• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Foreword
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Definitions and Abbreviations
 Introduction
 The 1975 program
 Agriculture
 Water
 Power
 Implementation
 General map






Title: Program for water and power development in West Pakistan through 1975
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Title: Program for water and power development in West Pakistan through 1975
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Creator: Harza Engineering Company International
Publisher: Harza Engineering Company International
Publication Date: 1964
 Subjects
Subject: Farming   ( lcsh )
Agriculture   ( lcsh )
Farm life   ( lcsh )
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Funding: Electronic resources created as part of a prototype UF Institutional Repository and Faculty Papers project by the University of Florida.
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Bibliographic ID: UF00054838
Volume ID: VID00001
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Resource Identifier: oclc - 07017863

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Foreword
        Page I
        Page II
        Page III
    Title Page
        Page IV
    Table of Contents
        Page V
    Definitions and Abbreviations
        Page VI
    Introduction
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Annex A
            Page 4
            Page 5
            Page 6
            Page 7
            Page 8
            Page 9
            Page 10
            Page 11
            Page 12
        Annex B
            Page 13
            Page 14
            Page 15
            Page 16
            Page 17
    The 1975 program
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Table A
            Page 22
            Page 23
            Page 24
    Agriculture
        Page 25
        Food and population
            Page 25
        The productive lands
            Page 26
        The present state of agriculture
            Page 27
        Future production
            Page 28
            Page 29
            Page 30
            Page 31
            Page 32
            Page 33
            Page 34
    Water
        Page 35
        The water resources
            Page 35
            Page 36
            Page 37
            Page 38
        Present use of water
            Page 39
        Surface-water development
            Page 40
            Page 41
            Page 42
            Page 43
        Flood control
            Page 44
            Page 45
            Page 46
        Reclamation and ground-water development
            Page 47
            Page 48
            Page 49
            Page 50
            Page 51
        Other water development
            Page 52
        Future use of water
            Page 53
            Page 54
            Page 55
            Page 56
            Page 57
            Page 58
            Page 59
    Power
        Page 61
        The power needs
            Page 61
        Power Potentials
            Page 62
        The Power Supply
            Page 63
            Page 64
            Page 65
            Page 66
            Page 67
    Implementation
        Page 69
        Engineering
            Page 69
        Construction
            Page 70
        Administration of the program
            Page 70
        Construction
            Page 71
        Operation
            Page 72
        Investment in the program
            Page 73
        Economic returns
            Page 74
            Page 75
    General map
        Page 77
Full Text

Dr. P. E. 'ILDEBnI1r
.Cief Ecoomist


I/0 o/Y


PROGRAM FOR
WATER AND POWER DEVELOPMENT

IN WEST PAKISTAN
THROUGH 1975



(MASTER PLAN-INITIAL PHASE)


A REPORT BY
HARZA ENGINEERING COMPANY INTERNATIONAL


PREPARED FOR
WATER AND POWER DEVELOPMENT AUTHORITY
OF WEST PAKISTAN


JANUARY 1964


LAHORE


t
~rir :
--i











HARZA ENGINEERING COMPANY INTERNATIONAL
INCORPORATED IN REPUBLIC OF LIBERIA LIABILITY OF MEMBERS IS LIMITED
CONSULTING ENGINEERS
RIVER PROJECTS
OFFICES
TEHRAN, IRAN CABLE ADDRESS "HAREINT"
SAN SALVADOR, EL SALVADOR
AMAN, JORDAN ADDRESS REPLAY TO
MANILA PHILIPPINES HARZA ENGINEERING COMPANY INTERNATIONAL
BUENOS AIRES, ARGENTINA POST BOX 267
SAN PEDRO SULA, HONDURAS LAHORE, WEST PAKISTAN
REPRESENTED IN THE UNITED STATES BY TELEI 60001 80002 & 80003
HARZA ENGINEERING COMPANY
400 WEST MADISON STREET.
CHICAGO 6, ILLINOIS,
TELEX NUMBER 312-222-9334

January 22, 1964

Mr. Ghulam Ishaq, Chairman,

Water and Power Development Authority,

Sunny View Estate, Kashmir Road,
Lahore, West Pakistan

Subject: The 1975 Program

Dear Mr. Ishaq:

We are pleased to submit our Report on the proposed program for water and power
development in West Pakistan through the year 1975. This program represents the
initial phase of a Master Plan which will provide for the progressive development of the
water and power resources of West Pakistan in the joint interests of irrigation, drainage,
power, flood control, navigation, domestic and industrial water supplies, and other beneficial
water uses. Our Report is presented in three sections. The first section is an Introduction,

which provides background information concerning our sources of data, the scope of our
studies, and the conclusions around which the Report was developed. The second section
defines and discusses the proposed program. The remaining section# summarizesour
supporting material for the several phases of the program.

The proposed program is based on the investigations which we have been making under
the provisions of our Agreement of December 19, 1959. This Agreement provides for the
preparation of a Master Plan which will utilize and conserve, to the maximum practicable
extent, the entire water and power resources of the Province. The resulting Master Plan
is intended, as stated in our Agreement, to-

"I. Utilize these resources in a manner which will provide the maximum

possible return in benefits to the people of West Pakistan; and









"2. Provide a plan which will not block any possible future potential pro-
jects on the rivers through partial-development schemes, regardless
of how attractive such schemes may be initially."

The proposed program, when combined with a collateral program of agricultural
development, will provide the basis for increasing the net annual food production from the
present-day level of II million tons to 25 million tons in 1975. The resulting gross value
of crops in 1975 would be about Rs. 9,000 million, an increase of Rs. 5,000 million, or 125
percent, over the present day level of Rs. 4,000 million. This improved agricultural produc-
tion would provide an average daily per-capita intake of 2,300 calories for the estimated
1975 population of 65 million persons, an increase of 15 percent over the present average
daily per capital consumption. A proportionate increase would also be realized in agricul-
tural production for industrial raw materials and exports. A significant improvement should
be realized in the rural economy, also. The production of electric energy would increase
from the present output of 1900 million kilowatt-hours to about 9,500 million kilowatt
hours, an increase in annual per-capita consumption from 37 to 130 kilowatt-hours.

To reach the projected 1975 level of development will require the reclamation of about
19 million acres of land through a system involving 34,000 tubewells and nearly 6,000 miles
of surface drains. Irrigation water supplies will be increased by 21 million acre-feet of
surface storage in the Mangla, Tarbela, and other reservoirs, and 27 million acre-feet of
ground water pumped from the tubewells. Some 390 canal miles of link canals will be
added to the water conveyance system, together with five major barrages and the
necessary appurtenant structures. Provisions are included for the remodelling of existing
canals and appurtenant structures to meet the operating requirements of the 1975 system.
The total generating capacity will be increased from the present nameplate rating of
600,000 kilowatts to over 2,200,000 kilowatts by adding over one million kilowatts of hydro-
electric capacity and approximately one-half million kilowatts of thermal capacity to the
system.

The program costs through 1975 will total Rs. 21,400 million, of which Rs. 8,540 million
will be required for construction of the Indus Basin Project, and the remaining Rs. 12,860
million represents the cost for the other sectors of the program.

In a development plan of the scope and magnitude of that proposed, it is inevitable that
some aspects must be based Initially on preliminary evaluations. Further data collection
and additional studies must be undertaken to firm up these areas. This further work in-









volves field investigations, applied research, and technical studies extending over the next
several years. Because of the lead time involved to bring the projects to the construction
stage, early action will be necessary to complete the investigations on those reservoirs
which are not included in the Indus Basin Project, but which are planned for completion by
1975. A similar situation exists with respect to hydro-electric developments. The regional
planning now under way in both the Punjab and the Sind also will be yielding results which
will contribute to the firming-up of the present program.

As requested by you in our conferences in New York on 20 December 1963, we are
proceeding with the work necessary to firm-up the present program and to extend the
program through the period 1975 to 1990. From our work to date, it is apparent that the
general character of this program extension will follow along the lines of the present pro-
gram. To a very considerable extent, the further work discussed in the Introduction will
contribute materially to the program extension. We are scheduling our Report on the
program extension through 1990 for completion by the end of 1.965.

Very truly yours,

HARZA ENGINEERING COMPANY
INTERNATIONAL




Calvin V. Davis
Chairman







program


for


Water


Development in


ann


West


d Power
Pakistan


through


975


(Master Plan-Initial Phase)
















TABLE OF CONTENTS


DEFINITIONS AND ABBREVIATIONS

INTRODUCTION
Annex A
Annex B

THE 1975 PROGRAM

Table A

AGRICULTURE

Food and Population
The Productive Lands
The Present State of Agriculture
Future Production


WATER


The Water Resources
Present Use of Water
Surface-Water Development
Flood Control
Reclamation and Ground-Water
Other Water Development
Future Use of Water

POWER

The Power Needs
Power Potentials
The Power Supply

IMPLEMENTATION

Engineering
Construction
Administration of the Program
Operation
Investment in the Program
Economic Returns


Development
..


Inside back cover


Page


GENERAL MAP















DEFINITIONS


Eastern Rivers-Ravi, Beas and Sutlej I
}- Designation from Indus Waters Treaty 1960.
Western Rivers-Indus, Jhelum and Chenab J

Kharif-The summer growing season has been taken herein to be May through September, even though some
summer crops are harvested as late as November. This differs from the usually accepted period for
kharif of April through September.

Rabi-The winter growing season is used herein as October through April.

Perennial-pertaining to areas with irrigation supplies available during both the kharif ard rabi seasons.

Non-Perennial-pertaining to areas with irrigation supplies available only during the kharif season.

Canal commanded area-land which can receive water from a canal system by gravity flow.

Cnlturable area-land suitable and available for agriculture.

Culturable commanded area-land that is culturable and under canal command.

Cropped area-land on which crops are actually grown in a given season.

Irrigation intensity-the ratio of the sum of the maximum area cropped in each of the two seasons (Kharif
and Rabi) to the culturable commanded area, expressed as a percent. As used herein, the maxi-
mum intensity of field crops in a season is 100 percent; in a year, 200 percent,

Ton-(long ton) 2,240 pounds.

Maund-82.3 pounds

Doab-the land between two converging rivers.

Canal miles-Canals and drains in West Pakistan are measured in miles of 5,000 feet.

ABBREVIATIONS

AF acre-foot kw kilowatt
MAF million acre-feet kv kilovolt
BTU British thermal unit mw megawatt
CCA culturable commanded area ppm parts per million by weight
IBP Indus Basin Project cusec cubic foot per second
WAPDA Water and Power Development Authority
of West Pakistan















INTRODUCTION


In December 1959, the Harza Engineering Company International (HARZINT) was engaged by the Water
and Power Development Authority of West Pakistan (WAPDA) to prepare a long-range master plan for the
development of the water and power resources of West Pakistan. By mutual understanding it was agreed that the
preparation of the plan would proceed in several steps. The water and power development program through
1975 presented in this report represents the first step in this assignment. The second step, which involves
extension of the program through an additional 10 to 15 years (1985 to 1990), has now been authorized and
the work under this second step is under way.

In approaching the first step in the assignment it was evident that the following factors relating to water
and power development would require evaluation prior to the preparation of a development plan:

1. The existing level of agricultural production, and water and power use.

2. The needs through 1975 for agricultural production, water and power.

3. The means available to meet these needs, particularly in the Indus Plains.

To aid in this evaluation, there was available a considerable volume of source data covering all aspects of
the assignment. A selected bibliography listing the more important of these follows as Annex A to this intro-
duction. Additional data to supplement and extend these sources were gathered through field investigations of
such critical factors as river discharge, sedimentation, rainfall and snow melt. The present use and a projection of
energy requirements were obtained through a power market survey.

Based on these data, studies were made concerning (1) losses and gains in various reaches of the rivers in
the Indus Plains; (2) water losses from the canals and water courses in the canal systems of the Indus Plains;
(3) system operations involving routings of the river and canal systems (including storage reservoirs and link
canals to be provided under the Indus Basin Settlement Plan) to meet projected irrigation water requirements
throughout the Indus Plains under various levels of development; (4) irrigation water requirements of various
crops and preliminary monthly water requirements for the several canal systems in the Indus Plains for
assumed typical cropping patterns and irrigation intensities; and (5) potential water balances for the various
canal systems involving surface-water input, ground-water recharge, ground-water pumping, and drainage
requirements for unusable ground water. In addition, studies were made to indicate the potential river
salinity under future development conditions and requirements for ground-water mining as alternatives to
surface-water storage developments.

The results of these studies have been documented in a report entitled "Supporting Studies-An Appraisal
of Resources and Potential Development" dated Septeimber 1963. As the title implies, these studies serve to











support the program presented in this report. While it would be impracticable to assemble in a single reference
volume the total support for a program of the scope presented, the report describes the sources of basic data,
the methods which were employed in carrying out the studies and the results achieved. In addition, it makes
reference to other source reports which will be of interest to those persons dealing with the more detailed aspects
of the programme.

From an evaluation of these studies, the following basic conclusions have been reached regarding the devel-
opment of water and power in West Pakistan:

1. The accelerated agricultural production to develop acceptable dietary levels can be
generated most efficiently by reclaiming lands in the Indus Plains already commanded
by existing canal systems, and by providing optimum water supplies for more intensive
irrigation of these reclamined lands.

2. Both surface- and ground- water resources should be developed to provide the future
irrigation requirements.

3. The regulation of ground-water levels by tubewells is the most economical means of
controlling waterlogging and salinity within the Indus Plains, and will ultimately yield
about 40 MAF annually of usable water at the water course head. By 1975 the annual
yield will be between 25 and 30 MAF.

4. The probable ultimate reservoir storage requirement for surface water regulation
for irrigation in the Indus Plains will be in the range of 20 to 30 MAF, of which about
17 MAF will be required to meet 1975 needs.

5. The existing system of canals might be remodeled to provide appreciable increases in
diversion capacity. However, available data are not at hand to permit reasonable
evaluation of the physcial and operational factors involved in such remodelling and the
preparation of reliable cost estimates for the necessary modification of facilities
which must continue in service during construction; therefore in order to meet the
requirements for 1975, it is desirable to include the raising of both the Mangla
and Tarbela Dams in lieu of major increases in canal diversion capacities.

6. Power requirements through 1975 can best be met through the utilization of the hydro-
electric power potential at the storage reservoirs, supplemented by thermal generation.

The programme for water and power development in West Pakistan through 1975 presented in this report
is based on the conclusions listed above. It is a program which will guide the formulation and execution of those
projects which will be initiated before details of the development program have been resolved, and represents a
framework for development activities through 1975.

In determining the required water development, it has been assumed that there will be a collateral program
of agricultural development that will permit full use of the water which will be made available under the program.










The agricultural development program is beyond the scope of this report; however it has been assumed that
such a program will include improvements in seed characteristics, plant protection, and farm practices, as well
as increased use of fertilizer.

The power provisions in the 1975 program reflect the total requirements obtained by combining the load
growth anticipated from increased industrial, commercial, and residential consumption with the specific power
requirements associated with the water development program. The estimate of industrial, commercial, and
residential use was based on the recently completed power market survey. The specific power requirements
associated with water development were based directly on the program presented in this report.

As might be expected in a development plan covering the scope and depth of the present program, it is
inevitable that some of the elements must initially be based on preliminary evaluations and that further data
collections and investigations must be undertaken to firm up these elements. The field data which must be
collected, the research investigations which must be undertaken and the engineering studies which must be
completed to firm up the present program are discussed in Annex B to this introduction. This annex
outlines the planning activities to be performed during the next several years. These investigations will result
in better definition of detail within the program framework, and provide the basis for any required modifications
in the priority or the design of the projects now proposed for implementation within the program period. They
will also provide information useful in extending the program period to 1990. Meanwhile, project formulation
can continue along the lines proposed in the 1975 programme with the assurance that such projects will be
compatible with the efficient long-range untilization of the water and power resources of West Pakistan.














ANNEX A

REFERENCE MATERIALS

Primary References

1. "Supporting Studies-An Appraisal of Resources and Potential Development", Harza Engineering
Company International, September 1963.

2. "'Sodium Hazard of Punjab Ground Waters" by C. A. Bower and M. Maasland, October 1963.

3. "Development of Ground Water in the Indus Plains" by M. Maasland, J.E. Priest and M. S. Malik,
October 1963.

4. "Salinity Control and Reclamation Program in the Lower Indus Basin-a review made during July
and August 1962" by V, E. Hansen, C. A. Bower, and F. J. Williams, Harza Engineering Company
International, March 1963.

5. "The Ground-Water Hydrology of the Punjab, West Pakistan", WASID Bulletin No. 6 by D. W.
Greenman, W. V. Swarzenski, and G. D. Bennett.

6. "Waterlogging and Salinity in West Pakistan", U. S. President's Science Advisory Committee
(White House-Interior Panel), First Draft, September 1962.

7. "Programme for Waterlogging and Salinity Control in the Irrigated Areas of West Pakistan",
WAPDA, May 1961.

8. ''Agricultural Census, 1960" (Summary) Preliminary Report, West Pakistan Agriculture Census,
Karachi, 1961.

9. "Report of the Food and Agriculture Commission", Government of Pakistan, Ministry of Food and
Agriculture, November 1960.

10. "Landforms, Soils, and Land Use of the Indus Plains, West Pakistan," Colombo Plan Cooperative
Project, 1958.

11. "WAPDA Grid System Power Data Reference Book", Harza Engineering Company International,
October 1963.

12. "Power Market Survey and Forecast of System Loads", Harza Engineering Company International,
June 1963.

13. "Network Analyzer Study, WAPDA Main Grid System", Harza Engineering Company International,
June 1963.

14. "Meeting the Power Needs of West Pakistan 1965-1968", Harza Engineering Company International,
November 1961.

15. Records of flows of river and canals available from the Irrigation Department, West Pakistan, and
the Surface Water Circle, WAPDA.

16. Unpublished operation studies of proposed reservoirs and the irrigation system of the Indus Plains
by Harza Engineering Company International.















ANNEX A (Continued)

Other References

I-REPORTS BY WATER AND SOILS INVESTIGATION DIVISION (WASID)


WASID Title
Preliminary Report No. 1

Bulletin No. 1

Bulletin No. 2, Part I


Bulletin No. 2, Part II

Bulletin No. 2, Part III



Basic Data Release No. 1

Basic Data Release No. 2

Bulletin No. 3



Basic Data Release No. 3

Basic Data Release No. 4

Technical Paper No. 1

Technical Paper No. 2

Basic Data Release No. 5

Basic Data Release No. 6

Technical Paper No. 3


Bulletin No. 4, Part I

Bulletin No. 4, Part II

Bulletin No. 4, Part III

Bulletin No. 4, Part IV

Bulletin No. 5


Subject
"Evaluation of River Discharge Measurements in West Pakistan."

"Soil Survey Manual for the former Punjab Province Area, West Pakistan."

"Soil Survey, Rechna Doab, West Pakistan. Introduction and Description
of Soils."

"Location & Description Soils Unit 1."

"Soil Survey Reclna Doab, West Pakistan. Location and Description of
Soils Unit No. 5, Haveli Area."

"Quality of Ground Water, Rechna Doab."

"Quality of Ground Water, Chaj Doab."

"Land Classification Manual for the former Punjab Province area, West
Pakistan."

"Records of Ground Water Levels Rechna Doab."

"Quality of Ground Water, Bahawalpur Area."

"Analysis of Precipitation data from Rechna, Chaj and Thal Doabs."

"Analysis of Aquifer Tests in Rechna and Chaj Doabs."

"Records of Ground Water Levels, Chaj Doab,"

"Records of Ground Water Levels, Thal Doab."

"Analysis of low flow discharge records for the Rivers Ravi, Chenab, and
Jhelum."

"Soil Survey, Chaj Doab, Introduction and Distribution of Soils."

"Location and Distribution of Soils, Unit 1, (Chaj Doab)."

"Soil Survey, Chaj Doab, Location and Distribution of Soils, Unit No. 2."

"Location and Distribution of Soils, Unit No. 3."

"The Geology of Rechna and Chaj Doabs, West Pakistan."










ANNEX A (Continued)

II-REPORTS ON SALINITY CONTROL AND RECLAMATION

1. "Drainage, Waterlogging, and Salinity problems of West Pakistan, Reconnaissance Report," by C. R.
Maierhofer, U. S. Bureau of Reclamation, 30 pp., 1952.

2. "Reporttothe Government of Pakistan on the History and Causes of Rising Groundwater Levels in the
Rechna Doab," by C. W. Carlston, FAO Report No. 90, FAC/53/3/1839, Rome, typewritten, 29 pp. with
extensive bibliography, March 1953.

3. "Report on Irrigation Water Requirements for West Pakistan" by H. F. Blaney and W. D. Criddle, Tipton
& Kalmbach, Inc., 17 pp. with 22 tables and 18 exhibits, 1957.

