• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Title Page
 Letter of transmittal
 Synopsis
 Map
 Table of Contents
 List of Illustrations
 List of Tables
 Introduction
 Rechna doab and the project...
 Economy of the area
 Soils
 Ground water hydrology
 Ground water hydrology
 Problems of irrigated agricult...
 Reclamation policies and project...
 The project
 Feasibility
 Corollary development
 Corollary development
 Glossary
 Bibliography
 Contents of appendices
 Classification and distribution...
 Saline and alkali soils.
 Water quality
 Irrigation water requirements
 Canal operations
 Surface drainage
 Hydrological feasibility and response...
 Crop yields, prices, cost of production...
 Tubewell drainage methods vs open...
 Canal remodelling and subsurface...
 Estimates of construction cost,...






Title: Ground water and reclamation program ; Project No. 5, Lower Rechna Doab, West Pakistan
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE PAGE TEXT
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00054839/00001
 Material Information
Title: Ground water and reclamation program ; Project No. 5, Lower Rechna Doab, West Pakistan
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Creator: Tipton and Kalmbach, Inc., engineers
Publisher: Tipton and Kalmbach, Inc.
Publication Date: 1966
 Subjects
Subject: Farming   ( lcsh )
Agriculture   ( lcsh )
Farm life   ( lcsh )
Spatial Coverage: Asia -- Pakistan -- West Pakistan
 Notes
Funding: Electronic resources created as part of a prototype UF Institutional Repository and Faculty Papers project by the University of Florida.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00054839
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 06274573

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Title Page
        Title Page
    Letter of transmittal
        Unnumbered ( 3 )
    Synopsis
        Unnumbered ( 4 )
        Unnumbered ( 5 )
    Map
        Unnumbered ( 6 )
    Table of Contents
        Table of Contents 1
        Table of Contents 2
    List of Illustrations
        List of Illustrations
    List of Tables
        List of Tables
    Introduction
        Introduction 1
        A 1
        A 2
        A 3
        A 4
    Rechna doab and the project area
        B 0
        General
            B 1
        Drainage, physiography and general geology
            B 1
        Climate
            B 2
            Active flood plains
                B 2
            Abandoned flood plains
                B 2
            Bar uplands
                B 2
        Population
            C 2
        Agriculture
            C 2
            C 3
            C 4
        Industrial development
            C 5
        Transportation and communications
            C 6
        Existing irrigation facilities
            B 3
            B 4
        Tables
            C 7
            C 8
            C 9
            C 10
    Economy of the area
        C 0
        C 1
        Administrative structure
            C 1
        Figures
            C 11
            C 12
            C 13
        Land use classification
            D 2
        Waterlogging and surface salinity
            D 3
    Soils
        D 0
        Soil fertility
            D 4
        Soil development
            D 1
        Soil classification
            D 1
        Moisture characteristics
            D 5
        Cation exchange capacity
            D 5
        Hydraulic properties of the alluvium
            E 2
        Occurrence of ground water
            E 2
            E 3
        Quality of ground water
            E 4
            E 5
    Ground water hydrology
        E 1
        The alluvial aquifer
            E 1
        Summary
            E 6
        Figures
            E 7
            E 8
    Ground water hydrology
        E 0
    Problems of irrigated agriculture
        F 0
        F 1
        F 2
        F 3
        F 4
        Tables
            F 5
            F 6
            F 7
        Figures
            F 8
            F 9
    Reclamation policies and project design criteria
        G 0
        General policies
            G 1
        Scope of the reclamation program
            G 1
            Reclamation methods
                G 2
            Selection of areas
                G 3
        Development plan
            G 4
            The saline area
                G 5
            The intermediate area
                G 5
            The non-saline area
                G 5
        Project design
            G 5
            Cropping pattern
                G 5
                G 6
            Irrigation water requirements
                G 7
            Canal deliveries
                G 7
            Tubewells water requirements
                G 8
                G 9
                G 10
            Water quality
                G 11
            Drainage
                G 11
            Flood protection
                G 11
        Tables
            G 12
            G 13
            G 14
            G 15
        Figures
            G 16
            G 17
            G 18
    The project
        H 0
        Tubewells
            H 1
            General
                H 1
            Construction
                H 1
            Location and sizes of tubewells
                H 2
        Electrification
            H 3
            General
                H 3
            Existing electrical power facilities
                H 3
            Transmission lines
                H 4
            Substations
                H 4
            Distribution
                H 5
            Services
                H 5
        Surface supplies
            H 5
        Tables
            H 6
            H 7
            H 8
            H 9
            H 10
            H 11
            H 12
            H 13
            H 14
            H 15
        Figure
            H 16
    Feasibility
        I 0
        Hydrology
            I 1
        Chemical quality of irrigation supplies
            I 1
            Salinity of irrigation water in the intermediate area
                I 1
            Potential use of ground water in the saline area
                I 2
        Direct agricultural benefits
            I 2
            Future agricultural development without a project
                I 2
            Agricultural development resulting from project 5
                I 3
            Immediate benefits from reclamation
                I 3
            Benefits following full development
                I 4
        Secondary benefits
            I 5
        Economic evaluation
            I 5
            Cost of the project
                I 5
            Benefit-cost analysis
                I 6
        Alternative to the proposed project
            I 7
            I 8
        Tables
            I 9
            I 10
            I 11
            I 12
            I 13
            I 14
            I 15
            I 16
        Figures
            I 17
            I 18
            I 19
            I 20
            I 21
    Corollary development
        J 0
    Corollary development
        J 1
        J 2
        J 3
    Glossary
        K 1
        K 2
        K 3
    Bibliography
        L 1
        L 2
        L 3
        L 4
    Contents of appendices
        M 1
        M 2
        M 3
        M 4
    Classification and distribution of industrial workers
        M 5
        M 6
        M 7
        M 8
        M 9
        M 10
        M 11
        M 12
    Saline and alkali soils.
        M 13
        M 14
        M 15
        M 16
        M 17
        M 18
        M 19
    Water quality
        M 20
        M 21
        M 22
        M 23
        M 24
        M 25
        M 26
        M 27
        M 28
    Irrigation water requirements
        M 29
        M 30
        M 31
        M 32
        M 33
        M 34
        M 35
        M 36
        M 37
        M 38
        M 39
        M 40
        M 41
        M 42
        M 43
        M 44
        M 45
        M 46
        M 47
        M 48
        M 49
        M 50
        M 51
        M 52
        M 53
        M 54
        M 55
        M 56
        M 57
        M 58
        M 59
        M 60
        M 61
        M 62
        M 63
        M 64
        M 65
        M 66
        M 67
        M 68
        M 69
        M 70
        M 71
        M 72
        M 73
        M 74
    Canal operations
        M 75
        M 76
        M 77
        M 78
        M 79
        M 80
        M 81
        M 82
    Surface drainage
        M 83
        M 84
        M 85
        M 86
        M 87
        M 88
        M 89
        M 90
        M 91
    Hydrological feasibility and response of the ground, water system
        M 92
        M 93
        M 94
        M 95
        M 96
        M 97
        M 98
        M 99
        M 100
        M 101
        M 102
        M 103
        M 104
        M 105
        M 106
        M 107
        M 108
        M 109
        M 110
    Crop yields, prices, cost of production and project benefits
        M 111
        M 112
        M 113
        M 114
        M 115
        M 116
        M 117
        M 118
        M 119
        M 120
        M 121
        M 122
        M 123
        M 124
        M 125
        M 126
        M 127
        M 128
        M 129
        M 130
        M 131
        M 132
        M 133
        M 134
    Tubewell drainage methods vs open and tile drain systems
        M 135
        M 136
        M 137
        M 138
        M 139
        M 140
        M 141
        M 142
        M 143
        M 144
        M 145
    Canal remodelling and subsurface Drainage
        M 146
        M 147
        M 148
        M 149
        M 150
        M 151
        M 152
        M 153
    Estimates of construction cost, operation and maintenance costs, and cost recovery
        M 154
        M 155
        M 156
        M 157
        M 158
        M 159
        M 160
        M 161
        M 162
        M 163
        M 164
        M 165
        M 166
        M 167
        M 168
        M 169
        M 170
        M 171
        M 172
        M 173
        M 174
        M 175
        M 176
        M 177
        M 178
        M 179
        M 180
        M 181
        M 182
        M 183
        M 184
        M 185
        M 186
Full Text




~07-Cf6


WEST PAKISTAN
WATER AND POWER DEVELOPMENT AUTHORITY
LAHORE, PAKISTAN


GROUND WATER


AND RECLAMATION PROGRAM


PROJECT NO. 5



LOWER RECHNA DOAB

WEST PAKISTAN









SBY
TIPTON AND KALMBACH, INC.
ENGINEERS


DENVER, COLORADO, USA


LAHORE, W. PAKISTAN


AUGUST 1966












WEST PAKISTAN
WATER AND POWER DEVELOPMENT AUTHORITY
LAHORE, PAKISTAN









GROUND WATER AND RECLAMATION PROGRAM


PROJECT NO. 5



LOWER RECHNA DOAB

WEST PAKISTAN









BY
TIPTON AND KALMBACH, INC.
ENGINEERS


DENVER, COLORADO, USA


LAHORE, W. PAKISTAN


AUGUST 1966







TIPTON AND KALMBACH, INC.
ENGINEERS
WATER AND POWER DEVELOPMENT AUTHORITY
P. O. BOX 731
LAHORE, WEST PAKISTAN

CABLE : TAKSARP
TELEX : LH 20 GROUND WATER AND RECLAMATION PROJECT
PHONE: 80271 & 80851 27E-1. GULBERG. LAHORE.



8 August 1966





Mr. Aftab Ghulam Nabi Kazi, Sk.
Chairman
West Pakistan Water and Power Development Authority
Sunny View Estate
Kashmir Road
Lahore, Pakistan


Dear Mr. Kazi:

Transmitted herewith is our planning report for Salinity Control
and Reclamation Project No. 5, Lower Rechna Doab.

The development concepts which are elaborated in this report are
further steps in the evolution of a regional plan for development of the
land and water resources of the Northern Zone of the Indus Plains. The
unique feature of the project plan is the provision for exploitation of
moderately mineralized ground water for irrigation supply. Apart from
the obvious conservation benefits derived from this practice, significant
economic advantages are obtained because the use of these supplies
eliminates or defers the need for canal enlargement, and drainage works,
without prejudicing agricultural development. This is reflected in the
benefit-cost ratio which is among the most favorable we have encountered
in our experience in irrigation development.

We wish to express our appreciation for the assistance of those
who have had a part in the work leading to the report.

Respectfully submitted,

TIPTON AND KALMBACH, INC.







R. J. Tipton






SYNOPSIS


The proposed Salinity Control and Reclamation Project 5 is a part of the massive program
of public works undertaken by the Water and Power Development Authority (WAPDA) for the
development and distribution of irrigation water supplies to support the highest possible level of
agriculture in the Northern Zone of the Indus Basin. Through exploitation and management of
the ground water reservoir, full irrigation-supply and drainage requirements will be satisfied
for about 1.7 million acres of the Project area, and supplies for the remaining 0.5 million acres
will be increased greatly; drainage requirements will be met for the entire area.
Project 5 comprises about 2.7 million acres in the southwestern part of Rechna Doab, of
which about 2.2 million acres are culturable. The area is commanded principally by the Lower
Chenab and Haveli Canal systems, but the current deliveries of surface water are inadequate
to support a fully development agriculture. Even though the canal supplies are supplemented
by the ground water produced from about 7,000 Persian wheels and 3,200 privately-owned tube-
wells, the present cropping intensity is about 114 percent far short of the 150 percent that
represents a reasonable "target" under conditions of current technology and managerial capabi-
lity.
As in many other parts of the Northern Plains, agriculture in Lower Rechna Doab is
developed for below its potential. The basic problems which have suppressed agriculture and
hampered efforts to introduce modern farming practices in the Project area are principally the
outgrowth of water factors: improperly timed, insufficient, and unreliable deliveries of irriga-
tion supplies to the fields; and inadequate subsurface drainage of the irrigated lands. As a
result, about 20 percent of the area is affected by soil salinity and waterlogging, and virtually
.the entire area is under-irrigated for optimum production. Under these conditions the farmers
have been forced to adopt inefficient practices which have only amplified the basic problems,
resulting in low intensity of cultivation and low unit yields. Thus despite a generally favor-
able environment for irrigated agriculture in Lower Rechna Doab, the returns to agriculture are
among the lowest recorded for irrigated areas of the world.
The Project area is underlain by highly permeabiq alluvial sediments which are saturated
to within a few feet of the land surface. The ground water underlying about 60 percent of the
area is of excellent quality for irrigation, but for about 20 percent of the area, the chemical
quality is not considered to be usable: the remaining area is underlain by water of intermediate
quality that is useful for irrigation when mixed with canal water. The ground water reservoir
is abundantly recharged from leakage from the irrigation system and the complex of canals that
traverses the area. Under present conditions, the economic potential of the aquifer is not
realized, even considering the important growth of the numbers of private tubewells in recent
years: on the contrary, the shallow water table presents waterlogging hazards and evaporation
from it has contributed to the area's problems of soil salinity.
The irrigation supply and drainage requirements can be met by the development and
proper management of the ground water resources. Project 5 is designed to exploit the ground
water reservoir by means of a network of high-capacity tubewells integrated with the existing
watercourse distribution system. To obtain a maximum relation of benefits to costs, three
operational zones are proposed:
a) An outer zone that coincides with the fresh ground water area in which sur-
face deliveries will be maintained at about their historic rates, and with ground water being
pumped liberally;
b) An intermediate or transition zone in which deliveries of surface water will
be increased over historic rates and in which ground water of less desirable quality will be
pumped at controlled rates;
c) An inner zone overlying the saline ground water in which no Project pumping
will be done, but in which surface water deliveries will be raised to the maximum rate per-
mitted by the existing distribution system.








The proposed combined irrigation supply will permit full agricultural development of
about 80 percent of the area, and for the remainder of the Project will permit a level -
while somewhat lower represents an important advance over current development.
The Project involves the construction of about 2,300 tubewells of about 8,770 cusecs
pumping capacity, and appropriate appurtenant distribution works and power facilities. The
estimated capital cost of the Project is 328.3 million rupees, including power facilities, of
which 39 percent will be in foreign exchange for equipment, materials and services not avail-
cble in Pakistan. In addition to raising the level of agricultural production, the proposed
amount of ground water pumping will depress the water table to a depth sufficient to eliminate
subsurface drainage hazards and to provide storage for seasonal recharge, but will not represent
an overdraft from the aquifer.
As a result of Project operation, optimum supplies will be available for most of the
culturable area. Cropped acreage will increase to about 3.2 million acres representing a
cropping intensity of 147 percent and unit yields of most crops will increase two- to three-
fold, The Project will yield a benefit-cost ratio of more than 8 to 1.
Alternative methods of development include the promotion of increased use of private
tubewells and the provision of a full irrigation supply to that part of the Project area underlain
by saline ground water:
The recent proliferation of private tubewells suggests that than appropriate
level of agricultural development might be achieved by reserving the area for private tubewell
development, and promoting private investment primarily by electrification of the area. How-
ever, detailed analysis indicates that (a) significant increases are not to be expected of either
the number of private tubewells or the area of lands they command; (b) elements of marginal
utility will operate to suppress private development over much of the area; and (c) that the cost
of the needed electrification is inordinately high. vMreover, no level of private activity will
satisfy the overriding commitment to the regional development of the Northern Plains. Accord-
ingly, it is concluded that optimum development of Lower Rechna Doab must be accomplished
by a public works program.
--- The provision of sufficient irrigation supplies to the area underlain by
saline ground water would permit the attainment of cropping intensities of 150 percent over
the entire Project rather than for only 80 of the area, as proposed but would require the
construction of a separate drainage system and the remodelling of many miles of canals. The
attendent costs are sufficiently high as to make this alternate method of development less favor-
able than the proposed Project.
*














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WATER AND POWER DEVELOPMENT AUTHORITY
TIPrON AND rAtMBACN. IMC EINSIEERC

SALINITY CONTROL AND RECLAMATION
PROJECT NO. 5
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CONTENTS


Page

LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL
SYNOPSIS
Chapter 1. INTRODUCTION 1-1
Chapter 2. RECHNA DOAB AND THE PROJECT AREA 2-1
General 2-1
Drainage, Physiography and General Geolqgy 2-1
Active flood plains 2-2
Abandoned flood plains 2-2
Bar uplands 2-2
Climate 2-2
Existing Irrigation Facilities 2-3
Chapter 3. ECONOMY OF THE AREA 3-1
Administrative Structure 3-1
Population 3-2
Agriculture 3-2
Industrial Development 3-5
Transportation and Communications 3-6
Chapter 4. SOILS 4-1
Soil Development 4-1
Soil Classification 4-1
Land Use Classification 4-2
Waterlogging and Surface Salinity 4-3
Soil Fertility 4-4
Moisture Characteristics 4-5
Cation Exchange Capacity 4-5
Chapter 5. GROUND WATER HYDROLOGY 5-1
The Alluvial Aquifer 5-1
Hydraulic Properties of the Alluvium 5-2
Occurrence of Ground Water 5-2
Quality of Ground Water 5-4
Summary 5-6
Chapter 6. PROBLEMS OF IRRIGATED AGRICULTURE 6-1
Chapter 7. RECLAMATION POLICIES AND PROJECT DESIGN CRITERIA 7-1
General Policies 7-1
Scope of the Reclamation Program 7-1
Reclamation methods 7-2
Selection of areas 7-3
Development Plan 7-4
Project Design 7-5
Cropping pattern 7-5
Irrigation water requirements 7-7
Canal deliveries 7-7
Tubewell water requirements 7-8
Water quality 7-11
Drainage 7-11
Flood protection 7-11







CONTENTS (Continued)


Chapter 8. THE PROJECT
Tubewells
General
Construction
Location and sizes of tubewells
Electrification
General
Existing electrical power facilities
Transmission lines
Substations
Distribution
Services
Surface Supplies
Chapter 9. FEASIBILITY
MHydrology
Chemical Quality of Irrigation Supplies
Salinity of irrigation water in the Intermedi6te Area
Potential use of ground water in the Saline Area
Direct Agricultural Benefits
Future agricultural development without a Project
Agricultural development resulting from Project 5
Immediate benefits from reclamation
Benefits following full development
Secondary Benefits
Economic Evaluation
Cost of the Project
Benefit-cost analysis
Alternative to the Proposed Project
Chapter 10. COROLLARY DEVELOPMENT
GLOSSARY
BIBLIOGRAPHY
APPENDICES
A. CLASSIFICATION AND DISTRIBUTION OF INDUSTRIAL
WORKERS
B. SALINE AND ALKALI SOILS
C. WATER QUALITY
D. IRRIGATION WATER REQUIREMENTS
E. CANAL OPERATIONS
F. SURFACE DRAINAGE
G. HYDROLOGICAL FEASIBILITY AND RESPONSE OF THE
GROUND WATER SYSTEM
H. CROP YIELDS, PRICES, COST OF PRODUCTION AND
PROJECT BENEFITS
i. TUBEWELL DRAINAGE METHODS Vs OPEN AND
TILE DRAIN SYSTEMS
J. CANAL REMODELLING AND SUBSURFACE DRAINAGE
K. ESTIMATES OF CONSTRUCTION COST, OPERATION AND
MAINTENANCE COSTS, AND COST RECOVERY


8-1
8-1
8-1
8-1
8-2
8-3
8-3
8-3
8-4
8-4
8-5
8-5
8-5
9-1
9-1
9-1
9-1
9-2
9-2
9-2
9-3
9-3
9-4
9-5
9-5
9-5
9-6
9-7
10-1


At back of report



II

II
II
1I






II
"l
"I
"l










ILLUSTRATIONS


FIGURES


Distribution of industrial workforce
Representation of large-scale industries at urban locations
Representation of small-scale industries at urban locations
Well hydrographs
Well hydrographs
Present irrigation supplies and crop consumptive use
Annual number of tubewells installed
Future growing periods and cropped areas
Area irrigated by month
Proposed canal deliveries and tubewell pumpage
Typical tubewell construction with fiberglass tubewell casing
Salinity of applied water in the Intermediate Area
Culturable acreage per private tubewell
Area commanded by private tubewells :
Total net value of agricultural production; with and without Project 6
Marketable surplus from farms


Map of Indus Plains Following Synopsis
Status of Reclamation Projects At back of Report
Project area "
Major physiographic features "
Average annual precipitation and precipitation zones :
Existing canal systems and roads "
Soils-crops association map
Surface salinity :: "
Geologic sections
Water table elevations: pre-irrigation period "
Generalized depth to water table: pre-irrigation period "
Water table elevations: June 1964 "
Generalized depth to water table:- June 1964 "
Rise in water table: pre-irrigation period to June 1964 i ;: '
Quality of ground water
Private tubewell density
Saline, Intermediate, and Non-Saline Areas "
Typical plan of tubewell sites "
Surface drainage "
Power grid "
Depth to water table after 20 years of pumping "


3-1
3-2
3-3
5-1
5-2
6-1
6-2
7-1
7-2
7-3
8-1
9-1
9-2
9-3
9-4
9-5


PLATES


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.












TABLES


Number

3-1 Employment of the labor force in Lower Rechna Doab in 1960
3-2 Industrial workers by industry
3-3 Quality and value of agricultural production
3-4 Production and utilization of major crops
3-5 Classification of industries
6-1 Comparison of agricultural productivity of Lower Rechna with different
countries and regions
6-2 Private tubewell statistics
6-3 Private tubewell costs
7-1 Present cropping pattern and combined future pattern
7-2 Future cropping patternfor Non-Saline ground water zone
7-3 Future cropping pattern for Intermediate and Saline ground water areas
7-4 Summary of proposed canal deliveries and tubewell pumpage
8-1/12 D distribution and capacities of tubewells and pertinent supplemental data
8-13 Summary by branches of annual irrigation requirements, supplies and
related data
8-14 Summary ot tubewell numbers and capacities
8-15 Monthly distribution of proposed surface-water deliveries
9-1 Summary of Project effects based on Project completion in 1970
9-2 Summary of acreage and value of agricultural production -
Present conditions
9-3 Summary of acreage and value of agricultural production -
Year 1970; without Project
9-4 Summary of acreage and value of agricultural production -
Future conditions; without Project
9-5 Summary of present and future crop yields
9-6 Summary of acreage and value of agricultural production -
End of development (1973); with Project
9-7 Summary of acreage and value of agricultural production -
Future conditions after full development; with Project
9-8 Present value of Project costs



























CHAPTER 1


INTRODUCTION





1-1


Chapter 1

INTRODUCTION


The Indus Plains of West Pakistan feature perhaps the world's most favorable
environment for rapid intensive agricultural development. Here occurs a unique combi-
nation of the natural factors essential to irrigated agriculture vast areas of level
arable lands highly suited for irrigation, abundant supplies of surface water fromthe Indus
system of rivers and large reserves in ground water storage, and a favorable climate
which permits year-round cropping. More than that, the plains are served by a complex
system of modern irrigation canals which distributes more water to more land than any
other canal system and accounts for some 12 percent of the world's irrigated acreage.
Desp te all of these advantages the agricultural economy of the Indus Plains
has long been stagnant as compared with the rate of growth which has been achieved in
areas where modern Irrigation agriculture is practiced. The returns from agriculture,
expressed in terms of either yield-per-acre or total annual production, have not changed
significantly over the past forty to fifty years while the population has increased three-
fold. As a consequence, agricultural production from the Indus Plains, long the granary
of the subcontinent, is now insufficient even to meet the minimum requirements of the
local rural population, not to mention other internal needs and the export market. The
problems of irrigated agriculture in the Punjab are manifold, but not unique or Insurmount-
able. They include the full gamut of soil, water and crop management problems that have
been encountered in similar development situations in other parts of the world where
they have been successfully overridden by the introduction of Improved practices and
modern technology. But the basic problems which have suppressed agriculture in West
1 ..Pakistan and nullified all efforts to introduce modern practices are primarily related to
water poorly timed, insufficient, and unreliable irrigation supplies to the fields,
and inadequate subsurface drainage of the irrigated lands. These problems are derived
from the hydrologic environment and thus are beyond the control of the farmers.
They have constituted a formidable handicap to agricultural development, restricting
the intensity of cultivation, causing widespread sallnization and waterlogging of the
irrigated lands, and forcing the farmers to adopt hazardous and inefficient practices which
have only amplified the basic problems.
To rectify the problems associated with the basic water factors Pakistan, through
the Water and Power Development Authority (WAPDA), has undertaken a broad program
for reclamation of the Irrigated lands in the Indus Plains. Under the program the Indus
Plains (Plate 1) have been subdivided into two regions the Southern Zone which includes
the former Sind and Khairpur areas, and the Northern Zone comprising the former Bahawal-
pur and Punjab areas. Salinity Control and Reclamation Project 5 is one of a series of
projects in the Northern Zone designed to reclaim deteriorated lands, control subsurface
drainage, and provide full supplemental Irrigation water requirements by exploitation
and management of ground water supplies. Project 1,I serving over one million acres in
Central Rechna Dobb, was completed in 1962; Project 2 which will serve more than 2
million acres in Chaj Doab is under construction three sub-projects in the central
part of the doab encompassing about 400,000 acres are in operation, and the Upper
Jhelum project comprising about 650,000 acres is scheduled for completion in early 1967;
Project 3, which will serve about 1.3 million acres in Lower Thai Doab is under construc-
tion; and Project 4, which will serve over 2 million acres in Upper Rechna Doab is





1-2


scheduled for construction to begin in mid-1966. The status of planning and implemen-
tation of the projects under the reclamation program is shown in Plate 2.
The importance and urgency of the reclamation program can be best appreciated
when viewed against the background of Pakistan's economy. Agriculture and related
commercial and Industrial activities account for 75 percent of the national income, 70
percent of the foreign exchange earned in international'trade, and provide employ-
ment for 75 percent of the civilian labor force. About 85 percent of the population of
Pakistan is rural and primarily dependent upon agriculture for its livelihood.
The economic structure of West Pakistan is similar to the national pattern.
Agriculture makes the major contribution to the income of the province. It accounts
for over 80 percent of the value of exports, and provides a livelihood for the 80 percent
of the population which Is classified as rural. Thus agriculture dominates the economy;
and activities that will stimulate agricultural development will have broad impact on
all sectors of the economy.
The area of West Pakistan is about 310,000 square miles. About half of the
province is mountainous terrain the Himalayan Mountains-in the north and the
various ranges and hills along the western border which extends from the Hindu Kush
in the north to the Makran Range on the Arabian Sea. The other half of the province
is the alluvial plain of the Indus River and its tributaries (Plate 1). According to the
1961 census, the population of West Pakistan is about 43 million, of which 75 percent
live in the plains. The population is Increasing at the rate of 2.5 to 3 percent per
year, sufficient to double the population every 25 to 30 years.
The Northern Zone of the Indus Plains contains the principal tributary
rivers the Jhelum, Chenab, Ravl, and Sutlej all joining the left bank of the
indus. The Punjab derived its name (puni five, ab water) from these tributaries
and the Beas River, now in India. Similarly, the lands between the rivers are termed
doabs (do two, ab water). Thus, the Punjab of West Pakistan comprises four doabs:
$Barl Rechna, Chal, and Thai.
The Indus Plains are essentially flat and featureless with a slight slope averag-
ing about one foot-per-mile toward the Arabian Sea. Natural internal drainage is
poorly developed and no perennial streams rise in the plains. Intermittent drainage
channels, called "nallahs", carry storm runoff to the rivers during the summer monsoon,
but they are dry throughout most of the remainder of the year.
The climate of the Indus Plains ranges from subtropical arid to subtropical semi-
humid. Itl s characterized by large diurnal and seasonalfluctuatolns intemperature.
During the summer, maximum daily temperatures of 100 to 120 are common. Winters
are generally cool and nighttime temperatures are quite low; but killing frosts are rare
as the high mountain ranges of the north and northwest provide an effective barrier to
frigid air masses moving southward from Central Asia.
Precipitation over the Indus Plains generally Is less than 20 Inches annually
except along the edge of the Himalayan foothills where it ranges from 20 to 35 Inches.
In the central portion of the plains the annual precipitation is less than 10 inches and
in many areas it is less than five Inches. Regardless of the total depth of precipitation,
Pbout two-thirds of the total rainfall commonly occurs during the summer monsoon
period of July, August and September. At this time moisture-laden air flowing north-
westerly from the Bay of Bengal Is uplifted by the foothills and the southern slopes of
the Himalayas causing heavy precipitation in intense storms. Some winter rainfall
occurs in the more northerly portions of the plain, but there is relatively little
precipitation during the spring and autumn.





