Title Page
 Back Cover

Title: Women in development
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00054834/00001
 Material Information
Title: Women in development
Physical Description: Book
Publisher: The Program,
Subject: Farming   ( lcsh )
Agriculture   ( lcsh )
Farm life   ( lcsh )
Funding: Electronic resources created as part of a prototype UF Institutional Repository and Faculty Papers project by the University of Florida.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00054834
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 26340224

Table of Contents
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Title Page
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
    Back Cover
        Page 12
Full Text




Support Program



Hired laborer returning from cowpea field. Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil. Photo:

The Bean/Cowpea CRSP
is a program of coordinated
projects in Africa and Latin
America that focuses on
removing constraints to the
production and utilization
of beans (Phaseolus vulgaris)
and cowpeas (Vigna ungui-
culata). Funded by a Title
XII grant from USAID/BIFAD,
the goal of the program is to
support research and training
which will ultimately result
in a reduction of hunger
and malnutrition in devel-
oping countries.
In many of these areas,
beans and cowpeas are staple
foods that provide the major
source of protein and an
important source of B vitamins
in family diets. Usually pro-
duced on small farms for
household consumption and




Four family members. Two oldest pounding grain for family consumption. East
Africa. Photo: Barnes-McConnell.

Filling vessels with water from local reservoir to carry on shoulders up the mountain
to home site. Cameroon. Photo: Chalfant.

Carrying wood for cooking fuel. Tanzania. Photo: Silbernagel.

f a, V
A, I
r 4-;
~- s1r- ,;$.

sale, these basic food crops
have not benefited from the
kinds of research and exten-
sion efforts accorded to crops
grown for export purposes.
Consequently, yields tend
to be low due to high insect
and disease infestation, de-
pleted soils and drought.
Oftentimes much of the
meager harvest is lost during
In many parts of the
world the primary respon-
sibility for the production
of beans, cowpeas and other
crops grown for family con-
sumption rests with women
and children. While women's
roles in agriculture vary by
country and region, it is not
unusual for them to play a
major role in seed selection,
planting weeding, harvesting,

storing, processing and pre-
paring of food crops. These
factors combine to pose a
special challenge to develop-
ment efforts suggesting both
a need to direct attention to
the constraints faced by small
farmers and at the same
time to recognize that in
many contexts a majority
of these farmers are likely
to be women.
Bean/Cowpea CRSP proj-
ects involve collaborative
research efforts between in-
vestigators located at Host
Country (HC) institutions
and investigators at US uni-
versities and institutes. A
wide range of research interests
is reflected in the program.
All address the small farm
context and many focus on

Family of seven. Preparing hillside field for planting of maize and beans. East
Africa. Photo: Barnes-McConnell.

Harvesting beans. East Africa. Photo: Barnes-McConnelL

agricultural and food prep-
aration tasks usually carried
out by women. Included in
the program are projects de-
signed to:
1) Increase bean and cow-
pea yields through developing
disease and insect resistant,
drought tolerant or high ni-
trogen fixing varieties which
incorporate locally desirable
traits (color, texture, taste
and cooking characteristics).
2) Facilitate the processing
of beans and cowpeas through
the development of technol-
ogies that are suitable for
use at the household and
village level.
3) Investigate and where
possible remove the anti-
nutritional factors and in-
crease the protein content

and digestibility of beans
and cowpeas.
4) Address storage losses
and preparation constraints
such as the hard-to-cook phe-
nomena in beans.
In addition to the research
objectives each project has a
training component tailored
to HC bean and/or cowpea
research needs. This includes
opportunities to participate
in formal degree programs
and in short-term training
courses. Interactions among
researchers from the various
projects in the CRSP have
resulted in an integrated ap-
proach which promises to
yield realistic and viable
solutions to the problems
confronting small farmers.

Family eating maize porridge with beaj
East Africa. Photo: Barnes-McConnell.
4 7_..

