Citation
Ground water and reclamation program ; Project No. 5, Lower Rechna Doab, West Pakistan

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Title:
Ground water and reclamation program ; Project No. 5, Lower Rechna Doab, West Pakistan
Creator:
Tipton and Kalmbach, Inc., engineers
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Denver, Colorado ; Lahore, Pakistan
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Tipton and Kalmbach, Inc.
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English

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Subjects / Keywords:
Farming ( LCSH )
Agriculture ( LCSH )
Farm life ( LCSH )
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Asia -- Pakistan -- West Pakistan

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Electronic resources created as part of a prototype UF Institutional Repository and Faculty Papers project by the University of Florida.

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Full Text
WEST PAKISTAN
WATER AND POWER DEVELOPMENT AUTHORITY
LAHORE, PAKISTAN
GROUND WATER AND RECLAMATION PROGRAM
PROJECT NO. 5
LOWER RECHNA DOAB
WEST PAKISTAN
By'
TIPTON AND KALMBACH, INC.
ENGINEERS
DENVER, COLORADO, USA LAHORE, W. PAKISTAN
AUGUST 1966




WEST PAKISTAN
WATER AND POWER DEVELOPMENT AUTHORITY
LAH ORE, PAKISTAN
GROUND WATER AND RECLAMATION PROGRAM
PROJECT NO. 5
LOWER RECHNA DOAB
WEST PAKISTAN
BY
TIPTON AND KALMBACH, INC.
ENGINEERS
DENVER, COLORADO, USA LAHORE, W. PAKISTAN
AUGUST 1966




TIPTON AND KALMBACH, INC.
ENGI NEERS
WATER AND POWER DEVELOPMENT AUTHORITY P. 0. BOX 731
LAHORE, WEST PAKISTAN
CABLE : TAKSARP
TELEX -LH 20 GROUND WATER AND RECLAMATION PROJECT
PHONE: 80271 &80851 27E-1. GULBERG. LAHORE.
8 August 1966
Mr. Aftab Ghulam Nabi Kazi, Sk. Chairman
West Pakistan Water and Power Development Authority Sunny View Estate
Kashmir Road
Lahore, Pakistan
Dear Mr. Kazi:
Transmitted herewith is our planning report for Salinity Control and Reclamation Project No. 5, Lower Rechna Doab.
The development concepts which are elaborated in this report are further steps in the evolution of a regional plan for development of the land and water resources of the Northern Zone of the Indus Plains. The unique feature of the project plan is the provision for exploitation of moderately mineralized ground water for irrigation supply. Apart from the obvious conservation benefits derived from this practice, significant economic advantages are obtained because the use of these supplies eliminates or defers the need for canal enlargement, and drainage works, without prejudicing agricultural development. This is reflected in the benefit-cost ratio which is among the most favorable we have encountered in our experience in irrigation development.
We wish to express our appreciation for the assistance of those who have had a part in the work leading to the report.
Respectfully submitted,
TIPTON AND KALMBACH, INC.
RJ.Tipton




SYNOPSIS
The proposed Salinity Control and Reclamation Project 5 is a part of the massive program of public works undertaken by the Water and Power Development Authority (WAPDA) for the development and distribution of irrigation water supplies to support the highest possible level of agriculture in the Northern Zone of the Indus Basin. Through exploitation and management of the ground water reservoir, full irrigation-supply and drainage requirements will be satisfied for about 1.7 million acres of the Project area, and supplies for the remaining 0.5 million acres will be increased greatly; drainage requirements will be met for the entire area.
Project 5 comprises about 2.7 million acres in the southwestern part of Rechna Doab, of which about 2.2 million acres are culturable. The area is commanded principally by the Lower Chenab and Haveli Canal systems, but the current deliveries of surface water are inadequate to support a fully development agriculture. Even though the canal supplies are supplemented by the ground water produced from about 7,000 Persian wheels and 3,200 privately-owned tubewells, the present cropping intensity is about 114 percent far short of the 150 percent that represents a reasonable "target" under conditions of current technology and managerial capability.
As in many other parts of the Northern Plains, agriculture in Lower Rechna Doab is developed far below its potential. The basic problems which have suppressed agriculture and hampered efforts to introduce modern forming practices in the Project area are principally the outgrowth of water factors: improperly timed, insufficient, and unreliable deliveries of irrigation supplies to the fields; and inadequate subsurface drainage of the irrigated lands. As a result, about 20 percent of the area is affected by soil salinity and waterlogging, and virtually .the entire area is under-irrigated for optimum production. Under these conditions the farmers have been forced to adopt Inefficient practices which have only amplified the basic problems, resulting in low intensity of cultivation and low unit yields. Thus despite a generally favorable environment for irrigated agriculture in Lower Rechna Doab, the returns to agriculture are among the lowest recorded for irrigated areas of the world.
The Project area is underlain by highly permeabiq alluvial sediments which are saturated to within a few feet of the land surface. The ground water underlying about 60 percent of the area is of excellent quality for irrigation, but for about 20 percent of the area, the chemical quality is not considered to be usable: the remaining area is underlain by water of intermediate quality that is useful for irrigation when mixed with canal water. The ground water reservoir is abundantly recharged from leakage from the irrigation system and the complex of canals that traverses the area. Under present conditions, the economic potential of the aquifer is not realized, even considering the important growth of the numbers of private tubewells in recent years: on the contrary, the shallow water table presents waterlogging hazards and evaporation from it has contributed to the area's problems of soil salinity.
The irrigation supply and drainage requirements can be met by the development and
proper management of the ground water resources. Project 5 is designed to exploit the ground water reservoir by means of a network of high-capacity tubewelIs integrated with the existing watercourse distribution system. To obtain a maximum relation of benefits to costs, three operational zones are proposed:
a) An outer zone that coincides with the fresh ground water area in which surface deliveries will be maintained at about their historic rates, and with ground water being pumped liberally;
b) An intermediate or transition zone in which deliveries of surface water will be increased over historic rates and in which ground water of less desirable quality will be pumped at controlled rates;
c) An inner zone overlying the saline ground water in which no Project pumping will be done, but in which surface water deliveries will be raised to the maximum rate permitted by the existing distribution system.




The proposed combined irrigation supply will permit full agricultural development of about 80 percent of the area, and for the remainder of the Project will permit a level while somewhat lower represents an important advance over current development.
The Project involves the construction of about 2,300 tubewells of about 8,770 cusecs pumping capacity, and appropriate appurtenant distribution works and power facilities. The estimated capital cost of the Project is 328.3 million rupees, including power facilities, of which 39 percent will be in foreign exchange for equipment, materials and services not availcble in Pakistan. In addition to raising the level of agricultural production, the proposed amount of ground water pumping will depress the water table to a depth sufficient to eliminate subsurface drainage hazards and to provide storage for seasonal recharge, but will not represent an.overdraft from the aquifer.
As a result of Project operation, optimum supplies will be available for most of the culturable area. Cropped acreage will increase to about 3.2 million acres representing a cropping intensity of 147 percent and unit yields of most crops will increase two- to threefold. The Project will yield a benefit-cost ratio of more than 8 to 1.
Alternative methods of development include the promotion of increased use of private tubewells and the provision of a full irrigation supply to that part of the Project area underlain by saline ground water:
- The recent proliferation of private tubewells suggests that than appropriate
level of agricultural development might be achieved by reserving the area for private tubewell development, and promoting private investment primarily by electrification of the area. However, detailed analysis indicates that (a) significant increases are not to be expected of either the number of private tubewells or the area of lands they command; (b) elements of marginal utility will operate to suppress private development over much of the area; and (c) that the cost of the needed electrification is inordinately high. /Vbreover, no level of private activity will satisfy the overriding commitment to the regional development of the Northern Plains. Accordingly, it is concluded that optimum development of Lower Rechna Doab must be accomplished by a public works program.
- The provision of sufficient irrigation supplies to the area underlain by saline ground water would permit the attainment of cropping intensities of 150 percent over the entire Project rather than for only 80 of the area, as proposed but would require the construction of a separate drainage system and the remodelling of many miles of canals. The attendent costs are sufficiently high as to make this alternate method of development less favorable than the proposed Project.




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CONTENTS
Page
LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL
SYNOPSIS
Chapter 1. INTRODUCTION 1-1
Chapter 2. RECHNA DOAB AND THE PROJECT AREA 2-1
General 2-1
Drainage, Physiography and General Geolqgy 2-1
Active flood plains 2-2
Abandoned flood plains 2-2
Bar uplands 2-2
Climate 2-2
Existing Irrigation Facilities 2-3
Chapter 3. ECONOMY OF THE AREA 3-1
Administrative Structure 3-1
Population 3-2
Agriculture 3-2
Industrial Development 3-5
Transportation and Communications 3-6
Chapter 4. SOILS 4-1
Soil Development 4-1
Soil Classification 4-1
Land Use Classification 4-2
Waterlogging and Surface Salinity 4-3
Soil Fertility 4-4
IWbisture Characteristics 4-5
Cation Exchange Capacity 4-5
Chapter 5. GROUND WATER HYDROLOGY 5-1
The Alluvial Aquifer 5-1
Hydraulic Properties of the Alluvium 5-2
Occurrence of Ground Water 5-2
Quality of Ground Water 5-4
Summary 5-6
Chapter 6. PROBLEMS OF IRRIGATED AGRICULTURE 6-1
Chapter 7. RECLAMATION POLICIES AND PROJECT DESIGN CRITERIA 7-1
General Policies 7-1
Scope of the Reclamation Program 7-1
Reclamation methods 7-2
Selection of areas 7-3
Development Plan 7-4
Project Design 7-5
Cropping pattern 7-5
Irrigation water requirements 7-7
Canal deliveries 7-7
Tubewell water requirements 7-8
Water quality 7-11
Drinage 7-11
Flood protection 7-11




CONTENTS (Continued)
Chapter 8. THE PROJECT 8-1
Tubewells 8-1
General 8-1
Construction 8-1
Location and sizes of tubewells 8-2
Electrification 8-3
Genera l 8-3
Existing electrical power facilities 8-3
Transmission lines 8-4
Substations 8-4
Distribution 8-5
Services 8-5
Surface Supplies 8-5
Chapter 9. FEASIBILITY 9-1
Hydrblogy 9-1
Chemical Quality of Irrigation Supplies 9-1
Salinity of irrigation water in the Intermedi6te Area 9-1
Potential use of ground water in the Saline Area 9-2
Direct Agricultural Benefits 9-2
Future agricultural development without a Project 9-2
Agricultural development resulting from Project 5 9-3
Immediate benefits from reclamation 9-3
Benefits following full development 9-4
Secondary Benefits 9-5
Economic Evaluation 9-5
Cost of the Project 9-5
Benefit-cost analysis 9-6
Alternative to the Proposed Project 9-7
Chapter 10. COROLLARY DEVELOPMENT 10-1
GLOSSARY
BIBLIOGRAPHY
APPENDICES At back of report
A. CLASSIFICATION AND DISTRIBUTION OF INDUSTRIAL
WORKERS
B. SALINE AND ALKALI SOILS.
C; WATER QUALITY
D. IRRIGATION WATER REQUIREMENTS
E. CANAL OPERATIONS
F. SURFACE DRAINAGE
G. HYDROLOGICAL FEASIBILITY AND RESPONSE OF THE
GROUND WATER SYSTEM
H. CROP YIELDS, PRICES, COST OF PRODUCTION AND
PROJECT BENEFITS
I. TUBEWELL DRAINAGE METHODS Vs OPEN AND
TILE DRAIN SYSTEMS "
J. CANAL REMODELLING AND SUBSURFACE DRAINAGE
K. ESTIMATES OF CONSTRUCTION COST, OPERATION AND
MAINTENANCE COSTS, AND COST RECOVERY




ILLUSTRATIONS
FIGURES
3-1 Distribution of industrial workforce
3-2 Representation of large-scale industries at urban locations
3-3 Representation of small-scale industries at urban locations
5-1 Well hydrographs
5-2 Well hydrographs
6-1 Present irrigation supplies and crop consumptive use
6-2 Annual numberof tubewells installed
7-1 Future growing periods and cropped areas
7-2 Area irrigated by month
7-3 Proposed canal deliveries and tubewell pumpage
8-1 Typical tubewell construction with fiberglass tubewell casing
9-1 Salinity of applied water in the Intermediate Area
9-2 Culturable acreage per private tubewell
9-3 Area commanded by private tubewells
9-4 Total net value of agricultural production; with and without Project
9-5 Marketable surplus from farms
PLATES
1. Map of Indus Plains Following Synopsis
2. Status of Reclamation Projects At back of Report
3. Project area "
4. Major physiographic features "
5. Average annual precipitation and precipitation zones "
6. Existing canal systems and roads "
7. Soils-crops association map "
8. Surface sa I inity "
9. Geologic sections "
10. Water table elevations: pre-irrigation period "
1 Generalized depth to water table: pre-irrigation period "
12. Water table elevations: June 1964 "
13. Generalized depth to water table:- June 1964 "
14. Rise in water table: pre-irrigation period to June 1964 "
15. Quality of ground water "
1 6. Private tubewell density "
17. Saline, Intermediate, and Non-Saline Areas "
18. Typical plan of tubewell sites "
19. Surface drainage "
20. Power grid "
2 1. Depth to water table after 20 years of pumping "




TABLES
Number
3-1 Employment of the labor force in Lower Rechna Doab in 1960 3-2 Industrial workers by industry 3-3 Quality and value of agricultural production 3-4 Production and utilization of major crops 3-5 Classification of industries 6-1 Comparison of agricultural productivity of Lower Rechna with different
countries and regions
6-2 Private tubewell statistics 6-3 Private tubewell costs 7-1 Present cropping pattern and combined future pattern 7-2 Future cropping pattern for Non-Saline ground water zone 7-3 Future cropping pattern for Intermediate and Saline ground water areas 7-4 Summary of proposed canal deliveries and tubewell ,pumpage 8-1/12 D istribution and capacities of tubewells and pertinent supplemental data 8-13 Summary by branches of annual irrigation requirements, supplies and
related data'
8-14 Summary ot tubewell numbers and capacities 8-15 Monthly distribution of proposed surface-water deliveries 9-1 Summary of Project effects based on Project completion in 1970 9-2 Summary of acreage and value of agricultural production
Present cond itions
9-3 Summary of acreage and value of agricultural production
Year 1970; without Project
9-4 Summary of acreage and value of agricultural production
Future conditions; without Project 9-5 Summary of present and future crop yields 9-6 Summary of acreage and value of agricultural production
End of development (1973); with Project
9-7 Summary of acreage and value of agricultural production
Future conditions after full development; with Project 9-8 Present value of Project costs




CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION




Chapter 1
INTRODUCTION
The Indus Plains of West Pakistan feature perhaps the world's most favorable
environment for rapid intensive agricultural development. Here occurs a unique combination of the natural factors essential to irrigated agriculture vast areas of level arable lands highly suited for irrigation, abundant supplies of surface water fromthe Indus system of rivers and large reserves in ground water storage, and a favorable climate which permits year-round cropping. Wore than that, the plains are served by a complex system of modern irrigation canals which distributes m re water to more land than any other canal system and accounts for some 12 percent of the world's irrigated acreage.
Despi te a II of these advantages the agricultura I economy of the Indus Plains
has long been stagnant as compared with the rate of growth which has been achieved In areas where modern irrigation agriculture is practiced. The returns from agriculture, expressed in terms of either yield-per-acre or total annual production, have not changed significantly over the past forty to fifty years while the population has increased threefold. As a consequence, agricultural production from the Indus Plains, long the granary of the subcontinent, is now insufficient even to meet the minimum requirements of the local rural population, not to mention other internal needs and the export market. The problems of irrigated agriculture in the Punjab are manifold, but not unique or Insurmountable. They include the full gamut of soil, water and crop management problems that have been encountered in similar development situations in other -parts of the world where they have been successfully overridden by the Introduction of Improved practices and modern technology. But the basic problems which ha ve suppressed agriculture In West Pakistan and nullified all-efforts to introduce modern practices are primarily related to water poorly timed, insufficient, and unreliable irrigation supplies to the fields, and inadequate subsurface drainage of the Irrigated lands. These problems are derived from the hydrologic environment and thus are beyond the control of the farmers. ,.They have constituted a formidable handicap to agricultural development, restricting thelintensity of cultivation, causing widespread salinization and waterlogging of the irrigated lands, and forcing the farmers to adopt hazardous and itr~fficlent practices which have only amplified the basic problems. .nt pce h
To rectify the problems associated with the basic water factors Pakistan, through the Water and Power Development Authority (WAPDA), has undertaken a broad program for reclamation of the irrigated lands in the Indus Plains. Under the program the Indus Plains (Plate 1) have been subdivided into two regions the Southern Zone which includes the former Sind and Khairpur areas, and the Northern Zone comprising the former Bhawalpur and Punjab areas. Salinity Control and Reclamation Project 5 Is one of a series of projects in the Northern Zone designed to reclaim deteriorated lands, control subsurface drainage, and provide full supplemental Irrigation water requirements by exploitation and management of ground water supplies. Project l,.serving over one million acres in Central Rechna Dobb, was completed in 1962; Project 2 which will serve more than 2 million acres in Chai Doab is under construction -. three sub-projects In the central part of the doab encompassing about 400,000 acres are in operation, and the Upper Jhelum project comprising about 650,000 acres is scheduled for completion In early 1967; Project 3, which will serve about 1 .3 million acres-in Lower Thai Doab is under construction; and Project 4, which will serve over 2 million acres In Upper Rechna Doab Is




1-2
scheduled for construction to begin in mid-1966. The status of planning and implementation of the projects under the rectanation program is shown In Plate 2.
The importance and urgency of the reclamation program can be best appreciated when viewed against the background of Pakistan's economy. Agriculture and related commercial and Industrial activities account for 75 percent of the national income, 70 percent of the foreign exchange earned in international'trade, and provide employment for 75 percent of the civilian labor force. About 85 percent of the population of Pakistan is rural and primarily dependent upon agriculture for its livelihood.
The economic structure of West Pakistan is similar to the national pattern.
Agriculture makes the major contribution to the income of the province. It accounts for over 80 percent of the value of exports, and provides a livelihood for the 80 percent of the population which is classified as rural. Thu agriculture dominates the economy; and activities that will stimulate agricultural development will have broad impact on all sectors of the economy.
The area of West Pakistan is about 310,000 square miles. About half of the province is mountainous terrain the Himalayan Mountains -in the north and the various ranges and hills along the western border which extends from the Hindu Kush In the north to the Makran Range on the Arabian Sea. The other half of the province is the alluvial plain of the Indus River and its tributaries (Plate 1). According to the 1961 census, the population of West Pakistan is about 43 million, of which 75 percent live in the plains. The population is increasing at the rate of 2.5 to 3 percent per year, sufficient to double the population every 25 to 30 years.
The Northern Zone of the Indus Plains contains theprincipaj tributary
rivers theJhelum, Chenab, Ravi, and Sutlej -all joining the left bank of the Indus. The Punjab derived its name (punj five, ab water) from these tributaries and the Beas River, now in India. Similarly, the lands between the rivers are termed doabs (do two, ab water). Thus, the Punjab of West Pakistan comprises four doabs: arl, Rechna, Chaj, and Thai.
The Indus Plains are essentially flat and featureless with a slight slope averaging about one foot-per-mile toward the Arabian Sea. Natural internal drainage is poorly developed and no perennial streams rise in the plains. Intermittent drainage channels, called "nallahs"', carry storm runoff to the rivers during the summer monsoon, but they are dry throughout most of the remainder of the year.
The climate of the Indus Plains ranges from subtropical arid to subtropical semihumid. It is characterized by large diurnal and seasonalflucuatdns intemperature. During the summer, maximum daily temperatures of 100 to 120 are common. Winters are generally cool and nighttime temperatures are quite low; but killing frosts are rare as the high mountain ranges of the north and northwest provide an effective barrier to frigid air masses moving southward from Central Asia.
Precipitationover the Indus Plains generally is less than 20 Inches annually
except along the edge of the Himalayan foothills where it ranges from 20 to 35 Inches. In the central portion of the plains the annual precipitation is less than 10 inches and in many areas it Is less than five Inches. Regardless of the total depth of precipitation, Pbout two-thirds of the total rainfall commonly occurs during the summer monsoon period of July, August and September. At this time moisture-laden air flowing northwesterly from the Bay of Bengal is uplifted by the foothills and the southern slopes of the Himalayas causing heavy precipitation in intense storms. Some winter rainfall occurs in the more northerly portions of the plain, but there is relatively little precipitation during the spring and autumn.




1-3
In addition to the paucity and disproportionate seasonal distribution of precipitation, the climate throughout the indus Plains is distinguished by marked variations in the annual depth of precipitation. A year of virtually no rainfall may be followed by a year in which the total precipitation is much higher than the mean annual depth.
Essentially ali of the runoff of the Indus watershed is derived fromrsnowmelt and precipitation in the Himalayas. The mean annual discharge of the Indus system of rivers, upon entering the plain, is about 168 million acre feet (mqf) of which more than half is contributed by the indus Rtver alone. The rivers are all subject to extreme seasonal variations of flow, the mean monthly summer discharge being about 15 to 20 times that of the winter months. The period of low flow extends, from December to varch in a typical year. During March the rivers begin to rise with the Himalayan snowrlt and reach their peak rate of discharge in July or August at the height of the rionsoon. About 70 percent of the annual discharge of the river system is concentrated in the three-month period, June through August, and is largely wasted to the Arabian Sea. The Indus Waters Treaty (1960) decrees that the flow ot the three eastern rivers (Sutlej, Beas, and Ravi) will be for the exclusive use of India, thus reducing the total annual flow potentially available to West Pakistan by about 33 maf to an average of 135'maf.
During the monsoon season the high rate of runoff frequently results in serious floods with accompanying damage to developed areas. Moreover, the flood waters cannot be exploited with existing facliftles. The period of time during which the flood peak is in exaes of existing canal capacities is too short to produce a crop, hence the need for storagereservoirs. Diversion of surplus surface water to ground water storage offers the most favorable prospect for maximum use of the runoff of the Indus Basin. The alluvial aquifer that underlies the Punjab is ideal for that purpose .in nearly all respects.
The arid climate and the variable and uncertain distribution of prpcipitation make agriculture in the Indus Plains dependent upon irrigation. And the availability of surface water coupled with the favorable terrain makes irrigation feasible. Thus the history of man's occupation of the plains more oriless parallels the development of Irrigated agriculture.
The oldest method of irrigation in th6 Indus Plains is flood irrigation of the active flood plains, locally known as "sailab". After the flood-waters recede the wetted areas are planted to grains, principally wheat. This is a very primitive form of irrigation, dating back thousands of years, but it provides an important contribution to the agricultural economy. As the soils remain salt-free and relatively fertile because of the periodic flooding, sailab lands are unaffected by many of the serious problems commonly associated with irrigation.
Canal Irrigation began centuries ago with the development of inundation canals for irrigation of lands bordering the flood-plains. The inundation canal systems were brought to peak development during Moghul times. By the mrriddle of the nineteenth century an extensive network of canals was in operation with the maximum development concentrated along the Sutlej ond Chenab rivers.
The inundation canals represented an advarice aver sallab methods because. they could convey water to more remote areas and draw water through a greater range f river stage, thus maintaining irrigation deliveries for a longer period of theyear. But they could function only during periods offielatively high flow, so Irrigation was limited to the summer seasonrfand to a relatively narrow belt




1 4
along the rivers.
The final stage in the evolution of the modem canal system came in the last half of the 19th century with the introduction of so-called perennial canals. Permanent diversion works known as barrages or headworks were constructed at strategic sites on the rivers to place the inundation and newly constructed canals under weir control. These facilities allowed larger diversions from the rivers than were possible previously, especially during the winter season when low flows could be exploited. Thus, irrigation was extended into the central parts of the doabs, and in many areas canals operated throughout the year hence the term "perennial".
With the introduction of perennial canal supplies, the year was divided into
two irrigation seasons the Rabi or winter season which extends from October through March, and the Kharif or summer season. Conals which operate only during the summer are termed Kharif or "nonperennial" canals.
By 1962 all of the major canal systems had been converted to weir control. Average annual diversions from the entire Indus River system through the existing complex of canals are about 80 maf, which are used to irrigate about 24 million acres. The Northern Zone accounts for 43 maf of the diversions to irrigate 16 million acres, and comprises the largest contiguous area of irrigation development in the world.