1-3


In addition to the paucity and disproportionate seasonal distribution of precipi-
tation, the climate throughout the Indus Plains is distinguished by marked variations
in the annual depth of precipitation. A year of virtually no rainfall maybe followed by
a year in which the total precipitation is much higher than the mean annual depth.
Essentially all of the runoff of the Indus watershed is derived fromsnowmelt and
precipitation in the Himalayas. The mean annual discharge of the Indus system of
rivers, upon entering the plain, is about 168 million acre feet (mqf) of which more than
half is contributed by the indus Rtver alone. The rivers are all subject to extreme
seasonal variations of flow, the mean monthly summer discharge-being about 15 to 20
times that of the winter months. The period of low flow extends from December to
March in a typical year. During March the rivers begin to rise with the Himalayan
snowmelt and reach their peak rate of discharge in July or August at the height of the
rhonsoon. About 70 percent of the annual discharge of the river system is concentrated
in the three-month period, June through August, and is largely wasted to the Arabian
Sea. The Indus Waters Treaty (1960) decrees that the flow ot the three eastern rivers
(Sutlej, Beas, and Ravi) will be for the exclusive use of India, thus reducing the
total annual flow potentially available to West Pakistan by about 33 maf to an average
of 135'maf.
During the monsoon season the high rate of runoff frequently results in serious
floods with accompanying damage to developed areas. Moreover, the flood waters
cannot be exploited with existing facilities. The period of time during which the
flood peak is in exces of existing canal capacities is too short to produce a crop,
hence the need for storage'reservoirs. Diversion of surplus surface water to ground
water storage offers the most favorable prospect for maximum use of the runoff of the
Indus Basin. The alluvial aquifer that underlies the Punjab is ideal for that purpose
.in nearly all respects.
The arid climate and the variable and uncertain distribution of precipitation
make agriculture in the Indus Plains dependent upon irrigation. And the availability
of surface water coupled with the favorable terrain makes irrigation feasible. Thus
the history of man's occupation of the plains more oriless parallels the development
of Irrigated agriculture.
The oldest method of irrigation in the Indus Plains is flood irrigation of the
active flood plains, locally known as "sailab". After the flood-waters recede the
wetted areas are planted to grains, principally wheat. This is a very primitive form
of irrigation, dating back thousands of years, but it provides an important contri-
bution to the agricultural economy. As the soils remain salt-free and relatively
fertile because of the periodic flooding, sailab lands are unaffected by many of the
serious problems commonly associated with irrigation.
Canal Irrigation began centuries ago with the development of inundation
canals for irrigation of lands bordering the flood-plains. The inundation canal
systems were brought to peak development during Moghul times. By the middle of
the nineteenth century an extensive network of canals was in operation with the
maximum development concentrated along the Sutlef and Chenab rivers.
The Inundation canals represented an advarice ver sallab methods because.
they could convey water to more remote areas and draw water through a greater
range of river stage, thus maintaining Irrigation deliveries for a longer period
of the year. But they could function only during periods of relatively high flow,
so Irrigation was limited to the summer seasoneand to a relatively narrow belt




1-4


along the rivers.
The final stage in the evolution of the modem canal system came in the last half
of the 19th century with the introduction of so-called perennial canals. Permanent
diversion works known as barrages or headworks were constructed at strategic sites on
the rivers to place the inundation and newly constructed canals under weir control.
These facilities allowed larger diversions from the rivers than were possible previously,
especially during the winter season when low flows could be exploited. Thus, irriga-
tion was extended into the central parts of the doabs, and in many areas canals operated
throughout the year hence the term "perennial".
With the introduction of perennial canal supplies, the year was divided into
two irrigation seasons the Rabi or winter season which extends from October through
March, and the Kharif or summer season. Canals which operate only during the summer
are termed Kharif or "nonperennial" canals.
By 1962 all of the major canal systems had been converted to weir control.
Average annual diversions from the entire Indus River system through the existing
complex of canals are about 80 maf, which are used to irrigate about 24 million acres.
The Northern Zone accounts for 43 maf of the diversions to irrigate 16 million acres,
and comprises the largest contiguous area of irrigation development in the world.


* *





























CHAPTER 2



RECHNA DOAB AND THE PROJECT AREA





2-1!
Chapter 2

RECHNA DOAB AND THE PROJECT AREA

GENERAL
Salinity Control and Reclamation Project 5 (SCARP 5) is located in Lower Rechna Doab
in the Northern Zone of the Indus Plains (Plate; 1 and 3). It is bounded on the north by Project
1 and on the south by the confluence of the Ravi and Chenab Rivers. The gross area of the
Project is 2.74 million acres, of which about 2.18 million acres are culturable.

DRAINAGE, PHYSIOGRAPHY, AND GENERAL GEOLOGY
Rechna Doob comprises an area of approximately 7.6 million acres (11,875 sq. mi.).
The length of the doab from the confluence of the Ravi and Chenab Rivers to the Jammu and
Kashmir border is about 230 miles; the maximum width of the doab is about 65 miles. The slope
of the land surface is to the southwest and decreases from over two feet per mile in the upper
reaches of the doab to less than one foot per mile at the toe. Within the Project area the
average topographic gradient is about one foot per mile.
The doab is bordered by the Ravi and Chenab Rivers. The average annual flow of the
Chenab River above Khanki Headworks for the 30 year period 1935-64 was 22.5 million acre-
feet (maf) and of the Ravi River above Balloki Headworks about 8.3 maf. The rivers are sub-
ject to extreme variations of flow both seasonally and annually. Over 80 percent of the annual
flow occurs during the Kharif season, and over 60 percent during the months of June, July and
August. The maximum peak discharge recorded for the Chenab River above Khanki is 1,086,000
cusecs and for the Ravi River above Balloki, 275,000 cusecs. In contrast, the lowest annual
floods at the same stations are 106,000 cusecs and 30,700 cusecs, respectively a variation
in maximum discharges of about 10 fold.
The maximum average monthly discharge of the Chenab River above Khanki is 5.84 maf
for August, and the minimum is 0.54 maf in December. Corresponding figures for the Ravi
River above Balloki are 2.46 maf and 0.24 maf. A period of lowi water commonly occurs from
the middle of December to the middle of March. The seasonal rise of river discharge begins
about mid-March with the melting of the Himalayan snows and reaches a maximum during July
or August when augmented by the monsoon rains. These seasonal fluctuations of runoff do not
fit the agricultural calender of the Punjab. For two or two and one-half months of the summer
the rivers carry large surpluses over crop water requirements, whereas the dry season discharge
of streams is inadequate to meet irrigation demands.
Natural internal surface drainage of the doab is poorly developed in the nearly flat
terrain, and is virtually non-existant in the lower reaches of the Project area. Before the
introduction of canal irrigation, storm runoff during the monsoon moved off the alluvial plain
through nallahs into the bordering rivers. With development of agriculture, surface drainage
has been enhanced to protect canals and other structures and to drain especially troublesome,"
areas. But the effect of these improvements has largely been nullified by other works such
as highways, canals, and railways which interfere with or obstruct drainage. Surface
drainage problems are further aggravated in waterlogged areas where infiltration of runoff is
inhibited. Thus, surface drainage remains a problem, but projects scheduled under the Indus
Basin Settlement Plan and other public works programs (see Appendix F) should provide adequate
relief to the area.
The physiographic features of the Indus Plains were defined and mapped as part of a
broad survey carried out under the Colombo Plan Program in Pakistan (Frazer, Rockwell, and
de Vries, 1958). In Rechna Doab six alluvial landforms were described: meander flood plains,





2-1!
Chapter 2

RECHNA DOAB AND THE PROJECT AREA

GENERAL
Salinity Control and Reclamation Project 5 (SCARP 5) is located in Lower Rechna Doab
in the Northern Zone of the Indus Plains (Plate; 1 and 3). It is bounded on the north by Project
1 and on the south by the confluence of the Ravi and Chenab Rivers. The gross area of the
Project is 2.74 million acres, of which about 2.18 million acres are culturable.

DRAINAGE, PHYSIOGRAPHY, AND GENERAL GEOLOGY
Rechna Doob comprises an area of approximately 7.6 million acres (11,875 sq. mi.).
The length of the doab from the confluence of the Ravi and Chenab Rivers to the Jammu and
Kashmir border is about 230 miles; the maximum width of the doab is about 65 miles. The slope
of the land surface is to the southwest and decreases from over two feet per mile in the upper
reaches of the doab to less than one foot per mile at the toe. Within the Project area the
average topographic gradient is about one foot per mile.
The doab is bordered by the Ravi and Chenab Rivers. The average annual flow of the
Chenab River above Khanki Headworks for the 30 year period 1935-64 was 22.5 million acre-
feet (maf) and of the Ravi River above Balloki Headworks about 8.3 maf. The rivers are sub-
ject to extreme variations of flow both seasonally and annually. Over 80 percent of the annual
flow occurs during the Kharif season, and over 60 percent during the months of June, July and
August. The maximum peak discharge recorded for the Chenab River above Khanki is 1,086,000
cusecs and for the Ravi River above Balloki, 275,000 cusecs. In contrast, the lowest annual
floods at the same stations are 106,000 cusecs and 30,700 cusecs, respectively a variation
in maximum discharges of about 10 fold.
The maximum average monthly discharge of the Chenab River above Khanki is 5.84 maf
for August, and the minimum is 0.54 maf in December. Corresponding figures for the Ravi
River above Balloki are 2.46 maf and 0.24 maf. A period of lowi water commonly occurs from
the middle of December to the middle of March. The seasonal rise of river discharge begins
about mid-March with the melting of the Himalayan snows and reaches a maximum during July
or August when augmented by the monsoon rains. These seasonal fluctuations of runoff do not
fit the agricultural calender of the Punjab. For two or two and one-half months of the summer
the rivers carry large surpluses over crop water requirements, whereas the dry season discharge
of streams is inadequate to meet irrigation demands.
Natural internal surface drainage of the doab is poorly developed in the nearly flat
terrain, and is virtually non-existant in the lower reaches of the Project area. Before the
introduction of canal irrigation, storm runoff during the monsoon moved off the alluvial plain
through nallahs into the bordering rivers. With development of agriculture, surface drainage
has been enhanced to protect canals and other structures and to drain especially troublesome,"
areas. But the effect of these improvements has largely been nullified by other works such
as highways, canals, and railways which interfere with or obstruct drainage. Surface
drainage problems are further aggravated in waterlogged areas where infiltration of runoff is
inhibited. Thus, surface drainage remains a problem, but projects scheduled under the Indus
Basin Settlement Plan and other public works programs (see Appendix F) should provide adequate
relief to the area.
The physiographic features of the Indus Plains were defined and mapped as part of a
broad survey carried out under the Colombo Plan Program in Pakistan (Frazer, Rockwell, and
de Vries, 1958). In Rechna Doab six alluvial landforms were described: meander flood plains,






2-2


cover flood plains, channel-levee remnants, active flood plains, the scalloped interfluve, and
the Himalayan piedmont plain. For the purpose of this report, these six landforms have been
combined into three physiographic subdivisions -active flood plains, abandoned flood plains,
and bar uplands which are characteristic of the Project area (Plate 4).
Active Flood Plains This subdivision includes the meander belt and present flood plains
of the Chenab and Ravi Rivers. During low water stage the rivers flow in braided or meander-
ing channels. Discontinuous natural levees a few inches to several feet high, back-water swamps,
meander scars, and sand bars are prominent features of the active flood plains.
Abandoned Flood Plains These areas, readily discernible on aerial photographs, are 5
to 20 feet -higher than the active flood plains. Paralleling the present rivers in belts as much as
20 miles wide, they represent flood plains that have been abandoned by the Ravi and Chenab
Rivers in comparatively recent times. The principal features of the abandoned flood plains are
si milar to those of the active flood plains and commonly include channel scars, oxbow lakes, and
levees. In places levees and sand bars are numerous and prominent. The lower portions of the
abandoned flood plains are subject to inundation by high floods.
Bar Uplands Large interfluvial areas composed of older alluvium are found in the
interior of the doab. These interfluves are the most significant physiographic feature of the
Project area because of their large area extent and their elevation above the bordering flood
plains. Typically, the bar uplands rise abruptly from the flood plains and are bordered by steep
scarps 5 to 25 feet high. At many locations however, the boundary between the flood plain and
the bar upland is not distinct. The width of the bar in the doab has been controlled by the
lateral shifting of the rivers in comparatively recent times. Ancient river channels can be
identified; they are discontinuous and represent meanders and other scars of stream courses that
traversed the uplands in former times. In some places these ancient channels can be attributed
to former courses of the Chenab and Ravi Rivers.
The dominant geologic unit is the alluvial complex which is the region's principal
economic asset. The soils of the doab are derived from the surficial deposits and the area's
groundwater reservoir is formed in the subsurface alluvium. The alluvial sediments are of Recent.
and Pleistocene age and consist mainly of unconsolidated sand andsilt with minor amounts of
clay and gravel. The sediments were deposited in a subsiding trough by the ancestral rivers of
the Indus System. The alluvium is heterogenous and individual strata have little lateral or vertical
continuity in accordance with the mode of deposition by large streams in constantly shifting courses
(Plate 9).
The groundwater in the alluvium is replenished by the infiltration of river water, by
leakage from canals and by the percolation of rain. The hydrology'of the Project area is discussed
in subsequent sections of this report.

CLIMATE
The climate of the Project area is characterized by large seasonal fluctuations of both
temperature and precipitation. During the winter months daytime temperatures range between
about 600F to 80F and nighttime temperatures are commonly in the range of 350F to 450F.
Occasionally the temperature dips below freezing in January;.however crop killing frost is a rare
occurrence. The mean summer temperature is about 90oF: the hottest day may reach 1200F while
the minimum summer recording may be as low as 700F. A summary of the temperature data for
the Project area is given in Appendix D.
Precipitation has a marked seasonal fluctuation and also differs considerably across the
region, increasing from south to north'. The average annual precipitation Ii the Project area
ranges from about six inches at the southern extreme to bout 13 Inches In the northern portions.
About 80 percent of the annual rainfall (Plate 5) occurs during the Kharlf season. Rabi pre-
cipitation is scant, sporadic, and not a dependable source of crop moisture, Rainfall also varies






2-2


cover flood plains, channel-levee remnants, active flood plains, the scalloped interfluve, and
the Himalayan piedmont plain. For the purpose of this report, these six landforms have been
combined into three physiographic subdivisions -active flood plains, abandoned flood plains,
and bar uplands which are characteristic of the Project area (Plate 4).
Active Flood Plains This subdivision includes the meander belt and present flood plains
of the Chenab and Ravi Rivers. During low water stage the rivers flow in braided or meander-
ing channels. Discontinuous natural levees a few inches to several feet high, back-water swamps,
meander scars, and sand bars are prominent features of the active flood plains.
Abandoned Flood Plains These areas, readily discernible on aerial photographs, are 5
to 20 feet -higher than the active flood plains. Paralleling the present rivers in belts as much as
20 miles wide, they represent flood plains that have been abandoned by the Ravi and Chenab
Rivers in comparatively recent times. The principal features of the abandoned flood plains are
si milar to those of the active flood plains and commonly include channel scars, oxbow lakes, and
levees. In places levees and sand bars are numerous and prominent. The lower portions of the
abandoned flood plains are subject to inundation by high floods.
Bar Uplands Large interfluvial areas composed of older alluvium are found in the
interior of the doab. These interfluves are the most significant physiographic feature of the
Project area because of their large area extent and their elevation above the bordering flood
plains. Typically, the bar uplands rise abruptly from the flood plains and are bordered by steep
scarps 5 to 25 feet high. At many locations however, the boundary between the flood plain and
the bar upland is not distinct. The width of the bar in the doab has been controlled by the
lateral shifting of the rivers in comparatively recent times. Ancient river channels can be
identified; they are discontinuous and represent meanders and other scars of stream courses that
traversed the uplands in former times. In some places these ancient channels can be attributed
to former courses of the Chenab and Ravi Rivers.
The dominant geologic unit is the alluvial complex which is the region's principal
economic asset. The soils of the doab are derived from the surficial deposits and the area's
groundwater reservoir is formed in the subsurface alluvium. The alluvial sediments are of Recent.
and Pleistocene age and consist mainly of unconsolidated sand andsilt with minor amounts of
clay and gravel. The sediments were deposited in a subsiding trough by the ancestral rivers of
the Indus System. The alluvium is heterogenous and individual strata have little lateral or vertical
continuity in accordance with the mode of deposition by large streams in constantly shifting courses
(Plate 9).
The groundwater in the alluvium is replenished by the infiltration of river water, by
leakage from canals and by the percolation of rain. The hydrology'of the Project area is discussed
in subsequent sections of this report.

CLIMATE
The climate of the Project area is characterized by large seasonal fluctuations of both
temperature and precipitation. During the winter months daytime temperatures range between
about 600F to 80F and nighttime temperatures are commonly in the range of 350F to 450F.
Occasionally the temperature dips below freezing in January;.however crop killing frost is a rare
occurrence. The mean summer temperature is about 90oF: the hottest day may reach 1200F while
the minimum summer recording may be as low as 700F. A summary of the temperature data for
the Project area is given in Appendix D.
Precipitation has a marked seasonal fluctuation and also differs considerably across the
region, increasing from south to north'. The average annual precipitation Ii the Project area
ranges from about six inches at the southern extreme to bout 13 Inches In the northern portions.
About 80 percent of the annual rainfall (Plate 5) occurs during the Kharlf season. Rabi pre-
cipitation is scant, sporadic, and not a dependable source of crop moisture, Rainfall also varies






2-2


cover flood plains, channel-levee remnants, active flood plains, the scalloped interfluve, and
the Himalayan piedmont plain. For the purpose of this report, these six landforms have been
combined into three physiographic subdivisions -active flood plains, abandoned flood plains,
and bar uplands which are characteristic of the Project area (Plate 4).
Active Flood Plains This subdivision includes the meander belt and present flood plains
of the Chenab and Ravi Rivers. During low water stage the rivers flow in braided or meander-
ing channels. Discontinuous natural levees a few inches to several feet high, back-water swamps,
meander scars, and sand bars are prominent features of the active flood plains.
Abandoned Flood Plains These areas, readily discernible on aerial photographs, are 5
to 20 feet -higher than the active flood plains. Paralleling the present rivers in belts as much as
20 miles wide, they represent flood plains that have been abandoned by the Ravi and Chenab
Rivers in comparatively recent times. The principal features of the abandoned flood plains are
si milar to those of the active flood plains and commonly include channel scars, oxbow lakes, and
levees. In places levees and sand bars are numerous and prominent. The lower portions of the
abandoned flood plains are subject to inundation by high floods.
Bar Uplands Large interfluvial areas composed of older alluvium are found in the
interior of the doab. These interfluves are the most significant physiographic feature of the
Project area because of their large area extent and their elevation above the bordering flood
plains. Typically, the bar uplands rise abruptly from the flood plains and are bordered by steep
scarps 5 to 25 feet high. At many locations however, the boundary between the flood plain and
the bar upland is not distinct. The width of the bar in the doab has been controlled by the
lateral shifting of the rivers in comparatively recent times. Ancient river channels can be
identified; they are discontinuous and represent meanders and other scars of stream courses that
traversed the uplands in former times. In some places these ancient channels can be attributed
to former courses of the Chenab and Ravi Rivers.
The dominant geologic unit is the alluvial complex which is the region's principal
economic asset. The soils of the doab are derived from the surficial deposits and the area's
groundwater reservoir is formed in the subsurface alluvium. The alluvial sediments are of Recent.
and Pleistocene age and consist mainly of unconsolidated sand andsilt with minor amounts of
clay and gravel. The sediments were deposited in a subsiding trough by the ancestral rivers of
the Indus System. The alluvium is heterogenous and individual strata have little lateral or vertical
continuity in accordance with the mode of deposition by large streams in constantly shifting courses
(Plate 9).
The groundwater in the alluvium is replenished by the infiltration of river water, by
leakage from canals and by the percolation of rain. The hydrology'of the Project area is discussed
in subsequent sections of this report.

CLIMATE
The climate of the Project area is characterized by large seasonal fluctuations of both
temperature and precipitation. During the winter months daytime temperatures range between
about 600F to 80F and nighttime temperatures are commonly in the range of 350F to 450F.
Occasionally the temperature dips below freezing in January;.however crop killing frost is a rare
occurrence. The mean summer temperature is about 90oF: the hottest day may reach 1200F while
the minimum summer recording may be as low as 700F. A summary of the temperature data for
the Project area is given in Appendix D.
Precipitation has a marked seasonal fluctuation and also differs considerably across the
region, increasing from south to north'. The average annual precipitation Ii the Project area
ranges from about six inches at the southern extreme to bout 13 Inches In the northern portions.
About 80 percent of the annual rainfall (Plate 5) occurs during the Kharlf season. Rabi pre-
cipitation is scant, sporadic, and not a dependable source of crop moisture, Rainfall also varies






2-2


cover flood plains, channel-levee remnants, active flood plains, the scalloped interfluve, and
the Himalayan piedmont plain. For the purpose of this report, these six landforms have been
combined into three physiographic subdivisions -active flood plains, abandoned flood plains,
and bar uplands which are characteristic of the Project area (Plate 4).
Active Flood Plains This subdivision includes the meander belt and present flood plains
of the Chenab and Ravi Rivers. During low water stage the rivers flow in braided or meander-
ing channels. Discontinuous natural levees a few inches to several feet high, back-water swamps,
meander scars, and sand bars are prominent features of the active flood plains.
Abandoned Flood Plains These areas, readily discernible on aerial photographs, are 5
to 20 feet -higher than the active flood plains. Paralleling the present rivers in belts as much as
20 miles wide, they represent flood plains that have been abandoned by the Ravi and Chenab
Rivers in comparatively recent times. The principal features of the abandoned flood plains are
si milar to those of the active flood plains and commonly include channel scars, oxbow lakes, and
levees. In places levees and sand bars are numerous and prominent. The lower portions of the
abandoned flood plains are subject to inundation by high floods.
Bar Uplands Large interfluvial areas composed of older alluvium are found in the
interior of the doab. These interfluves are the most significant physiographic feature of the
Project area because of their large area extent and their elevation above the bordering flood
plains. Typically, the bar uplands rise abruptly from the flood plains and are bordered by steep
scarps 5 to 25 feet high. At many locations however, the boundary between the flood plain and
the bar upland is not distinct. The width of the bar in the doab has been controlled by the
lateral shifting of the rivers in comparatively recent times. Ancient river channels can be
identified; they are discontinuous and represent meanders and other scars of stream courses that
traversed the uplands in former times. In some places these ancient channels can be attributed
to former courses of the Chenab and Ravi Rivers.
The dominant geologic unit is the alluvial complex which is the region's principal
economic asset. The soils of the doab are derived from the surficial deposits and the area's
groundwater reservoir is formed in the subsurface alluvium. The alluvial sediments are of Recent.
and Pleistocene age and consist mainly of unconsolidated sand andsilt with minor amounts of
clay and gravel. The sediments were deposited in a subsiding trough by the ancestral rivers of
the Indus System. The alluvium is heterogenous and individual strata have little lateral or vertical
continuity in accordance with the mode of deposition by large streams in constantly shifting courses
(Plate 9).
The groundwater in the alluvium is replenished by the infiltration of river water, by
leakage from canals and by the percolation of rain. The hydrology'of the Project area is discussed
in subsequent sections of this report.

CLIMATE
The climate of the Project area is characterized by large seasonal fluctuations of both
temperature and precipitation. During the winter months daytime temperatures range between
about 600F to 80F and nighttime temperatures are commonly in the range of 350F to 450F.
Occasionally the temperature dips below freezing in January;.however crop killing frost is a rare
occurrence. The mean summer temperature is about 90oF: the hottest day may reach 1200F while
the minimum summer recording may be as low as 700F. A summary of the temperature data for
the Project area is given in Appendix D.
Precipitation has a marked seasonal fluctuation and also differs considerably across the
region, increasing from south to north'. The average annual precipitation Ii the Project area
ranges from about six inches at the southern extreme to bout 13 Inches In the northern portions.
About 80 percent of the annual rainfall (Plate 5) occurs during the Kharlf season. Rabi pre-
cipitation is scant, sporadic, and not a dependable source of crop moisture, Rainfall also varies





3-2


POPULATION
The estimated 1965 population of the area was about 3.6 million people a density
of nearly 850 people per square mile. About 80 percent of the people live in Lyallpur District,
where the city of Lyallpur, the primary industrial center of the area is located Nearly 50
percent of the working force is employed in non-agricultural pursuits but more than three
fourths of the population resides in rural areas.
Urbanization is fomenting cultural changes, particularly around Lyallpur, but elsewhere,
traditional social customs prevail. Social customs have considerable influence on the ability
of the people to borrow money for productive purposes. Two separate studies indicate that
from 50 to 60 percent of the entire rural debt derives from social expenditure /. On the
small agricultural holdings which predominate in the area, the requirements for social expen-
diture, coupled with low agricultural productivity at a subsistence level, frequently lead the
farmers into burdensome debt.
Historically the rural people have been rather indifferent to the protection of their
political rights, and more concerned with local than with national problems. Owing to lack
political consciousness, they were easily exploited by interest groups but recently the "Basic
Democracies" movement has created a social and political awakening. The people are associa-
ted with the administration of Union Councils through which they participate in provincial
and national elections and in many community development projects. Community centers,
roads, hospitals and schools have been built recently in Lower Rechna Doab under the rural
works program.
Illiteracy remains a problem but educational facilities are becoming available to an
increasing number of young people. According to the 1961 Population Census, only about 15
percent of the population was classed as literate, but by 1963-64 approximately 30 percent
of the school age population was enrolled in schools. Lyallpur is the home of the West
Pakistan Agricultural University which has a great influence on agricultural education and
research in the country in general and on the Project area in particular. Altogether there
are 14 colleges, 114 high schools, 225 middle schools and 2358 primary schools in the area.
The estimated labor force in the Project area in 1960 comprised 32 percent of the total
population or about 950,000 people over the age of 10 years. Slightly more than half of the
labor force is employed in agriculture and 20 percent is employed in manufacturing and
mechanical occupations (Table 3-1). Of the non-agricultural labor, 80 percent is employed
in Lyallpur District and over 20 percent of these are employed in industry in the City of
Lyallpur (Figure 3-1). The largest employers of industrial labor are cotton mills, textiles and
allied industries. Companies manufacturing machinery are the next largest group of employers,
but the number of workers so employed is significantly lower than in the textile industries
(Table 3-2).
Available information indicates a very low percentage of unemployment 1.6 per-'
cent of the labor force, but twice as high in urban areas as in rural areas but there is
widespread under-employment, particularly in rural areas. Crop labor requirements provide
full employment for less than 60 percent of the agricultural labor force. Further, it is estima-
ted that the typical farm furnishes full employment to its occupants for only about half a year.
Full employment is approached in rural areas only during periods of peak labor requirements.

