Citation
Report of the External Evaluation Panel of the BeanCowpea CRSP for FY ..

Material Information

Title:
Report of the External Evaluation Panel of the BeanCowpea CRSP for FY ..
Creator:
Bean/Cowpea Collaborative Research Summary Program
Place of Publication:
East Lansing Mich
Publisher:
Bean/Cowpea CRSP, Michigan State University
Frequency:
Annual
regular
Language:
English
Physical Description:
v. : ill. ; 28 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Beans -- Research -- Developing countries ( lcsh )
Cowpeas -- Research -- Developing countries ( lcsh )
Genre:
serial ( sobekcm )

Notes

General Note:
Description based on: FY88.
Funding:
Electronic resources created as part of a prototype UF Institutional Repository and Faculty Papers project by the University of Florida.

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52816139 ( OCLC )

Related Items

Preceded by:
Annual report. External Review Panel

Full Text
THE BEAN/COWPEA COLLABORATIVE RESEARCH SUPPORT PROGRAM (CRSP)
Bean/Cowpea CRSP
200 Center for International Programs Michigan State University East Lansing, Michigan 48824-1035 USA Telephone: (517) 355-4693 Telex: 810 251 0737 MSU INT PRO ELSG
Funded through USAID/BIFAD Grant NO. AID/DSAN-XII-G-0261




REPORT OF THE EXTERNAL EVALUATION PANEL OF THE
BEAN/COWPEA CRSP FOR FY 86
January 5-9, 1987




REPORT OF
THE EXTERNAL EVALUATION PANEL OF THE BEAN/COWPEA COLLABORATIVE RESEARCH SUPPORT PROGRAM FOR FY 86
TABLE OF CONTENTS
I. Introduction. .. .... ........ .......... ......
A. Members of the 1986 External Evaluation Panel .. ... .......1
B. Organization of the Bean/Cowpea CRSP. .. .. ..... .... ...
C. 1986 EEP Review: Sequence of Events. .. ... ..... .....2
II. Program Evaluation: Summary. .. ... ..... ..... .......3
III. Program Evaluation: Project Ratings. .. ... ..... ..... ..4
A. Bases of Evaluation: Rating Categories/Format. .. .. .......4
B. Summary of Project Ratings. .. ... ..... ..... .....4
IV. Program Evaluation: Fiscal and Administrative Management .. ... ..5
A. Adjustments to 1986 Budget Reductions . .. .. .. .. .. .5
B. CRSP Funding. .. ... ..... ..... ..... ..... ..5
C. Administrative Management .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..7
V. Attachments
Attachment A: Scope of Work for External Evaluation Panel. .. .....9 Attachment B: Individual Project Reviews .. ... ..... .....13
Botswana ... .. .. .. .. .. .. ... .. .13
Brazil/UWI. .. ... ..... ..... .....19
Brazil/BTI. .. ... ..... ..... .....24
Cameroon .. .. .... ..... ..... ....30
Dominican Republic .. .. .... ..... ....31
Guatemala. .. .. .. ..... ..... ....37
Honduras .. .. .... ..... ..... ....42
INCAP .. ..... ....... ..........47
Malawi. .. ..... ....... ........48
Mexico. .. .... ........ .........53
Nigeria .. ..... ....... ........63
Senegal . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .69
Tanzania. .. .... ........ .......76
Attachment C: Members and Affiliations of the 1986 EEP .. .......83 Attachment D: Letter re Overseas Audits. .. ..... ........84




REPORT OF
THE EXTERNAL EVALUATION PANEL OF THE BEAN/COWPEA COLLABORATIVE RESEARCH SUPPORT PROGRAM FOR FY 86
I. Introduction
The Bean/Cowpea Collaborative Research Support Program (CRSP) was originally funded in September 1980. This report covers a review of progress in FY 86, the sixth year of the program. During FY 86, the original Bean/Cowpea CRSP grant came to an end and a new extension grant was awarded. This evaluation covers FY 86 activities including both the portion funded from the original grant and that funded from the first year of the three-year extension which began May 7, 1986.
Evaluations during this review were based primarily on project reports written by project Principal Investigators. Honduras and Brazil reviews also included information from site visits. Management Office officials provided additional information.
A. Members of the 1986 External Evaluation Panel (EEP)
During 1986, two of the original members of the EEP--Dr. Melvin Blase and Dr. Luis H. Camacho--retired from the EEP. Current members, all appointed
in 1980-81, are:
Dr. Clarence C. Gray, III (Chair) Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University
Dr. A. H. Bunting
University of Reading
Dr. Peter E. Hildebrand
University of Florida
Dr. Antonio M. Pinchinat
IICA
Dr. Charlotte E. Roderuck
Iowa State University
B. Organization of the Bean/Cowpea CRSP
The Bean/Cowpea CRSP was originally comprised of eighteen projects in
thirteen countries of Africa and Central and South America in collaboration with ten US institutions with major roles (nine Land-Grant Universities and one private institution). By the end of 1986, there were thirteen projects
for review (beans--eight; cowpeas--five) as several of the original
projects had been terminated or had been consolidated. The remaining
projects are located in eleven countries with ten US lead institutions.




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Host Country Crop US Institution
Botswana Cowpeas Colorado State University
Brazil Cowpeas Boyce Thompson Institute
Brazil Beans University of Wisconsin
Cameroon Cowpeas University of Georgia
Dominican Republic Beans University of Nebraska
Guatemala Beans Cornell University
Guatemala/INCAP Beans Washington State University
Honduras Beans University of Puerto Rico
Malawi Beans Michigan State University
Mexico Beans Michigan State University
Nigeria Cowpeas University of Georgia
Senegal Cowpeas University of California-Riverside
Tanzania Beans Washington State University
The Bean/Cowpea CRSP projects are developed and executed by Principal
Investigators in collaborating US and Host Country institutions. Oversight
and participation in the approval of plans and budgets are made by the
Technical Committee (TC), Management Office/Management Entity (MO/ME) and
Board of Directors (BOD).
C. Sequence of Events--1986 EEP Review
The following are events which comprised the FY 86 EEP review process.
1. A Scope of Work (see Attachment A) was developed by the Chair of the
EEP and the Program Director/MO, using the AID Guidelines and input from the TC and the BOD. This Scope of Work was distributed to the
Principal Investigators to guide their preparation of 1986 annual
reports which were due in the MO on or about November 1, 1986.
2. An outline of the information needed by the EEP re fiscal and
administrative management evaluation was provided to the MO on or
about November 15, 1986.
3. Annual reports of individual projects were sent to EEP members on or
before December 1, 1986.
4. Each EEP member was assigned three to four projects for intensive
study/review prior to the January 1987 EEP meeting. Draft reviews, as
assigned, were prepared by EEP members in advance and, where applicable,
included information from limited EEP reviews of Host Country sites.
5. Draft reviews were discussed by the EEP at the January meeting. Final
evaluations were made on the basis of discussions and additional
information as requested from the MO and the AID Program Officer.
6. A fiscal and administrative management evaluation was made from data
provided by, and from discussions with, the MO.




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7. A summary overall evaluation of the Bean/Cowpea CRSP was made on the
basis of results of individual project reviews, information provided
by the MO and discussions with officials of the MO.
8. A draft EEP report was prepared January 8, 1987 and discussed with the
TC, MO and other officials on January 9, 1987.
II. Program Evaluation: Summary
For this FY 86 review, thirteen individual CRSP projects were to be evaluated with special regard to status, funding, progress, plans and prospects. Annual
reports prepared by project Principal Investigators provided the principal
bases for individual evaluations and ratings. Two site reviews were made in 1986 (in Honduras of the University of Puerto Rico project and in Brazil of
the Wisconsin and BTI projects). Six projects were rated highly satisfactory;
four, satisfactory; one, satisfactory with suggested changes; and none,
unsatisfactory. Two were not evaluated for reasons given.
With few exceptions, individual CRSP projects appear well organized and operated with good to excellent prospects for contributing knowledge and
technologies to increase the production and utilization of beans and cowpeas
* in developing countries and the US.
In addition to substantial progress in many projects toward research objectives, a prototype processing plant was established in a village in eastern
Nigeria to apply, on a small-scale commercial basis, the methods for preparing
cowpea meal which were developed by the University of Georgia/University of
Nigeria project.
In 1986, one person completed the requirements for the B.S. degree, nine for the M.S. degree and one for the Ph.D. degree. In addition, 110 persons completed various non-formal technical training programs. Currently, 10 persons
are enrolled for the B.S. degree, 37 for the M.S. and 33 for the Ph.D.
During 1986, CRSP officials initiated or completed actions to correct weaknesses in collaboration between US and Host Country institutions. Some
projects were brought to a close by the end of FY 86, others were consolidated
during that year.
While no specific external financial audits were made on the use of funds for
FY 86, a cursory examination of expenditures indicates US Government funds were
used for the purposes authorized, the overall 25 percent matching requirement was-met, and cooperating Host Countries made significant contributions in-kind
and in local currencies. The CRSP was able to sustain the reduction in funding imposed in FY 86 and continue operations at satisfactory levels.
The present mode of funding by the US Government inevitably leads to difficulty
in planning and maintaining continuity in both research and training and
materially reduces cost effectiveness. The EEP recommends that a system of




-4
three-year forward funding, as provided by CRSP Guidelines,1 be instituted to minimize these difficulties.
The CRSP is operating effectively with experienced and capable Principal Investigators, supported by the Technical Committee and effectively assisted by the Management Office.
Overall, the Bean/Cowpea CRSP and its operations in FY 86 are judged very satisfactory.
III. Program Evaluation: Project Ratings
A. Bases of Evaluation
Following BIFAD/AID Guidelines,2 a Scope of Work was developed which
provided for an evaluation of the status, funding, progress, plans and
prospects for each CRSP project (see Attachment A). These criteria were assessed on the bases of the reports submitted by the projects' Principal
Investigators, project site visits, data provided by the MO and
discussions with MO officials. Each CRSP project was given one of the following category designations, ratings and recommendations for FY 86:
Category Rating and Recommendation
1 Highly Satisfactory
2 Satisfactory
3 Satisfactory--CRSP officials may wish to consider major
adjustments.
4 Unsatisfactory--CRSP officials may wish to consider orderly
phaseout.
B. Summary of Project Ratings
Category 1 BRAZIL/University of Wisconsin, BRAZIL/Boyce Thompson
Institute, GUATEMALA/Cornell University, NIGERIA/University of Georgia, SENEGAL/University of California-Riverside, TANZANIA/
Washington State University
Category 2 BOTSWANA/Colorado State University, DOMINICAN REPUBLIC/
University of Nebraska, HONDURAS/University of Puerto Rico,
MEXICO/Michigan State University
IBoard for International Food and Agricultural Development and Agency for International Development. 1985. Guidelines for the Collaborative Research Support Programs, Washington, DC, p. 31.
21bid., p. 12.