CHAPTER -2
RECHNA DOAB AND THE PROJECT AREA




2-1
Chapter 2
RECHNA DOAB AND THE PROJECT AREA
GENERAL
Salinity Control and Reclamation Project 5 (SCARP 5) is located in Lower Rechna Doab in the Northern Zone of the Indus Plains (Plate; 1 and 3). It is bounded on the north by Project I and on the south by the confluence of the Ravi and Chenab Rivers. The gross area of the Profeats 2.74 million acres, of which about 2.18 million acres are culturable.
DRAINAGE, PHYSIOGRAPHY, AND GENERAL GEOLOGY
Rechna Doob comprises an area of approximately 7.6 million acres (11,875 sq. mi.). The length of the doab from the confluence of the Ravi and Chenab Rivers to the Jammu and Kashmir border is about 230 miles; the maximum width of the doab is about 65 miles. The slope of the land surface is to the southwest and decreases from over two feet per mile in the uper reaches of the doab to less than one foot per mile at the toe. Within the Project area the average topographic gradient is about one foot per mile.
. The doab is bordered by the Ravi and Chenab Rivers. The average annual flow of the Chenab River above Khanki Headworks for the 30 year period 1935-64 was 22.5 million acrefeet (maf) and of the Ravi River above Balloki Headworks about 8.3 maf. The rivers are subject to extreme variations of flow both seasonally and annually. Over 80 percent of the annual flow occurs during the Kharif season, and over 60 percent during the months of June, July and August. The maximum peak discharge recorded for the Chenab River above Khanki is 1,086,000 cusecs and for the Ravi River above Balloki, 275,000 cusecs. In contrast, the lowest annual floods at the same stations are 106,000 cusecs and 30,700 cusecs, respectively -a variation in maximum discharges of about 10 fold.
The maximum average monthly discharge of the Chenab River above Khanki is 5.84 maf for August, and the minimum is 0.54 mof in December. Corresponding figures for the Ravi River above Balloki are 2.46 maf and 0.24 maf. A period of low water commonly occurs from ihe middle of December to the middle of March. The seasonal rise of river discharge begins about mid-March with the melting of the Himalayan snows and reaches a maximum during July or August when augmented by the monsoon rains. These seasonal fluctuations of runoff do not fi t the agricultural calender of the Punjab. For two or two and one-half months of the summer the rivers carry large surpluses over crop water requirements, whereas the dry season discharge of streams is inadequate to meet irrigation demands.
Natural internal surface drainage of the doab is poorly developed in the nearly flat terrain, and is virtually non-existant in the lower reaches of the Project area. Before the introduction of canal irrigation, storm runoff during the monsoon moved off the alluvial plain through nallahs into the bordering rivers. With development of agriculture, surface drainage has been enhanced to protect canals and other structures and to drain especially troublesome'areas. But the effect of these improvements has largely been nul lifted by other works such as highways, canals, and railways which interfere with or obstruct drainage. Surface drainage problems are further aggravated in waterlogged areas where infilt ration of runoff is inhibited. Thus, surface drainage remains a problem, but projects scheduled under the Indus Basin Settlement Plan and other public works programs (see Appendix F) should provide adequate relief to the area.
The physiographic features of the Indus Plains were defined and mapped as part of a broad survey carried out under the Colombo Plan Program in Pakistan (Frazer, Rockwell, and de Vries, 1958). In Rechna Doab six alluvial landforms were described: meander flood plains,




2-2
cover flood plains, channel-levee remnants, active flood plains, the scalloped interfluve, and the Himalayan piedmont plain. For the purpose of this report, these six landforms have been combined into three physiographic subdivisions active flood plains, abandoned flood plains, and bar uplands which are characteristic of the Project area (Plate 4).
Active Flood Plains This subdivision includes the meander belt and present flood plains of the Chenab and Ravi Rivers. During low water stage the rivers flow in braided or- meandering channels. Discontinuous natural levees a few inches to several feet high, back-water swamps, meander scars, and sand bars are prominant features of the active flood plains.
Abandoned Flood Plains These areas, readily discernible on aerial photographs, are 5 to 20 feet -higher than the active flood plains. Paralleling the present rivers in belts as much as 20 miles-wide, they represent flood plains that have been abandoned by the Ravi and Chenab Rivers in comparatively recent times. The principal features of the abandoned flood plains are si milar to those of the active flood plains and commonly include channel scars, oxbow lakes, and levees. In places levees and sand bars are numerous and prominent. The lower portions of the abandoned flood plains are subject to inundation by high floods.
Bar Uplands Large interfluvial areas composed of older alluvium are found in the interior of the doab. These interfluves are the most significant physiographic feature of the Project area because of their large area extent and their elevation above the bordering flood plains. Typically, the bar uplands rise abruptly from the flood plains and are bordered by steep scarps 5 to 25 feet high. At many locations however, the boundary between the flood plain and the bar upland is not distinct. The width of the bar in the doab has been controlled by the lateral shifting of the rivers in comparatively recent times. Ancient river channels can be identified; they are discontinuous and represent meanders and other scars of stream courses that traversed the uplands in former times. In some places these ancient channels can be attributed to former courses of the Chenab and Ravi Rivers..
The dominant geologic unit'is the alluvial complex which is the region's principal economic asset. The soils of the doab are derived from the surficial deposits and the area's groundwater reservoir is formed in the subsurface alluvium. The alluvial sediments are of Recent and Pleistocene age and consist mainly of unconsolidated sand and.silt with minor amounts of clay and gravel. The sediments were deposited in a subsiding trough by the ancestral rivers of the Indus System. The alluvium is heterogenous and individual strata have little lateral or vertical continuity in accordance with the mode of deposition by large streams in constantly shifting courses (Plate 9).
The groundwater in the alluvium is replenished by the infiltration of river water, by
leakage from canals and by the percolation of rain. The hydrology'of the Project area Is discussed in subsequent sections of this report.
C LIMATE
The climate of the Project area is characterized by large seasonal fluctuations of both temperature and precipitation. During the winter months daytime temperatures range between about 60F to 80F and nighttime temperatures are commonly in the range of 35F to 450F. Occasionally the temperature dips below freezing in January;.however crop killing frost is a rare occurrence. The mean summer temperature is about 90F: the hottest day may reach .20OF while the minimum summer recording may be as low as 700F. A summary of the temperature data for the Project area is given in Appendix D.
Precipitation has a marked seasonal fluctuation and also differs considembly across the region, increasing from south to north. The average annual precipitation in the Project area ranges from about six inches at the southern extreme to %bout 13 Inches in the northern portions. About 80 percent of the annual rainfall (Plate 5) occurs during the Kharif season. .'rRabi precVpItation is scant, sporadic, and not a dependable source of crop moisture* Rainfall also varies




2-3
markedly and unpredictably from year to year. Thus, a wet year may follow a drought, but there are no discernible cycles or long-term trends in precipitation. Precipitation data for.. the Project area are given in Appendix D.
EXISTING IRRIGATION FACILITIES
Irrigation supplies for the Punjab are distributed through a complex, but e essentially self-regulating network of canals. A typical system consists of a barrage or headworks, which regulates diversions from the river; mainline and branch canals, which function chiefly as conveyance channels; and distributaries and minors, which distribute water to.the individual irrigation service areas, known as chaks. There is an outlet for each chak through which flow from the distributary to the farm water course is regulated by proportional modules. Tubewell supplies are discharged into the farm water courses, normally near the outlet, for mixing with canal supplies. Water courses, which are constructed and maintained by the farmers, commonly serve from 300 to 600 acres and carry from one to three cusecs. Each cultivator has a scheduled "turn" during which he breaches the bank of the water course for a specified period of time. It is his responsibility to close off the breach made by the previous irrigator.
Rechna Doab is served by four canal systems, all of which are supplied by diversions from the Chenab River. Summary statistics for the systems are given in the following table; the main arteries of the systems and the distribution of perennial and non-perennial irrigation areas are shown in Plate 6.
CANAL SYSTEMS SERVING RECHNA DOAB
Culturable Commanded Authorized Full Supply Irrigation Supplies Canal Area 2/
System Nonperennial Perennial Nonperennial Perennial Kharif Rabi
(Thousand (Thousand (Cusecs) (Cusecs) (Thousand (Thousand Acres) Acres) A.F.) A.F.)
tMrala Ravl Link 105 870 258
Upper Chenab Canal 832 613 5,340 1,840 1,593 602
Lower Chenab Canal 190 2,800 11,500 10,400 3,776 2,894
Haveli Canal 86 71 500 750 208 107
Koranga Feeder 37 120 38 32
Notes: 1/ According to remodelled design.
Y/ Marala Ravi Link assuming full supples for five months.
Upper Chenab Canal ten-year average (1953-62)
Lower Chenab Cana I eighteen-year average (1947-64).
Haveli Canal (Rechna supplies only) thirteen year average (1952-64) Koranga Feeder thirteen-year average (1952-64).
The Lower Chenab Canal Is the major source of irrigation supplies for Lower Rechna Doab. It serves a culturable commanded area (CCA) of about 3 million acres of which 1.8 m illion acres are In the Project area and receive perennial supplies. The Lower Chenab Canal




2-4
was opened for irrigation on July 9, 1887, as an inundation canal. Weir control was added in 1890.
Central Rechna Doab (Project 1) and a small portion of the Upper Rechna area (Project 4) are also served by the Lower Chenab canals. The design capacity of the canal at Khanki Headworks is 13,000 cusecs. The authorized full supply (AFS) for irrigation within the Project area is 5840 cusecs. As the diversions from the headworks fluctuate according to the availability of river supplies, the full AFS of the system is realized only during the periods of high flow.
The Lower Chenab Canal is bifurcated at Sagar to form the Main Line Lower and the Upper Gugera Branch. Each of these branches is subsequently divided again. The Main Line is trifurcated at Nanuana to supply the Mian Ali, Rakh, and Jhang Branches. When the Qadirabad-Balloki Link Canal is completed, it will supply Jhang and Rakh Branches while the old main line of the Lower Chenab will continue to supply the Mian Ali Branch and the Upper Gugera Branch. The Upper Gugera Branch has one bifurcation at Buchiana to form the Lower Gugera and the Burala Branches.
Authorized full supplies of the various branches of the Lower Chenab Canal system are: Jhang, 2988 cusecs; Rakh, 1145 cusecs; Mian Ali, 665 cusecs; Bhawana, 413 cusecs; Lower Jhang, 1209 cusecs; Upper Gugera, 5163 cusecs; Lower Gugera, 2075 cusecs; and Burala 2338 cusecs. The Project area is supplied by the Jhang Branch, 2562 cusecs; Rakh Branch, 885 cusecs; Lower Gugera Branch, 1785 cusecs; and Burala, 2120.cusecs; as measured at the Project boundary. All are perennial channels.
The lower reaches of the area are supplied by the Haveli Canal and by the Koranga
Feeder. Together fhey serve about 108,000 acres CCA with perennial supplies and 86,000 acres with non-perennial supplies. The Haveli Canal is basically a link canal to transfer water from the Chenab-Jhelum confluence to the Ravi River for use in Bari Doab through the Sidhnai Canal. Qf the capacity of 5,200 cusecs, authorized diversions into the Project area are approximately 750 cusecs in Kharif and 500 cusecs in Rabi, at heads of distributaries.
The Koranga Feeder hasan AFS of 120 cusecs: it is supplied by the Central Bari Doab Canal through an aqueduct over the Ravi River.
In summary, the existing canal systems serve a CCA of 2.05 million acres within
Project. 5 with perennial supplies, and 86,000 acres on a non-perennial basis. The total AFS of the systems is 6700 cusecs for the Kharif season and 6450 cusecs for the Rabi season. The actual seasonal diversions average 6600 cusecs in Kharif and 5300 cusecs in Rabi, measured at heads of distributaries. The supply factors (actual diversions/AFS) are 98 and 82 percent for Kharif and Rabi, respectively, and the weighted annual supply factor for the Project area is 90 percent.




CHAPTER 3
ECONOMY OF THE AREA




3-1
Chapter 3
ECONOMY OF THE AREA
Lower Rechna Doab is one of the most highly developed agricultural and Industrial regions in West Pakistan. Urbanization more advanced than elsewhere In the Punjab has brought about changes in social values and attitudes, and has had a marked Influence on development of agriculture and other sectors of the economy such as transportation and communication. In spite of the relatively favorable position of Lower Rechna In relation to the Punjab, its economy is still dependent on agriculture. Vore than half of the entire labor force is employed directly in agriculture and about 90 percent of the industrial labor force is employed in industries directly related to agriculture. Furthermore, three-fourths of the population resides in rural areas and most of these people rely on agriculture directly for a livelihood. But more than half of the farms are smaller than seven acres, and their occupants have little influence on the economy beyond meeting their own needs. With a large part of the agricultural resources (pepple, land and water) involved in subsistence production,' tremendous potential for development is lost. As the potential production in Lower Rechna Is extremely high, this failure of the agricultural sector to contribute more to the development of the region is especially critical. Accordingly, the basic prerequisite of the economic development of Lower Rechna is to provide the means for the subsistence farmers to contribute to the economy. It with this problem that the SCARP program concerns itself and nowhere is the significance of such development more obvious than in a potentially productive area as Lower Rechna Doab.
ADMINISTRATIVE STRUCTUREWest Pakistan is divided into 12 administrative Divisions each composed of from two to five Districts. The Districts are divided into Tehsils, each of which contains a number of Union Councils the basic administrative unit. The Union Council provides many civil and administrative services and is the political unit from which the "Basic Democracies" are formed.
The Project area overlaps parts of three administrative Districts Lyallpur, Jhang and Multan (Plate 3). Lyallpur and Jhang Districts are in Sargodha Division and Multan District is in Multan Division. The total area of the Districts and the percent within the Project are as follows:
District Total area Area within Percent of
(sq. miles) Project 5 District within'
(sq. miles) Project 5
Lya I lpur 3,472 2,848 82
Jhang 3,381 1,378 41
Multan 5,611 94 2
There are about 240 Union Councils and all or part of eight Tehslls in the Project area'.
Lyallpur (pop. 425,000) is the most important urban area within the Project and the fifth largest city in Pakistan. Other major centers are Jhang (pop. 95,000), Chiniot (pop. 47,000), Toba Tek Singh (pop. 18,000), Samundari (pop. 9,500)'and Shorkot (pop. 7,000) Jaranwala (pop. 27,000) is adjacent to the Project boundary on the road fiom Lyallpur to Lahore.




3-2
POPULATION
The estimated 1965 population of the area was about 3.6 million people a density
of nearly 850 beople per square mile. About 80 percent of the people live in Lyalipur District, where the city of Lyallpur, the primary industrial center of the area is located. Nearly 50 percent of the working force is employed In non-agricultural pursuits but more than three fourths of the population resides in rural areas.
Urbanization is fomenting cultural changes, particularly around Lyallpur, but elsewhere, traditional social customs prevail. Social customs have considerable influence on the ability of the people to borrow money for productive purposes. Two separate studies ind icate that from 50 to 60 percent of the entire rural debt derives from social expenditure1/. On the small agricultural holdings which predominate in the area, the requirements for social expenditure, coupled with low agricultural productivity at a subsistence level, frequently lead the farmers into burdensome debt.
Historically the rural people have been rather indifferent to the protection of their political rights, and more concerned with local than with national problems. Owing to lack political consciousness, they were easily exploited by interest groups but recently the "Basic Democracies" movement has created a social and political awakening. The people are associated with the administration of Union Councils through which they participate in provincial and national elections and in many community development projects. Community centers, roads, hospitals and schools have been built recently in Lower Rechna Doab under the rural works program.
Illiteracy remains a problem but educational facilities are becoming available to an increasing number of young people. According to the 1961 Population Census, only about 15 percent of the population was classed as literate, but by 1963-64 approximately 30 percent of the school age population was enrolled in schools. Lyallpur is the home of the West Pakistan Agricultural University which has a great influence on agricultural education and research in the country in general and on the Project area in particular. Altogether there are 14 colleges, 114 high schools, 225 middle schools and 2358 primary schools in the area.
The estimated labor force in the Project area in 1960 comprised 32 percent of the total population or about 950,000 people over the age of 10 years. Slightly more than half of the labor force is employed in agriculture and 20 percent is employed in manufacturing and mechanical occupations (Table 3-1). Of the non-agricultural labor, 80 percent is employed in Lyalipur District and over 20 percent of these are employed in industry in the City of Lyallpur (Figure 3-1). The largest employers of industrial labor are cotton mills, textiles and allied industries. Companies manufacturing machinery are the next largest group of employers, but the number of workers so employed is significantly lower than in the textile Industries (Table 3-2).
Available information indicates a very low percentage of unemployment 1 .6 -er cent of the labor force, but twice as high in urban areas as in rural areas but there is widespread Under-employment, particularly in rural areas. Crop labor requirements provide full employment for less than 60 percent of the agricultural labor force. Further, it is estimated that the typical farm furnishes full employment to its occupants for only about half a year. Full employment is approached in rural areas only during periods of peak labor requirements.
AGRICULTURE
Farming and farm related enterprises supply of production and consumer goods to farmers, and marketing and processing of the local agricultural produce are the prime 1/(i) Hasan Ali Syed: "Need and Supply of Credit", Board ot Economic L:nquiry, Laiore,
1951.
(ii) Socio-Economic Research Project (Punjab University), "Survey of Economic
Conditions", 1959.




3-3
factors in the economy of Lower Rechna Doab. ,bre than three-fourths of the population resides in rural areas, more than half of the labor force is directly involved in farming, and a large share of the remaining labor force depends almost entirely upon farmers as a market for their goods and services. The annual value of crop production in the Project area is 634 million rupees. The most important crop is wheat worth over 190 million rupees annually and the two main cash crops are sugarcane (128 million rupees) and cotton (100 million rupees) (see Table 3-3). The livestock sector contributes about 35 percent of the value added in agriculture.
The nucleus of agricultural activity is the village. The typical village has about 1500 people, controls about 1300 acres containing 100-150 farms and is basically a -elf-sufficient unit having its own artisans and merchants. Almost all of the farmer's present needs and wants can be satisfied in the village. Farm labor is provided largely by the farmer's family, but permanent and casual hired laborers are also readily available in most villages. The simple implements used by most farmers are-constructed by the farmer or by village artisans-who are paid almost entirely in kind: their remuneration is governed by custom. The "moeens" of the village shoemaker, water carrier, washerman, tailor,- watchman, barber, etc. provide services to the farmer and also assist at marriages, births and deaths. Only if a farmer uses commercial fertilizer, improved seeds, pesticides or- mechanical equipment/is he in need of contact with persons outside the village.
The basis of agriculture is the small farm: the average farm size is 10.3 acres but more than than half of the farms are smaller than seven acres. Only 9 percent of the farms exceed 25 acres. The predominant group of farmers in Lower Rechna consists of peasant proprietors farmers who own all the land they tillo As land ownership is a symbol of prestige, the peasant proprietors are influential in village affairs. Also numerically important but less influential are the tenant farmers who rent or lease land for a share of the crop or a fixed fee. The importance of land is reflected by the historic practice of tenants of passing their plots on to the next generation and fragmenting their farms in the same methods as land owners. Some peasant proprietors also rent additional land. This group, while smaller in number than the other groups, has the largest holdings.
The primary concern of the small farmer is to provide for his family's needs. The basic food crops are grown and there is no concentration on special crops. As subsistance farming is a marginal operation, the attitudes of the farmer are highly conservative. He cannot chance losing a crop in the hope that some new technique will improve yields and leave a surplus for marketing. But occasionally in good years when more than the usual yields are obtained, the larger subsistence farms yield some marketable surplus. Then farmers sell some gur and cotton and those who own a milk buffalo or cow sell fresh milk or ghee. Otherwise cash is earned by supplemental employment or by cottage industry.
On a farm of 10 acres the average family retains approximately 1780 rupees worth of
crops for its own use after meeting all commitments including feed, seed and waste. MVore than two thirds of this is consumed by the family leaving about 500 rupees worth of the crop for sale. Annual receipts are about 250 rupees for cotton and 250 for gur, with all other crops being used by the family or paid as wages. I/ Thus an average of about 45 percent of the gur production and 60 percent of the cotton is sold. But on farms smaller than 10 acres surplus is'seldom, if
/ Based on estimates of per capita consumption from various sources, usual payments in kind, and production estimates described in Appendix H. The estimates appear very reasonable
when compared with "Farm Accounts and Family Budgets of Cultivators in the Punjab,
1954-55", Board of Economic Inquiry, Publ. 127, 1962.




3-4
ever, available. As a result, mare than half of the land and water resources and about 40 percent of the human- resources In the Project area essentially contribute nothing to the economy beyond meeting their own needs and helping to support the moeens and artisans in their own village.
It is difficult to estimate the total food consumption and marketable surplus for the
Project area. Best estimates indicate that nearly one pound of food grains is consumed daily per capita. Wheat is the staple, comprising nearly 85 percent of the daily grain consumption. The coarse grains maize,, bajra and jowar together contribute about 14 percent with maize being most.itnportant. Rice comprises only about 2percent of the average daily per capita consumption... In addition to grains, about one-half ounce of pulses is consumed daily.
Sugar consumption is 3.25 ounces daily per capita and is an important source of
carbohydrate in the diet. The annual production of gur is about 7.5 million mounds, of which about half is surplus to the needs of the area. Sugarcane is the major cash crop in Lower Rechna Doab.
Cotton, the other important cash crop, is also produced in surplus. Estimates indicate that 230,000 mounds or only about one fourth of the crop is used locally. As a result, cotton supports one of the mst important industries in the area. A summary of production and utilization is shown in Table 3-4.
TABLE 3-4
PRODUCTION AND UTILIZATION OF MAJOR CROPS (Thousand Maunds)
Crop Production Seed, feed, Consump- Total Avail- Surplus
waste tion utiliza- able as % of
tion surplus production
Rice, clean 465 46 411 457 8 2
Wheat 12,740 1,274 11,424 12,698 42
Coarse grains
and pulses 2,988 987 1,887 2,874 114 4
Gur 7,516 752 2,902 3,654 3,862 51
Cotton, lint 1,035 52 178 230 805 78
Farmers face various problems in marketing. Those with little to sell dispose of their produce within the village to local or travelling merchants. The larger farmers transact their business at central markets. Government regulated markets are located at Lyallpur, Samundri, Toba Tek Singh, Jaranwala, Gojra, Tandlianwala, Pir Mahal, Chak Jhumra, Sundianwala, Kamalla, Jhang, Chiniot and Shorkot Road. Other important, but unregulated markets are located in Satolana, Dijkot, Rajiana, Thikrianwala, Bhawana and Shorkot.
Storage facilities in the markets are inadequate and this results in deterioration and loss of produce. Some dealers have storage facilities to hold commodities but the total capacity is small. The governmment maintains storage facilities for wheat at Lyallpur, Toba Tek Slngh, Samundri, Tandllanwala, Jaranwala, Jhang, Shorkot Road and Chiniot, but the total capacity is only about 30,000 tons less than 10 percent of the annual crop in the area.




3-5
Though there is a relatively good network of roads linking the important towns, many villages are remote from paved roads or-even unpaved roads that can be travelled by truck. Consequently, transportation from farm to market is almost entirely by animal cart, though truck transportation is growing in importance. Many village roads are impassable during the rainy season or periods of heavy irrigation, and at such times the farmer has no access to market. Handicapped by inadequrate transportation and storage facilitieS, the average farmer must sell at harvest when prices are low.
Reasonably adequate market and price information is available to the market commission agents and the farmers. The prices in the regulated markets are regularly reported in newspapers and the agents are also in close communication with other dealers and buyers. Farmers learn of prices from traveling merchants or from neighbors who have been to the markets. Radio Pakistan also gives information on prices in the major markets.
Though still in short supply, more and more modern technological advances are being made available to farmers in Lower Rechna. In recent years the Agricultural Development Corporation (ADC) has been supplying wheat, cotton, gram, rice, and maize seed from its own farms or from registered growers. The ADC maintains seed supply depots in each Tehsil headquarters and also has appointed 26 commission agents in the various markets as seed dealers. About 10 percent of the present acreage of these crops is grrwn from seed supplied by the ADC. Higl-quaiity fruit and vegetable seed is available from private sources.
A service for furnishing free plant protection to farmers has been organized by the West Pakistan Department of Agriculture. Orchards, cotton, sugarcane and maize receive highest priorities. The Regional Director of Agriculture estimates that 25 percent of the priority crops receive some protection from disease and pests.
At present, most commercial fertilizer is distributed under Government control by the Rural Supply Cooperative Corporation (RSCC) through the Union Councils. The RSCC Commercial Manager estimates that only about 15 percent of the present demand for fertilizers in West Pakistan is being met, but Lower Rechna receives a relatively large allotment and the farmers in the area indicate they are being provided with a fairly adequate supply.
Tubewell components and modern implements are generally available in the important towns in the Project area. No diesel engines are manufactured locally, but pumps, strainers and other components for tubewells are manufactured in Chiniot, Toba Tek Singh andiLyalipur. Because tractors are not yet manufactured in Pakistan, farmers are able to obtain an Open General Licence to import them directly.
INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT
In 1962, the~value of industrial production exceeded 950 million rupees. Of the total value of production in registered factories, 133 and 267 million rupees were derived from food processing and from cotton textiles, respectively. Agricultural implements and tubewell components comprise a major portion of the machinery produced. Thus industry is primarily oriented toward agriculture, but items ranging from foot-wear and athletic goods to electrical appliances, transport equipment, chemicals, plastics, and beverages are also produced (Appendix A and Table 3-5).
Lyallpur is the industrial center of the Project area. Of the 379 registered factories in Lower Rechna, 290 are located there. Further, 70 percent of the nearly 1500 small scale industries are in this city. The second largest concentration of factories is in Jhang. Industrial development is not exclusively located in those two centers, however. There are 53 large factories in eight other towns of Lower Rechna and 70 small factories in seven towns (Appendix A and Figures 3-2 and 3-3).