4. "Report on Drainage Requirements for Irrigated Area of West Pakistan" by C. R. Maierhofer, Tipton &
Kalmbach, Inc., 22 pp. 1957.

5. "Project Number One, Salinity Control Programme in West Pakistan," subtitled "Investigations and
background information, reclamation and construction programmes, and construction estimates,"
112 pp. with 26 annexures, one folder of exhibits and one accompanying volume of computed water
requirements and pertinent data for each tubewell, WAPDA, January 1959.

6. "A Review of Project Number One, Salinity Control and Reclamation Program in West Pakistan," 43 pp.,
Tipton & Kalmbach, 1959.

7. "Supplement to a review of Project Number One, Salinity Control and Reclamation Program in West
Pakistan" by C. E. Jacob, consisting of 2 volumes, Vol. 1 "Text," 57 pp. with a List of Recommendations
of 8 pp., and a Summary of Appendices of 4 pp., Vol. 2 "Appendices," with Appendices A-K, Tipton &
Kalmbach, 1959.

8. "Memorandum on the Management and Operation of Project Number One-Salinity Control and Reclama-
tion Program in West Pakistsn," 13 pp. with attached organization chart, Tipton & Kalmbach, 1959.

9. "Chuharkana Reclamation Project," Soil Reclamation Board, 22 pp., 1959.

10. "Tender Specifications and Drawings for Construction of Tube-wells and Procurement and Installation of
Equipment," 49 pp., with 18 tables and 2 drawings. Tipton & Kalmbach, 1959.

11. "Coordinated Use of Ground and Surface Water in West Pakistan for Meeting Irrigation Requirements of
the Existing Projects," 40 pp. with several appendices. Tipton & Kalmbach, 1960.

12. "Control of Water Table and Salinity by Open Ditches," by J. J. Westerhof, Directorate of Land Reclamat-
ion, Irrigation Department, Lahore, 44 pp., November 1960.

13. "Three Decades of Research in the Irrigation Research Institute, Lahore," subtitled "Series 1, List of Pub-
lications," edited by Dr. Nazir Ahmad. Irrigation Research Institute, Irrigation Department, 59 pp., 1960.

14. "Feasibility Report on Salinity Control and Reclamation Project Number Two (Chaj Doab) West Pak-
istan," 95 pp., with 10 maps, Appendices A-G, 13 tables and 13 figures. Tipton & Kalmbach, December
1960.










ANNEX A (Continued)


15. "Some Aspects of Water-Control in West Pakistan" by H. Vlugter. Lecture 12th Pakistan Science Con-
ference, 4 pp., 1960.

16. "Thal Multi-purpose Project" by H. Vlugler. Office of Chief Engineer, Irrigation, West Pakistan,
Lahore, 16 pp., 1960.

17. "Supplement to the Feasibility Report on Salinity Control and Reclamation Project Number Two (Chaj
Doab) West Pakistan," 22 pp. with 4 figures and Annexures (Financial Study) of 13 pp., Tipton & Kalm-
bach, Inc., 1961.

18. "An Interim Report on the Effectiveness of Tubewell Reclamation in the Former Punjab Area of West
Pakistan," (Jaranwala Report), 15 pp., Tipton & Kalmbach, 1961.

19. "Jaranwala Reclamation Scheme," 165 pp., with 25 tables and 15 maps and graphs, Soil Reclamation
Board, Irrigation Department, 1961.

20. "Investigations of Encrustations on Tube-well Casing from Pakistan" by Woodward-Clyde-Sherard and
Associates, 6 pp., with appendices I-III and 5 plates, Tipton & Kalmbach, Inc., 1962.

21. "Ghotki Area Ground Water Investigations and Tubewell Tests," Hunting Technical Services Ltd., 1962.

22. "Ground-Water Investigations and TubewellTests," Sukkur-Gudu Right Bank and Khairpur Commands,
Hunting Technical Services, Ltd., 1962.

23. "Feasibility Report on Salinity Control and Reclamation Project No. 3, Lower Thal Doab," Tipton &
Kalmbach, 1963.

24. "Saline Characteristics of Waters in Old Canal Colonies of West Pakistan" by A. G. Asghar, Paper No.
342, 44 pp. with maps and tables, undated.

25. "Symposium on Waterlogging and Salinity in West Pakistan," West Pakistan Engineering Congress,
October 1963.

Progress Reports

26. "Progress Report for the Operation of Tubewells under Salinity Control and Reclamation Project No. 1,
September 1961 through September 1962," Ground-Water and Reclamation Division, WAPDA.

27. "Progress of Reclamation in Soil Reclamation Schemes of Project No. 1 (Rechna Doab)" by Soil Reclama-
tion Board, Directorate of Land Reclamation, West Pakistan, November 1962.

28. "Progress Report for the Operation of Salinity Control and Reclamation Project No. 1 for the Period
October 1962 through September 1963," by the Land and Water Management Directorate, Department
of Irrigation and Power, West Pakistan, November 1963.











ANNEX A (Continued)

HI-PROJECT REPORTS

Ground Water and Reclamation

1. "Feasibility of Chiniot Project on Chenab River," Leeds, Hill and Jewctt, Inc., March 1960.

2. "Sukkur-Gudu-Ghulam Mohammad Drainage and Salinity Control Project, Khairpur Command," consist-
ing of three volumes:

Vol. I "Soil and Agricultural Investigations," 107 pp.

Vol. II "Engineering Investigations by Sir M. MacDonald & Partners," 69 pp. with 33 exhibits.

Vol. III "Supplementary Report" by Hunting Technical Services and Sir M. MacDonald & Partners,
14 pp.

Hunting Technical Services, 1961.

3. "Sukkur-Gudu Right Bank Command," consisting of four volumes:

Vol. 1 "Soil and Agricultural Investigations," 177 pp. with appendices I through V, 66 tables and
4 figures.

Vol. 2A "Engineering Investigations by Sir M. MacDonald & Partners," 128 pp., with 29 tables and
20 figures.

Vol. 2B "Engineering Investigations by Sir M. MacDonald & Partners," containing appendices
I-VII to Volume 2A. The appendices cover cost estimates, hydrologic studies, operation
studies of Manchhar Lake, and irrigation water requirements.

Vol. 3 "Ground Water Investigations and Tubewell Tests", including "Part 1. Ground Water
Investigations," "Part 2. Investigations of shallow brick lined wells," and"Part 3. Tubewells,"
122 pp. with 21 tables and 12 maps and figures.

Hunting Technical Services, 1961.

4. "Ghulam Mohammad Barrage Command," consisting of three volumes:

Vol. 1 "Phase 1. Soil and Agricultural Investigations," 154 pp. with summary of 30 pp. (I-XXX),
49 tables and 4 figures.

Vol, 2 "Engineering Investigations by Sir M. MacDonald & Partners," 79 pp., with synopsis of 5 pp.,
appendices I-V, 21 tables and 8 figures.

Vol. 3 "Tando Bago Perennial Area," subtitled "Soil, Agricultural and Engineering Investigations,"
79 pp., with summary of 10 pp., (I-X), appendices I-III, 22 tables and 4 figures.

Hunting Technical Services, 1961.










ANNEX A (Continued)
5. "Gaja Perennial Area." This report covers an area in the Ghulam Mohammad Command, and consists of
two volumes:

Vol. 1 "Soil, Agricultural and Engineering Investigations," including "Part I. Soil and Agricultural
Investigations" and "Part II. Engineering Investigations," 52 pp., 26 tables, 5 figures and
summary of 5 pp.

Vol. 2 "Ground Water Investigations and Tubewell Tests" including "Part 1. Exploratory Bore
Programme" and "Part 2. Tubewell Investigations," 89 pp., 10 tables, 5 maps and 3
drawings.

Hunting Technical Services, 1961.

6. "Larkana-Shikarpur Definite Plan Report." This report covers an area in the Sukkur-Gudu Right Bank
Command, and consists of two volumes:

Vol. 1 "Soils and Agricultural Investigations," 176 pp. with 36 tables and 6 figures.

Vol. 2 "Engineering Proposals by Sir M. MacDonald & Partners," 46 pp. with 21 tables, 12 figures,
and appendices I through VII.

Hunting Technical Services, 1961.

7. "Khairpur Project Planning Report," consisting of 5 chapters and Appendices A through J, Hunting
Technical Services, 1962.

8. "Gaja Project Planning Report," consisting of 6 chapters and Appendices A through D, Hunting Techni-
cal Services, 1962.

9. "Gaja Detailed Planning Report," Hunting Technical Services, Ltd., and Sir M. MacDonald & Partners,
1962.

10. "Lower Indus Project," Hunting Technical Services, Ltd, and Sir M. MacDonald & Partners, March1963.

11. "Note on the Development of the Ghulam Mohammad Command," Lower Indus Project. Hunting Techni-
cal Services, Ltd., and Sir M. MacDonald & Partners, April 1963.

Other Projects

1. "Report on Rawal Dam Project"-Associated Consulting Engineers, Ltd., Karachi, Pakistan
(Azeemuddin), 1958.

2. "Khanpur Dam Project (Haro River), Water and Power Development Authority, West Pakistan,"
Associated Consulting Engineers (ACE), Ltd., Karachi, January 1962.

3. "Tanda Dam Project," Directorate of Planning and Investigation, WAPDA, Lahore, April 1962.

4. "Sibi-Jhatpat (Kachhi Plain) Development Project," Sir M. MacDonald & Partners, Quetta, December
1962.

5. "Feasibility Report, Warsak Reregulating Facilities," Directorate of Planning and Investigation,
WAPDA, Lahore, May 1963.










ANNEX A (Continued)

IV--REPORTS ON POWER GENERATION, TRANSMISSION, AND DISTRIBUTION

1. "Report on Power Development Plan," Merz Rendel Vatten (Pakistan), 1950.

2. "The Warsak Hydro-Electric Project," The Royal Institute of Technology (Stockholm), 1952.

3. "Preliminary Report on Generation, Transmission, and Utilization of Electric Power in West Pakistan
1954-1964," H. G. Acres and Company, 1954.

4. "Development of Electricity Supply System for West Punjab and Northwest Frontier Province,"
British Thompson-Houston, 1954.

5. "Load and Stability Studies on Electricity Supply System for West Punjab and N-WFP," Associated
Electrical Industries, 1954.

6. "An Outline of Five-Year Power Development Plan 1955-1960," Rizvi, Husain and Rahim, 1955.

7. "The Organization of the Power Supply in Pakistan," Ake Rusck, 1955.

8. "Report on Generation, Transmission, and Utilization of Electric Power in West Pakistan for the Years
1954-1964," H. G. Acres Company, 1955; Supplementary Report 1956.

9. "Report on the Network Analyzer Studies for the Future West Pakistan Grid," Sven Svidcn,
December 1956.

10. "A Power Expansion Programme for Karachi Electric Supply Corporation Ltd.," The Kuljian
Corporation, October 1957.

11. "The Future High Voltage Grid in West Pakistan," Sven Sviden for the United Nations Technical
Assistance Administration, September 1958.

12. "Secondary Transmission and Distribution in West Pakistan Grid Zone," WAPDA, January 1959.

13. "Quetta Thermal Power Station and Transmission System," The Kuljian Corporation, July 1959;
Supplements, May and September 1960.

14. "Power Market Survey, West Pakistan Grid Zone Interim Report," Harza Engineering Company
International, December 1959.

15. "Report on Multan Thermal Power Station Extension in West Pakistan," The Kuljian Corporation,
March 1960.

16. "Report on Proposed Natural Gas Power Station at Sukkur," H. G. Acres & Company, May 1960.

17. "A Review of Secondary Transmission and Distribution Grid Project Report," Miner & Miner
International Inc., July 1960.

18. "Report on Proposed "C" Station for Karachi Electric Supply Corporation," The Kuljian Corporation.
September 1960.










ANNEX A (Continued)

19. "Presentation Report on the Village Electrification Project," Miner & Miner International Inc., September
1960.

20. "Report on Proposed Korangi Thermal Power Station," The Kuljian Corporation, June 1961.

21. "Lower Sind Thermal Station Expansion Study," Sandwell Consultants Limited, September 1961.

22. "Study of the Economic Feasibility of Nuclear Power in Pakistan," Gibbs and Hill Inc., November 1961.

23. "Prospects of Nuclear Power in Pakistan, Technical Report Series No. 7," International Atomic
Energy Agency, 1962.

24. "A Nuclear Generating Station for Karachi," Canadian General Electric Company Ltd., April 1963.

25. "Evaluation of Alternative Thermal Plant Additions to West Pakistan Grid System-Engineering Report
R-954," Commonwealth Associates Inc. for Harza Engineering Company International, June 1963.

26. "Evaluation of Alternative Thermal Plant Additions to West Pakistan Grid System (Supplement)-
Engineering Report R-954 Supplement," Commonwealth Associates Inc. for Harza Engineering Comapny
International, August 1963.

27. "Report of the Power Commission," Government of Pakistan Power Commission (ad hoc), September 1963.

28. "Feasibility Study for Additional Thermal Generation Facilities in West Pakistan," Commonwealth
Associates Inc., October 1963.


V-AGRICULTURAL REPORTS AND DATA

1. "Weather and Crop Report for the Quarter Ending 30th June, 1957," Ministry of Agriculture,
Agricultural Economics and Statistics Branch, Government of Pakistan, Karachi, February 1958.

2. "Agricultural Data," Bureau of Statistics, Department of Power, Irrigation and Development, Lahore,
November 1958.

3. "Land and Crop Statistics of Pakistan," Ministry of Food and Agriculture, Government of Pakistan,
Karachi, March 1959.

4. "Livestock Statistics of West Pakistan," Directorate of Agricultural Economics, Ministry of Food and
Agriculture, Karachi, March 1960.

5. "Village Statistics of District Hazara" (Population, Area, Cultivated Area, Wheat Area, Cotton Area),
Burean of Statistics, Planning and Development Department, Government of West Pakistan,
Lahore, 1960.










ANNEX A (Continued)

6. "Survey Report on Use of Fertilizer in Pakistan,"' Ministry of Food and Agriculture, Rawalpindi,
April 1961.

7. "Larkana Phase II, Rice-Special Investigation-September-October 1961," mimeographed report, 29 pp.,
Hunting Technical Services, 1962.

8. "Report on a detailed Soil Survey in Khairpur Command," 47 pp. with 8 specimen maps and one
integrated soils and land-use map, Hunting Technical Services, 1962.

9. "Survey Report on Utilization of Agricultural Commodities in Pakistan," Department of Agricultural
Economics, Rawalpindi, June 1962.

10. "Paddy Rice Cultivation," Lower Indus Project, Hunting Technical Services, Ltd., 1963.















ANNEX B


PROGRAM FOR ENGINEERING INVESTIGATIONS


I. ENGINEERING STUDIES

Future studies and, actions required to firm up and extend the development program will include the
following:

1. The practicability and cost of canal capacity increases and associated sediment-control measures for
supplemental irrigation water supplies;

2. The desirable level for the ground-water table at various stages of development in the Northern Zone
of the Indus Plains after reclamation and irrigation intensification;

3. The most economical solutions for drainage and irrigation of areas with saline ground water,
including avoidance of contamination of water supplies for adjacent and downstream areas;

4. Requirements for local export of ground water to maintain a salt balance in areas with usable ground
water;

5. Design and operational requirements for continuing use or waste disposal of "fresh" ground water
with high concentrations of sodium or bicarbonate;

6. The location, area, and relative productivity of lands in both the Northern and Southern Zones;

7. Costs of agricultural production increases for major categories of crops (through reclamation, drainage,
and improved water supplies) within each canal command or major part thereof throughout the Indus
Plains;

8. Probable irrigation requirements per acre for surface water or imported ground water for each area
studied under 7;

9. Cost of developing various increments of increased water supplies;

10. Average and maximum usable ground-water supplies in each area with various average inputs of
surface water;

11. Cost and related problems of developing various amounts of additional ground water through
(a) induced seepage of flood flows and reduction of non-beneficial evapotranspiration by pumping
along rivers; and (b) artificial recharge through diversion of flood flows to otherwise dry channels,
growth of rice or other crops on permeable soils, and over-irrigation of crops;










ANNEX B (Continued)


12. Permanent allocations of irrigation water supplies to the Northern and Southern Zones of the Indus
Plains and to canal commands within those zones;

13. Requirements for river flows for dilution of saline drainage waters or for the conveyance of salts to
the Arabian Sea; and

14. Requirements for power and energy for tubewell operation for irrigation water supplies and
drainage, including the distribution and variability (month to month and year to year) of those
requirements.

II. FIELD INVESTIGATIONS

Additional reliable basic data are necessary in order that the studies and determinations listed above
can be conclusive. Accordingly, the investigation program includes collection of the following field data,
some of which involves major expenditures:

1. Damsite and Feeder Canal Investigations. These investigations should include topographic mapping
and foundation investigations of sites for dams, dikes, spillways, powerhouses, stilling basins and
appurtenant structures. Some of the sites to be investigated are:

River Damsite or Structure

Haro ..................................... Ghariala
Sanjwal 'I

Akhori J
Indus-Haro Canal

Soan ...................................... Dhok Pathan

Makhad
Indus-Soan Canal

Indus ..................................... Khapalu

Skardu
Bunji
Chilas
Kalabagh
Chasma

Kabul-Swat. ............................... Khazana

Kalangai
Bazargai
Munda

2. Aerial Photography of the Indus Plains. Up-to-date aerial photographs, taken at a scale of 1 to
40,000, should be obtained for all of the canal command areas in the Indus Plains, adjacent river










ANNEX B (Continued)


channels and flood plains. Mosaics should be prepared with a scale of 1 to 20,000 as a basis for
compilation of land use data and for determination of cultural details, areas unsuitable for
irrigation, flooded areas, surface-drainage patterns, roads and trails.

Detailed aerial photographs suitable for use in preparation of topographic maps having contours of
1-or 2-foot interval, depending upon the surface relief, should be taken in advance of planning and
design of ground-water and reclamation projects. This photography, and the subsequent map
preparation, should be scheduled on a doab or canal command basis in the sequence that project
activities are to be undertaken. It must be completed for each area in advance of the need for
detailed determinations of land use, land classification and land development planning.

3. Hydrologic Surveys. These surveys should include river and canal gagings, supplementing gaging
programs already under way as necessary to establish the magnitude of surface-water flows at all
significant locations and the magnitude and distribution of conveyance losses throughout the irrigation
systems. Investigations of canal seepage should include use of seepage meters and ponding tests.
Measurements should be made of pan evaporation and climatological factors as necessary for deter-
mination of free-water evaporation for.reservoir studies and estimates of crop evapo-transpiration.
Snow surveys should be continued and extended as a basis for seasonal forecasts of snow-melt runoff.

4. Grauaa-Water Investigations. These investigations should include measurements of horizontal and
vertical permeabilities and storage coefficients in the aquifer throughout the Indus Plains. Additional
test wells should be drilled, and water samples taken at various depths down to about 400 feet should
be analyzed for sodium, bicarbonates, boron and total dissolved salts.

5. Land Classification. Additional sampling, field trials, and laboratory analyses concerning the
alkalinity and reclaimability of soils in the Northern Zone of the Indus Plains to supplement WASID
data as necessary for completion of land classification maps showing the reclaimability, drainability,
and potential productivity of the lands throughout all of the canal commands; and

6. Canal Investigations. Detailed information concerning the physical dimensions, water-carrying
capacities, and seepage characteristics of all of the canals, branches, distributaries, minors, and
water courses throughout each of the canal systems of the Indus Plains.

7. Agricultural Investigations. These investigations should provide statistical data on present crop
yields; effects on crop yields and production costs of changes in irrigation water supplies, fertilizers,
plant protection measures, management practices, and the interaction of such factors; land use
surveys; and surveys of water distribution and utilization. These data are needed especially for
the Northern Zone of the Indus Plains and should be provided by programs similar to those under
way in the Southern Zone.

8. Monitoring of Operating Projects. Detailed information concerning performance of completed
reclamation projects should be collected to permit use of actual experience and operating results to










ANNEX B (Continued)


be applied to the layout and design of later projects. Detailed data should be collected on
(a) tubewell performance including lift-discharge relationships; efficiencies of motors, pumps, screens
and gravel packs; quality of the water pumped; aquifer storage coefficients and water-table levels at
wells and at significant points between wells; (b) the distribution and volume of ground water used
for irrigation of crops; (c) ground water used for reclamation of lands by leaching; (d) the distri-
bution and volume of surface water used for irrigation or pre-irrigation of crops or for leaching
of saline soils; (e) land used during each cropping season including acreages of each
crop, acreages being reclaimed, and acreages in fallow or in other non-crop use; (f) statistics
on all crops including yields, amounts of fertilizers applied, planting and harvesting dates,
production consumed on the farm, production costs, and income from sale of marketed produce;
(g) the effects of variations in quality of water on yields of crops and on reclamation of saline
or alkaline soils; (h) changes in salinity, alkalinity, and permeability of irrigated soils; and
(i) other significant factors.