-5
Category 3 MALAWI/Michigan State University
Category 4 None
Not Rated CAMEROON/University of Georgia, INCAP/Washington State
University
IV. Program Evaluation--Fiscal and Administrative Management
A. Adjustments to 1986 Budget Reductions
In FY 86 the Bean/Cowpea CRSP assumed a substantial budget reduction. The
impact was felt in both the projects and management components. Several
actions were taken which allowed the program to accommodate to this
reduction:
1. Eighteen projects were reduced to thirteen by closing-out three
projects, four projects were consolidated into two, and the budgets of
three projects were considerably reduced through reductions in their
programs.
2. The technical assistance component of two projects was phased-out.
3. A moratorium on non-essential travel and equipment was placed on the
projects.
4. For three months (February-April 1986), projects reduced expenditures
to essential personnel only.
5. Some of the field staff were recalled to the US earlier than originally
planned.
6. The initiation of new degree training was discouraged.
7. The numbers of meetings for the TC and BOD were reduced with the
substitution of conference calls to facilitate the actions of these
groups.
8. The EEP met for the FY 86 review without direct input from PIs and
only limited Host Country site reviews.
9. The MO was reduced from 6.0 FTE to 3.5 FTE and the activities of the
MO were significantly reduced (publications, travel, etc.).
B. CRSP Expenditures
1. In 1986, CRSP funding reductions were sudden and substantial.
Relevant expenditures are: FY 84--$4.2 million; FY 85--$4.7 million; FY 86--$4.2 million; and projected FY 87--$2.8 million. Thus, there
has been unanticipated curtailment of scheduled activities, along with
an increase in uncertainty as to activities which could be sustained.




-6
Despite the suddenness and pervasiveness of the circumstances, CRSP officials and participants at all levels acted responsibly, swiftly
and successfully in maintaining CRSP operations.
Overall, approximately 51 percent of direct costs were spent in or on
behalf of Host Countries. Although project by project the percentages
varied widely from approximately 24 to 75 percent, project requirements
generally justified the differences. Similarly, expenditures for
Personnel, equipment, travel and other costs varied widely according
to specific requirements and needs of projects. The EEP, however,
suggests that CRSP authorities review project personnel rosters, both
in the US and in Host Countries, relative to project requirements.
2. Data available indicate that the 25 percent matching requirement by US
institutions has been met.
3. Reports on expenditures are current within six months and indicate US
funds have been used for the purposes intended.
Budget Process--Financial management of the Bean/Cowpea CRSP is
facilitated by extensive support and monitoring by the MO. Included
in the process is direct participation in budget preparation and
project allocation by the MO and the TC with final approval from the BOD. Each of the lead institution's Principal Investigators and the
Contract and Grant Officers, with whom the MO maintains active communication, as well as the Host Country PIs is involved in the process.
Each year the MO prepares a projected budget document for the TC and
BOD which is the basis for planning and eventually for advising the PIs
in the development of a preliminary budget. An analysis is made from
the financial history of each project, previous project reviews, the
proposed scope of work and the current budgetary situation.
Formal preliminary budgets are forwarded from the PIs through their
contract officers to the MO for review. The MO budget review includes
line item screening against the total budget for each project. Previous quarterly reports are compared to the proposed spending pattern in the new budget. The preliminary budgets are forwarded to the TC, with the scopes of work, for their review and recommendation to the
BOD. MO recommendations for the project budgets are taken into consideration by the TC. The budgets are then forwarded to the BOD where
TC recommendations are analyzed and the budgets are given final
approval.
Upon final budget approval, the MO notifies the PIs in writing and
requests from each of them a detailed budget (ten-column spread sheet).
These figures establish the detailed budget which the MO monitors. The
five-months advance of funds, allocation of new monies and amendments
to the sub-grants are administered by the MO. The quarterly reports
are reviewed and matched against the budgets to control overspend.




-7
Cost sharing is closely monitored to meet compliance with AID regulations. When questions arise, the PI or the Contract Officer is contacted. Reimbursements to the projects are controlled by the 110 and
directed to the MSU Contract Officer for payment. The CRSP Administrative Officer and the MSU Contract and Grant Officer maintain constant communication to insure appropriate fiscal management of the
projects.
International travel requests and requests for purchase of equipment
are screened and processed by the MO. The requests are reviewed
against the project's annual approved travel plan and budget.
4. The financial accounts of Michigan State University were audited in
1985 by Arthur Young and Company. This successful audit covered a
sample of all University accounts, domestic and international, including the CRSP for the years ended June 30, 1985 and 1984. Plans are
underway for an audit in early 1987 of CRSP accounts in a representative six projects in Africa and Central and South America.
5. Balance in the use of funds in the CRSP has to be considered in several
ways.
A minimum of 50 percent in expenditures for direct costs in or on
behalf of Host Countries is required by the CRSP. We find that this
balance is 51/49 HC/US over the period for which figures are available.
This ratio varied from 24 to 75 percent in Host Country. We have
examined the reasons for this variation and are satisfied that they
are in agreement with the approved purposes of the projects.
Balance is also important between the different components of projects such as management, travel, training, field and laboratory operations, equipment and personnel. Through FY 86, total personnel costs appear
high. We are satisfied that the oversight by the MO and AID of
expenditures on travel and equipment ensures that these expenditures
are in accordance with purposes approved. One hundred fifty-nine
persons have received or are receiving degree training and 777 have
had training of shorter duration. We are not able to estimate the
total expenditure on this component, but it is evident that training
is one of the most valuable products of the CRSP.
C. Administrative Management
Management of the CRSP in 1986 during a period of funding reductions and
uncertainty has been quite difficult. Notwithstanding and under stress of reduced availability of personnel, the MO has carried out its functions in
an exceptional manner, apart from the requirement to observe and monitor on-site CRSP activities in the US and overseas on a regular basis. This
deficiency is becoming increasingly apparent and requires correction. The
EEP requests the Board of Directors and Management Entity to consider
whether the MO's and the TC's responsibilities would not be more effec-




-8
tively discharged if members of the MO and TC were enabled to visit overseas and domestic locations more frequently than has been possible in the past two years. The EEP feels that the MO and TC require more funds to enable them to perform their duties effectively. The EEP does not believe it is desirable to achieve further economies by decreasing yet further the allocations to individual projects. In the EEP's view, funds can only be freed for these purposes by rearrangements within CRSP projects, which may have to include the termination of part or all of specific projects.
The ME should look into opportunities for increasing the efficiency of the MO by expanding its electronic capabilities for handling data and communications.




ATTACHMENT A
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1986 EXTERNAL EVALUATION PANEL SCOPE OF WORK
I. PROGRESS
A. Specific research contributions (to date and in early prospect)
toward amelioration of national (HC and US) and global constraints.
Cite constraint and specific contribution, with special regard to
the following:
1. Research in process in Host Country and in US
2. Research results disseminated and in use in Host Country and
US. Give examples such as:
a. Improved cultivars; inoculants; tests; methods; systems; and
technical papers, reports and bulletins produced and
released for public use
b. Evidence of extent of use
3. Other research-related results, such as:
a. Germplasm conservation and use
(1) Accessions collected/acquired/in storage and kinds and amounts distributed domestically
(2) International exchange
b. Seed production (or other materials) and distribution of
CRSP-produced cultivars (or materials)
c. Impact of other CRSP-produced or -recommended technology,
including production inputs such as fertilizers, inoculants,
insecticides, equipment and machines
d. Contributions to and participation in international
bean/cowpea research networks, e.g., IARCs and other
e. How the research findings specifically address the needs of
small-scale farmers and women
B. Changes in national production of beans and cowpeas in Host Country
1. Hectares planted
2. .Yields per hectare
3. Total production




10-
C. Training (only CRSP-sponsored funded in 1986)
1. Numbers and kinds in process in US and non-US
2. Numbers and kinds completed--US and non-US
3. Cumulative training totals--thru 1986
4. Project training targets during three-year extension period
(1986-88)
D. Institutional development, i.e. strengthening Host Country bean
and/or cowpea research and improvement systems
1. Cite changes in 1986*
2. Over life of project (where are we?)
3. In prospect (where are we going and how long to get there?) II. FUNDING/FISCAL MANAGEMENT
A. Levels and sources 1985, 1986 and 1987 (projected)
1. Total
2. USAID totals for 1985 and 1986 and %
3. US university totals for 1985, 1986 and % 4. Host Country totals for 1985, 1986 and %
B. Use of funds--budgets and expenditures by categories for 1985 and
1986
1. Salaries 2. Vehicles
3. Equipment, machines, apparatus
4. Supplies 5. Training
6. Conferences/meetings/consultations
7. Travel 8. Other