3-6
Large factories are generally owned by individuals or families but some of the textile, hosiery and engineering factories are owned in partnership. There are 36 limited liability concerns and a few large cooperative industrial factories. Two-thirds of the small scale factories are individually owned, about 23 percent are owned in partnership, and about 8 percent are cooperatives.
TRANSPORTATION AND COMMUNICATIONS
In comparison with much of the Punjab, the Lower Rechna area has a relatively good network of roads and railways. Important towns and markets are connected by either paved roads or railways (Plate 6). There are about 450 miles of paved road and 250 miles of railway in the Project area. Stations serving both passengers and freight are located at five to ten mile intervals along the railways. In addition, there is a large network of unpaved roads which connect most of the smaller towns, rest-houses and markets, and which are primarily used by jeeps, animals and carts and rarely are adequate for bus or truck transport. In addition to the internal road and rail system, the Project is connected with main cities in adjoining areas by road and railway. Lyallpur airport is served regularly by Pakistan International Airways with flights to Multan and Lahore.
The Projectarea is well served with post offices: the Districts of Jhang and Lyalipur have a total of 379. Most of the towns are served by telegraph and many post offices accept and deliver telegraph messages. There are over 3,000 telephones in the area, rrmost of which are in Lyalipur District. The important towns without telephone connections are Shorkot, Rajiana, Pir Mahal, Satiana, Sundianwala and Sandhilianwala.
Fifty-two newspapers and periodicals are published in Jhang and Lyallpur Dist:icts and newspapers from Lahore receive wide circulation. Thirty-one of the local papers are in Urdu, 4 are in English and 17 are published in a combination of English and Urdu. Four daily newspapers are published two are political, one is religious and one concerns business, commerce and industry.




TABLE 3-1
EMPLOYMENT OF THE LABOR FORCE IN LOWER RECHNA DOAB IN 1960
Item Number Percentage
Total labor force 950,100 100
Agricultural labor 498,500 52.5
Non-agricultural labor 451,600 47.5
1. Manufacturing and mechanical 192,500 20.3
2. Sales and related 62,600 6.6
3. Construction 49,800 5.2
4. Service, sports, entertainment, recreation 46,900 4.9
5. Managerial, administrative, clerical, etc. 25,200 2.7
6. Transportation and communications 15,900 1.7
"7. Professional, technical, etc. 15,500 1.6
8. Forestry and fishing 5,100 0.5
9. Not classified 23,100 2.4
10. Not working but looking for work 15,000 1.6
Source: Government of Pakistan, Population Census, 1961.




TABLE 3-2
INDUSTRIAL WORKERS BY INDUSTRY
Workers in units reporting
Industry Number Percent
Textiles and related industries 73,441 75.3
Machinery, except electrical 2,924 3.0
Food processing 1,978 2.0
Chemicals and chemical products 1,007 1.0
Footwear and leather products 330 0.3
Printing and publishing 253 0.3
Transport equipment 250 0.3
General engineering and metal products 128 0.1
Furniture 116 0.1
Rubber products 90 0.1
Ice and cold storage 87 0.1
Ceramics and non-metallic mineral products 76 0.1
Electrical machinery and appliances 31
Beverages and drinks 17-- 0.1
Plastic products
Miscellaneous or unspecified 16,371 17.2
Total 97,469 TO0.0




TABLE 3-3
QUALITY AND VALUE OF AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
Production Value
Crop 1000 ds Rs1,000
Wheat 12,740 191,094
Sugarcane (gur) 7,516 127,772
Cotton (seed cotton) 3,110 99,534
Fodder crops 1/ 118,595
W ize 1,590 23,843
Pu Ises 1,097 18,648
Fruit 1/ 14,961
Rice (paddy) 697 13,950
Vegetables 1/ 10,746
Olseeds 329 8,563
Millets 301 4,219
Miscel laneous 1/ 2,252
Total 634,177
I/ Value estimated directly. See Appendix H.




TABLE 3-5
CLASSIFICATION OF INDUSTRIES
(Large and small scale)
Industry Number
Textiles and related industries .1,597
Chemicals and chemical 78
General engineering 63
Vegetable, ghee, oil and general mills 41
Machinery, except electrical 40
Food processing 21
Footwear and leather goods 21
Printing press 19
Furniture I1I
Ice and cold storage 9
Electrical machinery and appliances 9
Transport equipment 7
Ceramics and non-metallic mineral products 6
Beverages and drinks 2
Agricultural engineering 2
Plastic products 2
Chemicals and fertilizers I
Clocks and watches 1
Suga r and d ist ilIle ry I
Sawmill I
Rubber productsI Sport and athletic goods I
Saddle covers I
Tobacco 1
Miscellaneous 4
Total 1, 940




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DISTRIBUTMW OF ANDAISTNUAL




4.
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REPRESENZATION OF LAME-SCALE INOUSTRIM: AT URBAN LOCATIONS




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REPRESENTATION OF SMALL-SCALE INDU.;TRIES AT URBAN LOCATIONS




CHAPTER 4
SO ILS




4-1
Chapter 4
SOILS
-Soils ideally suitable for agriculture retain water for crop use between irrigations, store plant nutrients,' supply oxygen to roots, help regulate plant temperature and provide mechanical support for plants. Irrigated soils must have certain other characteristics; in particular, they must be well drained and level or'graded to a Suitdble slope. According to all these criteria, the soils of the Lower Rechna Project area are, for the most part, ideally suited for irrigated agriculture, and potential crop yields are extremely high.
SOIL DEVELOPMENT
The soils of the Project area have been derived from the alluvial deposits of the ancestral rivers of the Indus River system. Because of continued deposition of alluvium over the centuries, the soils of the area have had little opportunity to weather and develop mature or well defined profiles. The soils are young and immature because the principal soil developing factors temperature, rainfall, vegetation, relief and human activity have only slightly modified the basic characteristics of the original alluvium. The soils are relatively homogeneous mineralogically; the clays are predominantly of the non-swelling illitic and chloritic types, but they generally contain small amounts of both montmorillonite and kaolinite.
Rainfall is so low in Lower Rechna that leaching of the surface soil and translocation of clay and soluble material into the subsoil has not occurred to a significant extent. As a result, there are no zones of eluviation or illuviation: lime is present throughout the soil profile and all of the soils are alkaline in reaction.
The native -vegetation is sparse and consists chiefly of hardy xerophytic plants with some phreatophytes in the waterlogged areas and along the margins of streams. The principal species found everywhere before colonization and at present in uncultivated areas are jand (Prosopis spicigera), wan (Salvadora oleoides), karir (Capparis aphylla),, malha (Zizyphus nummularia), farash (Tamarix articularia), sarkanaT(Saccharum munia), short grasses and salt bushes. Few of these species have much value for grazing, but because several of them are nitrogen fixers their contribution to the native fertili} of the soil may be appreciable.
Owing to the prevalent high temperature, organic matter decomposes quite rapidly, and so the organic content of these soils typically is quite low. Consequently the soils are not dark, but have retained the light greyish color of the parent alluvium. Because of the low organic content, high temperatures, and frequent drought periods, microorganisms capable of modifying soil characteristics do not thrive in these regions. Furthermore, relief has contributed little to soil development as the entire doab is a relatively flat flood plain.
As a result of human activity almost dll the native vegetation has been, eradicated, deposition of alluvium controlled or eliminated, lands levelled, erosion largely eliminated, surface layers of the soil throughly mixed and plow pans created. The introduction of irrigation has changed the soil micro-climate, created areas of waterlogged soils, and accelerated the formation of saline and alkali soils.
SOIL CLASSIFICATION
For irrigation planning purposes, the soils of the Lower Rechna Project area are best classified by their subsoil textural characteristics which, in turn, describe the drainage characteristics. The Water and Soils Investigation Division (WASID) of WAPDA has mapped and




4-2
classified these soils, describing five principal-soil series groups on the basis of the average texture of the subsoil from a depth of approximately 6 to 72 inches. The five soil series groups in turn are subdivided into 13 soil types and substrata categories (Asghar & Zaidi, 1960), as follows:
TABLE 4-1
SOIL SERIES GROUPS AND CORRESPONDING SUBSOIL TEXTURAL RANGES
Soil Series Group Subsoil Textural Range
Jhang Sarnd to loamy sand
Farida Sandy loam to.fine sandy loam
Buchiana Loam to silt loam
C huharkana Clay loam to silty clay loam
Nokhar Sandy clay to clay
The textural classification roughly denotes the proportions of sand, silt and clay in a soil. And as stated above, texture is the basis for classifying the soils of the Project area because their most important physical properties water holding capacity, infiltration rate, drainability and tillage characteristics are largely determined by texture.
LAND USE CLASSIFICATION
Using the WASID land classification as a guide, a study of the soils and crops of the Project area indicated the practicability of combining the five soils groups listed in Table 4-1 into three broad land use groups consisting of the coarse, medium, and fine textured soils. As a result of long experience the local farmers have developed cropping patterns suitable to the characteristics of each of these land use groups, and undoubtedly.fiture cropping patterns w ill evolve along similar lines. The approximate culturable acreages and the corresponding percentages pf the three land use groups are as follows:
TABLE 4 -2
LAND USE GROUPS
Culturable acreage
(Thousands (Percentage)
Land Use Group Soils Series Groups of acres)
1. Coarse textured soils Jhang and Farida 1,706 78.4
2. Medium textured soils Buchiana 432 19.9
3. Fine textured soils Chuharkana and Nokhar 38 1.7
2,176 100.0
Ql/About 80 percent consists of moderately-coarse Farida soils)
The distribution of the soils of the three land use groups in the Lower Rechna Project area is shown in Plate 8. In general, the fine textured soils are concentrated in the southwestern tip of the doab and the medium textured soils are located mostly in the northwest portion of the Project area parallel to the CIenab River. The great majority of the soils consist of the coarse-textured Jhang and Farida series. These are found throughout the




4-3
Project area; however, the coarser component, the Jhang soils, make up only a small proportion of the coarse group and are found mainly along the old stream beds.
The soils of the coarse textured group have the highest infiltration and permeability rates and the lowest total and available waterholding capacities. Because of their high sand and silt content they are relatively easy to tirl; however, they generally are quite low in organic content and in fertility.
The Jhang is the coarsest of the soil series, and so is somewhat limited in crop adaptation and in its ability to support high crop.yields. Except where surph.s water is available, these soils are best suited for deep-rooted or for drought-resistant crops, and for Kharif crops requiring relatively little water. Successful cropproduction on soils of the Jhang series requires a careful water management program, including high frequency of irrigation.
The Farida soils, comprising approximately 80 percent of the coarse textured group,
have moderately coarse textured subsoils; therefore, like the Jhang, they generally have good internal drainage and seldom develop severe salinity and alkali problems. Farida soils are well suited to the production of almost all crops except rice, but because of their moderate water-holding capacities are best suited to the deeper rooted crops with moderate to low water requirements.
The medium textured land use group includes only the.Buchiana soil series. This series is medium to coarse textured in the surface and medium textured in the subsoil to a depth of six feet or more. As a result, the Buchiana soils have moderate to fair infiltration and permeability rates, favorable internal drainage characteristics, and relIativel y high water-holding capacities. These properties favor the buildup and maintenance of soil fertility and the production of high crop yields under irrigated agriculture. Buchiana soils are suitable for the growth of most crops; however, mechanical "puddling" generally is necessary to create the physical conditions necessary for optimum rice production.
The fine textured land use group includes the Nokhar and Chuharkana soil series
groups. Because of their fine textures, these soils have relatively high water holding capacities, moderate organic matter content and are relatively fertile; however, they are difficult to cultivate, and their use is adversely affected by unseasonable rains. The soils are charac" terized by low infiltration rates and restricted internal drainage thus a high percentage is affected by salinity and alkali. The Chuharkana and Nokhar soils can be farmed successfully, provided good soil and water management practices are employed. The more productive crops that can be grown on these soils are rice, wheaf, cotton and fodder.
WATERLOGGING AND SURFACE SALINITY
Insufficient irrigation supplies and inadequate drainage promote salinization of the soil (Appendix B). According to reconnaissance soil surveys by WASID, there is visible evidence that about 410,000 acres, or 19.6 percent of the entire Project area, are sufficiently saltaffected to reduce crop yields significantly or to prevent growth (see Table 4-3).
TABLE 4-3
SURFACE SALINITY AND WATERLOGGING
Classification Thousands of Acres Percent of Area
Less than 0.2 %salt 1,750- 80.4
0.2 to0.5 % salt 206 9.5
Greater than 0.5 % salt 2049.4
Waterlogged 16 0.7
2,176 100.0




4-4
SOIL FERTILITY
The soils of the Project area are characteristically low in fertility partly because of the nature of the alluvium from which the soils were formed and also because the climatic environment does-not favor the accumulation of organic matter. The organic matter content of soils is particularly low in West Pakistan because most of the animal manure is used for fuel and most of -the crop residues are used for fuel or forage.
A recent rapid soil fertility survey (Vermoat, 1964), which in part covered Lyallpur District, included field trials on crop response to several levels of the added plant nutrients: nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium. This and other less intensive studies have indicated that almost all of the soils of the Project area are deficient in nitrogen, that most of them are deficient in phosphorus, and that a small percentage give some response to added potassium. Generally, the nitrogen response was greatly increased by added phosphorus, whereas little increase in production was obtained from adding phosphorus alone. Furthermore, the studies clearly demonstrated that without adequate irrigation, response to fertil izer application generally is insignificant and uneconomical.
Nitrogen: Nitrogen is not a natural ingredient of soils, but is derived from: 1) the
fixation of atmospheric nitrogen into' organic form by autotrophic bacteria, 2) the fixation of atmospheric nitrogen into usable form by micro-organisnms living symbiotically with growing plants (i.e., with legumes), 3) the addition of farmyard manures, green-manure and plant debris, and 4) from the addition of commercial fertilizers. The nitrate ion (N03-), the form in which most nitrogen is absorbed by plants, is not retained by the exchange complex, and so nitrate is quite mobile, moves with moisture and is subject to loss through leaching. As soil nitrogen reserves cannot be enhanced appreciably,. nitrogen must be replenished frequently, particularly where high crop yields are desired.
.Symbiotic fixation of nitrogen generally supplies sufficient nitrogen each year to produce approximately 10 mounds of wheat. It follows that the addition of nitrogen. is required for high crop production levels.
Phosphorus: Most of the parent materials of soils, including river alluvium, contain
small percentages of phosphorus-bearing minerals which slowly decompose and release phosphorus for plant use. Available phosphorus occurs in soils and in organic matter mainly in adsorbed or exchangeable forms, but only a small portion of this is readily available to plants. Furthermore, the solubility or availability of phosphorus decreases rapidly with increase in soil pH above 7: hence, the concentration of available phosphate is quite low in the calcareous (lime containing) soils of the Project area. Because it is only very slightly soluble and is adsorbed by the soil, phosphate is not subject to losses by leaching or flooding. Deficiencies can be eliminated and available reserves built up by application of almost any phosphate fertilizer; however, the high percentage--types such as double and treble super-phosphate are most economical in the long run.
Few of the soils of the Project area release phosphate rapidly enough to support high crop yields; therefore in the absence of fertilizer additions this deficiency seriously limits crop production. Moreover, the lack of phosphate will become a much greater restraint on crop yields as the use of relatively large nitrogen applications becomes more common.
Potassium: The soils of the Lcdwer Rechna area are well supplied with potassium minerals and proG;Gly contain ample amounts of available potassium. Hence, little response has been obtained from added --potassium and it probably will 'not be required in appreciable quantities for several decades.'




4-5
MO ISTURE CHARACTERISTICS
Data on the moisture characteristics of Project soils are limited but are reasonably
'consistent. Table 4-4 presents a range of values for some of the commonly determined singlevalue soil moisture constants. Field capacity is the amount of water held in the root zone of a soil one to three days after irrigation. Moisture equivalent and 1/3 atmosphere percentage are two of the laboratory determinations that give an estimate of field capacity. The permanent wilting percentage (PWP) is a greenhouse method for obtaining the lower limit of the water available to plants, and the 15 atmosphere percentage is a laboratory method for estimating this same limit; the difference between field capacity and PWP is the amount of water available for plant use. However, as plant growth virtually ceases before all the available water is used up, the soil should not be a Ilowed to dry down to the PWP before irrigation.
TABLE 4-4
MOISTURE CHARACTERISTICS AND BULK DENSITY OF LOWER RECHNA SOILS
Soil Field Moisture 1/3 PWP or 15 Bulk
Texture Capacity Equivalent Atmosphere Atmosphere Density
Percentage Percentage
() (% (gm/cm3)
Fine 25-35 20-35 25-38 10-20 1 .3 to 1 .5
Medium 16-24 13-25 18-25 6-12 1.4 to 1.6
Coarse 7-15 6-20 8-20 2-6 1.4 to 1.7
(Adapted from Asghar and Zaidie, 1960; Razzaq and Butt, 1962; and Khan
and Butt, 1962).
CATION EXCHANGE CAPACITY
The average cation exchange capacity of the fine, medium and coarse textured soils of theProject area is given in Table 4-5. In soils not affected by salt accumulation, the predominant bases are calcium, magnesium, potassium and sodium, in that order. Ammonium and hydrogen ions are seldom found.
TABLE 4-5
CATION EXCHANGE CAPACITY OF LOWER RECHNA SOILS
Soil Texture Average Capacity for Each Soil Depth (me/100 grams)
0"-6" 6"'12" 12"-24" 2411-36" 36"-48"
Fine 20.7 19.9 19.4 23.3 21.2
Medium 14.0 11.1 11.1 10.4 10.6
Coarse 10.1 9.7 10.3 11.0 10.3
(From Asghar and Zaidie, 1960).




CHAPTER 5
GROUNDWATER HYDROLOGY




5-1
Chapter 5
GROUND WATER HYDROLOGY
Ground water hydrology is of singular importance in planning reclamation activities in the Punjab. Hydrologic factors figure prominently in the present problems of agriculture, and ground water development is the key feature of the Salinity Control and Reclamation Program. Recognizing the critical importance of hydrology, the Government of Pakistan has supported a broad program of field studies in cooperation with USAID and Its predecessor agencies since 1954. The results of these investigations are reported in a series of WASID reports (see selected references). The following discussion of essential features is drawn largely from the WASID publications. For a detailed account of the hydrology, reference is made to the original sources.
THE ALLUVIAL AQUIFER
The alluvial sediments which underlie the Northern Zone of the Indus Plains form one of the world's great unconfined (nonartesian) ground water reservoirs. The geology of the Plains has been studied in appropriate detail by WASID. Rechna Doab, including the Project area, is described by Kidwai (1963) largely on the basis of data from a network of deep test holes (Plate 9).
The alluvium represents the accumulation of detritus derived from the mountain ranges to the north and deposited by the ancestral rivers of the Indus system. The sediments consist chiefly of unconsolidated, medium to fine-grained sand, silt and clay. The sand grains are commonly subrounded and the deposits are generally well sorted: such characteristics enhance the water-bearing properties of the sediments. Gravel and coarse sand are uncommon except possibly at great depth. However, pebbles of siltstone and mudstone, and nodules of kankar (a calcium carbonate concretion) are frequently associated with the clay and silt beds.
The lithology of the alluvium as deduced from well cuttings and electric logs is shown by the geologic sections in Plate 9. There are no discernable traceable units. Throughout most of the Project area, clastic sediments predbminate: clays occur largely in lenticular beds of limited area extent. Sand comprises approximately 70 percent of the sediments that occur to depths of 500 to 600 feet. The proportion of fine-textured sediments in the section apparently increases slightly toward the north, but not sufficiently to prejudice the waterbearing properties of the alluvium. Thus, despite the local heterogeneity of the deposits, the alluvium forms a unified aquifer in which ground water occurs essentially under unconfined conditions. High capacity wells, two to four hundred feet deep, can be located: almost anywhere in the Project area.
The thickness of the alluvium is unknown. Pre-Cambrian crystalline rocks crop out in the Chinirt "gorges" of the Chenab River and at Sangla Hill, and were encountered In a few boreholes in the vicinity of Sangla Hill during the installation of tubewells for SCARP-1. Within the Project area, bedrock was encountered in test hole E-29 near the crystalline outcrop at Chiniot at a depth of 525 feet; in well 23 adjacent to Upper Jhang Branch at a depth of 718 feet; and in well 5 at a depth of 597 feet. Southeast of Lyallpur along the Lower Gugera and Burala Branclhes, bedrock was recorded in test wells 3, 6, and 24 at depths of 770, 882 and 970 feet, respectively. Exploratory test wells E-17, E-20, and E-22 near Sangla Hill encountered bedrock at depths of 280, 535, and 542 feet, respectively. Elsewhere within the Project area, test wells were carried to depths of 1,000 feet or more without reaching bedrock. Geologic considerations and miscellaneous geophysical data indicate that the




5-2
the thickness of the alluvium may be 5,000 feet or more throughout most of Lower Rechna
Doab.
HYDRAULIC PROPERTIES OF THE ALLUVIUM
The hydraulic coefficients of storage (specific yield), permeability, and transmissibility (the product of permeability and thickness) are important properties of water-bearing sediments because they determine the response of the aquifer to ground water development. The hydraulic properties of the alluvium have been studied by WASID under an 'extensive program of field investigations which included interference pumping tests on more than 150 wells in the Northern Zone. Preliminary analysis of the data for 141 tests in -Rechna, Chaj and Thai Doabs are described by Bennett et al (1964).
According to WASID's interpretation of the data, the average lateral permeability of the water-bearing sand and silt component of the alluvium is 0.0025 cusec per square foot. Vertical permeabilities were determined for only 14 tests; the average value was 0.001 cusec per square foot and the average ratio between lateral and vertical permeabilities at those sites was about 75:1. Calculated values.of specific yield commonly ranged from 0.02 to 0.26; the average value is 0. 14.
Although interference pumping tests are universally recognized as providing the most reliable index of hydraulic coefficients, there are inherent shortcomings in the methodology which canprejudice the interpretation of the data. Owing to anisotropy and local heterogeneity of the sediments, the hydraulic characteristics of alluvial aquifers commonly differ significantly from those of ideal aquifers assumed in mathematical developments. These differences are reflected to a marked degree in the initial response of the flow system to pumpage. A number of factors may operate, but in most situations the overriding factor is slow vertical drainage in the vicinity of the pumping well, a common phenomenon of anisotropic aquifers. Where drainage is slow, short-term pumping tests invariably yield low apparent values for specific yield and commonly yield high apparent coefficients of permeability. Theoretical consideration of the ratio of permeability to storage coefficient, as well as data derived from operating projects in the Punjab suggest that the coefficients reported by WASID may be so biased. This subject will be amplified in an appendix to the Regional Plan for the Northern Zone (Timpton and Kalmbach, Inc., in preparation).
OCCURRENCE OF GROUND WATER
In the native environment prior to the inception of irrigation, the ground water system was in equilibrium. Over long periods of time, recharge balanced discharge and there were no important, long-term changes in ground water storage.
Plates 10 and 1I show, respectively, the elevation of the water table above mean sea level and the depth-to-water below land surface prior to the commencement of large scale irrigation. The salient features of.the elevation contours are the trough formed by the water table and the marked flattening of the hydraulic grddient in the lower half of the doab, especially along the axis of the trough near the northeast Project boundary. These are reflected on the depth-to-water map by the progressive increase in depths from the margins toward the center of the doab, culminating in'the closed pattern of the contours. Thus the general direction of ground water movement was downstream and inland from the rivers toward the axis of the trough.
The configuration -of the water table in pre-irrigation times was controlled by climate,
the surface drainage pattern, and regional variations in the hydraulic properties of the alluvium. With respect to climate, the annual depth of precipitation in Rechna Doab ranges from over 30 inches in the upper reaches to less than six inches at the lower end (Plate 5), and the mean annual air temperature increases about 10.degrees Fahrenheit.over the same area. In the upper




5-3
part of the doab, precipitation contributed the major amount of recharge to the ground water body. To the southwest, recharge from precipitation decreased and the elevation of the water table became increasingly lower than that of the rivers, thus forming a prominent trough (Plate 10) that caused progressively increasing recharge from the rivers. In the lower part of the doab, the convergence of the rivers established a base level that formed the principle control on the water table. There, hydraulic gradients became relatively flat as precipitation ceased to be a significant factor of recharge, and as evapotranspirative losses became important due to more shallow water tables.
In summary, Rechna Doab essentially formed a discrete hydrologic unit in the preirrigation period. Ground water recharge was derived from rainfall in the upper parts of the doab and from inflow from the rivers. Ground water migrated down gradient, generally from northeast to southwest, and was discharged near the confluence of the Chenab and Ravi rivers by evapotranspiration and perhaps by effluent seepage at the extreme tip of the doab.
The introduction of irrigation from perennial canals changed the earlier equilibrium. Conveyance losses from the canal system contributed a new component of recharge which was distributed more or less uniformly over the doab and caused the water table to adjust toward a new equilibrium. The most conspicuous feature of the adjustment was a marked rise in ground water levels accompanied by changes in the slope and directions of the hydraulic gradient.
The first perennial canal system in Rechna Doab.was the Lower Chenab Canal (Plate 6) which was completed in 1892 and serves most of the Project area. Within the lands commanded by the system, ground water levels rose at the rate of one to two feet per year until the water table was sufficiently close to the land surface for evapotranspirative losses to become significant. Thereafter the rate of rise declined until the water table stabilized, commonly at depths of 5 to 15 feet, depending upon the local topographic situation and the proximity of the rivers and major canals
Upstream from the Lower Chenab Canal, beginning about 1900, the water table rose at the rate of about 0.8 foot per year as a result of natural subsurface inflow. That rate of rise continued until about 1915 when the Upper Chenab Canal (Plate 6) became fully operative. Thereafter the maximum rate of rise in the area commanded by the Upper Chenab Canal ranged from 2.8 to 3.0 feet per year, again until evapotranspirative losses became significant and a new equilibrium was attained.
The local history of the rising water table for different parts of the Project area is shown by hydrographs of representative observation wells, Figures 5-1 and 5-2. Wells CL IX/71, CL XIII/1 18, and CL XII/108 illustrate typical responses of the water table in the interior of the doab where the natural water table was relatively deep. Wells CL XIV/130, CL XlV/123 and CL XV/134 illustrate the more subdued response in riverain areas where the natural water table was shallow and subsurface drainage is strongly influenced by evapotrans-. piration.
For the Project area, the average net rate of rise of the ground water table by decades is as shown below:
Period Average annual Rate of Rise in Feet
1900-1910 1.32
1910-1920 .90
1920-1930 .60
1930-1940 .61
1940-1950 .61
1950-J960 .44