AGRICULTURE
Farming and farm related enterprises supply of production and consumer goods to
farmers, and marketing and processing of the local agricultural produce are the prime
1/ (1) Hasan Ali Syed: "Need and Supply of Credit", Board of Economic Lnquiry, Lahore,
1951.
(ii) Socio-Economic Research Project (Punjab University), "Survey of Economic
Conditions", 1959.





3-2


POPULATION
The estimated 1965 population of the area was about 3.6 million people a density
of nearly 850 people per square mile. About 80 percent of the people live in Lyallpur District,
where the city of Lyallpur, the primary industrial center of the area is located Nearly 50
percent of the working force is employed in non-agricultural pursuits but more than three
fourths of the population resides in rural areas.
Urbanization is fomenting cultural changes, particularly around Lyallpur, but elsewhere,
traditional social customs prevail. Social customs have considerable influence on the ability
of the people to borrow money for productive purposes. Two separate studies indicate that
from 50 to 60 percent of the entire rural debt derives from social expenditure /. On the
small agricultural holdings which predominate in the area, the requirements for social expen-
diture, coupled with low agricultural productivity at a subsistence level, frequently lead the
farmers into burdensome debt.
Historically the rural people have been rather indifferent to the protection of their
political rights, and more concerned with local than with national problems. Owing to lack
political consciousness, they were easily exploited by interest groups but recently the "Basic
Democracies" movement has created a social and political awakening. The people are associa-
ted with the administration of Union Councils through which they participate in provincial
and national elections and in many community development projects. Community centers,
roads, hospitals and schools have been built recently in Lower Rechna Doab under the rural
works program.
Illiteracy remains a problem but educational facilities are becoming available to an
increasing number of young people. According to the 1961 Population Census, only about 15
percent of the population was classed as literate, but by 1963-64 approximately 30 percent
of the school age population was enrolled in schools. Lyallpur is the home of the West
Pakistan Agricultural University which has a great influence on agricultural education and
research in the country in general and on the Project area in particular. Altogether there
are 14 colleges, 114 high schools, 225 middle schools and 2358 primary schools in the area.
The estimated labor force in the Project area in 1960 comprised 32 percent of the total
population or about 950,000 people over the age of 10 years. Slightly more than half of the
labor force is employed in agriculture and 20 percent is employed in manufacturing and
mechanical occupations (Table 3-1). Of the non-agricultural labor, 80 percent is employed
in Lyallpur District and over 20 percent of these are employed in industry in the City of
Lyallpur (Figure 3-1). The largest employers of industrial labor are cotton mills, textiles and
allied industries. Companies manufacturing machinery are the next largest group of employers,
but the number of workers so employed is significantly lower than in the textile industries
(Table 3-2).
Available information indicates a very low percentage of unemployment 1.6 per-'
cent of the labor force, but twice as high in urban areas as in rural areas but there is
widespread under-employment, particularly in rural areas. Crop labor requirements provide
full employment for less than 60 percent of the agricultural labor force. Further, it is estima-
ted that the typical farm furnishes full employment to its occupants for only about half a year.
Full employment is approached in rural areas only during periods of peak labor requirements.

AGRICULTURE
Farming and farm related enterprises supply of production and consumer goods to
farmers, and marketing and processing of the local agricultural produce are the prime
1/ (1) Hasan Ali Syed: "Need and Supply of Credit", Board of Economic Lnquiry, Lahore,
1951.
(ii) Socio-Economic Research Project (Punjab University), "Survey of Economic
Conditions", 1959.





3-3


factors in the economy of Lower Rechna Doab. More than three-fourths of the population
resides in rural areas, more than half of the labor force is directly involved in farming, and
a large share of the remaining labor force depends almost entirely upon farmers as a market
for their goods and services. The annual value of crop production in the Project area is 634
million rupees. The most important crop is wheat worth over 190 million rupees annually -
and the two main cash crops are sugarcane (128 million rupees) and cotton (100 million rupees)
(see Table 3-3). The livestock sector contributes about 35 percent of the value added in
agriculture.
The nucleus of agricultural activity is the village. The typical village has about 1500
people, controls about 1300 acres containing 100-150 farms and is basically a self-sufficient
unit having its own artisans and merchants. Almost all of the farmer's present needs and wants
can be satisfied in the village. Farm labor is provided largely by the farmer's family, but
permanent and casual hired laborers are also readily available in most villages. The simple
implements used by most farmers are constructed by the farmer or by village artisans who are
paid almost entirely in kind: their remuneration is governed by custom. The "moeens" of the
village shoemaker, water carrier, washerman, tailor, watchman, barber, etc. provide
services to the farmer and also assist at marriages, births and deaths. Only if a farmer uses
commercial fertilizer, improved seeds, pesticides or mechanical equipment is he in need of
contact with persons outside the village.
The basis of agriculture is the small farm: the average farm size is 10.3 acres but more than
than half of the farms are smaller than seven acres. Only 9 percent of the farms exceed 25 acres.
The predominant group of farmers in Lower Rechna consists of peasant proprietors farmers who
own all the land they tillo As land ownership is a symbol of prestige, the peasant proprietors
are influential in village affairs. Also numerically important but less influential are the tenant
farmers who rent or lease land for a share of the crop or a fixed fee. The importance of land
is reflected by the historic practice of tenants of passing their plots on to the next generation
and fragmenting their farms in the same methods as land owners. Some peasant proprietors also
rent additional land. This group, while smaller in number than the other groups, has the largest
holdings.
The primary concern of the small farmer is to provide for his family's needs. The basic
food crops are grown and there is no concentration on special crops. As subsistence farming is
a marginal operation, the attitudes of the farmer are highly conservative. He cannot chance
losing a crop in the hope that some new technique will improve yields and leave a surplus for
marketing. But occasionally in good years when more than the usual yields are obtained, the
larger subsistence farms yield some marketable surplus. Then farmers sell some gur and cotton
and those who own a milk buffalo or cow sell fresh milk or ghee. Otherwise cash is earned
by supplemental employment or by cottage industry.
On a farm of 10 acres the average family retains approximately 1780 rupees worth of
crops for its own use after meeting all commitments including feed, seed and waste. More than
two thirds of this is consumed by the family leaving about 500 rupees worth of the crop for sale.
Annual receipts are about 250 rupees for cotton and 250 for gur, with all other crops being used
by the family or paid as wages. / Thus an average of about 45 percent of the gur production
and 60 percent of the cotton is sold. But on farms smaller than 10 acres surplus is seldom, if

. /Based on estimates of per capital consumption from various sources, usual payments in kind,
and production estimates described in Appendix H. The estimates appear very reasonable
when compared with "Farm Accounts and Family Budgets of Cultivators in the Punjab,
1954-55", Board of Economic Inquiry, Publ. 127, 1962.





3-4


ever, available. As a result, more than half of the land and water resources and about 40
percent of the human resources in the Project area essentially contribute nothing to the economy
beyond meeting their own needs and helping to support the moeens and artisans in their own
village.
It is difficult to estimate the total food consumption and marketable surplus for the
Project area. Best estimates indicate that nearly one pound of food grains is consumed daily
per capital. Wheat is the staple, comprising nearly 85 percent of the daily grain consumption.
The coarse grains maize,, bajra and jowar together contribute about 14 percent with
maize being most. important. Rice comprises only about percent of the average daily per
capital consumption.. In addition to grains, about one-half ounce of pulses is consumed daily.
Sugar consumption is 3.25 ounces daily per capital and is an important source of
carbohydrate in the diet. The annual production of gur is about 7.5 million mounds, of which
about half is surplus to the needs of the area. Sugarcane is the major cash crop in Lower
Rechna Doab.
Cotton, the other important cash crop, is also produced in surplus. Estimates indicate
that 230,000 mounds or only about one fourth of the crop is used locally. As a result, cotton
supports one of the most important industries in the area. A summary of production and utili-
zation is shown in Table 3-4.

TABLE 3-4

PRODUCTION AND UTILIZATION OF MAJOR CROPS
(Thousand Maunds)

Crop Production Seed, feed, Consump- Total Avail- Surplus
waste tion utiliza- able as % of
Stion surplus production

Rice, clean 465 46 411 457 8 2
Wheat 12,740 1,274 11,424 12,698 42
Coarse grains
and pulses 2,988 987 1,887 2,874 114 4
Gur 7,516 752 2,902 3,654 3,862 51
Cotton, lint 1,035 52 178 230 805 78

Farmers face various problems in marketing. Those with little to sell dispose of their
produce within the village to local or travelling merchants. The larger farmers transact their
business at central markets. Government regulated markets are located at Lyallpur, Samundri,
Toba Tek Singh, Jaranwala, Gojra, Tandlianwala, Pir Mahal, Chak Jhumra, Sundianwala,
Kamalia, Jhang, Chiniot and Shorkot Road. Other important, but unregulated markets are
located in Satiana, Dijkot, Rajiana, Thikrianwala, Bhawana and Shorkot.
Storage facilities in the markets are inadequate and this results in deterioration and
loss of produce. Some dealers have storage facilities to hold commodities but the total
capacity is small. The government maintains storage facilities for wheat at Lyallpur, Toba Tek
Singh, Samundri, Tandllanwala, Jaranwala, Jhang, Shorkot Road and Chiniot, but the total
capacity is only about 30,000 tons less than 10 percent of the annual crop in the area.






3-5


Though there is a relatively good network of roads linking the important towns, many
villages are remote from paved roads or even unpaved roads that can be travelled by truck.
Consequently, transportation from farm to market is almost entirely by animal cart, though
truck transportation is growing in importance. Many village roads are impassable during the
rainy season or periods of heavy irrigation, and at such times the farmer has no access to
market. Handicapped by inadequate transportation and storage facilities, the average farmer
must sell at harvest when prices are low.
Reasonably adequate market and price information is available to the market commission
agents and the farmers. The prices in the regulated markets are regularly reported in news-
papers and the agents are also in close communication with other dealers and buyers. Farmers
learn of prices from traveling merchants or from neighbors who have been to the markets.
Radio Pakistan also gives information on prices in the major markets.
Though still in short supply, more and more modern technological advances are being
made available to farmers in Lower Rechna. In recent years the Agricultural Development
Corporation (ADC) has been supplying wheat, cotton, gram, rice, and maize seed from its
own farms or from registered growers. The ADC maintains seed supply depots in each Tehsil
headquarters and also has appointed 26 commission agents in the various markets as seed
dealers. About 10 percent of the present acreage of these crops is growri from seed supplied
by the ADC. Higi-quaiity fruit and vegetable seed is available from private sources.
A service for furnishing free plant protection to farmers has been organized by the
West Pakistan Department of Agriculture. Orchards, cotton, sugarcane and maize receive
highest priorities. The Regional Director of Agriculture estimates that 25 percent of the
priority crops receive some protection from disease and pests.
At present, most commercial fertilizer is distributed under Government control by the
Rural Supply Cooperative Corporation (RSCC) through the Union Councils. The RSCC
Commercial Manager estimates that only about 15 percent of the present demand for ferti-
lizers in West Pakistan is being met, but Lower Rechna receives a relatively large allotment
and the farmers in the area indicate they are being provided with a fairly adequate supply.
Tubewell components and modern implements are generally available in the important
towns in the Project area. No diesel engines are manufactured locally, but pumps, strainers
and other components for tubewells are manufactured in Chiniot, Toba Tek Singh andiLyallpur.
Because tractors are not yet manufactured in Pakistan, farmers are able to obtain an Open
General Licence to import them directly.

INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT
In 1962, thevalue of industrial production exceeded 950 million rupees. Of the total
value of production in registered factories, 133 and 267 million rupees were derived from food
processing and from cotton textiles, respectively. Agricultural implements and tubewell
components comprise a major portion of the machinery produced. Thus industry is primarily
oriented toward agriculture, but items ranging from foot-wear and athletic goods to electrical
appliances, transport equipment, chemicals, plastics, and beverages are also produced
(Appendix A and Table 3-5).
Lyallpur is the industrial center of the Project area. Of the 379 registered factories
in Lower Rechna, 290 are located there. Further, 70 percent of the nearly 1500 small scale
industries are in this city. The second largest concentration of factories is in Jhang.
Industrial development is not exclusively located in those two centers, however. There are
53 large factories in eight other towns of Lower Rechna and 70 small factories in seven towns
(Appendix A and Figures 3-2 and 3-3).





3-6


Large factories are generally owned by individuals or families but some of the textile,
hosiery and engineering factories are owned in partnership. There are 36 limited liability
concerns and a few large cooperative industrial factories. Two-thirds of the small scale
factories are individually owned, about 23 percent are owned in partnership, and about 8 per-
cent are cooperatives.

TRANSPORTATION AND COMMUNICATIONS
In comparison with much of the Punjab, the Lower Rechna area has a relatively good
network of roads and railways. Important towns and markets are connected by either paved
roads or railways (Plate 6). There are about 450 miles of paved road and 250 miles of railway
in the Project area. Stations serving both passengers and freight are located at five to ten
mile intervals along the railways. In addition, there is a large network of unpaved roads
which connect most of the smaller towns, rest-houses and markets, and which are primarily
used by jeeps, animals and carts and rarely are adequate for bus or truck transport. In
addition to the internal road and rail system, the Project is connected with main cities in
adjoining areas by road and railway. Lyallpur airport is served regularly by Pakistan Interna-
tional Airways with flights to Multan and Lahore.
The Project area is well served with post offices: the Districts of Jhang and Lyalipur
have a total of 379. Most of the towns are served by telegraph and many post offices accept
and deliver telegraph messages. There are over 3,000 telephones in the area, most of which
are in Lyallpur District. The important towns without telephone connections are Shorkot,
Rajiana, Pir Mahal, Satiana, Sundianwala and Sandhilianwala.
Fifty-two newspapers and periodicals.are published in Jhang and Lyallpur Dist:icts
and newspapers from Lahore receive wide circulation. Thirty-one of the local papers are in
Urdu, 4 are in English and 17 are published in a combination of English and Urdu. Four
daily newspapers are published two are political, one is religious and one concerns
business, commerce and industry.


* *




2-3


markedly and unpredictably from year to year. Thus, a wet year may follow a drought, but
there are no discernible cycles or long-term trends in precipitation. Precipitation data for
the Project area are given in Appendix D.

EXISTING IRRIGATION FACILITIES
Irrigation supplies for the Punjab are distributed through a complex, but, essentially
self-regulating network of canals. A typical system consists of a barrage or headworks,
which regulates diversions from the river; mainline and branch canals, which function chiefly
as conveyance channels; and distributaries and minors, which distribute water to.the individual
irrigation service areas, known as chaks. There is an outlet for each chak through which flow
from the distributary to the farm water course is regulated by proportional modules. Tubewell
supplies are discharged into the farm water courses, normally near the outlet, for mixing with
canal supplies. Water courses, which are constructed and maintained by the farmers, commonly
serve from 300 to 600 acres and carry from one to three cusecs. Each cultivator has a scheduled
"turn" during which he breaches the bank of the water course for a specified period of time. It
is his responsibility to close off the breach made by the previous irrigator.
Rechna Doab is served by four canal systems, all of which are supplied by diversions
from the Chenab River. Summary statistics for the systems are given in the following table;
the main arteries of the systems and the distribution of perennial and non-perennial irrigation
areas are shown in Plate 6.

CANAL SYSTEMS SERVING RECHNA DOAB

Culturable Commanded Authorized Full Supply Irrigation Supplies
Canal Area 2/
System Nonperennial Perennial Nonperennial Perennial Kharif Rabi
(Thousand (Thousand (Cusecs) (Cusecs) (Thousand (Thousand
Acres) Acres) A.F.) A.F.)

Marala Ravi Link 105 870 258

Upper Chenab Canal 832 613 5,340 1,840 1,593 602

Lower Chenab Canal 190 2,800 11,500 10,400 3,776 2,894

Haveli Canal 86 71 500 750 208 107

Koranga Feeder -37 120 38 32

Notes: 1/ According to remodelled design.
I/ Marala Ravi Link -assuming full supplies for five months.
Upper Chenab Canal ten-year average (1953-62)
Lower Chenab Canal eighteen-year average (1947-64).
Haveli Canal (Rechna supplies only) thirteen year average (1952-64)
Koranga Feeder thirteen-year average (1952-64).

The Lower Chenab Canal is the major source of irrigation supplies for Lower Rechna
Doab. It serves a culturable commanded area (CCA) of about 3 million acres of which 1.8
m million acres are in the Project area and receive perennial supplies. The Lower Chenab Canal




2-4


was opened for irrigation on July 9, 1887, as an inundation canal. Weir control was added
in 1890.
Central Rechna Doab (Project 1) and a small portion of the Upper Rechna area (Project
4) are also served by the Lower Chenab canals. The design capacity of the canal at Khanki
Headworks is 13,000 cusecs. The authorized full supply (AFS) for irrigation within the Project
area is 5840 cusecs. As the diversions from the headworks fluctuate according to the avail-
ability of river supplies, the full AFS of the system is realized only during the periods of high
flow.
The Lower Chenab Canal is bifurcated at Sagar to form the Main Line Lower and the
Upper Gugera Branch. Each of these branches is subsequently divided again. The Main Line
is trifurcated at Nanuana to supply the Mian Ali, Rakh, and Jhang Branches. When the
Qadirabad-Balloki Link Canal is completed, it will supply Jhang and Rakh Branches while the
old main line of the Lower Chenab will continue to supply the Mian Ali Branch and the Upper
Gugera Branch. The Upper Gugera.Branch has one bifurcation at Buchiana to form the Lower
Gugera and the Burala Branches.
Authorized full supplies of the various branches of the Lower Chenab Canal system are:
Jhang, 2988 cusecs; Rakh, 1145 cusecs; Mian Ali, 665 cusecs; Bhawana, 413 cusecs; Lower
Jhang, 1209 cusecs; Upper Gugera, 5163 cusecs; Lower Gugera, 2075 cusecs; and Burala
2338 cusecs. The Project area is supplied by the Jhang Branch, 2562 cusecs; Rakh Branch,
885 cusecs; Lower Gugera Branch, 1785 cusecs; and Burala, 2120.cusecs; as measured at the
Project boundary. All are perennial channels.
The lower reaches of the area are supplied by the Haveli Canal and by the Koranga
Feeder. Together ihey serve about 108,000 acres CCA with perennial supplies and 86,000 acres
with non-perennial supplies. The Haveli Canal is basically a link canal to transfer water from
the Chenab-Jhelum confluence to the Ravi River for use in Bari Doab through the Sidhnai Canal.
Qf the capacity of 5,200 cusecs, authorized diversions into the Project area are approximately
750 cusecs in Kharif and 500 cusecs in Rabi, at heads of distributaries.
The Koranga Feeder has.an AFS of 120 cusecs: it is supplied by the Central Bari Doab
Canal through an aqueduct over the Ravi River.
In summary, the existing canal systems serve a CCA of 2.05 million acres withint
Project 5 with perennial supplies, and 86,000 acres on a non-perennial basis. The total AFS
of the systems is 6700 cusecs for the Kharif season and 6450 cusecs for the Rabi season. The
actual seasonal diversions average 6600 cusecs in Kharif and 5300 cusecs in Rabi, measured
at heads of distributaries. The supply factors (actual diversions/AFS) are 98 and 82 percent
for Kharif and Rabi, respectively, and the weighted annual supply factor for the Project area
is 90 percent.


* *







TABLE 3-1

EMPLOYMENT OF THE LABOR FORCE IN LOWER RECHNA DOAB

Item Number

Total labor force 950,100

Agricultural labor 498,500

Non-agricultural labor 451,600

1. Manufacturing and mechanical 192,500

2. Sales and related 62,600

3. Construction 49,800

4. Service, sports, entertainment, recreation 46,900

5. Managerial, administrative, clerical, etc. 25,200

6. Transportation and communications 15,900

"7. Professional, technical, etc. 15,500

8. Forestry and fishing 5,100

9. Not classified 23,100

10. Not working but looking for work 15,000


IN 1960

Percentage

100

52.5

47.5

20.3

6.6

5.2

4.9

2.7

1.7

1.6

0.5

2.4

1.6


Source: Government of Pakistan, Population Census, 1961.












Industry

Textiles and related inc

Machinery, except ele

Food processing

Chemicals and chemicc

Footwear and leather p

Printing and publishing

Transport equipment

General engineering ai

Furniture

Rubber products

Ice and cold storage

Ceramics and non-meta

Electrical machinery ar

Beverages and drinks

Plastic products

Miscellaneous or unspe

Total


TABLE 3-2

INDUSTRIAL WORKERS BY INDUSTRY

Workers in units reporting
Number Percent

dustries 73,441 75.3

ctrical 2,924 3.0

1,978 2.0

i1 products 1,007 1.0

products 330 0.3

253 0.3

250 0.3

nd metal products 128 0.1

116 0.1

90 0.1

87 0.1

llic mineral products 76 0.1

nd appliances 31

17 0.1

10

cified 16,371 17.2

97,469 TOO.0









TABLE 3-3

QUALITY AND VALUE OF AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION

Production
Crop 1000 mds

Wheat 12,740

Sugarcane (gur) 7,516

Cotton (seed cotton) 3,110


Fodder crops

Wmaize

Pulses

Fruit

Rice (paddy)

Vegetables

Oilseeds

Millets

Miscellaneous

Total


1/
1,590

1,097

1/

697

1/
329

301

1/


1/ Value estimated directly. See Appendix H.


Value
Rs 1,000

191,094

127,772

99,534

118,595

23,843

18,648

14,961

13,950

10,746

8,563

4,219

2,252

634,177






TABLE 3-5

CLASSIFICATION OF INDUSTRIES
(Large and small scale)


Industry Number
Textiles and related industries 1,597
Chemicals and chemical 78
General engineering 63
Vegetable, ghee, oil and general mills 41
Machinery, except electrical 40
Food processing 21
Footwear and leather goods 21
Printing press 19
Furniture 11
Ice and cold storage 9
Electrical machinery and appliances 9
Transport equipment 7
Ceramics and non-metallic mineral products 6
Beverages and drinks 2
Agricultural engineering 2
Plastic products 2
Chemicals and fertilizers 1
Clocks and watches 1
Sugar and distillery I
Sawmill I
Rubber products 1
Sport and athletic goods I
Saddle covers 1
Tobacco 1
Miscellaneous 4
Total 1, 940





























CHAPTER 3



ECONOMY OF THE AREA





3-1


Chapter 3

ECONOMY OF THE AREA

Lower Rechna Doab is one of the most highly developed agricultural and industrial
regions in West Pakistan. Urbanization more advanced than elsewhere in the Punjab -
has brought about changes in social values and attitudes, and has had a marked Influence on
development of agriculture and other sectors of the economy such as transportation and
communication. In spite of the relatively favorable position of Lower Rechna In relation to
the Punjab, its economy is still dependent on agriculture. More than half of the entire labor
force is employed directly in agriculture and about 90 percent of the industrial labor force
is employed in industries directly related to agriculture. Furthermore, three-fourths of the
population resides in rural areas and most of these people rely on agriculture directly for a
livelihood. But more than half of the farms are smaller than seven acres, and their occupants
have little influence on the economy beyond meeting their own needs. With a large part of
the agricultural resources peoplee, land and water) involved in subsistence production,
tremendous potential for development is lost. As the potential production in Lower Rechna Is
extremely high, this failure of the agricultural sector to contribute more to the development of
the region is especially critical. Accordingly, the basic prerequisite of the economic develop-
ment of Lower Rechna is to provide the means for the subsistence farmers to contribute to the
economy. It i with this problem that the SCARP program concerns itself and nowhere is the
significance of such development more obvious than in a potentially productive area as Lower
Rechna Doab.

ADMINISTRATIVE STRUCTURE
West Pakistan is divided into 12 administrative Divisions each composed of from two to
five Districts. The Districts are divided into Tehsils, each of which contains a number of
Union Councils the basic administrative unit. The Union Council provides many civil and
administrative services and is the political unit from which the "Basic Democracies" are formed.
The Project area overlaps parts of three administrative Districts Lyallpur, Jhang and
Multan (Plate 3). Lyallpur and Jhang Districts are in Sargodha Division and Multan District
is in Multan Division. The total area of the Districts and the percent within the Project are
as follows:

District Total area Area within Percent of
(sq. miles) Project 5 District within
(sq. miles) Project 5

Lyallpur 3,472 2,848 82
Jhang 3,381 1,378 41
Multan 5,611 94 2

There are about 240 Union Councils and all or part of eight Tehsils in the Project area.
Lyallpur (pop. 425,000) is the most important urban area within the Project and the
fifth largest city in Pakistan. Other major centers are Jhang (pop. 95,000), Chlniot
(pop. 47,000), Toba Tek Singh (pop. 18,000), Samundari (pop. 9,500) and Shorkot (pop. 7,000)
Jaranwala (pop. 27,000) is adjacent to the Project boundary on the road from Lyallpur to Lahore.





3-1


Chapter 3

ECONOMY OF THE AREA

Lower Rechna Doab is one of the most highly developed agricultural and industrial
regions in West Pakistan. Urbanization more advanced than elsewhere in the Punjab -
has brought about changes in social values and attitudes, and has had a marked Influence on
development of agriculture and other sectors of the economy such as transportation and
communication. In spite of the relatively favorable position of Lower Rechna In relation to
the Punjab, its economy is still dependent on agriculture. More than half of the entire labor
force is employed directly in agriculture and about 90 percent of the industrial labor force
is employed in industries directly related to agriculture. Furthermore, three-fourths of the
population resides in rural areas and most of these people rely on agriculture directly for a
livelihood. But more than half of the farms are smaller than seven acres, and their occupants
have little influence on the economy beyond meeting their own needs. With a large part of
the agricultural resources peoplee, land and water) involved in subsistence production,
tremendous potential for development is lost. As the potential production in Lower Rechna Is
extremely high, this failure of the agricultural sector to contribute more to the development of
the region is especially critical. Accordingly, the basic prerequisite of the economic develop-
ment of Lower Rechna is to provide the means for the subsistence farmers to contribute to the
economy. It i with this problem that the SCARP program concerns itself and nowhere is the
significance of such development more obvious than in a potentially productive area as Lower
Rechna Doab.