III. RESEARCH-TYPE STUDIES

The investigation and planning portion of the development program includes also essential research-
type studies of the groundwater aquifer under the Indus Plains, involving analog studies and complex
mathematical analyses to establish the following:

1. Lateral flow characteristics for different gradients between areas with ground water that is usable
for irrigation and adjacent areas with highly saline ground water, and between canals or rivers and
adjacent ground water;

2. Design and operational requirements for tubewell projects to cope with local variations in recharge,
to avoid waterlogging or soil salinization at all points, and to permit use of aquifer storage to
compensate for annual and short-term fluctuations in surface-water flows;

3. Methods and their practicability for improving the quality of presently saline ground water in certain
areas to make possible use for irrigation of all or part of the recharge;

4. Design criteria for shallow wells to develop fresh ground water overlying saline ground water; and

5. Requirements for pumping and exporting usable ground water to avoid quality deterioration from
continuing irrigation.

The above items of field data collection and applied research must be undertaken in the near future if
important details of the development program are to be resolved in time to avoid delays in the project con-
struction program. Studies based on presently available data are being undertaken for the purpose of ascertaining
and demonstrating the importance of the factors involved and the need for more extensive or more refined
data as the basis for more detailed analyses of those factors. These studies are concerned with:

1. Requirements of various crops in West Pakistan for irrigation water'

'L. Conveyance losses in canal systems;










ANNEX B (Continued)

3. Ground-water availability adjacent to rivers and effect of its utilization on low-water flows;

4. Maintenance of a salt balance in areas with usable ground water;

5. Optimum average levels for ground-water tables in irrigated areas;

6. Drainage and irrigation in areas with very saline ground water;

7. Maintenance of a salt balance in the Indus Plains and flow requirements for maintenance of suitable
water quality for irrigation use;

8. Use of the ground-water reservoir for flood season storage (artificial recharge); and

9. Problems of ground-water mining.

In addition to the above studies, a continuing program of operation studies for the reservoirs, rivers,
and irrigation systems of the Indus Plains is under way. Results of all pertinent specific studies by general,
regional and project consultants and by WAPDA will be incorporated in the continuing program of operation
studies as they become available.










THE 1975 PROGRAM


I-OBJECTIVES

The primary objectives for 1975 are to replace the water being lost to India, to arrest and reverse the process
of land deterioration, to provide additional water for irrigation, and to bring about a substantial expansion in
electric-power service. Secondary objectives include a measure of flood control on the Indus and Jhelum Rivers;
improvements in domestic, municipal and industrial water supply; navigation; and incidental development of
water for recreational and other uses.

II-PRESENT SITUATION

The average annual runoff of the Indus and its tributaries presently available to West Pakistan is approxi-
mately 164 million acre-feet, of which 24 MAF of residual flow is contributed by the Eastern Rivers (Ravi, Beas
and Sutlej). About 84 MAF are now being diverted to irrigate some 24 million acres of land in the principal canal
systems in the Indus Plains. No surface storage is presently available to increase the utilization of surface waters
in the system, and the remainder of the annual discharge either enters the ground-water aquifer, is lost through
evaporation, or is wasted to the sea.

In 1961 West Pakistan had a net food production of about 11 million tons per year, which is sufficient to
provide the population of approximately 43 million persons with a diet of 1,800 calories per day per person.
Food imports of about one million tons per year are now being made to enhance the diet to about 2,000 calories
per day.

Two circumstances currently prevail which will result in a decrease in agricultural production in the future
unless a substantial development program is undertaken. The first is the loss to India of the waters of the three
Eastern Rivers under the terms of the Indus Water Treaty, a loss that will ultimately amount to about 24 million
acre-feet annually. The second is the progressive deterioration of farm land through waterlogging and salinization.

In the power field, the present (1964) total nameplate generating capacity in the two WAPDA Grid Zones is
599,000 kilowatts, and the dependable capability on the system peak is 408,000 kilowatts. The annual power
generation is approximately 1,800 million kilowatt-hours, of which over 60 per cent is generated at hydro-
electric plants. Average per-capita power use is eight watts, and the corresponding energy consumption
amounts to about 37 kilowatt-hours per year.

III-THE PROGRAM

The program for 1975 consists of four principal elements:

1. Surface-Water Development
2. Reclamation and Ground-Water Development
3. Electric-Power Development
4. Other Water Uses










The major projects are summarized in Table A, and the locations of these projects are shown on the General
Map enclosed in the back cover of the report.

Surface-Water Development will encompass the construction of surface-water storage reservoirs, link canals,
and transfer structures and the remodelling of existing canals and barrages. By far the major portion of this
development will consist of the Settlement Plan works constructed as part of the Indus Basin Project.

Useful storage totalling about 21 million acre-feet will be provided by two major storage dams, Mangla on
the Jhelam River and Tarbela on the Indus River, and several smaller storage reservoirs. Mangla Dam, now
under construction as part of the Indus Basin Project, will provide useful storage of 7.70 MAF, of which 4.75
MAF are being provided in the initial project to be completed in 1968 under the Indus Basin Project. Tarbela Dam,
which is also part of the Indus Basin Project, will create a reservoir with a useful storage capacity of 9.30 MAF, of
which 6.60 MAF will be provided in the initial construction under the Indus Basin Project, which is scheduled
for completion in 1973. These two projects, the only storage reservoirs provided in the 1975 program for the
Indus and its major tributaries, will, in addition to storing water for irrigation, make possible some reduction in
maximum flood peaks on the Indus and Jhelum Rivers.

The smaller reservoirs, which collectively will have a useful storage capacity of about four million acre-feet,
will be located in valleys tributary to the major rivers. These reservoirs will improve the irrigation water supply
in their areas, will provide a measure of flood control, and in some instances will contribute to the hydro-electric
generating capability of the power system.

The link canals and appurtenant transfer structures will be constructed as part of the Indus Basin Project.
About 390 canal miles of link canals will transfer water from the Western Rivers to replace the diversions by
India. The first link canal connecting the Chenab and Sutlej Rivers is now under construction, together with the
Sidhnai Barrage on the Ravi River and the Mailsi Siphon on the Sutlej. The second link canal and transfer
structures, connecting the Jhelum and Sutlej Rivers, will be placed under contract in 1964. The remaining elements
of the replacement system will proceed to construction shortly thereafter.

Reclamation and Ground-Water Development is planned to include a total of about 34,000 tubewells by 1975,
of which about 2,500 are to be financed as part of the Indus Basin Project. Of the total, about 29,000 wells will
serve for irrigation use, adding some 24 million acre-feet to the water supply to the irrigated farms. The wells
will be supplemented by 6,000 canal miles of drains for the disposal of saline water and local storm water.
Canal remodelling will be done as necessary to permit mixed use of ground and surface-water supplies by providing
for dilution of poor-quality water or for alternating use of ground and surface waters. Increases in canal carrying
capacity or diversion capacity as are required to supply the assumed increase in irrigation intensities on the reclaim-
ed lands are included, also. The total additional water supply to the irrigated farms will average about 26 MAF
annually. This increased supply, plus a margin of about six MAF to provide for operational contingencies,
will be furnished by ground-water pumping, reservoir storage, and some canal enlargements.

The anticipated rate of reclamation will average about 1.0 million acres per year in the Northern Zone and 0.5










million acres per year in the Southern Zone. Tubewell construction is expected to proceed at an average rate of
about 2,500 wells per year.


Electric Power Development is planned to include nearly 1.2 million kilowatts of new hydro-electric
generation and over one-half million kilowatts of new thermal-electric capacity. In addition, transmission grids
will be greatly extended and distribution systems expanded. Electric service will be made available to many
rural communities for the first time, and power will be providedto tubewells located throughout an area of 30,000
square miles. By 1975 the total number of power consumers is expected to increase from its present level of about
500,000 to over 1,500,000.


Hydro-electric capacity rated at nearly 1,200 megawatts will be supplied to the Northern Zone by the con-
struction of generating stations at Mangla, Tarbela, and Gomal Zam projects, and additional units at Warsak.
In addition, 327 megawatts of thermal capacity will be provided by plants at Multan, Lyallpur and Lahore.
Construction is now in progress on three units at Mangla with a rated capacity of 300 megawatts.


Anticipated increases in power needs in the Southern Zone will be met by new thermal plants at Hyderabad,
Sukkur and Moro, having a combined rated capacity of 271 megawatts. Of this total, 33 megawatts is now
under construction at Hyderabad and Sukkur. Interconnection of the Southern Zone system with the Karachi
system is expected by 1968, with consequent operating and economic advantages to both systems. The first step
in this interconnection, consisting of a 132-kv. line from Hyderabad to Dabeji, may be completed earlier.


Other Water Uses will develop as the 1975 program is carried forward. Flood-control benefits by 1975 will
result principally from Mangla and Tarbela operations. These benefits are incidental by product of reservoir
operations in the primary interests of irrigation and power. The capabilities to reduce flood peaks will depend
on the reservoir levels which exist at the beginning of the flood and the plan of operations which is followed as
the flood hydrograph develops.


Increasing water-supply requirements for industrial and domestic purposes occur in any program of the
scope and magnitude proposed in this report. Experience elsewhere indicates that recreational uses invariably
develop when storage reservoirs are constructed. These other uses cannot be precisely defined at this time.
The quantities of water involved are small when compared with the total program, but the economic and social
significance of these other uses merits consideration as the development program proceeds.


IV-PROGRAM COSTS


The total cost of the 1975 program will amount to about Rs. 21,400 million, of which about Rs 8,500 million
will be for the Indus Basin Project and Rs. 12,900 million will be for the new developments.










The annual expenditures for the program, in millions of rupees, are estimated as follows:


Surface-Water Development Reclamation Electric-
Planning Indus Raising Tubewells, Power
and Basin Mangla & Other Drains and Canal Develop-
FiscalYear Mapping Project Tarbela Projects Miscellaneous Remodelling ment Total

(to 1963) (1,429) (105) (1,534)
1963-1964 47 1,004 5 41 150 0 314 1,561
1964-1965 92 1,071 10 59 220 10 372 1,834
1965-1966 94 1,292 2 84 400 50 415 2,337
1966-1967 80 1,310 13 112 440 55 400 2,410
1967-1968 45 894 12 132 500 60 352 1,995
1968-1969 36 525 12 142 500 60 342 1,617
1969-1970 36 425 12 171 500 60 338 1,542
1970-1971 36 360 96 165 420 65 354 1,496
1971-1972 36 170 209 165 420 65 370 1,435
1972-1973 36 60 177 180 420 65 352 1,290
1973-1974 36 0 259 180 410 60 337 1,282
1974-1975 36 0 147 180 330 55 321 1,069

Total 610 8,540 954 1,611 4,815 605 4,267 21,402

Excluding the Indus Basin Project, approximately 42 per cent of the funds for the new development will be
needed for reclamation and irrigation improvements in the Indus Plains.


V-ECONOMIC RETURNS AND PROGRAM BENEFITS

If the program is carried forward as planned, a level of water supply will be provided which, when
combined with land reclamation, will support an agricultural production of 25 million tons per year-more than
twice the present production. This level of production will provide the anticipated population of 65 million in
1975 with a diet containing the equivalent of 2,300 calories per capital per day, the minimum level recommended
by the United Nations, plus a proportionate increase in industrial raw materials and exports. The present gross
value of crops of about Rs. 4,000 million per year will be increased to Rs. 9,100 million, and the increase in net
crop returns, after deduction for on-farm costs, will be about Rs. 4,000 million per year.

By 1975, the total annual energy generation of the WAPDA systems is expected to be 9,500 million kilowatt-
hours annually. The per-capita consumption of power and energy for industrial, commercial, and residential use
alone is expected to be 22 watts and 130 kilowatt-hours annually, about three times present values. The capital
investments in new power development will average about Rs. 2,600 per kilowatt of additional rated capacity, in-
cluding generation, transmission and distribution. If thermal power were used exclusively, instead of the proposed
hydroelectric generation at Mangla and Tarbela dams, both construction and operating costs would be substantially
greater.











TABLE A
PROJECTS IN THE 1975 PROGRAM


Purpose (1)


Estimated
Cost
Rs. Million


Indus Basin Project
Mangla Dam
Tarbela Dam
Link Canals
Trimmu-Sidhnai
Sidhnai-Mailsi
Mailsi-Bahawal
Taunsa-Panjnad
Rasul-Qadirabad
Qadirabad-Balloki
Balloki-Suleimanke
Chasma-Jhelum
Remodelling
Barrages
Sidhnai
Qadirabad
Rasul
Chasma
Mailsi Siphon
Tubewells & Drainage
Other Projects
Northern Zone
Tanda
Khanpur
Munda
Gomal Zam


SURFACE WATER DEVELOPMENT


(live storage 4.75 MAF) .IPF
(live storage 6.60 MAF) IPF

(capacity 11,000 cusecs) ,I
(capacity 10,100 cusecs) I
(capacity 3,900 cusecs) 'I
(capacity 12,000 cusecs) I
(capacity 19,000 cusecs) I
(capacity 18,600 cusecs) I
(capacity 6,500 cusecs) I
(capacity 21,700 cusecs) I
.. .. I


I
I
I
. I



I
ID


(live storage 65,000 AF)
(live storage 44,000 AF)
(live storage 1,500,000 AF)
(live. storage 1,180,000 AF)


Works associated with IBP
Raising Mangla (live storage increase 2.95 MAF)
Raising Tarbela (live storage increase 2.70 MAF)
Regulator and Bridge at Chasma Barrage
Southern Zone
Kachhi Plain


2,576
2,629

208
270
67
120
201
377
124
361
351'

158
196
196
304
163
238


I
IP
IP
IPF

IPF
IPF
I


Mangi (live storage 10,000 AF) M 36
Talli Tangi (storage not determined) )
Babar Katch (live storage 325.000 AF) -(3) IF 60
Naulung (storage not determined) J
Karachi Irrigation (live storage 606,000 AF) IF 90
Kud 1 (3) (live storage 47,000 AF) IF 60
Miscellaneous (Both zones) IPF 646
RECLAMATION AND GROUND-WATER DEVELOPMENT


Northern Zone
Chaj Doab
Lower Thai Doab
Upper Rechna Doab
Lower Rechna Doab
Bahawalpur
Eastern Bari Doab I


1968
1973

1965
1965
1965
1969
1969
1969
1969
1969
1967

1965
1968
1968
1969
1965
1969



1965
1968
(4)
1970

1972
1976
1970



1968

(4)

1968
(4)
(4)



1966
1967
1969
1969
1969
1970


PI
A
AJ
UC
R
R


(CCA 2.2 million acres)
(CCA 1.0 million acres)
(CCA 1.6 million acres)
(CCA 1.8 million acres)
(CCA 1.2 million acres)
(CCA 1.0 million acres)


Project


Status
of
Project (2)


Estimated
Year of
Completion









TABLE A
(Continued)


Project
Eastern Bari Doab II
Other


Purpose (1)
(CCA 1.3 million acres) ID
(CCA 2.8 million acres) ID


Southern Zone
Khairpur I (CCA 0.3
Gaja (CCA 0.1 r
Larkana-Shikarpur (CCA 0.5 n
Ghotki (CCA 0.8
Ghulam Mohammed (CCA 0.9 a
Command
Gaj Dam, Manchhar Lake & Nara
Valley Outfall Drain
Rohri (CCA 0.4
Sukkur Right Bank (CCA 1.5 m
Iashmore-Jacobabad (CCA 0.9 a
Other (CCA 0.6
Canal Remodelling (Both zone)


million acres)
million acres)
million acres)
million acres)
million acres)


million acres) II
million acres) 1
million acres) II
million acres) 11
S. I


Estimated
Cost
Rs. Million
200
(4)

112
56
179
148
280

200
130
389
105
(4)
605


Estimated
Status of Year of
Project (2) Completion
A 4)
R (4)


1966
1966
1967
1969
(4)

1970
(4)
(4)
(4)
(4)


ELECTRIC POWER DEVELOPMENT


Generation (Plant and Unit No's.)
Northern Zone
Multan 3 and 4 (62.5 MW each unit)
Lahore 1,2,3 and 4 (18 MW each unit)
Lyalipur 1 and 2 (65 MW each unit)
Warsak 5 and 6 (40 MW each unit) and rereg. (5)
Mangla 1 and 2 (100 MW each unit
Mangla 3 (100 MW
Gomal 1, 2 and 3 (43 MW each unit)
Mangla 4 100 MW
Mangla 5 100 MW
Mangla 6 100 M
Tatbela 1 175 MW
Tatbela 2 175 MW
Southern Zone


Hyderabad 3
Sukkur 1 and 2
Hyderabad 4
Sukkut 3 and 4
Moro 1
Moro 2
Moro 3
Transmission & Distribution


(7.5 MW) P
(12.5 MW each unit) P
(15 MW) P
(12.5 MW each unit) P
(66 MW) P
(66 MW) P
(66MW) P
P


(1) I-irrigation (4
P-power ($
F-flood control
D-4rainage
M-municipal water
(2) UCI-under construction
DD-detailed design
PI-detailed planning and site investigation
A-appraisal and preliminary field investigations
t~-reconnaissance only


5 UC 1963
25 UC 1964
15 PI 1965
25 PI 1966
65 PI 1967
65 PI 1970
65 PI 1973
3,308 PI 1963-1975
Not yet determined.
Facilities for re-regulating power releases, will
add 60 MW of additional capability to existing
units.


(3) Projects to be selected when feasibility studies are completed.


I 182
75

115

1 176
J


1963
1965
1966
1967
1968
1969
1971
1971
1972
1973
1974
1975



































SOUTHERN ZONE ,
.4




















Baluchistan





SThe Productive Lands

.LEGEND
Cultivated areas within the
Makran Coastal Indus Plains
Region Cultivated areas outside
the Indus Plains
I- -r









50 0 50- 100
S:: :kScale of Miles
.. :. 5 0 ,0 .



............
8 n Ar: ::r
















: "':": :: :' :. i lil. i : : -::,i ":: : "' ..
c.. :::: :: .


FOOD AND POPULATION
The annual production of net food available for
consumption in West Pakistan is presently about eleven
million tons after storage, transportation, and pro-
cessing. Net imports add another one million tons.
For the 1961 population of 43 million, this food supply
provided a diet of 2,000 calories per day, whereas the
minimum average diet considered as acceptable by the
United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization is
2,300 calories per day. Over the past years, ever
increasing annual imports have been needed just to
maintain the present level.

During the past decade, the population has increased
at an annual rate of about 2.4 per cent. With im-
proved medical care and public health services, a future
growth rate may reach 3.0 percent. As shown on
Figure 2, by 1975 a total population of about 65 million
people may be expected.

West Pakistan needs a 15-percent increase in food
to insure even the minimum acceptable diet for
its present population, and a much greater long-


range increase to supply the growing population. For an
average daily diet of 2,300 calories per capital in 1975, the
total annual consumption of food products would be

Figure 2
POPULATION OF WEST PAKISTAN
















: "':": :: :' :. i lil. i : : -::,i ":: : "' ..
c.. :::: :: .


FOOD AND POPULATION
The annual production of net food available for
consumption in West Pakistan is presently about eleven
million tons after storage, transportation, and pro-
cessing. Net imports add another one million tons.
For the 1961 population of 43 million, this food supply
provided a diet of 2,000 calories per day, whereas the
minimum average diet considered as acceptable by the
United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization is
2,300 calories per day. Over the past years, ever
increasing annual imports have been needed just to
maintain the present level.

During the past decade, the population has increased
at an annual rate of about 2.4 per cent. With im-
proved medical care and public health services, a future
growth rate may reach 3.0 percent. As shown on
Figure 2, by 1975 a total population of about 65 million
people may be expected.