C. Custody and maintenance of vehicles, equipment and other
non-expendable CRSP-purchased property
1. Inventory (or records)
2. Accountable individuals and institutions
D. Audit/project management reviews
1. Date, by whom, and findings and follow-up
2. If no audit, has one been requested?
E. Adequacy of funding (to accomplish objectives) by CRSP participants
1. AID
2. Host Country--comments/actions
3. US university--comments/actions
F. Problems regarding funding, budgeting, release of funds, procurement
and other--in US and Host Country
G. Adequacy of current policies and procedures (especially regarding
follow-up on use of funds and commodities) III. PLANNING
A. Work plan for 1986
1. TC and/or ME guidance/approach, if any
2. How prepared?
3. Who prepared?
4. When prepared?
5. Budget and work plan related?
B. Review of 1986 work plan during implementation
1. Adjustments/changes/additions/deletions--ME notified? TC?
2. 1986 .work plan--accomplishments and shortfalls
C. Plans for 1987
1. Research in Host Country and US




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2. Expected changes/additions/deletions from 1986 regarding
funding, personnel, research activities, commodities or other
and their reasons (i.e. availability of funds; failures;
marginal activities; inadequate performance; unrealistic plans) IV. STATUS
A. Appropriateness of activities to goals of Global Plan
B. Balance between research and training
C. Balance of domestic vs overseas activities with respect to program
constraints
D. Level of collaboration/cooperation between US and Host Country
institutions and personnel
E. Relative contributions of collaborating institutions and individuals
towards accomplishment of objectives
F. Interest, involvement and support of US and Mission and/or US
Embassy
G. Domestic and international linkages and cooperation/collaboration
H. Cost effectiveness, especially regarding level of activity vs.
funding
I. Institutionalization of Host Country component--evidence of V. PUBLICATIONS
VI. OVERALL RATING




ATTACHMENT B
INDIVIDUAL PROJECT REVIEWS




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1986 EEP REVIEW
BOTSWANA/COLORADO STATE UNIVERSITY BEAN/COWPEA CRSP PROJECT
"Development of Integrated Cowpea Production Systems in Semiarid Botswana"
I. PROGRESS
A. Research Contributions
1. Research in process
All the research of this project has been located in Botswana.
A large number of research activities were planned and were to
be undertaken at several locations: at Sebele; at district
experimental farms at Goodhope, Mahalapye and Motopi; and Perhaps at unspecified locations. These planned research
activities included:
a. Variety testing and screening trials re agronomy, pathology
and entomology;
b. Evaluation of breeding lines developed in cooperation with
IITA and SAFGRAD;
c. Initiation of a Botswana cowpea breeding program;
d. Evaluation of local cowpea germplasm and maintenance of
cowpea genebank;
e. Evaluation of cultural practices and new animal-drawn
equipment and improved harnesses;
f. Evaluation of intercropping of sorghum and cowpeas;
g. Investigation of integrated approaches to pest control;
h. Investigation of micronutrient (B, Cu, Mo, Zn) and secondary
nutrient (Mg and S) requirements for cowpeas in Botswana;
i. Study of the effect of leaf harvesting on grain yield;
j. Study of cooking time and quality of seven cowpea genotypes.
The severe drought in Botswana in 1986, reduction in CRSP funding and shortcomings in Government of Botswana (GOB) support
combined to sharply curtail several of the planned activities;
however, very important progress was made in (1) continuing the
identification of very early maturing cowpea varieties adapted
to Botswana conditions and (2) increasing, describing, maintaining and using (including international exchange) a significant
Botswana cowpea germplasm collection.




-14
2. Research results disseminated and in use
a. Cowpea variety ER-7, developed by IITA, was tested by the
CRSP and released by the GOB for use in 1983-84. Approximately 18 tons of ER-7 seed were multiplied in 1984-85 and
distributed to farmers.
b. Two additional varieties, TVX 3236-01G and IT82E-9, also
developed by IITA, have been tested by the CRSP and
recommended to the GOB for release.
c. A third volume of the Botswana Cowpea Germplasm Catalogue
has been completed. Two earlier volumes in the series
prepared by the CRSP were published by the GOB and
distributed to interested individuals and institutions,
including several international agricultural research
centers (IARCs).
3. Other research-related results
a. Germplasm conservation and use
(1) The CRSP-sponsored cowpea germplasm collection has grown
to 852 accessions. This represents a substantial but incomplete portion of Botswana's cowpea resources. A
total of 390 accessions have been grown in the field for evaluation and seed increase. With the departure of the
CRSP-sponsored PI and his associate (and spouse), the
collection, thought to be the largest in southern Africa, has been turned over to a newly appointed
Botswana research officer for care and maintenance.
Current facilities for housing the collection are
inadequate.
(2) The CRSP has been involved in the exchange of cowpea
germplasm to IITA (450 Botswana accessions sent) and to
other CRSP projects in Nebraska and California (Davis
and Riverside).
b. Seed production and distribution
Previously reported under 2a above.
c. Impact of other CRSP-produced or recommended technology
A CRSP-developed, animal-drawn, prototype planter has been
evaluated by the Botswana Rural Industries Innovation Center and approved for replication and further testing by Botswana Agricultural Field and Extension Services. In addition, the CRSP has introduced improved donkey harnesses which promote
greater work output and prevent injury. Along with other animal-drawn, light-weight tillage implements, these addi-




tions--the planter and the improved harness--have direct
benefits for small farms, especially those involving women
as farm workers.
B. Changes in National Production
No data provided, but yields per hectare of cowpeas are thought to
be . less than 25 percent of long-term average." The
long-term average is not given.
C. Training
1. Numbers and kinds in process
US: 1 Ph.D.
Non-US: 1 B.Sc.
2 M.S.
2. Numbers and kinds completed during FY 86
US: None
Non-US: 7 non-degree
D. Institutional Development
Transfers of responsibilities for activities carried out in Botswana
by CRSP-provided personnel have been made to GOB personnel. In
addition, two M.S. degree students are expected to have completed their studies and returned to Botswana by the end of-1986. One is expected to become the Host Country Principal Investigator for the
project. In the interim, arrangements were made for a US Peace
Corps volunteer to manage the project. The TC and MO/ME may wish to
determine if this arrangement is appropriate.
Plans are underway for the US PI to spend two months each year in
Botswana to assist with continued improvement of cowpea research and
development. This arrangement should be reviewed and approved by
the TC and the MO.
Prospects for satisfactory continuation of this CRSP project appear
uncertain and suspect, given the inexperience of current and prospective Botswana personnel; the general lack of necessary
arrangements, facilities and infrastructure for the conduct of
reliable agricultural research; and the likely inability of the GOB to provide adequate financial support. Credit must be given to the
CRSP and the GOB for their efforts to make the best of a difficult situation, but their efforts probably cannot take the place of more
promising options. One option might be for an assistance donor
(multilateral or bilateral) to arrange appropriate technical
assistance to help Botswana build a capacity to conduct cowpea
research. Another option might be to designate Botswana as a CRSP
prime country site and arrange for long-term assignments of US




-16
scientists in Botswana (see pages 8-9, Guidelines for Collaborative
Research Support Program, June 21, 1985).
Botswana is a prime site for the INTSORMIL CRSP. Under further budget reductions, an arrangement whereby the two CRSPs jointly
support resident US scientists in Botswana may be a way to sustain
and build on the investment and progress made in Botswana with
sorghum and cowpeas. Any such arrangement should be in accordance
with the priorities of the GOB and should be associated with the
regional SADCC research coordination program. II. FUNDING/FISCAL MANAGEMENT A. Custody and Maintenance of Vehicles and Equipment
1. Inventory/records--Satisfactory
2. Accountable individuals and institutions--Satisfactory
B. Audit/Project Management Reviews
1. Management review in 1985--Satisfactory
2. No audit made or requested
C. Adequacy of Funding
Satisfactory until recent funding reductions created dislocations
and termination of some activities.
D. Problems
The US PI reports that the land made available by the Government of
Botswana was inadequate in respect to both quantity and quality.
This is a serious shortcoming that needs attention if the project is
to continue.
E. Adequacy of Current Policies and Procedures
Satisfactory
III. PLANS FOR 1987
The EEP notes that plans and arrangements for 1987 are in place. These
plans are judged satisfactory. IV. STATUS
A. Appropriateness of Activities to the Goals of Global Plan
Most of the activities undertaken under this CRSP project are
location-specific, designed for Botswana. At some point in time,




-17
some of the cultivars developed and accompanying adapted technologies may be useful elsewhere. So far, Botswana has been the
recipient of improved varieties and technologies developed at IITA
and elsewhere. The Botswana germplasm collection may prove to be
valuable in cowpea breeding and improvement programs in other locations, especially in areas with conditions similar to Botswana. In this connection, it should be noted that descriptions of conditions
at the experimental sites in Botswana were not provided in the
annual report and there is no indication such data is included in
experimental reports.
B. Balance between Research and Training
Sati sfactory
C. Balance of US versus Overseas Activities
Very little activity in the US. Plans are underway to achieve a
better balance of activities.
D. Level of Collaboration between US and Host Country
Excellent
E. Relative Contributions of Collaborating Institutions and Individuals
Toward Accomplishment of Objectives
Heavily weighted toward the US PI in Botswana
F. Interest, Involvement and Support of USAID Mission and/or US Embassy
Excellent
G. Domestic and International Linkages and Cooperation/Collaboration
Outstanding--Diverse, highly supportive linkages
H. Cost Effectiveness, Especially Regarding Level of Activity versus
Funding
Satisfactory
I. Institutionalization of Host Country Component
Improving, but capacity of GOB to continue satisfactory cowpea
research without direct technical assistance is considered to be
doubtful.
V. PUBLICATIONS
Output satisfactory, but all except one report was authored by the US PI
or his associate.




-18
It would appear desirable for most publications, particularly those
using Host Country data, to have at least a junior author from the Host Country, in order to reflect the collaborative nature of CRSP projects.
VI. OVERALL RATING: 2--Satisfactory
Although the project is judged satisfactory, future prospects are
uncertain, perhaps bleak. It is recommended that the Technical
Committee and Management Office review this project with special regard
to plans and prospects, including role of Colorado State University, and
report their findings to the Board of Directors for final review and
disposition. Any future activity in Botswana should be developed in the light of the results of farming system research in Botswana by the team
led by David Norman and colleagues.
With the departure of the US PI from Botswana, adequate maintenance of the Botswana Cowpea Germplasm Collection should be a matter of concern.
Loss of this collection would be a serious setback. The GOB should be
encouraged to continue its present practice of insuring the safe,
long-term storage of cowpea material collected in Botswana.