ADMINISTRATIVE STRUCTURE
West Pakistan is divided into 12 administrative Divisions each composed of from two to
five Districts. The Districts are divided into Tehsils, each of which contains a number of
Union Councils the basic administrative unit. The Union Council provides many civil and
administrative services and is the political unit from which the "Basic Democracies" are formed.
The Project area overlaps parts of three administrative Districts Lyallpur, Jhang and
Multan (Plate 3). Lyallpur and Jhang Districts are in Sargodha Division and Multan District
is in Multan Division. The total area of the Districts and the percent within the Project are
as follows:

District Total area Area within Percent of
(sq. miles) Project 5 District within
(sq. miles) Project 5

Lyallpur 3,472 2,848 82
Jhang 3,381 1,378 41
Multan 5,611 94 2

There are about 240 Union Councils and all or part of eight Tehsils in the Project area.
Lyallpur (pop. 425,000) is the most important urban area within the Project and the
fifth largest city in Pakistan. Other major centers are Jhang (pop. 95,000), Chlniot
(pop. 47,000), Toba Tek Singh (pop. 18,000), Samundari (pop. 9,500) and Shorkot (pop. 7,000)
Jaranwala (pop. 27,000) is adjacent to the Project boundary on the road from Lyallpur to Lahore.























































































WEST PAKISTAN
WATER AND POWER DEVELOPMENT AUTHORITY
TIDTON* A4O LWL M Ct I EN-INEEARS
SALINITY CONTROL AND RECLAMATION
PROJECT NO 5
LOWER RECHNA DOAB
DiSTiRNWu M OF MISTIML Wm wiFuC


t ....


r- "~--


--- -- --I


-- -- ------ L:aj n C,1-r;
-3~ ; J-~
--2----is.rr~ ~i.rrrl






















































































WEST PAKISTAN
0 ., WATERf AND POWER DEVELOPMENT AUTHORITY

r P o* 0 r o D m a t u e s~. Nr t w o. I N E E R S
SALINITY CONTROL AND RECLAMATION
-------n *,l Cr~--e. ,PROJECT NO. S
o e re O,,. ,LOWER RECHNA DOAB


REPRESENTATION OF LARGE-SCALE INDUSTRIES
AT URBAN LOCATIONS


___ __













LEGEND
Tht Ctoagor es of sna'l-scale r dutrtes an tesl tireakroi in
f eleojct ore IS shOW bealow.r the breaClndown is atfbltshd
on th bor, f the number of indusfres wnch wIr, reported
in Tn, indutrs 1 0 %





MsflhIJ CA~ehenical lnd uletri IN
---Mechmnical Ind EleItral
E uipmeflt I.dutr.ie 4
Food Products ImdustrIes % "--Printny Pres fIndustrnes I %


/


Roads. Metalted
Po.ds, Unoetaed


---- it'l o. o r PoIraiOI Bousodas

.. Z--Z r d nolanr nd Manrs
*ld 1, 1 -h


1-4-doS Co...s

-*--- Proiect Boundtin


WEST PAKISTAN
WATER AND POWER DEVELOPMENT AUTHORITY
rpr ND MaO C is .Hrc. tm.-EMrrNEERS
SALINITY CONTROL AND RECLAMATION C
PROJECT NO. S
LOWER RECHNA DOAB ;v
m
REPRESENTATION OF SMALL-SCALE INDUSTRIES' J
AT URBAN LOCATIONS
.____ _-- J OJ


__ ~____I~~IL


41





4-2


classified these soils, describing five principal-soil series groups on the basis of the average
texture of the subsoil from a depth of approximately 6 to 72 inches. The five soil series
groups in turn are subdivided into 13 soil types and substrata categories (Asghar & Zaidi, 1960),
as follows:

TABLE 4-1

SOIL SERIES GROUPS AND CORRESPONDING SUBSOIL
TEXTURAL RANGES

Soil Series Group Subsoil Textural Range
Jhang Sard to loamy sand
Farida Sandy loam to.fine sandy loam
Buchiana Loam to silt loam
Chuharkana Clay loam to silty clay loam
Nokhar Sandy clay to clay

The textural classification roughly denotes the proportions of sand, silt and clay in a
soil. And as stated above, texture is the basis for classifying the soils of the Project area
because their most important physical properties water holding capacity, infiltration rate,
drainability and tillage characteristics are largely determined by texture.

LAND USE CLASSIFICATION
Using the WASID land classification as a guide, a study of the soils and crops of the
Project area indicated the practicability of combining the five soils groups listed in Table 4-1
into three broad land use groups consisting of the coarse, medium, and fine textured soils.
As a result of long experience the local farmers have developed cropping patterns suitable
to the characteristics of each of these land use groups, and undoubtedly.future cropping patterns
w ill evolve along similar lines. The approximate culturable acreages and the corresponding
percentages of the three land use groups are as follows:
TABLE 4-2
LAND USE GROUPS
Culturable acreage
(Thousands (Percentage)
Land Use Group Soils Series Groups of acres) 1/
1. Coarse textured soils Jhang and Farida 1,706 78.4
2. Medium textured soils Buchiana 432 19.9
3. Fine textured soils Chuharkana and Nokhar 38 1.7
2,176 100.0
l/About 80 percent consists of moderately-coarse Farida soils)

The distribution of the soils of the three land use groups in the Lower Rechna Project
area is shown in Plate 8. In general, the fine textured soils are concentrated in the south-
western tip of the doab and the medium textured soils are located mostly in the northwest
portion of the Project area parallel to the COenab River. The great majority of the soils
consist of the coarse-textured Jhang and Farida series. These are found throughout the





4-3


Project area; however, the coarser component, the Jhang soils, make up only a small proportion
of the coarse group and are found mainly along the old stream beds.
The soils of the coarse textured group have the highest infiltration and permeability
rates and the lowest total and available waterholding capacities. Because of their high sand
and silt content they are relatively easy to tirl; however, they generally are quite low in
organic content and in fertility.
The Jhang is the coarsest of the soil series, and so is somewhat limited in crop adaptation
and in its ability to support high crop yields. Except where surplus water is available, these
soils are best suited for deep-rooted or for drought-resistant crops, and for Kharif crops requir-
ing relatively little water. Successful crop production on soils of the Jhang series requires a
careful water management program, including high frequency of irrigation.
The Farida soils, comprising approximately 80 percent of the coarse textured group,
have moderately coarse textured subsoils; therefore, like the Jhang, they generally have good
internal drainage and seldom develop severe salinity and alkali problems. Farida soils are
well suited to the production of almost all crops except rice, but because of their moderate
water-holding capacities are best suited to the deeper rooted crops with moderate to low water
requirements.
The medium textured land use group includes only the Buchiana soil series. This series
is medium to coarse textured in the surface and medium textured in the subsoil to a depth of
six feet or more. As a result, the Buchiana soils have moderate to fair infiltration and per-
meability rates, favorable internal drainage characteristics, and relatively high water-holding
capacities. These properties favor the buildup and maintenance of soil fertility and the
production of high crop yields under irrigated agriculture. Buchiana soils are suitable for the
growth of most crops; however, mechanical "puddling" generally is necessary to create the
physical conditions necessary for optimum rice production.
The fine textured land use group includes the Nokhar and Chuharkana soil series
groups. Because of their fine textures, these soils have relatively high water holding capaci-
ties, moderate organic matter content and are relatively fertile; however, they are difficult
to cultivate, and their use is adversely affected by unseasonable rains. The soils are charac-
terized by low infiltration rates and restricted internal drainage thus a high percentage is
affected by salinity and alkali. The Chuharkana and Nokhar soils can be farmed successfully,
provided good soil and water management practices are employed. The more productive crops
that can be grown on these soils are rice, wheat, cotton and fodder.

WATERLOGGING AND SURFACE SALINITY
Insufficient irrigation supplies and inadequate drainage promote salinization of the soil
(Appendix B). According to reconnaissance soil surveys by WASID, there is visible evidence
that about 410,000 acres, or 19.6 percent of the entire Project area, are sufficiently salt-
affected to reduce crop yields significantly or to prevent growth (see Table 4-3).

TABLE 4-3

SURFACE SALINITY AND WATERLOGGING

Classification Thousands of Acres Percent of Area
Less than 0.2 % salt 1,750 80.4
0.2 to 0.5 % salt 206 9.5
Greater than 0.5 % salt 204 9.4
Waterlogged 16 0.7
2,176 100.0






























CHAPTER 4


SO ILS





4-4


SOIL FERTILITY
The soils of the Project area are characteristically low in fertility partly because of
the nature of the alluvium from which the soils were formed and also because the climatic
environment does not favor the accumulation of organic matter. The organic matter content
of soils is particularly low in West Pakistan because most of the animal manure is used for fuel
"and most of the crop residues are used for fuel or forage.
A recent rapid soil fertility survey (Vermaat, 1964), which in part covered Lyallpur
District, included field trials on crop response to several levels of the added plant nutrients:
nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium. This and other less intensive studies have indicated
that almost all of the soils of the Project area are deficient in nitrogen, that most of them are
deficient in phosphorus, and that a small percentage give some response to added potassium.
Generally, the nitrogen response was greatly increased by added phosphorus, whereas little
increase in production was obtained from adding phosphorus alone. Furthermore, the studies
clearly demonstrated that without adequate irrigation, response to fertilizer application
generally is insignificant and uneconomical.
Nitrogen: Nitrogen is not a natural ingredient of soils, but is derived from: 1) the
fixation of atmospheric nitrogen into' organic form by autotrophic bacteria, 2) the fixation of
atmospheric nitrogen into usable form by micro-organisms living symbiotically with growing
plants (i.e., with legumes), 3) the addition of farmyard manures, green manure and plant
debris, and 4) from the addition of commercial fertilizers. The nitrate ion (N03"), the
form in which most nitrogen is absorbed by plants, is not retained by the exchange complex,
and so nitrate is quite mobile, moves with moisture and is subject to loss through leaching.
As soil nitrogen reserves cannot be enhanced appreciably, nitrogen must be replenished
frequently, particularly where high crop yields are desired.
Symbiotic fixation of nitrogen generally supplies sufficient nitrogen each year to produce
approximately 10 mounds of wheat. It follows that the addition of nitrogen is required for high
crop production levels.
Phosphorus: Most of the parent materials of soils, including river alluvium, contain
small percentages of phosphorus-bearing minerals which slowly decompose and release phosphorus
for plant use. Available phosphorus occurs in soils and in organic matter mainly in adsorbed
or exchangeable forms, but only a small portion of this is readily available to plants. Further-
more, the solubility or availability of phosphorus decreases rapidly with increase in soil pH
above 7: hence, the concentration of available phosphate is quite low in the calcareous (lime
containing) soils of the Project area. Because it is only very slightly soluble and is adsorbed
by the soil, phosphate is not subject to losses by leaching or flooding. Deficiencies can be
eliminated and available reserves built up by application of almost any phosphate fertilizer;
however, the high percentage types such as double and treble super-phosphate are most economi-
cal in the long run.
Few of the soils of the Project area release phosphate rapidly enough to support high
crop yields; therefore in the absence of fertilizer additions this deficiency seriously limits
crop production. Moreover, the lack of phosphate will become a much greater restraint on
crop yields as the use of relatively large nitrogen applications becomes more common.
Potassium: The soils of the Lower Rechna area are well supplied with potassium minerals
and probably contain ample amounts of available potassium. Hence, little response has been
obtained from added potassium and it probably will not be required in appreciable quantities
for several decades.





4-1


Chapter 4

SOILS

-Soils ideally suitable for agriculture retain water for crop use between irrigations, store
plant nutrients, supply oxygen to roots, help regulate plant temperature and provide mechani-
cal support for plants. Irrigated soils must have certain other characteristics; in particular,
they must be well drained and level or graded to a suitable slope. According to all these
criteria, the soils of the Lower Rechna Project area are, for the most part, ideally suited for
irrigated agriculture, and potential crop yields are extremely high.

SOIL DEVELOPMENT
The soils of the Project area have been derived from the alluvial deposits of the ancestral
rivers of the Indus River system. Because of continued deposition of alluvium over the centuries,
the soils of the area have had little opportunity to weather and develop mature or well defined
profiles. The soils are young and immature because the principal soil developing factors -
temperature, rainfall, vegetation, relief and human activity have only slightly modified the
basic characteristics of the original alluvium. The soils are relatively homogeneous mineralo-
gically; the clays are predominantly of the non-swelling illitic and chloritic types, but they
generally contain small amounts of both montmorillonite and kaolinite.
Rainfall is so low in Lower Rechna that leaching of the surface soil and translocation of
clay and soluble material into the subsoil has not occurred to a significant extent. As a result,
there are no zones of eluviation or illuviation: lime is present throughout the soil profile and
all of the soils are alkaline in reaction.
The native -vegetation is sparse and consists chiefly of hardy xerophytic plants with
some phreatophytes in the waterlogged areas and along the margins of streams. The principal
species found everywhere before colonization and at present in uncultivated areas are jand
(Prosopis spicigera), wan (Salvadora oleoides), karir (Capparis aphylla),, malha (Zizyphus
nummularia), farash (Tamarix articularia), sarkana (Saccharum munja), short grasses and salt
bushes. Few of these species have much value for grazing, but because several of them are
nitrogen fixers their contribution to the native fertility of the soil may be appreciable.
Owing to the prevalent high temperature, organic matter decomposes quite rapidly,
and so the organic content of these soils typically is quite low. Consequently the soils are
not dark, but have retained the light greyish color of the parent alluvium. Because of the low
organic content, high temperatures, and frequent drought periods, microorganisms capable of
modifying soil characteristics do not thrive in these regions. Furthermore, relief has contribu-
ted little to soil development as the entire doab is a relatively flat flood plain.
As a result of human activity almost all the native vegetation has been eradicated,
deposition of alluvium controlled or eliminated, lands levelled, erosion largely eliminated,
surface layers of the soil throughly mixed and plow pans created. The introduction of irrigation
has changed the soil micro-climate, created areas of waterlogged soils, and accelerated the
formation of saline and alkali soils.

SOIL CLASSIFICATION
For irrigation planning purposes, the soils of the Lower Rechna Project area are best
classified by their subsoil textural characteristics which, in turn, describe the drainage
characteristics. The Water and Soils Investigation Division (WASID) of WAPDA has mapped and





4-1


Chapter 4

SOILS

-Soils ideally suitable for agriculture retain water for crop use between irrigations, store
plant nutrients, supply oxygen to roots, help regulate plant temperature and provide mechani-
cal support for plants. Irrigated soils must have certain other characteristics; in particular,
they must be well drained and level or graded to a suitable slope. According to all these
criteria, the soils of the Lower Rechna Project area are, for the most part, ideally suited for
irrigated agriculture, and potential crop yields are extremely high.

SOIL DEVELOPMENT
The soils of the Project area have been derived from the alluvial deposits of the ancestral
rivers of the Indus River system. Because of continued deposition of alluvium over the centuries,
the soils of the area have had little opportunity to weather and develop mature or well defined
profiles. The soils are young and immature because the principal soil developing factors -
temperature, rainfall, vegetation, relief and human activity have only slightly modified the
basic characteristics of the original alluvium. The soils are relatively homogeneous mineralo-
gically; the clays are predominantly of the non-swelling illitic and chloritic types, but they
generally contain small amounts of both montmorillonite and kaolinite.
Rainfall is so low in Lower Rechna that leaching of the surface soil and translocation of
clay and soluble material into the subsoil has not occurred to a significant extent. As a result,
there are no zones of eluviation or illuviation: lime is present throughout the soil profile and
all of the soils are alkaline in reaction.
The native -vegetation is sparse and consists chiefly of hardy xerophytic plants with
some phreatophytes in the waterlogged areas and along the margins of streams. The principal
species found everywhere before colonization and at present in uncultivated areas are jand
(Prosopis spicigera), wan (Salvadora oleoides), karir (Capparis aphylla),, malha (Zizyphus
nummularia), farash (Tamarix articularia), sarkana (Saccharum munja), short grasses and salt
bushes. Few of these species have much value for grazing, but because several of them are
nitrogen fixers their contribution to the native fertility of the soil may be appreciable.
Owing to the prevalent high temperature, organic matter decomposes quite rapidly,
and so the organic content of these soils typically is quite low. Consequently the soils are
not dark, but have retained the light greyish color of the parent alluvium. Because of the low
organic content, high temperatures, and frequent drought periods, microorganisms capable of
modifying soil characteristics do not thrive in these regions. Furthermore, relief has contribu-
ted little to soil development as the entire doab is a relatively flat flood plain.
As a result of human activity almost all the native vegetation has been eradicated,
deposition of alluvium controlled or eliminated, lands levelled, erosion largely eliminated,
surface layers of the soil throughly mixed and plow pans created. The introduction of irrigation
has changed the soil micro-climate, created areas of waterlogged soils, and accelerated the
formation of saline and alkali soils.

SOIL CLASSIFICATION
For irrigation planning purposes, the soils of the Lower Rechna Project area are best
classified by their subsoil textural characteristics which, in turn, describe the drainage
characteristics. The Water and Soils Investigation Division (WASID) of WAPDA has mapped and





4-5


MOISTURE CHARACTERISTICS
Data on the moisture characteristics of Project soils are limited but are reasonably
'consistent. Table 4-4 presents a range of values for some of the commonly determined single-
value soil moisture constants. Field capacity is the amount of water held in the root zone of a
soil one to three days after irrigation. Moisture equivalent and 1/3 atmosphere percentage
are two of the laboratory determinations that give an estimate of field capacity. The permanent
w ilting percentage (PWP) is a greenhouse method for obtaining the lower limit of the water
available to plants, and the 15 atmosphere percentage is a laboratory method for estimating
this same limit; the difference between field capacity and PWP is the amount of water available
for plant use. However, as plant growth virtually ceases before all the available water is
used up, the soil should not be a lowed to dry down to the PWP before irrigation.

TABLE 4-4

MOISTURE CHARACTERISTICS AND BULK DENSITY OF
LOWER RECHNA SOILS

Soil Field Moisture 1/3 PWP or 15 Bulk
Texture Capacity Equivalent Atmosphere Atmosphere Density
Percentage Percentage
(%) (%) (%) (%) (gm/cm3)

Fine 25-35 20-35 25-38 10-20 1.3 to 1.5
Medium 16-24 13-25 18-25 6-12 1.4 to 1.6
Coarse 7-15 6-20 8-20 2-6 1.4 to 1.7

(Adapted from Asghar and Zaidie, 1960; Razzaq and Butt, 1962; and Khan
and Butt, 1962).

CATION EXCHANGE CAPACITY
The average cation exchange capacity of the fine, medium and coarse textured soils
of the Project area is given in Table 4-5. In soils not affected by salt accumulation, the
predominant bases are calcium, magnesium, potassium and sodium, in that order. Ammonium
and hydrogen ions are seldom found.

TABLE 4-5

CATION EXCHANGE CAPACITY OF LOWER RECHNA SOILS

Soil Texture Average Capacity for Each Soil Depth (me/100 grams)
0"-6" 6"-12" 12"-24" 24 "-36" 36"-48"

Fine 20.7 19.9 19.4 23.3 21.2
Medium 14.0 11.1 11.1 10.4 10.6
Coarse 10.1 9.7 10.3 11.0 10.3

(From Asghar and Zaidie, 1960).


* *





4-5


MOISTURE CHARACTERISTICS
Data on the moisture characteristics of Project soils are limited but are reasonably
'consistent. Table 4-4 presents a range of values for some of the commonly determined single-
value soil moisture constants. Field capacity is the amount of water held in the root zone of a
soil one to three days after irrigation. Moisture equivalent and 1/3 atmosphere percentage
are two of the laboratory determinations that give an estimate of field capacity. The permanent
w ilting percentage (PWP) is a greenhouse method for obtaining the lower limit of the water
available to plants, and the 15 atmosphere percentage is a laboratory method for estimating
this same limit; the difference between field capacity and PWP is the amount of water available
for plant use. However, as plant growth virtually ceases before all the available water is
used up, the soil should not be a lowed to dry down to the PWP before irrigation.

TABLE 4-4

MOISTURE CHARACTERISTICS AND BULK DENSITY OF
LOWER RECHNA SOILS

Soil Field Moisture 1/3 PWP or 15 Bulk
Texture Capacity Equivalent Atmosphere Atmosphere Density
Percentage Percentage
(%) (%) (%) (%) (gm/cm3)

Fine 25-35 20-35 25-38 10-20 1.3 to 1.5
Medium 16-24 13-25 18-25 6-12 1.4 to 1.6
Coarse 7-15 6-20 8-20 2-6 1.4 to 1.7

(Adapted from Asghar and Zaidie, 1960; Razzaq and Butt, 1962; and Khan
and Butt, 1962).

CATION EXCHANGE CAPACITY
The average cation exchange capacity of the fine, medium and coarse textured soils
of the Project area is given in Table 4-5. In soils not affected by salt accumulation, the
predominant bases are calcium, magnesium, potassium and sodium, in that order. Ammonium
and hydrogen ions are seldom found.

TABLE 4-5

CATION EXCHANGE CAPACITY OF LOWER RECHNA SOILS

Soil Texture Average Capacity for Each Soil Depth (me/100 grams)
0"-6" 6"-12" 12"-24" 24 "-36" 36"-48"

Fine 20.7 19.9 19.4 23.3 21.2
Medium 14.0 11.1 11.1 10.4 10.6
Coarse 10.1 9.7 10.3 11.0 10.3

(From Asghar and Zaidie, 1960).


* *





5-2


the thickness of the alluvium may be 5,000 feet or more throughout most of Lower Rechna
Doab.

HYDRAULIC PROPERTIES OF THE ALLUVIUM
The hydraulic coefficients of storage (specific yield), permeability, and transmissibility
(the product of permeability and thickness) are important properties of water-bearing sediments
because they determine the response of the aquifer to ground water development. The hydraulic
properties of the alluvium have been studied by WASID under an extensive program of field
investigations which included interference pumping tests on more than 150 wells in the North-
ern Zone. Preliminary analysis of the data for 141 tests in Rechna, Chaj and Thai Doabs are
described by Bennett et al (1964).
According to WASID's interpretation of the data, the average lateral permeability of
the water-bearing sand and silt component of the alluvium is 0.0025 cusec per square foot.
Vertical permeabilities were determined for only 14 tests; the average value was 0.001 cusec
per square foot and the average ratio between lateral and vertical permeabilities at those sites
was about 75:1. Calculated values,of specific yield commonly ranged from 0.02 to 0.26; the
average value is 0.14.
Although interference pumping tests are universally recognized as providing the most
reliable index of hydraulic coefficients, there are inherent shortcomings in the methodology
which can prejudice the interpretation of the data. Owing to anisotropy and local heterogeneity
of the sediments, the hydraulic characteristics of alluvial aquifers commonly differ significantly
from those of ideal aquifers assumed in mathematical developments. These differences are
reflected to a marked degree in the initial response of the flow system to pumpage. A number
of factors may operate, but in most situations the overriding factor is slow vertical drainage in
the vicinity of the pumping well, a common phenomenon of anisotropic aquifers. Where drain-
age is slow, short-term pumping tests invariably yield low apparent values for specific yield
and commonly yield high apparent coefficients of permeability. Theoretical consideration of
the ratio of permeability to storage coefficient, as well as data derived from operating projects
in the Punjab suggest that the coefficients reported by WASID may be so biased. This subject
will be amplified in an appendix to the Regional Plan for the Northern Zone (Timpton and
Kalmbach, Inc., in preparation).

OCCURRENCE OF GROUND WATER
In the native environment prior to the inception of irrigation, the ground water system
was in equilibrium. Over long periods of time, recharge balanced discharge and there were no
important, long-term changes in ground water storage.
Plates 10 and 11 show, respectively, the elevation of the water table above mean sea
level and the depth-to-water below land surface prior to the commencement of large scale
irrigation. The salient features of.the elevation contours are the trough formed by the water
table and the marked flattening of the hydraulic gradient in the lower half of the doab, especially
along the axis of the trough near the northeast Project boundary. These are reflected on the
depth-to-water map by the progressive increase in depths from the margins toward the center
of the doab, culminating in the closed pattern of the contours. Thus the general direction of
ground water movement was downstream and inland from the rivers toward the axis of the
trough.
The configuration of the water table in pre-irrigation times was controlled by climate,
the surface drainage pattern, and regional variations in the hydraulic properties of the alluvium.
With respect to climate, the annual depth of precipitation in Rechna Doab ranges from over 30
inches in the upper reaches to less than six inches at the lower end (Plate 5), and the mean
annual air temperature increases about 10 degrees Fahrenheit.over the same area. In the upper





5-2


the thickness of the alluvium may be 5,000 feet or more throughout most of Lower Rechna
Doab.

HYDRAULIC PROPERTIES OF THE ALLUVIUM
The hydraulic coefficients of storage (specific yield), permeability, and transmissibility
(the product of permeability and thickness) are important properties of water-bearing sediments
because they determine the response of the aquifer to ground water development. The hydraulic
properties of the alluvium have been studied by WASID under an extensive program of field
investigations which included interference pumping tests on more than 150 wells in the North-
ern Zone. Preliminary analysis of the data for 141 tests in Rechna, Chaj and Thai Doabs are
described by Bennett et al (1964).
According to WASID's interpretation of the data, the average lateral permeability of
the water-bearing sand and silt component of the alluvium is 0.0025 cusec per square foot.
Vertical permeabilities were determined for only 14 tests; the average value was 0.001 cusec
per square foot and the average ratio between lateral and vertical permeabilities at those sites
was about 75:1. Calculated values,of specific yield commonly ranged from 0.02 to 0.26; the
average value is 0.14.
Although interference pumping tests are universally recognized as providing the most
reliable index of hydraulic coefficients, there are inherent shortcomings in the methodology
which can prejudice the interpretation of the data. Owing to anisotropy and local heterogeneity
of the sediments, the hydraulic characteristics of alluvial aquifers commonly differ significantly
from those of ideal aquifers assumed in mathematical developments. These differences are
reflected to a marked degree in the initial response of the flow system to pumpage. A number
of factors may operate, but in most situations the overriding factor is slow vertical drainage in
the vicinity of the pumping well, a common phenomenon of anisotropic aquifers. Where drain-
age is slow, short-term pumping tests invariably yield low apparent values for specific yield
and commonly yield high apparent coefficients of permeability. Theoretical consideration of
the ratio of permeability to storage coefficient, as well as data derived from operating projects
in the Punjab suggest that the coefficients reported by WASID may be so biased. This subject
will be amplified in an appendix to the Regional Plan for the Northern Zone (Timpton and
Kalmbach, Inc., in preparation).