Two family members. Transporting
harvested whole bean plants from
the field. East Africa. Photo: Barnes-

ns as relish.



~~: !k .


Bean farmer (right) talking with Bean/Cowpea CRSP Director, Pat Barnes-
McConnell (left). Malawi. Photo: Adams.

Since its inception, the
Bean/Cowpea CRSP has in-
corporated a strong Women-
in-Development (WID) focus
and has included a WID
Specialist on its Manage-
ment Office staff. While
specific objectives vary by
project, certain WID concerns
are of program-wide signif-
icance. These include:
1) Assuring that gender
issues are taken into account
in information gathering.
This requires an awareness
of the ways in which this
variable influences resource
allocation, decision-making
processes and the division
of labor within farming house-
holds. Such a focus is im-
portant in Latin American
contexts where women's
participation in agriculture

has often gone unrecorded
and is especially significant
in many African areas where
women have access to their
own fields and are responsible
for providing for their family's
sustenance. In both situations
data gathering must encom-
pass male and female work
roles if viable solutions to
the problems confronting
small farmers are to be de-
2) Ascertaining that in-
novations (i.e., improved
seed varieties, new tech-
niques or technologies) are
appropriate to the small farm
context and that these inno-
vations do not lead to the
progressive marginalization
of women in the agricultural
sector or increase their already
heavy work loads.

Participants and professors in course on
Goiania, Brazil. Photo: Roberts.

Betty Gondwe, Plant ProtectionOfficer,
TARO, and Bean/Cowpea CRSP Tan-
zania project researcher, inoculating
beans with halo blight inoculum. CIAT.
Photo: Silbernagel.

microbial control of cowpea insects.

Student weeding Bean/Cowpea CRSP Honduras/University of Puerto Rico bean
trials at the Escuela Agricola Panamericana (EAP). Honduras. Photo: Barnes-

Dr. Julia Miller of Virginia State University (kneel-
ing) supervising village survey techniques of
Bunda College of Agriculture students Caroline
Mhango (left) and Filly Kamanga (right). Malawi.
Photo: Barnes-McConnell.

3) Encouraging the par-
ticipation of women in the
projects as researchers, tech-
nicians and students. Over
the long run such efforts are
likely to result in the dimi-
nution of male biases in
research and hence to con-
tribute to more equitable
and successful development
Overall, the perspective
is one which situates small
producers within the wider
social-cultural and economic
context and draws attention
to how a consideration of
gender differences within
the household and the society
will result in achievement
of project objectives and ul-
timately in improved nutrition
and health status.

$ /


Ellen Bortei-Doku, Sociologist, talk-
ing with CRSP Women-in-Develop-
ment Specialist, Anne Ferguson. East
Lansing. Photo: Barnes-McConnell.
Dr. Maria Jose Zimmerman, Head of
Plant Breeding at CNPAF and bean
breeder for the Bean/Cowpea CRSP
Wisconsin/Brazil multi-disease resis- # 15
tance project. Brazil. Photo: Barnes- #17

Dr. Anne Vidaver, Head of the Depart-
ment of Plant Pathology, University
of Nebraska, and Co-US Investigator
Bean/Cowpea CRSP Dominican Re-
public/Nebraska project Photo: Barnes-

Dr. Barbara Webster (N, Principal
Investigator of the Bean/Cowpea CRSP
Kenya project, discussing CRSP re-
search with professional women con-
tributors to a prominent women's
agricultural organization. Kenya. Photo:


An international community of persons, institutions,
agencies and governments committed to collectively
strengthening health and nutrition in developing
countries by improving the availability
and utilization of beans and cowpeas

For further information contact:
Bean/Cowpea CRSP
200 Center for International Programs
Michigan State University
East Lansing, Michigan 48824-1035
Telephone: (517) 355-4693
Telex: 810-251-0737

Funded through USAID/BIFAD Grant No. AID/DSAN-XII-G-0261

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