-5830
Fax (904) 392-8634
Email peh@gnv.ifas.ufl.edu

Irene M. Hohn
STR/Paragominas
Av. Tavares Bastos 933
Bloco F, Ap. 201
Marambaia 66999
Bel6m, Para
Brazil
Tel. (55-91) 231-4830
Fax (55-91) 246-2629

Tomas Huanca
University of Florida
1605 NW 7th Ave.
Gainesville, FL 32603
Tel (904) 375-7067


Dept. of Soil and Water Science
2169 McCarty Hall
University of Florida
Gainesville, FL 32611
Tel (904)392-1951
Fax (904) 392-3902

Denise Humphreys
Inter-American Foundation
901 N. Stuart St. 10th Floor
Arlington, VA 22209
USA
Tel (703) 841-3842
Fax (703) 841-0973
Email iafpu@igc.apc.org


Maria Pelena Jarvis
Fundaci6n Antisana
Mariana de Jesus y Carvajal
Casilla Postal 17-03-1486
Quito, Ecuador
Tel (593) 243-3849/51
Fax (593) 243-3851
Email correo@funan.ecx.ec

Rafael Jerez
Soil and Water Science Dept.
University of Florida
Gainesville, FL 32611
Tel (904) 392-1804
Fax (904) 392-3902
Email raje@gnv.ifas.ufl.edu

Deborah J. Kane
Institute of Ecology
University of Georgia
Athens, GA 30602
Tel (706) 542-2968
Fax (706) 542-6040
Email dkane@uga.cc.uga.edu


David Hubbell








Rosario Lanao
Conservaci6n Internacional
Program Perd
Chich6n 858-A, Lima 27
San Isidro, Per6
Tel (511) 440-8967
E-Mail: ci-peru@conservation.org

Patricia Larson
World Wildlife Fund
1250 24th St. NW
Washington, D.C.
Tel. (202) 861-8315
Fax (202) 861-8377

Deborah Lima-Ayres
UFPA/Sociedade Civil Mamirauad
Dept. de Antrr,pologfa
CP 351, Bel6m, Para
Brazil
Tel (55-91) 229-0069
Fax (55-91) 229-0069

Jos6 L6pez-Parodi
Program Pacaya-Samiria
WWF-AIF/DK
Brasil 362
Iquitos, Perd
Tel (519) 423-3355
Fax (519)423-3355

Kathryn Lynch
University of Florida
TCD Program
304 Grinter
Gainesville, FL 32611
Tel (904)392-6548
Email ktlynch@grove.ufl.edu

Maria de Nazare Costa de Macedo
PESACRE
Rua Iracema Q. 11 C.08
Bairro: Vila Ivonete CEP 69900
Acre, Brasil


Tel 224-1599
Fax 223-5724
Email: pesacre@ax.apc.org

Marli Mattos
Woods Hole Research Center/Instituto
de Pesquisa Ambiental da Amazonia
WHRC/IPAM
Trav. Padre Eutiquio, 1940/1302
CEP: 66.033.000
Bel6m, Para
Brazil
Tel (55-91) 226-9368
Fax (55-91) 249-1534
Email whrcbraz@mcimail.com

Brenda Mayol
Ixchel S.C.
Caserfo Nueva San Jos6 Pettin
Municipio de San Jos6
Guatemala
Tel (502) 950-0546

Deborah McGrath
University of Florida
118 N-Z Hall
Gainesville, FL 32611
Tel (904) 846-5083
Fax (904) 392-1707

Martin McKellar
Tropical Research and Development
7011 SW 24th Ave.
Gainesville, FL 32607
Tel (904)331-1886
Fax (904) 331-3284
Email 6402222@mcimail.com

Norma Mena
CEPLAES
Casilla 17.15.225-C
Quito, Ecuador
Tel 434-171
Fax 434-171








Beth Miller
Heifer Project International
1015 South Louisiana
PO Box 808
Little Rock, Arkansas 7220


Tel.
Fax


(501) 376-6836
(501) 376-8906


Susan Moegenburg
Zoology Department
University of Florida
3800 D SW 17 Ave.
Gainesville, FL 32607
Tel (904) 335-6838
Fax
Email moegen l@nervm.nerdc.ufl.edu

Johr Moon
CER-UF
PO Box 12927
Gainesville, FL 32604
Tel (904) 336-8351
Fax (903) 392-1457

Julio Morrobel
Institute Superior de Agricultura (ISA)
Ave. President Antonio Guzmdn Km. 5
La Herradura, Santiago
Dominican Republic
Tel. (809) 247-2000
Fax (809) 247-2626

Pablo Muench
Secretaria de Medio Ambiente,
Recursos Naturales y Pesca
Libramiento Suroeste No. 4355
Col. Castillo T. Tuxtla Gutierrez
Chiapas 29070
Mexico
Tel (961) 432-04
Fax (961) 844-63

Eileen Muirragui
World Bank Economic Development Inst.