5-4
Assuming a specific yield of 0,30 and considering only the data for the early years of irrigation when the maximum changes in storage occurred, the potential rate of ground water recharge from the irrigation system is about 0.4 foot per year. Since the inception of irrigation, accretion to ground water storage has totaled more than 30 million acre-feet.
The net change in ground water levels in Rechna Doab between the pre-irrigation period and 1964 is shown in Plate 14. The pattern of change reflects the configuration of the natural water table. The maximum rise of over 90 feet occurred in the lower part of the doab along the axis of the ancestral trough, and the minimum rise of less than 10 feet occurred along the rivers and in the upper reaches of the doab. Within the Project area the average rise was about 45 feet.
By 1964 the water table had essentially stablized near the rivers and was rising with a
slow rate in the center portion of the Project area. Conditions in 1964 are shown by the waterlevel contour map (Plate 12) and the depth-to-water map (Plate 13) which indicate that the conditions of occurrence of ground water under the irrigation regime differ markedly from those that prevailed in the natural environment. The hydraulic gradient is more or less uniform over the area and parallel to the topographic slope; the trough is no longer present. Similarly, depth-to-water is relatively shallow and uniform over the doab: its variations are due to topographic anomalies and to the location of the larger canals.
Thus, under the irrigation regime, seepage from the irrigation system is the dominant component of ground water recharge, and is more evenly distributed over the area than is the recharge from rivers and precipitation. Losses to evapotranspiration still represent the principle component of discharge from the water table, and these also are more or less uniformly distributed over the area. However., there is an obvious component of discharge as effluent seepage as shown by the downstream curvature of the water level contours in the vicinity of the rivers. This component is slight compared to evapotranspirative losses, but it has significantly affected the babe flow of the rivers (Qureshi, 1960).
QUALITY OF GROUND WATER
The chemical quality of ground water reflects its hydrologic history. Thus the quality of ground water in Rechna Doab is best considered in two contexts that of the native water which occurred in the alluvial aquifer prior to the inception of irrigation, and that of the artificial recharge to the aquifer which has been derived in recent years from seepage from the irrigation system.
There is no clear division between the two types. Throughout most of Rechna Doab the quality of water deeper than 100 feet or so represents the native ground water. Within the Project area the native water occurs at depths greater than about 80 feet, except near the major canals where leakage may circulate to depths of several hundred feet.
From the standpoint of ground water development, the native ground water is most
important; it comprises the bulk of ground water in storage and will be the primary source of supply to irrigation wells for an indefinite period. The quality of the native ground water has been described by Shamsi (1960) on the basis of water samples collected from nearly 250 test borings and wells (Plate 15). The general procedure was to collect a sample at each conspicuous bed of sand penetrated by the borehole to a depth of about 450 feet which was the maximum effective depth of recovery of the sampling device. More than 800 samples were collected and analyzed during the survey.
The variation of the mineral content of the native ground water in Rechna Doab is shown on Plate 15. The values of dissolved solids on which the map is based represents the average of samples from-depths below 1.00 feet. In most instances there are only moderate differences between samples from the same borehole. Therefore, the isograms may be taken to represent the quality of water which will be yielded by a well screened in the interval between about 100 to 500 feet below land surface.




5 -5
The mineralization of th e native ground water shown on Plate 15 derives from tke
pattern of circulation that existed in the natural environment (Plate 10). Thus along the rivers and in the upper reaches of the doab where precipitation is a significant factor of recharge, the native ground water is moderately mineralized with concentrations of dissolved solids ranging from about 200 to 500 parts per million (ppm). This reflects the quality of the recharge. Precipitation is essentially free of dissolved solids, and the average concentration of river water is less than 200 ppm (Table C-2). With increasing distance from the area of naturalI recharge, the mineral content of the native ground water increases gradually to a concentration of about 2000 ppm, chiefly due to leaching of salts from the sediments. In the central and lower reaches of the doab, this trend gives way to an abrupt transition to highly mineralized water with concentrations of dissolved solids of 10,000 ppm or more. The zone of highly saline native water coincides with the deeper part of the water table trough where the natural hydraulic gradient abruptly flattened and stagnated.
The change in concentration of the native ground water down-gradient is accompanied by a change in the chemical composition. Near the recharge areas, in the range of concentration of dissolved solids ot about 200 tu 500 ppm, the dominant ions in solution are the alkali earths (calcium and magnesium) and bicarbonate. With increasing concentration there is a corresponding increase in the relative concentrations of the cation, sodium, and of the anions, sulfate and chloride. Thus, in the range of concentration of dissolved solids between about 500 to 2000 ppm the native water commonly is of a mixed type sodium is the dominant cation, bicarbonate, sulfate and chloride are more or less equally distributed among the anions. Increases in concentration of the native water above 2000 ppm largely represent enrichment of sodium and chloride which are the most soluble ions and tend to reinain in solution as the ground water is concentrated by evaporation. Accordingly, where concentrations of dissolved solids exceed about 4000 ppm, sodium and chloride commonly comprise 75 percent or more of cations and anions, respectively. Further details and selected chemical analyses representing the deep ground waters are presented in Appendix C.
Recharge from the irrigation system has accumulated in the alluvial aquifer in the depth interval between the natural water table and the present water table. Following the nomenclature used by WASID, water from this zone is referred to as "shallow ground water" in this report.
The quality of the shallow ground water is significant only because it gives an indication of the chemical character of recharge to the water table under the existing irrigation regime. Any change in the conditions of recharge or the occurrence of ground water such as will occur in response to reclamation activities will influence, and in all likelihood improve, the quality of the shallow water.
The quality of the shallow ground water is largely controlled by the local environment, chiefly the proximity of canal recharge, or the depth to the water table. However, the chemical nature of the shallow supplies is similar to that of the underlying native ground water, but the shallow ground water supplies show larger local variations and less regional variations. Thus, in the upper reaches of the doab the shallow supplies commonly contain less than 1000 ppm dissolved solids but the range of concentration is from less than 200 ppm to over 3000 ppm. Similarly, in the lower part of the doab including the Project area, the shallow ground water generalIly conta ins from 2000 to 4000 ppm d issolIved solIids, but the range of concentration extends from about 200 ppm to over 8000 ppm.




5 -6
SUMMARY
From the standpoint of planning a program of ground water management and development in Lower Rechncu Doab, the significant results of the WAS ID studies are as follows:
1 Despite the heterogeneous composition of the sediments the alluvium forms a continuous, highly transmissive aquifer. Wells drilled to moderate depths of 200 to 400 feet and yielding 2 to 5 cusecs with specific capacities of 0.2 to 0.3 cusec per foot of drawdown can be constructed almost anywhere within the Project area.
2. Although the alluvial aquifer is highly anisotropic, ground water is essentially unconfined to depths of 400 feet or rrare, and the discharge of wells of moderate depth is derived from water table storage. It follows, then, that ground water withdrawals can effectively control subsurface drainage and the depth and fluctuation of the water table. With respect to management of the ground water reservoir, anisotropy is a favorable property because it promotes more widespread distribution of drawdown in response to pumping: additionally, it limits the quantity of vertical recharge that can be derived from a local source such as a canal. Thus, the proximity of canals to individual wells is not a critical consideration, especially under a regional program of ground water development.
3. The chemical quality of the ground waters of about 60 percent of the Project area is satisfactory for irrigation use .
4. Perennial recharge to the ground water reservoir is assured from leakage from the irrigation system and seepage from link canals and rivers. Overdevelopment leading to mining of ground water is not a hazard. Considering the recharge potential and the relatively high specific yield and permeability of the sediments, mining will proceed slowly, if at all, under any practicable level of development and can be ameliorated before it becomes a matter of economic significance.




-620
600
\ftv
-580
w WELL NO, CLIX/71
z N.S.L.-605.1
w
w -540
0
w
w WELL No. a-xiVioB
&L
z 520 N.S.L 5571
z
2
WELL NO. CLXIIVN8 w -500 X&L.- 5483
WE L YDROGRAPHS
PRO JECT 5
YEARS is 460 ow igb5 ;10 1*5 d20 19i5- l9k 19,35 440 -445 f9bo 5 1940 9s




-50
-520
-510
49
-40N .L 0.
-47 .460
PR EC
'40YE R
185lI 954. 9add12 qo 9514 151,01151616




'CHAPTER 6
PROBLEMS OF IRRIGATED AGRICULTURE




CHAPTER 6
PROBLEMS OF IRRIGATED AGRICVLTUE..
Agricultural production in the Northern Zone is suppressed by a number of physical
and human factors. These restraints have been discussed in various reports by a number of
specialists. What has not been emphasized sufficiently is the magnitude of the region's
agricultural potential. Considering the soils, climate, water supply, and human resources,
the agricultural potential of the Punjab is as great as for any large irrigated region .in the
world.
Despite the favorable environment, irrigated agriculture is not now a prosperous
economic activity in the Punjab, neither for the farmer nor for the nation. Yields of crops are among the lowest of all areas in which agriculture is the predominant economic activity and irrigation is practiced on a large scale. Also, yields have remained virtually static in
the past ten years whereas increases of 15 to 100 percent have been experienced in other
countries during the same period of time (,Table 6-1).
Moreover, intensity of cultivation is relatively low. That, coupled with low unit
yields, has created a chronic condition of unsatisfactory production in the Punjab. For
example, the Lower Rechna Project area is favored with the most reliable and adequate canal supplies in the Punjab, yet, yields are only slightly above the average for the country (Table 6-1)o
The low yields and low cropping intensities are due to various problems of land, water, and people, and their interactions. The principal factor that are involved in the agricultural problems of the Lower Rechna area can be classified as follows:
INHERENT Climate, soils, topography, permeability and drainability; factors which
FACTORS cannot be altered significantly.
WATER Supply, quality, seasonal availability, drainage, and associated salinity and
FACTORS alkali hazards; factors which can be altered significantly, but are not under
the control of the farmer.
MANAGEMENT Crops, crop rotations, fertilizer use, seedbed preparation, seeding technique, FACTORS plant population, cultivation, pest control and water management practices;
factors wh ich can be altered significantly and are largely under the control
of the farmer, subject to the availability of essential supplies.
SUPPLY Fertilizers, superior seed varieties, pesticides, farm tools and equipment,
FACTORS storage and marketing facilities, credit, research, agricultural extension,.
etc.; factors which are subject mainly to economic and administrative
restraints, and are chiefly under the control of the government.
MISCELLAN- Land tenure laws, fragmentation of land holdings, human diseases and nutrition,
EOUS FACTORS population pressure, farmer incentives, government concern and support, and a number of other administrative and sociological problems; factors which are
determined by policy and activity in other sectors of the economy and government.
Of all these, the factors of water supply, drainage, and salinity dominate the problems of irrigated agriculture in the Punjab. The inherent factors are largely favorable and the management, supply and miscellaneous factors only reflect the inevitable stagnation of irrigated agriculture in an environment in which water supply factors impose such severe restraints on




6-2
agricultural development and management.
The water factors derive from a variety of causes, most of which are related to the regional hydrology. Thus, water supply is a basic problem. The seasonal fluctuations in river flow do not match the agricultural calendar, and the featureless terrain offers indifferent reservoir sites for hold-over storage. Water supply problems at the field are amplified by high conveyance losses from the unlined channels in permeable-soils; as described previously, conveyance losses within the canal system are about 25 percent or more of the headworks diversions. Lack of sufficient water to meet both consumptive use and leaching requirements of crops has led to extensive salinization of soils, despite the excellent quality of the canal water.
Drainage problems are in turn the consequence of high conveyance losses. As canal seepage cannot be accommodated by natural ground water drainage under the flat hydraulic gradients which prevail, the inception of canal irrigation is invariably followed by a period of rising ground water levels until recharge from the irrigation system is balanced by discharge to evapotranspiration. These conditions aggravate salinity problems and in extreme cases lead to waterlogging of the irrigated lands.
The overriding. importance of the water factors on agricultural production in the Lower Rechna area is evident from simple statistics. Consider cropping patterns and intensity. The present cropping pattern bears the unmistakable mark of subsistance economy. It emphasizes Rabi food crops rather than Kharif cash crops, and probably represents maximum economic utility from available irrigation supplies. But in a typical year only about 2.5 million acres are cropped (an intensity of 114 percent); whereas the perennial growing season and the kinds of crops which are actually planted indicate that a cropping intensity of 150 percent is practical and feasible. Thus under present conditions only about 75 percent of the potential crop acreage is being exploited.
Moreover, despite the present low cropping intensity, irrigation supplies fall short of
optimum crop requirements, The system shortage is shown by Figure 6-1 which compares historic irrigation deliveries -- including canal and private well supplies -- with the irrigation requirements for the present cropping pattern. Through most of the yearsupplies equal only about 80 percent of requirements, and during the last half of the Rabi seasoncrops receive only about 60 percent of optimum requirements.
Canal water supplies are distributed among the farmers by a water distribution schedule called a wari bundi which is established by the Irrigation Department. Depending upon the size of outlet, farmers are alloted a specified period of time for irrigation for each acre owned. Turns are on a regular basis, commonly between 7 and 10 days. The farmer has free use of the water during his turn and may apply it to whatever crop or whatever number of acres he desires.
A wari bundi on a typical distributary in the Project area allots the former a 15 minute "turn" per acre each week. The capacity of the outlet is 2.05 cusecs; thus providing one-half acre inch of water per acre per week, or slightly more than two inches per acre per month. With a holding of 10 acres, the farmer receives about 21 acre-inches of water per month, an amount sufficient to irrigate about seven acres of crops with three inches once a month.
Under these conditions farmers historically have supplemented inadequate canal supplies with ground water. In 1965 about 7,000 Persian wells were in operation in the Project area. In recent years private tubewells have become a more important source of supplemental supplies and in 1965 nearly 3,200 were in operation in Lower Rechna Doab. The rate -of private tubewell development accelerated in 1960, reached a peak in 1963, and since then the installation of private tubewells has declined (see Figure 6-2). The tubewells now in operation provide irrigation water for about 320,000 acres or about 15 percent of the culturable area (Table 6-2). Farmers served by private tubewell supplies report increases of 25




6-3
percent or more in cropping intensity and 10 to 40-percent in unit yields. The pesticides,
selected seeds and fertilizers distributed in the Project area are used predominantly on lands
served by private tubewells as the availability of supplemental irrigation supplies makes
their use more profitable.
Recent field studies verify earlier findings that the private tubewells are very profitable, as they can be paid for in two to three years of operation if more than 50 acres is
commanded. The average command of private tubewells in Lower Rechna Doab is 100 acres
and each tubewell supplies about 200 acre feet of water. On the average, the cost of water from the tubewells is 24 rupees from a diesel unit and 15 rupees from an electric installation (Table 6-3). But the initial cost of the tubewells is quite high: the average diesel installation costs the farmer more than 9,500 rupees'and an electric tubewell costs nearly 7,400
rupees. Farmers with small holdings seldom are able to finance this initial cost and the higher fixed costs per acre make the tubewell somewhat less profitable to the small farmer.
The statistics for distribution of private well ownership verify that only the larger
farmers are installing tubewells. Farms larger than 50 acres represent only one percent of the holdings and 9 percent of the farm area, but have two-thirds of the total tubewells. On farms larger than 150 acres there is an average of 4 tubewells per farm and 6 farms out of'10 between 50 and 150 acres in size have tubewells. Only 4 percent of the farms between 25 and 50 acres have tubewells and of the farms smaller than 25 acres only one in 365 has a tubewell and these are predominantly on the specialty farms near urban centres. Thus it is apparent that even though tubewells are very profitable, only the wealthiest farmers can afford the initial cost of insta I lation.
As most of the (ubewells are in the non-saline ground water areas (Plate 16), it is
likely that few large farms in those areas remain without tubewell supplies at the present time. The decline of private tubewell installation which has occurred since 1963 reflects this fact. The future rate of tubewell installation is uncertain but in 1966 it will probably not involve more than about 1.5 percent of the culturable lands of the entire'Project drea And the rate will continue to decline and will probably dwindle to inconsequence within a very few years as the supplemental irrigation requirements of the farms larger than 25 acres are met. Farms of this size that overlie fresh ground waters comprise less than 25 percent of the culturable area of the Project: thus even if all of these farms had tubewells, by far the largest part of the total area would'remain uncommanded.
Problems of water shortage and inadequate drainage are manifested by Salinization of
the soil. Saline and alkali soils develop mainly as a result of poor water management practices:
(1) application of insufficient irrigation water to meet both consumptive use and leaching requirements, or (2) irrigating extensively without providingfor adequate drainage (Appendix B). According to reconnaissance soil surveys conducted by WASID, there is visible evidence that 410,000 acres or about 19 percent of the'Project area is sufficiently salt-affected for crop yields to be reduced significantly. (Plate 8 and Table 4-3). It should be noted that the classification in Table 4-3 relates only to the severity of the salinity problem: it gives no indication of the occurence, severity, depth, or thickness of associated alkali soil problems.
As judged from inspection of the area, interpretation of laboratory data and discussions with farmers and local agriculturists, about 60 percent of the 410,000 acres of salt-affected




land'can be reclaimed by simple conventional methods (mainly leaching); approximately 30 percent willI require leaching for a long period of time, or leaching plus organic matter or smallI amounts of amendment; and about 10 percent will require chemical -amendments and skilled reclamation practices.
In summary, because water is scarce in relation to land, farmers tend to spread their irrigation supplies over too large an area in an effort to achieve the highest possible cropping intensity and (presumably) the maximum returns from the water. In this respect the farmers are employing rational management of their most limited resources. But the low levels of development and production which are achieved and the sa linity problems that arise under these practices limit, in turn, the economic utility and hence the application of modern technology. Expeditious use of short-run resources conflicts therefore with efficient long-run management practices; and moreover the great majority of the farmers are powerless in the matter of alleviating the basic problems of water supply, salinity and drainage.
It should be emphasized again that the unfavorable supply, management, and miscellaneous factors are largely the consequences of stagnation in agricultural development rather than the roots of the problem. These unfavorable factors for the most part are linked to, or result from the primitive agricultural practices used in the Punjab, for they have remained essentially unchanged during a period in which modern agriculture has experienced a techno logic revolution. It should be noted that the inadequacies of these factors are much less important as production restraints in the existing environment than they will be in a presumed future environment in which water supply, drainage and salinity are not limiting factors. Accordingly, the nature and implications of the supply, management, and miscellaneous factors are described in appropriate detail in Chapter 10, Corollary Development.




TABLE 6-1
COMPARISON OF AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTIVITY OF LOWER RECHNA WITH DIFFERENT COUNTRIES AND REGIONS
Wheat Rice Gur WMaize Cotton
(Grain) (Paddy) (Raw Sugar) (Grain) (Lint)
Country Yield Yield Yield Yield Yield
or Region Year Lbs/Acre Lbs/Acre Lbs/Acre Lbs/Acre Lbs/Acre
LOWER RECHNA 1948/49-.1952/53 1,086 1,222 3,176 1,045 156
1962-63 1,012 1,508 3,300 1,162 247
WEST PAKISTAN 1948/49-1952/53 776 1,231 3,022 874 178
1962-63 732 1,347 3,145 946 223
INDIA 1955-59 654 1,190 (1) 722 97
1963 708 1,378 3,888 890 127
EGYPT 1955-59 2,064 3,734 (1) 1,865 467
1963 2,274 3,481 (1) 2,100 577
JAPAN 1955-59 (2) 4,053 (1) (2) (1)
1963 (2) 4,386 4,941 (2) (1)
SPAIN 1955-59 924 5,168 (1) 1,915 221
1963 1,020 4,865 6,441 2,072 329
CHILE 1955-59 1,200 2,130 (1) 1,579 (1)
1963 1,380 2,368 (1) 1,876 (1)
U .S.A. (3) 1955-59 1,872 (5) 3,443 (6) (1) 3,197 (7) 917 (8)
1963 2,028 4,029 (1) 3,618 947
U.S.A. (4) 1955-59 1,338 3,189 (1) 2,727 428
1963 1,518 3,962 5,087 3,786 517
MEXICO 1955-59 1,212. 1,854 (1) 745 430
1963 1,938 1,948 (1) 846 515
(1) Data not available.
(2) Data not comparable.
(3) Irrigated areas.
(4) U. S. totals, including non-irrigated areas.
(5) 1958-62 average: Idaho, New Mexico, Arizona, Nevada, California.
(6) 1958-62 average: Texas, California, Louisiana, Mississippi, Missouri, Arkansas.
(7) 1958-62 average: Western U.S.
(8) 1958-62 average: Arizona, California, New Mexico.
Sources of data:
Lower Rechna and West Pakistan: Bureau of Statistics and Forecast Reports of the Agricultural
Department of West Pakistan.
U.S.A.: Agricultural Statistics, USDA, 1965; Statistical Abstract of the U.S., 1965.
Other countries: Production Year Book, Food and Agricultural Organization of the United
Nations, Rome, 1963.




TABLE 6-2
PRIVATE TUBEWELL STATISTICS; LOWER RECHNA AREA
ITEM SALINE ZONE 1/ NON-SALINE ZONE TOTAL
Persian wheels working 69 6,874 6,943
Tubewells 178 3,013 3,191
Electric 97 551 648
Diesel 78 2,456 2,534
-Tractor 3 6 9
Mixed application only 2/
No. tubewells 139 1,524 1,663
Acres. 14,166 145,002 159,168
Pure application only
No. tubewells 31 1,286 1,317
Acres 3,726 131,610 135,336
Both pure and mixed
No. tubewells 8 203 211
Acres pure 361 11,499 11,860
Acres mixed 374 11,906 12,280
Percent of acres
Pure application 22 48 46
Mixed application 78 52 54
Tubewell command
CA per tubewell 105 100 100
%of CA commanded 2.8 20.0 14.7
Total acres commanded 18,627 300,017 318,644
Commercial wells
Number 1 151 152
Percent of total 0.6 5.0 4.8
Acres co-mmanded 100 11,850 11,950
CA per tubewell 100 78 79
Wells owned by farmers
Used on own land only
Number 129 2,165 2,294
%of farmer wells 73 76 76
Acres commanded 12,412 204,991 217,403
CA per tubewell 96 95 95
Sells some water
Number 30 635 665
%of farmer wells 17 22 22
Acres of own land 1,793 36,151 37,944
Acres of other land 2,560 41,056 43,616
Acres commanded 4,353 77,207 81,560
Own land, %of total 41 47 47
CA per tubewell 145 122 123
Miscellaneous use 3/
Number 18 62 80
Acres commanded 1,762 5,969 7,731
CA per tubewell 98 96 97
1/ More than 2,000 ppm TDS (not the "Saline Area" of this Project). /Mixed with canal water.
-/ All or part of the commanded land is held in tender less than five years.




TABLE 6-3
PRIVATE TUBEWELL COSTS LOWER RECHNA ANNUAL COST OF OPERATION
(in rupees)
S DIESEL I ELECTRIC
COST ITEM TOTAL ANNUAL TOTAL ANNUAL
Capital Cost, Complete 9,560 7,382
Depreciation (except bore
and strainer)-15 years 534 389
Interest @ 7% 335 258
Operational Costs 1
1. Fuel/Electricity 2/ 2,126 1,589
2. Lubricant 451 74
3. Maintenance 225 194
4. Engine Overhaul 361
5. Operator 852 540
TOTALS 9,560 4,884 7,382 3,044
Cost per acre-foot 24 15
--------------------------------------------------- ----------------1/ With ground water production at 204 acre-feet/year
2/ Diesel: 10 percent combined efficiency from fuel to water and 30 foot head, or
6.27 imp. gal/AF @ Rs 79.80 per 48 gal. drum.
Electric: Combined efficiency is estimated as 32 percent, and consumption is
estimated at 19,860 KWH @ Rs 0.08/KWH.