-19
1986 EEP REVIEW
BRAZIL/UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN BEAN/COWPEA CRSP PROJECT
"Plant Microbial Interactions in Beans: Improvement of Nitrogen Fixation and Disease Resistance"
I. PROGRESS
A. Research Contributions
1. Research in process
a. For enhanced biological nitrogen fixation, the project has
identified superior bean rhizobial isolates, has produced
promising improved bean germplasm and is developing advanced
breeding and cropping methodology. This, if properly
exploited, should lead to the development of high N-fixing
bean varieties suitable to different farming systems, especially in the LDCs where the use of commercial N
fertilizer in bean production is limited.
b. Breeding methodology for multiple disease resistance (MDR)
to increase bean production could become more effective and
efficient as a result of the techniques that have been
developed by the project to sequentially test reactions of
the plant to several fungal and bacterial pathogens.
c. By emphasizing research in molecular biology of the bean
golden mosaic virus and in identification of sources of
resistance/tolerance to the disease, the project may greatly
contribute to alleviating this major constraint to bean
production in many parts of the world.
2. Research results disseminated and in use
a. Superior N fixing breeding lines of beans selected by the
project are being evaluated in several regions in the HC.
b. Selection for N-fixation is becoming an integral part of bean
research at Centro Nacional de Pesquisa Arroz e Feijao
(CNPAF).
c. The MDR techniques developed by the project, including the
dry inoculum method for the initiation of diseases, are
being used in bean research in Brazil and elsewhere.
d. Research results from the project have been published in
scientific journals, books or other media.




-20
3. Other research-related results
Bean germplasm and rhizobial strains collected or developed by the project are being preserved in the HC and US. Some of the
materials have been exchanged with interested scientists or
institutions.
B. Changes in National Production
It is too early for the project to have any meaningful impact on
bean production in the HC. This will require the availability of
superior bean varieties and cropping technologies suitable to
different farming systems, strong linkages between research and
extension, and favorable official policies. Over the last five
years, the country's bean production has slightly increased, but
seasonal yields have remained very low. C. Training
1. Numbers and kinds in process
US: 1 Ph.D.
Non-US: 1 M.S.
2. Numbers and kinds completed during FY 86
US: None reported
Non-US: 4 non-degree D. Institutional Development
1. Changes in 1986
a. Evaluation of N-fixation in preliminary stages of development
of improved bean varieties
b. Intensification of research on BGMV
c. Initiation of work on isozyme markers in fungal pathogens d. Introduction of silica gel technique for long-term storage
of plant pathogenic fungi into the bean research program at
CNPAF
2. Over life of project
a. Enhanced N-fixation has developed into a strong line of work
in the National Bean Research Program in Brazil.
b. Bean pathology research is being strengthened at CNPAF.




-21
3. In prospect
Significant contribution to CNPAF's institution building II. FUNDING/FISCAL MANAGEMENT A. Custody and Maintenance of Vehicles and Equipment
1. Inventory/records--Information incomplete
2. Accountable individuals and institutions--Satisfactory
B. Audit/Project Management Reviews
No audit or management problems have been reported. The project was
reviewed by an EEP member in December 1986. Report from an AID
review of this project in 1986 was not available at this writing.
C. Adequacy of Funding
1. AID--Adequate
2. Host Country--Adequate 3. US university--Adequate
D. Problems
Present rules on procurement at AID and in the HC caused serious
difficulties in equipping the project. Cumbersome administrative
procedures regarding CRSP funding and release of funds complicated
project management by the PIs. The uses of funds and the split
between expenditures in the US and Brazil may be questionable.
E. Adequacy of Current Policies and Procedures
Policies and procedures regarding follow-up on use of funds and
commodities seem to be adequate; however, slow response in AID is a
problem.
III. PLANS FOR 1987
Research in HC and US will be centered on enhanced BNF and resistance/ tolerance to BGMV. The major change in the project's MDR research plan
sums up to decreasing work on fungal and bacterial diseases of beans and
increasing activities in BGMV. In rhizobiology, more attention will be
directed to:
A. Developing a non-nodulating bean genotype to use in research B. Improving methods of estimating N-fixation capacity in beans,
especially using isotope N-marker




-22
C. Studying ecology of R. phaseoli in field rhizospheres
D. Understanding premature nodule senescence
These plans are subject to review by the Technical Committee. IV. STATUS
A. Appropriateness of Activities to Goals of Global Plan
The activities of the project conform to the goals of the CRSP
Global Plan regarding the reduction of plant response limitations and alleviation of disease constraints. The nature and level of
project research on BNF and BGMV appropriately complement research
in the other B/C CRSP projects.
B. Balance between Research and Training
Research seems to have edged training in the project. It may be
desirable to have more Brazilians trained at the graduate level
(especially Ph.D. degree) in rhizobiology, plant breeding and
molecular virology for bean improvement.
C. Balance of US versus Overseas Activities
The balance between US and HC research activities has been quite
satisfactory, especially in the BNF leg of the project.
D. Level of Collaboration between US and Host Country
The level of collaboration and interaction between the US and HC
research personnel and institutions has been excellent.
E. Relative Contributions of Collaborating Institutions and Individuals
toward Accomplishment of Objectives
The relative contributions of US and HC personnel and institutions
toward accomplishment of the project objectives also has been
excellent.
F. Interest, Involvement and Support of USAID Mission and/or US Embassy
Interest, involvement and support of USAID, through the US Embassy
in Brazil, has been reported to be improving, although qualification
of Brazil as HC base for CRSP-funded projects may have been
questioned in the US.
G. Domestic and International Linkages and Cooperation/Collaboration
The project has developed strong and extensive linkages in the HC,
US and international community. Cooperation with the Centro
Internacional de Agricultura Tropical (CIAT) has markedly grown
during FY 86.




-23
H. Cost Effectiveness, Especially Regarding Level of Activity versus
Funding
The project appears to be cost effective, when judged by the amount
of voluntary support it receives from the participating US and HC
institutions, relative to accomplishments in research.
I. Institutionalization of Host Country Component
The project is being institutionalized at CNPAF and has become an
integral part of the National Bean Research Program in Brazil.
Prospective development of the project seems to be very promising.
Except for cumbersome administrative procedures like those reported in FY 86, no major problem is anticipated in the operation of the project.
The project has been quite successful in advancing research on enhanced
BNF and developing techniques for improving breeding methodology for MDR
in beans. This is laying strong scientific and practical basis for improving bean production in the world. The project, especially as
restructured, is expected to make significant contributions toward
achieving the objectives of the B/C CRSP Global Plan.
V. PUBLICATIONS
Satisfactory
VI. OVERALL RATING: 1--Highly Satisfactory
The two University of Wisconsin projects have been merged. The work on BNF continues to be outstanding. Research on MDR is satisfactory. The
EEP recommends that means be sought to enable Dr. Bliss to contribute to
the work on biological nitrogen fixation in any projects in the CRSP.




-24
1986 EEP REVIEW
BRAZIL/BOYCE THOMPSON INSTITUTE BEAN/COWPEA CRSP PROJECT
"Insect Pathogens in Cowpea Pest Management Systems for Developing Nations"
I. PROGRESS
A. Research Contributions
1. Research in process
a. In Brazil:
1) The project in Brazil during FY 86 added 24 new fungal
isolates to the culture collection of entomopathogens at CNPAF, thereby increasing its potential for microbial control of insect pests in cowpeas and other crops. The same isolates were shared with the USDA collection at BTI.
2) Very high pathogenicity resulted from direct spraying of the fungus Beauvaria bassiana onto larvae of the Chalcodermus aeneus weevil of cowpea.
3) Preliminary research in the ecology and epizootiology of entomopathogens is providing basic information for improving microbial control of the cowpea pests.
4) Simple-technology formulations of B. bassiana and
Metharhizium anisopliae are in the initial stage of development at CNPAF, for low-cost control of coleopteran cowpea pests in Brazil.
b. In the US:
1) At BTI, refinements of laboratory bioassay protocol have revealed the extremely high infection potential of the fungus Erynia radicans against Empoasca leafhoppers.
2) Additional basic information has been gathered on moisture and temperature requirements as well as on invasion processes of E. radicans into Empoasca fabae leafhopper, a major insect pest of beans, cowpeas.and other leguminous crops.
3) New protectants are being researched to prevent rapid
loss of activity in entomopathogenic fungus formulations, especially in those based on B. bassiana and M. anisopliae.