)7


Tel (202) 473-6379
Fax
Email ymxw66a@prodigy.com

Jennett Myvett
Belize Enterprise for
Sustained Technology (BEST)
Forest Drive
PO Box 35
Belmopan, Belize
Tel. (501-8) 23150/23043
Fax (501-8) 22563

P.K. Nair
SFRC
University of Florida
PO Box 110420
Gainesville, FL 32611-0420
Tel (904) 846-0880
Fax (904) 846-1277
Email pkn@gnv.ifas.ufl.edu

Lisa Naughtan-Torres
University of Florida
303 Newins-Ziegler
Gainesville, FL 32611
Tel (904) 373-4017
Fax (904) 392-0085
Email Lnaughtan@maple.circa.ufl.edu

Francisco Cartaxo Nobre
INPA/PESACRE
3105-Buchanan Hall
Ames, IA 50013
Tel (515) 296-0687

Lisa Northrop
Tropical Research and Development
7011 SW 24th Ave.
Gainesville, FL 32607
Tel (904) 331-1886
Fax (904) 331-3284
Email 6402222@mcimail.com








Susan Paulson
FAO-FTP
Casilla 1395
Cochabamba, Bolivia
Tel (591) 424-7871
Fax (591) 423-2906
Email ccs@unbol.bo

Holly Payne
University of Florida
416 NE 2nd. Ave.
Gainesville, Florida
Tel (904) 374-6572
Email holly@tcd.ufl.edu

Jim Penn
University of Florida-ACF
10 Powers Lane Place
Decatur, IL 62522
Tel (217) 429-3898
Fax (217) 875-7566

Carlos A. Perez
CARE
151 Ellis Street
Atlanta, GA 30303
Tel. (404) 681-2552
Fax (404) 577-1205
Email perez@msmail.care.org

Richard Piland
FADEMAD
Apartado 179, Av. 28 de Julio 459
Puerto Maldonado, Peru
Tel (518) 457-1658
Fax (518) 457-1882
Email: ci-peru@conservation.org

Susan V. Poats
Facultad Latinoamericana de Ciencias
Sociales FLACSO
Casilla 17-11-06362
Quito, Ecuador
Tel (5932) 542-716


Fax (5932) 566-139
Email poats@ppdsgen.ecx.ec


Ineke Van De Pol
FAO-Ecuador-DFC
Proyecto Desarrollo Forestal Campesino
Casilla 17-21-0190
Quito, Ecuador
Tel (593) 232-4790
Fax (593) 232-4935
Email rth@pi.pro.ec

Peter Polshek
University of Florida
CLAS/TCD
PO Box 115531
Grinter 304
Gainesville, FL 32611-5531
Tel (904) 392-6548
Fax (904) 392-0085
Email polshek@tcd.ufl.edu

Noemmi Miyasaka Porro
ASSEMA
University of Texas-Austin
3500 Greystone Dr. #260
Austin, TX 78731
Tel. (512) 418-8255
Fax (512)471-1835
Email lpkd671@bongo.cc.utexas.edu

Robert Porro
ASSEMA
University of Texas-Austin
3500 Greystone Dr. #260
Austin, TX 78731
Tel. (512) 418-8255
Fax (512)471-1835
Email lpkd671@bongo.cc.utexas.edu

Janet Puhalla
321 SE 3rd St., F-16
Gainesville, FL 32601
Tel (904) 373-6593








Email jmpu@gnv.ifas.ufl.edu


Andrea Puntual
Projeto Genesys
Praca Radial Sul 25 Ap. 804 Botafogo
Rio de Janeiro CEP 22260
Brasil
Tel (5521) 567-1507
Fax (5521) 537-4298

Jorge Recharte
FLACSO-Ecuador
Ulpiano Priez 118 y Ave. Patria
Casilla 17-11-06362
Quito, Ecuador
Tel (593) 223-1806
Fax (593)256-6139
Email recharte@ppdsflac.ecx.ec

Kent H. Redford
The Nature Conservancy
1815 N. Lynn St.
Arlington, VA 22209
Tel (703) 841-4110
Fax (703) 841-4880

Marise Batista Reis
Projeto Mamiraud
Estrada de Aeroporto, 100
Tefe, Amazonas
Brazil
Tel (92) 743-2774
Fax (92) 743-2774