FIGURE 6 1
PRESENT IRRIGATION SUPPLIES AND
CROCP CONSUMPTIVE USE (LOWER R E C H NA).
Deficit
Tubewell and Persian Wheel Supplies SSurplus
0 L Canal Deliveries
500
400
z
U** 300
uLJ
U.,
U
I .
4e 4 191 1 I r200 r M
* *U i
* t*
I
-o ....
I *,, U
-, i J U *
U - -. -'*'Jan Feb Ma r Apr tby June July Aug Sept Oct Nov Dec




FIGURE 6-2
ANNUAL NUMBER OF TUBEWELLS, INSTALLED LOWER RECHNA DOAB
600
400
-j
u- 300
0
z
200
10
10 195.96 1959 19162 4965
YEAR




CHAPTER 7
RECLAMATION POLICIES AND PROJECT DESIGN CRITERIA




7- 1
CHAPTER 7
RECLAMATION PO-LICIES AND PROJECT DESIGN CRITERIA
GENERAL POLICIES
The basic objective of the Salnity Control and Reclamation Program is to promote maximum possible development of the soil and water resources of West Pakistan in the shortest practicable period of time. The more specific objectives are to eliminate water supply problems, and salinity and waterlogging as restraints on agricultural development; thus creating an environment in which the full benefits of modern agricultural technology can be realIized .
The obvious immediate purpose of the program is to stimulate agriculture to a level of development sufficient to satisfy the internal requirements of the country for essential foods and fibers. But an equally vital longer range purpose is the generation of capital which is required to finance corollary agricultural development and other commercial and Industrial activities. Because of the increasing pressure of population on the land agriculture cannot long continue to hold its present dominant position in the economy. On the other hand, agriculture is the only large-scale economic activity in Pakistan which can bemobilized for appreciable short-term returns. Thus, if the reclamation program achieves its objectives, it will become self-liquidating: the transition to industry will gain momentum, and first water and then land will become too valuable to be employed solely for agricultural purposes. This is not to suggest that agriculture will ever cease to be a major factor in the economy only, that as the economy expands as a result of the reclamation program, there will be a more favorable balance between agriculture and industry.
Under this philosophy the overriding commitment is to rapid agricultural development even at the risk of temporary overdevelopment of the ground water resources untilI the entire economy, bolstered by agriculture, gains sufficient momentum to maintain sustained economic growth in all sectors. The feasibilIity indeed rthe necessity of this polIicy has been demonstrated by quantitative economic studies made by the White House Panel appointed to study the problems of agricultural development in Pakistan (Revelle, 1964). In qualitative terms this policy simply recognizes the axiom that in a modern dynamic economy the value of water always increases at a faster rate than the costs of water production.
The Salinity Control and Reclamation Program for the Northern Zone has evolved in
accordance with the experience and knowledge acquired from a deliberate program of scientific studies and field experiments carried out over the past forty years by various government agencies, with strong support in recent years from U.S. A. I.D., the Columbo Plan, the United Nations, and other International technical assitance organizations. The SCARP program still is evolving as experience gained from operating projects is interpreted and fed back into the planning studies. Thus, through the years, the program incorporates proven practices and techniques, and is guided by rational policies which provide the best compromise among technical feasibility, agricultural requirements, and available economic resources.
SCOPE OF THE RECLAMATION PROGRAM
A ccording to the commitments of the Third Five Year Plan, about one mill Iion acres per year are to be brought. under the reclamation program in the Northern Zone. This rate of development is commensurate with both the needs and. the resources of Pakistan. That is,
-the proposed program will not absorb an inordinate proportion of the development budget, and with concomitant development in the Southern Zone, West Pakistan will be selfsufficient with regard to essential agricultural products by or before 1975, and will have




7-2
surplus cash crops for export in'subsequent years. Acceleration of the program would be at the risk of straining the financial resources of West Pakistan with scant prospects of achieving proportionate short-term benefits because of the difficulty of implementing many of the essential corollary activities with sufficient rapidity. On the other hand, if the pace of the reclamation program is slowed appreciably below the rate of one million acres per year, the agricultural economy will not grow fast enough to close the gap on the expanding needs of the country for food and fiber, the program will fall short of its primary objective, and agriculture will not achieve its potential as a stimulant to the entire national economy.
The basic policy of this program is to concentrate reclamation activities on culturable lands within the existing irrigation boundaries, rather than to open virgin lands to irrigation development. This policy recognizes that the existing canal systems include the best agricultural lands, that these lands have been levelled and otherwise developed for irrigation, and that they are populated with experienced farmers and served by agricultural artisans. tvbreover, as most of the salt-affected soils in the Project area can be rapidly and effectively reclaimed by simple and inexpensive leaching techniques, there are no economic advantages in bringing in new lands. Accordingly, as water, noi land, is the limiting factor in agricultural development, maximum benefits will be derived by promoting optimum development of the established irrigated areas.
For planning purposes, "optimum development" is taken as the maximum cropping intensity that can be achieved with available resources, realistic cropping patterns, and reasonable management practices. As a general proposition a target cropping intensity of 150 percent has been adopted for the Northern Zone, but lower intensities are forecast for areas which have special supply and/or drainage problems, such as the "saline" areas in Chaf and Rechna Doabs where the ground water is too saline for use as an irrigation supply and the development of additional supplies of fresher water is uneconomical or practically impossible.
It is recognized, of course, that cropping intensity is not a certain economic index. However, the provision of full facilities for high cropping intensities ensure flexibility in crop management. Irrigators will have wide latitude in the selection of their cropping program, and with adequate and reliable supplies for all lands there will be no tendency to spread water too thinly, a practice that has led to widespread salinization of the soil in the Northern Z ne.
Reclamation methods: The key feature of the reclamation program is a massive program of ground water management wherein the ground water reservoir is exploited for irrigation supplies and regulated for control of subsurface drainage and storage of seasonal surplus water. Individual projects under this program essentially consist of arrays of high-capacity tubewells and appropriate appurtenant works including power service lines, distribution channels, and flood protection works. In most areas of the Northern Zone the ground water is of acceptable quality for irrigation use without dilution with canal supplies. In those areas the tubewells discharge into watercourses, and the yield of each well is determined solely by the supplemental irrigation requirements of the land it commands. In some areas it is economically feasible to develop sufficient moderately saline ground water for admixture with the available canal supplies to meet consumptive use and leaching requirements for 150 percent cropping intensity. In certain areas such as Upper Rechna Doab it is feasible to develop ground water supplies in excess of local supplementary irrigation needs. In those situations the surplus ground water is used to replace canal supplies which are then available for reallocation to other areas where usable ground water supplies are insufficient to meet supplemental irrigation needs. Thus the irrigation tubewells serve multiple purposes: they satisfy both irrigation and drainage require-




7-3
ments; through controlled withdrawals they provide the means for managing the aquifer as a storage reservoir: they permit the use of moderately saline ground water; and they offer flexible, effective, and economic means for redistribution of canal supplies to areas of chronic short supply.
The adoption of ground water reclamation methods is the logical and inevitable culmination of years of intensive research and field experiments. Since about the close of World War I virtually every conceivable approach has been taken toward relieving the problems of irrigated agriculture in the Punjab. Until about 1950 the question of enhancing irrigation supplies did not receive much consideration because there was concern that an increase in canal supplies would only aggravate the growing drainage and salinity problems. Furthermore, because of the lack of reservoir sites in the flat terrain of the Indus Plains, there appeared to be no prospects for increasing canal diversions during the months of low river flow. Hence most efforts were directed toward maintenance of productive lands by controlling subsurface drainage rather than attempting to increase irrigation supplies. A variety of techniques were employed, including lining canals, closure of canals during part of the monsoon season, construction of open-ditch drains in waterlogged areas, and planting phreatophytes along canal banks. The mast ambitious scheme was the installation between 1948 and 1951 of about 1600 drainage wells along waterlogged reaches of the Upper Chenab, Lower Chenab, and Lower Jhelum Canals. The purpose of these wells was to intercept canal seepage and to return it to the canal, thereby presumably maintaining the canal supply and eliminating canal seepage as a factor in the drainage problem.
All of these schemes gave indifferent results and at best they provided only local or
temporary relief. But they did serve to eliminate some approaches, and the associated investigations yielded much useful information on reclamation problems.
By 1950 it was evident that mare effective measures had to be taken and that these must Include provisions for enhancing the irrigation supplies. This gave rise to the intensive program of hydrologic investigations, previously described, which by 1956 provided a scientific basis for preliminary planning of the ground water management program. Since then the program has been amplified (WAPDA, 1961) and endorsed by various lnternatloncA authorities including the White House Panel (Revelle, 1964), Harza (1964), etc. The program now stands approved as the official reclamation activity in the Northern Zone.
In recent years much consideration also has been given to the substitution of deep tile drains for tubewells for control of the water table in areas where the ground water is too saline for use directly or in mixture with canal supplies. The argument for tile drains is based on the assumptions that they are less costly to install, operate, and maintain than tubewells. As shown in Appendix I, these assumptions are grossly incorrect. In fact, deep tile drainage can be rejected for general application in the Pun jab on economic grounds alone, without reference to the considerable technical and practical problems always associated with drainage by tiles or the fact that the huge volume of water stored underground may not then be exploited.
Selection of areas: Project priorities have been established on the basis of flexible and expedient criteria, not the least of which has been the status of investigations required for project planning. Thus, Project 1 in Central Rechna Doab and Project 2 in Chaj Doab were taken In that order as the results of field studies become available. Project 3 in Lower Thai Doab was taken up next because marked deterioration had set in even before full land development was attained. Project 4 in Upper Rechna Doab was planned next largely because complete ground water development will permit reallocation of some canal supplies to other areas. Lower Rechna Doab has been selected for the fifth project because it possesses a relatively well developed agriculture which promises a high return on the Investment in reclamation in a short period of time. This Project will complete the orderly development of the doab, and will




7-4
provide appropriate uses for the canal supplies which will be diverted from Upper Rechna Doab after implementation of Project 4.
D EVELOPMENT PLAN
Implicit in the objectives of the SCARP projects maximum development of soil and water resources in the shortest practicable time Is the prerequisite: elimination of water supply as-a restraint to optimum agricultural development.
However, the most optimistic.schedule for increasing surface supplies provides insufficient water in the near'future to meet full irrigation and leaching requirements even for present crop intensities and irrigated acreage, much less for the, expanded acreage and increased cropping intensities required to meet future demands and reduction goals. And fresh ground water is unavailable in many areas where supplies are deficient.
The most feasible method of coping with this situation is to use the moderately-saline ground water. This would permit a high level of agricultural development throughout the region without requiring the construction of surface storage facilities and appurtenant works additional to those now proposed as part of the Indus Basin Plan.
Other,.but rejected methods of development are:
a) Reduce the area under irrigation This alternative is untenable with the present pressure of population on the land.
b) Remodel canals and distributaries This would permit the use of surplus
Indus water for the period the river is in high flow. Aside from the high costs and the physical problems entailed in remodelling, an augmented supply for only about two months a year would not result in large increases in agricultural production.
It is recognized that the most favorable method of development the use of moderately-saline ground water -will result in slightly reduced crop yields and therefore in reduced returns to farmers in a small part of the Project area; however, use of ample supplies of such water will be highly profitable to the farmer and to the economy of the country. Thus the use of marginal water will reduce production much less than the inadequacy of presently available irrigation supplies.
In areas not already commanded, the use of saline irrigation water can be limited or prohibited, but in many areas where agriculture is developed and farmers must continue to earn their livelihood, the only alternative to inadequate supplies is the use of such water far irrigation.
As discussed elsewhere the upper limits of 1500 ppm for "safe" ground water and 4000 ppm for "marginal" ground water were accepted, not because they represent the upper -limits of usability under local conditions, but because economic considerations become paramount. Where the more saline supplies are used, the extra water required for leaching and tubewell size limit the maximum usable salinity. Experience in SCARP 1 and the results of the Tubewell Monitoring Program; the published reports of Thorne and Thome (1954), and Christian and Lyerly (1952) in the United States; Durand (1959) in tbrocco; DellaGatta .(1941) in Libya, etc.; indicate that the proposed salinity levels will neither harm the soil nor depress crop yields unduly. It may be necessary at some time in the future to provide for exportation of saline water out of the Project area, but this action can be delayed for decades, as shown by the White House Panel (Revelle, 1964) and the Regional Plan for the Development of the Northern Indus Plains (Tipton and Kalmbach, in preparation).
Thus the development plan proposed for the Lower Rechna area is essentially a compromise between the extremes cited above: It features maximum development of the ground water resources of the area including the marginal quality supplies to achieve the highest




7-5
level of agricultural development that can be attained with optimum use of existingcanal facilities. Further, the development plan provides a flexible basis for rapid intensive development without overcommitting present or future resources.
Under the plan the Project is divided into three sub-areas which are delineated on the basis of ground water salinity (Plate 17):
1) The Saline Area is underlain by ground water which contains more than 4000 ppm TDS, or which has an SAR greater than 25. These supplies are classed as unsuitable for development only because the high leaching requirement results in an uneconomic level of ground water pumpage. In the absence of ground water development, canal deliveries to the Saline Area will be increased to the maximum volume which can safely be carried in the present canal system. The safe carrying capacity of the distributaries is shown in Appendix E to be 130 percent of AFS: operating at that rate for 11 months a year, with a shut-down for one month for canal maintenance, will provide annual deliveries equal to 119 percent of AFS. The resultant increase of 25 percent over the historic delivery rate of about 95 percent of AFS will be sufficient, in the absence of supplemental well supplies, to support an adequately irrigated cropping intensity of about 90 percent. The Saline Area comprises 0.57 million acres or 21 percent of the gross Project area.
2) The Intermediate Area is underlain by ground water ranging in concentration from 1500 to 4000 ppm TDS and in which SAR does not exceed 25. Canal supplies will be increased to the same levels as in the Saline Area to provide the maximum amount of fresh water for mixing with the marginal-quality ground water. Ground water will be developed in the quantity necessary to satisfy the supplemental requirements for a cropping intensity of 150 percent. The ground water component of the integrated supply will vary across the area according to the salinity of the ground water. Pumpage will increase with salinity because the more mineralized irrigation supplies carry a higher leaching requirement. The applied irrigation supplies will range In concentration from 200 to 2200 ppm TDS; the average for the entire area w ill be;about 1000 ppm TDS. The Intermediate Area comprises about 0.55 million acres or 20 percent of the gross Project area.
3) The Non-Saline Area features ground water containing less than 1500 ppm TDS.
No restrictions are placed on the use of this ground water for irrigation. Under Project operations, canal deliveries will approximate historic supplies, and ground water will be developed in the quantities necessary to satisfy the full requirements for a cropping intensity of 150 percent. The Non-Saline Area comprises a gross area of 1 .6 million acres, or 59 percent of the gross Project area.
Technical details and tonomic justification of the development plan are given in
subsequent sections of this report. In summary, an obvious advantage of the plan is the provision for economic developmenrf f moderately saline ground water in the Intermediate Area. This eliminates the need for costly canal remodeling and drainage works; it provides drainage relief to the Saline Area; and moreover the Intermediate Area will serve as a buffer between the Saline and Non-Saline Areas, protecting the latter from contamination by migration of ground water of poor quality from the Saline Area.
PROJECT DESIGN
The criteria used for Project design are presented below. Details and supporting data are given in the several appendices.
Cropping pattern: The present cropping pattern reflects the restraints imposed on
agriculture by limited canal deliveries and demands for Rabi food crops. The present Kharif: Rabi crop ratio of about 1:1.8 provides the bulk of the rural food requirements but very little surplus for cash or export. The availability of dependable, timely and adequate irrigation supplies throughout the year will promote major changes In the cropping pattern and a more




7-6
Intensive, well balanced and productive agriculture will evolve.
The following criteria were used in the development of reasonable and probable future cropping patterns for the designated groundwater zones of the Project area:
1) The land will be cropped to maximum practical intensities.
2) Availability of Irrigation water will not restrain agricultural development except
In the Saline Area.
Ia) Available canal supplies supplemented by tubewell water of excellent
quality will provide adequate water for a cropping Intensity of 150 percent in the
Non-Saline Area.
b) In the Intermediate Area, the maximum feasible amount of water that can
be transported In the existing canals and distributaries will be supplemented with
sufficient moderately saline ground water to provide for a cropping intensity of
150 percent, and for the necessary leaching to prevent a harmful increase in soil
salinity.
c) In the Saline Area, the maximum feasible amount of water that can be
transported in the existing canals and distributaries will provide sufficient water
for optimum irrigation and leaching at a cropping intensity of about 90 percent. However, as the present under-watered cropping intensity is approximately 114 percent,
it Is expected that the augmented supplies will result In an intensity of about. 135
percent at Irrigation deltas below optimum but somewhat higher than those presently
being applied.
3) Salinity, alkali and drainage problems will not limit the farmers in their choice of
crops except in the Intermediate Area where the salinity of the mixed irrigation
supplies will Impose some restrictions (or will reduce yields slightly).
4) Sail textural restraints are recognized In choice of crops.
5) Crops that earn foreign exchange will be emphasized.
6) Dietary needs of the people and the forage reaquirements of the area will be met.
The immediate effects of the increased irrigation supplies will be to increase the
cropping intensity and to change the Kharif:Rabi ratio. This will be accompanied by significant increases In the amount of water applied to most crops. The more severely salinized and waterlogged lands gradually will be'brought into full production. The net effect will be a general increase in the acreage and in production of all crops (Table 7-1).
As crop acreages and cropping Intensities increase, changes willI occur in cropping
patterns. These changes will be related primarily to the Increase in available water supplies, particularly in Kharif, but also to quality of Irrigation water, local crop needs and preferences, the impact of new high-yielding varieties such as MexiPak wheat, the desire for more cash crops (which are produced mainly in Kharif), texture and related soil properties, distance from markets, incentives fostered by government or other agencies, and other less important factors.
A separate cropping pattern at an intensity of 150 percent is projected (Table 7-2) for each of the three soil texture groups In the Non-Saline Area. These particular cropping patterns reflect the adaptability of specific crops to the characteristics of soils when other factors such as water supply, salinity, waterlogging, etc., are not restrictive. For example, because the soils of the fine textured group are compact and have slow internal drainage they are particularly well suited for rice production. Therefore, it is probable that most of the fine textured soils will be planted to rice. The medium textured soils are well adapted to the production of most Irrigated crops in both Kharif and Rabi. The coarse textured soils, because of their relatively low water holding capacities, are best suited to Rabi crops and to Kharif crops with moderate to low irrigation water requirements.




7-7
The Intermediate Area contains so little medium and fine textured soil* tijat only one cropping pattern. (Table 7-3) -was developed. This cropping pattern reflects the proposed increase in both amount and salinity of the irrigation water suplies. It differs from the composite pattern of the Non-Sa line Area mainly by the probable response of farmers to the restraints Imposed by the effects of moderately saline irr igation water on the germination and growth of the more salt-sensitive crops.
In the Saline Area, ground water will not be pumped for irrigation, and annual Irrigation supplies will be increased from the historic level of about 95 percent of AFS to the proposed level of 119 percent of AFS, the full carrying capacity of the present distribution system. Current deliveries of 95 percent of AFS are sufficient to irrigate the soils of the area adequately at an intensity of about 70 percent; whereas annualI deliveries of 119 percent of A FS (i.e., 130 percent for I1I months) are sufficient to water adequately a cropping Intensity of about 90 percent. However, the present cropping intensity is an under-watered 114 percent, and it is certain that this intensity will increase somewhat when more water is supplied. In developing the probable future cropping pattern (Table 7-3), it has been assumed that 60 percent of the increase in available water supplies will be used to irrigate crops more adequately and 40 percent will be used to increase the cropping intensity. It is anticipated that the combined changes in water use and cropping pattern willI result in a cropping Intensity of about 135 percent with the crops being watered at an average of approximately 85 percent of fullI consumptive use requirements.
The weighted, composite cropping pattern shown in Table 7-1 and in Figures 7-1 and 7-2 satisfies the stated criteria of the cropping patterns far the Project area.
Irrigation water requirements The consumptive use of water by crop, for each month of the growing season has been estimated by use of the Blaney-Criddle method. The requisite basic data o' temperatures, percent daylight hours and growing seasons are given In Tables D -1, D-2 and Figure 7-1, and the method of calculation is presented In Appendix D.
The monthly irrigation requirement for each crop was obtained by subtracting median
effective precipitation (Table D-4) from the monthly consumptive use requirement and correctIng for the proportion of the month requiring water for land preparation and initial growth. The irrigation requirements are listed in Tables D-10 and D-I 1 .
If the calculated irrigation water requirement for~the initial month, or fraction thereof, was less than 2.5 inches for Rabi crops or 3.0 inches for Kharif crops, the amount to be applied was increased to those values in order to provide sufficient water for land preparation and seeding. An amount equal to such increase was deducted from the subsequent month's requirement. The appropriate monthly factors for each planting of each crop are listed in Table D-3; these take into account fractional portions of a month as well as preplant water and subsequent deductions.
Canal deliveries: The water supply for the Saline Area will be derived entirely from canal supplies. In order to attain the highest possible cropping intensity in this dre,it it proposed to deliver canal water at 130 percent of AFS, the maximum the distributaries and branches can safely carry (see Appendix E). A maintenance shutdown period of about 30 days during January'and December has been provided. To provide the maximum amount of fresh water in the Intermediate Area and for ease of canal operations, canals will be operated on the same schedule in both the Saline and Intermediate Areas.
Supplemental tubewell water supplies of excellent quality are available in the NonSaline Area and increases of canal deliveries are not required. As canal deliveries to the Saline and intermediate Areas are specified and receive priority over the Non-Saline Area, the deliveries to the Non-Saline Area are the remaining historic supplies formerly allocated to the entire Project area augmented by the amount of water diverted from Upper Rechna Doab where 730,000 acre-feet annually will be developed for export. The quantity of surface




7-8
supplies diverted from Upper Rechna Influences cost of pumping In the Non-Sallne Area, drainage relief in the Saline Area, and availability of Upper Rechna water for use In other areas of critically short supply. Appropriate balance of these considerations indicates a use of 232,000 acre-feet annually, or about a third of the proposed Upper Rechna diversions. Thus this amount of water must be available from Upper Rechna before Project 5 can operate successfully.
Mbst of the distributaries of the Non-Saline Area will be operated at 100 percent of
AFS during half of January-and December (allowing for maintenance shutdown), at the equivalent of 70 percent of AFS during February and November, and.at 100 percent of AFS during the remaining eight months. This schedule will provide an aninual quantity of water that is approximately equal to historic deliveries for the area.
Near the confluence of the Chenab and Ravi Rivers, the current waterlogging hazards will be intensified if the canals are operated on the schedule proposed for the remainder of the Non-Saline Area. Accordingly it is proposed to retain non-perennial canal deliveries for certain distributaries in that part of the Non-Saline Area, and to provide proportionately larger ground water supplies.
The need for extensive and costly canal remodelling has been eliminated, but some
modifications are required for the few distributaries that cross the boundary of the Non-Saline and Intermediate Areas. Details and distributary operational schedules are presented in Appendix E.
Tu~bewell water recugIrements: The(Project tubewells will deliver water at or near the heads of the water courses of-the existing canal system. Thus the tubewells must be capable of supplying the total irrigation water requirements, including supplies required for leaching, as measured at the heads of water courses, less the dependable canal supplies delivered through existing outlets to the same water courses. In the Intermediate Area where moderate-. ly saline ground water will be pumped by the tubewells an additional supply is provided where needed to meet the supplemental leaching requirements. Such supplemental supplies for leaching will be in the quantities necessary to protect the soils frolp deterioration and to prevent undue depression of crop yields. This additional water is in effect recirculated from the field to the aquifer and hence the cost of such recirculation required to protect the Intermediate Area from soil salinization is only the cost of the electric energy required for pumping the additional leaching supplies.
The following tabulation summarizes the proposed deliveries of canal and tubewell supplies to the several Project areas.
Deliveries at heads
of'water courses; Annua I depth
Area maf per year in feet on CA
Canal Tubewell Total Canal Tubewell Total
Non-Saline 2.04 2.95 4.99. 1.58 2.28 3.86
Intermediate 1.05 0.64 1.69 2.46 1.49 3.95
Saline 1.10 0 1.10 2.43 0 2.43
Total 4.19 3.59 7.78 1.92 1.66 3.58
Table 7-4 and Figure 7-3 show the seasonal distribution of canal and tubewell supplies for each of the three areas of the Project which in turn are summarized in greater detail for each distributary command in Tables D-10 and D-1 I of Appendix D.