West Pakistan needs a 15-percent increase in food
to insure even the minimum acceptable diet for
its present population, and a much greater long-


range increase to supply the growing population. For an
average daily diet of 2,300 calories per capital in 1975, the
total annual consumption of food products would be

Figure 2
POPULATION OF WEST PAKISTAN










AGRICULTURE


about 25 million tons. To eliminate imports, domes-
tie production in 1975 would have to be more than
double the present output. By the year 2000, if popu-
lation growth continues at the projected rate, total food
requirements will exceed 50 million tons.
THE PRODUCTIVE LANDS
Out of a total land area of nearly 199 million acres
in West Pakistan, about 42 million acres are known to
receive some degree of cultivation. Of these, 32 million
acres are equipped with irrigation facilities. The other
10 million acres are dry-farmed and are dependent upon
natural rainfall. The principal cultivated areas are
shown by Figure 1. An additional 25 million acres might
be potentially suitable for cultivation if irrigation
water were available. Only 3.5 million acres within
the entire Province are presently classed as forest land.
Figure 3
LAND USE IN WEST PAKISTAN

LV CULTIV/AE o


DRY FARMED
\ ^ ^ 7^ _-_,_


TED


NOTE
Figures represent millions of acres


Some 50 million acres are not considered adaptable to
agriculture, and the remaining 78.5 million acres are
unclassified, but are principally mountainous or desert,
with very low productivity. These existing land uses
are illustrated by Figure 3.

West Pakistan has a large irrigated region within
the Indus Plains, encompassing the Punjab, the
Bahawalpur, area and the Sind. Extensive perimeter
areas of the Indus Plains are generally less developed.

The Indus Plains

About 80 per cent of the total food production in
West Pakistan comes from the 24 million acres of land
regularly irrigated in the Indus Plains. The existing
canal systems in this region command a gross area of
36.8 million acres which can be served by gravity from
the Indus River and its major tributaries. Of this
area, 32.8 million acres are presently sanctioned for
irrigation-19.5 million in the Northern Zone and 13.3
million in the Southern Zone.

The soils within the Indus Plains are derived from
the fresh-water alluvial deposits of the Indus River
system and in places are several thousand feet deep.

The climate is well suited for the growth of crops,
with a year-around growing season and tropical or
subtropical temperatures. Desert conditions exist in
most of the Indus Plains because the average annual
rainfall is from 5 to 15 inches, except in the northeast
near the foothills.

With proper irrigation and drainage, the lands can be
productive as the better lands in other countries; without
proper use these lands will continue to become waterlog-
ged and saline, as they have in the past. An effective
reclamation program is needed to restore the Indus Plains
to its full potential, and to maintain ground water at safe
levels in the future.









AGRICULTURE


The Perimeter Areas

About 9.4 million acres are now cultivated outside
the Indus Plains, of which 4.1 million acres are irrigated.
Much of the dry-laud farming is in the Potwar Plateau
region between the Indus and Jhelum Rivers, north of
the Indus Plains.

The larger areas of irrigation along the western side
of the Indus River include the Kachhi Plain (800,000
acres), the west-bank tributary basins of the Sulaiman
Piedmont (1,285,000 acres), and the Kabul-Swat River
Basin (1,035,000 acres). Very little is known of the
land use in the interior basins of Baluchistan or in the
Makran coastal basins, as these areas are not fully covered
by agricultural statistics.

The soils of the irrigated perimeter areas are gen-
erally good. However, only in part of the Peshawar
Vale of the Kabul-Swat Basin do these lands receive
an adequate water supply. Here, some 650,000 acres
under canal commands are perennially irrigated with
intensive cropping. In the other perimeter areas the
percentage of perennially irrigated land is small. Addi-
tional irrigation supplies would be needed for any
effective improvement, but water is not readily avail-
able.

THE PRESENT STATE OF AGRICULTURE

Food production in West Pakistan is far below its
potential in relation to possible crop yields and the
available land and water resources. As shown by Figure
4, yields per acre of major irrigated crops in the Nile
Valley of Egypt, for example, are double or treble those
in the Indus Plains of West Pakistan. And yet the
two regions are not significantly different in their
physical environments or their stages of economic and
social development. The primary causes of low crop


Figure 4
COMPARATIVE CROP YIELDS



CROPS RELATIVE YIELDS


Average 1949-59 Z
yields in w
West Pakistan I- Oz
per acre a- > X
Mu uj nd 3P
Mounds Pounds W


RICE
(cleaned)


9 2 760


WHEAT




8.7 720


BARLEY


73 600


MAIZE


10.9 895


COTTON LINT




2.2 185


I I










AGRICULTURE


yields and low land productivity are insufficient irriga-
tion water supplies and soil salinization. Less than half
of the irrigable land is irrigated in each of the two crop-
ping seasons. Evaporation of ground water brought to
the surface in the fallow areas by capillary attraction
leaves salt residues at the soil surface. The resulting
soil salinization limits or precludes crop production.

Low river flows during the rabi season and inade-
quate canal capacities during the kharif season generally
limit irrigation water applications to less than those
required to sustain optimum plant growth. Insufficient
water is applied to leach excessive amounts of salts from
the root zone of the soil as required to prevent a gradual
salinization of the soil.

Other prevailing conditions which contribute to the
present low level of agricultural production include
insufficient use of fertilizers, unimproved seeds, in-
adequate plant protection and inefficient farming
practices. Soils are lacking in phosphorus, nitrogen
and organic matter. As late as 1959 the use of ammo-
nium sulphate fertilizer (20 per cent nitrogen) averaged
only five pounds per cultivated acre, whereas up to 300
pounds per acre can be used beneficially under certain
conditions. With adequate irrigation water, yields
of three times present averages for wheat, and six times
for maize, have been obtained in experimental plots
when fertilizers have been used. About 15 per cent of
present potential production is lost in the field from
plant diseases, pests and insects. Losses from pests
during storage and transportation amount to an addi-
tional five to ten per cent. Plowing and cultivation
operations are generally done with primitive implements
Which cannot prepare and maintain the soil for optimum
growing conditions. Sowing is usually done by hand.

Owners or tenant-operators of small holdings have


inadequate opportunity to acquire capital or obtain
credit at reasonable terms for agricultural improvements.
The low level of literacy of the farm population is a
deterrent to the understanding and acceptance of im-
provements in farm management.

The cumulative effect of all adverse factors-physical
and human-restricts present production to about one-
fifth of the potential food supply from the Indus
Plains.

FUTURE PRODUCTION

The development program of WAPDA will reclaim
lands now saline and waterlogged within the Indus
Plains, and will thus permit full use of the lands under
canal command. Also, under the program, irriga-
tion water supplies will be greatly increased, permit-
ting more intensive use of the reclaimed lands, and
increased crop yields will be made possible.

An agricultural-improvement program must parallel
water developments to achieve all of the potential
benefits. Such an agricultural-improvement program
would include fertilizers, plant protection, improved
seeds, farm management and farm credit. The essen-
tial crop yields will be realized only if reclamation and
increased irrigation water supplies are combined with
these programs.

Increased food production cannot occur at once,
but will gradually improve over a period of years. A
reasonable anticipation of such improvement has been
used to project the agricultural production possible in
1975 under the water-development program. This
projection has been based upon the rate at which lands
will be reclaimed, the cropping intensity possible with
increased water supplies, and average crop yields which
could reasonably be achieved during the intervening
years prior to 1975.










AGRICULTURE


Crop Yields


Average crop-yield increases which can be realized
after reclamation are shown on Figure 5. These re-
spouses are predicated on fully adequate irrigation
water supplies and progessive improvements in farm
operation and management, including use of improved
seeds, fertilizers, pesticides and insecticides. Weighted
average yields for some of the important crops, which
reflect the effects of the reclamation and agricultural-
improvement programs to 1975 on the irrigated pro-
duction of the Indus Plains, are shown in Table 1.
Further increases will continue after 1975 as the full
benefits of the WAPDA developments and other im-
provement programs are realized.




Figure 5

AVERAGE CROP YIELD INCREASES
ON RECLAIMED AND FULLY
IRRIGATED LAND
Years after completion
of reclamation works
S 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22



8 U
4L.
200 0 ----':'''


S....-....




t,.- *-'1:: ,;.: .... : : :' "%%.: ; : ;:
t7''_' ... '..
-".: .' .:,
O' ..-


Table 1
ANTICIPATED AVERAGE CROP YIELDS
FROM IRRIGATED LANDS


Maunds and Pounds per Harvested Acre
Future Yields-1975
1949-1959 Northern Southern
Crop Average Zone Zone
Maunds Pounds Maunds Pounds Maunds Pounds
Rice (cleaned) 9.2 760 17.2 1,420 15.3 1,245
Wheat 8.7 720 18.7 1,500 12.0 990
Barley 7.3 600 15.3 1,260 8.5 700
Maize 10.9 895 21.0 1,730 9.0 740
Cotton Lint 2.2 185 3.9 320 4.2 345
Cane Sugar 31.3 2,580 61.0 5,020 69.5 5,720

Cropping Patterns and Intensities

.Under present conditions, the patterns and intensities
of cropping in the Indus Plains are influenced by the
limited supply of irrigation water and the declining pro.
ductivity of the land. With reclamation of saline soils,
drainage, and additional water, the patterns and inten-
sities of cropping can be improved greatly.

Both the kharif and rabi intensities can be nearly
double the present use. With full control of the ground
water and with additional surface water, rabi season
cropping should be increased to the maximum prac-
tical use of the available land. During this season,
water requirements per acre are least and the avail-
able supplies will have the greatest effect. Full irriga-
tion of all land under canal commands in the rabi season
would represent the maximum possible use of rabi
season water. However, the average projected crop-
ping intensity has been held to 90 per cent as a practical
maximum.

Intensities in the kharif season on perennially irrigated
lands are expected to increase to an average of 60 per-
cent. A considerable increase in the canal capacities will
be required to achieve this intensity with only a
surface-water supply. Ground-water pumping could











AGRICULTURE


supplement the river diversions in the kharif season for

even greater use of the land. However, this ground water

can just as easily be used in the rabi season when evapo-

transpiration uses are at a minimum. Kharif season

river flows, on the other hand, must either be used or

wasted, unless surface storage is provided to hold surplus

water for rabi season use.



The present and projected average cropping patterns

and intensities in the perennially irrigated areas of the
Indus Plains are shown in Table 2, and the assumed crop-

ping patterns are shown in Fig. 6. A transition period

of about eight years will elapse after reclamation before

irrigation intensities will increase to 150 percent in

perennial areas and 90 percent in non-perennial areas.


Table 2

ASSUMED CROPPING PATTERNS AND INTENSITIES
Percent of
Culturahle Commanded Area


Reported Projected


Season Crop
Kharif Sugar Cane
Rice
Cotton

Food Grains
Fodder & Other
Subtotal Kharif

Rabi Wheat
Oil Seeds

Sugar Cane
Fodder & Other

Subtotal Rabi
Annual Total


1960-1961

Sou-
Northern them
Zone Zone
4.6 0.4
6.0 11.4
11.3 6.1

3.5 8.5
15.6 3.6

41.0 30.0
22.0 5.5
2.8 3.8
4.6 0.4
11.6 17.3

41.0 27.0
82.0 57.0


Future


Northern
Zone
10'
81"
-17

10
15

60
50
7
10

23

90
150


Son-
thern
Zone
10
10
15

5
20
60
42
12
10
26

90
150


During this period soil reclamation will be accomplished

and improved management will be introduced in the

farm operation. Irrigation intensities in individual

canal commands will vary from these averages, depend-

ing upon local circumstances, such as proximity to

markets and problems of soil and ground-water salinity.

In the Southern Zone some non-perennial irriga-

tion in the kharif season is expected to continue

80 percent of the culturable lands are assumed to be

in rice cultivation and 10 percent in other crops.

The over-all use of land in the Indus Plains can be

increased from about 24 million cropped acres per year

to over 40 million cropped acres when all of the recla-

mation, canal enlargement, and surface-storage devel-

opments have been completed. This ultimate use will

probably not be achieved until the turn of the century.

By 1975, sufficient development can be achieved for an

annual cropped area of about 32 million acres.


Projected Production of Food


The potential production of net food in 1975 is esti-

mated to be 25 million tons, compared to the present

supply of 12 million tons including imports, as shown in

Table 3 (page 32) and Figure 7 (page 33).

This total production could give an average diet of

2,500 calories per day to the projected 1975 population
of 65 million people. The proportions of various elements

of the food supply do not conform to a fully balanced
diet for the minimum diet considered acceptable by FAO.

However, shifts could be made in cropping to achieve
a better balance without significant change in values or

in water requirements. This is demonstrated by Table 4

(page 32).










AGRICULTURE


Figure 6

FUTURE CROPPING PATTERNS

NORTHERN ZONE


V J J A & U N U J t M A
PERENNIAL LANDS


SOUT









R CE 1 WHEAT 42%


SUGAR CANE i/%


r. J 0
PERENNIAL LANDS


HERN ZONE
100
90-



70-

5 60-

50
0
>- 40-
a,
30-

20


0
M J


80%






-w


SJ A S O N D J F M A
NON-PERENNIAL LANDS


i00-

90-

<80-

70
.70-
a 60-
S50-
o
S40-
10
nL
30-

20-

10 -

0 -


Iji










AGRICULTURE


Table 3
NET AVAILABLE FOOD
Millions of Tons


Product
Food Grains

Rice I
WheatJ
Barley
Sorghum I.
Millet r
Maize J

Subtotal
Other
Gram
Other Pulses -
Oil Seeds J
Cane sugar
Vegetables and miscellaneous
Fruits

Subtotal

Total Crops
Animal Products
Meat & Fish
Eggs
Milk
Oils and fats

Subtotal

Grand Total


1961
Supply


6.14

0.46



6.60



0.33

0.69
0.96
0.88

2.86

9.46


0.31
0.01
2.05
0.15

2.52

11.98


Table 4
POTENTIAL AVERAGE DIET
Calories Per Day Per Capita


Acceptable
Minimum


Product


Food Grains
Other Crops
Animal Products

Total


1,400
460
440

2,300


1975
Potential

2.95
5.63
0.11
0.27
0.28
0.45

9.69


0.27
0.13
0.17
4.09
3.36
1.91

9.93

19.62


0.45
0.03
4.82
0.30

5.60

25.22


1975
Projected


1,462
776
284

2,522













60






O 50
0n
c

o
1
4-
0
0(
a
40
c





0
"E
E
CL


CL
S 30


a.



S2
0
U-

z
a
C5
C
I 2
Ll


Anticipated
Imports




;'


1965


/

/


Y 4- -~


4 A Anticipated Production
with 1975 Program


1970


1975


1980


1985


1990


Figure 7
FOOD PRODUCTION IN WEST PAKISTAN


/
.0
Potential Production
with Continuing
Development / /




/
/

/


F-


0~M
1960


1995


LIZ=L


<^







Bunji


Tanda GhorloR Rela
agesa Dhok o Mtas "-

-Kolabag Makhad R h
Baran G. Pe r
Res,



St Chiniot
-o

c NO THEN 'Z ZONE



r C Ir
I /E
-. N ,u ) y / 7




Baboar "-- l
Katch \ o

/Bolon ) T oini T ng
Res.
SOUTHERN ZONE


Naulun \
Figure 8


The Surface Waters

C LEGEND
\ orali LGN Nk 1975 Program
Kudj Major storage projects
i Potential

Minor storage projects
s, 1975 Program
50 0 50 100
S% Scale of Miles
Hub




n -
















. . . . . ..:: .:: ..:: : "
":: :::;2: ::." .
. .. .:.. .:...... .:
..::.,".:; :. .::: .
W. R:- .. :. ....


THE WATER RESOURCES

The. principal water resources of West Pakistan
icluide direct rainfall on the agricultural land, surface
waters of the Indus River and its tributaries, (Fig. 8)
and ground water in the aquifers of the Indus
Plains. Very little is known of the lesser streams out-
side of the Indus River Basin or the ground-water po-
tential of the perimeter areas.
Rainfall
Precipitation over most of the agricultural areas of
the Indus Plains averages only 7.5 inches per year,
increasing to 15 inches in the regions between Lahore
and Peshawar. In the more mountainous areas to the
northeast, annual precipitation averages 30 inches or
more. The annual amounts and monthly distribution
of rainfall are illustrated by Figure 9.

The rainfall patterns and intensity are related to
the summertime monsoon winds, which carry moisture-
laden air from the Bay of Bengal in a northwesterly
direction across the Indo-Pakistan subcontinent. As
the monsoons encounter the mountain barrier of nor-


them Pakistan, their moisture is precipitated somewhat
in proportion to the elevation of the land. However,
the upper Indus River Valley above Gilgit receives
much less precipitation than nearby mountain.

Within the Indus Plains, rainfall is concentrated in
the three months from July through September, during
the monsoon period. The remainder of the year is
quite dry, and irrigation is necessary to sustain effective
agriculture throughout most of the Indus Plains. Dry
farming is confined mainly to the northern regions
having greater natural rainfall.

Surface Waters

The principal river systems of West Pakistan include
the Kabul, and the Western Rivers-the Indus, the
Jhelum, and the Chenab; and the Eastern rivers-the
Sutlej, the Beas, and the Ravi. The location of those
rivers and principal sites for reservoir storage are
shown on Figure 8.
The average annual runoff of these river systems,
available to West Pakistan above the Indus Plains, is
presently about 164 MAF. Of this total, the
Eastern Rivers contribute some 24 MAF. Under
















. . . . . ..:: .:: ..:: : "
":: :::;2: ::." .
. .. .:.. .:...... .:
..::.,".:; :. .::: .
W. R:- .. :. ....


THE WATER RESOURCES

The. principal water resources of West Pakistan
icluide direct rainfall on the agricultural land, surface
waters of the Indus River and its tributaries, (Fig. 8)
and ground water in the aquifers of the Indus
Plains. Very little is known of the lesser streams out-
side of the Indus River Basin or the ground-water po-
tential of the perimeter areas.
Rainfall
Precipitation over most of the agricultural areas of
the Indus Plains averages only 7.5 inches per year,
increasing to 15 inches in the regions between Lahore
and Peshawar. In the more mountainous areas to the
northeast, annual precipitation averages 30 inches or
more. The annual amounts and monthly distribution
of rainfall are illustrated by Figure 9.

The rainfall patterns and intensity are related to
the summertime monsoon winds, which carry moisture-
laden air from the Bay of Bengal in a northwesterly
direction across the Indo-Pakistan subcontinent. As
the monsoons encounter the mountain barrier of nor-


them Pakistan, their moisture is precipitated somewhat
in proportion to the elevation of the land. However,
the upper Indus River Valley above Gilgit receives
much less precipitation than nearby mountain.

Within the Indus Plains, rainfall is concentrated in
the three months from July through September, during
the monsoon period. The remainder of the year is
quite dry, and irrigation is necessary to sustain effective
agriculture throughout most of the Indus Plains. Dry
farming is confined mainly to the northern regions
having greater natural rainfall.

Surface Waters

The principal river systems of West Pakistan include
the Kabul, and the Western Rivers-the Indus, the
Jhelum, and the Chenab; and the Eastern rivers-the
Sutlej, the Beas, and the Ravi. The location of those
rivers and principal sites for reservoir storage are
shown on Figure 8.
The average annual runoff of these river systems,
available to West Pakistan above the Indus Plains, is
presently about 164 MAF. Of this total, the
Eastern Rivers contribute some 24 MAF. Under










WATER


Figure 9

PRECIPITATION IN WEST PAKISTAN


JFMAMJ JASOND
GILGIT


Precpitation depths
Eccrc.sed in inches


LAHORE


3




JFMAMJJASOND
KARACHI


the Treaty, India has the right to divert the Eastern
river flow, by 1970/1973, and by 1975 the average
annual surface water available to West Pakistan will be
about 140 MAF (See Figure 10). Future diversions by
India under the Indus Waters Treaty may ultimately
reduce the total supply by as much as 2 MAF.

The main rivers have similar patterns of runoff,
although they differ in their source. The Chenab is
mainly influenced by the monsoon rains and has its
highest flows in July and August. The Jhelum is like-
wise affected by the monsoons, with some snow-melt
influence, normally having higher total runoff in May,
June, and July. However, the larger individual floods
on the Jhelum are caused by the monsoons and occur in
July or August. The Indus River receives most of
its flow from snow-melt in high altitudes and usually
reaches a maximum in July. These characteristic runoff
patterns are illustrated by Figure 11.


-6
-5
-4


-



JFMAMJJASOND
RAWALPINDI




JFMAMJJASOND
KHANPUR


Historically, irrigation in West Pakistan has been
adapted to the natural variation in river flows, with
greater use in the summer months. In the absence
of storage control of the rivers, wintertime use of water
has been restricted during the dry season.

Ground Water in the Indus Plains

A most important water resource exists in the
ground under the irrigated areas of the Indus Plains.
Today virtually untapped, this ground water offers a
great potential for increased irrigation supplies. Use
of ground water will require pumping. However, most
of the necessary pumping capacity will be available from
the drainage and reclamation tubewells.