-25
4) Work with E. radicans dry mycelium is showing great
potential for possible control of the forage legume
alfalfa and beans in the US and suggesting that introduction of the fungus into cowpea fields showing closed
canopy would prevent leafhopper populations from
increasing to severely damaging levels.
2. Research results disseminated and in use
a. Isolates of B. bassiana, M. anisopliae and E. radicans from
the project are reported to be in experimental use at several institutions in Brazil, but they are not being used by cowpea
producers. Isolates of E. radicans are being field tested
in two states of the US.
b. Research results about the dried-mycelium inoculation
technique have been widely disseminated in the US, Brazil
and other countries.
3. Other research-related results
a. Over 200 isolates of fungal entomopathogens are being preserved at CNPAF and BTI, and some of them have been exchanged
with interested institutions in Brazil and elsewhere.
b. Eventual development of simple-technology, low-cost entomopathogen formulations will facilitate insect pest control at
the small-farm level, especially benefitting cowpea production in the LDCs.
B. Changes in National Production
From 1970 through 1983 in Northeastern Brazil, which is the major
cowpea-producing region of the country, the area planted inceased by 2.2 percent, but yields decreased by 7.6 percent, causing an output
reduction of 5.4 percent per year.
From approximately 500 kg/ha in the early 1970s, yields were about
half that much in the early 1980s with few exceptions. These figures
are at best rough estimates, since statistics on cowpea production
in the country are normally pooled with those on common bean production. Total cowpea production may have increased in the NE region
since 1984-1986 (informal communication from CNPAF), but not as a
direct result of the project.
Though the scientific achievements of the project are satisfactory
and promising, no operational product has emerged as yet. It
therefore has not affected cowpea output in the country.
C. Training
The CRSP-sponsored training program in the project is as follows:




-26
1. Numbers and kinds in process
US: 1 Ph.D.
1 M.S.
Non-US: 4 M.S.
2. Numbers and kinds completed during FY 86
US: None
Non-US: 12 technicians
D. Institutional Development
1. The new CNPAF administration recognizes the Insect Pathology
Laboratory on its campus as an integral part of its National
Cowpea Research Program.
2. The project has sponsored training of five professionals from
Brazil at the M.S. degree level. They are expected to decisively
contribute toward the strengthening of research in microbial
control of insect pests in the country's farming systems.
3. Actions are being taken to enroll the HC Principal Investigator
in a Ph.D. degree program in the US under Brazilian sponsorship.
4. The next short course in microbial control of bean/cowpea pests
is scheduled for June 1987 at CNPAF. II. FUNDING/FISCAL MANAGEMENT
A. Custody and Maintenance of Vehicles and Equipment
1. Inventory/records--Not available
2. Accountable individuals and institutions--Adequate
B. Audit/Project Management Reviews
No audit requested. Management review accomplished 1986.
C. Adequacy of Funding
1. AID--Marginally adequate and unpredictable
2. Host Country--Satisfactory
3. US Institution--Satisfactory
D. Problems
1. The project continued to receive unpredictable amount of money
from CRSP during FY 86.




-27
2. Restrictive rules at AID on the purchasing of non-US-manufactured
equipment and similar rules adopted by the Brazilian Goverment
on imports caused serious difficulties in the procurement of
non-expendable equipment for the project from CRSP funds.
E. Adequacy of Current Policies and Procedures
Current policies and procedures on the use of funds and commodities
and follow-up, both at CNPAF and BTI, seem to be adequate although
the administrative paper work may be excessive.
III. PLANS FOR 1987
A. Research in HC and US
1. Research in 1987 will continue to be centered on E. radicans, B.
bassiana and M. anisopliae.
2. In the HC, development of simple technology formulations of
entomopathogenic fungi (especially B. bassiana and M. anisopliae)
and field/laboratory studies on E. radicans will be emphasized
as will research on the impact of entomopathogens on non-target
insects.
3. In the US, research will focus principally on entomopathogen
enetration processes (especially in leafhoppers and chrysomelid
eetles). Techniques for prolonging the effectiveness of
entomopathogenic formulation will be further advanced.
B. Expected Changes
In addition to the change in research emphasis, there will be some
modification in research team composition. Dr. J. Lord will be replaced by Dr. S. P. Wraight in Brazil. The latter and Dr. S.
Galaini-Wraight will be replaced by an insect pathology/microbial
control specialist at BTI.
IV. STATUS
A. Appropriateness of Activities to Goals of Global Plan
The work on microbial control of insect pests in cowpeas is quite
appropriate for meeting the objectives of the Global Plan by attempting to remove severe insect constraints to bean/cowpea
production worldwide.
B. Balance between Research and Training
The balance between research and training in the project has been
excellent.




-28
C. Balance of US versus Overseas Activities
The project has maintained a remarkable balance between US and HC activities with respect to program constraints, especially in its training segment. In research, the more sophisticated laboratory
studies at BTI are completed with the more applied field work in the
HC.
D. Level of Collaboration between US and Host Country
The level of collaboration between the US and HC institutions and professional personnnel on the project has been extremely high and
effective.
E. Relative Contributions of Collaborating Institutions and Individuals
toward Accomplishment of Objectives
The US and HC institutions and personnel have contributed in a balanced way toward achieving project objectives, coupling the
advanced scientific knowledge and experience of BTI with the
eagerness and drive of ClJPAF.
F. Interest, Involvement and Support of USAID Mission and/or US Embassy
The FY 86 report seems to suggests that the interest, involvement and support of USAID, through the US Embassy/Brazil, have markedly
increased with regard to the project.
G. Domestic and International Linkages and Cooperation/Collaboration
The domestic linkages of the project are extensive and effective.
International relationships need to be strengthened.
H. Cost Effectiveness, Especially Regarding Level of Activity versus
Funding
The project seems to be cost effective when judged on the number of
professionals trained, amount of research performed and voluntary
institutional support received in relation to effective CRSP budget
consumed.
I. Institutionalization of Host Country Component
The project is on its way to being firmly institutionalized at CNPAF.
Its Insect Pathology Laboratory there is bound to play the role of
an active resource center for insect pathology research-*in Brazil
and other countries.
V. PUBLICATIONS
Outstanding--In FY 86, twenty publications ranging from book chapters
and journal articles to notes in technical bulletins have been produced
by~authors or co-authors from the project.




-29
VI. OVERALL RATING: 1--Highly Satisfactory
Insect pathology is developing worldwide in both developing and developed
countries (including the US) as a means of controlling pests. This
project has been able to utilize the environmental diversity and the
relatively advanced infrastructure of Brazil to explore the prospects of
this line of bio-control research for developing countries.




-30
1986 EEP REVIEW
CAMEROON/UNIVERSITY OF GEORGIA BEAN/COWPEA CRSP PROJECT
"Pest Management Strategies for Optimizing Cowpea Yields in Cameroon"
The Cameroon project is not being reviewed for FY 86 because plans are underway to restructure the project. The EEP wishes, nevertheless, to record its appreciation of the technical quality of the work by the University of Georgia under the direction of Dr. Richard C. Chalfant in Cameroon. The Cameroon has made substantial progress in building a capacity to do cowpea research. The EEP notes the important, effective work of Dr. Moffi Ta'Ama.




-31
1986 EEP REVIEW
DOMINICAN REPUBLIC/UNIVERSITY OF NEBRASKA BEAN/COWPEA CRSP PROJECT
"Biology, Epidemiology, Genetics and Breeding for Resistance to Pathogens of Beans with Emphasis on Those Causing Bacterial and Rust Diseases"
I. PROGRESS
A. Research Contributions
1. Research in process
a. US--Nebraska
Ongoing studies in the US have provided a basic set of tools
that are being used in a number of experiments, including the
cloning of virulence and pathogenicity genes of Xanthomonas
campestris pv. phaseoli (Xcp). Due to the simplicity of the methodologies, technical persons from the DR will be able to conduct similar epidemiology studies in their country. The
studies may also provide information as to why cultivars bred
in the US under long photoperiods for resistance to common blight are susceptible in the tropics and why susceptible
tropical lines in the DR are moderately tolerant under long
days in Nebraska.
Inheritance studies indicate that single plant selection for
resistance would not be effective in early generations.
Lines should be evaluated for resistance in replicated tests
in advanced generations.
Studies in the variation of rust virulence indicate a major
effect of environment on the appearance of pathogen races
rather than a selection of host genotypes. Hence, resistance
genes must be identified in both field and greenhouse trials
for use in a breeding program.
In seed hardness studies, genotype x temperature x humidity
and genotype x date of planting x humidity x temperature
interactions were observed.
b. US--Puerto Rico
Work on beans at the University of Puerto Rico provides useful background data and a location for screening of
materials from Nebraska, CIAT and other projects.




-32
c. HC--Dominican Republic
Replicated disease nurseries were conducted over different
planting dates at several locations to detect sources of
disease resistance and improved yields. An important collection of variants of Pompadour germplasm was also
evaluated. The red-mottled bean PC-157 (Type I) yielded well under stress conditions and appears promising for small-scale
farmer situations; however, the seed size of Type I and Type
II red-mottled lines is too small for consumer acceptance.
An experiment was conducted to study the effect of location
of production, type of storage container and months in
storage on germination and water uptake of eight varieties.
Germination was affected by all three factors but amount of
water uptake at twenty-four hours did not differ among
varieties.
2. Research results disseminated and in use
Foundation seed of two recently released and recommended small, red-mottled cultivars and one black-seeded variety was produced and will be increased for distribution to small growers in the
DR. The small white Arroyo Loro #1 is now being grown in the DR.
However, this type of bean occupies only a small part of the bean
production. A testing method to screen for resistance to ashy
stem blight was developed in the DR and is now used in screening and genetic studies. The importance of leaf age in screening for
resistance to rust was detected and has led to standardization of age to provide a consistent comparison between lines within
and between tests.
3. Other research-related results
a. Germplasm conservation and use
Germplasm collections for use in genetics, breeding and plant
pathological and physiological experiments are maintained
under suitable conditions in the DR, PR and NE.
b. Seed production
The project has cooperated with the Seed Department of the
Ministry of Agriculture (SEA) in the DR in producing 5.3 million tons of foundation seed of PC-150, Bat 1412-CIAT,
and PC-157.
c. Impact of other CRSP-produced or recommended technology
The annual report states that "the introduction of the new
disease resistant varieties served to increase (also
stabilize) yield, produce a better quality seed for consumer




-33
use and reduce costs of production (no fungicide needed)".
(The underline is the reviewer's.) Review of the report
indicates no evidence to substantiate this statement.
d. Cooperation with CIAT
Several activities (training, testing and workshops) have
been held in cooperation with CIAT.
e. Needs of small-scale farmers and women
Disease resistant varieties will reduce costs for those
farmers who spray and will increase yields for small
producers. But again, no evidence is presented and statements are futuristic.
B. Changes in National Production
The years 1982 and 1985 are compared. For red-mottled beans, the most important in the country, production increased 26 percent (21
percent increase in area and 5 percent increase in yield). The
figures presented for black beans have an error so no comparison can be made. A comparison of only two years is hardly adequate to show
trends.
C. Training
Three students from the DR are expected to complete two M.S. and one
Ph.D. degrees at UNL in 1987-89. Two will attend UPR for M.S.
degrees programmed for completion in 1988. Two of the three at UNL
are financed by LASPAU.
1. Numbers and kinds in process
US: None
Non-US: 4 M.S.
1 B.S.
2. Numbers and kinds completed during FY 86
US: None
Non-US: 1 M.S.
1 B.S.
31 non-degree
D. Institutional Development
1. Changes in 1986
None reported