7-9
It may be noted that the total depth of water deliveries, including both canal and tubewell supplies, with the facilities and operation proposed for the Project, is equivalent to approximately 3.6 feet over the commanded area measured at the heads of water courses. Historic canal deliveries measured at the same points have averaged about 1.7 feet. Thus, with the tubewell facilities and canal deliyeries as proposed, the total water supply to the Project lands will be more than double that which has been available in the past.
The tubewells must be capable of supplying the foregoing amounts of water at rates necessary to satisfy the crop water requirements during the periods of greatest demand for supplemental water. Referring to the data contained in Appendix D, it may be noted that for distributaries serving lands in the eastern part of the area where annual rainfall exceeds ten inches, the demand for supplemental water, over and above that which can be supplied by the canal system, is greatest during the month of September. During this month the Kharif crops are at the peak of their growth or are nearing maturity and some of the early Rabi crops are being planted: as a result, 70 to 75 percent of the culturable area will then be under irrigation. Although a slightly greater area will be under irrigation in October, the total consumptive use requirements will be significantly less in October than in September because air temperatures are lower and many of the Kharif crops will be harvested. Consumptive use requirements in July and August are higher than in September but the greater amount of precipitation during those months coupled with the greater dependability of full canal supplies results in a somewhat lower requirement for tubewell water than is required during September. While there may be short periods of a week or two during July and August when rainfall may be virtually nil in some years and the theoretical requirements for tubewell water might be greater than during September if the tubewells have sufficient capacity to supply the September requirements as determined herein, they will have adequate capacity to take care of all ordinary variations in climate, cropping patterns and canal deliveries.
In the southwestern part of the Project, annual rainfall is less than ten inches and.
because of lower quantities of effective precipitation, -August is the month of greatest demand for tubewell water. There, tubewell capacitiesare dictated by August requirements by reasoning similar to that described above.
In determining the capacities of individual tubewells it is recognized that at times of peak demand there may be situations which prevent the tubewells from operating continuously, as for example, shut-downs required for shedding of load on-the power system during the critical hours of peak electric demand. Account is also taken of the fact that the "theoretical" tubewell capacity only coincidentally conforms precisely to the rated capacity of commercially available pumps and in the usual case the capacity so determined is rounded upward to the next largest rated size of pump. The determination of required tubewell capacities thus requires an analysis of each chak or area under the command of each individual tubewell. In estimating the total number of tubewells and their individual capacities such an analysis by individual chaks has been made, resulting in a requirement of about 2,300 tubewells ranging from two to five cusecs in size, and having a total pumping capability of about 8,760 cusecs (see Chapter 8).
The foregoing numbers of tubewells of the capacities indicated will be capable of meeting the supplemental water requirements for the Project area as determined herein when operated at an utilization factor of approximately 83 percent, f.e. 83 percent of the available hours, in the month of peak tubewell water demand. This is considered to be an optimum balance between capability to supply supplemental water and capital cost under the conditons projected for the Project area after the lands are full reclaimed. While the provision of




7- 10
pumps of larger capacity (permitting a lower utilization factor in the peak month) would not add a significant increment to the cost of the tubewell .features alone, it would require larger conductors in the transmission and distribution systems, larger transformer capacity at substations in the grid, and would impose a larger load on generating facilities, all of which would add an appreciable increment to the capital cost of the Project.
Another important consideration is the fact that whenever tubewells are utilized to provide a supplemental irrigation supply, there is always the tendency to pump a greater amount of water than is actually required to meet the consumptive use requirements of the crops, particularly during the Rabi season. This results from the fact that the tubewells must be operated either "on" or "off", as no facilities are provided for throttling their discharge. Thus in the winter when the tubewell requirements may be but a small fraction of that required during the month of September, the pumps will normally be operated "on" (at rated capacity) for a greater period of time than actually required. Such has been the experience in Project 1 in Central Rechna Doab. Although such operations are not harmful, arid in fact are beneficial during thb early years of land reclamation because of the additional leaching provided thereby, it is important that the tubewells not be excessively oversized in capacity to minimize unnecessary demands on generating capability and waste of electrical energy.
In the determination of requirements for supplemental water and of the capacities of required tubewells, no account has been taken of the production of the many small private tubewells that have been installed during- recent years in the Project area. These private tubewelIs presently pump about 15 percent of the volume of ground water which is proposed to be supplied by the Project. Although private.tubewel pumpage may ultimately reach a level on the order of 20 percent of the supplemental supplies to be provided by the Project, the production of private tubewells has been ignored in the computation of water requirements and supply for a number of reasons, among which are:
(1) The private tubewells installed to date predominantly serve the largest farms, and the established trends indicate that the rate of construction of new private tubewell will descend to an insignificant level within a few years.
(2) Being restricted to the larger farms the distribution of private tubewells, coupled with their relatively short life, is such that it is impractical to consider the production of such tubewells as a permanent feature which will offset the requirements for supplemental water for large areas.
. (3) With the construction of Project tubewells, it is very likely that some of the private tubewells will not be replaced at the end of their useful life because of cost considerations alone. Furthermore, those that are replaced and continue in operation will provide additional supplies, over and above those attributable to the Project and thus will permit their individual owners to increase the intensity of cropping of their lands to levels beyond that attributed to the Project water supplies.
It is important to recognize that the Project tubewells will not supplant private
tubewells nor inhibit their development any more than those factor which prevail without the Project. Rather the private tubewells that have been constructed to date and those which will be constructed in the future particularly between the present time and the time when the Project facilities are provided enhance rather than detract from the feasibility of the reclamation program.. The private tubewells, although largely restricted to the larger farms, play a very important role in raising the level of production over that which




7-11
existed a few years ago, thus providing not only a higher base of agricultural production upon inception of the Project, but also a practical means of demonstrating the value of supplemental water supplies. In this fashion the private tubewells form a very desirable complement to the ultimate development of the entire area.
Water uality: Within the Non-Saline Area, the total irrigati6n supply consists of 60 percent ground water, which on the average contains about 700 ppm TDS. As the canal supplies contain about 200 ppm TDS, the water applied to the field will have a salt content of about 500 ppm. Even near the inner boundaries of this Area where the tubewell water may contain as much as 1500 ppm, the applied water will contain less than 1000 ppm of salts. A similar situation will prevail with regard to sodium-absorption-ratio: the maximum SAR of the applied water in the Non-Saline Area will be less than 10, and the average will be less than 5. Waters of such quality present no hazard to sustained crop production.
In the Intermediate Area the concentration of the ground water to be pumped is limited to a maximum of about 4,000 ppm. In this Area it is proposed to provide sufficient- leaching supplies to limit the conductivity of the water that drains away from the root zone to a maximum of 8 mi llimho/cm: as a result, the salinity of the irrigation water delivered tothe crops will average slightly less than 1000 ppm TDS. About 88 percent of the chaks will receive water with a salt content of less than 1,500 ppm. The remaining chaks will receive water with average annucsl salinities of 1600 to 2200 ppm. Although such concentrations are higher than those heretofore used in the Northern Zone, such water can be successfully used without damaging the lands or depressing crop yields significantly as salinity control is ensured by the provision of adequate leaching supplies. Nevertheless those chaks irrigated with the more saline water should be continuously monitored to ensure that the full supply is actually delivered to the lands. With adequate attention to leaching, the farmers will derive incomes nearly equal to those of their neighbors who receive fresher waters.
Drainage: The subsurface drainage provided by tubewell pumping is sufficient to
control ground water levels throughout the Pro'ect area as described in detail in Appendix G.
Flood protection: Existing and authorized drainage works are adequate to the needs of the Project area (Appendix F). Accordingly, the Project does not include provisions for additional surface drainage.




TABLE 7-1
PRESENT CROPPING PATTERN AND COMBINED FUTURE PATTERN
2,176,178acres CA.
PRESENT FUTURE
I PERCENT PERCENT
SEASON/CROP AREA OF CA AREA OF. CA
Acres % Acres
KHARIF
Rice 41,029 1.9 54,131 2.5
Sugarcane / 197,789 9.1 245,945 11.3
Cotton 282,768 13.0 415,833 19.1
Maize 113,539 5.2 233,775 10.7
Millets 37,672 1.7 96,560 4.4
Fodder 183,983 8.5 269, 318 12.4
Vegetables 3,965 .2 34,482 1.6
Fruit 1/ 16,174 .7 34,253 1.6
Miscellaneous 20,045 .9 64,826 3.0
Sub-total 896,964 41.2 1,449,123 66.6
RABI
Wheat 909,971 41.8 886,219 40.7
Pulses 121,886 5.6 88,848 4.1
Oilseeds 47,051 2.2 72,301 3.3
Berseem 269,994 12.4 320,333 14.7
Vegetables 12,567 .6 34,482 1.6
Sugarcane 1/ 197,789 9.1 245,945 11.3
Fruit 1/ 16,174 .7 34,253 1.6
MisceTlaneous 1,405 .1 64,826 3.0
Sub-total 1,576,837 72.5 1,747,207 80.3
TOTAL 2,473,801 113.7 3,196,330 146.9
KrR Ratio 1:1.76 1:1.21
1/ Sugarcane and fruit are included in both Kharif and Rabi growing seasons.




TABLE 7-2
FUTURE CROPPING PATTERNS FOR NON-SALINE GROUND WATER ZONE
SOIL TEXTURE GROUP NON-SALINE ZONE
Fine Medium Coarse Composite,
22,918 Acres CA 296,340 Acres CA 975,822 Acres CA 1,295,080 Acres CA
Percent Percent Percent Percent
SEASON CROP of CA Area of CA Area of 'CA Area Area of 'CA
%c Acres Acs_ Acres Acres %
KHARIF
Rice 30 6,875 10 29,634 0 000 36,509 2.8
Sugarcane 1/ 10 2,292 10 29,634 12 117,098 149,024 11.5
Cotton 12 2,750 14 41,487 21 204,922 249,159 19.2
Maize 9 2,063 12 35,560 12 117,098 154,721 .11.9
Millets 4 917 4 11,853 5 48,791 61,561 4.8
Fodder 13 2,979 13 38,524 13 126,856 168,359 13.0
Vegetables 1 229 2 5,926 2 19,516 25, 671. 2.0
Fruit 1/ 0 000 2 5,926 2 19,516 25,442 2.0
Miscellaneous 1 229 3 8,890 3 29,274 38,393 3.0
Sub-Total 80 18,334 70 207,434 70 683,071 908,839 70.2
RABI
Wheat 39 8,938 38 112,609 40 390,328 ll,875 39.5
Pulses 2 458 5 14,817 3 29,274 44,549 3.4
Oilseeds 2 458 4 11,853 3 29,274 41,585 3.2
Berseem 15 3,438 16 47,414 15 146,373 197,225 15.2
Vegetables 1 229 2 5,926 2 19,516 25,671 2.0
Sugarcane 1/ 10 2,292 10 29,634 12 117,098 149,024 11.5
Fruit 1/ 0 000 2 5,926 2 19,516 25,442 2.0
Miscellaneous 1 229 3 8,890 3 29,274 38,394 3.0
Sub-Total 70 16,042 80 237,069 80 780,653 1,033,764 79.8
TOTAL 150 34,376 150 444,503 150 1,463,724 1,942,603 150.0
K:R Rati-o 1:.88 1:1.14 1:1.14 1:1.14
Cropping'
Intensity 150 150 150 150
1/ Sugarcane and fruit are included in both Kharif and Rabi growing seasonss.




TABLE 7-3
FUTURE CROPPING PATTERN FOR INTERMEDIATE AND SALINE GROUND WATER AREAS
INTERMEDIATE ZONE SALINE ZONE
(428,311 Acres CA) (452,787 Acres CA)
PERCENT PERCENT
SEASON/CROP jOF CA AREA OF CA AREA
% Acres % Acres
KHARIF
Rice 2 8,566 2 9,056
Sugarcane 1/ 11 47, 114 11 49,807
Cotton 22 94,228 16 72,446
Maize 10 42,831 8 36,223
Millet 5 21,415 3 13,584
Fodder 13 55,680 10 45,279
Vegetables 1 4,283 1 4,528
Fruit 1/ 1 4,283 1 4,528
Miscellaneous 3 12,849 3 13,584
Sub-total 68 291,249 55 249,035
RABI
Wheat 43 184, 173 42 190,171
Pulses 4 17,132 6 27,167
Oilseeds 4 17,132 3 13,584
Berseern 15 64,246 13 58,862
Vegetables 1 4,283 1 4,528
Sugarcane 1/ 11 47,114 11 49,807
Fruit 1/ 1 4,283 1 4,528
MiscelTaneous 3 12,849 3 13,584
Sub-total 82 351,212 80 362,231
TOTAL 150 642,461 135 611,266
K:R 'Ratio 1:1.21 1:1.45
1/ Sugarcane and fruit are included in both Kharif and Rabi growing seasons.




TABLE 7-4
SUMMARY OF PROPOSED CANAL DELIVERIES AND TUBEWELL PUMPAGE
(Units of 1000 acre-feet, measured at the heads of water courses)
Canal TubewelIICnllubw
Month deliveries pump~ing Total Month deliveries pump~ing Total
NON-SALINE AREA SALINEARE
January 90.5 187.0 277.4 January 51.1 05.
February 119.8 289.1 408.9 February 92.1 09.
March 180.8 283.0 463.8 March 102.0012.
April 189.4 167.6 357.0 April 98.7 0 98.7
May 210.9 150.6 361.4 May 102.0 0 102.0
June 204.5 306.6 511.1 June 98.7 0 98.7
July 211.4 264.5 475.9 July 102.0 0 102.0
August 211.5 348.3 559.8 August 102.0 0 102.0
September 204.7 367.3 572.0 September 98.7 0 98.7
October 196.1 319.9 516.0 October 102.0 0 102.0
November 128.0 107.8 235.8 November 98.7 0 98.7
December 90.4 164.5 254.9 December 51.1 0 51.1
Total 2,037.9 2,956.1 4,994.0 Total 1,099.2 1,099.2
INTERMEDIATE AREA PROJECT AREA
January 48.8 43.0 91.9 January 190.4 230.0 420.4
February 88.5 43.0 1.5February 300.4 332.1 632.5
March 97.5 43.0 140.5 March 380.3 326.0 706.3
April 94.3 43.0 137.3 April 382.4 210.6 593.0
May 97.5 43.0 140.5 May 410.3 193.6 603.9
June 94.6 67.8 162.4 June 397.8 374.4 772.2
July 97.2 67.8 165.1 July 410.6 332.3 743.0
August 97.5 67.8 165.3 August 411.0 416.1 827.1
September 94.3 67.8 162.2 September 397.7 435.2 832.9
October 97.5 67.8 165.3 October 395.5 387.7 783.3
November 93.8 43.0 136.9 Novemrber 320.5 150.8 471.3
December 48.8 43.0 91.9 December 190.3 207.5 397.9
Total 1,050.3 640.4 1,690.7 Total 4,187.3 3,596.5 7,783. 7
(Slight numerical inconsistencies are due to rounding)




FIGURE 7-1
JAN7 FER MAR. APRt MAY JUNE JULY AUG. SEPT OCT NOV DEC
I
I CTO 5413 3 ACRES ,1Ic~
________3,53 Acr___ !& .98Ace 1623 166 335 ce
_________1,53 Acr___ 10 98Ace
________5,41 ______ 3srs__SU MACZE 233, 5 ACRES 51,486 Acres
63,409 Act ___58,444 Aces__ _ i1 i I 0~ ET 96,45603 ACRES I
IIL~13,95 38,24res I 24,10 Acre
I I 9,6565 Aces res __I K MHAI FOE 2 9,3 ACRES 5844Acs
< 1307.2 Acres
_________ _________26,330 Acies Ii...
M WH ET 986,269 ACRES
_38,62 Acres re
____24,_40 X31-0=
9,5 8 885 A
KI OILE O 7 DER29,3 1 ACRES 107,78 075Ac
__W_ H~ E Ac 28 9221 AcrE
44.1 AESE 32,3eACE
MISCELA ES E 8, 4 ,8 ACRES
FRUIT9 3425 AREq
1,r Ac. K RI
FUTURE~~ GROWING EPEID S ANEROPDSCE
Seed~~6,9n Xld rertr rwnei




2200
0170 -- ---- 2200
2176 100
NOT NOT NOr NOT NOT NOT Nor NOT NOT NOT Nor NOT
IRRIGATED IRRIGATED IRRIGATED IRRIGATED IRRIGATED IRRIGATED IRRIGATED IRRIGATED IRRIGATED IRRIGATED IRRIGATED IRRIGATED
2000 -2000
890
1600-~ WHEAT WHEAT -100
1.2 I -WHEAT
1400- 1 ILE 400
MILLE MILLET
/ MILLET soWHEAT Wo. WHEAT WHEAT Nt4 IILT MAIZE \q
) 00 200. MAIZE u0
M IEMAIZE '
/1/ MAAIEE
q 100 COTTO WlI000MIZ
000
-JCOTN OTO COTTON COTTONH COTTON k
ca~ 40
C 80-'- KHARIF IIHARIF \COTTON COTTON
00 -/ FODDER FODDER \0 000
-- --- --- FODDER ESE3
Go00 BEROEEM KENIF KNARIF /ESEI -00 3
BERSEEM BERSEEM RERSEEM FODDER FNRF KAIFKAI ODDER ESM BREM
FODDER FODDER FODDER //--- PLS
'- -PPLLEVA
~oo ~ - -- ERSEEM PYL#fE2
- --- OILOEEOS LES DOILSEEDS
OILSEEDS o\~----
- OILSEEDS
200- SUARCANE SUVARCAM SGAREANE KREAE SUOARCA SUGARCANE USA RCANE SIJRARCANE UGARCANI SGARCAN SUGARCAN SUARCAN -20 1
F ~T FRUIT FRUITX 0. 0
j AN. FEB. NAN. Arm. MAY JUN f JUL.Y ADS., BEPT. OCT. NOV. DigC.
BERSEEM LiiKIARIF FODDER OILSEEDS .SUGIARCANE MISCELLA NEOUS
LI COTTON MAIZE PULSES VEGETABLES NOT IRRIGA TED
FRUIT MILLET RICE WHEAT G)
AR~EA IRRIGATED BY MONTH f~"
-4
PROJECT NO. 5 LOWER RECHNA DOAB
1 P




FIGURE 7 3
PROPOSED CANAL DELIVERIES AND TUBEWELL PUMPAGE
BY MONTH
(All values measured at the heads of the watercourses)
] CANAL DELIVERIES ] TUBEWELL PUMPAGE
150. 150
o 0
o0
0
100 100
50- T 5
0 J F IMIAI MIJIJI IS NI 0 J FIMAI A MI JIA S O N
INTERMEDIATE AREA SALINE AREA
Annual Canal Deliveries 1,050,290 acre-feet Annual Canal Deliveries 1,099,170 acre-feet
Annucl Tubewell Pumpage 640,370 acre-feet No Tubewell Pumpage
450 450
400- 400
350 350
300 300
o0
C
250 250
I- I-U LU
LU U
200- 200
U U
150- -150
100 100
50 50
0 JIFI MAM IJ.J AI OND 0 iF M AIM IJ IA S OIN
NON SALINE AREA PROJECT AREA
Annual Canal Deliveries 2,037,880 acre-feet Annual Canal Deliveries 4,187,340 acre-feet
Annual Tubewell Pumpage 2,956,110 acre-feet Annual Tubewell Pumpage 3,596,480 acre-feet




CHAPTER 8 THE PROJECT




8-1
CHAPTER 8
THE PROJECT
The Project will consist of those elements necessary to fulfill the criteria set forth
in Chapter 7. 'The two primary construction elements irrigation tubewells and the power distribution works to supply electrical energy to the tubewells will be supplemented with remodelling of outlets and other canal structures, where necessary, and with the appurtenant distribution works required to permit the utilization of the increased water supply. Details of these elements are described below.
TUBEWELLS
General It is proposed to install about 2300 tubewells, ranging in capacity from
2 to 5 cusecs. They will have a total installed capacity of 8760 cusecs, or 6.34 maf per year. When the Project is fully developed, the tubewells will pump about 3.6 maf annually from the ground water reservoir, resulting in a utilization factor of about 57 percent. Detailed estimates of the numbers of tubewells, their capacities and pertinent supplemental data are given by distributary command in Tables 8-1 through 8-12 and are summarized in Tables 8-13 and 8-14.
In the Non-Saline Area, tubewell capacities were determined according to the
calculated irrigation requirements for each distributary command. The tubewells were then sited on maps in such numbers and capacities as to serve all outlets in the most economic and practical manner. When the tubewells are sited in the field, the numbers and capacities of the wells may vary as a result'of outlet size variations, physical problems of access, and topography. Based on previous projects, the change is not expected to be significant. Within the Intermediate Area, leaching requirements vary according to the variations in groundwater quality and thus require a somewhat more sophisticated method of determining tubewell water requirements. The wells were sited and located on an outlet-by-outlet basis and were then combined accordingly.
Construction The construction of tubewells will be similar to that in previous Projects in Rechna, ihai and Thai Doabso Figure 8-1 is a drawingof a typical tubewell. Tubewells will be drilled by the reverse rotary method and a selected'gravellshroud will be placed in the annulus between the casing and borehole.' The tubewells will have 24 inches of diameter of bore and will range in depth from about 200 to 400 feet, depending upon the capacity required and the occurrence of non-water-yielding sediments encountered in drilling. Water will be used as a drilling fluid, instead of mud. In the Intermediate Area, testing and development of tubewells must be completed as soon as possible after drilling in order to ascertain the quality of water In various locations and horizons. As more data are collected it will be necessary to re-examine the capacity and location of tubewells at the margins of the Saline Area.
As the holes are drilled, they will be carefully logged and formation samples will be collected. The log and formation samples will be used to select the intervals opposite which slotted screen will be installed. Blank pipe of the same diameter as the screen will be installed In the balance of the cased portion below the pump housing. All casing and screen will utilize centering guides to keep the well string centered in the borehole and to ensure a uniform thickness of gravel shrouding. Blank casing and screen will be manufactured from epoxy-bonded fiberglass.
The casing for the pump housing will be 14 to 16 inches in diameter, depending upon
the size of the pump bowls and will becet to a depth adequate to accommodate the pump at the




anticipated future pumping level. The pump housing casing will be of mild steel with a wall thickness of one fourth inch.
The gravel in the annular space between the screenand wall of the borehole will be composed of well-rounded siliceous particles, sized in relation to the aquifer material and screen openings to provide a maximum permeability and effective well radius and to prevent an excessive amount of formation sand from entering the well during pumping. The screen openings (slot sizes) will be of sufficient number and size to be compatible with the gravel filter and to minimize the head loss as the water moves through the screen.
The tubewell will be developed by surging, overpumping, and back-washing until It has reached a maximum specific capacity and is essentially free of sand and suspended sediments. On completion of development, a step-drawdown pumping test will be made to determine the specific capacity at different pumping rates and to obtain measurements of drawdown and recovery from which curves may be prepared for use in evaluating the hydraulic characteristics of the water bearing sediments.
Deepwell turbine pumps will be used throughout the Project, The pump bowls will be selected to pump at the desired rate at the pumping level anticip6ted near the end of their projected life. The pump bowls will be of the type possessing a steep head-capacity relationship to insure that the change in pumping rate resulting from changes in pumping level will be held to a minimum. Minimum efficiencies at the design head and at heads 10 feet greater and 10 feet less than the design head will be specified. The pumps will, however, pump at more than design rate during the Initial period and for some years thereafter until the anticipated pumping levels are reached.
The pumps will be driven by vertical hollow shaft electric motors, with sufficient horsepower ratings to pump from any likely pumping level-without overloading. The motor starters and controls will be designed to provide maximum protection to the motor from all kinds of electrical variations and faults.
In so far as practicable, pumps, motors, electric controls, etc., will be standardized to permit interchangeability of parts and to reduce the need for excessive stocking of spares and repair parts necessary for prompt and proper operational maintenance.
it Is estimated that the Irrigation tubewells will have a minimum life of 40 years when provided with normal maintenance, and that the pumps, motors, and motor controls will be replaced once during this period.
Location and sizes at tubewells Owing to the use of mineralized water in the
Intermediate Area, dlution and leaching requirements have an effect on the sizing of tubewells. The criteria used for sizing are'gtven in Chapter 7. The continuity, high permeability, thickness and composition of the aquifer' (Chapter 5) are such that tubewelIs with high yields can probably be located almost anywhere within the Project area. The criteria for location of tubewells are therefore related. largely to the sites best suited for mixing with canal water and for distribution to the crops through the existing irrigation system.
Withir the Non-Saline Area the proposed tubewells will be constructed with design discharge rates of 2, 3, 4 and 5 cusecs. These will be located in the simplest and most efficient arrangement to pump ground water directly into the heads of the waler courses near the outlets. In this manner, the maximum degree of mixing will occur and the necessity of possible remodelling of the distributaries, minors and outlets is minimized. In cases where two or more outlets can best be served by a single tubewell, it preferably will be located near




8-3
the head of the upstream outlet on the side of the canal receiving the largest amount of tubewell water. Such a location reduces the need for constructing extensive channels to convey water back to the heads of watercourses. The spacing between tubewells along the distributaries and minors will vary in accordance with outlet spacing, but commonly will be on the order of 3000 feet. In areas where water course outlets are close together and command large acreages, a closer spacing will be used. Similarly, where water course outlets are far apart, a wider spacing will result. In the Intermediate Area, where the quantity of water to be pumped is more critical, increments of one half cusec will be used in pump sizing. Sample areas (Plate 18) show typical tubewell locations, the size and number of tubewells needed and the generalized representation of the water courses to convey the tubewell water to the fields.
ELECTRIFICATION
General The tubewells to be constructed under this Project will have an installed capacity totaling about 92,000 horsepower. The operating procedures to be implemented will require the use of virtually all pumps simultaneously; therefore, the electrical system must have sufficient capacity to supply the existing loads, the new tubewell load, and must include a reasonable allowance for village electrification and future requirements. The following general data are applicable to the tubewell loading for this'Project!:
Gross area of ground water development,
square miles 3,400
Total number of tubewells 2,300
Total tubewell horsepower 92,000
Circuit power factor 0.80
Mobtor efficiency 0.90
Average HP per tubewell 40
Average HP per square mile 27
Average square miles per tubewell 1.48
Total tubewell input, MW 76.0
Total tubewell MVA 95.0
Average KVA per tubewell 41.5
Average KVA per square mile 28.0
in addition to the above, capacity will be provided in the electrical system to supply as many as 1000 private tubewells in the Saline Area. This will add an estimated 10,000 horsepower of installed motor capacity, Increasing the total tubewell horsepower to 102,000 for the entire Lower Rechna area.
Existing electrical power facilities In the Lower Rechnai Project area there are eleven electrical substations and the thermal plant at Lyallpur. Ther-mil plants also exist at Multan, located approximately forty miles to the southwest, and at Montgomery, approximately 10 miles south of theProjectf area. The existing substations are supplied by a number of 66 KV lines routed general as shown on Plate 20. The main sources of power supply" are the generating stations at Lyallpur, Multan, and Montgomery, all of which feed the grid circuits routed through theProject area.
Installed capacity. present maximum demand and the number of 11 KV feeder positions at the various substations follow:




8-4
Maximum Number
Size demand of 11 KV
Substation (MVA) (MVA) feeders
Chiniot Road 15.0 6.44 10
Chak Jhumra 1.5 1.28 11
Tandlianwala 5.0 2.44 4
Kamalia 2.5 2.90 5
Toba Tek Singh 2.5 0.8 4
Jhang 5.0 3.40 6
Samundri Road 15.0 7.5 10
Jhang Road 15.0 6.48 10
Bhawana 2.5 0.1 3
Shorkot Town 2.5 0.3 4
Gojra 5.0 2.64 4
Thiermal plant
Lyalipur 19.0 20.3 11
Transmission lines It will be necessary to construct new 66 KV transmission lines in two areas to serve the new 66/11 KV substations. The locations and length of these lines are estimated as follows:
Section Circuit type Length
Kamalia-Sundianwala Single 15 miles
Bhawana-Muradwala Single 15 miles
The existing transmission lines will allow adequate delivery of power to the load areas, provided that the source-end power conditions are satisfactory and that voltage regulating equipment is installed to compensate for the voltage drop due to the increased load currents. The equipment required to accomplish this is beyond the scope of the tubewell electrification. Funding and implementation of these works should be Included as a part of other programs such as the Primary Grid Project, the Secondary Grid Project or the Distribution Project.
Substations A capacity of 105.0 MVA of 66/11 KV transformers will be required to supply the total expected tubewell load of 102,000 horsepower. According to data supplied by the power consultants, there is little or no current spare capacity at the Chinlot Road, Samundri Road and Jhang Road substations, nor at the Lyallpur thermal station. Further, only 50 percent of the existing spare capacity can be counted on at the remaining substations. The new capacity needed is 105.0 MVA for the tubewell project and for private tubewell construction requirements, plus an additional 30 percent for future load growth and village electrification a total of 135.0 MVA.
It will be necessary to construct two new substations and to expand the facilities at the existing substations. Expansion of facilities will include furnishing and installing additional power transformer capacity, 11 KV power capacitors, and 11 KV switchgear to supply and control the new distribution circuits. Additional steel structures and replacement of hardware may be required in some cases.