Approximately one-third of the irrigation water
diverted from the main rivers percolates into the under-
ground aquifer of the Indus Plains, in addition to














direct infiltration from the rivers and from rainfall. This
region is so flat that the ground water cannot drain
away as fast as new water is added.
During the historic period of irrigation, water tables
have continually risen, in some areas as much as 60 feet,
as the surface waters of past years have accumulated in
the ground. This ground-water reservoir is presently
estimated to contain more than 500 MAF of stored
water in each 100 feet of depth underlying 33 million
acres of the Northern Zone alone. Ground water has
also accumulated under the Sind, but data presently
av ailable do not permit reliable appraisal of the volume of
usable water.
Ground-water levels are continuing to rise, but the
rate lessens as the surface is approached. Where the
water table has approached the ground surface, severe
waterlogging and salt accumulation have resulted. The
annual volume of the present ground-water accretion is
estimated to be about 22 MAF in the Northern Zone and
14 MAF in the Southern Zone of the Indus Plains.
Not all of the stored ground water or the annual
recharge is suitable for irrigation use. Salinity concen-
trations vary from a low, acceptable value of 500 parts
per million in the Northern Zone (See Figure 12) to an
intolerable high of 30,000 ppm in some areas of the Sind.
In some localized areas the presence of sodium and boron
may make the ground water unusable for agriculture.
The presently estimated distribution of ground-water
salinity in the Northern Zone is summarized in Table 5.
Similar estimates are not yet available for the Southern
Zone.
Table 5


GROUND-WAT]


Salinity
Concentration
Parts per Million
Below 500
500-1,000
1,000-2,000
2,000-3,000
3,000-5,000
Above 5,000
Unknown
Total


SALINITY IN THE NORTHERN
ZONE


Gross Area
Millions of Acres

10.7
9.5
5.3
1.5
1.5
3.6
1.9
34.0


Percent
of Total Area

31
28
16
4
4
11
6
100


Figure 10
SURFACE WATER SUPPLY FOR

THE INDUS PLAINS

10 BE. DIVERTED 0

\-CLA-^r,^


Figure II
ANNUAL STREAMFLOW
DISTRIBUTION


WATER









WATER


Figure 12
GROUND-WATER SALINITY IN THE NORTHERN ZONE OF THE INDUS PLAINS


I


/


GROUND-WATER SALINITY
SMore than 3,000 ppm

- Less than 3,000 ppm.


Scale of miles
50


In general, ground water containing 2,000 to 3,000
ppm can be used in irrigation if supplemented with
fresh water. Some 27 million acres, or about 80 percent
of the Northern Zone, have ground water with salinity
concentration of less than 3,000 parts per million.

Future increases in surface-water diversions for irri-
gation will also increase the annual ground-water re-
charge. With the ultimate use of surface waters, the
potential supply of usuable ground-water recharge is
estimated to be 40 MAF per year throughout the
Indus Plains. This total is equivalent to 1.6 feet of
acceptable water from 22 million acres of land in the


Northern Zone and 2.0 feet from 2.6 million acres along
the Indus River in the Southern Zone. The estimate
for the Southern Zone needs further confirmation from
studies now under way.
In addition to the ground-water supply from annual
recharge, the accumulated waters from past years could
be recovered by tubewells. For each foot that water
tables are lowered, approximately 5 MAF could be with-
drawn from the ground under the irrigated lands in the
Northern Zone of the Indus Plains. Of this total, about
3 MAF are estimated to be of usable quality if mixed
with surface water. A much smaller volume of usable
water is expected in the Southern Zone.










WATER


PRESENT USE OF WATER

The dominant use of water in West Pakistan today
is in the diversion of the river flows to the irrigated areas
of the Indus Plains. In terms of quantity, the irriga-
lion, domestic, and industrial uses from wells are much
smaller.

River Diversions

About 51 percent of the total surface-water supply
to the Indus Plains is presently being diverted into the
canal systems. About 12 percent is lost through evap-
oration and seepage along the main river channels,
and the remaining 37 percent passes on to the Ara-
bian Sea. The average seasonal diversions from the
principal rivers are shown in Table 6.


Table 6

PRESENT RIVER FLOW DISTRIBUTION

Millions of Acre-Feet
October May
through through
Item River April Sept. Anm


ual


Indus Plains Diversions
Northern Zone Jhelum 2.4 2.5 4.9
Chenab 5.0 6.7 11.7
Ravi 3.8 4.2 8.0
Sutlej 4.0 6.9 10.9
Panjnad 1.6 2.6 4.2
Indus 3.0 5.5 8.5
Subtotal 19.8 28.4 48.2
Southern Zone Indus 11.4 23.9 35.3
Total Diversions 31.2 52.3 83.5
Net River Loss or Gain -2.6 +22.7 +20.1
Flow to Arabian Sea 5.6(1) 55.3 60.9
Total River Supply 34.2 130.3 164.5
(1) About 3.3 MAF of this occurs during the first half of October.

Diversion of the river flows for irrigation use
now averages about 52 MAF in the high-flow season and
31 MAF in the low-flow season. These diversions are
generally limited in the high-flow season by the capacity
of the canal systems, and in the low-flow season by the
available water supply.

Existing Irrigation Systems

Water diverted from the rivers is presently distributed


through 38,000 canal miles of main and secondary
canals in 43 separate systems. Individual canal systems
have capacities up to 15,500 cusecs, and the combined
diversion capacities of all the main canal systems is
nearly 250,000 cusecs.

The gross area within the Indus Plains commanded
by the irrigation systems totals 36.8 million acres, of
which about 32.8 million acres are classed as culturable.
Some 21.4 million acres are sanctioned for perennial
water supply, while the remaining 11.4 million acres are
to be irrigated during the high-flow season only.

The existing canals are almost entirely unlined.
More than 35 percent of the water diverted from the
rivers is estimated to be lost in conveyance from the
headworks to the farms. These substantial losses might
suggest a program of canal lining. However, the proposed
tubewell program, which is needed in any event for
reclamation and regional drainage, will recover most
of these canal losses.

Use of Surface Water

Within the Indus Plains, the lands are generally
under-irrigated. Presently in each of the two cropping
seasons about 12 million acres are being irrigated.
Farm deliveries of surface water in the Northern Zone
are estimated to average 2.2 acre-feet per cropped acre
during the months of May through September and 1.6
acre-feet during October through April. These deliveries
should average 2.7 and 2.4 acre-feet in the respective
seasons for a fully adequate water supply. Present
water use in the Southern Zone is similarly deficient.

Use of Ground Water

Much of the rural supply of domestic water and some
irrigation water comes from wells equipped with Persian
wheels and operated by animals. Only in the larger
towns have modern, electrically powered pumps been
used for domestic and industrial supplies. The reclama-
tion tubewell program has just begun to make high-











WATER


capacity ground-water pumping a significant factor in
irrigation use.

No statistics are available of the historic use of well

water, but the total is undoubtedly very small in com-
parison with the use of surface water. Within the
Northern Zone of the Indus Plains, all pumping from
wells is estimated to total two MAF per year.

The Present Water Balance


The approximate balance of surface water and
ground water in the Indus Plains under present condi-

Table 7

PRESENT WATER BALANCE IN THE
INDUS PLAINS


River Balance
Total Surface-Water Supply
Net percolation to ground water
Other losses
Flow to Arabian Sea
Total Surface-Water Diversion
Canal Balance (including Water Courses)
Total Surface-Water Diversion
Pumped from ground water
Evaporation losses
Percolation to ground water
Total Farm Delivery
Farm Irrigation Balance
Total Farm Delivery
Surface loss
Percolation to ground water
Net Crop Use
Ground-Water Balance
Percolation from rivers
Percolation from canals
Percolation from farms
Percolation from rainfall
Total Inflow to Ground
Pumped to irrigation use
Evaporation, transpiration, and
ground-water accumulation


MAF
Per Year
164.5
-4.0
-16.1
-60.9
83.5


83.5
2.0
-8.0
-23.0
54.5


54.5
-5.4
-8.2
40.9


4.0
23.0
8.2
1.2
36.4
-2.0

34.4


tions is summarized in Table 7, and is shown graphically
on Figure 13.

SURFACE-WATER DEVELOPMENT


The surface waters of West Pakistan are not pres-
ently controlled by reservoir storage, except for minor
storage totallingless than 0.3 MAF. The ultimate need
for storage will be so great that all potential reservoir
sites must be studied.

Ultimate Surface-Water Control

A program of canal remodelling is to be undertaken,
which, over the next 30 years or so, will increase
substantially, within the limits of practicability,
the potential for kharif season diversion. Canal capac-
ities are generally the limiting element for such diver-
sions. Surface-storage water will be required only at
the beginning and end of this season.

Greater use of surface water in the rabi season will
require reservoir storage. The maximum reservoir
capacity to be utilized should be determined on the basis
of a comprehensive economic analysis of alternatives
for integrated use of surface and underground storage of
water for irrigation, and the effect thereon of canal di-
version capacity increases. Use of the huge natural
ground-water reservoir will reduce the need for sur-
face reservoir storage to about half of that which
would be required for optimum use of the water resource
with surface storage alone. Present indications are that
surface storage requirements for the irrigation of the
Indus Plains will ultimately be in the range of 20 to 30
MAF.

With ultimate development, the average annual

diversions from the rivers are expected to be about 40
MAF in the rabi season and 80 MAF in the kharif season,
or about 87 percent of the total river supply.














Evaporation


SOUTHERN ZONE


or Storage


RIVER INPUT
164.5 million acre-feet


116.3


107.3


104.3


69.0


68.0


NORTHERN ZONE


Canals


Figure 13

PRESENT WATER BALANCE

IN THE INDUS PLAINS


Evaporation


ARABIAN SEA


Inmr-









WATER


The Indus Basin Project

On September 19, 1960, Pakistan and India signed
the Indus Waters Treaty, which divided the waters of
the Indus system of rivers between the two countries.
In essence, the Eastern Rivers were allocated for use by
India, and the Western Rivers, for the most part, were
held for use by Pakistan.

The Eastern Rivers have long been used for irrigation
on lands now in Pakistan. Diversion of these waters
by India would be an economic and social disaster if
replacement were not provided. In recognition of this
difficult situation, certain countries have undertaken to
finance the program of works collectively termed the
Indus Basin Project (IBP). Commitments for this
support are contained in the Indus Basin Development
Fund Agreement of September 1960. (Signatories are
Australia, Canada, W. Germany, New Zealand, Pakistan,
United Kingdom, the United States of America and the
International Bank for Reconstruction and Development.)

The locations of major elements of the IBP are shown
on the General Map. Storage on the Jhelum River is
being implemented by Mangla Dam, now under con-
struction and scheduled for completion in 1968. Con-
struction of a number of the link canals and barrages
is also under way. Indus River storage to be provided
by the IBP will be at the Tarbela site, but construction
has not yet started.

The primary function of the IBP is to replace the
surface waters to be diverted by India, for which appro-
ximately 24 MAF must be transferred from the Western
rivers through the new link canals. Waters transferred
in the rabi season would reduce the supply to present
downstream users of the western rivers; therefore
Mangla and Tarbela reservoirs are needed to offset this
reduction.
The Mangla Project will consist of a main earth dam
about 380 feet high, impounding a gross storage of 5.6


MAF. The dam is designed for future raising to add
3.0 MAF of live storage. Approximately 120 million
cubic yards of earth- and rock-fill will be needed
initially in the main dam and reservoir dikes. The
service and emergency spillway will have a com-
bined discharge capacity of more than 1,200,000 cusecs.
Irrigation outlets and the powerplant will be served by
five tunnels, each 30 feet in diameter. The initial power
plant will contain three generating units of 100,000 kilo-
watts capacity each, and provisions are being made for
the future installation of seven more such units.

The Tarbela Project will have an earth- and rock-fill
dam about 400 feet high and 9,000 feet long, impounding
a gross storage of 8.4 MAF. This dam is also being desig-
ned for future raising, to add 2.7 MAF of live storage.
Earth- and rock-fill will total about 145 million cubic
yards for the initial project. Service and auxiliary
spillways will have a combined discharge capacity of
more than 1,600,000 cusecs. As presently planned, the
ultimate powerplant will contain 12 generating units of
175,000 kilowatts capacity each.
The useful storage to be provided under the IBP will
be 4.75 MAF at Mangla (to be completed in 1968), and
6.60 MAF at Tarbela (to be completed in 1973). Sedi.
ment encroachment on this storage is estimated to
average 30,000 acre-feet per year at Mangla and 100,000
acre-feet per year at Tarbela.

.The proposed program for development through
1975 includes the raising of both Mangla and Tarbela
dams, during the period 1970-75, to provide 5.7 MAF of
live storage capacity in addition to that included in the
Indus Basin Project. Construction of this additional
live storage capacity would permit the deferral
of canal capacity increases corresponding to about 5
MAF at the canal heads and 3.6 MAF at outlets to the
water courses.

Irrigation requirements during the high-flow season in










WATER


excess of canal diversion capacities would be supplied by
ground-water pumping. During the low-flow season, irri-
gation requirements which could not be met by ground-
water use consistent withan annual balance between local
local pumping and recharge, would be met by surface-
water diversions including water released from storage.
A review of this feature of the development program
should be made as soon as physical data and operating
requirements have been collected to allow the prepara-
tion of reliable cost estimates for canal capacity enlarge-
ments, giving due consideration to canal operation
during construction.

Potential Storage Reservoirs
There are within West Pakistan potential reservoirs
totalling some 70 MAF, exclusive of the storage at
Mangla and Tarbela. Sites exist on the Indus, Kabul-
Swat, Jhelum, and Chenab Rivers. In addition, reser-
voirs with only local significance can be built on many
of the smaller tributaries. By constructing a dam at
Tarbela, diversion of Indus River water to off-stream
storage on the Haro and Soan Rivers is also possible.
These reservoir sites have not been investigated
adequately, and probably not all will be found
economically feasible. The major potential reservoirs
are summarized in Table 8. In addition to these
larger projects, about 20 smaller reservoir sites, whose


combined volume could total five MAF, exist on the
tributary streams.
Table 8
MAJOR POTENTIAL RESERVOIRS


River Project
Shyok Khapalu
Indus Skardu
Tarbela
Kalabagh
Chasma
Jhelum Panjar
Rohtas(3)
Mangla
Chenab Chiniot
Swat Kalangai
Khazana
Munda
Soan Dhok Pathan(3)
Makhad(3)


Live
Storage
MAF
10.0
15.0
9.3
6.4
9.0
2.5
1.8
7.7
1.4
6.5
3.0
1.5
10.0
5.0


Power
Potential
MW
600
1,400
2,100
1,200
500
1,500
60
1,000
None
700
300
800
1,100
700


Functions
(1)
IPF
IPF
IPF
IPF
IPF
IPF
IPF
IPF
I
IPF
IP
IP
IP
IP


Status
of
Study(2)
R
R
PI
A
A
R
A
UC
A
A
A
A
A
A


(1) I-irrigation, P-power, F-flood control
(2) R-reconnaissance only, A-appraisal with some topographic
and geologic study, PI-detailed planning and extensive geo-
logic study, UC-under construction.
(3) Requires diversion from major river
Storage in the 1975 Program
The principal storage reservoirs included in the
program through 1975 are the initial Mangla and Tarbela
reservoirs of the IBP and the Munda reservoir on the
Swat River. The other projects now under way or
proposed for construction by 1975 are given in Table 9.


River or Tributary
NORTHERN ZONE
Swat
Haro
Kohat Toi
Gomal
SOUTHERN ZONE (2)


K
N
C
M
G
M
H
P
K


Table 9
STORAGE PROJECTS IN THE 1975 PROGRAM

Live Storage Power Capacity
Project 1000 AF Megawatts


Munda
Khanpur
Tanda
Khajuri Katch


1,500
44
65
1,180


Func- Year of
tions (1) Completion


IP
IP
I
IPF


.host Mangi 10 M
ari Babar Kach 325 IF
hakar Talli Tangi (2) IF
;ula Naulung (2) IF
aj Gaj (2) IF
.anchhar Lake Manchhar (2) IF
ub Karachi 606 20 IF
orali Porali ) (2) 47 IF
ud Kud 2)
(1) I-irrigation, P-power, F-flood control M-muncipal water
(2) Projects to be selected when feasibility, studies are completed. (3) Not yet determined.


(3)
1968
1965
1970

1968

(3)
(3)

(3)
1968

(3)










WATER


The reservoirs of the IBP and the smaller projects
will give a total storage of about 21 MAF by 1975.
Only the Mangla and Tarbela reservoirs will have appre-
ciable effect on the water supply to the Indus Plains.

The smaller reservoirs will be used for local areas in
the tributary valleys, and the net reduction in flow to the
main rivers will be insignificant. Furthermore, some
of these projects, such as the Gomal Zam and Karachi
Irrigation Projects, are being designed for hold-over stor-
age greater than the annual inflow, so their volumes
are not indicative of annual irrigation water supplies.

Operating studies of the Indus River system have
included the effect of only the Mangla and Tarbela res-
ervoirs on the surface waters available to the Indus
Plains for irrigation in 1975.
FLOOD CONTROL
The importance of flood control has long been recog-
nized in West Pakistan. Generally, flood bunds have
been provided by the Irrigation Department. The
Punjab Flood Commission was appointed after a dis-
astrous flood in 1950, during which nearly 3,000 lives were
lost. The duties of this commission were taken over in
1957 by the West Pakistan Flood Commission, which
represents the entire Province, and which is preparing a
comprehensive flood-control plan for West Pakistan.
Because flood-control measures are part of an integrated
water resource development, the WAPDA program will
incorporate the flood-control plan. Areas in the Indus
Plains which are subject to flooding are shown on
Figure 14.
An extensive system of bunds now exists along many
of the main river channels which pass through the
Indus Plains. Construction and maintenance of these
bunds have generally been carried out by the Irrigation
Department in accordance with the plans of the West
Pakistan Flood Commission.


Figure 14

THE FLOODED LANDS


A network of radio stations to report river conditions
at 107 locations is operated by the West Pakistan Police
for the Flood Commission. This flood-warning system
has been extended to aid in the construction of the
Indus Basin Project.

Flood Damages

Damaging floods occur on the main rivers and their
tributaries nearly every year during the peak of the
monsoon season. In spite of the existing bunds, annual
flood losses have reached as high as 200 million rupees.










WATER


Figure 15
MAXIMUM FLOODS DURING
EACH MONTH WITH YEAR
OF OCCURRENCE


Thousand
cf s -


THE INDUS RIVER
AT ATTOCK
800


600
o
400 -- "


200 -- -



0 N D
D0 AMJJAS


Thousand
cfs. -r-


ruptures of existing bunds, and canal breaks in the flat

plains cause serious flooding of agricultural land, inter-
ruption of transportation networks, and damage to irri-
gation works. villages, and towns. Important cities such
as Lahore and Jhelum have suffered severely in the
past, and many smaller communities have been completely
submerged. Poor drainage in the flat Indus Plains
prolongs periods of inundation.

Flood Intensities

The normal distribution and maximum intensities of
floods recorded on the Indus River and the Jhelum
River are shown on Figure 15. Potentially, much lar-

ger floods could occur on each of these rivers.

The highest discharge recorded for each of the major
rivers is given in Table 10.

Table 10


MAXIMUM FLOOD DISCHARGES

River Location Date
Indus Attock August 1929
Indus Sukkur August 1958
Jhelum Mangla August 1929
Chenab Marala July 1959
Ravi Shahdara October 1955
Sutlej Suleimanke October 1955
Panjnad Panjnad September 1950


Cusees
820,000
1,100,000
1,043,000
871,000
542,000
422,000
677,000


The floods are caused by monsoon rains with some
o snow-melt contribution. Rare but significant floods
S" I can occur in the Indus basin by the sudden rupture of

temporary dams created by landslides or glaciers in the
O N D J F M A M J J A S headwaters. Such floods have high intensities but are
.- -- ... of short duration.


Over the years 1948-1960, more than 4,800 lives were
lost, and direct flood damages exceeded 1,000 million
rupees.

Approximately six million acres are subject to flooding
along the main river systems. Overflow of river banks,


Flood Protection

The existing bunds will be extended and reinforced
under the Flood Control Plan. By 1975 many miles
of new bunds will be added, mostly in the Northern










WATER


Figure 16

THE EFFECTS OF FLOOD STORAGE


rnousanO
c.f.s. I I
I DESIGN FLOOD
Peak inflow
Pea0k inflow Assuming reservoir
2,040,000 s full(El. 1490, storage
,OOC -7.8 78MAF)ot start of-
flood.
Involuntary f Peak outflow
Storage 1,650,000 cfs.