-34
2. Changes over life of project
An identifiable bean program now exists in the DR. Before 1981
only a loose legume program geared to testing CIAT lines existed.
A breeding/research bean program commitment was made by the SEA
of the former government.
3. In prospect
To be discussed with the new government will be the objective
that the DR pay most or all of the current Title XII bean personnel so that when the project is terminated, the bean
research program will be maintained at a high level of activity.
At the present time, the project is paying 100 percent of the
salary of 19 persons in the DR, including the HC PI, and part of
the salary (an average of 21.4 percent) of another 17 persons.
Future prospects for the project look dim given the perpetual
state of the budget in the DR and the rather drastic swings in funding and program when the government changes. With such a
large component being paid by CRSP funds, it is difficult to have
confidence in the institutionalization of the project in the HC.
II. FUNDS/FISCAL MANAGEMENT
A. Custody and Maintenance of Vehicles and Equipment
All items appear in an inventory in Appendix A of the report.
B. Audit/Project Management Reviews
An audit was conducted at UNL in July 1986. The CRSP Management
Entity has scheduled an audit in the DR in early 1987. The report
from an AID review of this project in 1986 is not yet available.
C. Adequacy of Funding
1. AID--Reported as generally not adequate. Also lack of forward
funding for the "new" grant caused many problems at all three locations. The decrease in funding is reducing basic research
under the project.
2. Host Country--Financial management reported efficient in the HC
over the past year because of reorganization in the SEA.
3. US university--Funding reductions, combined with reduced state
and industry support, are reported to have seriously eroded
research capacity at UNL. Note: No mention was made of effect
at UPR.




-35
D. Problems
Budgeting is reported as being more difficult each year with less
money and more reporting. The HC nearly lost the bean program due
to an election transition when no funds were available for two
months.
E. Adequacy of Current Policies and Procedures
Over-regulation and over-reporting, reported to limit research time,
requires some solution.
III. PLANS FOR 1987
The EEP recommends that the Technical Committee review and approve plans
for 1987 with respect to the work being done in the Dominican Republic, particularly with regard to seed size and color. There is need at UPR to develop a selection and breeding strategy to improve disease resistance in large-seeded beans. The work on small-seeded beans may be
useful for other countries.
IV. STATUS
A. Appropriateness of Activities to Goals of Global Plan
The work to develop stable genetic resistance to rust and to common
blight and to other diseases is fully appropriate to the Global Plan.
B. Balance between Research and Training
Excellent
C. Balance of US versus Overseas Activities
Integration of the UNL and UPR components has improved and will
continue to improve since the projects .merged with UPR providing an
effective interface between UNL and the DR. Efforts should be
focused to evaluate materials over a wide range of environmental
conditions in the DR to enhance progress in developing adapted and
preferred varieties.
D. Level of Collaboration between US and Host Country
Appears to be fully adequate given the problems of the changing
government in the DR
E. Relative Contributions of Collaborating Institutions and Individuals
toward Accomplishment of Objectives
Sati sf ac tory




-36
F. Interest, Involvement and Support of USAID Mission and/or US Embassy
Fully satisfactory
G. Domestic and International Linkages and Cooperation/Collaboration
Strong linkages exist within the organizations and disciplines with
which the PIs are associated and with CIAT. Linkages with other
projects within this CRSP should be improved.
H. Cost Effectiveness, Especially Regarding Level of Activity versus
Funding
Difficult to evaluate for this specific project. The general argument that the funds leverage a large amount of scientific expertise
otherwise not working on this specific effort in a coordinated manner
is relevant and sound. The capability the project provides for
evaluating materials across climates is valuable and is resulting in
new discoveries which probably would have been longer in coming in
the absence of the project. The outlook is for improved disease
resistant cultivars for both the US and tropical situations which should reduce costs of production and improve productivity of the
resources used. However, it would appear that the output of the HC
component is not in keeping with the number of persons directly
employed by the project in the DR.
I. Institutionalization of Host Country Component
An identifiable bean program now exists in HC, and a breeding/
research commitment was made by the SEA of the former government.
Until the new government takes action, the permanence of this
progress will be uncertain. Because of the large number of persons in the HC on the payroll of the CRSP (including the HC PI), it does
not appear certain that the project will be successfully
institutionalized.
V. PUBLICATIONS
Fully acceptable--Several presentations were made by project personnel
during the year and there is an impressive list of articles published or
accepted for publication.
VI. OVERALL RATING: 2--Satisfactory pending appropriate review by the
Technical Committee and CRSP authorities
With the merger of the UNL and UPR components, the division of research seems to be progressing well and in a coordinated manner. The DR component should be reviewed in-depth to ascertain if improvements can be
made in the process of developing adapted disease resistant and preferred cultivars. The review should also address the size of the payroll in the
HC and the potential for institutionalizing a bean program in the DR as well as the appropriateness of hardness research at UHL and seed deterioration in storage research in the DR.




-37
1986 EEP REVIEW
GUATEMALA/CORNELL UNIVERSITY BEAN/COWPEA CRSP PROJECT
"Agronomic, Sociological and Genetic Aspects of Bean Yield and Adaptation"
I. PROGRESS
A. Research Contributions
This report Was particularly difficult to evaluate. In the FY 86
Annual Report, the account of work done in 1986 consists almost
entirely of statements of a general, repetitive and rhetorical
nature, unsupported by specific observational or experimental data.
Only in the light of other knowledge of the phenological, morphological and physiological components of the yield of indeterminate
plants in specific locations is it possible to assess what may
actually have been done in this project in FY 86.
1. Research in process
The research has been directed to better understanding the
factors--physiological and morphological characteristics of
beans--that determine crop yield. The report indicates that
ocedureshave been developed which allow these characteristics elected in early generations after crosses. It seems likely that these procedures will be more efficient and thus
less costly than conventional selection for yield alone in large 9 opulations. The sociological component of this project is now
eing handled by collaborators in Guatemala.
2. Research results disseminated and in use
The above philosophy for improving the efficiency of breeding for
higher bean yield are in use in both Guatemala and New York. As
this work began, inclusion of the whole-plant yield-system made
it difficult to explain. The current more holistic inclusion of
time duration and rates is not difficult to comprehend, and its
application facilitates improved efficiency of breeding for
higher yield. Acceptance and application by other breeders will
require time and favorable results but should be forthcoming.
With this prospect, a symposium on breeding for higher yield will
be conducted in Guatemala in April 1987, and a similar but more
in-depth symposium will be conducted in the US in the near future.
3. Other research-related results
a. Guatemala
Analysis was completed on 1984 data collected from the F2
populations of the six possible crosses among four Guatemalan




-38
cultivars of different maturities, each planted the same day
at three different locations: 1786 meters, 19 degrees; 895
meters, 23 degrees; and 50 meters, 29 degrees. Compared with
the high and low temperatures, the intermediate temperature reduced the range and variation of days to flowering for all
six crosses. This indicates limited expression of genetic
differences by the different F2 genotypes at the intermediate temperatures, which have the fewest days to flowering
and the lowest variability.
The inheritance of maturity of climbing beans for the
tropical highlands of Guatemala was shown to be controlled
by only one or two genes, similar to the inheritance for
bush beans.
b. New York
F2 segregation of a Redkloud (early and photoperiod insensitive) x Redkote (late and photoperiod sensitive) cross varied from no apparent gene control (all plants early in
the growth chamber under short daylength), to two genes with
dominance for earliness (in the growth chamber under long
daylength), to two genes with dominance for lateness (in the
field under long daylength and a warm night summer), to one gene with dominance for lateness (under the same long daylength but a cool night summer). The results (four flowering
phenotypes labeled early, intermediate, late, and very late)
indicate activity by zero, one, or two genes, depending on
the daylength-temperature.
In breeding for higher yielding cultivars for New York, 1985
plant weights were extremely low because of drought and
because the drought led to a large population of aphids which
brought about more bean virus than for any of the last 30
years. The summer of 1986 was the opposite, having about the most rainfall of any year. This caused the 1986 yield trials
to be destroyed by anthracnose which had never before been devastatingly present. This illustrates the ever present difficulty that yield expression is vulnerable to negative
impacts by one or only a few of its thousands of physiological genetic components.
B. Changes in National Production
In the southeast, the production per unit of land area is generally
upward because more and more farmers are using improved varieties.
However, the 1986 yields were down due to drought. New bean production is emerging in the northeast where sole cropping is being practiced. The more accessible highlands are changing from bean/maize
to vegetable production.