Maria Nieves Rico
ICRW
Casa de la Mujer La Morada
Purisima 251, Casilla 51510
Correo Central
Santiago, Chile
Tel. (562) 735-3465
Fax (562) 274-0180


Betty Rios


FPCN
Napo 449
Iquitos, Peni
Tel
Fax


(51) 423-8754
(51) 423-3949


Dianne Rocheleau
Clark University
Graduate School of Geography
950 Main Street
Worcester, MA 01610-1477
USA
Tel. (508) 793-7176
Fax (508)793-8881
Email drocheleau@vax.clarku.edu

Marcia Roeder
Servicio Holandd, de Cooperaci6n
al Desarrollo-Lima
Choquehuanca 204
San Isidro, Lima
Peru
Tel 429-368
Fax 424-586


Mary Rojas
DESFIL
Rojas International Consultants
Recluse, Wiyoming 82725
Tel. (307) 736-2055
Fax (903) 736-2055

Wilma Roos
FTPP-FAO
Ave. 12 de octubre 1430 y Wilson
Apartado 17-12-833
Quito, Ecuador
Fax (59-3) 250-6267
Fax (59-3) 250-6267
Email carlos@ftp.ecx.ec

Debbie Roos
University of Florida








2930 SE 23rd. Terr. Apt. 2501
Gainesville, FL 32608
Tel (904) 376-5441

John Russell
University of Florida
PO Box 110240
Gainesville, FL 32611
Tel (904) 392-5830
Fax (904) 392-8634
Email jtrussell@gnv.ifas.ufl.edu

Sandra Russo
Office of International Studies
and Programs
PO Box 113225, 123 Tigert Hall
University of Florida
Gainesville, FL 32411-3225
Tel (904) 392-5323
Fax (904) 392-8379
Email srusso@ufnet.mail.ufl.edu

Luz Maria Rodriguez Sa6nz
Secretaria de Desarrollo Social
Prolongaci6n Insurgentes 155
Barrio Maria Auxiliadora C.P. 29290
San Crist6bal Las Casas
Chiapas, M6xico


(919) 678-6451
(919) 678-4463


Fax


Steve Sanderson
University of Florida
3324 Turlington Hall
Gainesville, FL 32611
Tel (904) 392-0262

Donald Sawyer
ISPN
Caixa Postal 9944
Brasilia DF 70(X)1-970
Brasil
Tel (55-61) 321-8085
Fax (55-61) 321-6333


Marianne Schmink
Center for Latin American Studies
PO Box 115530
319 Grinter Hall
University of Florida
Gainesville, FL 32611-5530
Tel (904) 392-6548
Fax (904) 392-0085
Email schmink@tcd.ufl.edu

Andy Seidl
Food and Resource Economics Dept.
PO Box 110242
University of Florida
Gainesville, FL 32611
Tel (904) 392-2396
Fax (904) 392-3646
Email buffalobill@ufcc.ufl.edu

Irma Silva-Barbeau
Silva Associates
1403 Locust Ave.
Blacksburg, VA 24060
Tel (703) 552-4170
Fax (703) 552-4977

Virginia (Ginny) Seitz
Virginia Polytechnic Institute and
State University
654 McBryde Hall
Department of Sociology
Blacksburg, VA 24061-0137
Tel. (703) 231-3171
Fax (703)231-3860
Email gseitz@vtvml.cc.vt.edu

Gary Shaeff
Department of Anthropology
University of Florida
8620-273 NW 13th. Street
Gainesville, FL 32641-7957
Tel. (904) 378-4328
Fax (904) 378-4328
Email afn04387@freenet.ufl.edu








Amy Shannon
MacArthur Foundation
140 S. Dearborn St. Suite 1100
Chicago, Illinois 60603
Tel. (312) 726-8000
Fax (312)917-0334
Email Ashannon@macfdn.org

Lisette Staal
MERGE/TCD
PO Box 225531
304 Grinter Hall
University of Florida
Gainesville, FL 32611-5531
Tel (904) 392-6548
Fax (904) 392-0085
Email lstaal@tcd.ufl.edu

Amanda Stronza
824 1/2 East University Avenue
Apartment #3
Gainesville, FL 32601
Tel (904)377-7177
Email stronza@grove.ufl.edu

Mary Lou Surgi
Center for PVO/University
Collaboration in Development
Bird Bldg.
Cullowhee, NC 28723
USA


Tel.
Fax
Email


(704) 227-7492
(704) 227-7422
surgi@wcuvax 1 .wcu.edu


Mary E. Taylor
Tropical Research and Development
7011 SW 24th Ave.
Gainesville, FL 32607
Tel (904)331-1886
Fax (904) 331-3284
Email 6402222@mcimail.com