OCCURRENCE OF GROUND WATER
In the native environment prior to the inception of irrigation, the ground water system
was in equilibrium. Over long periods of time, recharge balanced discharge and there were no
important, long-term changes in ground water storage.
Plates 10 and 11 show, respectively, the elevation of the water table above mean sea
level and the depth-to-water below land surface prior to the commencement of large scale
irrigation. The salient features of.the elevation contours are the trough formed by the water
table and the marked flattening of the hydraulic gradient in the lower half of the doab, especially
along the axis of the trough near the northeast Project boundary. These are reflected on the
depth-to-water map by the progressive increase in depths from the margins toward the center
of the doab, culminating in the closed pattern of the contours. Thus the general direction of
ground water movement was downstream and inland from the rivers toward the axis of the
trough.
The configuration of the water table in pre-irrigation times was controlled by climate,
the surface drainage pattern, and regional variations in the hydraulic properties of the alluvium.
With respect to climate, the annual depth of precipitation in Rechna Doab ranges from over 30
inches in the upper reaches to less than six inches at the lower end (Plate 5), and the mean
annual air temperature increases about 10 degrees Fahrenheit.over the same area. In the upper





5-3


part of the doab, precipitation contributed the major amount of recharge to the ground water
body. To the southwest, recharge from precipitation decreased and the elevation of the water
table became increasingly lower than that of the rivers, thus forming a prominent trough
(Plate 10) that caused progressively increasing recharge from the rivers. In the lower part of
the doab, the convergence of the rivers established a base level that formed the principle
control on the water table. There, hydraulic gradients became relatively flat as precipitation
ceased to be a significant factor of recharge, and as evapotranspirative losses became important
due to more shallow water tables.
In summary, Rechna Doab essentially formed a discrete hydrologic unit in the pre-
irrigation period. Ground water recharge was derived from rainfall in the upper parts of the
doab and from inflow from the rivers. Ground water migrated down gradient, generally from
northeast to southwest, and was discharged near the confluence of the Chenab and Ravi rivers
by evapotranspiration and perhaps by effluent seepage at the extreme tip of the doab.
The introduction of irrigation from perennial canals changed the earlier equilibrium.
Conveyance losses from the canal system contributed a new component of recharge which was
distributed more or less uniformly over the doab and caused the water table to adjust toward a
new equilibrium. The most conspicuous feature of the adjustment was a marked rise in ground
water levels accompanied by changes in the slope and directions of the hydraulic gradient.
The first perennial canal system in Rechna Doab.was the Lower Chenab Canal (Plate 6)
which was completed in 1892 and serves most of the Project area. Within the lands commanded
by the system, ground water levels rose at the rate of one to two feet per year until the water
table was sufficiently close to the land surface for evapotranspirative losses to become signifi-
cant. Thereafter the rate of rise declined until the water table stabilized, commonly at depths
of 5 to 15 feet, depending upon the local topographic situation and the proximity of the rivers
and major canals.
Upstream from the Lower Chenab Canal, beginning about 1900, the water table rose at
the rate of about 0.8 foot per year as a result of natural subsurface inflow. That rate of rise
continued until about 1915 when the Upper Chenab Canal (Plate 6) became fully operative.
Thereafter the maximum rate of rise in the area commanded by the Upper Chenab Canal ranged
from 2.8 to 3.0 feet per year, again until evapotranspirative losses became significant and a
new equilibrium was attained.
The local history of the rising water table for different parts of the Project area is
shown by hydrographs of representative observation wells, Figures 5-1 and 5-2. Wells
CL IX/71, CL XIII/118, and CL XII/108 illustrate typical responses of the water table in the
interior of the doab where the natural water table was relatively deep. Wells CL XIV/130,
CL XIV/123 and CL XV/134 illustrate the more subdued response in riverain areas where the
natural water table was shallow and subsurface drainage is strongly influenced by evapotrans-
piration.
For the Project area, the average net rate of rise of the ground water table by decades
is as shown below:
Period Average annual Rate of Rise in Feet
1900-1910 1.32
1910-1920 .90
1920-1930 .60
1930-1940 .61
1940-1950 .61
1950-1960 .44







5-4


Assuming a specific yield of 0,30 and considering only the data for the early years of
irrigation when the maximum changes in storage occurred, the potential rate of ground water
recharge from the irrigation system is about 0.4 foot per year. Since the inception of irrigation,
accretion to ground water storage has totaled more than 30 million acre-feet.
The net change in ground water levels in Rechna Doab between the pre-irrigation period
and 1964 is shown in Plate 14. The pattern of change reflects the configuration of the natural
water table. The maximum rise of over 90 feet occurred in the lower part of the doab along the
axis of the ancestral trough, and the minimum rise of less than 10 feet occurred along the rivers
and in the upper reaches of the doab. Within the Project area the average rise was about 45 feet.
By 1964 the water table had essentially stablized near the rivers and was rising with a
slow rate in the center portion of the Project area. Conditions in 1964 are shown by the water-
level contour map (Plate 12) and the depth-to-water map (Plate 13) which indicate that the
conditions of occurrence of ground water under the irrigation regime differ markedly from those
that prevailed in the natural environment. The hydraulic gradient is more or less uniform over
the area and parallel to the topographic slope; the trough is no longer present. Similarly,
depth-to-water is relatively shallow and uniform over the doab: its variations are due to topo-
graphic anomalies and to the location of the larger canals.
Thus, under the irrigation regime, seepage from the irrigation system is the dominant
component of ground water recharge, and is more evenly distributed over the area than is the
recharge from rivers and precipitation. Losses to evapotranspiration still represent the principle
component of discharge from the water table, and these also are more or less uniformly distri-
buted over the area. However, there is an obvious component of discharge as effluent seepage
as shown by the downstream curvature of the water level contours in the vicinity of the rivers.
This component is slight compared to evapotranspirative losses, but it has significantly affected
the base flow of the rivers (Qureshi, 1960).

QUALITY OF GROUND WATER
The chemical quality of ground water reflects its hydrologic history. Thus the quality
of ground water in Rechna Doab is best considered in two contexts that of the native water
which occurred in the alluvial aquifer prior to the inception of irrigation, and that of the
artificial recharge to the aquifer which has been derived in recent years from seepage from the
irrigation system.
There is no clear division between the two types. Throughout most of Rechna Doab the
quality of water deeper than 100 feet or so represents the native ground water. Within the
Project area the native water occurs at depths greater than about 80 feet, except near the
major canals where leakage may circulate to depths of several hundred feet.
From the standpoint of ground water development, the native ground water is most
important; it comprises the bulk of ground water in storage and will be the primary source of
supply to irrigation wells for an indefinite period. The quality of the native ground water has
been described by Shamsi (1960) on the basis of water samples collected from nearly 250 test
borings and wells (Plate 15). The general procedure was to collect a sample a't each conspi-
cuous bed of sand penetrated by the borehole to a depth of about 450 feet which was the maximum
effective depth of recovery of the sampling device. More than 800 samples were collected and
analyzed during the survey.
The variation of the mineral content of the native ground water in Rechna Doab is shown
on Plate 15. The values of dissolved solids on which the map is based represents the average of
samples from depths below 1.00 feet. In most instances there are only moderate differences
between samples from the same borehole. Therefore, the isograms may be taken to represent the
quality of water which will be yielded by a well screened in the interval between about 100 to
500 feet below land surface.






5-5

The mineralization of the native ground water shown on Plate 15 derives from the
pattern of circulation that existed in the natural environment (Plate 10). Thus along the rivets
and in the upper reaches of the doab where precipitation is a significant factor of recharge,
the native ground water is moderately mineralized with concentrations of dissolved solids rang-
ing from about 200 to 500 parts per million (ppm). This reflects the quality of the recharge.
Precipitation is essentially free of dissolved solids, and the average concentration of river water
is less than 200 ppm (Table C-2). With increasing distance from the area of natural recharge,
the mineral content of the native ground water increases gradually to a concentration of about
2000 ppm, chiefly due to leaching of salts from the sediments. In the central and lower reaches
of the doab, this trend gives way to an abrupt transition to highly mineralized water with con-
centrations of dissolved solids of 10,000 ppm or more. The zone of highly saline native water
coincides with the deeper part of the water table trough where the natural hydraulic gradient
abruptly flattened and stagnated.
The change in concentration of the native ground water down-gradient is accompanied
by a change in the chemical composition. Near the recharge areas, in the range of concen-
tration of dissolved solids of about 200 to 500 ppm, the dominant ions in solution are the
alkali earths (calcium and magnesium) and bicarbonate. With increasing concentration there
is a corresponding increase in the relative concentrations of the cation, sodium, and of the
anions, sulfate and chloride. Thus, in the range of concentration of dissolved solids between
about 500 to 2000 ppm the native water commonly is of a mixed type sodium is the dominant
cation, bicarbonate, sulfate and chloride are more or less equally distributed among the anions.
Increases in concentration of the native water above 2000 ppm largely represent enrichment of
sodium and chloride which are the most soluble ions and tend to remain in solution as the ground
water is concentrated by evaporation. Accordingly, where concentrations of dissolved solids
exceed about 4000 ppm, sodium and chloride commonly comprise 75 percent or more of cations
and anions, respectively. Further details and selected chemical analyses representing the deep
ground waters are presented in Appendix C.
Recharge from the irrigation system has accumulated in the alluvial aquifer in the depth
interval between the natural water table and the present water table. Following the nomen-
clature used by WASID, water from this zone is referred to as "shallow ground water" in this
report.
The quality of the shallow ground water is significant only because it gives an indication
of the chemical character of recharge to the water table under the existing irrigation regime.
Any change in the conditions of recharge or the occurrence of ground water such as will occur
in response to reclamation activities will influence, and in all likelihood improve, the quality
of the shallow water.
The quality of the shallow ground water is largely controlled by the local environment,
chiefly the proximity of canal recharge, or the depth to the water table. However, the chemi-
cal nature of the shallow supplies is similar to that of the underlying native ground water, but
the shallow ground water supplies show larger local variations and less regional variations.
Thus, in the upper reaches of the doab the shallow supplies commonly contain less than 1000
ppm dissolved solids but the range of concentration is from less than 200 ppm to over 3000 ppm.
Similarly, in the lower part of the doab including the Project area, the shallow ground water
generally contains from 2000 to 4000 ppm dissolved solids, but the range of concentration
extends from about 200 ppm to over 8000 ppm.





5-1


Chapter 5

GROUND WATER HYDROLOGY

Ground water hydrology is of singular importance in planning reclamation activities
in the Punjab. Hydrologic factors figure prominently in the present problems of agriculture,
and ground water development is the key feature of the Salinity Control and Reclamation
Program. Recognizing the critical importance of hydrology, the Government of Pakistan has
supported a broad program of field studies in cooperation with USAID and its predecessor
agencies since 1954. The results of these investigations are reported in a series of WASID
reports (see selected references). The following discussion of essential features Is drawn largely
from the WASID publications. For a detailed account of the hydrology, reference is made to
the original sources.

THE ALLUVIAL AQUIFER
The alluvial sediments which underlie the Northern Zone of the Indus Plains form
one of the world's great unconfined (nonartesian) ground water reservoirs. The geology of
the Plains has been studied in appropriate detail by WASID. Rechna Doab, including the
Project area, is described by Kidwai (1963) largely on the basis of data from a network of
deep test holes (Plate 9).
The alluvium represents the accumulation of detritus derived from the mountain ranges
to the north and deposited by the ancestral rivers of the Indus system. The sediments consist
chiefly of unconsolidated, medium to fine-grained sand, silt and clay. The sand grains are
commonly subrounded and the deposits are generally well sorted: such characteristics enhance
the water-bearing properties of the sediments. Gravel and coarse sand are uncommon except
possibly at great depth. However, pebbles of siltstone and mudstone, and nodules of kankar
(a calcium carbonate concretion) are frequently associated with the clay and silt beds.
The lithology of the alluvium as deduced from well cuttings and electric logs is shown
by the geologic sections in Plate 9. There are no discernable traceable units. Throughout
most of the Project area, plastic sediments predominate: clays occur largely in lenticular
beds of limited area extent. Sand comprises approximately 70 percent of the sediments that
occur to depths of 500 to 600 feet. The proportion of fine-textured sediments in the section
apparently increases slightly toward the north, but not sufficiently to prejudice the water-
bearing properties of the alluvium. Thus, despite the local heterogeneity of the deposits,
the alluvium forms a unified aquifer in which ground water occurs essentially under unconfined
conditions. High capacity wells, two to four hundred feet deep, can be located: almost
anywhere in the Project area.
The thickness of the alluvium is unknown. Pre-Cambrian crystalline rocks crop out in
the Chinirt "gorges" of the Chenab River and at Sangla Hill, and were encountered in a few
boreholes in the vicinity of Sangla Hill during the installation of tubewells for SCARP-1.
Within the Project area, bedrock was encountered in test hole E-29 near the crystalline
outcrop at Chiniot at a depth of 525 feet; in well 23 adjacent to Upper Jhang Branch at a
depth of 718 feet; and in well 5 at a depth of 597 feet. Southeast of Lyallpur along the Lower
Gugera and Burala Branches, bedrock was recorded in test wells 3, 6, and 24 at depths of
770, 882 and 970 feet,respectively. Exploratory test wells E-17, E-20, and E-22 near Sangla
Hill encountered bedrock at depths of 280, 535, and 542 feet,respectively. Elsewhere
within the Project area, test wells were carried to depths of 1,000 feet or more without reach-
ing bedrock. Geologic considerations and miscellaneous geophysical data indicate that the





5-1


Chapter 5

GROUND WATER HYDROLOGY

Ground water hydrology is of singular importance in planning reclamation activities
in the Punjab. Hydrologic factors figure prominently in the present problems of agriculture,
and ground water development is the key feature of the Salinity Control and Reclamation
Program. Recognizing the critical importance of hydrology, the Government of Pakistan has
supported a broad program of field studies in cooperation with USAID and its predecessor
agencies since 1954. The results of these investigations are reported in a series of WASID
reports (see selected references). The following discussion of essential features Is drawn largely
from the WASID publications. For a detailed account of the hydrology, reference is made to
the original sources.

THE ALLUVIAL AQUIFER
The alluvial sediments which underlie the Northern Zone of the Indus Plains form
one of the world's great unconfined (nonartesian) ground water reservoirs. The geology of
the Plains has been studied in appropriate detail by WASID. Rechna Doab, including the
Project area, is described by Kidwai (1963) largely on the basis of data from a network of
deep test holes (Plate 9).
The alluvium represents the accumulation of detritus derived from the mountain ranges
to the north and deposited by the ancestral rivers of the Indus system. The sediments consist
chiefly of unconsolidated, medium to fine-grained sand, silt and clay. The sand grains are
commonly subrounded and the deposits are generally well sorted: such characteristics enhance
the water-bearing properties of the sediments. Gravel and coarse sand are uncommon except
possibly at great depth. However, pebbles of siltstone and mudstone, and nodules of kankar
(a calcium carbonate concretion) are frequently associated with the clay and silt beds.
The lithology of the alluvium as deduced from well cuttings and electric logs is shown
by the geologic sections in Plate 9. There are no discernable traceable units. Throughout
most of the Project area, plastic sediments predominate: clays occur largely in lenticular
beds of limited area extent. Sand comprises approximately 70 percent of the sediments that
occur to depths of 500 to 600 feet. The proportion of fine-textured sediments in the section
apparently increases slightly toward the north, but not sufficiently to prejudice the water-
bearing properties of the alluvium. Thus, despite the local heterogeneity of the deposits,
the alluvium forms a unified aquifer in which ground water occurs essentially under unconfined
conditions. High capacity wells, two to four hundred feet deep, can be located: almost
anywhere in the Project area.
The thickness of the alluvium is unknown. Pre-Cambrian crystalline rocks crop out in
the Chinirt "gorges" of the Chenab River and at Sangla Hill, and were encountered in a few
boreholes in the vicinity of Sangla Hill during the installation of tubewells for SCARP-1.
Within the Project area, bedrock was encountered in test hole E-29 near the crystalline
outcrop at Chiniot at a depth of 525 feet; in well 23 adjacent to Upper Jhang Branch at a
depth of 718 feet; and in well 5 at a depth of 597 feet. Southeast of Lyallpur along the Lower
Gugera and Burala Branches, bedrock was recorded in test wells 3, 6, and 24 at depths of
770, 882 and 970 feet,respectively. Exploratory test wells E-17, E-20, and E-22 near Sangla
Hill encountered bedrock at depths of 280, 535, and 542 feet,respectively. Elsewhere
within the Project area, test wells were carried to depths of 1,000 feet or more without reach-
ing bedrock. Geologic considerations and miscellaneous geophysical data indicate that the






5-6


SUMMARY
From the standpoint of planning a program of ground water management and develop-
ment in Lower Rechna Doab, the significant results of the WASID studies are as follows:
1. Despite the heterogeneous composition of the sediments the alluvium forms a con-
tinuous, highly transmissive aquifer. Wells drilled to moderate depths of 200 to 400 feet and
yielding 2 to 5 cusecs with specific capacities of 0.2 to 0.3 cusec per foot of drawdown can
be constructed almost anywhere within the Project area.
2. Although the alluvial aquifer is highly anisotropic, ground water is essentially un-
confined to depths of 400 feet or more, and the discharge of wells of moderate depth is derived
from water table storage. It follows, then, that ground water withdrawals can effectively
control subsurface drainage and the depth and fluctuation of the water table. With respect to
management of the ground water reservoir, anisotropy is a favorable property because it
promotes more widespread distribution of drawdown in response to pumping: additionally, it
limits the quantity of vertical recharge that can be derived from a local source such as a
canal. Thus, the proximity of canals to individual wells is not a critical consideration, especi-
ally under a regional program of ground water development.
3. The chemical quality of the ground waters of about 60 percent of the Project area
is satisfactory for irrigation use.
4. Perennial recharge to the ground water reservoir is assured from leakage from the
irrigation system and seepage from link canals and rivers. Overdevelopment leading to
mining of ground water is not a hazard. Considering the recharge potential and the
relatively high specific yield and permeability of the sediments, mining will proceed slowly,
if at all, under any practicable level of development and can be ameliorated before it becomes
a matter of economic significance.


* *











































WELL NO, CLIX/71
WS.L_6.




z N -6059.1


d n~NS.L.3
> 5
w



bE WLN0xi
0
z 520 NSL-57

2
0ELN.CXIN

w 500 XL-58




WELL HYDROGRAPIIS

PRO JECT 5



YEARS

iee is 460 ow ig lo ;1is 1*5 do 1ie5s ig~o 035 4~40 -S445 fsbo 10519o isees ,


1






















-530


-520


WELL NO. CLXIV/130
N.S.L.- 520.9 .


WELL NO. CLXIV/(23
N.S.L. 507.4


470


WELL NO. CLXV/134
SN.S.L.491.5

460 WELL HYDROGRAPHS
PRO JECT 5


YEARS
4 _vr --- .......---------------------.--------- i -------- .....---------------


190 1905 1910 195 20 195 1930


1895






























CHAPTER 5


GROUND WATER HYDROLOGY





























'CHAPTER 6


PROBLEMS OF IRRIGATED AGRiCULTURE






CHAPTER 6 -, :; : .

PROBLEMS OF IRRIGATED AGRICVLTU8RE ;. '

Agricultural production in the Northern Zone is suppressed by a number of physical'
and human factors. These restraints have been discussed in various reports by a number of
specialists. What has not been emphasized sufficiently is the magnitude of the region's
agricultural potential. Considering the soils, climate, water supply, and human resources,
the agricultural potential of the Punjab is as great as for any large irrigated region in the
world.
Despite the favorable environment, irrigated agriculture is not now a prosperous
economic activity in the Punjab, neither for the farmer nor for the nation. Yields of crops
are among the lowest of all areas in which agriculture is the predominant economic activity
and irrigation is practiced on a large scale. Also, yields have remained virtually static in
the past ten years whereas increases of 15 to 100 percent have been experienced in other
countries during the same period of time (Table 6-1).
Moreover, intensity of cultivation is relatively low. That, coupled with low unit
yields, has created a chronic condition of unsatisfactory production in the Punjab. For
example, the Lower Rechna Project area is favored with the most reliable and adequate canal
supplies in the Punjab, yet, yields are only slightly above the average for the country (Table
6-1).
The low yields and low cropping intensities are due to various problems of land, water,
and people, and their interactions. The principal factors that are involved in the agricultural
problems of the Lower Rechna area can be classified as follows:

INHERENT Climate, soils, topography, permeability and drainability; factors which
FACTORS cannot be altered significantly.

WATER Supply, quality, seasonal availability, drainage, and associated salinity and
FACTORS alkali hazards; factors which can be altered significantly, but are not under
the control of the farmer.

MANAGEMENT Crops, crop rotations, fertilizer use, seedbed preparation, seeding technique,
FACTORS plant population, cultivation, pest control and water management practices;
factors wh ich can be altered significantly and are largely under the control
of the farmer, subject to the availability of essential supplies.

SUPPLY Fertilizers, superior seed varieties, pesticides, farm tools and equipment,
FACTORS storage and marketing facilities, credit, research, agricultural extension,.
etc.; factors which are subject mainly to economic and administrative
restraints, and are chiefly under the control of the government.

MISCELLAN- Land tenure laws, fragmentation of land holdings, human diseases and nutrition,
EOUS FACTORS population pressure, farmer incentives, government concern and support, and
a number of other administrative and sociological problems; factors which are
determined by policy and activity in other sectors of the economy and govern-
ment.

Of all these, the factors of water supply, drainage, and salinity dominate the problems
of irrigated agriculture in the Punjab. The inherent factors are largely favorable and the
management, supply and miscellaneous factors only reflect the inevitable stagnation of irrigated
agriculture in an environment in which water supply factors impose such severe restraints on





6-2


agricultural development and management.
The water factors derive from a variety of causes, most of which are related to the
regional hydrology. Thus, water supply is a basic problem. The seasonal fluctuations
in river flow do not match the agricultural calendar, and the featureless terrain offers indifferent
reservoir sites for hold-over storage. Water supply problems at the field are amplified by high
conveyance losses from the unlined channels in permeable-soils; as described previously,
conveyance losses within the canal system are about 25 percent or more of the headworks
diversions. Lack of sufficient water to meet both consumptive use and leaching requirements
of crops has led to extensive salinization of soils, despite the excellent quality of the canal
water.
Drainage problems are in turn the consequence of high conveyance losses. As canal
seepage cannot be accommodated by natural ground water drainage under the flat hydraulic
gradients which prevail, the inception of canal irrigation is invariably followed by a period
of rising ground water levels until recharge from the irrigation system is balanced by discharge
to evapotranspiration. These conditions aggravate salinity problems and in extreme cases lead
to waterlogging of the irrigated lands.
The overriding- importance of the water factors on agricultural production in the Lower
Rechna area is evident from simple statistics. Consider cropping patterns and intensity. The
present cropping pattern bears the unmistakable mark of subsistence economy. It emphasizes
Rabi food crops rather than Kharif cash crops, and probably represents maximum economic
utility from available irrigation supplies. But in a typical year only about 2.5 million acres
are cropped (an intensity of 114 percent); whereas the perennial growing season and the
kinds of crops which are actually planted indicate that a cropping intensity of 150 percent
is practical and feasible. Thus under present conditions only about 75 percent of the potential
crop acreage is being exploited.
Moreover, despite the present low cropping intensity, irrigation supplies fall short of
optimum crop requirements. The system shortage is shown by Figure 6-1 which compares historic
irrigation deliveries -- including canal and private well supplies -- with the irrigation require-
ments for the present cropping pattern. Through most of the year,supplies equal only about 80
percent of requirements, and during the last half of the Rabi season,crops receive only about 60
percent of optimum requirements.
Canal water supplies are distributed among the farmers by a water distribution schedule
called a wari bundi which is established by the Irrigation Department. Depending upon the
size of outlet, farmers are allowed a specified period of time for irrigation for each acre owned.
Turns are on a regular basis, commonly between 7 and 10 days. The farmer has free use of the
water during his turn and may apply it to whatever crop or whatever number of acres he desires.
A wari bundi on a typical distributary in the Project area allots the farmer a 15 minute
"turn" per acre each week. The capacity of the outlet is 2.05 cusecs; thus providing one-half
acre inch of water per acre per week, or slightly more than two inches per acre per month.
With a holding of 10 acres, the farmer receives about 21 acre-inches of water per month, an
amount sufficient to irrigate about seven acres of crops with three inches once a month.
Under these conditions farmers historically have supplemented inadequate canal
supplies with ground water. In 1965 about 7,000 Persian wells were in operation in the
Project area. In recent years private tubewells have become a more important source of
supplemental supplies and in 1965 nearly 3,200 were in operation in Lower Rechna Doab. The
rate of private tubewell development accelerated in 1960, reached a peak in 1963, and since
then the installation of private tubewells has declined (see Figure 6-2). The tubewells now in
operation provide irrigation water for about 320,000 acres or about 15 percent of the cultur-
able area (Table 6-2). Farmers served by private tubewell supplies report increases of 25





6-3


percent or more in cropping intensity and 10 to 40 percent in unit yields. The pesticides,
selected seeds and fertilizers distributed in the Project area are used predominantly on lands
served by private tubewells as the availability of supplemental irrigation supplies makes
their use more profitable.
Recent field studies verify earlier findings that the private tubewells are very profit-
able, as they can be paid for in two to three years of operation if more than 50 acres is
commanded. The average command of private tubewells in Lower Rechna Doab is 100 acres
and each tubewell supplies about 200 acre feet of water. On the average, the cost of water
from the tubewells is 24 rupees from a diesel unit and 15 rupees from an electric installation
(Table 6-3). But the initial cost of the tubewells is quite high: the average diesel installa-
tion costs the farmer more than 9,500 rupees and an electric tubewell costs nearly 7,400
rupees. Farmers with small holdings seldom are able to finance this initial cost and the higher
fixed costs per acre make the tubewell somewhat less profitable to the small farmer.
The statistics for distribution of private well ownership verify that only the larger
farmers are installing tubewells. Farms larger than 50 acres represent only one percent of the
holdings and 9 percent of the farm area, but have two-thirds of the total tubewells. On farms
larger than 150 acres there is an average of 4 tubewells per farm and 6 farms out of'10 between
50 and 150 acres in size have tubewells. Only 4 percent of the farms between 25 and 50 acres
have tubewells and of the farms smaller than 25 acres only one in 365 has a tubewell and these
are predominantly on the specialty farms near urban centres. Thus it is apparent that even
though tubewells are very profitable, only the wealthiest farmers can afford the initial cost of
insta I nation.
As most of the fubewells are in the non-saline ground water areas (Plate 16), it is
likely that few large farms in those areas remain without tubewell supplies at the present time.
The decline of private tubewell installation which has occurred since 1963 reflects this fact.
The future rate of tubewell installation is uncertain but in 1966 it will probably not involve
more than about 1.5 percent of the culturable lands of the entire Project area. And the rate
will continue to decline and will probably dwindle to inconsequence within a very few years
as the supplemental irrigation requirements of the farms larger than 25 acres are met. Farms of
this size that overlie fresh ground waters comprise less than 25 percent of the culturable area
,of the Project: thus even if all of these farms had tubewells, by far the largest part of the total
area would'remain uncommanded.
Problems of water shortage and inadequate drainage are manifested by salinization of
the soil. Saline and alkali soils develop mainly as a result of poor water management practices:
(1) application of insufficient irrigation water to meet both consumptive use and leaching re-
quirements, or (2) irrigating extensively without providing for adequate drainage (Appendix B).
According to reconnaissance soil surveys conducted by WASID, there is visible evidence that
410,000 acres or about 19 percent of the Project area is sufficiently salt-affected for
crop yields to be reduced significantly (Plate 8 and Table 4-3). It should be noted that the
classification in Table 4-3 relates only to the severity of the salinity problem: it gives no
indication of the occurence, severity, depth, or thickness of associated alkali soil problems.
As judged from inspection of the area, interpretation of laboratory data and discussions
with farmers and local agriculturists, about 60 percent of the 410,000 acres of salt-affected






6-4


land can be reclaimed by simple conventional methods (mainly leaching); approximately 30
percent will require leaching for a long period of time, or leaching plus organic matter or small
amounts of amendment; and about 10 percent will require chemical amendments and skilled
reclamation practices.
In summary, because water is scarce in relation to land, farmers tend to spread their
irrigation supplies over too large an area in an effort to achieve the highest possible cropping
intensity and (presumably) the maximum returns from the water. In this respect the farmers are
employing rational management of their most limited resources. But the low levels of develop-
ment and production which are achieved and the salinity problems that arise under these practices
limit, in turn, the economic utility and hence the application of modern technology. Expedi-
tious use of short-run resources conflicts therefore with efficient long-run management practices;
and moreover the great majority of the farmers are powerless in the matter of alleviating the
basic problems of water supply, salinity and drainage.
It should be emphasized again that the unfavorable supply, management, and miscellan-
eous factors are largely the consequences of stagnation in agricultural development rather than
the roots of the problem. These unfavorable factors for the most part are linked to, or result
from the primitive agricultural practices used in the Punjab, for they have remained essentially
unchanged during a period in which modern agriculture has experienced a technologic revolu-
tion. It should be noted that the inadequacies of these factors are much less important as
production restraints in the existing environment than they will be in a presumed future environ-
ment in which water supply, drainage and salinity are not limiting factors. Accordingly, the
nature and implications of the supply, management, and miscellaneous factors are described
in appropriate detail in Chapter 10, Corollary Development.