-39
C. Training
1. Numbers and kinds in process
US: 2 Ph.D.
Non-US: 1 M.S.
2. Numbers and kinds completed during FY 86
US: None
Non-US: None
D. Institutional Development
The Guatemalan PI now devotes nearly 100 percent of his time to the CRSP. He was made bean program leader emeritus with responsibility
to concentrate on breeding for higher yield. This was possible
because CRSP and other training permitted increasing the responsibility of bean program staff. II. FUNDING/FISCAL MANAGEMENT
A. Custody and Maintenance of Vehicles and Equipment
The inventory value of equipment and other non-expendable property
exceeds equipment purchased by $3,376. With the information furnished, it is not possible to determine the source of the
additional property. This is not viewed as a serious problem.
B. Audit/Project Management Reviews
The only review was made by the EEP. As reported, the social science component for Guatemala is now being handled by ICTA.
C. Adequacy of Funding
1. AID--Reported as adequate
2. Host Country--Funding has been adequate for biological component,
but there were some problems with international transfer of
funds. Additional funds may be needed for FY 87-88 for field
testing of potential high yielding cultivars under on-farm
environments. Some may be made available by cessation of longterm training.
3. US university--Not reported
D. Problems
Management difficulties are reported for this project by the US
institution. Funds are received three to six months after the start
of the budget period. The USAID Mission has refused to assist in




-40
transferring funds into Guatemala. It is also nearly impossible to
have unspent funds returned to the US.
The 50/50 expenditure ratio is impossible to implement because the
rate of spending by the HC cannot be controlled. To maintain parity
would restrict US activity caused by delays in HC expenditures.
Resulting HC expenditure is 42.5 percent of total to date.
Equipment approval in AID continues to be woefully slow and appears
to contractor to be arbitrary.
E. Adequacy of Current Policies and Procedures
Nothing reported
III. PLANS FOR 1987
A. Guatemala
The knowledge gained about relationships among maturity, adaptation and yield will be used to divide the breeding for higher bean yield
into three efforts. One will aim to maximize yields on marginal lands (mostly steep, sloping hillsides) by developing early bush
cultivars. A second will develop later maturing cultivars for the
more productive lands. A third effort will breed higher yielding
climbing beans that are relatively early (less aggressive) and
therefore do not reduce the yields of the asssociated maize.
B. New York
Homozygous F8 genotypes will be grown under long daylength in the
field and growth chamber and under the short daylength of winter to
see if the expected two-gene and zero-gene controls will be
expressed. Yield system analysis of the International Bean Flowering
and Adaptation Nursery will be continued. Yield trials that differentiate the phenotypic and genetic components of the yield system characteristics for 100 bean accessions of multiple country origin
will be continued.
IV. STATUS
A. Appropriateness of Activities to Goals of Global Plan
The goal of elucidating the near-fully integrated components of yield
and learning how to apply them toward more efficiently breeding for
higher yield is fully appropriate.
B. Balance between Research and Training
There is no training summary in the report nor a comparison between
research and training.




-41
C. Balance of US versus Overseas Activities
Very well conceived and executed
D. Level of Collaboration/Cooperation between US and Host Country
Excellent--Among the best of the CRSP
E. Relative Contributions of Collaborating Institutions and Individuals
toward Accomplishment of Objectives
Highly balanced, near equal participation
F. Interest, Involvement and Support of USAID Mission and/or US Embassy
Little involvement or support
G. Domestic and International Linkages and Cooperation/Collaboration
Excellent
H. Cost Effectiveness, Especially Regarding Level of Activity versus
Funding
Apparently excellent--The CRSP contribution strengthens the Bean
Program in ICTA and permits a level of excellence not often found in
a developing country.
I. Institutionalization of Host Country Component
Outstanding
V. PUBLICATIONS
Perhaps could be improved--None reported for 1986. One reported for 1985
and several in process for publication in 1987. VI. OVERALL RATING: 1--Highly Satisfactory
Overall, very well balanced and productive. Appears to be making an
impact on bean breeding in Guatemala and with potential for global impact
from the breeding and selecting methods developed. The Technical Committee is invited to determinewhether more basic physiological-genetic work has reached a point of declining productivity and whether the work
of this project cannot now be carried out entirely by ICTA.




-42
1986 EEP REVIEW
HONDURAS/UNIVERSITY OF PUERTO RICO BEAN/COWPEA CRSP PROJECT
"Improvement of Bean Production in Honduras
through Breeding for Multiple Resistance"
I. PROGRESS
A. Research Contributions
1. Research in process
The University of Puerto Rico is engaged in a broad range of bean
research activities, CRSP and non-CRSP sponsored, which benefit
the CRSP directly and indirectly. The University collaborates
with several international organizations in conducting bean germplasm evaluation nurseries of special value to the CRSP.
In 1986, the following nurseries were carried out at selected
locations in Puerto Rico: the Central American Yield and Adaptation Nursery (VICAR), the International Bean Research Nursery
(IBRN), and the International Bean Golden Mosaic Nursery (IBGMN).
CRSP funding has supported the screening of disease resistant bean germplasm for biological nitrogen fixation, the screening
of Honduran varieties for resistance to common mosaic, and an
investigation of seed-borne pathogens associated with seed grown by small-scale farmers. These several bean research activities
underway, CRSP and non-CRSP, are complementary and supplementary.
The CRSP bean research being carried out in Honduras is linked directly to and benefits greatly from research in Puerto Rico;
in fact, the Honduran work appears to be largely an extension of some of the work underway in Puerto Rico. Through the CRSP, the strong bean program in Puerto Rico is brought into direct, close
support of bean improvement in Honduras--a good example of
effective international collaboration.
The bean breeding program in Honduras, which seeks to develop small, red-seeded bean germplasm with multiple disease resistance, holds great promise because yields of beans are quite low
due mainly to susceptibility of existing cultivars t6 various
diseases. An extensive crossing program is underway with progeny
being tested in Puerto Rico as well as in Honduras. The CRSP
work in Honduras is being conducted by Dr. Silvio Zuluaga at the
Escuela Agricola Panamericana (EAP) for the Government of
Honduras. Dr. Zuluaga's research in the Zamorano Valley is
directed toward developing desirable cultivars (small, red-seeded
beans) with resistance to local strains and races of pathogens-a highly appropriate line of research. Very likely, this
Honduran research could produce results of value elsewhere in




-43
Central America. The development of this research appears to be
in its early stages--some years away from producing improved
varieties for farmer-use.
2. Research results disseminated and in use
None reported
3. Other research-rel ated results
None reported
B. Changes in National Production
1. Hectares
Over the past twenty years, there has been an increase from
73,000 ha to 83,000 ha, an increase of 10,000 ha--less than 14
percent in twenty years.
2. Yields
Bean yields in Honduras have been stagnant at about 600 kg/ha,
plus or minus, over the past twenty years.
3. Production
Production during the period 1961 -65 averaged 48,000 tons. In
1984, production was estimated at 52,000 tons.
C. Training
1. Numbers and kinds in process
US: 1 M.S.
Non-US: 1 M.S.
1 B.S.
2. Numbers and kinds completed during FY 86
US: None
Non-US: None
D. Institutional Development
Substantial progress in developing a capacity in Honduras to conduct
quality bean research is being reported. This change is said to be
the result of attention and arrangements made by the Honduran
Ministry of Natural Resources and by the EAP. The External Evaluation Panel has been critical of the EAP arrangement. As a private
institution, the EAP has been judged as being an inappropriate institution for CRSP research. Recent events suggest that this judgement
may not be valid under the circumstances prevailing in Honduras.




-44
The efforts directed towards the improvement of grain legumes,
including beans, by the Government of Honduras in association with
several government agencies and organizations and the EAP are
reported to be impressive and worthy of re-evaluation. Because of favorable policies and actions taken by the Government of Honduras, existing circumstances in Honduras and the urgent need for progress
in bean improvement, the appropriateness of CRSP bean research
arrangements should be re-appraised. The existing arrangement with
the EAP may be satisfactory for CRSP activities. CRSP authorities may wish to discuss the arrangements, especially financial inputs,
with the Director of Research, Ministry of Natural Resources,
Government of Honduras, and secure an appropriate Memorandum of
Understanding.
II. FUNDING/FISCAL MANAGEMENT
A. Custody and Maintenance of Vehicles and Equipment
Reports indicate satisfactory arrangements and/or actions taken
during year
B. Audit/Project Management Reviews
No audit made or requested. The report of an AID review of this
project in 1986 is not yet available.
C. Adequacy of Funding
AID funding reductions in Puerto Rico and Honduras have caused some
retrenchment and delays in conduct of scheduled activities. The PIS
report . $50,000 is the absolute minimum needed to maintain a
credible Bean/Cowpea CRSP project in Honduras."
D. Problems
Mid-year reductions in funding caused "considerable disruption" in
project activities and added/unexpected expenses (leave pay for
employees discharged because of funding reduction). Delays in
reporting quarterly funding requirements by Honduras (EAP) to the University of Puerto Rico presented some funding problems for the
EAP.
A major concern of the PIs is the level of assured funding. Uncertainty does not favor effective planning and execution of project
activities and delays progress toward achievement of objectives.
III. PLANS FOR 1987
The PIs have developed a coordinated plan for 1987 which continues
previous research. It builds logically on and extends the work underway.
There is no deviation/diversion of planned activities away from project targets and objectives. Subject to the CRSP Technical Committee's final




-45
approval, the plan is judged to be a sound and adequate blueprint to
follow toward achievement of objectives. IV. STATUS
A. Appropriateness of Activities to the Global Plan
Fully appropriate--Advances in securing small, red-seeded, diseaseresistant, early-maturing bean cultivars in Honduras are valuable
and useful elsewhere in Central America.
B. Balance between Research and Training
Satisfactory
C. Balance of US versus Overseas Activities
Excellent--Well-thoughtout division of effort and an equitable,
appropriate division of funds
D. Level of Collaboration between US and Host Country
Satisfactory
E. Relative Contributions of Collaborating Institutions and Individuals
toward Accomplishment of Objectives
Balanced, complementary and supplementary
F. Interest, Involvement and Support of USAID Mission and/or US Embassy
Adequate
G. Domestic and International Linkages and Cooperation/Collaboration
Satisfactory (domestic) to Excellent (international)
H. Cost Effectiveness, Especially Regarding Level of Activity versus
Funding
Appears to be quite effective. A small amount of CRSP funds appears to be leveraging substantial Puerto Rican and Honduran funds as well
as benefitting from inputs of several regional and international
agencies.
I. Institutionalization of Host Country Component
Uncertain, but outlook appears promising V. PUBLICATIONS
Adequate/satisfactory




-46
VI. OVERALL RATING: 2--Satisfactory
With the arrival of Dr. Zuluaga, bean research in Honduras has increased
and its focus has been sharpened. Strongly supported by the University
of Puerto Rico, integrated into a national grain legume research network,
and adequately accommodated and funded at the EAP, prospects for this
CRSP project to achieve its objectives and contribute to the Global Plan have improved dramatically. If arrangements for the EAP to be the CRSP
institutional host in Honduras are deemed appropriate, the project is
judged fully satisfactory for continued support without changes. Given
the location of the CRSP PI at the EAP in Zamorano Valley, CRSP officials
may wish to monitor closely relationships with bean research at other
Honduran locations under the Ministry of Natural Resources. In this
connection, CRSP officials may wish to secure a Memorandum of Understanding that details the relationships between the EAP, the Ministry and the
University of Puerto Rico. Perhaps an annual workplan for EAP/Ministry
activities would be desirable.