Anne Todd-Bockarie
MERGE/TCD
PO Box 225531
304 Grinter Hall
University of Florida
Gainesville, FL 32611-5531
Tel (904) 392-6548
Fax (904) 392-0085
Email atb@tcd.ufl.edu

Wendy Townsend
TCD
University of Florida
Gainesville, FL 32611
Tel (904) 338-2961
Fax (904) 392-0085
Email wendyt@ufcc.ufl.edu

Denise Trunk
University of Florida
Gainesville, FL 32611
Tel (904) 392-5140

Kevin Veach
University of Florida
1001 SW 16th Street Apt. 68
Gainesville, FL 32601
Tel (904) 372-0277

Allan Wood
University of Florida
305-21 Diamond Village
Gainesville, FL 32603
Tel (904) 846-5844
Email AAW@gnv.ifas.ufl.edu

Victor Zambrano
Federacion Agraria de Madre de Dios
FADEMAD
Apartado 179
Av. 28 de Julio 459
Puerto Maldonado, Peri
Tel (518) 457-1658
Fax (518)457-1882









Carolina Zumarzin-Jones
Tropical Research and Development
7011 SW 24th Ave.
Gainesville, FL 32607
Tel (904) 331-1886
Fax (904) 331-3284
Email 6402222@mcimail.com








Acronyms


ABC
AMTR
ASSEMA
ATEA

BEST
CECODES
CEPLAES
CI
CNPq-MCT
CONDESAN
CRSP
EEC
FADEMAD
FAO
FLACS'
FPCN
FTP
FUNAN
GENESYS
GCC
HPI
IAF
IBAMA
ICRW
IIED
IMAZON

INCRA
INPA-M A
IPAM
IPM
ISA
ISPN
IXSHEL
MERGE
MPEG
NGO
ODA-UK
PESACRE
PLLA
PLT


Academia Brasileira de Ciencias
Associaiio das Mutheres Trabalhadoras Rurais de Lago do Junco
Associacio em Areas de Assentamento no Estado do Maranhao
Associaqio dos Trabalhadores Extrativistas de Amazonia (Association of
Amazonian Extractive Workers)
Belize Enterprise for Sustainable Technology
Centros Comunitirios para la Conservaci6n y Desarrollo
Centro de Planificaci6n y Estidios Sociales
Conservation International
Conselho Nacional de Pesquisa
Consorcio para el Desarrolo Sustenable en los Andes
Collaborative Research Support Program (USAID-funded)
European Economic Community
Fundaci6n Agraria del Departamento de Madre de Di6s
Food and Agricultural Organization (of the United Nations)
Facultad Latinoa:nericana de Ciencias Sociales
Fundaci6n Peruana para la Conservaci6n de la Naturaleza
Forest, Trees, and People
Fundaci6n Antisana
Gender in Economic and Social Systems
Global Climate Change
Heifer Project International
Inter-American Foundation
Institute Brasiliero de Meio Ambiente
International Center for Research on Women
International Institute for Environment and Development
Institute de Homen e Meio Ambieule na Amazonia (Amazonian Institute of
Man and Environment)
Institute Nacional de Colonizaqco e Reforma Agrdria
Institute Nacional de Pesquisa na Amaz6nia Manaus
Institute de Pesquisa Ambiental da Amazonia
Integrated Pest Management
Institute Superior de Agricultura
Institute Sociedade, Populaq~o e Natureza

Managing the Environment and Resources with Gender Emphasis
Museu Paranense Emilio Goeldi
Non-governmental organization
Overseas Development Authority-United Kingdom
Pesquisa e Extensdo em Sistemas Agroflorestais do Acre
Participatory Landscape Lifescape Appraisal
Project Learning Tree









PRA
REBRAF
SANREM
SEDOSOL
SEMACT-AM
TCD
TNC
UF
UFPa
SAID
WCS
WHRC
WIAD
WWF
ZRTC


Participatory Rural Appraisal
Rede Brasileira de Sistemas Agroflorestais
Sustainable Agriculture and Natural Resource Management CRSP
Secretariat for Social Development (World Bank)
Secretarie Estadaul do Meio
Tropical Conservation and Development
The Nature Conservancy
University of Florida
Universidade Federal do Pard
United States Agency for International Development
Wildlife Conservation Society
Woods Hole Research Center
Women in Agricultural Development
World Wildlife Foundation
Tambopata-Candamo Reserve Zone (Zona Reserva de Tampopata-Candamo)




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