,500 ase



.000 .
/ \



500



TAR B ELA R ES.
0 1 2
Time in days


c.f.s. 1 I I
JULY 1959 Reservoir drawn down to
JULY 19 rule curve elevation(El.
FLOOD 1171, total storage 3.95
50/ MAF)at start of flood.
- 500-o-
Voluntary Storage

Released
0 I 2 3
Time in days
AUGUST 1929 FLOOD
_____ I I
)cfs Assuming reservoir full(EI.1202,
ie 7.2 MAF) total storage 5.55MAF)at
start of flood.


involuntoary
sed Storage Released





R E S E R V 0 I R
3 4 I 2
Time in days



NOTES:
Voluntary storage represents storage of inflow
in space between rule curve elevation and
normal full reservoir. When reservoir is in
this range, release may be restricted as
desired.
Involuntary storage represents storage of inflow
in surcharge space above normal full
reservoir. When reservoir is in this range,
releases must equal full capacity of
spillway, for the safety of the structure,
and any storage or flood reduction that
is accomplished is entirely incidental.










WATER


Zone of the Indus Plains. The reservoirs to be construct-
ed by WAPDA under the IBP will, however, contribute
to the over-all flood protection of the Indus Plains,
Use by India of the waters of the Eastern Rivers will
reduce, but not eliminate, the occurrence of flood flows
in the Ravi and Sutlej Rivers. Regulations to prevent
encroachment on the usually dry flood channels will
probably be necessary. Deterioration of the flood
channels may increase the flood hazard.

FlooM Storage

Mangla and Tarbela reservoirs will be operated for
irrigation and power needs, but flood retention and
storage will be significant under some conditions.

Even if the reservoirs were full at the time of peak
floods, surcharge above normal levels would temporarily
retain some of the inflow and reduce the peak discharge
downstream. The effect on large historic floods and on
maximum probable floods % ith initial IBP storage is shown
on Figure 16. At Mangla, a maximum probable flood of
2.6 million cusecs would be reduced to 1.2 million, or
approximately to the historic maximum. At Tarbela, the
reduction would be about 19 percent of the maximum
probable flood.

Lesser floods originating upstream and occurring,in
months when these reservoirs would not be full can be
completely absorbed or greatly reduced. Floods of
intermediate size which occur when reservoirs are full
would probably be passed with little or no reduction in
peak intensity.

RECLAMATION AND GROUND-WATER
DEVElOPMENT

About 16 million acres of irrigated land in the
Indus Plains are adversely affected by inadequate
drainage and excessive salinity, aad each year
about 100,000 acres are lost for useful production.


Ultimately, a total of about 26 million acres is expectedto
require tubewell drainage, and about five million acres
will be served by deep. surface drains. Extension of
reclamation to this ultimate area will probably take
about 30 years.

Reclamation of waterlogged and saline lands and con
tinued control of ground water are essential to achieve
full productivity of the Indus Plains. Sub-surface
drainage with ditches is economically preferable only
in limited areas; most of the plains are too flat and
pumping is necessary. Therefore, the reclamation
program will require extensive use of tubewells.

The current reclamation program was started in the
Rechna Doah of the Northern Zone. This project,
called Salinity Control and Reclamation Project No. I
(SCARP 1), has provided about 2,000 tubewells within
a gross area of 1.2 million acres; full operation of this
project was achieved early in 1963. (See Figure 17)

As a result of the short period of operation of
SSCARP 1, about 57,000 acres of formerly unusable land
have been restored to cultivation, and water tables have
been drawn down an average of seven feet. Crop-
ping intensities in the area have been increased by an
average of 24 percent, and marketed crop production
has increased by about 40 percent. This response, is
most encouraging. It is significant that the individual
farmers intensified their cropping and achieved greater
yields almost immediately after the lad was drained
and tubewell irrigation water was made available.

Two more projects are under way in the Northern Zone.
Under SCARP 2, in Chaj Doab, wells are being installed &
construction plans are ready for the entire doab. Under
SCARP 3 and SCARP 4, investigations are being made
of the lower end of Thai Doab and the upper end of




I

/





I,
/





C
Jinnah
.-. Barrage


N 4

0


~ NORTHERN ZONE

/ ,I Taunsa
SL--| I Barrage
I
SOUTHERN ZONE /
S/ E /E

.., ..\ 0


Gudu \
Barrage '

Sj Figur


The Ground
ae / Reclamatioi
LEGEND
Reclamation wor
SZ Reclamation woi
after 1975
50 0
hulam Scale of
Mohammed




-


e 17


water ahd
1 Program


ks in the 1975 Program
rks to be construlced
50 100
Miles
Miles


'" .


j
Irt~
~










WATER


Rechna Doab. Further extension to the entire Northern
Zone is being planned.

Detailed programs for the Southern Zone are pres-
ently being prepared in anticipation of early construc-
tion for reclamation of the Khairpur area in the Sukkur
Barrage command and of the Gaja area in the Ghulam
Mohammed Barrage command.

The reclamation and drainage problems in the South-
ern Zone are considerably different from those in the
Northern Zone, since much of the ground water in this
area is too saline for irrigation use. Here the major
problem is the one of disposal. Regional planning stud-
ies are now under way. In some areas along the lower
Indus River, ground water has been found to be suit-
able for irrigation use.

Tubewells

Individual wells will vary somewhat with local
conditions, but in general the wells will average about
300 feet deep, and will be equipped with pumps which
will operate down to a 70-foot depth. The wells are
drilled to a 22-inch diameter. Solid casings, 16 inches
in diameter, extend down to about 100 feet; slotted
casings, 10 inches in diameter, are used below. Both
solid and slotted casings are surrounded with gravel.
Electric motors of 40 horsepower will serve for a well
discharge of about four cusecs at a water-table depth
of 25 feet.

The spacing and numbers of wells will depend upon
the physical layout of canals and drains and on local
variations in recharge and quality of the ground water.
Data presented in this report are predicated on the
assumption that the average well will have a capacity
of four cusecs and serve an area of about 500 acres.
The latest designs for tubewell projects provide one well
for 650 to 700 acres. This will reduce the number of


wells required, but the average well capacity must be
increased, if the area to be served is increased, to main-
tain the same relationship between area irrigated and
cusecs of water supply.

Wherever feasible, the wells drawing usable water
will bd located at the heads of the water courses serving
groups of individual farms. At these locations, the
wells can best be coordinated with surface-water supplies.

Some wells will be required for drainage only. These
are usually located in areas of unusable ground water.
In some locations these wells will serve as a barrier
to prevent infiltration from adjacent saline waters,
These drainage wells will be located for the most
efficient disposal of the unusable waters, and some
will require new drainage ditches extending to the
natural drainage channels and rivers. Approximately
one-fourth of the tubewell capacity required for the
reclamation program will be located in saline ground
water.

The useful life of a tubewell is expected to average
about 20 years, considering possible corrosive effects of
saline water and soils. Replacement of wells and
pumps will represent a large part of the long-range cost
of tubewell projects.

Surface Drains

As a supplement to the drainage wells and irrigation-
drainage wells, an ultimate total of more than 10,000
miles of open drains may be needed. These will nor-
mally be unlined and of small capacity. Although each
area will differ in its needs, an average of about 300 miles
of these drains is expected for each million acres to be
reclaimed.

Use of Pumping

The capacity of the tubewells will permit the pumping
of the full annual ground-water recharge in any one sea-











WATER


son. Under the cropping intensities considered herein
for the Indus Plains, water requirements during the
kharif season could be supplied most of the time by unre-
gulated river flows if the capacities of the canals were in-
creased sufficiently. Alternatively, all or part of the kharif
requirements in excess of present canal capacities could be
met by ground-water pumping; and the flood flows, which
would otherwise be unused, could be stored for delivery
during the rabi season. In this way advantage could
be taken of the flexibility of ground-water use without
upsetting a balance between ground-water pumping and
recharge.

The 1975 program is predicated on the use of ground-
water for irrigation during the kharif season to minimize
requirements for canal enlargements. Revisions in the
program, including deferral of raising of Mangla and/or
Tarbela dams and increases in canal enlargements,
can be made if justified by economic analyses. Such
analyses will require cost estimates for canal enlarge-
ments of the same reliability as those which can be made
for the costs of raising the dams.

Because of the need for continuing irrigation water
service, major canal enlargements will present complex
operational and administrative problems. Construc-
tion of canal enlargements should be scheduled to
follow completion of tubewell installations, in order


that ground-water supplies will be av ailable for use
when canal closures are required for construction
activities. Expenditures required for operational
reasons must be included in analyses of canal enlarge-
ment; these include increased maintenance costs
resulting from siltation.

Under the proposed use of ground water during
the rabi season, pumping can be coordinated both
with surface-water supplies to meet irrigation needs
and with operation of the storage reservoirs for both
irrigation and power purposes. This combination offers
the maximum flexibility of operation and will permit
optimum use of the water and power resources. The
ground-water reservoir is in effect an extension of
surface-water storage.

Schedules for Reclamation

The proposed reclamation program in the Indus
Plains is summarized in Table II. Progress schedules
are included on Figure 18. Some 34,100 wells are
planned for installation by 1975; of these, 85 percent
are expected to yield ground water satisfactory for
irrigation use. The rate of reclamation up to 1975 should
average about 1.0 million acres per year in the Northern
Zone and 0.5 million acres in the Soutnern Zone.
Tubewell construction should proceed at an average
rate of about 2,500 wells per year.


Figure 18

SCHEDULE FOR RECLAMATION


TUBEWELL CAPACITY DRAINS AND CANALS WATER TABLE CONTROL EFFECT OF RECLAMATION
(Thousand cusecs) (Thousands of miles) (Millions of acres) (Millions of acres)
1995 1995
0oo 40 40
99 i 'l 1995 1975

1975,1395 19 95 975: ,



1 .. s ..S
19 T5h 1995
63 "[ 163 I, 6~t'5,' l 9 19195::: 1963.
N,. 19 3I6 1963 0;;. .,- :1';


USABLE SALINE
WATER WATER


SURFACE CANALS (new BY BY DEEP
DRAINS or remodelled) TUBEWELL DRAIN


RECLAIMED CROPPED
LAND ACREAGE


2


















Item


Unit


1. CCA Reclaimed


2. CCA with Water-Table
Control by Tubewells


3. Tubewells

In Fresh Ground Water

In Saline Ground Water

4. Tubewell Capacity

In Fresh Ground Water

In Saline Ground Water


5. CCA with Water-Table
Control by Deep Drains

6. Surface Drains Completed

In Areas with Tubewells

In Areas without Tubewells


7. Remodelled or New Canals


8. Area Irrigated Annually


million acres



million acres



number

number



1,000 cusecs

1,000 cusecs



million acres



canal miles

canal miles


canal miles


million acres


Table 11

THE RECLAMATION PROGRAM


By 1975

Northern Southern
Zone Zone Tota


12.8



12.8




23,700

1,400



95

6


6.0



3.0




5,200

3,800



21

11


Ultimate


Northern Southern
Zone Zone


II


18.8



15.8



28,900

5,200



116

17


21.9



21.9



37,300

6,300



149

25


0 3.0


2,500

0


11,000


23.0


600

2,600


10.0



4.2




5,200

6,900



21

21


0 5.8


3,100

2,600


4,200

0


800

5,000


5,000 16,000 28,200 12,800


31.7


29.8


11.7


Total


31.9



26.1




42,500

13,200



170

46


5,000

5,000


41,000


41.5










WATER


Disposal of Saline Water
As the Reclamation program facilities are completed,
large volumes of saline ground water will be removed
from affected areas by tubewells and surface drains.
These drainage waters can be mixed with surface water
and used for irrigation downstream so long as the mix-
ture is not too saline. Highly saline outflows from
canal areas in the Northern Zone can be discharged into
the river channels during seasons when flows are suffi-
cient for the necessary dilution. In other seasons, the
saline outflows must be withheld in ponds or reservoirs
for later discharge into the rivers or for disposal by
evaporation. Preliminary studies indicate that at
least half of the saline drainage water can be emptied
into the rivers. Reclamation projects must include
facilities for disposal of these drainage waters without
detriment to downstream irrigation. Part of the drain-
age waters from the Southern Zone can be discharged
directly to the Arabian Sea.
OTHER WATER DEVELOPMENT
Inland Navigation
Historically, navigation on the Indus River and its
tributaries was an important means of communication
and transport. In recent years rail, highway and air
transport_ media. have been developed or improved.
Also, the construction and operation of barrages and
irrigation canals have precluded or interfered with
navigation. Consequently, existing navigation is mostly
in the reach of the Indus River between Sukkur Barrage,
340 miles above the mouth, which has no lock; and
Taunsa Barrage, 780 miles above the mouth, which has
only log-passing facilities. All'of the river flow is
diverted to irrigation canals at Sukkur Barrage during
major portions of the rabi season. Use of the irrigation
canals other than the Fuleli canal for navigation has
been precluded by the construction of many low bridges
and regulating structures. After preliminary investi-


gations, the Government of Pakistan decided against
equipping the link canals of the IBP initially with
facilities for navigation. Some of these canals would
lend themselves to navigation use; this possibility must
be investigated further.

Present indications are, however, that future use of
the river water for increased irrigation will cause greater
reductions in the dependable water depths, and that there
will be few river reaches where inland navigation will
be practicable. Potentials for navigation must, of
course, be considered in regional and master planning
for water-resources utilization.

Domestic and Industrial Water Supply
Rawal reservoir has been completed as a source
of water supply for the cities of Islamabad and Rawal-
pindi, and investigations are under way of the
Sambli site in the Soan River basin for additional
water for Islamabad. The Mangi Dam Project on the
the Khost River is included in the program to provide
municipal water for the city of Quetta. The planned
investigation program will cover provisions for supply-
ing projected needs for municipal and industrial
supplies from available surface and underground
sources.

The reclamation tubewells may in some cases serve
non-agricultural uses. Much of the present rural water
supply comes from shallow wells served by Persian wheels.
The extensive power distribution system required to
serve the tubewells will also make available an electrical
supply for independent rural wells. Domestic wells
can be sized to meet community needs and operated
independently of the irrigation and drainage system.
In some parts of the Province, wind may provide a suf-
ficiently dependable source of power to operate pumps
for water supplies for domestic and livestock use and for
irrigation of gardens.










WATER


Fisheries

The extensive river and canal systems of Wes't
Pakistan are inland waters which could produce large
amounts of fresh-water fish. At present, operational
closures of most link and irrigation canals render them
unsuitable for fish culture. Opportunities for improve-
ment of fishery conditions, through improved manage-
ment of the facilities, may be found in some areas to be
compatible with use for conveyance of irrigation or
drainage waters. Other possibilities for inland pro-
duction of fish include combination of rice and fish cul-
tivation as is done elsewhere, and use of waterlogged
areas, or areas developed for the disposal of drainage
waters by evaporation, for the growth of those fish
with sufficient tolerance for saline waters. Increased
production of fish is desirable in West Pakistan, in order
to increase the availability of high-protein foods.

Watershed Management

Soil erosion is a serious problem in West Pakistan.
Large areas, notably the Potwar Plateau, have been
severely damaged by gullying. Overgrazing and cutting
of forest growth have denuded areas and accelerated
the rate of erosion. Average annual sediment loads in
the upper Indus and Jhelum Rivers exceed theee acre-
feet per square mile of catchment area. High concentra-
tions of suspended sediment in the river flows limit the
useful life of reservoirs and cause problems in the design,
operation, and maintenance of canals.

Efforts to control erosion in the mountains have,
so far, been limited to educational efforts and installa-
tion of small check dams. An active program of water-
shed management and construction of erosion-control
works has been initiated in portions of the watershed
above Mangla dam. In addition, a study program of
50,000 square miles of the Indus catchment is under


way to assess general problems. It is not likely, how-
ever, that these efforts will result in appreciable reduc-
tion in sediment loads in the rivers, but they will have
great local importance because of the increased or pre-
served land productivity which may be achieved.

Recreation

The formation of the large Mangla and Tarbela
reservoirs will create recreational opportunities for boat-
ing, swimming, and fishing and for shoreline resorts
and camps. It will be the function of WAPDAkto en-
courage such use and to make available necessary
facilities such as access roads, landings, marinas, and
other public services, either directly or through con-
cessionairs and other agencies. It must be recognized
that extreme fluctuations in the reservoir levels each year
will limit recreation values. Developments along the shore-
lines will have to be restricted during early years of opera-
tion to avoid interference and expense when the dams
are raised.

Public Health

WAPDA's responsibility in this field is mainly the
prevention of ill effects resulting from its programs.
The reclamation program will be a positive health mea-
sure in its elimination of many stagnant swamps. How-
ever, the new reservoirs and link canals will need'con-
trol to avoid increased mosquito breeding along their
banks. Water levels will be fluctuated when possible
to destroy larvae, or banks will be sprayed.

FUTURE USE OF WATER

Operation Studies

The 1975 and ultimate uses of water for irrigationin
the Indus Plains have been computed from preliminary
system-operating studies. In these studies, each canal
command has been analyzed for capacity requirement,









WATER


Figure 19

FARM WATER REQUIREMENTS IN 1975


J0




', 045


a
c 0.3(




I:


SOUTHERN ZONE


assumed rate of reclamation, usable ground water, and
monthly water needs.

Water requirements in each area reflect local precip-
itation and evapo-transpiration characteristics. For
lands not reclaimed, a full water supply was included,
but only for the present cropping intensities. Newly
reclaimed lands were assumed to require eight years to
reach full cropping intensity. Estimated average water
requirements at the farms in 1975 are shown on Figure
19.

An allowance of 25 percent of farm deliveries was
made for farm losses and waste, deep percolation, and
leaching. Seepage and evaporation losses in the water
courses were estimated to be ten percent of deliveries
to the heads of water courses. The tubewells will
generally be located to discharge into the heads of the
water courses; hence 90 percent of the usable ground
water pumped is assumed to reach the farms.


U.8 k
PERENNIAL LANDS
0.7












3 KHARIF RABI
So.-.-2 1.58
g0.5 -- ------------







ANNUAL- 2.90

SMJ'J' A S'O'N D JF M A
NORTHERN ZONE


Of the water diverted from the rivers, an average
of about 30 percent will be lost in the canal system.
With ten percent additional loss in the water courses,
the field delivery of surface water will be only 63 per
cent of the river diversion. Losses and gains in the river
channels were included in the operating studies on the
basis of historic values.

Future River Diversions

By 1975, annual diversions from the rivers should
reach 92.1 MAF, an increase of 10 percent over pres-
ent use. Average flow to the Arabian Sea will be
reduced to about 38 MAF per year. A summary of
1975 and ultimate river diversions is given in Table 12.

Future Water Balance

The approximate balance of surface and ground
water in the Indus Plains, projected to 1975, is shown on
Figure 20. Total irrigation deliveries to the farms will












WATER


Table 12

FUTURE RIVER DIVERSIONS IN THE INDUS
PLAINS


Million Acre-Feet per year
1975 Ultimate


River Rabi
NORTHERN ZONE
Jhelum 13.1
Chenab 5.3
Ravi 0
Sutlej 0
Panjnad 0
Indus 6.8

Subtotal 25.2
SOUTHERN ZONE
Indus 7.7
Total
Diversions 32.9
Net River.
Losses 3.9
Contigency to
Arabian Sea 9.5
Total Surface-
Water Supply 46.3


Kharif Annual


6.2
17.4
0
0
0
12.2

35.8


19.3
22.7
0
0
0
19.0

61.0


Rabi Kharif Annual


11.0
15.6
0
0
0
24.5

51.1


20.4
21.9
0
0
0
31.4

73.7


23.4 31.1 12.4 34.2 46.6

59.2 92.1 35.0 85.3 120.3


6.1 10.0

28.4 37.9

93.7 140.0


2.6 7.1 9.7

1.0 7.0 8.0

38.6 99.4 138.0


be about 80 MAF, or 1.5 times the amount now used.
Of the increase in farm deliveries by 1975, about 4
MAF will come from additional surface water and 22

MAF from ground water. The 1975 and ultimate dis-

tributions of water in the Indue Plains are projected
as shown in Table 13.

The Water Supply by 1975

By 1975, the unregulated river flows available for
diversion to the Indus Plains will be augmented by
storage releases from Mangla and Tarbela reservoirs,

and by the pumping of ground water. At present,

irrigation is dependent entirely upon diversion of un-

regulated river flows.