8-5
It is quite probable that if a 22 KV or 33 KV system were utilized for distribution,
the two new substations would not be necessary. It is suggested that the, 'Power Wing
investigate the feasibility of such a higher voltage distribution system, todetermine if cost
savings can be realized.
Distribution The distribution -system for the tubewells will be an 11 KV system consisting of approximately 2500 miles of radial, 3-phase, 3-wire circuits originating at the substations and extending to the tubewell locations. One II KV to 400 volt, 3-phase, 50-cycle distribution transformer will be installed at each tubewell. The distribution lines
will be equipped with i lightning arresters, fuses, cutouts, switches and automatic circuit
reclosures to provide proper line protection and sectionalizing.
Although a considerable number of 1.1 KV circuits are presently installed in the
Project area, conductoring is not adequate to handle the rrdrked increase which will be imposed by the tubewells and the utilization of these existing circuits will be minimal.
Services Electric service for each tubewell will be 230/400 volt, 3-phase, 4-wire, 50-cycle and will be sized according to the motor full load current plus the lighting load of the pump house and the operator's quarters.
SURFACE SUPPLIES
Upon the completion of the Upper Rechna Project (SCARP IV), a surplus of canal water will be available. It is proposed that part of this water will be utilized in Lower Rechna as a primary part of this Project. The canal water so diverted will be distributed primarily in the Saline and Intermediate Areas. In general, it is proposed that deliveries into these areas be increased to 130 percent of the existing authorized full supply for ten months of the year. Details of the operating schedules are shown in Appendix E. This water will be utilized primarily by distributaries offtaking from the Rakh, Lower Jhang and Lower Gugera Branches. It..is anticipated that a total of about 0.45 million acre feet annually will be allocated, of which approximately 0.23 maf will be diverted from Upper Rechna during the. period October through b.y'and the balance from available river flow in the June through September period. The proposed distribution of these supplies is presented in Table 8-15.
The proposed augmentation of canal deliveries to the Saline and Intermediate Areas sho-uld not be implemented until the eompletion of construction in Project 4, at which time additional water will be available for export to Project 5. Neither should augmentation be implemented until most of the tubewells proposed for the Non-Saline Area are constructed and in operation. Unless Project tubewells are operational in the latter Area, increases in canal deliveries may'cause the development of undesirable drainage problems in the Saline and Intermediate Areas.
Delivery of the additional supplies will require only minor modifications to the existing system. These will consist primarily of changes in the outlets to permit a uniform proportional increase in the canal supplies. It will be necessary to modify these outlets individually after the flow'is increased to compensate for expected changes in' the flow regimes of the distributaries. A detailed review of-thecarrying capacities of affected branches and distributaries indicates that major remodelling work wifl not be required to accomodate the increased flows (Appendix E). The major change in operations will be adjustment of the diversion indents.




TABLE 8-1 NON-SALINE AREA
DISTRIBUTION AND CAPACITIES OF TUBEWELLS
AND
PERTINENT SUPPLEMENTAL DATA
CANAL COMMANDs JHANG BRANCH UPPER
DISTRIBUTARY PRECIP. GROSS CULTURA- ANNUAL ANNUAL ANNUAL PEAK DESIG. NUMBER OF TUBEWELLS INSTALLED ANNUAL
ZONE AREA. BLE IRRIGA- CANAL TUBEWELL MONTH NED (CUSEC CAPACITY) CAPACITY PERCENT
AREA TION DELIV. DELIVE- PUMPAGE TUBE- (ESTIMATED) UTILI.
REQ. ERIES RIES WELL ZATION
DUTY
AS.LU Acres1MI.E He.(A ad iZS.IU Aj/1LA _2 _a TOTQAL Cuse AFOHAc JL
BURALI A 17,800 13,987 52P952 25,089 27,863 3,766 221 2 5 6 7 20 78 56,472 49
CHINIOT A 90,770 63,797 241,946 84,767 157,179 20,074 189 8 22 27 40 97 390 282,360 56
SARANGWALA A 4,630 3,362 12,614 5,689 6,925 928 216 1 1 2 1 5 18 13,032 53
JAMAL JATHE A 10,990 9,574 36,013 15,321 20,692 2,677 213 1 6 5 12 51 36,924 56
GUGIANA A 10,840 9,024 33,878 15,429 18,449 2,404 223 1 5 3 4 13 49 35,476 52
KNAI A 15,243 13,138 49,208 21,886 27,322 3,502 223 5 2 5 6 18 66 47,784 57
NASRANA A 28,615 24,391 91,522 48,546 42,976 6,083 239 0 2 9 14 25 112 81,088 53
PABBARWALA A )2,147 8,176 30,747 11,745 19,002 2,404 202 1 0 3 6 10 44 31,856 60
NEWAN MR. A 2,157 1,696 6,352 2,563 3,789 480 209 0 1 1 2 9 6,516 58
KANGRA. A 3,980 1,675 6,383 2,777 3,606 481 207 0 0 1 1 2 9 6,516 55
WAGHWALA A 17,970 14,116 53,338 23,756 29,582 3,893 216 0 3 3 10 16 71 51,404 58
MADDUANA A 24,661 21,617 81,393 36,726 44,667 5,869 219 3 9 8 9 29 110 79,640 56
AMINPUR A 4,080 3,253 12,195 5,393 6,802 878 220 1 2 1 4 16 11,584 59
DIRECT OUTLETS A 2,227 1,768 6,712 2,666 4,046 530 199 1 2 3 11 7,964 51
TOTAL 246,110 189,574 715,253 302,353 412,900 22 51 78 105 256 1,034 748,616 55
TABLE 8-2 NON-SALINE AREA
DISTRIBUTION AND CAPACITIES OF TUBEWELLS
AND
PERTINENT SUPPLEMENTAL DATA
CANAL COMMANDs BHAWANA BRANCH
DISTRIBUTARY PRECIP. GROSS CULTURA- ANNUAL ANNUAL ANNUAL PEAK DESIG- NUMBER OF TUBEWELLS INSTALLED ANNUAL
ZONE AREA BLE IRRIGA- CANAL TUBEWELL MONTH NED (CUSEC CAPACITY) CAPACITY PERCENT
AREA TION DELIV. DELIVE- PUMPAGE TUBE- (ESTIMATED) UTILIZA- REQ. ERIES RIES WELL TION
DUTY
Acr- AnzA AnEL .at.Jitad._qf Watercourse A.as.R 2 _.a _4 -.9.IAL Cusec AE91E. ...
HIBBUANA A 2,820 1,791 6,709 2,880 3,829 490 218 1 1 1 3 10 7,240 53
LANGRANA A 2,220 1,652 6,193 2,725 3,468 448 220 1 1 2 8 5,792 60
CHHOTI A 3,410 2,611 9,801 3,950 5,851 745 209 1 3 1 5 15 10,860 54
FEEDER A 79,808 60,541 228,826 92,987 135,839 17,658 204 11 17 23 34 85 335 242,540 56
FEEDER B 5,342 4,801 19,174 7,209 1.1,q45 1,628 181 1 2 1 4 8 32 23,168 52
SULTAN PAKHRA A 75,786 61,441 232,664 81,783 150,881 19,241 190 6 17 32 36 91 371 268,604 56
SULTAN PAKHRA B 17,984 11,879 47,254 18,575 28,679 3,911 187 1 8 4 6 19 72 52,128 55
DIRECT OUTLETS A 2,030 1,396 5,255 2,133 3,122 401 208 1 1 2 8 5,792 54
TOTAL 180,400 146.112 555,876 212,242 343,634 21 50 61 83 215 851 616,124 *6




TABLE 8-3 NON-SALINE AREA
DISTRIBUTION AND CAPACITIES OF TUBEWELLS
AND
PERTINENT SUPPLEMENTAL DATA
CANAL COMMAND: JHANG BRANCH LOWER
DISTRIBUTARY PRECIP. GROSS CULTURA- ANNUAL ANNUAL ANNUAL PEAK DESIG- NUMBER OF TUBEWELLS INSTALLED ANNUAL
ZONE AREA BLE IRRIGA- CANAL TUBEWELL MONTH NED (CUSEC CAPACITY) CAPACITY PERCENT
AREA TION DELIVE- DELIVE- PUMPAGE TUBE ESTIMATEDP) UTILIZAIREQ. RIES RIES WELL TION
DUTY
Acres. AZjAA A FA_-4Ft.atiead of WateAas A.4ij~ -2 ..A ._. ~.IAL GS LA AF@HW, ...
GILOTRAN A 14,595 11,414 42,943 18,149 24,794 3,204 212 2 4 3 7 16 63 45,612 54
KHAN CHAND A 14,870 12,102 45,452 19,750 25,702 3,325 216 2 5 5 5 17 64 46,336 55
NILA NO.1 A 6,220 5100 19.195 8,273 10,922 1,419 214 1 2 1 3 7 27 19,548 56
NILA NO.2 A 5,590 4,754 17,847 7,313 10,534 1,346 210 1 1 4 6 26 18,824 56
FAQIR SAR A 28,910 23,214 87,332 39,503 47,829 6,267 220 2 4 10 13 29 121 87,604 55
PACCA ANNA A 10,340 7,978 30,056 13,401 16,655 2,186 217 -- 2 7 9 41 29,684 56
DHAULAR A 23,330 18,370 69,098 33,312 35,786 4,763 230 2 6 9 7 24 93 67,332 53
DHAULAR B 145,715 98,984 394,554 133,774 260,780 34,941 174 11 26 45 70 152 630 456,120 57
NA4AR ,ALA A 5,130 2,942 11,117 5,178 5,939 796 220 2 2 4 16 11,584 51
KHEWRA B 13,700 8,854 35,336 15,150 20,186 2,900 188 2 1 8 3 14 54 39,096 52
DIRECT OUTLETS A 410 354 1,328 642 686 90 236 1 1 2 1,448 47
TOTAL 268,810 194,066 754,258 294,445 459,813 24 52 82 121 279 1,137 823,188 56
TABLE 8-4 NON-SALINE AREA
DISTRIBUTION AND CAPACITIES OF TUBEWELLS
AND
PERTINENT SUPPLEMENTAL DATA
CANAL COMMAND, LOWER GUGERA BRANCH
DISTRIBUTARY PRECIP. GROSS CULTURA. ANNUAL ANNUAL ANNUAL PEAK DESIG- NUMBER OF TUBEWELLS INSTALLED ANNUAL
ZONE AREA BLE IRRIGA CANAL TUBEWELL MONTH NED (CUSEC CAPACITY) CAPACITY PERCENT
AREA TION DELIV- DELIV- PUMPAGE TUBE- (ESTIMATED) UTILI.
REQ. RIES RIES WELL ZATION
DUTY
AcrEA A.All Acre-Feet at Head of Watercourse A./Cusec _a 3 A ITAL AqHW AL
JASSUANA A 11,823 10,139 37,985 15,644 22,341 2,839 213 1 4 1 7 13 53 38,372 58
SATIANA A 13,540 11,222 42,171 19,750 22,421 2,955 226 1 5 8 2 16 59 42,716 52
TARKHANI A 31,583 28,655 107,480 49,782 57,698 7,782 219 1 13 8 14 36 143 103,532 56
'TARKHANI B 34,304 26,767 105,794 46,403 59,391 8,496 195 1 14 17 8 40 152 110,048 54
9
MUNGI B 35,814 27,043 106,864 48,253 58,611 8,391 198 2 7 16 13 38 154 111,496 53
PIR MAHAL 8 41,432 '35,572 141,267 73,717 67,50 9,902 221 5 25 12 8 50 173 125,252 54
TOTAL 168,496 139,398 541,561 253,549 288,012 11 68 62 52 193 734 531,416 54




TABLE 8-5 NON-SALINE AREA
DISTRIBUTION AND CAPACITIES OF TUBEWELLS
AND
PERTINENT SUPPLEMENTAL DATA
CANAL COMMANDs BURALA BRANCH
DISTRIBUTARY PRECIP. GROSS CULTUR- ANNUAL ANNUAL ANNUAL PEAK DESIG- NUMBER OF TUBEWELLS INSTALLED ANNUAL
ZONE AREA ABLE IRRIGA- CANAL TUBEWELL MONTH NED (CUSEC CAPACITY) CAPACITY PERCENT
AREA TION DELIV- DELIV- PUMPAGE TUBE- (ESTIMATED) UTILIAREA REQ. ERIES ERIES WELL ZATION
DUTY
hsii Ae Acre- wLtJtLLzf .-.-- d wa s-uJ-- /.ju .-2 -a -4 -_ Qui AEfl.G, .
NUPEWALA A 1,264 1,171 4,436 1,764 2,672 346 202 1 1 2 7 5,068 53
RANJLANA A 1,700 1,345 5,044 2,350 2,694 351 228 1 1 2 7 5,068 53
PITHRANA A 7,700 5,062 19,177 9,342 9,835 1,334 226 2 1 2 2 7 25 18,100 54
DAURAWAN A 7,290 6,150 23,060 9,929 13,131 1,686 217 .- 2 5 7 33 23,892 55
ALLA A 15,070 12,084 45,320 19,750 25,570 2,295 218 1 4 4 7 16 65 47,060 54
NAURANG A 18,660 14,339 54,196 20,284 33,912 4,322 198 1 5 12 18 82 59,368 57
OBHAL A 6,740 5,294 20,008 8,539 11,469 1,505 209 4 3 7 31 22,444 51
TANDLIANWALA A 152,430 125,068 469,866 205,520 264,346 34,257 217 17 39 53 58 167 653 472,772 56
JHOK A 13,962 11,984 45o140 18,679 26,461 3,419 208 9 1 7 17 66 47,784 55
BELOCHWALA A 9,790 7,252 27,502 13,347 14.155 2,305 187 3 5 3 (1 44 31,856 44
KILLIANWALA A 71,744 59,765 224,335 103,830 120,505 15,772 225 6 23 12 35 76 304 220,096 55
KILLIANWALA B 9.427 6,606 26,099 11,477 14,622 2,020 201 3 1 4 8 33 23,892 61
KANYA A 9,315 7,818 29,589 11,212 18,377 2,368 196 3 3 4 3 13 46 33,304 55
GARJA A 5,040 4,062 15,285 6,944 8,341 1,095 221 2 3 5 21 15,204 55
SANUNDRI A 16,870 13,428 50,367 22,957 27,410 3,568 224 1 5 6 6 18 71 51,404 53
MUNNIAN WALA A 4,100 3,306 12,410 5,339 7,071 910 216 3 2 5 19 13,756 51
DHODIAN A 5,508 3,814 14,286 5,871 8,415 1,068 213 5 1 1 1 8 22 15,928 53
BHOJA A 13,414 10,989 41,212 18,789 22,423 2,916 224 3 3 3 6 15 57 41,268 54
BHOJA B 39,064 29,178 115,302 48,471 66,831 9,150 196 19 9 14 42 163 118,012 57
GHARAK B 3,665 3,464 13,707 5,340 8,367 11131 188 1 1 3 5 22 15,928 53
KAMALIA B B 16,685 15,161 60,266 26,153 34,113 4,742 197 3 8 6 7 24 89 64,436 53
WAGHI B 25,850 24,510 97,445 39,503 57,942 7,943 190 4 19 12 35 148 107,152 54
AZMAT SHAH B 3,927 3,704 14,769 5,871 8s898 1,221 186 1 4 5 23 16,652 53
DITCH CHANNEL B 4,526 4,332 17,296 7,475 9,821 1,372 194 2 3 1 6 23 16,652 59
RIGHT
DITCH CHANNEL B 6,341 5,595 22,301 9,607 12,694 1,770 194 2 5 1 8 31 22,444 57
LEFT
KALERA B 13,992 10,837 43,196 19,750 23,446 3,315 201 3 3 6 5. 17 64 46,336 51
KALLER B 13,520 10,508 42,466 25,923 16,543 2,475 261 1 2 7 2 12 46 33,304 50
KABIRWALA B 61,442 56,797 228,586 105,160 123,426 17,930 195 5 19 25 33 82 332 240,368 51
DIRECT OUTLETS A 3,049 2,501 9,425 3,950 5,475 710 210 1 3 4 15 10,860 50
DIRECT OUTLETS B 1,415 1,183 4,699 1,816 2,883 390 188 1 1 2 8 5,792 50
TOTAL 563,500 467,307 1,796,790 794,942 1,001,848 51 164 189 240 644 2,550 1,846,200 54




TABLE 8-6 NON-SALINE AREA
DISTRIBUTION AND CAPACITIES OF TUBEWELLS
AND
PERTINENT SUPPLEMENTAL DATA
CANAL COMMANDs HAVELI
DISTRIBUTARY PRECIP. GROSS CULTURA- ANNUAL ANNUAL ANNUAL PEAK DESIG- NUMBER OF TUBEWELLS INSTALLED ANNUAL
ZONE AREA BLE IRRIGA- CANAL TUBEWELL MONTH NED (CUSEC CAPACITY) CAPACITY PERCENT
AREA TION DELIV. DELIV- PUMPAGE TUBE- (ESTIMATED) UTILIZAREQ. RIES RIES WELL TION
DUTY
AsZA Aces. Ace.Fet at Head of Watercours* A.JL2.t_ 1 A ._.I TOTAL Cusec AFOHWC .
HASSUWALA B 14,160 13,233 52,467 25,155 27,312 4,816 169 2 6 9 6 23 88 63,712 43
SHORKOT B 69,880 68,485 273,269 125,615 147,654 24,784 170 8 28 43 35 114 447 323,628 46
KORANGA FEEDER B 4,340 3,906 15,705 000 15,705 1,941 124 0 4 3 2 9 34 24,616 64
KOT B 3,820 3,816 15,343 000 15,343 1,896 124 0 1 2 5 8 36 26,064 59
KORANGA CANAL B 30,680 28,698 117,359 29,577 87,782 10,229 172 1 15 14 17 47 188 136,112 64
TOTAL 122,880 118,138 474,143 180,347 293,796 11 54 71 65 201 793 574,132 51
TABLE 8.7 NON-SALINE AREA
DISTRIBUTION AND CAPACITIES OF TUBEWELLS
AND
PERTINENT SUPPLEMENTAL DATA
CANAL COMMANDs UNCOMMANDED
DISTRIBUTARY PRECIP. GROSS CULTURA- ANNUAL ANNUAL ANNUAL PEAK DESIG- NUMBER OF TUBEWELLS INSTALLED ANNUAL
ZONE AREA BLE IRRIGA- CANAL TUBEWELL MONTH NED (CUSEC CAPACITY) CAPACITY PERCENT
AREA TION DEL V- DELIV. PUMPAGE TUBE- (ESTIMATED) UTILIREQ. RIES RIES WELL ZATION
DUTY
AS.aA ASE. Acre-Feet at Head of Watercourse _. ... ....TOTAL Gu.e AgIHC .
UNCOMMANDED A 33,529 24,372 91,721 000 91,721 10,523 138 9 12 22 7 50 177 128,148 72
UNCOMMANDED B 22,171 16,113 64,382 000 64,382 7,876 126 6 10 16 6 38 136 98,464 65
TOTAL 55,700 40,485 156,103 o000 156,103 15 22 38 13 88 313 226,612 69




TABLE 8-8 INTERMEDIATE AREA
DISTRIBUTION AND CAPACITIES OF TUBEWELLS
AND
PERTINENT SUPPLEMENTAL DATA
CANAL COMMANDs JHANG BRANCH UPPER
DISTRIBUTARY GROSS CULTUR- ANNUAL ANNUAL ANNUAL PEAK DESIG- NUMBER OF TUBEWELLS INSTALLED ANNUAL
AREA ABLE IRRIGA- CANAL TUBEWELL MONTH NED (CUSEC-CAPACITY) CAPACITY PERCENT
AREA TION DELIV- DELIV. PUMPAGE TUBE- (ESTIMATED) UTILIZA.
REQ. ERIES ERIES WELL. TION
DUTY
Acres Acres Acre-Feet aH S~!QL. LiRS .Y A2jujj_ 2 2# __4 TOTAL Jegp MAHWC .1.
SARANGWALA 14,414 10,806 40,717 27,524 13,193 1,319 370 4 2 1 2 1 10 28.5 20,634 64
NASRANA 56,045 46,926 182.313 115,666 66,647 6,665 338 4 5 12 5 9 5 40 132.5 95,930 69
TOTAL 70,459 57,732 223.030 143,190 79,840 7,984 B 7 13 5 11 6 50 161.0 116,564 68
TABLE 8-9 INTERMEDIATE AREA
DISTRIBUTION AND CAPACITIES OF TUBEWELLS
AND
PERTINENT SUPPLEMENTAL DATA
CANAL COMMANLv JHANG BRANCH LOWER
DISTRIBUTARY GROSS CULTUR- ANNUAL ANNUAL ANNUAL PEAK DESIG. NUMBER OF TUBEWELLS INSTALLED ANNUAL
AREA ABLE IRRIGA- CANAL TUBEWELL MONTH NED (CUSEC-CAPACITY) CAPACITY PERCENT
AREA TION DELIV- DELIV. PUMPAGE TUBE- (ESTIMATED) UTILIZA.
REQ. ERIES ERIES WELL TION
DUTY
AcreA As.m Aqr.e-Feet at Head of Watercourse AH.cLiiA -A 2- _j _4 Af TAL CusA AFHWC A
GOJRA 7,747 6,544 24,580 16,901 7,679 768 380 2 1 2 5 16.0 11.584 66
TITRANWALA 13,320 11,796 44,668 28,746 15,922 1,649 341 7 2 1 2 1 13 35.0 25,340 63
BHAMNr 6,409 5,174 24,258 12,156 12,102 1,210 248 1 2 1 I 1 1 7 23.5 17,014 71
KAI.LAR 11,00qo 9,071 37,269 24,912 12,357 1,377 381 4 1 1 3 9 28.5 20,634 60
KRATOOR 3,410 1,484 5,773 3,037 2,736 274 285 2-- 2 5.0 3,620 76
SHIKAR 1,618 1,277 6,413 3,032 3,381 392 177 L 1 2 7.5 5-,430 62
KHEWRA 88,829 56,258 233,100 145,146 87,954 10,203 304 8 3 9 5 9 11 7 52 188.5 136,474 64
TOTAL 132,423 91,604 376,061 233,930 142,131 15,873 20 11 13 6 15 17 8 90 304.0 220.096 65