* *









TABLE 6-1


COMPARISON OF AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTIVITY OF LOWER RECHNA
WITH DIFFERENT COUNTRIES AND REGIONS


Wheat Rice Gur Maize Cotton
(Grain) (Paddy) (Raw Sugar) (Grain) (Lint)
Country Yield Yield Yield Yield Yield
or Region Year Lbs/Acre Lbs/Acre Lbs/Acre Lbs/Acre Lbs/Acre

LOWER RECHNA 1948/49-1952/53 1,086 1,222 3,176 1,045 156
1962-63 1,012 1,508 3,300 1,162 247

WEST PAKISTAN 1948/49-1952/53 776 1,231 3,022 874 178
1962-63 732 1,347 3,145 946 223

INDIA 1955-59 654 1,190 (1) 722 97
1963 708 1,378 3,888 890 127

EGYPT 1955-59 2,064 3,734 (1) 1,865 467
1963 2,274 3,481 (1) 2,100 577

JAPAN 1955-59 (2) 4,053 (1) (2) (1)
1963 (2) 4,386 4,941 (2) (1)

SPAIN 1955-59 924 5,168 (1) 1,915 221
1963 1,020 4,865 6,441 2,072 329

CHILE 1955-59 1,200 2,130 (1) 1,579 (1)
1963 1,380 2,368 (1) 1,876 (1)

U .S.A. (3) 1955-59 1,872 (5) 3,443 (6) (1) 3,197 (7) 917 (8)
1963 2,028 4,029 (1) 3,618 947

U.S.A. (4) 1955-59 1,338 3,189 (1) 2,727 428
1963 1,518 3,962 5,087 3,786 517

MEXICO 1955-59 1,212. 1,854 (1) 745 430
1963 1,938 1,948 (1) 846 515

(1) Data not available.
(2) Data not comparable.
(3) Irrigated areas.
(4) U.S. totals, including non-irrigated areas.
(5) 1958-62 average: Idaho, New Mexico, Arizona, Nevada, California.
(6) 1958-62 average: Texas, California, Louisiana, Mississippi, Missouri, Arkansas.
(7) 1958-62 average: Western U.S.
(8) 1958-62 average: Arizona, California, New Mexico.

Sources of data:
Lower Rechna and West Pakistan: Bureau of Statistics and Forecast Reports of the Agricultural
Department of West Pakistan.
U.S.A.: Agricultural Statistics, USDA, 1965; Statistical Abstract of the U.S., 1965.
Other countries: Production Year Book, Food and Agricultural Organization of the United
Nations, Rome, 1963.






TABLE 6-2
PRIVATE TUBEWELL STATISTICS; LOWER RECHNA AREA


ITEM
Persian wheels working
Tubewells
Electric
Diesel
.Tractor
Mixed application only 2/
No. tubewells
Acres.
Pure application only
No. tubewells
Acres
Both pure and mixed
No. tubewells
Acres pure
Acres mixed
Percent of acres
Pure application
Mixed application
Tubewell command
CA per tubewell
% of CA commanded
Total acres commanded
Commercial wells
Number
Percent of total
Acres commanded
CA per tubewell
Wells owned by farmers
Used on own land only
Number
% of farmer wells
Acres commanded
CA per tubewell
Sells some water
Number
% of farmer wells
Acres of own land
Acres of other land
Acres commanded
Own land, %of total
CA per tubewell
Miscellaneous use 3/
Number
Acres commanded
CA per tubewell


SALINE ZONE 1/ NON-SALINE ZONE
69 6,874
178 3,013
97 551
78 2,456
3 6


139
14,166

31
3,726


8
361
374


105
2.8
18,627

1
0.6
100
100


129
73
12,412
96

30
17
1,793
2,560
4,353
41
145

18
1,762
98


1,524
145,002

1,286
131,610

203
11,499
11,906


100
20.0
300,017

151
5.0
11,850
78


2,165
76
204,991
95

635
22
36,151
41,056
77,207
47
122

62
5,969
96


TOTAL
6,943
3,191
648
2,534
9

1,663
159,168

1,317
135,336

211
11,860
12,280

46
54

100
14.7
318,644

152
4.8
11,950
79


2,294
76
217,403
95

665
22
37,944
43,616
81,560
47
123

80
7,731
97


1/ More than 2,000 ppm TDS (not the "Saline Area" of this Project).
Z/ Mixed with canal water.
3/ All or part of the commanded land is held in tender less than five years.







TABLE 6-3


PRIVATE TUBEWELL COSTS LOWER RECHNA
ANNUAL COST OF OPERATION
(in rupees)


S DIESEL I ELECTRIC
COST ITEM TOTAL ANNUAL TOTAL ANNUAL

Capital Cost, Complete 9,560 7,382

Depreciation (except bore
and strainer)-15 years 534 389

Interest @ 7% 335 258

Operational Costs 1/

1. Fuel/Electricity 2/ 2,126 1,589
2. Lubricant 451 74
3. Maintenance 225 194
4. Engine Overhaul 361
5. Operator 852 540

TOTALS 9,560 4,884 7,382 3,044
Cost per acre-foot 24 15



------------------------------------------------ -----------------
1/ With ground water production at 204 acre-feet/year
2/ Diesel: 10 percent combined efficiency from fuel to water and 30 foot head, or
6.27 imp. gal/AF @ Rs 79.80 per 48 gal. drum.
Electric: Combined efficiency is estimated as 32 percent, and consumption is
estimated at 19,860 KWH @ Rs 0.08/KWH.






FIGURE 6 1


PRESENT IRRIGATION SUPPLIES

AND

CROP CONSUMPTIVE USE

(LOWER RECHN A).:


Deficit

S Tubewell and Persian Wheel Supplies

j Surplus


Apr May June July Aug Sept Oct Nov Dec


500





S400
Z

O
0
I--
" 300

I
U-

0u
4 200





100


Jan Feb Mar









ANNUAL NUMBER OF TUBEWELLS INSTALLED
LOWER RECHNA DOAB


YEAR






























CHAPTER 7


RECLAMATION POLICIES AND PROJECT DESIGN CRITERIA





7-1


CHAPTER 7

RECLAMATION POLICIES AND PROJECT DESIGN CRITERIA

GENERAL POLICIES
The basic objective of the Salinity Control and Reclamation Program is to promote
maximum possible development of the soil and water resources of West Pakistan in the short-
est practicable period of time. The more specific objectives are to eliminate water supply
problems, and salinity and waterlogging as restraints on agricultural development; thus
creating an environment in which the full benefits of modern agricultural technology can be
realized.
The obvious immediate purpose of the program is to stimulate agriculture to a level
of development sufficient to satisfy the internal requirements of the country for essential
foods and fibers. But an equally vital longer range purpose is the generation of capital
which is required to finance corollary agricultural development and other commercial and
industrial activities. Because of the increasing pressure of population on the land agricul-
ture cannot long continue to hold its present dominant position in the economy. On the
other hand, agriculture is the only large-scale economic activity in Pakistan which can be
mobilized for appreciable short-term returns. Thus, if the reclamation program achieves
its objectives, it will become self-liquidating: the transition to industry will gain momentum,
and first water and then land will become too valuable to be employed solely for agricultural
purposes. This is not to suggest that agriculture will ever cease to be a major factor in the
economy only, that as the economy expands as a result of the reclamation program, there
will be a more favorable balance between agriculture and industry.
Under this philosophy the overriding commitment is to rapid agricultural development -
even at the risk of temporary overdevelopment of the ground water resources until the
entire economy, bolstered by agriculture, gains sufficient momentum to maintain sustained
economic growth in all sectors. The feasibility indeed the necessity of this policy
has been demonstrated by quantitative economic studies made by the White House Panel
appointed to study the problems of agricultural development in Pakistan (Revelle, 1964).
In qualitative terms this policy simply recognizes the axiom that in a modern dynamic economy
the value of water always increases at a faster rate than the costs of water production.
The Salinity Control and Reclamation Program for the Northern Zone has evolved in
accordance with the experience and knowledge acquired from a deliberate program of scienti-
fic studies and field experiments carried out over the past forty years by various government
agencies, with strong support in recent years from U.S. A.I.D., the Columbo Plan, the
United Nations, and other International technical assistance organizations. The SCARP program
still is evolving as experience gained from operating projects is interpreted and fed back into
the planning studies. Thus, through the years, the program incorporates proven practices
and techniques, and is guided by rational policies which provide the best compromise among
technical feasibility, agricultural requirements, and available economic resources.

SCOPE OF THE RECLAMATION PROGRAM
According to the commitments of the Third Five Year Plan, about one million acres
per year are to be brought.under the reclamation program in the Northern Zone. This rate
of development is commensurate with both the needs and.the resources of Pakistan. That is,
the proposed program will not absorb an inordinate proportion of the development budget,
and with concomitant development in the Southern Zone, West Pakistan will be self-
sufficient with regard to essential agricultural products by or before 1975, and will have





7-1


CHAPTER 7

RECLAMATION POLICIES AND PROJECT DESIGN CRITERIA

GENERAL POLICIES
The basic objective of the Salinity Control and Reclamation Program is to promote
maximum possible development of the soil and water resources of West Pakistan in the short-
est practicable period of time. The more specific objectives are to eliminate water supply
problems, and salinity and waterlogging as restraints on agricultural development; thus
creating an environment in which the full benefits of modern agricultural technology can be
realized.
The obvious immediate purpose of the program is to stimulate agriculture to a level
of development sufficient to satisfy the internal requirements of the country for essential
foods and fibers. But an equally vital longer range purpose is the generation of capital
which is required to finance corollary agricultural development and other commercial and
industrial activities. Because of the increasing pressure of population on the land agricul-
ture cannot long continue to hold its present dominant position in the economy. On the
other hand, agriculture is the only large-scale economic activity in Pakistan which can be
mobilized for appreciable short-term returns. Thus, if the reclamation program achieves
its objectives, it will become self-liquidating: the transition to industry will gain momentum,
and first water and then land will become too valuable to be employed solely for agricultural
purposes. This is not to suggest that agriculture will ever cease to be a major factor in the
economy only, that as the economy expands as a result of the reclamation program, there
will be a more favorable balance between agriculture and industry.
Under this philosophy the overriding commitment is to rapid agricultural development -
even at the risk of temporary overdevelopment of the ground water resources until the
entire economy, bolstered by agriculture, gains sufficient momentum to maintain sustained
economic growth in all sectors. The feasibility indeed the necessity of this policy
has been demonstrated by quantitative economic studies made by the White House Panel
appointed to study the problems of agricultural development in Pakistan (Revelle, 1964).
In qualitative terms this policy simply recognizes the axiom that in a modern dynamic economy
the value of water always increases at a faster rate than the costs of water production.
The Salinity Control and Reclamation Program for the Northern Zone has evolved in
accordance with the experience and knowledge acquired from a deliberate program of scienti-
fic studies and field experiments carried out over the past forty years by various government
agencies, with strong support in recent years from U.S. A.I.D., the Columbo Plan, the
United Nations, and other International technical assistance organizations. The SCARP program
still is evolving as experience gained from operating projects is interpreted and fed back into
the planning studies. Thus, through the years, the program incorporates proven practices
and techniques, and is guided by rational policies which provide the best compromise among
technical feasibility, agricultural requirements, and available economic resources.

SCOPE OF THE RECLAMATION PROGRAM
According to the commitments of the Third Five Year Plan, about one million acres
per year are to be brought.under the reclamation program in the Northern Zone. This rate
of development is commensurate with both the needs and.the resources of Pakistan. That is,
the proposed program will not absorb an inordinate proportion of the development budget,
and with concomitant development in the Southern Zone, West Pakistan will be self-
sufficient with regard to essential agricultural products by or before 1975, and will have





7-2


surplus cash crops for export in'subsequent years. Acceleration of the program would be
at the risk of straining the financial resources of West Pakistan with scant prospects of achiev-
ing proportionate short-term benefits because of the difficulty of implementing many of the
essential corollary activities with sufficient rapidity. On the other hand, if the pace of the
reclamation program is slowed appreciably below the rate of one million acres per year, the
agricultural economy will not grow fast enough to close the gap on the expanding needs of the
country for food and fiber, the program will fall short of its primary objective, and agricul-
ture will not achieve its potential as a stimulant to the entire national economy.
The basic policy of this program is to concentrate reclamation activities on culturable
lands within the existing irrigation boundaries, rather than to open virgin lands to irrigation
development. This policy recognizes that the existing canal systems include the best agri-
cultural lands, that these lands have been levelled and otherwise developed for irrigation,
and that they are populated with experienced farmers and served by agricultural artisans.
tMoreover, as most of the salt-affected soils in the Project area can be rapidly and effectively
reclaimed by simple and inexpensive leaching techniques, there are no economic advantages
in bringing in new lands. Accordingly, as water, not land, is the limiting factor in agricul-
tural development, maximum benefits will be derived by promoting optimum development of
the established irrigated areas.
For planning purposes, "optimum development" is taken as the maximum cropping
intensity that can be achieved with available resources, realistic cropping patterns, and
reasonable management practices. As a general proposition a target cropping intensity of
150 percent has been adopted for the Northern Zone, but lower intensities are forecast
for areas which have special supply and/or drainage problems, such as the "saline" areas in
Chaj and Rechna Doabs where the ground water is too saline for use as an irrigation supply
and the development of additional supplies of fresher water is uneconomical or practically
impossible.
It is recognized, of course, that cropping intensity is not a certain economic index.
However, the provision of full facilities for high cropping intensities ensure flexibility in
crop management. Irrigators will have wide latitude in the selection of their cropping program,
and with adequate and reliable supplies for all lands there will be no tendency to spread
water too thinly, a practice that has led to widespread salinization of the soil in the North-
ern Zone.
Reclamation methods: The key feature of the reclamation program is a massive program
of ground water management wherein the ground water reservoir is exploited for irrigation
supplies and regulated for control of subsurface drainage and storage of seasonal surplus water.
Individual projects under this program essentially consist of arrays of high-capacity tubewells
and appropriate appurtenant works including power service lines, distribution channels, and
flood protection works. In most areas of the Northern Zone the ground water is of acceptable
quality for irrigation use without dilution with canal supplies. In those areas the tubewells
discharge into watercourses, and the yield of each well is determined solely by the supplemen-
tal irrigation requirements of the land it commands. In some areas it is economically feasible
to develop sufficient moderately saline ground water for admixture with the available canal
supplies to meet consumptive use and leaching requirements for 150 percent cropping intensity.
In certain areas such as Upper Rechna Doab it is feasible to develop ground water supplies in
excess of local supplementary irrigation needs. In those situations the surplus ground water is
used to replace canal supplies which are then available for reallocation to other areas where
usable ground water supplies are insufficient to meet supplemental irrigation needs. Thus the
irrigation tubewells serve multiple purposes: they satisfy both irrigation and drainage require-





7-3


ments; through controlled withdrawals they provide the means for managing the aquifer as a
storage reservoir: they permit the use of moderately saline ground water; and they offer flexi-
ble, effective, and economic means for redistribution of canal supplies to areas of chronic
short supply.
The adoption of ground water reclamation methods is the logical and inevitable cul-
mination of years of intensive research and field experiments. Since about the close of World
War I virtually every conceivable approach has been taken toward relieving the problems of
irrigated agriculture in the Punjab. Until about 1950 the question of enhancing irrigation
supplies did not receive much consideration because there was concern that an increase in canal
supplies would only aggravate the growing drainage and salinity problems. Furthermore, because
of the lack of reservoir sites in the flat terrain of the Indus Plains, there appeared to be no
prospects for increasing canal diversions during the months of low river flow. Hence most
efforts were directed toward maintenance of productive lands by controlling subsurface drainage
rather than attempting to increase irrigation supplies. A variety of techniques were employed,
including lining canals, closure of canals during part of the monsoon season, construction of
open-ditch drains in waterlogged areas, and planting phreatophytes along canal banks. The
most ambitious scheme was the installation between 1948 and 1951 of about 1600 drainage wells
along waterlogged reaches of the Upper Chenab, Lower Chenab, and Lower Jhelum Canals.
The purpose of these wells was to intercept canal seepage and to return it to the canal, there-
by presumably maintaining the canal supply and eliminating canal seepage as a factor in the
drainage problem.
All of these schemes gave indifferent results and at best they provided only local or
temporary relief. But they did serve to eliminate some approaches, and the associated investi-
gations yielded much useful information on reclamation problems.
By 1950 it was evident that more effective measures had to be taken and that these must
include provisions for enhancing the irrigation supplies. This gave rise to the intensive program
of hydrologic investigations, previously described, which by 1956 provided a scientific basis
for preliminary planning of the ground water management program. Since then the program has
been amplified (WAPDA, 1961) and endorsed by various international authorities including the
White House Panel (Revelle, 1964), Harza (1964), etc. The program now stands approved
as the official reclamation activity in the Northern Zone.
In recent years much consideration also has been given to the substitution of deep tile
drains for tubewells for control of the water table in areas where the ground water is too saline
for use directly or in mixture with canal supplies. The argument for tile drains is based on the
assumptions that they are less costly to Install, operate, and maintain than tubewells. As
shown In Appendix I, these assumptions are grossly incorrect. In fact, deep tile drainage can
be rejected for general application in the Punjab on economic grounds alone, without reference
to the considerable technical and practical problems always associated with drainage by tiles
or the fact that the huge volume of water stored underground may not then be exploited.
Selection of areas: Project priorities have been established on the basis of flexible and
expedient criteria, not the least of which has been the status of investigations required for
project planning. Thus, Project 1 in Central Rechna Doab and Project 2 in Chaj Doab were
taken in that order as the results of field studies become available. Project 3 in Lower Thai
Doab was taken up next because marked deterioration had set in even before full land develop-
ment was attained. Project 4 in Upper Rechna Doab was planned next largely because complete
ground water development will permit reallocation of some canal supplies to other areas.
Lower Rechna Doab has been selected for the fifth project because it possesses a relatively well
developed agriculture which promises a high return on the investment in reclamation in a short
period of time. This Project will complete the orderly development of the doab, and will






7-4


provide appropriate uses for the canal supplies which will be diverted from Upper Rechna Doab
after implementation of Project 4.

DEVELOPMENT PLAN
Implicit in the objectives of the SCARP projects maximum development of soil and
water resources in the shortest practicable time is the prerequisite: elimination of water
supply as*a restraint to optimum agricultural development.
However, the most optimistic.schedule for increasing surface supplies provides in-
sufficient water in the near'future to meet full irrigation and leaching requirements even for
present crop intensities and irrigated acreage, much less for the expanded acreage and in-
creased cropping intensities required to meet future demands and production goals. And fresh
ground water is unavailable in many areas where supplies are deficient.
The most feasible method of coping with this situation is to use the moderately-saline
ground water. This would permit a high level of agricultural development throughout the
region without requiring the construction of surface storage facilities and appurtenant works
additional to those now proposed as part of the indus Basin Plan.
Other,.but rejected methods of development are:
a) Reduce the area under irrigation This alternative is untenable with
the present pressure of population on the land.
b) Remodel canals and distributaries This would permit the use of surplus
Indus water for the period the river is in high flow. Aside from the high costs and the physical
problems entailed in remodelling, an augmented supply for only about two months a year
would not result in large increases in agricultural production.
It is recognized that the most favorable method of development the use of modera-
tely-saline ground water --will result in slightly reduced crop yields and therefore in
reduced returns to farmers in a small part of the Project area; however, use of ample supplies
of such water will be highly profitable to the farmer and to the economy of the country. Thus
the use of marginal water will reduce production much less than the inadequacy of presently
available irrigation supplies.
In areas not already commanded, the use of saline irrigation water can be limited or
prohibited, but in many areas where agriculture is developed and farmers must continue to
earn their livelihood, the only alternative to inadequate supplies is the use of such water for
irrigation.
As discussed elsewhere the upper limits of 1500 ppm for "safe" ground water and 4000
ppm for "marginal" ground water were accepted, not because they represent the upper limits
of usability under local conditions, but because economic considerations become paramount.
Where the more saline supplies are used, the extra water required for leaching and tubewell
size limit the maximum usable salinity. Experience in SCARP 1 and the results of the Tubewell
Monitoring Program; the published reports of Thorne and Thome (1954), and Christian and
Lyerly (1952) in the United States; Durand (1959) in Morocco; DellaoGatta :(1941) in Libya,
etc.; indicate that the proposed salinity levels will neither harm the soil nor depress crop
yields unduly. It may be necessary at some time in the future to provide for exportation of
saline water out of the Project area, but this action can be delayed for decades, as shown by
the White House Panel (Revelle, 1964) and the Regional Plan for the Development of the North-
ern Indus Plains (Tipton and Kalmbach, in preparation).
Thus the development plan proposed for the Lower Rechna area is essentially a compro-
mise between the extremes cited above: it features maximum development of the ground water
resources of the area including the marginal quality supplies to achieve the highest





7-5


level of agricultural development that can be attained with optimum use of existingcanal
facilities. Further, the development plan provides a flexible basis for rapid intensive develop-
ment without overcommitting present or future resources.
Under the plan the Project is divided into three sub-areas which are delineated on the
basis of ground water salinity (Plate 17):
1) The Saline Area is underlain by ground water which contains more than 4000 ppm
TDS, or which has an SAR greater than 25. These supplies are classed as unsuitable for
development only because the high leaching requirement results in an uneconomic level of
ground water pumpage. In the absence of ground water development, canal deliveries to the
Saline Area will be increased to the maximum volume which can safely be carried in the
present canal system. The safe carrying capacity of the distributaries is shown in Appendix E
to be 130 percent of AFS: operating at that rate for 11 months a year, with a shut-down for
one month for canal maintenance, will provide annual deliveries equal to 119 percent of AFS.
The resultant increase of 25 percent over the historic delivery rate of about 95 percent of
AFS will be sufficient, in the absence of supplemental well supplies, to support an adequately
irrigated cropping intensity of about 90 percent. The Saline Area comprises 0.57 million
acres or 21 percent of the gross Project area.
2) The Intermediate Area is underlain by ground water ranging in concentration from
1500 to 4000 ppm TDS and in which SAR does not exceed 25. Canal supplies will be increased
to the same levels as in the Saline Area to provide the maximum amount of fresh water for
mixing with the marginal-quality ground water. Ground water will be developed in the
quantity necessary to satisfy the supplemental requirements for a cropping intensity of 150 per-
cent. The ground water component of the integrated supply will vary across the area accord-
ing to the salinity of the ground water. Pumpage will increase with salinity because the more
mineralized irrigation supplies carry a higher leaching requirement. The applied irrigation
supplies will range In concentration from 200 to 2200 ppm TDS; the average for the entire area
w ill be ;aout 1000 ppm TDS. The Intermediate Area comprises about 0.55 million acres or
20 percent of the gross Project area.
3) The Non-Saline Area features ground water containing less than 1500 ppm TDS.
No restrictions are placed on the use of this ground water for irrigation. Under Project operations,
canal deliveries will approximate historic supplies, and ground water will be developed in the
quantities necessary to satisfy the full requirements for a cropping intensity of 150 percent.
The Non-Saline Area comprises a gross area of 1.6 million acres, or 59 percent of the gross
Project area.
Technical details and economicc justification of the development plan are given in
subsequent sections of this report. In summary, an obvious advantage of the plan is the provi-
sion for economic development -f moderately saline ground water in the Intermediate Area.
This eliminates the need for costly canal remodeling and drainage works; it provides drainage
relief to the Saline Area; and moreover the Intermediate Area will serve as a buffer between the
Saline and Non-Saline Areas, protecting the latter from contamination by migration of ground
water of poor quality from the Saline Area.

PROJECT DESIGN
The criteria used for Project design are presented below. Details and supporting data
are given in the several appendices.
Cropping pattern: The present cropping pattern reflects the restraints imposed on
agriculture by limited canal deliveries and demands for Rabi food crops. The present Kharif:
Rabi crop ratio of about 1:1.8 provides the bulk of the rural food requirements but very little
surplus for cash or export. The availability of dependable, timely and adequate irrigation
supplies throughout the year will promote major changes In the cropping pattern and a more





7-5


level of agricultural development that can be attained with optimum use of existingcanal
facilities. Further, the development plan provides a flexible basis for rapid intensive develop-
ment without overcommitting present or future resources.
Under the plan the Project is divided into three sub-areas which are delineated on the
basis of ground water salinity (Plate 17):
1) The Saline Area is underlain by ground water which contains more than 4000 ppm
TDS, or which has an SAR greater than 25. These supplies are classed as unsuitable for
development only because the high leaching requirement results in an uneconomic level of
ground water pumpage. In the absence of ground water development, canal deliveries to the
Saline Area will be increased to the maximum volume which can safely be carried in the
present canal system. The safe carrying capacity of the distributaries is shown in Appendix E
to be 130 percent of AFS: operating at that rate for 11 months a year, with a shut-down for
one month for canal maintenance, will provide annual deliveries equal to 119 percent of AFS.
The resultant increase of 25 percent over the historic delivery rate of about 95 percent of
AFS will be sufficient, in the absence of supplemental well supplies, to support an adequately
irrigated cropping intensity of about 90 percent. The Saline Area comprises 0.57 million
acres or 21 percent of the gross Project area.
2) The Intermediate Area is underlain by ground water ranging in concentration from
1500 to 4000 ppm TDS and in which SAR does not exceed 25. Canal supplies will be increased
to the same levels as in the Saline Area to provide the maximum amount of fresh water for
mixing with the marginal-quality ground water. Ground water will be developed in the
quantity necessary to satisfy the supplemental requirements for a cropping intensity of 150 per-
cent. The ground water component of the integrated supply will vary across the area accord-
ing to the salinity of the ground water. Pumpage will increase with salinity because the more
mineralized irrigation supplies carry a higher leaching requirement. The applied irrigation
supplies will range In concentration from 200 to 2200 ppm TDS; the average for the entire area
w ill be ;aout 1000 ppm TDS. The Intermediate Area comprises about 0.55 million acres or
20 percent of the gross Project area.
3) The Non-Saline Area features ground water containing less than 1500 ppm TDS.
No restrictions are placed on the use of this ground water for irrigation. Under Project operations,
canal deliveries will approximate historic supplies, and ground water will be developed in the
quantities necessary to satisfy the full requirements for a cropping intensity of 150 percent.
The Non-Saline Area comprises a gross area of 1.6 million acres, or 59 percent of the gross
Project area.
Technical details and economicc justification of the development plan are given in
subsequent sections of this report. In summary, an obvious advantage of the plan is the provi-
sion for economic development -f moderately saline ground water in the Intermediate Area.
This eliminates the need for costly canal remodeling and drainage works; it provides drainage
relief to the Saline Area; and moreover the Intermediate Area will serve as a buffer between the
Saline and Non-Saline Areas, protecting the latter from contamination by migration of ground
water of poor quality from the Saline Area.