Operation of the canal systems will become more
complex as the use of tubewell water increases and as
storage reservoirs come into use. Procedures in use

for operation of the canal systems, which have evolved

over many years, will have to be modified to suit the


Table 13

FUTURE WATER BALANCE IN THE INDUS PLAINS
IN AN AVERAGE YEAR

Million Aere-Feet per year
River Balance 1975 Ultimate
Total Surface-Water Supply 140.0 138.0(1)
Net percolation to ground water -3.1 -5.2
Other losses -11.9 -8.5
Inflow from drainage pumping 5.0 4.0
Flow to Arabian Sea -37.9 -8.0
Total Surface-Water Diversion 92.1 120.3
Canal Balance (including Link Canals and
Water Courses)
Total Surface-Water Diversion 92.1 120.3
Pumped from ground water 26.9 40.0
Evaporation losses -10.2 -13.4
Percolation to ground water -28.6 -37.2
Total Farm Delivery 80.2 109.7
Farm Irrigation Balance
Total Farm Delivery 80.2 109.7
Surface losses -8.0 -11.0
Percolation to ground water -12.0 -16.4
Net Crop Use 60.2 82.3
Ground-Water Balance
Percolation from rivers 3.1 5.2
Percolation from canals 28.6 37.2
Percolation from farms 12.0 16.4
Percolation from rainfall 2.5 3.4
Total Inflow to Ground 46.2 62.2
Pumped to irrigation use -26.9 -40.0
Pumped for drainage to river -5.0 -4.0

Evaporation, Transpiration, and Storage 14.3 18.2

(1) With agreed future uses outside West Pakistan.

changed water-supply conditions as well as to improve
efficiency of water service.

A contingency allowance must be included in the es-
timated water-supply requirements to insure the irrigators
against water shortages caused by (1) imperfect coordina-

tion of several water sources and (2) unexpected increases

in needs or conveuance losses. In many respects, such a
contingency is analagous to the inclusion of an item for
for contingencies in a detailed estimate for the construc-
tion cost for a major structure. In river and irrigation
system operations this contingency may be applied as a

scheduled margin of flow to be available in excess of
computed requirements. An average allowance of six











Evaporation


Evaporation


SOUTHERN ZONE


Canals


To Sea


RIVER INPUT
140.0 million acre-
feet


68.9


73.9


NORTHERN ZONE


Figure 20

POTENTIAL WATER BALANCE

IN THE INDUS PLAINS

BY 1975


ARABIAN SEA











WATER


million acre-feet annnuallyis proposed for this purpose in
1975. This represents about ten percent of the irrigation
requirements at the heads of the water courses (where
ground-water supplies will enter the canal system) during
the low-flow season. Only about two million acre-feet
will be available for this purpose during a critical dry
season such as 1939-40.

Irrigation supplies during the wet season will bo
obtained primarily by diversions from natural river flows.
Surplus flows through 1975 will ordinarily be available
to supply any contingency margin needed, or unused
tubewell capacity can be utilized to avoid shortages which
might occur otherwise.

By 1975, the Mangla and Tarbela reservoirs, as now
planned, will add 16.4 MAF to the dry-season river flow.
In addition, pumping of ground-water recharge could

Table 14

1975 WATER SUPPLY-CRITICAL DRY SEASON

(October through May)
Unregulated River Flow MAF
Total inflow 37.2
Drainage return from Northern Zone 0.5
Losses -4.5
Flow to Arabian Sea 0
Available for diversion 33.2


Contribution from Storage
Mangla
Tarbela
Losses in river channels
Available for diversion
Total Surface-Water Supply
Available for diversion
Canal losses
Water course losses
Available for farm delivery
Ground-Water Supply
Usable recharge
Water courses losses
Available for farm delivery
Total Supply Available to Farms
Total Farm Requirement
Contingency


7.4
9.0
-1.6
14.8

48.0
-15.9
- 3.2
28.9

22.1
-2.2
19.9
48.8
46.9
1.9


add 26.9 MAF of usable water at the heads of the
water courses. The total 1975 supply of irrigation water
to the Indus Plains during a critical dry season from
October through May is shown in Table 14.

By 1975, critical dry-season supplies will balance the
farm requirements with a small margin.

The values in Table 14 are for a year of low river
flow. In an average year the unregulated inflow would
be about seven MAF greater. Even in this case, the
surface-water reservoirs will be needed to redistribute
the unregulated flows to conform to irrigation demands.

The Salt Balance

The waters of the Indus River system are relatively
free of salts, averaging about 250 parts per million.
Past irrigation practices in the Indus Plains, however,
have tended to accumulate this salt in the root
zone of the soil. Inadequate irrigation applications
and lack of subsurface drainage have allowed soil mois-
ture to be evaporated from the land, thus leaving
behind a high concentration of salt. In some areas,
part of this accumulated salt must be removed before
the lands can again become productive.

The Indus Plains receive annually some 84 MAF
of water with an average salt content of 250 ppm. Of
this, 54 MAF are delivered to the farms. Thus, about
37,000 million pounds of salt are added to the irrigated
soils each year. This represents about 1,500 pounds of
salts on a typical acre. Only a small percentage of the
irrigated area receives sufficient irrigation water to leach
out these salts. In time, the soil becomes unproductive.

Modern irrigation practices require a supply of water
in excess of minimal crop requirements to flush accumu-
lating salts down below the root zone. Drainage must
be provided to remove this leaching water so that at











WATER


least as much salt is removed from the soil as is added.
This drainage will be accomplished in West Pakistan by
the tubewells and drains of the reclamation program.
Some waste water will be returned immediately to the
rivers, but not in such quantities as will cause extreme
salt concentration in irrigation water at the downstream
barrages. The remainder will be impounded and dis-


posed of by surface evaporation or discharge to the
rivers in times of flood, when adequate dilution water is
available. Disposal of saline water by evaporation
may be accomplished in numerous small ponds created
in unproductive areas. This method of disposal would
minimize expenditures for systems of collector drains.






I.


4


SQUETTA


Kalat


SUI GAS
FIELD


Figure 21


The Electric Power Systems


Note:
Interconnection of Southern
Zone and Karachi systems
planned by 1968


LEGEND

River hydro plants
Canal hydro plants
Thermal plants

Main grid zones


In 1975
Existing Progrom

A A
A _

I-n


50 0 50 100
Scale in Miles


.--


A raDbian


Sea





















' .- ..


THE POWER NEEDS

A rapid increase in electric-power service must ac-
company the agricultural and industrial development.
Other countries in a comparable stage have had to
double their electric power supply every five to seven
years. West Pakistan must be prepared to meet similar
growth in the power needs of the industrial, commer-
cial, and residential sectors of the urban communities.
In addition, tubewells constructed under the reclama-
tion program will add substantially to the power
demand.

Through 1975, West Pakistan will have one major
interconnected power grid in the Northern Zone, includ-
ing the Civil Divisions of Bahawalpur, Dera Ismail
Khan, Lahore, Multan, Peshawar, Rawalpindi, and
Sargodha. A second, and considerably smaller, power
grid in the Southern Zone includes the Divisions of
Khairpur and Hyderabad. The locations of these grid
zones are shown on Figure 21. In addition, other isola-
ted systems exist in the Divisions of Quetta and Kalat.
WAPDA provides the generation, transmission, and
distribution facilities in all of these areas. The Karachi
Division is outside of WAPDA's responsibility.


As part of the power market surveys conducted by
WAPDA, detailed studies have been made of the future
needs through 1967. Extensions have been made of
the urban loads from 1967 to 1975 on the basis of the
preceding annual trends. The projected demands for
total power generation through 1975 are shown in Table
15. Estimates are given for the Northern Zone for estimat-
ed requirements in April (when the capability of hydro-
electric plants will be least) and in December, when the
hydro-electric plant capabilities will be at the minimum
value which might coincide with the annual peak load
Figure 22

E COMPARISON OF ENERGY USE
a-

a
S200
o WAPDA System
5. 1962-1975 projection-
o 150


a- 00

0
I 50


o 0
2 0 5 10 15
Ye or





















' .- ..


THE POWER NEEDS

A rapid increase in electric-power service must ac-
company the agricultural and industrial development.
Other countries in a comparable stage have had to
double their electric power supply every five to seven
years. West Pakistan must be prepared to meet similar
growth in the power needs of the industrial, commer-
cial, and residential sectors of the urban communities.
In addition, tubewells constructed under the reclama-
tion program will add substantially to the power
demand.

Through 1975, West Pakistan will have one major
interconnected power grid in the Northern Zone, includ-
ing the Civil Divisions of Bahawalpur, Dera Ismail
Khan, Lahore, Multan, Peshawar, Rawalpindi, and
Sargodha. A second, and considerably smaller, power
grid in the Southern Zone includes the Divisions of
Khairpur and Hyderabad. The locations of these grid
zones are shown on Figure 21. In addition, other isola-
ted systems exist in the Divisions of Quetta and Kalat.
WAPDA provides the generation, transmission, and
distribution facilities in all of these areas. The Karachi
Division is outside of WAPDA's responsibility.


As part of the power market surveys conducted by
WAPDA, detailed studies have been made of the future
needs through 1967. Extensions have been made of
the urban loads from 1967 to 1975 on the basis of the
preceding annual trends. The projected demands for
total power generation through 1975 are shown in Table
15. Estimates are given for the Northern Zone for estimat-
ed requirements in April (when the capability of hydro-
electric plants will be least) and in December, when the
hydro-electric plant capabilities will be at the minimum
value which might coincide with the annual peak load
Figure 22

E COMPARISON OF ENERGY USE
a-

a
S200
o WAPDA System
5. 1962-1975 projection-
o 150


a- 00

0
I 50


o 0
2 0 5 10 15
Ye or









POWER


Table 15

ANNUAL PEAK POWER DEMANDS IN MAIN GRID ZONES
Megawatts


Northern Zone


April

Basic Tube-
Load wells


301
359
418
478
537
597
661
731
802
877
957
1,042


August-December
Basic Tube-
Total Load wells Total

253 325
328 358 42 400
405 417 51 468
474 477 76 553
561 536 106 642
653 596 140 736
750 660 176 836
853 730 214 944
964 800 254 1054
1,079 875 294 1169
1,198 955 320 1275
1,306 1040 339 1379
1,412 1130 354 1484


Southern Zone

August-December

Basic Tube.


Load

19
39
65
76
85
98
109
120
132
143
153
164
176


wells Total


on the system. Recent experience indicates that the
date for the annual system peak load in the Northern
Zone has shifted from December to September or August.
This is influenced by the increased use of air-conditioning.
The difference between the estimated peak in August or
September and the December requirement will be less
than the reduction in the hydro-electric capability from
September to December caused by seasonal lowering of
the reservoirs.

The Northern Grid Zone presently serves a region of
about 33 million inhabitants. Per-capita demand,
including both urban and rural population, is only
eight watts. Corresponding annual energy consumption
amounts to about 37 killowatt-hours per person. By
1975, the population of the region served will
have increased by about 80 per cent. In this same
period, power and energy uses per capital, not includ-
ing tubewell use, are expected to reach 22 watts and 130


kilowatt-hours per year, or about three times present
values. As shown on Figure 22, this projected rate of
increase is no greater than that which has been experien-
ced in other countries.

POWER POTENTIALS

The potentials for hydro-electric generation and the
natural-gas supplies for thermal generation far exceed the
electric power needs of West Pakistan through 1975.

Hydro-electric Generation

At Mangla, three generating units of 100,000 kilowatts
each are included in the initial project, with two units to
start generation in 1968. Seven more units will be ad-
ded as needed.

A total of twelve generating units, each of 175,000
kilowatts, is planned for the Tarbela Storage Project on
the Indus River. The first of these units could be
put in service during 1973 if needed.


Year

1963
1964
1965
1966
1967
1968
1969
1970
1971
1972
1973
1974
1975











POWER


The Gomal Zam multipurpose project is included
in the water development program for completion in
1971. Three generating units of 43,000 kilowatts each
are planned for this project.
The only other major hydro-electric development
which has had extensive study is the future
600,000-kilowatt Kunhar Project in the Jhelum River
basin upstream of Mangla.
A potential of as much as 30 million kilowatts exists
at other sites on the Indus River and its principal tribu-
taries. These sites have not yet been fully explored
and could not be developed prior to 1975. Furthermore,
there will be ample power available by 1975 from Mangla,
Gomal, and Tarbela, without need for the Kunhar Pro-
ject or for the less definite Indus River projects.

Thermal-Electric Generation
The principal natural-gas deposits of West Pakistan
are near Sui, on the Northern edge of the Sind. Total
reserves here are estimated to be five million million
cubic feet. This gas has a satisfactory heat rate of 935
BTU per cubic foot but requires some processing to re-
move impurities.

Gas is now conveyed south to Karachi and north to
Multan through 16-inch pipelines. A 16-inch extension
to Lyallpur and a 10-inch line to Lahore are planned,
which will ensure an adequate supply of gas for the
thermal plants scheduled through 1975. Gas deposits
have been discovered at Marri, near Kashmore, which
could also be used for power generation. Reserves in
the Marri field are estimated at three million million
cubic feet.
Some isolated systems, such as Quetta, are outside
the gas delivery area and must be served by plants burn-
ing coal or oil.

THE POWER SUPPLY

A program through 1975 has been prepared for the


generation and transmission of bulk power in the major
systems of the Northern and Southern Zones. Al-
though detailed plans are not yet developed for distri-
bution to urban, industrial, and rural consumers, these
needs have been recognized in the over-all investment
program. The smaller, isolated systems are important
locally but have little effect on total capital requirements.

Power for the Northern Zone

By 1975, a total of about 50 million inhabitants will
require a total of 2.2 million kilowatts of electric-
power installation, plus the necessary transmission and
distribution facilities.

Generation. In 1960 the Warsak hydro-electric plant
was inaugurated on the Kabul River, with 160,000
kilowatts of installed capacity and with provisions for an
ultimate installation of 240,000 kilowatts. The pondage
available for power generation is limited, and is adequate
for only daily fluctuations required for generation at the
time of peak power load. However, the plant discharges
serve a series of important irrigation diversions, and no
reregulation pondage has been constructed. As a result,
the Warsak plant is restricted to an output of 100,000
kilowatts during months of critical power demands.

Until the Mangla hydro-electric units begin operation
in 1968, the Northern Zone must depend upon thermal
generation to meet the increasing system load. No new
major hydro-electric plants could be placed in service
earlier than Mangla. Extension of the Warsak plant is
possible by 1967, and has been recommended to meet
the deficiency in capacity in that year, but the local
problems of associated irrigation changes may delay
the installation. Figure 23 shows the projected relation-
ship between power demand and supply in the Northern
Zone.

The dependable capability of the connected system in











POWER


Table 16

GENERATION IN THE NORTHERN ZONE


Incremental Plant Capacity-MW
Peaking


Year Installed

Existing (All)
Existing (All)


Plant Type

Hydro
Thermal


1962 Total Generation
1963 Multan 3 & 4
1965 Lahore 1, 2, 3 & 4
1966 Lyallpur 1 & 2
1967 Warsak
Warsak 5 & 6
1968 Mangla 1 & 2
1969 Mangla 3
1971 Mangla 4
Gomal 1, 2 & 3
1972 Mangla 5
Retirements
1973 Mangla
Mangla 6
1974 Tarbela 1
1975 Tarbela 2

Total Hydro
Total Thermal
1975 Total Generation


Steam
Gas Turbine
Steam
Reregulating
Hydro
Hydro
Hydro
Hydro
Hydro
Hydro
Thermal
Raising
Hydro
Hydro
Hydro


Rated


267.8
164.7

432.5
125.0
72.0
130.0

80.0
200.0
100.0
100.0
129.0
100.0
(22.0)

100.0
175.0
175.0

1,426.8
469.7
1,896.5


April

155.0
159.0

314.0
130.0
72.0
130.0
60.0
80.0
104.0
52.0
52.0
100.0
52.0
(16.0)
155.0
83.0
86.0
86.0

1,065.0
475.0
1,540.0


December

155.0
159.0

314.0
130.0
72.0
130.0
60.0
80.0
200.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
(16,0)

100.0
146.0
146.0

1,287.0
475.0
1,762.0


Total Dependable
Peaking Capability
April December


249
249
379
451

581
825
877

1,029

1,065

1,285
1,368
1,454



1,454


249
379
451
581

721
886
986

1,186

1,270

1,370
1,470
1,616



1,616


the Northern Zone at the end of 1963 was 379,000 kilo-
watts, compared with an installed capacity of 558,000
kilowatts. All of the existing hydro-electric plants are
influenced by irrigation requirements and cannot
produce full output at the time of the annual peak load
because of limitations imposed as fluctuations in river
flows and requirements of other water uses. The older
thermal units have limited output because of age or other
restrictions.

A summary is given in Table 16 of existing and pro-
posed generating plants of the Northern Zone grid through


1975. Also shown are the total dependable capabilities of
the system in both April and December, with the largest
unit of the system out of service. The schedule for
installations of units has been selected so that the depend-
able capability will equal or exceed the projected power
demands of the grid zone as shown in Table 15.

Through 1967 the Northern Zone will be supplied
primarily with thermal-generated power and energy.
The introduction of the Mangla power plant in 1968 and
the Tarbela power plant at a later date will continually
increase the proportions of hydro-electric generation.









POWER


Transmission. The Northern Zone transmission sys-
tem is presently dependent upon a double-circuit 132-kv
loop circling from Warsak through Rawalpindi, Lahore,
Lyallpur, and Daud Khel. The major steam plant, at
Multan, is connected to this loop at Lyallpur over a
single-circuit, 220-kv line. Subtransmission is at 132, 66,
33 and 11 kv. The Mangla and Tarbela power plants will
also be connected to the grid by multiple-circuit, 220-
kv lines-the Tarbela plant to Lyallpur, and the Mangla
plant to Lyallpur and Lahore. Extensions to serve
the perimeter areas of the Northern Zone will be at 132
kv, and sub-transmission service will be expanded at


Megawatts


1,500



Jpoo


500



Million
Kilowati
Hours

8,000


sooo

4,000


2,0 00
2,000o -


I


U


t


66, 33, and 11 kv to new towns and to the substations
serving the reclamation tubewells.

Distribution. Both urban and rural distribution sys-
tems must be extended and augmented to deliver power
to new areas and to meet the increased demands of pre-
sent customers.

In the rural areas of the Indus Plains, an extensive
distribution system at 33 and 11 kv will be required to
serve the tubewells. Many smaller towns and villages,
otherwise too remote for an economical power supply,
can be served from the tubewell power system.


Figure 23

POWER SUPPLY TO THE NORTHERN GRID ZONE


WAPDA Rated Capacity
WAPDA Dependable Peaking Capability (1)-

POWER DEMAND AND
SUPPLY


-K--


V ,Projected Demand
HYDRO-ELECTRIC PLANTS


.4- .4 4 4 .4.


ENERGY NEEDS AND
AVERAGE SUPPLY


r


1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969


1963 1964 1965, 1966 1967 1968 1969
(I)Copability with largest unit out of service


HYDRO


I LECTI
- ELECTRIC
i I


ENERGY
I


I I I f


1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975


+ 4





nol


r7l


1!1 1 11












Within the urban areas a very sizable program of
distribution expansion is required, including substa-
tions, feeders, individual service connections, and meter-
ing. Within the cities and towns, WAPDA is taking
steps to make adequate service available to all custom-
ers.
Power for the Southern Zone

The Southern Zone is served entirely from thermal-
electric plants. By the end of 1963 these plants had a
combined dependable capability of 29,000 kilowatts,
compared with a total nameplate rating of 44,400 kilo-


POWER SUPPLY TO T


watts. Future increases in power needs of this system
will be met by new thermal plants according to Ihe
schedule shown in Table 17 and on Figure 24.

The interconnection with Karachi is desirable as early
as 1965, since scheduled installations in the Sind and
Karachi would permit a saving in both systems because
of diversity in loads and through joint use of reserves.
However, if the interconnection is not accomplished by
1968, as assumed herein, the Southern Zone of the
WAPDA system will need one additional steam unit
of 66,000 kilowatts.


Figure 24
HE SOUTHERN GRID


Megowatts
POWER DEMAND AND
SUPPLY


Million
Kilowatt-


WAPDA Dependable
Peaking Capability (I)
H -- I-


WAPDA
//"


Rated

1


ours 4 I i i (


1,000


ENERGY NEEDS AND
AVERAGE SUPPLY


Capacity
I


ZONE


i I


1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975
(I) Capability with largest unit out of service


POWER


Megawatts

l I I I
POWER DEMAND AND
SUPPLY


i I


It











PWE.t


Table 17
GENERATION IN THE SOUTHERN ZONE


Total
Dependable
Incremental Plant Peaking
Capacity-MW Capability


Plant and Unit
(All)
Hyderabad 3
Sukkur 1 & 2
Hyderabad 4
Sukknr 3 & 4
Moro 1
Interconnection with
Karachi
Moro 2
Retirement-
Moro 3
Total Generation
Interconnection


Rated
33.4
8.0
25.0
15.0
25.0
66.0

66.0
(11.0)
66.0

293.4


Peaking
29.4
8.0
25.0
15.0
25.0
66.0

66.0
(8.0)
66.0

292.4
66.0

358.4


The interconnected transmission system of the
Southern Zone is presently very limited. However, by


1967 a 132-kv line is planned to extend southward from
Sukkur through Moro and Hyderabad to Dabeji. Adja-
cent towns and tubewell substations will be served by
subtransmission lines of 66 and 33 kv.