TABLE B-10 INTERMEDIATE AREA
DISTRIBUTION AND CAPACITIES OF TUBEWELLS
AND
PERTINENT SUPPLEMENTAL DATA
CANAL COMMANDs LOWER GUGERA BRANCH
DISTRIBUTARY GROSS CULTUR- ANNUAL ANNUAL ANNUAL PEAK DESIG. NUMBER OF TUBEWELLS INSTALLED ANNUAL
AREA ABLE IRRIGA- CANAL TUBEWELL MONTH NED (CUSEC-CAPACITY) CAPACITY PERCENT
AREA TION DELIV- DELIV. PUMPAGE TUBE- (ESTIMATED) UTILIZA.
REQ. ERIES ERIES WELL TION
DUTY
Anas Anzat Acre-Fast at Head of.Watercourse A/CuAAA _a & & & 5 TOTAL Cuu ALIIW. .
PAULIANI 19,549 16,438 61,620 40,078 21,542 2,154 342 5 5 2 2 1 1 16 49.5 35,838 60
AWAGAT 9,619 8,461 29,662 19,753 9,909 991 390 2 2 1 1 1 7 19.5 14,118 70
KNANUANA 35,261 28,970 108,538 74,914 33,624 3,362 379 10 1 3 3 5 3 25 75.5 54,662 62
KALUANA 6,763 6,222 23,323 15,199 8,124 812 350 3 - -. 2 1 6 18.5 13,394 61
BHARTIANA 6,894 5,497 20,605 12,959 7,646 765 337 4 1 1 - 6 17.0 12,318 62
BHARTIANA 2,975 2,481 9;300, 6,113 3,187 319 360 2 1- 3 7.5 5,430 59
MINOR
TALYARA 4,430 3,683 13,806 9,103 4,703 470 354 2 1 1 4 11.0 7,964 59
TALYARA MINOR 4,550 3,970 14,882 9,143 5,739 574 323 2 1 3 12.5 9,050 63
PHADIARA 4,740 3,617 13,559 9,138 4.421 442 365 2 -1 1- 4 10.5 7,602 58
KORU 7,520 4,374 16,640 8,349 8,291 829 275 2 1 1 1 5 16.5 11,946 69
KHATWAN 1,851 1,431 5,364 3,368 1,996 200 341 1 1 2 4.5 3,258 61
RUSSIAHA 18,123 16,471 62,028 41,799 20,229 2,023 368 2 2 2 2 3 2 13 43.0 31,132 65
KHUSHPUR 1,602 1,253 5,151 3,065 2,086 209 321 1 1 4.0 2,896 72
TARKHAMI 13,163 9,994 40,243 24,548 15,695 1,570 316 1 4 2 1 1 9 30.5 22.082 71
MUNGI 17,116 15,249 60,590 39,336 21,254 2,287 342 3 2 2 3 3 1 14 44.5 32,218 66
PIR MAHAL 711 568 2,376 1,152 1,224 142 203 1 .- 1 3.0 2,172 56
RAJIANA 15,504 12,824 61,736 29,462 22,274 2,584 273 1 3 3 4 1 12 46.5 33,666 66
KHIKHI 41,428 31,543 131,385 76,893 54,492 6,321 275 8 7 8 5 5 4 1 38 118.0 85,432 64
TOTAL 211,799 173,046 670,808 424,372 246,436 26,054 43 20 33 20 29 18 6 169 532.0 385,168 64




TABLE 8-11 INTERMEDIATE AREA
DISTRIBUTION AND CAPACITIES OF TUBEWELLS
AND
PERTINENT SUPPLEMENTAL DATA
CANAL COMMANDa RAKH BRANCH
DISTRIBUTARY GROSS CULTUR- ANNUAL ANNUAL ANNUAL PEAK DESIG- NUMBER OF TUBEWELLS INSTALLED ANNUAL
AREA ABLE IRRIGA- CANAL TUBENELL MONTH NED (CUSEC-CAPACITY) CAPACITY PERCENT
AREA TION DELIV- DELIV. PUMPAGE TUBE- (ESTIMATED) UTILIZA.
REQ. ERIES ERIES WELL TION
DUTY
Acres Acres Acre.Feet at Head of Watercourse A ,Z 4,. a 4j_ TOTAL uj AFOHWC
SANGLA 2,870 2,084 7,979 4,644 3,335 334 321 1 1 2 6.5 4,706 71
ARURI 27,030 19,493 73,166 47,068 26,098 2,610 343 2 2 7 5 1 1 18 56.5 4Q,906 64
AKIL 16,400 12,614 49,211 29,757 19,454 1,945 328 2 2 4 2 1 1 12 36.5 26,426 74
ARBI 23,230 17,911 69,430 40,530 28,900 2,890 314 2 1 4 1 4 2 2 16 57.0 41,268 70
MUKHIANA 13,420 10,134 44,243 22,093 22,150 2,215 245 3 1 3 2 2 2 13 41.5 30,046 74
LAKHUANA 16,681 13,661 51,208 33,089 18,119 1,812 347 2 1 2 3 1 3 12 40.5 29,322 62
SIRNALA 4,765 3,591 13,689 8,738 4,951 495 349 1 - 2 - 3 10.0 7,240 68
DIJKOT 2,586 2,115 8,004 5,640 2,364 236 399 1 1 2 5.5 3,982 59
RAKH DIRECT 1,265 1,046 3p995 3,009 986 99 581 1 1 2.0 1,448 68
OUTLETS
TOTAL 108,247 82,649 320,925 194,568 126,357 12,636 13 9 21 13 12 8 3 79 256.0 185,344 68
TABLE 8-12 INTERMEDIATE AREA
DISTRIBUTION AND CAPACITIES OF TUBEWELLS
AND
PERTINENT SUPPLEMENTAL DATA
CANAL COMMANDs HAVELI
DISTRIBUTARY GROSS CULTUR- ANNUAL ANNUAL ANNUAL PEAK DESIG NUMBER OF TUBEWELLS INSTALLED ANNUAL
AREA ABLE IRRIGA- CANAL. TUBEWELL MONTH NED (CUSEC-CAPACITY) CAPACITY PERCENT
AREA TION DELIV- DELIV- PUMPAGE TUBE- (ESTIMATED) UTILIZAREQ. ERIES ERIES WELL TION
DUTY
MA Aees Acre-Feet at Head of Watercourse A./Cuc 2 5 TOTAL Cusec AFOHWC %
GHAG 16,401 16,090 68,820 39,269 29,551 3,428 260 4 3 2 4 2 2 2 19 62.5 45,250 65
DAXKHANA 7,469 7,190 31,016 14,961 16,055 1,862 213 1 2 4 4 - 11 35.0 25,340 63
TOTAL 23,870 23,280 99,836 54,230 45,606 5,290 5 5 6 4 6 2 2 30 97.5 70,590 65




TABLE 8-13
SUMMARY BY BRANCHES OF ANNUAL IRRIGATION REQUIREMENTS, SUPPLIES AND RELATED DATA
Tubewell Percent
Historic Irrigation Proposed Tubewell Installed Annual
Canal Command Ground Water Zone Gros s turabM Area Canal Deliveries Reauirernents Canal Dellverles Reulrement Capacity Utilization
Acres Acres Acre-Feet at the Head of the Water40urse
JHANG UPPER
NON-SALINE 246,110 1 z9, 574 313,706 715,253 302,353 412,900 748,616 55
INTERMEDIATE 70 459 37,732 111,890 223,030 143,190 79y840 116,564 68
Sub-Total 316,569 247,306 425,596 938,283 445,543 492,740 865,180
SALINE 15,411 12,277 24,182 30,010
BRANCH TOTAL 331,980 259,583 449,778 475,553
BHAWANA
NON-SALINE 189,400 146,112 "235,900 555,876 212,242 343,634 616,124 56
JHANG LOWER
NON-SALINE 268,810 194,066 315,407 754,258 294,445 459,813 .823, 188 56
INTERMEDIATE 132,423 91,604 169,344 376,061 233,930 142,131 220,096 65
Sub-Total 401,233 285,670 484,751 1,130,319 528,375 601,944 1,043,284
SALINE 116,487 81,678 161,052 200,508
BRANCH TOTAL 517,720 367,348 645,803 728,883
RAKH
INTERMEDIATE 108,247 82,649 144,404 320,925 ,94,568 126,357 185,344 68
SALINE 200,483 163,583 311,778 404,901
BRANCH TOTAL 308,730 246,232 456,182 599,469
LOWER GUGERA
NON-SALINE 168,496 139,398 259,934 541,561 253,549 288,012 531,416 54
INTERMEDIATE 211,799 173,046 315,113 670,808 424,372 246,436 385,168 64
Sub-Total 380,295 312,444 575,047 1,212,369 677,921 534,448 916,584
SALINE 186,155 142,489 257,776 331,259
BRANCH TOTAL 566,450 454,933 832,823 1,009,180
'JE LA
NON-SALINE 563,500 467,307 853,758 1,796,790 794,942 1,001,848 1,846,200 54
HAVELI
NON-SALINE 122,680 118,138 172,850 474,143 180,347 293,796 574,132 51
INTERMEDIATE 23,870 23,280 44,898 99,836 54,230 45,606 70,590 65
Sub-Total 146,750 141,418 217,748 573,979 234,577 339,402 644,722
SALINE 55,250 52,760 105,643 132,493
BRANCH TOTAL 202,000 194, i78 323,391 367,070
UNCOMMANDED
NON-SALINE 55,700 40,485 156,103 156,103 226,612 69
PROJ-ECT
NON-SALINE 1,614,896 1,295,080 2,151,555 4,993,984 2,037,878 2,956,106 5,366,288 55
INTERMEDIATE 546,798 428,311 785,649 1,690,660 1,050,290 640,370. 977,762 65
Sub-Total 2,161,694 1,723,391 2,937,204 6,684,644 3,088,168 3,596,476 6,344,050
SALINE 573,786 452,787 860,431 1,099,171
PROJECT TOTAL 2735,480 2,176,178 3,797,635 4,187,339




TABLE 8-14
SUMMARY OF TUBEWELL NUMBERS AND CAPACITIES
Tubewell capacity Number of tubewetlls
(cusecs) Non-Saline Area Intermediate Area Total
2 155 89 244
21 52 52
3 461 86 547
3" 48 48
4 581 73 654
4 51 51
5 679 19 698
Total 1,876 418 2,294
Installed capacity (cusecs) 7,412.0 1,350.5 8,762.5




TABLE 8-15
MONTHLY DISTRIBUTION OF PROPOSED SURFACE-WATER DELIVERIES
(1000 acre-feet at heads of water courses for total Project area) Additional surfbce-water supplies
By transfer Proposed
Historic from Upper From future
Month deliveries Rechna rivers deliveries
January 147.6 42.8 190.4
February 270.3 30.1 300.4
Nb rch 344.4 35.9 380.3
April 341.2 41.2 382.4
Wcoy 365.0 45.3 410.3
June 364.9 32.9 397.8
July 340.0 70.6 410.6
August 335.7 75.4 411.1
September 353.1 44.6 397.7
October 359.9 35.6 395.5
November 320.9 320.5
December 254.6 190.3
TOTAL 3,797.6 230.9 223.5- 4,187.3




FIGURE 8Pump house .Pump pedestal ..---Steel reducer
floor slob- ,Original ground
surface ,.--Steel nipple
.-Threoded steel nipple wsth thr@ef6
S coupling or combination threaded
I and cemented coupling or plain
I.steel nipple with combination threaded and cemented coupling.
I-. --Fiberglass tubewell
casing
1.. ,' costmg,
-- --.-.. DETAIL A
i .-Slotted fiberglass tubewell casing.
Concentric i r 'O.D.Tutewell cosing shall have
steel reducer-- 1 Du 1 ul 1 isof' s ,) slots per footerronget
s-ee ----- in 4,rows of 45 slots with slots
-------------- I grouped in threes, equally spaced.
e1 I a.o Tubewell casing shall have
i44 iJ a. i). slots per foot artrng
4 DETAIL B in 4 rows of 36 slats with slat;
grouped in threes, equally spaced,
S Gravel
shroud-- -- .,-Fierglass
couplieg
DETAIL C
- ----o- 0 0 Fibergious
tubewell casing
--lO"to 8'Fiberglass
..reducer coupling
-81'0 0. Fiberglass
. .' tubewell casing
---------- DETA4
e--Plain tubewell casing DETAIL D ,--8o 0. Fiberglass blank
each tubewell tubewell casing
S...-Bail plug ('"ploty) or closed end molded in fiberglass
4- -L'O Bol
.._.. ........ DETAIL E equally spoced
<-- 24 "-- CEMENTED THREADED AND
SECTION THROUGH TUBEWELL JOINTS COUPLED JOINTS
'VARIABLE CHARACTERISTICS AND DIMENSIONS
Tubewell capacity cusecs 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0
Pump- Head-ft 50 70 55 75 60 80 70 90
Column pipe dia in. 8 8 8 8 o10 1 0 1 0 I 0
Column pipe length -ft. 50 70 55 75 60 80 7 0 90
Bowl d o.- in 12 12 1 2 12 1 5 1 5 1 5 t 5
Motor horsepower 20 20 30 40 40 50 60 75
Approximate lengths of casing -ft.
Pump housing casing 16* 0 0 0 0 80 105 90 1 1 5
Pump housing casing i4"$ 70 95 80 95 0 0 0 0
Slotted tubeweli casing -io'" 0 0 0 0 60 60 100 100
Blank tubewell casing 0 "# 0 0 0 0 10 10 10 10
Slotted tubeweli casing 7-8'" 100 100 120 120 100 100 100 100 Blank tubeweli cosing-8j"f 10 I0 15 15is 10 10 to10 10o
Approximate average aepth of tubewell-ft 1SO 205 215 230 260 285 310 335
NOTES
All slotted tubewell casing to have minimum wall ER WEST rAISAN T
thickness of 0.20 in. All blank tubewell -casing w IPrON AW ERAiSOiL. WC. EN4A1fT00
to haove a minimum wall thickness of 0. lRin. A E A
Length of sections of both blank and slotted GROUND WATER AND RECLAMATION PROGRM
tubewell casing and their location in the tubewell PROJECT NO 5
string s to be determined in the field. LOWER RECHNA DOAB
TYPICAL TUBEWELL CONSTRUCTION YeWITH FIBERGLASS TUBEWELL CASING




CHAPTER 9 FEASIBILITY




9-1
Chapter 9
FEASIBILITY
HYDRO LO GY
The response of the ground wate'system to the development plan within the Project area was estimated by numerical analysis. Pertinent details and results are described in Appendix G. The studies indicate that annual ground water discharge will exceed recharge from the irrigation system by about 800,000 acre-feet. Discharge will initially be supplied from the ground water reservoir and eventually will be balanced by recharge from rivers, canals, and irrigation operations. The potential rate of recharge to the Project area is sufficient to support the projected level of ground water development. Future equilibrium conditions and the hydrologic implications of development activities are presented in Figure G-3 through G-6.
Plate 21 shows projected ground water depths after 20 years of Project operations. The average decline of ground water level will be about 27 feet after 20 years of pumping and about 40 feet after 50 years of pumping.
The ground water level in the Saline Area will continue to rise for a few years after the Inception of Project operations. Initially, the rate of rise will be somewhat greater than at present, but it will diminish with time and in a few years the ground water level will decline. The decline in the ground water table will be caused by the increasing gradient between the Saline Area and the surrounding areas of intensive ground water withdrawal.
A graphic study of relative motion at thirteen different locations shows that the ground water table below most of the Saline Area will begin to decline after 5 to 10 years of Project operations, and future minimum depths will range between'5 to 20 feet. Only in local depressions and in the immediate vicinity of the T-S Link will temporary drainage provisions be required; the total affected break will not be more than five percent of the Saline Area.
As a consequence of Project development, subsurface water will flow from the Saline towards the Non-Saline Area, but the volume of flow cannot exceed the net recharge within the Saline Area. The maximum velocity is a function of the maximum potential and can be estimated by the hydraulic gradient that will be developed at the boundary of the Saline Area. Such an estimate is made in Appendix G, where it is demonstrated that the maximum velocity of ground water migration will be only about ninety feet a year, and will be even slower during the years required to attain the maximum potential. Ground water movement of this low order of magnitude cannot pose practical threats to successful operation of the Project.
Potential evapotranspirative losses direct from shallow water tables were not taken into account in the analysis of variations of the ground water level.. Such losses are a temporary component of discharge of the ground water reservoir. Evapotranspiration in conjunction with the effect of private tubewell pumpoge will suppress the rate of water table rise in the Saline Area and accelerate the decline of the water table in the surrounding areas. Therefore the estimation of the minimum depth to the ground water table is conservative. As the NonSaline Area should be developed before additional surface supplies are diverted into the Saline Area, the decline of the water table in the Saline Area will probably occur sooner than postulated.
CHEMICAL QUALITY OF IRRIGATION SUPPLIES
Salinity of irrigation water in the Intermediate Area The moderately saline ground waters that will be pumped for use in the Intermediate Area will be diluted sufficiently with canal water so that any possible threat to sustained irrigation will be minimal. The distribution




9-2
of the salinity of applied water in the Intermediate Area is shown in Figure 9-1. The median salinity of the mixed irrigation water at the 821 outlets in the Area will be 800 ppm TDS; the mean will be 970 ppm; and the maximum will be 2200 ppm.
Applied salinity will exceed 1500 ppm i.e., will be "marginal" according to
the classification of Chapter 7 In only 98 of the 821 chaks. These chaks comprise 55,800 culturable acres and represent only 10 percent of the CA of the Intermediate Area and only
2 percent of the CA of the Project. As full leaching supplies will be delivered to those lands, crop yields will not be unduly depressed nor will soils be damaged.
Potential use of ground water in the Saline Area As indicated in Appendix H, in
1965 there were 178 operational, privately-owned tubewells in areas where the salinity of the deep ground water exceeded 2,000 ppm TDS. As shown in Tables C-3 and C-4, there is an appreciable volume of fresh ground water at shallow depths within the Saline Area certainly a much larger volume than is now being exploited. With the increase in surface deliveries provided by Project operations, recharge of fresh water will increase and the Saline Area will be able to support more development. There is no question but that farmers will become aware of this situation and will take advantage of it by constructing more wells, the use of which will increase cropping intensities and will also reduce drainage hazards. Sufficient substation capacity will be provided in the Project electrification scheme for about 1,000 additional private tubewells of one cusec capacity in the Saline Area. Private development will increase farm yields and the additional withdrawals will enhance subsurface drainage in the Saline Area. As private development of the shallow ground water supplies in the Saline Area is uncertain, no benefits are claimed by the Project from this source, nor have the costs of distribution lines been included.
DIRECT AGRICULTURAL BENEFITS
Present agricultural conditions and the associated problems restraining development are described in Chapter 6 and Appendix H. A reflection of the present subsistence level of agriculture is the fact that the average annual computed return to land and family labor from crops is only about 1,780 rupees per farm, or about 370 rupees per family member (Table 9-1). After meeting his family's needs for food, the average present proprietor is able to market only about 500 rupees worth of crop.o Tenants who must pay rent and peasant proprietors with smaller than average farms are even less fortunate. However, as Lower Rechna Doab is one of the most productive farming areas in West Pakistan, the per cap1t income compares favorably with the estimated national per capita income of 442 rupees Y.
Future agricultural development without a Project The agricultural development that has taken place within the Project area in recent years is mainly a result of the installation of private tubewells which commanded nearly 320,000 acres In 1965. As the present inadequate supply of irrigation water is the primary restraint to future agricultural development, the rate at which private tubewells can be expected to increase provides the key to estimating future agricultural production in the absence of a public reclamation program.
Figure 9-2 shows the total culturable area in Lower Rechna Doab per private
tubewell since 1959 and a projection based on the historic trend. That projection incorporates the restraints described in Chapter 6 and indicates that private development will have essentially ceased by 1970. Another projection of the future area to be commanded by private tubewells is presented in Figure 9-3: it is based on the number of tubewells shovn on Figure 9-2 and on the present value of 100 commanded acres per tubewell. The straight-line approximation shown on Figure 9-3 was used for the purpose of the Project benefit analysis.
1/ The Third Five-Year Plan (1965-1970), Government of Pakistan, June 1965.




9-3
In the absence of a retlarmation project, it is anticipated that private tubewell supplies will be extended to about 470,000 acres by 1970. The resulting average annual return to land and family labor will be about 2,340 rupees per farm or 490 rupees per family member, an increase of about six percent per year from the present level.
Owing to an increase of only 10,000 acres under tubewell command after 1970, it is estimated that average annual return to land and family labor will be only 3,925 rupees per farm in 1990 or an increase of less than four percent per year from 1970. Newly developed forming methods and inputs will be used almost exclusively on the farms receiving supplemental water from tubewel Is, as in the absence of adequate irrigation supplies the returns from these items will not warrant their use. Thus, the expected increase in annual income will be restricted almost entirely to the larger farmers and the majority of farmers in the area will remain at a subsistence level of production. Tables 9-2, 9-3 and 9-4 show the derivation of returns to land and family labor and of the net value of agricultural production 'for present conditions and for conditions in 1970 and in 1990.
Agricultural development resulting from Project 5 The Salinity Control and Reclamation Project for Lower Rechna Doab will create a favorable environment for rapid development of agriculture to the level indicated in Chapter 7. Upon completion of construction, the tubewell system will provide all farmers in the Non-Saline and Intermediate Areas with adequate irrigation capacity for immediate and full development of agriculture. With the exploitation of the sable ground water, the water table will be lowered and conditions favorable for effective leaching will be created. As a result, the 426,000 acres of cultivable land presently salt-affected or waterlogged in the Project area will be brought into full production. Land under cultivation will increase five percent and irrigated acreage will increase nearly 30 percent from the present 2.5 million to 3.2 million acres per year. The average cropping intensity for the Project area will increase from 114 percent to 147 percent.
Changes in cropping patterns will also evolve according to the criteria outlined
in Chapter 7 and summarized in Table 7-1. As a result of the increase in cultivated area and the increase in cropping intensity, the acreage of all crops except wheat and pulses will Increase, The higher yields expected from wheat will free some land presently sown to wheat for more profitable crops. Fruits and vegetables, presently deficient in the national diet and vital to the health of the individual, will increase in acreage by more than 300 percent. A large increase in acreage of fodder crops is also expected, which will lead to better nutrition of draft and d airy animals. The acreage of cash crops such as sugarcane and oilseeds is expected to Increase nearly 40 percent. Cotton, an important cash crop and foreign exchange earner, will increase in acreage more than 45 percent.
Production Increases will result also from an increase in yields per acre. Present yields for each crop, those expected at the end of the development period, and projected yields at optimum development are given in Table 9-5. Increased and timely irrigation supplies and drainage are expected to effect an increase in unit yields of about 25 percent for the Project area. But more importantly, more fertilizer and improved seed will be used and more plant protection will be provided when water deficiency is no longer a limiting factor, and yields will then increase two and three fold.
Immediate benefits from reclamation During the five year development period,
improvement of the water supply factor wil also (1) increase the cultivated area by 110,000 acres; (2) increase cropping intensity from 114 to 147 percent; (3) increase unit yields by about 25 percent; and (4) promote changes in cropping patterns to satisfy better the food and fiber needs of the nation. The gross values of crops will increase 63 percent, from 634 million




9-4
rupees to 1,035 million rupees per year (see Table 9-1). The Project will affect all aspects of farm economy. Timeliness of farm operations will be improved as the average farm will be able to support a pair of bullocks. Additional employment will be available for the permanent and the casual hired laborers.
In the period immediately following reclamation, farm incomes will increase as a direct result of the improved water supply. Return to land and family labor, less 10.50 rupees per irrigated acre for Project water charges, will be 3,381 rupees per farm per year, or an increase of 11 percent per year over the present level. The increase should triple the amount the average family can market after meeting its own needs. Farmers with even the smallest holdings will be affected by the increase in the average per capita income from 370 to more than 700 rupees per year.
By the end of the development period the demand for fertilizer, plant protection
measures, improved seeds and other inputs will increase as the augmented water supplies make their use more profitable. This demand will result in concomitant development of the industries supplying the farmers' needs. market facilities and processing industries will expand. Furthermore, as agricultural incomes grow, the demand for other goods and services will increase. Thus, the developing agricultural economy will affect the entire economy of the area.
Benefits following full development The introduction of modern farming methods and technology will further enhance the benefits of the Project. Production increases will occur through increases in yields per cultivated acre. Leaching of salts from severely salinized land will increase productivity. Other reclamation procedures such as the use of green manuring and possibly the application of amendments such as gypsum will gradually decrease the limited acreage of the severely salt-affected lands.
Fertilizer applications coupled with the use of improved seed, insect and disease
control, and other production inputs will increase yields two and three fold. The gross rupee value of production will increase three fold over the present levels and will be nearly twice that achieved at the end of the development period. In 1990, within 20 years after comple-tion of construction, the return to land and family labor will exceed 6,500 rupees per farm after allowing for Project costs at the rate of 21 rupees per irrigated acre. Assuming no change in family size, this amounts to a per capita income of 1,369 rupees per year, an increase of
5.6 percent per year after the end of the development period and well ahead of that proposed in the "long-term Perspective" of the Third Five Year Plan as shown below:
ESTIMATED PER CAPITA INCOME
Long lerm Perspective (Third Five Year Plan) compared with Lower Rechna
(Rupees at 1964-65 prices)
1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990
Perspective (Pakistan) 386 467 577 727 932 1/
(West Pakistan) 442 531 627 750 932 T/
Lower Rechna 2/ 370 500 775 975 1,175 2,369
1/ Beyond scope of the Long-Term Perspective.
_/ Assuming one family per farm, 4.8 persons per family and no change in family size.