PROJECT DESIGN
The criteria used for Project design are presented below. Details and supporting data
are given in the several appendices.
Cropping pattern: The present cropping pattern reflects the restraints imposed on
agriculture by limited canal deliveries and demands for Rabi food crops. The present Kharif:
Rabi crop ratio of about 1:1.8 provides the bulk of the rural food requirements but very little
surplus for cash or export. The availability of dependable, timely and adequate irrigation
supplies throughout the year will promote major changes In the cropping pattern and a more





7-5


level of agricultural development that can be attained with optimum use of existingcanal
facilities. Further, the development plan provides a flexible basis for rapid intensive develop-
ment without overcommitting present or future resources.
Under the plan the Project is divided into three sub-areas which are delineated on the
basis of ground water salinity (Plate 17):
1) The Saline Area is underlain by ground water which contains more than 4000 ppm
TDS, or which has an SAR greater than 25. These supplies are classed as unsuitable for
development only because the high leaching requirement results in an uneconomic level of
ground water pumpage. In the absence of ground water development, canal deliveries to the
Saline Area will be increased to the maximum volume which can safely be carried in the
present canal system. The safe carrying capacity of the distributaries is shown in Appendix E
to be 130 percent of AFS: operating at that rate for 11 months a year, with a shut-down for
one month for canal maintenance, will provide annual deliveries equal to 119 percent of AFS.
The resultant increase of 25 percent over the historic delivery rate of about 95 percent of
AFS will be sufficient, in the absence of supplemental well supplies, to support an adequately
irrigated cropping intensity of about 90 percent. The Saline Area comprises 0.57 million
acres or 21 percent of the gross Project area.
2) The Intermediate Area is underlain by ground water ranging in concentration from
1500 to 4000 ppm TDS and in which SAR does not exceed 25. Canal supplies will be increased
to the same levels as in the Saline Area to provide the maximum amount of fresh water for
mixing with the marginal-quality ground water. Ground water will be developed in the
quantity necessary to satisfy the supplemental requirements for a cropping intensity of 150 per-
cent. The ground water component of the integrated supply will vary across the area accord-
ing to the salinity of the ground water. Pumpage will increase with salinity because the more
mineralized irrigation supplies carry a higher leaching requirement. The applied irrigation
supplies will range In concentration from 200 to 2200 ppm TDS; the average for the entire area
w ill be ;aout 1000 ppm TDS. The Intermediate Area comprises about 0.55 million acres or
20 percent of the gross Project area.
3) The Non-Saline Area features ground water containing less than 1500 ppm TDS.
No restrictions are placed on the use of this ground water for irrigation. Under Project operations,
canal deliveries will approximate historic supplies, and ground water will be developed in the
quantities necessary to satisfy the full requirements for a cropping intensity of 150 percent.
The Non-Saline Area comprises a gross area of 1.6 million acres, or 59 percent of the gross
Project area.
Technical details and economicc justification of the development plan are given in
subsequent sections of this report. In summary, an obvious advantage of the plan is the provi-
sion for economic development -f moderately saline ground water in the Intermediate Area.
This eliminates the need for costly canal remodeling and drainage works; it provides drainage
relief to the Saline Area; and moreover the Intermediate Area will serve as a buffer between the
Saline and Non-Saline Areas, protecting the latter from contamination by migration of ground
water of poor quality from the Saline Area.

PROJECT DESIGN
The criteria used for Project design are presented below. Details and supporting data
are given in the several appendices.
Cropping pattern: The present cropping pattern reflects the restraints imposed on
agriculture by limited canal deliveries and demands for Rabi food crops. The present Kharif:
Rabi crop ratio of about 1:1.8 provides the bulk of the rural food requirements but very little
surplus for cash or export. The availability of dependable, timely and adequate irrigation
supplies throughout the year will promote major changes In the cropping pattern and a more





7-5


level of agricultural development that can be attained with optimum use of existingcanal
facilities. Further, the development plan provides a flexible basis for rapid intensive develop-
ment without overcommitting present or future resources.
Under the plan the Project is divided into three sub-areas which are delineated on the
basis of ground water salinity (Plate 17):
1) The Saline Area is underlain by ground water which contains more than 4000 ppm
TDS, or which has an SAR greater than 25. These supplies are classed as unsuitable for
development only because the high leaching requirement results in an uneconomic level of
ground water pumpage. In the absence of ground water development, canal deliveries to the
Saline Area will be increased to the maximum volume which can safely be carried in the
present canal system. The safe carrying capacity of the distributaries is shown in Appendix E
to be 130 percent of AFS: operating at that rate for 11 months a year, with a shut-down for
one month for canal maintenance, will provide annual deliveries equal to 119 percent of AFS.
The resultant increase of 25 percent over the historic delivery rate of about 95 percent of
AFS will be sufficient, in the absence of supplemental well supplies, to support an adequately
irrigated cropping intensity of about 90 percent. The Saline Area comprises 0.57 million
acres or 21 percent of the gross Project area.
2) The Intermediate Area is underlain by ground water ranging in concentration from
1500 to 4000 ppm TDS and in which SAR does not exceed 25. Canal supplies will be increased
to the same levels as in the Saline Area to provide the maximum amount of fresh water for
mixing with the marginal-quality ground water. Ground water will be developed in the
quantity necessary to satisfy the supplemental requirements for a cropping intensity of 150 per-
cent. The ground water component of the integrated supply will vary across the area accord-
ing to the salinity of the ground water. Pumpage will increase with salinity because the more
mineralized irrigation supplies carry a higher leaching requirement. The applied irrigation
supplies will range In concentration from 200 to 2200 ppm TDS; the average for the entire area
w ill be ;aout 1000 ppm TDS. The Intermediate Area comprises about 0.55 million acres or
20 percent of the gross Project area.
3) The Non-Saline Area features ground water containing less than 1500 ppm TDS.
No restrictions are placed on the use of this ground water for irrigation. Under Project operations,
canal deliveries will approximate historic supplies, and ground water will be developed in the
quantities necessary to satisfy the full requirements for a cropping intensity of 150 percent.
The Non-Saline Area comprises a gross area of 1.6 million acres, or 59 percent of the gross
Project area.
Technical details and economicc justification of the development plan are given in
subsequent sections of this report. In summary, an obvious advantage of the plan is the provi-
sion for economic development -f moderately saline ground water in the Intermediate Area.
This eliminates the need for costly canal remodeling and drainage works; it provides drainage
relief to the Saline Area; and moreover the Intermediate Area will serve as a buffer between the
Saline and Non-Saline Areas, protecting the latter from contamination by migration of ground
water of poor quality from the Saline Area.

PROJECT DESIGN
The criteria used for Project design are presented below. Details and supporting data
are given in the several appendices.
Cropping pattern: The present cropping pattern reflects the restraints imposed on
agriculture by limited canal deliveries and demands for Rabi food crops. The present Kharif:
Rabi crop ratio of about 1:1.8 provides the bulk of the rural food requirements but very little
surplus for cash or export. The availability of dependable, timely and adequate irrigation
supplies throughout the year will promote major changes In the cropping pattern and a more





7-5


level of agricultural development that can be attained with optimum use of existingcanal
facilities. Further, the development plan provides a flexible basis for rapid intensive develop-
ment without overcommitting present or future resources.
Under the plan the Project is divided into three sub-areas which are delineated on the
basis of ground water salinity (Plate 17):
1) The Saline Area is underlain by ground water which contains more than 4000 ppm
TDS, or which has an SAR greater than 25. These supplies are classed as unsuitable for
development only because the high leaching requirement results in an uneconomic level of
ground water pumpage. In the absence of ground water development, canal deliveries to the
Saline Area will be increased to the maximum volume which can safely be carried in the
present canal system. The safe carrying capacity of the distributaries is shown in Appendix E
to be 130 percent of AFS: operating at that rate for 11 months a year, with a shut-down for
one month for canal maintenance, will provide annual deliveries equal to 119 percent of AFS.
The resultant increase of 25 percent over the historic delivery rate of about 95 percent of
AFS will be sufficient, in the absence of supplemental well supplies, to support an adequately
irrigated cropping intensity of about 90 percent. The Saline Area comprises 0.57 million
acres or 21 percent of the gross Project area.
2) The Intermediate Area is underlain by ground water ranging in concentration from
1500 to 4000 ppm TDS and in which SAR does not exceed 25. Canal supplies will be increased
to the same levels as in the Saline Area to provide the maximum amount of fresh water for
mixing with the marginal-quality ground water. Ground water will be developed in the
quantity necessary to satisfy the supplemental requirements for a cropping intensity of 150 per-
cent. The ground water component of the integrated supply will vary across the area accord-
ing to the salinity of the ground water. Pumpage will increase with salinity because the more
mineralized irrigation supplies carry a higher leaching requirement. The applied irrigation
supplies will range In concentration from 200 to 2200 ppm TDS; the average for the entire area
w ill be ;aout 1000 ppm TDS. The Intermediate Area comprises about 0.55 million acres or
20 percent of the gross Project area.
3) The Non-Saline Area features ground water containing less than 1500 ppm TDS.
No restrictions are placed on the use of this ground water for irrigation. Under Project operations,
canal deliveries will approximate historic supplies, and ground water will be developed in the
quantities necessary to satisfy the full requirements for a cropping intensity of 150 percent.
The Non-Saline Area comprises a gross area of 1.6 million acres, or 59 percent of the gross
Project area.
Technical details and economicc justification of the development plan are given in
subsequent sections of this report. In summary, an obvious advantage of the plan is the provi-
sion for economic development -f moderately saline ground water in the Intermediate Area.
This eliminates the need for costly canal remodeling and drainage works; it provides drainage
relief to the Saline Area; and moreover the Intermediate Area will serve as a buffer between the
Saline and Non-Saline Areas, protecting the latter from contamination by migration of ground
water of poor quality from the Saline Area.

PROJECT DESIGN
The criteria used for Project design are presented below. Details and supporting data
are given in the several appendices.
Cropping pattern: The present cropping pattern reflects the restraints imposed on
agriculture by limited canal deliveries and demands for Rabi food crops. The present Kharif:
Rabi crop ratio of about 1:1.8 provides the bulk of the rural food requirements but very little
surplus for cash or export. The availability of dependable, timely and adequate irrigation
supplies throughout the year will promote major changes In the cropping pattern and a more






7-6


intensive, well balanced and productive agriculture will evolve.
The following criteria were used in the development of reasonable and probable future
cropping patterns for the designated groundwater zones of the Project area:
1) The land will be cropped to maximum practical intensities.
2) Availability of Irrigation water will not restrain agricultural development except
in the Saline Area.
a) Available canal supplies supplemented by tubewell water of excellent
quality will provide adequate water for a cropping intensity of 150 percent in the
Non-Saline Area.
b) In the Intermediate Area, the maximum feasible amount of water that can
be transported in the existing canals and distributaries will be supplemented with
sufficient moderately saline ground water to provide for a cropping intensity of
150 percent, and for the necessary leaching to prevent a harmful increase in soil
salinity.
c) In the Saline Area, the maximum feasible amount of water that can be
transported in the existing canals and distributaries will provide sufficient water
for optimum Irrigation and leaching at a cropping intensity of about 90 percent. How-
ever, as the present under-watered cropping intensity is approximately 114 percent,
it is expected that the augmented supplies will result in an intensity of about 135
percent at Irrigation deltas below optimum but somewhat higher than those presently
being applied.
3) Salinity, alkali and drainage problems will not limit the farmers in their choice of
crops except In the Intermediate Area where the salinity of the mixed irrigation
supplies will Impose some restrictions (or will reduce yields slightly).
4) Soil textural restraints are recognized in choice of crops.
5) Crops that earn foreign exchange will be emphasized.
6) Dietary needs of the people and the forage requirements of the area will be met.
The immediate effects of the increased irrigation supplies will be to increase the
cropping intensity and to change the Kharif:Rabi ratio. This will be accompanied by signi-
ficant increases in the amount of water applied to most crops. The more severely salinized
and waterlogged lands gradually will be brought into full production. The net effect will be a
general increase in the acreage and in production of all crops (Table 7-1).
As crop acreages and cropping Intensities increase, changes will occur in cropping
patterns. These changes will be related primarily to the increase in available water supplies,
particularly in Kharif, but also to quality of Irrigation water, local crop needs and preferences,
the impact of new high-yielding varieties such as MexiPak wheat, the desire for more cash
crops (which are produced mainly in Kharif), texture and related soil properties, distance from
markets, incentives fostered by government or other agencies, and other less important factors.
A separate cropping pattern at an intensity of 150 percent is projected (Table 7-2)
for each of the three soil texture groups In the Non-Saline Area. These particular cropping
patterns reflect the adaptability of specific crops to the characteristics of soils when other
factors such as water supply, salinity, waterlogging, etc., are not restrictive. For example,
because the soils of the fine textured group are compact and have slow internal drainage they
are particularly well suited for rice production. Therefore, it is probable that most of the
fine textured soils will be planted to rice. The medium textured soils are well adapted to the
production of most irrigated crops In both Kharif and Rabi. The coarse textured soils, because
of their relatively low water holding capacities, are best suited to Rabi crops and to Kharif
crops with moderate to low irrigation water requirements.





7-7


The Intermediate Area contains so little medium and fine textured soils that only one
cropping pattern. (Table 7-3).was developed. This cropping pattern reflects the proposed
increase in both amount and salinity of the irrigation water supplies. It differs from the
composite pattern of the Non-Saline Area mainly by the probable response of farmers to the
restraints Imposed by the effects of moderately saline irrigation water on the germination and
growth of the more salt-sensitive crops.
In the Saline Area, ground water will not be pumped for irrigation, and annual irri-
gation supplies will be increased from the historic level of about 95 percent of AFS to the
proposed level of 119 percent of AFS, the full carrying capacity of the present distribution
system. Current deliveries of 95 percent of AFS are sufficient to irrigate the soils of the area
adequately at an intensity of about 70 percent; whereas annual deliveries of 119 percent of
A FS (i.e., 130 percent for 11 months) are sufficient to water adequately a cropping intensity
of about 90 percent. However, the present cropping intensity is an under-watered 114 percent,
and it is certain that this intensity will increase somewhat when more water Is supplied. In
developing the probable future cropping pattern (Table 7-3), it has been assumed that 60 per-
cent of the increase in available water supplies will be used to irrigate crops more adequately
and 40 percent will be used to increase the cropping intensity. It is anticipated that the
combined changes in water use and cropping pattern will result in a cropping intensity of about
135 percent with the crops being watered at an average of approximately 85 percent of full
consumptive use requirements.
The weighted, composite cropping pattern shown in Table 7-1 and in Figures 7-1 and
7-2 satisfies the stated criteria of the cropping patterns for the Project area.
Irrigation water requirements The consumptive use of water by crop, for each month
of the growing season has been estimated by use of the Blaney-Criddle method. The requisite
basic data of temperatures, percent daylight hours and growing seasons are given in Tables
D -1, D-2 and Figure 7-1, and the method of calculation is presented in Appendix D.
The monthly irrigation requirement for each crop was obtained by subtracting median
effective precipitation (Table D-4) from the monthly consumptive use requirement and correct-
ing for the proportion of the month requiring water for land preparation and initial growth.
The irrigation requirements are listed in Tables D-10 and D-11. I
If the calculated irrigation water requirement for the initial month, or fraction thereof,
was less than 2.5 inches for Rabi crops or 3.0 inches for Kharif crops, the amount to be
applied was increased to those values in order to provide sufficient water for land preparation
and seeding. An amount equal to such increase was deducted from the subsequent month's
requirement. The appropriate monthly factors for each planting of each crop are listed in
Table D-3; these take into account fractional portions of a month as well as preplant water
and subsequent deductions.
Canal deliveries: The water supply for the Saline Area will be derived entirely from
canal supplies. In order to attain the highest possible cropping intensity in this area, It is
proposed to deliver canal water at 130 percent of AFS, the maximum the distributaries and
branches can safely carry (see Appendix E). A maintenance shutdown period of about 30 days
during January'and December has been provided. To provide the maximum amount of fresh
water in the Intermediate Area and for ease of canal operations, canals will be operated on
the same schedule in both the Saline and Intermediate Areas.
Supplemental tubewell water supplies of excellent quality are available in the Non-
Saline Area and increases of canal deliveries are not required. As canal deliveries to the
Saline and Intermediate Areas are specified and receive priority over the Non-Saline Area,
the deliveries to the Non-Saline Area are the remaining historic supplies formerly allocated
to the entire Project area augmented by the amount of water diverted from Upper Rechna
Doab where 730,000 acre-feet annually will be developed for export. The quantity of surface





7-7


The Intermediate Area contains so little medium and fine textured soils that only one
cropping pattern. (Table 7-3).was developed. This cropping pattern reflects the proposed
increase in both amount and salinity of the irrigation water supplies. It differs from the
composite pattern of the Non-Saline Area mainly by the probable response of farmers to the
restraints Imposed by the effects of moderately saline irrigation water on the germination and
growth of the more salt-sensitive crops.
In the Saline Area, ground water will not be pumped for irrigation, and annual irri-
gation supplies will be increased from the historic level of about 95 percent of AFS to the
proposed level of 119 percent of AFS, the full carrying capacity of the present distribution
system. Current deliveries of 95 percent of AFS are sufficient to irrigate the soils of the area
adequately at an intensity of about 70 percent; whereas annual deliveries of 119 percent of
A FS (i.e., 130 percent for 11 months) are sufficient to water adequately a cropping intensity
of about 90 percent. However, the present cropping intensity is an under-watered 114 percent,
and it is certain that this intensity will increase somewhat when more water Is supplied. In
developing the probable future cropping pattern (Table 7-3), it has been assumed that 60 per-
cent of the increase in available water supplies will be used to irrigate crops more adequately
and 40 percent will be used to increase the cropping intensity. It is anticipated that the
combined changes in water use and cropping pattern will result in a cropping intensity of about
135 percent with the crops being watered at an average of approximately 85 percent of full
consumptive use requirements.
The weighted, composite cropping pattern shown in Table 7-1 and in Figures 7-1 and
7-2 satisfies the stated criteria of the cropping patterns for the Project area.
Irrigation water requirements The consumptive use of water by crop, for each month
of the growing season has been estimated by use of the Blaney-Criddle method. The requisite
basic data of temperatures, percent daylight hours and growing seasons are given in Tables
D -1, D-2 and Figure 7-1, and the method of calculation is presented in Appendix D.
The monthly irrigation requirement for each crop was obtained by subtracting median
effective precipitation (Table D-4) from the monthly consumptive use requirement and correct-
ing for the proportion of the month requiring water for land preparation and initial growth.
The irrigation requirements are listed in Tables D-10 and D-11. I
If the calculated irrigation water requirement for the initial month, or fraction thereof,
was less than 2.5 inches for Rabi crops or 3.0 inches for Kharif crops, the amount to be
applied was increased to those values in order to provide sufficient water for land preparation
and seeding. An amount equal to such increase was deducted from the subsequent month's
requirement. The appropriate monthly factors for each planting of each crop are listed in
Table D-3; these take into account fractional portions of a month as well as preplant water
and subsequent deductions.
Canal deliveries: The water supply for the Saline Area will be derived entirely from
canal supplies. In order to attain the highest possible cropping intensity in this area, It is
proposed to deliver canal water at 130 percent of AFS, the maximum the distributaries and
branches can safely carry (see Appendix E). A maintenance shutdown period of about 30 days
during January'and December has been provided. To provide the maximum amount of fresh
water in the Intermediate Area and for ease of canal operations, canals will be operated on
the same schedule in both the Saline and Intermediate Areas.
Supplemental tubewell water supplies of excellent quality are available in the Non-
Saline Area and increases of canal deliveries are not required. As canal deliveries to the
Saline and Intermediate Areas are specified and receive priority over the Non-Saline Area,
the deliveries to the Non-Saline Area are the remaining historic supplies formerly allocated
to the entire Project area augmented by the amount of water diverted from Upper Rechna
Doab where 730,000 acre-feet annually will be developed for export. The quantity of surface





7-8


supplies diverted from Upper Rechna Influences cost of pumping in the Non-Saline Area,
drainage relief in the Saline Area, and availability of Upper Rechna water for use in other
areas of critically short supply. Appropriate balance of these considerations indicates a use
of 232,000 acre-feet annually, or about a third of the proposed Upper Rechna diversions. Thus
this amount of water must be available from Upper Rechna before Project 5 can operate success-
fully.
Most of the distributaries of the Non-Saline Area will be operated at 100 percent of
AFS during half of Januaryand December (allowing for maintenance shutdown), at the equivalent
of 70 percent of AFS during February and November, andat 100 percent of AFS during the
remaining eight months. This schedule will provide an arinual quantity of water that is approxi-
mately equal to historic deliveries for the area.
Near the confluence of the Chenab and Ravi Rivers, the current waterlogging hazards
will be intensified if the canals are operated on the schedule proposed for the remainder of
the Non-Saline Area. Accordingly it is proposed to retain non-perennial canal deliveries for
certain distributaries in that part of the Non-Saline Area, and to provide proportionately larger
ground water supplies.
The need for extensive and costly canal remodelling has been eliminated, but some
modifications are required for the few distributaries that cross the boundary of the Non-Saline
and Intermediate Areas. Details and distributary operational schedules are presented in Appen-
dix E.
Tubewell warer requirements: TheiProject tubewells will deliver water at or near the
heads of the water courses of the existing canal system. Thus the tubewells must be capable
of supplying the total irrigation water requirements, including supplies required for leaching,
as measured at the heads of water courses, less the dependable canal supplies delivered
through existing outlets to the same water courses. In the Intermediate Area where moderate-.
ly saline ground water will be pumped by the tubewells an additional supply is provided -
where needed to meet the supplemental leaching requirements. Such supplemental
supplies for leaching will be in the quantities necessary to protect the soils frop deterioration
and to prevent undue depression of crop yields. This additional water is in effect recirculated
from the field to the aquifer and hence the cost of such recirculation required to protect the
Intermediate Area from soil salinization is only the cost of the electric energy required for
pumping the additional leaching supplies.
The following tabulation summarizes the proposed deliveries of canal and tubewell
supplies to the several Project areas.

Deliveries at heads
of'water courses; Annual depth
Area maf per year in feet on CA
Canal Tubewell Total Canal Tubewell Total

Non-Saline 2.04 2.95 4.99 1.58 2.28 3.86
Intermediate 1.05 0.64 1.69 2.46 1.49 3.95
Saline 1.10 0 1.10 2.43 0 2.43

Total 4.19 3.59 7.78 1.92 1.66 3.58

Table 7-4 and Figure 7-3 show the seasonal distribution of canal and tubewell supplies for
each of the three areas of the Project which in turn are summarized in greater detail for each
distributary command in Tables D-10 and D-11 of Appendix D.





7-9

It may be noted that the total depth of water deliveries, including both canal and
tubewell supplies, with the facilities and operation proposed for the Project, is equivalent
to approximately 3.6 feet over the commanded area measured at the heads of water courses.
Historic canal deliveries measured at the same points have averaged about 1.7 feet. Thus,
with the tubewell facilities and canal deliveries as proposed, the total water supply to the
Project lands will be more than double that which has been available in the past.
The tubewells must be capable of supplying the foregoing amounts of water at rates
necessary to satisfy the crop water requirements during the periods of greatest demand for
supplemental water. Referring to the data contained in Appendix D, it may be noted that for
distributaries serving lands in the eastern part of the area where annual rainfall exceeds ten
inches, the demand for supplemental water, over and above that which can be supplied by
the canal system, is greatest during the month of September. During this month the Kharif
crops are at the peak of their growth or are nearing maturity and some of the early Rabi crops
are being planted: as a result, 70 to 75 percent of the culturable area will then be under
irrigation. Although a slightly greater area will be under irrigation in October, the total
consumptive use requirements will be significantly less in October than in September because
air temperatures are lower and many of the Kharif crops will be harvested. Consumptive
use requirements in July and August are higher than in September but the greater amount of
precipitation during those months coupled with the greater dependability of full canal supplies
results in a somewhat lower requirement for tubewell water than is required during September.
While there may be short periods of a week or two during July and August when rainfall may
be virtually nil in some years and the theoretical requirements for tubewell water might be
greater than during September if the tubewells have sufficient capacity to supply the Septem-
ber requirements as determined herein, they will have adequate capacity to take care of all
ordinary variations in climate, cropping patterns and canal deliveries.
In the southwestern part of the Project, annual rainfall is less than ten inches and.
because of lower quantities of effective precipitation, August is the month of greatest demand
for tubewell water. There, tubewell capacitiesare dictated by August requirements by
reasoning similar to that described above.
In determining the capacities of individual tubewells it is recognized that at times of
peak demand there may be situations which prevent the tubewells from operating continuously,
as for example, shut-downs required for shedding of load on the power system during the
critical hours of peak electric demand. Account is also taken of the fact that the "theoretical"
tubewell capacity only coincidentally conforms precisely to the rated capacity of commer-
cially available pumps and in the usual case the capacity so determined is rounded upward to
the next largest rated size of pump. The determination of required tubewell capacities thus
requires an analysis of each chak or area under the command of each individual tubewell.
In estimating the total number of tubewells and their individual capacities such an analysis
by individual chaks has been made, resulting in a requirement of about 2,300 tubewells rang-
ing from two to five cusecs in size, and having a total pumping capability of about 8,760
cusecs (see Chapter 8).
The foregoing numbers of tubewells of the capacities indicated will be capable of meet-
ing the supplemental water requirements for the Project area as determined herein when
operated at an utilization factor of approximately 83 percent, f.e. 83 percent of the available
hours, in the month of peak tubewell water demand. This is considered to be an optimum
balance between capability to supply supplemental water and capital cost under the conditions
projected for the Project area after the lands are full reclaimed. While the provision of






7- 10


pumps of larger capacity (permitting a lower utilization factor in the peak month) would not
add a significant increment to the cost of the tubewell features alone, it would require larger
conductors in the transmission and distribution systems, larger transformer capacity at sub-
stations in the grid, and would impose a larger load on generating facilities, all of which
would add an appreciable increment to the capital cost of the Project.
Another important consideration is the fact that whenever tubewells are utilized to
provide a supplemental irrigation supply, there is always the tendency to pump a greater
amount of water than is actually required to meet the consumptive use requirements of the
crops, particularly during the Rabi season. This results from the fact that the tubewells must
be operated either "on" or."off", as no facilities are provided for throttling their discharge.
Thus in the winter when the tubewell requirements may be but a small fraction of that
required during the month of September, the pumps will normally be operated "on" (at rated
capacity) for a greater period of time than actually required. Such has been the experience
in Project 1 in Central Rechna Doab. Although such operations are not harmful, and in
fact are beneficial during the early years of land reclamation because of the additional
leaching provided thereby, it is important that the tubewells not be excessively oversized
in capacity to minimize unnecessary demands on generating capability and waste of electrical
energy.
In the determination of requirements for supplemental water and of the capacities of
required tubewells, no account has been taken of the production of the many small private
tubewells that have been installed during*recent years in the Project area. These private
tubewells presently pump about 15 percent of the volume of ground water which is proposed
to be supplied by the Project. Although private.tubewell pumpage may ultimately reach
a level on the order of 20 percent of the supplemental supplies to be provided by the Project,
the production of private tubewells has been ignored in the computation of water require-
ments and supply for a number of reasons, among which are:
(1) The private tubewells installed to date predominantly serve the largest
farms, and the established trends indicate that the rate of construction of new private tube-
well will descend to an insignificant level within a few years.
(2) Being restricted to the larger farms the distribution of private tubewells,
coupled with their relatively short life, is such that it is impractical to consider the produc-
tion of such tubewells as a permanent feature which will offset the requirements for supple-
mental water for large areas.
(3) With the construction of Project tubewells, it is very likely that some
of the private tubewells will not be replaced at the end of their useful life because of cost
considerations alone. Furthermore, those that are replaced and continue in operation will
provide additional supplies, over and above those attributable to the Project and thus will
permit their individual owners to increase the intensity of cropping of their lands to levels
beyond that attributed to the Project water supplies.
It is important to recognize that the Project tubewells will not supplant private
tubewells nor inhibit their development any more than those factors which prevail without
the Project. Rather the private tubewells that have been constructed to date and those
which will be constructed in the future particularly between the present time and the
time when the Project facilities are provided enhance rather than detract from the feasi-
bility of the reclamation program.. The private tubewells, although largely restricted to the
larger farms, play a very important role in raising the level of production over that which





7-11


existed a few years ago, thus providing not only a higher base of agricultural production upon
inception of the Project, but also a practical means of demonstrating the value of supplement-
al water supplies. In this fashion the private tubewells form a very desirable complement to
the ultimate development of the entire area.
Water quality: Within the Non-Saline Area, the total irrigation supply consists of
60 percent ground water, which on the average contains about 700 ppm TDS. As the canal
supplies contain about 200 ppm TDS, the water applied to the field will have a salt content of
about 500 ppm. Even near the inner boundaries of this Area where the tubewell water may
contain as much as 1500 ppm, the applied water will contain less than 1000 ppm of salts. A
similar situation will prevail with regard to sodium-absorption-ratio: the maximum SAR of
the applied water in the Non-Saline Area will be less than 10, and the average will be less
than 5. Waters of such quality present no hazard to sustained crop production.
In the Intermediate Area the concentration of the ground water to be pumped is limited
to a maximum of about 4,000 ppm. In this Area it is proposed to provide sufficient- leaching
supplies to limit the conductivity of the water that drains away from the root zone to a
maximum of 8 mi llimho/cm: as a result, the salinity of the irrigation water delivered tothe
crops will average slightly less than 1000 ppm TDS.. About 88 percent of the chaks will receive
water with a salt content of less than 1,500 ppm. The remaining chaks will receive water
with average annual salinities of 1600 to 2200 ppm. Although such concentrations are higher
than those heretofore used in the Northern Zone, such water can be successfully used without
damaging the lands or depressing crop yields significantly as salinity control is ensured by the
provision of adequate leaching supplies. Nevertheless those chaks irrigated with the more
saline water should be continuously monitored to ensure that the full supply is actually deliver-
ed to the lands. With adequate attention to leaching, the farmers will derive incomes nearly
equal to those of their neighbors who receive fresher waters.
Drainage: The subsurface drainage provided by tubewell pumping is sufficient to
control ground water levels throughout the Project area as described in detail in Appendix G.
Flood protection: Existing and authorized drainage works are adequate to the needs
of the Project area (Appendix F). Accordingly, the Project does not include provisions for
additional surface drainage.