Power for the Isolated Systems

The isolated systems of the Divisions of Quetta and
Kalat and other areas outside of the Northern and
Southern grids represent a very small proportion of the
total power demands to be served by WAPDA. Power
market surveys have been made of these areas only up
to 1967.


Generating plants for these isolated areas must be
adapted to the power needs of the locality and to the
available fuel supply. These include both hydro-electric
and thermal plants. Specific plans for generation, trans-
mission and distribution for these regions are being form-
ulated by WAPDA.


Year
Installed
Existing
1963
1964
1965
1966
1967
1968
1970
1970
1973

1975














SN A :
.:.:i -


ENGINEERING

Execution of the program will require coordination
between elements of development and proper planning,
design, and supervision of each individual project.
For this, a large number of engineers and other pro-
fessional specialists will be needed to give technical
guidance to the program.

WAPDA has presently on its own staff several hun-
dred engineers and technicians. In addition, WAPDA
is making extensive use of foreign consultants, who now
have about 200 foreign and many Pakistani engineers
engaged in Pakistan. Further and substantial support
is given by the home offices of the foreign consultants.
In the next two or three years, as the development pro-
gram gains momentum, the number of engineers and
specialists may rise to twice the number now em-
ployed.

Planning

Three levels of resource planning are now being car-
ried forward by WAPDA:


A Master Plan is in preparation which will contain a
comprehensive inventory of available resources; forecasts
of future needs; plans for integrated development to make
optimum use of resources in conformity with needs; and
projections of the capital requirements of the develop-
ment programs. The program for 1975 presented herein
is based on studies so far available, and represents the
initial phase of the master plan. Development of the plan
itself is scheduled for completion by 1968. By the end of
1965, projects in the development program which should
be implemented by 1990 will have been defined.


Regional Planning is also under way for the reclama-
tion programs of the Indus Plains. In both the Northern
and Southern Zones, consultants are studying the regional
problems of drainage and water use. To approach these
problems on a piecemeal, or individual-project, basis
could result in solutions satisfactory to one small area but
detrimental to adjacent areas.

Detailed Project Planning is now being or will be
carried out for each individual project, either by the














SN A :
.:.:i -


ENGINEERING

Execution of the program will require coordination
between elements of development and proper planning,
design, and supervision of each individual project.
For this, a large number of engineers and other pro-
fessional specialists will be needed to give technical
guidance to the program.

WAPDA has presently on its own staff several hun-
dred engineers and technicians. In addition, WAPDA
is making extensive use of foreign consultants, who now
have about 200 foreign and many Pakistani engineers
engaged in Pakistan. Further and substantial support
is given by the home offices of the foreign consultants.
In the next two or three years, as the development pro-
gram gains momentum, the number of engineers and
specialists may rise to twice the number now em-
ployed.

Planning

Three levels of resource planning are now being car-
ried forward by WAPDA:


A Master Plan is in preparation which will contain a
comprehensive inventory of available resources; forecasts
of future needs; plans for integrated development to make
optimum use of resources in conformity with needs; and
projections of the capital requirements of the develop-
ment programs. The program for 1975 presented herein
is based on studies so far available, and represents the
initial phase of the master plan. Development of the plan
itself is scheduled for completion by 1968. By the end of
1965, projects in the development program which should
be implemented by 1990 will have been defined.


Regional Planning is also under way for the reclama-
tion programs of the Indus Plains. In both the Northern
and Southern Zones, consultants are studying the regional
problems of drainage and water use. To approach these
problems on a piecemeal, or individual-project, basis
could result in solutions satisfactory to one small area but
detrimental to adjacent areas.

Detailed Project Planning is now being or will be
carried out for each individual project, either by the










IMPLEMENTATION


WAPDA staff or by assignment to a consultant. This
detailed planning is aimed at the definition of project
structures, estimates of costs and benefits, and the deter-
mination of economic justification. Final inclusion in, or
exclusion of a project from, the construction program
will depend largely on the results of detailed planning.

Design and Supervision

Engineering designs, specifications for construction,
and detailed drawings are prepared by the WAPDA
staff or by the appointed consultant for each individual
project. In some cases, this work is done largely out-
side of Pakistan in the consultant's home offices. Designs
and specifications are reviewed by WAPDA's staff and
general consultant for adequacy and conformity to
Pakistan conditions.

Supervision of construction is carried out by surveil-
lance teams of WAPDA and the project consultants.
For most projects the consultant provides the resident
engineers, who are responsible for the technical inspec-
tion of the works. Administration and accounts are under
WAPDA's project director. Inspection forces are made
up of both Pakistani and foreign engineers.

CONSTRUCTION

To attain the 1975 development, West Pakistan must
carry out a widespread and costly construction program.
For surface-water development, including the IBP, this
entails the building of 390 canal miles of link canals and
the remodelling of several hundred miles of existing
canals. Four new barrages and a major siphon must
be constructed and two existing headworks improved.
This period will also see the completion of Mangla and
Tarbela Dams to the ultimate capacities now envisioned.

By 1975 the reclamation works will require more than
30,000 new tubewells, totaling nine million feet of drill-


ing, and 6,000 canal miles of surface drains.

To meet anticipated industrial, commercial, residen-
tial, and tubewell power demands, 1.2 million kilowatts
of hydro-electric capacity plus more than 0.5 million
kilowatts of thermal capacity will have been added to the
present generating systems.

In addition numerous smaller multipurpose projects
are to be built, involving dams, dikes, canals, and regula-
tory works.

Preliminary estimates have been made of the man-
power and material needs of the total construction
program. About 50,000 skilled and 30,000 unskilled
workers are expected to be employed during peak periods.
Large quantities of equipment, supplies, and fuel will
have to pass through West Pakistan's ports and over the
transportation system in addition to normal traffic.
Cement, crushed rock, and other locally produced mate-
rials must be processed and also transported internally.

With each passing year, the dependence on foreign
technicians and imported materials will give way to the
newly developing skills and resources of Pakistan which
this program will foster. Expansion and more efficient
use of basic utilities and training of workers demanded
by the immediate needs of the programs will be of
benefit to the long-range progress of the Province and
the Nation.

ADMINISTRATION OF THE PROGRAM

Effective organization and management are also
needed to administer the engineering, construction, and
fiscal aspects of the program. WAPDA, as an autono-
mous public corporation, has sufficient independence to
provide efficient administration.

Policy of WAPDA is set by its Chairman and the two
other Members of the Authority, within the statutory










IMPLEMENTATION


WAPDA staff or by assignment to a consultant. This
detailed planning is aimed at the definition of project
structures, estimates of costs and benefits, and the deter-
mination of economic justification. Final inclusion in, or
exclusion of a project from, the construction program
will depend largely on the results of detailed planning.

Design and Supervision

Engineering designs, specifications for construction,
and detailed drawings are prepared by the WAPDA
staff or by the appointed consultant for each individual
project. In some cases, this work is done largely out-
side of Pakistan in the consultant's home offices. Designs
and specifications are reviewed by WAPDA's staff and
general consultant for adequacy and conformity to
Pakistan conditions.

Supervision of construction is carried out by surveil-
lance teams of WAPDA and the project consultants.
For most projects the consultant provides the resident
engineers, who are responsible for the technical inspec-
tion of the works. Administration and accounts are under
WAPDA's project director. Inspection forces are made
up of both Pakistani and foreign engineers.

CONSTRUCTION

To attain the 1975 development, West Pakistan must
carry out a widespread and costly construction program.
For surface-water development, including the IBP, this
entails the building of 390 canal miles of link canals and
the remodelling of several hundred miles of existing
canals. Four new barrages and a major siphon must
be constructed and two existing headworks improved.
This period will also see the completion of Mangla and
Tarbela Dams to the ultimate capacities now envisioned.

By 1975 the reclamation works will require more than
30,000 new tubewells, totaling nine million feet of drill-


ing, and 6,000 canal miles of surface drains.

To meet anticipated industrial, commercial, residen-
tial, and tubewell power demands, 1.2 million kilowatts
of hydro-electric capacity plus more than 0.5 million
kilowatts of thermal capacity will have been added to the
present generating systems.

In addition numerous smaller multipurpose projects
are to be built, involving dams, dikes, canals, and regula-
tory works.

Preliminary estimates have been made of the man-
power and material needs of the total construction
program. About 50,000 skilled and 30,000 unskilled
workers are expected to be employed during peak periods.
Large quantities of equipment, supplies, and fuel will
have to pass through West Pakistan's ports and over the
transportation system in addition to normal traffic.
Cement, crushed rock, and other locally produced mate-
rials must be processed and also transported internally.

With each passing year, the dependence on foreign
technicians and imported materials will give way to the
newly developing skills and resources of Pakistan which
this program will foster. Expansion and more efficient
use of basic utilities and training of workers demanded
by the immediate needs of the programs will be of
benefit to the long-range progress of the Province and
the Nation.

ADMINISTRATION OF THE PROGRAM

Effective organization and management are also
needed to administer the engineering, construction, and
fiscal aspects of the program. WAPDA, as an autono-
mous public corporation, has sufficient independence to
provide efficient administration.

Policy of WAPDA is set by its Chairman and the two
other Members of the Authority, within the statutory










IMPLEMENTATION


limits of the enabling act. Execution of policy is carried
out by two principal wings-one for power and one for
water. The WAPDA organization is illustrated in
Figure 25.

The Power Wing

The Power Wing already has both development and
operational responsibilities. This wing must plan and
construct new generation, transmission, and distribution
facilities in the areas served by WAPDA. The only
exception is the construction of hydro-electric plants
at dams having irrigation or flood control as principal
functions. The Power Wing is in complete charge
of the operation of all generating plants and of power
service to the ultimate consumers. As an integrated
electrical utility system, the Power Wing must provide


connections to new customers, promote electrical use,
establish rates, and collect revenue. To date, the
tariffs charged have not.been subject to review by any
other regulatory bodies.


The Water Wing

Thus far the Water Wing has been mainly concerned
with planning and construction. Even so, the multi-
tude of its responsibilities and the size of the water and
reclamation program have taxed its administrative
capabilities. It is presently divided into four major
divisions: the Indus Basin Project; Ground Water and
Reclamation; Water and Soils Investigation; and
Development and Coordination. Close collaboration is
carried on between these divisions.


Figure 25


THE' ORGANIZATION OF WAPDA










IMPLEMENTATION


Personnel requirements of the Water Wing will
increase materially as the program proceeds. Planning
and review staffs will be faced with increased workloads
as the regional and project consultants complete their
studies. Also, if WAPDA is to participate in the opera-
tion of completed water developments, personnel must
be hired or trained, procedures established, and tlhe
necessary operating departments created.

OPERATION

The irrigation system of the Indus Plains is not only
the largest integrated system in the world, but will
become the most complex as well. Surface-water
operations will be more complicated with completion of
the Settlement Plan Works, including link canals and
reservoirs. Ground-water operations must be integrat-
ed and coordinated with suface-water operations to
provide: (1) the needed irrigation water, (2) suitable
water-table levels, (3) minimum pumping costs, (4) local
and regional salt control, (5) efficient use of reservoir
capacity both above ground and below ground, (6) opti-
mum hydro-electric output, (7) control of floods and (8)
for other purposes. The problems and needs for coordi-
nation will grow with time as the development program
is accomplished. Efficient water management is essen-
tial to the achievement of the required agricultural and
power production.
Releases of stored water from reservoirs must sup-
plement natural river flows to meet needs for diversions
for irrigation use and must be integrated with tubewell
supplies in reclaimed areas. Local vagaries of the
weather-temperature, humidity, wind and rainfall-
influence crop requirements and conveyance losses,
and thus will require variations in reservoir re-
leases and tubewell operations. Water-table levels
must be controlled and a balance maintained between


salt input and salt output in small local areas as well as
in large regions. Irrigation requirements will vary
locally due to the crops grown, the stage of growth of
those crops, the soil characteristics, the quality of the
water applied, and weather conditions. Conveyance
losses in the river channels, link canals and other canals
will vary with changes in rates of flow, fluctuations in
adjacent ground-water levels, and weather conditions.
The time for changes in outflows from the reservoirs to
be effective at diversion points several hundred miles
away-10 to 15 days in some cases-must be allowed
for in the water-control operations.

Plans for coping with these complexities must be pre-
pared in advance of actual need, in order that the new
improvements may be integrated smoothly into the
established systems. These will include criteria and
technical procedures for determination of short and long-
term requirements for irrigation-water applications for
crop growth and salinity control, integrated use of sur-
face and underground reservoirs, control of tubewell
operations, water-quality control, control of ground-
water levels, and proper use of contingency allowances
in water dispatching to avoid irrigation-water shortages
which could result from unpredictable weather changes,
gaging errors, and other factors.

An efficient communication network throughout the
Indus Plains will be required to transmit data on river
and canal flows, ground-water levels, and weather con-
ditions to central offices for analysis, and for transmitting
operating instructions.

Many of the computations and analyses will be so
complex, and must be completed so rapidly, that the use
of electronic computers will be essential. These modern
tools will be needed when the link canals and storage
reservoirs of the Indus Basin begin operation.










IMPLEMENTATION


Undoubtedly, organizational changes will be required,
in addition to the changes in technical data and proced-
ures, to cope efficiently with the operational requirements
of the more complex water and power systems. Thought
must be given soon to the framework under which these
changes will be affected.

INVESTMENT IN THE PROGRAM

The cumulative administrative, engineering, and
construction costs of the program from 1964 through
1975 are estimated to total Rs. 12,757 million, exclusive
of the IBP. The annual distribution of these costs is
shown in Table 18 and on Figure 26. Any financing ex-
penses which may be incurred will be additional to the
amounts shown.

Approximately 45 percent of the amounts shown in
Table 18 will be for imported goods and services, or a
total through 1975 of Rs. 5,740 million. This estimate
reflects an expected reduction is foreign-exchange com-
ponents of the various development costs as the indus-
trial capacity of Pakistan increases.


Figure 26


COSTS OF THE PROGRAM

(Excluding the Indus Basin
Million of Rupees


1963-1975

Projects)


\IELOPMENT FOT


'Table 18
ANNUAL COSTS OF THE PROGRAM EXCLUDING THE INDUS BASIN PROJECT


Millions of Rupees
Reclamation
Planning Tubewells Canal Raising Mangla
and Mapping and Drains Remodelling and Tarbela
47 150 0 5
92 220 10 10
94 400 50 2
80 440 55 13
45 500 60 12
36 500 60 12
36 500 60 12
36 420 65 96
36 420 65 209
36 420 65 177
36 410 60 259
36 330 55 147

610 4,710 605 954
(5) (37) (5) (7)


Electric
Power
314
372
415
400
352
342
338
354
370
352
337
321

4,267
(34)


Other
Projects
41
59
84
112
132
142
171
165
165
180
180
180

1,611
(12)


Fiscal
Year
1963-1964
1964--165
1965-1966
1966-1967
1967-1968
1968-1969
1969-1970
1970-1971
1971-1972
1972-1973
1973-1974
1974-1975

Total
(% of total)


Total
557
763
1,045
1,100
1,101
1,092
1,117
1,136
1,265
1,230
1,282
1,069

12,757
(100)










IMPL0eMENTATI ON


Table 19

ESTIMATED COSTS OF THE INDUS BASIN PROJECT

Millions of Rupees
Feature Cost
Mangla Reservoir and Power Plant 2,576
Tarbela Reservoir 2,629
Barrages 1,018
Link Canals 1,728
Tubewells and Drainage 238
Remodelling of Existing Works 351
Total 8,540

The cost of the IBP is now estimated at Rs. 8,540
million, as shown in Table 19. That figure includes
about Rs. 167 million in taxes and duties which would
normally be levied on the contractors and suppliers for
the Project. Interest during construction on the longterm
loans is not included in the estimated costs in Table 19.

Approximately Rs. 5,750 million have been pledged
by the contributors to the Indus Basin Development
Fund. Monies from the Fund include some outright
grants and some long-term loans.

ECONOMIC RETURNS


The Indus Basin Project


The large investment in the IBP has been made
necessary by events over which Pakistan has no control.
As an essential replacement project, the IBP as a whole
is not amenable to economic evaluation.

Reclamation and Canal Remodelling

The large increase in agricultural production through
1975 will be most directly achieved by the reclamation
and canal remodelling programs of the Indus Plains.

By 1975 the total food supply in West Pakistan can
be increased by 13 million tons annually, most of which
will come from the reclaimed lands of the Indus Plains.
Some of this increase will result from greater crop yields
per acre and the remainder from more intensive use of
land. Part of the increase in yields will result from


improved farming practices, fertilizer, seed, pesticides,
ctc. How-ever, the reclamation and canal programs are
indispensable to the increased production.

At today's prices, the 1975 annual crop production
alone would be worth about Rs. 9,100 million, or Rs.
5,100 million more than the present value. This is
illustrated by Figure 27. The direct farm costs to
achieve the increased production, excluding family labor,
will be on the order of Rs. 1,100 million per year, and
the net crop return from the program will be about
Rs. 4,000 million per year. In addition, substantial
gains will be achieved in production of livestock and

non-food crops.

The comparisons shown in Table 20 give some
measure of the possible economic returns from the
reclamation and canal remodelling programs.

Net crop values in 1975 alone will be about three-

fourth of the cumulative investment through 1975. Even

though operating costs of the reclamation program may


Figure 27

ANNUAL GROSS CROP VALUE


> E
















0
5,000




O


01


4-
/


/
10
___ __ ___ __10










IMPLEMENTATION


be high, a very substantial return will be achieved on the
investment.

Power

The economic return from the WAPDA power program
can be measured only by a comparison with the cost of
alternative sources of generation. By 1975 WAPDA
will have added more than one million kilowatts of
installed hydro-electric capacity and over one-half million
kilowatts of thermal capacity in its systems. Of this

Table 20

ECONOMIC RETURNS FROM RECLAMATION AND

CANAL REMODELLING

Total investment by 1975 Rs. 5,420 million
Gross crop value m 1963 Rs. 4,000 million
Gross crop value in 1975 Rs. 9,100 million
Gross annual crop value per acre
1963 Rs. 120
1975 Rs. 280
Gross annual crop value per capital
1963 Es. 90
1975 Rs. 140


total, 300,000 kilowatts of hydro-electric power will be
provided under the IBP at Mangla. If the remaining
hydro-clectric power from additional units at Mangla,
Tarbela, Warsak and Gomal were replaced by equivalent
thermal capacity, both construction and operating costs
would be substantially greater. The construction of the
Mangla and Tarbela reservoirs under the IBP is, of
course, the reason that such economical hydro-electric
generation is possible. Nevertheless, these benefits
accrue to the entire WAPDA program.

Other Projects

Projects outside the Indus Plains, such as Tanda,
Mangi, Khanpur, Gomal Zam, Karachi Irrigation, Kud
and Porali Projects will be justified primarily on the
basis of local benefits. These benefits include improve-
ments in the food supplies and economic status of
outlying areas, as well as elimination or avoidance of
social and economic inequities which would accompany
the concentration of development in the Indus Plains.












EXPLANATION

EXISTING WORKS
Canal
Proposed Extension
Link Canal
Barrage or Headworks
Dam and Reservoir
S Hydro-electric Plant
S Thermal-electric Plant

1975 PROGRAM
INDUS BASIN PROJECT
.. Link Canal
Link Canal to be remodelled
Barrage or Headworks
Barrage or Headworks to be remodelled
Storage Dam and Reservoir
Hydro-electric Plant

RECLAMATION
after
Areas to be reclaimed fe1975

Areas to be reclaimed or developed 1975

OTHER DEVELOPMENT
STORAGE
Dam and Reservoir

ELECTRIC POWER
A* Hydro-electric Plant
O Thermal-electric Plant

NOTES
I- This mop is generalized because of the very
extensive areas covered.
2-Large areas within the Thai, Taunsa, Gudu, and
Ghulam Mohammed commands are not yet
actually irrigated.
3-Extensive areas of non- irrigated lands within the
principal canal commands are not shown.
4-Scattered irrigated areas in many coastal
and desert basins of southwestern Pakistan
(former Boluchistan area ) ore not shown.
5-Scattered irrigated areas in many small
mountain stream basins in the upper reaches
of the Indus River and many of the Indus
right bank tributary basins are not shown.


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CHINA


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MASTUNG


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KALAT


KHARAN





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K h R,,
RRAAN IB













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A VN -



\\ .... ::


GENERAL MAP

WATER RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT

WEST PAKISTAN


Prepared for
WATER AND POWER DEVELOPMENT AUTHORITY
LAHORE, WEST PAKISTAN
By
HARZA ENGINEERING COMPANY
CHICAGO


-1'


January 1964


Dwg. No. 244 P 135


Scale in Miles


pmmm


"c>-




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