* *





7-11


existed a few years ago, thus providing not only a higher base of agricultural production upon
inception of the Project, but also a practical means of demonstrating the value of supplement-
al water supplies. In this fashion the private tubewells form a very desirable complement to
the ultimate development of the entire area.
Water quality: Within the Non-Saline Area, the total irrigation supply consists of
60 percent ground water, which on the average contains about 700 ppm TDS. As the canal
supplies contain about 200 ppm TDS, the water applied to the field will have a salt content of
about 500 ppm. Even near the inner boundaries of this Area where the tubewell water may
contain as much as 1500 ppm, the applied water will contain less than 1000 ppm of salts. A
similar situation will prevail with regard to sodium-absorption-ratio: the maximum SAR of
the applied water in the Non-Saline Area will be less than 10, and the average will be less
than 5. Waters of such quality present no hazard to sustained crop production.
In the Intermediate Area the concentration of the ground water to be pumped is limited
to a maximum of about 4,000 ppm. In this Area it is proposed to provide sufficient- leaching
supplies to limit the conductivity of the water that drains away from the root zone to a
maximum of 8 mi llimho/cm: as a result, the salinity of the irrigation water delivered tothe
crops will average slightly less than 1000 ppm TDS.. About 88 percent of the chaks will receive
water with a salt content of less than 1,500 ppm. The remaining chaks will receive water
with average annual salinities of 1600 to 2200 ppm. Although such concentrations are higher
than those heretofore used in the Northern Zone, such water can be successfully used without
damaging the lands or depressing crop yields significantly as salinity control is ensured by the
provision of adequate leaching supplies. Nevertheless those chaks irrigated with the more
saline water should be continuously monitored to ensure that the full supply is actually deliver-
ed to the lands. With adequate attention to leaching, the farmers will derive incomes nearly
equal to those of their neighbors who receive fresher waters.
Drainage: The subsurface drainage provided by tubewell pumping is sufficient to
control ground water levels throughout the Project area as described in detail in Appendix G.
Flood protection: Existing and authorized drainage works are adequate to the needs
of the Project area (Appendix F). Accordingly, the Project does not include provisions for
additional surface drainage.


* *





7-11


existed a few years ago, thus providing not only a higher base of agricultural production upon
inception of the Project, but also a practical means of demonstrating the value of supplement-
al water supplies. In this fashion the private tubewells form a very desirable complement to
the ultimate development of the entire area.
Water quality: Within the Non-Saline Area, the total irrigation supply consists of
60 percent ground water, which on the average contains about 700 ppm TDS. As the canal
supplies contain about 200 ppm TDS, the water applied to the field will have a salt content of
about 500 ppm. Even near the inner boundaries of this Area where the tubewell water may
contain as much as 1500 ppm, the applied water will contain less than 1000 ppm of salts. A
similar situation will prevail with regard to sodium-absorption-ratio: the maximum SAR of
the applied water in the Non-Saline Area will be less than 10, and the average will be less
than 5. Waters of such quality present no hazard to sustained crop production.
In the Intermediate Area the concentration of the ground water to be pumped is limited
to a maximum of about 4,000 ppm. In this Area it is proposed to provide sufficient- leaching
supplies to limit the conductivity of the water that drains away from the root zone to a
maximum of 8 mi llimho/cm: as a result, the salinity of the irrigation water delivered tothe
crops will average slightly less than 1000 ppm TDS.. About 88 percent of the chaks will receive
water with a salt content of less than 1,500 ppm. The remaining chaks will receive water
with average annual salinities of 1600 to 2200 ppm. Although such concentrations are higher
than those heretofore used in the Northern Zone, such water can be successfully used without
damaging the lands or depressing crop yields significantly as salinity control is ensured by the
provision of adequate leaching supplies. Nevertheless those chaks irrigated with the more
saline water should be continuously monitored to ensure that the full supply is actually deliver-
ed to the lands. With adequate attention to leaching, the farmers will derive incomes nearly
equal to those of their neighbors who receive fresher waters.
Drainage: The subsurface drainage provided by tubewell pumping is sufficient to
control ground water levels throughout the Project area as described in detail in Appendix G.
Flood protection: Existing and authorized drainage works are adequate to the needs
of the Project area (Appendix F). Accordingly, the Project does not include provisions for
additional surface drainage.


* *






TABLE 7-1


PRESENT CROPPING PATTERN AND COMBINED FUTURE PATTERN


2,176, 178 acres


CA.


PRESENT FUTURE
PERCENT PERCENT
SEASON/CROP AREA OF CA AREA OF CA
Acres % Acres %


KHARIF
Rice
Sugarcane 1/
Cotton
Maize
Millets
Fodder
Vegetables
Fruit 1/
Miscellaneous


RA


Sub-total

BI
Wheat
Pulses
Oilseeds
Berseem
Vegetables
Sugarcane 1/
Fruit 1/
MisceTlaneous


Sub-total


TOTAL

KiR Ratio


41,029
197,789
282,768
113,539
37,672
183,983
3,965
16,174
20,045

896,964


909,971
121,886
47,051
269,994
12,567
197,789
16,174
1,405

1,576,837


2,473,801


1.9
9.1
13.0
5.2
1.7
8.5
.2
.7
.9


41.2


41.8
5.6
2.2
12.4
.6
9.1
.7
.1

72.5


113.7


54,131
245,945
415,833
233,775
96,560
269,318
34,482
34, 253
64,826

1,449,123


886,219
88,848
72,301
320,333
34,482
245,945
34,253
64,826.

1,747,207


3,196,330


1:1.76


1/ Sugarcane and fruit.are included in both Kharif and Rabi growing seasons.


2.5
11.3
19.1
10.7
4.4
12.4
1.6
1.6
3.0


66.6


40.7
4.1
3.3
14.7
1.6
11.3
1.6
3.0

80.3


146.9

1:1.21






TABLE 7-2

FUTURE CROPPING PATTERNS FOR NON-SALINE GROUND WATER ZONE


SOIL TEXTURE GROUP NON-SALINE ZONE
Fine Medium Coarse Composite
22,918 Acres CA 296,340 Acres CA 975,822 Acres CA 1,295,080 Acres CA
Percent Percent Percent Percent
SEASON CROP of CA Area of CA Area of CA Area Area of CA
%% Acres % Acre Acres Acres %


KHARIF
Rice
Sugarcane 1/
Cotton
Maize
Millets
Fodder
Vegetables
Fruit 1/
Miscellaneous


Sub-Total


RABI
Wheat
Pulses
Oilseeds
Berseem
Vegetables
Sugarcane 1/
Fruit I/
Miscellaneous

Sub-Total


TOTAL

K:R Ratio

Cropping
Intensity


30
10
12
9
4
13
1
0
1

80


39
2
2
15
1
10
0
1


6,875
2,292
2,750
2,063
917
2,979
229
000
229


10 29,634
10 29,634
14 41,487
12 35,560
4 11,853
13 38,524
2 5,926
2 5,926
3 8,890


18,334 70


8,938
458
458
3,438
229
2,292
000
229


0
12
21
12
5
13
2
2
3


207,434 70


38
5
4
16
2
10
2
3


70 16,042 80

150 34,376 150


1:.88


112,609
14,817
11,853
47,414
5,926
29,634
5,926
8,890


40
3
3
15
2
12
2
3


237,069 80

444,503 150


1:1.14


000
117,098
204,922
117,098
48,791
126,856
19,516
19,516
29,274

683,071


390,328
29,274
29,274
146,373
19,516
117,098
19,516
29,274

780,653

1,463,724


1:1.14


36,509
149,024
249,159
154,721
61,561
168,359
25,671
25,442
38,393


2.8
11.5
19.2
11.9
4.8
13.0
2.0
2.0
3.0


908,839 70.2


511,875
44,549
41,585
197,225
25,671
149,024
25,442
38,394

1,033,764


39.5
3.4
3.2
15.2
2.0
11.5
2.0
3.0

79.8


1,942,603 150.0

1:1.14


150


1/ Sugarcane and fruit are included in both Kharif and Rabi growing seasons.






TABLE 7-3


FUTURE CROPPING PATTERN FOR INTERMEDIATE
AND SALINE GROUND WATER AREAS


INTERMEDIATE ZONE SALINE ZONE
(428,311 Acres CA) (452,787 Acres CA)
PERCENT PERCENT
SEASON/CROP OF CA AREA OF CA AREA


Acres


KHARIF
Rice
Sugarcane 1/
Cotton
Maize
Millet
Fodder
Vegetables
Fruit 1/
Miscellaneous

Sub-total

RABI
Wheat
Pulses
Oilseeds
Berseern
Vegetables
Sugarcane 1/
Fruit 1/
MiscelTaneous

Sub-total


TOTAL


K:R 'Ratio


2
11
22
10
5
13
1
1
3

68


4
4
15
1
11
1
3

82


150


8,566
47,114
94,228
42,831
21,415
55,680
4,283
4,283
12,849

291,249


184,173
17,132
17,132
64,246
4,283
47,114
4,283
12,849

351,212


642,461


1:1.21


Acres


9,056
49,807
72,446
36,223
13,584
45,279
4,528
4,528
13,584
249,035


1.
3


42
6
3
13
I
11
11
1
3,


190, 171
27,167
13,584
58,862
4,528
49,807
4,528
13,584


362,231


611,266


1:1.45


1/ Sugarcane and fruit are included in both Kharif and Rabi growing seasons.














TABLE 7-4


SUMMARY OF PROPOSED CANAL DELIVERIES AND TUBEWELL PUMPAGE
(Units of 1000 acre-feet, measured at the heads of water courses)


Canal Tubewell Canal Tubewell
Month deliveries pumping Total Month deliveries pumping Total

NON-SALINE AREA SALINE AREA

January 90.5 187.0 277.4 January 51.1 0 51.1
February 119.8 289.1 408.9 February 92.1 0 92.1
March 180.8 283.0 463.8 March 102.0 0 102.0
April 189.4 167.6 357.0 April 98.7 0 98.7
May 210.9 150.6 361.4 May 102.0 0 102.0
June 204.5 306.6 511.1 June 98.7 0 98.7
July 211.4 264.5 475.9 July 102.0 0 102.0
August 211.5 348.3 559.8 August 102.0 0 102.0
September 204.7 367.3 572.0 September 98.7 0 98.7
October 196.1 319.9 516.0 October 102.0 0 102.0
November 128.0 107.8 235.8 November 98.7 0 98.7
December 90.4 164.5 254.9 December 51.1 0 51.1

Total 2,037.9 2,956.1 4,994.0 Total 1,099.2 1,099.2

INTERMEDIATE AREA PROJECT AREA

January 48.8 43.0 91.9 January 190.4 230.0 420.4
February 88.5 43.0 131.5 February 300.4 332.1 632.5
March 97.5 43.0 140.5 March 380.3 326.0 706.3
April 94.3 43.0 137.3 April 382.4 210.6 593.0
May 97.5 43.0 140.5 May 410.3 193.6 603.9
June 94.6 67.8 162.4 June 397.8 374.4 772.2
July 97.2 67.8 165.1 July 410.6 332.3 743.0
August 97.5 67.8 165.3 August 411.0 416.1 827.1
September 94.3 67.8 162.2 September 397.7 435.2 832.9
October 97.5 67.8 165.3 October 395.5 387.7 783.3
November 93.8 43.0 136.9 November 320.5 150.8 471.3
December 48.8 43.0 91.9 December 190.3 207.5 397.9

Total 1,050.3 640.4 1,690.7 Total 4,187.3 3,596.5 7,783.7

(Slight numerical inconsistencies are due to rounding)





FIGURE 7-1
JA FEB MAR. AP MAY JUNE JUL AU. SEPT OCT NOV. EC
JULY OCT. I NOV.PTC


::zz4- .1


I I


I I


1 A
54,131 ACRES


5,413 Acr s
13,533 Acr


1 ,Z39 Acrts


I C E
RICE





SUGARCANE


13,533 Acrps


5,413 Acrts
245,945 ACRES


261.48 Aci.
I I 61.487 Arrs


I COTTON 415.833 ACRES
I I I I I I


LLf


II


MAIZE 233,775 ACRES
S ~ 58,444 Acres
I93,509 Acies
58,444 Aces
23,37 Acres


MII


103.958 Acres
166.334 Acres


____I ____


L E T 96,560 ACRES
I 24,140 Acres
III I 39,624 Acres "-


SI 24,140 Acres


I I


S9.656 Acie.


KHARIF FODDER 269,318 ACRES


I I I


_. I I. .


I I


221,555 Ares I I
443,110 Ares
177,244 A :ies
44,310 A:s s




17,770 Ac i



18t 075 Ac es
7,230 Ac s

80,083 A res
128, 14 A:res
80,083 Ar:es
32,M3A A res

i I I- A ,4 A I4


CI


II


S7.330 Acrrs


I I 107,726 Acres
II I 67,330 Acies


I I II


-. ..,. I


II LO,YJL ACres


WHEAT 886,219 ACRES


PULSES 88,848 ACRES




OILSEEDS 72,301 ACRES




BERSEEM 320,333 ACRES




VEGETABLES 34,482 ACRES


I L


MISCELLANEOUS
---\ P


SI 10,804 Acres
I I 10,804 Acres


I 3.449 Acred


64,826 ACRES


I II-t--


I --


r-


S10,804 10,805 Acres


FRUIT 34,253 ACRES


JAN FEB. MAR. APR MAY JUNE JULY AUG SEPT OCT NOV DEC.
RABI I KHARIF RABI


I Seed Bed Preparotion I Growing Period


Th


1


Jz1


I
- I -


E


7E



EZ


JI


FUTURE GROWING PERIODS AND CROPPED ACRES


---


-e


-T i


~ii7


I -~


,


_ _


"


I- -


r I


inI


I


1 I I


1


_t~fi~





1 1


III


" I I 3,448 Are


1


I










2200
2000 2200
274 ---- .. ....... ..... ...- ... 2176 100


NOT NOT NOT NOT NOT NOT NOT NOT NOT NOT NOT NOT
IRRIGATED IRRISATED IRRI0TED IRRIGATED IRRIGATED IRRIGATED IRRIGATED IRRIGATED IRRIGATFO IRRIGATED IRRIGATED IRRIGATED
2000 2000
O90

/

100 // 1800


\
-- j// \ -






1 80 0



. \ZEZ





'WE4T PEA' MAIZE/
/ ', ,,; .,E

1200. M AIZE o .0
.oo:
MAIZE .MA ZE
11000- CT TON 10004





/ C TTON COTTN T
GO 40
*j / KH 'H N \ -00
0 FOD DAEZ R -DE So








PKARIF KHARF /'00
G Ioo- ** A A- -6 *> \ - A000 3 0












BERSEE BERSEEM BERSEEM FDDER FODDER ESEE ERSEEM
\ -
* -- COTTON COTTON COTTON *CO0T8iS COTTON








KHARIF KHARIF KHARIF- i
/ COTTON COTTON 0 40''



S~ F\ ODDER FODDER FODDER
SE'---. ... I 2



4002 -400
-- -. FODOER E- ERSEC 0

00- BER EEM R ARI / 600
AERSEEM IERSEEM NERSEEM FODDER FODDER / RERE RERSEE

SFODOER FODDER FODOER / -





OILSEED09 -

200- SUARCANE SUtARCAMt SUGARCANE SAR CANE USARCAN$ UOSARCANE SSUARCANE ARCAN. SUGARCANE SUARCANE S.IARCAN; o 10





JAN. FEB. MAR..R. MAY JUNE JULY AUG. SEPT. OCT. NOV. DEC.


BERSEEM L KHARIF FODDER OILSEEDS SUGARCANE MISCELLANEOUS


S COTTON MAIZE PULSES VEGETABLES | NOT IRRIGATED


FRUIT | MILLET RICE V WHEAT


AREA IRRIGATED BY MONTH

PROJECT NO. 5 LOWER RECHNA OOA8







FIGURE 7 3
1


PROPOSED CANAL DELIVERIES AND TUBEWELL PUMPAGE

BY MONTH

(All values measured at the heads of the watercourses)


O CANAL DELIVERIES


J IF


M A M JIJ IA O N D


TUBEWELL PUMPAGE


150
o

100

5 -
U 5hl f 1 r t

< - L


IJ IF


MIAIMIJIJIA


INTERMEDIATE AREA

Annual Canal Deliveries 1,050,290 acre-feet
Annual Tubewell Pumpage 640,370 acre-feet


SALINE AREA


Annual Canal Deliveries
No Tubewell Pumpage


250
I-
LU
LU
U--
i 200


150


100


50


NON SALINE


AREA


Annual Canal Deliveries 2,037,880 acre-feet
Annual Tubewell Pumpage 2,956,110 acre-feet


PROJECT AREA

Annual Canal Deliveries 4,187,340 acre-feet
Annual Tubewell Pumpage 3,596,480 acre-feet


150.

o
o
S100-
I-
UJ
9- 50-

Q ^


I I 0S NI D


1,099,170 acre-feet


I i I A I I i I


I I I I I I I I |


I




























CHAPTER 8


THE PROJECT





8-1


CHAPTER 8

THE PROJECT

The Project will consist of those elements necessary to fulfill the criteria set forth
in Chapter 7. 'The two primary construction elements irrigation tubewells and the power
distribution works to supply electrical energy to the tubewells will be supplemented with
remodelling of outlets and other canal structures, where necessary, and with the appurtenant
distribution works required to permit the utilization of the increased water supply. Details
of these elements are described below.

TUBEWELLS
General It is proposed to install about 2300 tubewells, ranging in capacity from
2 to 5 cusecs. They will have a total installed capacity of 8760 cusecs, or 6.34 maf per year.
When the Project is fully developed, the tubewells will pump about 3.6 maf annually from the
ground water reservoir, resulting in a utilization factor of about 57 percent. Detailed estima-
tes of the numbers of tubewells, their capacities and pertinent supplemental data are given
by distributary command in Tables 8-1 through 8-12 and are summarized in Tables 8-13 and
8-14.
In the Non-Saline Area, tubewell capacities were determined according to the
calculated irrigation requirements for each distributary command. The tubewells were then
sited on maps in such numbers and capacities as to serve all outlets in the most economic
and practical manner. When the tubewells are sited in the field, the numbers and capacities
of the wells may vary as a result of outlet size variations, physical problems of access, and
topography. Based on previous projects, the change is not expected to be significant. With-
in the Intermediate Area, leaching requirements vary according to the variations in ground-
water quality and thus require a somewhat more sophisticated method of determining tubewell
water requirements. The wells were sited and located on an outlet-by-outlet basis and were
then combined accordingly.
Construction The construction of tubewells will be similar to that in previous Projects
in Rechna, Chaj and Thal Doabs. Figure 8-1 is a drawing.of a typical tubewell. Tubewells
will be drilled by the reverse rotary method and a selected gravel shroud will be placed in the
annulus between the casing and borehole.' The tubewells will have 24 inches of diameter of
bore and will range in depth from about 200 to 400 feet, depending upon the capacity requir-
ed and the occurrence of non-water-yielding sediments encountered in drilling. Water will
be used as a drilling fluid, instead of mud. In the Intermediate Area, testing and develop-
ment of tubewells must be completed as soon as possible after drilling in order to ascertain the
quality of water in various locations and horizons. As more data are collected it will be
necessary to re-examine the capacity and location of tubewells at the margins of the Saline
Area.
As the holes are drilled, they will be carefully logged and formation samples will
be collected. The log and formation samples will be used to select the intervals opposite
which slotted screen will be installed. Blank pipe of the same diameter as the screen will
be installed In the balance of the cased portion below the pump housing. All casing and
screen will utilize centering guides to keep the well string centered In the borehole and to
ensure a uniform thickness of gravel shrouding. Blank casing and screen will be manufac-
tured from epoxy-bonded fiberglass.
The casing for the pump housing will be 14 to 16 inches in diameter, depending upon
the size of the pump bowls and will becet to a depth adequate to accommodate the pump at the





8-1


CHAPTER 8

THE PROJECT

The Project will consist of those elements necessary to fulfill the criteria set forth
in Chapter 7. 'The two primary construction elements irrigation tubewells and the power
distribution works to supply electrical energy to the tubewells will be supplemented with
remodelling of outlets and other canal structures, where necessary, and with the appurtenant
distribution works required to permit the utilization of the increased water supply. Details
of these elements are described below.

TUBEWELLS
General It is proposed to install about 2300 tubewells, ranging in capacity from
2 to 5 cusecs. They will have a total installed capacity of 8760 cusecs, or 6.34 maf per year.
When the Project is fully developed, the tubewells will pump about 3.6 maf annually from the
ground water reservoir, resulting in a utilization factor of about 57 percent. Detailed estima-
tes of the numbers of tubewells, their capacities and pertinent supplemental data are given
by distributary command in Tables 8-1 through 8-12 and are summarized in Tables 8-13 and
8-14.
In the Non-Saline Area, tubewell capacities were determined according to the
calculated irrigation requirements for each distributary command. The tubewells were then
sited on maps in such numbers and capacities as to serve all outlets in the most economic
and practical manner. When the tubewells are sited in the field, the numbers and capacities
of the wells may vary as a result of outlet size variations, physical problems of access, and
topography. Based on previous projects, the change is not expected to be significant. With-
in the Intermediate Area, leaching requirements vary according to the variations in ground-
water quality and thus require a somewhat more sophisticated method of determining tubewell
water requirements. The wells were sited and located on an outlet-by-outlet basis and were
then combined accordingly.
Construction The construction of tubewells will be similar to that in previous Projects
in Rechna, Chaj and Thal Doabs. Figure 8-1 is a drawing.of a typical tubewell. Tubewells
will be drilled by the reverse rotary method and a selected gravel shroud will be placed in the
annulus between the casing and borehole.' The tubewells will have 24 inches of diameter of
bore and will range in depth from about 200 to 400 feet, depending upon the capacity requir-
ed and the occurrence of non-water-yielding sediments encountered in drilling. Water will
be used as a drilling fluid, instead of mud. In the Intermediate Area, testing and develop-
ment of tubewells must be completed as soon as possible after drilling in order to ascertain the
quality of water in various locations and horizons. As more data are collected it will be
necessary to re-examine the capacity and location of tubewells at the margins of the Saline
Area.
As the holes are drilled, they will be carefully logged and formation samples will
be collected. The log and formation samples will be used to select the intervals opposite
which slotted screen will be installed. Blank pipe of the same diameter as the screen will
be installed In the balance of the cased portion below the pump housing. All casing and
screen will utilize centering guides to keep the well string centered In the borehole and to
ensure a uniform thickness of gravel shrouding. Blank casing and screen will be manufac-
tured from epoxy-bonded fiberglass.
The casing for the pump housing will be 14 to 16 inches in diameter, depending upon
the size of the pump bowls and will becet to a depth adequate to accommodate the pump at the





8-1


CHAPTER 8

THE PROJECT

The Project will consist of those elements necessary to fulfill the criteria set forth
in Chapter 7. 'The two primary construction elements irrigation tubewells and the power
distribution works to supply electrical energy to the tubewells will be supplemented with
remodelling of outlets and other canal structures, where necessary, and with the appurtenant
distribution works required to permit the utilization of the increased water supply. Details
of these elements are described below.

TUBEWELLS
General It is proposed to install about 2300 tubewells, ranging in capacity from
2 to 5 cusecs. They will have a total installed capacity of 8760 cusecs, or 6.34 maf per year.
When the Project is fully developed, the tubewells will pump about 3.6 maf annually from the
ground water reservoir, resulting in a utilization factor of about 57 percent. Detailed estima-
tes of the numbers of tubewells, their capacities and pertinent supplemental data are given
by distributary command in Tables 8-1 through 8-12 and are summarized in Tables 8-13 and
8-14.
In the Non-Saline Area, tubewell capacities were determined according to the
calculated irrigation requirements for each distributary command. The tubewells were then
sited on maps in such numbers and capacities as to serve all outlets in the most economic
and practical manner. When the tubewells are sited in the field, the numbers and capacities
of the wells may vary as a result of outlet size variations, physical problems of access, and
topography. Based on previous projects, the change is not expected to be significant. With-
in the Intermediate Area, leaching requirements vary according to the variations in ground-
water quality and thus require a somewhat more sophisticated method of determining tubewell
water requirements. The wells were sited and located on an outlet-by-outlet basis and were
then combined accordingly.
Construction The construction of tubewells will be similar to that in previous Projects
in Rechna, Chaj and Thal Doabs. Figure 8-1 is a drawing.of a typical tubewell. Tubewells
will be drilled by the reverse rotary method and a selected gravel shroud will be placed in the
annulus between the casing and borehole.' The tubewells will have 24 inches of diameter of
bore and will range in depth from about 200 to 400 feet, depending upon the capacity requir-
ed and the occurrence of non-water-yielding sediments encountered in drilling. Water will
be used as a drilling fluid, instead of mud. In the Intermediate Area, testing and develop-
ment of tubewells must be completed as soon as possible after drilling in order to ascertain the
quality of water in various locations and horizons. As more data are collected it will be
necessary to re-examine the capacity and location of tubewells at the margins of the Saline
Area.
As the holes are drilled, they will be carefully logged and formation samples will
be collected. The log and formation samples will be used to select the intervals opposite
which slotted screen will be installed. Blank pipe of the same diameter as the screen will
be installed In the balance of the cased portion below the pump housing. All casing and
screen will utilize centering guides to keep the well string centered In the borehole and to
ensure a uniform thickness of gravel shrouding. Blank casing and screen will be manufac-
tured from epoxy-bonded fiberglass.
The casing for the pump housing will be 14 to 16 inches in diameter, depending upon
the size of the pump bowls and will becet to a depth adequate to accommodate the pump at the




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