-47
1986 EEP REVIEW
INCAP/WASHINGTON STATE UNIVERSITY BEAN/COWPEA CRSP PROJECT
"Improved Biological Utilization and Availability of Dry Beans"
The External Evaluation Panel did not find it possible to evaluate the annual report as submitted. It was unable to distinguish work done in 1986 with CRSP funding from work done in earlier years or with other funding. Similarly, the EEP was not convinced that the work proposed for 1987 could be accomplished with the CRSP budget as proposed. The EEP therefore requests that a revised report be submitted, confined strictly to work done in 1986 with CRSP funding and work proposed for 1987 with CRSP funding. The EEP reiterates the suggestion made at the last meeting that this project should concentrate on the hard-to-cook phenomenon. Such a restriction would allow a decrease in funding requirements.




-48
1986 EEP REVIEW
MALAWI/MICHIGAN STATE UNIVERSITY BEAN/COWPEA CRSP PROJECT
"Genetic, Agronomic and Socio-Cultural Analysis of Diversity among Bean Landraces in Malawi"
I. PROGRESS
A. Research Contributions
1. The stable yield of mixtures of bean seeds raised a question
about whether or not genotypic shifts occur in farmers' fields
and what would be the significance of such changes.
Progeny of 980 single seeds in the germplasm collection (1600
accessions) at Bunda College were planted and data on nine
measurements were accumulated. The remaining accessions will be
treated similarly after they are planted in November 1986. A complete catalog of information is expected to be available by
the end of 1987.
Sixty-six collections of bean mixtures from three regions of
Malawi have been increased twice at Bunda. Fluctuation in seed
types observed from two generations of multiplication will be
analyzed.
A manuscript on advantages of competition in intraspecific
mixtures has been prepared by Dr. Eric Ayeh.
Grower selection of seed has not produced more uniform mixtures
over time. Seed exchanges sometimes occur but removal of damaged
seeds at planting time may be the principal method of selection.
Some dietary and culinary preferences may exert a certain amount of influence on selection, but seed shortages do also. Data from
in-depth questionnaires and observations of farm families will be analyzed at MSU where necessary computation facilities are
available.
Assay of six isozymes in Malawian beans has been accumulated for
85 percent of 375 selected lines. Variability has been limited to two major patterns, rather than the sixty-four possible patterns of alleles expected. Large-seeded beans have the set of alleles called Pattern A and small-seeded beans have Pattern B.
These two patterns also distinguish large-seeded beans and smallseeded beans from cultures in North and South America and thus
do not appear to be the result of natural selection for adaptation to environmental pressure in Malawi. Barriers to crossing the two germplasm groups are known to exist in the Americas and
in Africa. In Malawi, genetic diversity of fifteen bean landraces was implied by analysis of twenty-one different measured




-49
phenotypic traits (G. Martin, M. S. thesis). Because the isozymes studied are considered primary gene products, the diverse
phenotypic findings are not compatible with the observed limited
number of isozyme patterns. The previous hypothesis of genetic
structure or organization of Malawian landraces must now be
reassessed.
2. Publications
a. Two papers by Martin and Adams have been accepted for
publication in Economic Botany in 1987.
b. A chapter on structure of bean landraces has been prepared
by Adams for book on Evolution and Domestication of
Phaseolus, edited by P. Gepts.
c. Short article by Adams has been accepted for publication in
Diversity (journal).
d. Paper (poster session) presented by S. Morss-Sprecher at
International Legume Symposium in June 1986 in St. Louis, MO.
e. Barnes-McConnell has submitted a manuscript entitled "Keepers
of the Trust" to CERES for possible publication.
f. Host Country researchers--no publications or papers cited. B. Changes in National Production--NA
C. Training
Two M.S. students have returned to Bunda College and are teaching but
are not engaged in research. Two additional Malawians are studying
for the doctoral degree at MSU (one in food science, one in plant
physiology) and a third Malawian is expected within the current
extension period. Two US doctoral students are also being trained
on this project.
1. Numbers and kinds in process
US: 2 Ph.D.
Non-US: 2 Ph.D.
2. Numbers and kinds completed during FY 86
US: None
Non-US: 2 M.S.
D. Institutional Development
Institutionalization of bean research in Malawi has made no significant progress in 1986. Funding in Malawi is largely provided by the
CRSP.




-50
II. FUNDING/FISCAL MANAGEMENT
A. Custody and Maintenance of Vehicles and Equipment
Maintenance and custody of vehicles and other equipment in Malawi is
the responsibility of the HC PI, Dr. Wilson Msuku, Bunda College.
B. Audit/Project Management Reviews
No audit has been conducted or requested.
C. Adequacy of Funding
Funds are tight, limiting certain activities and reducing domestic and foreign travel. The HC in-kind contribution has included land
for field experiments and technical support. III. PLANS FOR 1987
A. Research
1. US research
a. Complete isozyme analyses of Malawian landraces
b. Continue restriction endonuclease analysis of genetic diversity
c. Finish the thesis research of a Malawian student on drought resistance in Malawian beans d. Complete analysis of socio-cultural data obtained in 1984-86 and integrate and interpret all data obtained in MSU project
2. Host Country research
a. Continue measuring genetic changes in landrace populations
over time, using farmer cooperators in two areas and in both natural and contrived conditions at Bunda b. Continue evaluation of germplasm for resistance to pests and diseases
c. Conduct follow-up socio-cultural research to clarify issues raised by data obtained from 1984 to 1986 d. Initiate social science studies in the central region
B. Expected Changes
1. Dr. Anne Ferguson has replaced Dr. P. Barnes-McConnell as the
social scientist on the project.




2. If funds are available and teaching commitment at Bunda College
allows, bring one or more faculty personnel more actively into
the program.
IV. STATUS
A. Appropriateness of Activities to Goals of Global Plan
Studies on genetic diversity and its maintenance in Malawi have
significance beyond the national interest and have global significance in the broad area of germplasm resources.
B. Balance between Research and Training
Teaching likely has been strengthened at Bunda College, but research
time is not yet available, or in only limited amounts, for faculty
members.
C. Balance of US versus Overseas Activities
From 1987, most research should be conducted in Malawi and training
in the US.
D. Level of Collaboration between US and Host Country
Collaboration has been satisfactory but too little time allocated to
research at Bunda College.
E. Relative Contributions of Collaborating Institutions and Individuals
toward Accomplishment of Objectives
Most of the recent research in Malawi has been conducted by MSU
personnel in Malawi.
F. Interest, Involvement and Support of USAID Mission and/or US Embassy
USAID Mission personnel have changed so additional efforts may be necessary to inform them about the project and gain their support.
G. Domestic and International Linkages and Cooperation/Collaboration
A trip by Dr. E. Ayeh, Bunda College, to the CIAT bean project in
Rwanda has been supported. Some germplasm from Malawi has been used
in MSU's breeding program for possible distribution to Michigan
producers.
H. Cost Effectiveness, Especially Regarding Level of Activity versus
Funding
No information provided




-52
I. Institutionalization of Host Country Component
Little evidence of institutionalization at Bunda College, primarily because local funds are not available. All reports of project progress, however, are submitted to the Director of Research in the Ministry of Agriculture for his use in development of the Annual
Guide to Agriculture Production in Malawi. This publication,---wich
has a section on beans, is provided to all extension agents and many
farmers.
V. PUBLICATIONS
Satisfactory--See I.A.2.
VI. OVERALL RATING: 3--Satisfactory
Project is judged satisfactory; however, in January 1986 the EEP recommended that phaseout of this project be considered. The EEP reiterates
this recommendation because the project appears to have completed its
tasks and the EEP does not envision any further development gains in the
short-term for Malawi by its continuation. We hope the diverse genetic
materials and information will not be lost. The EEP encourages the
completion of the analysis of 1984-86 socio-cultural data.




-53
1986 EEP REVIEW
MEXICO/MICHIGAN STATE UNIVERSITY BEAN/COWPEA CRSP PROJECT
"Improving Resistance to Environmental Stress in Beans through Genetic Selection for Carbohydrate Partitioning and Efficiency of Biological N-Fixation"
I. PROGRESS
A. Research Contributions
1. Research in process
The investigations reported for 1986 are as follow:
a. Mexico
1) Field screening and testing for adaptation to dry conditions
a) Two hundred entries selected for further testing out of thirty-five hundred grown out at Durango (moderate drought in August after flowering) and Augascalientes (severe drought before flowering). Prostrate lines with small leaves and many small pods (described as semi-domesticated) and "cacahuete" types (whatever they may be) are reported to be well adapted to dry conditions. The report does not say how many of the selected lines did well under dry conditions at both locations.
b) One hundred eighty-four entries selected out of fifteen hundred tested in 1985 were grown as a "drought nursery" at four locations. Ten named entries "performed well" under drought.
c) Forty-nine entries (described as genotypes) derived from initial screening in 1984 and selected from the drought nursery of 1985 were tested under irrigated, rainfed and droughted (presumably by rain shelters) conditions. Two named entries were well adapted. Their names do not appear among the ten mentioned in the preceding paragraph.
d) A nursery of sixteen entries from an earlier screening was grown at six locations. Two named entries appeared outstanding, but once again their names are new. However, these varieties are thought likely to be useful commercially in Zacatecas and Durango.




-54
e) A number of attributes (not specified except for leaf
water potential and leaf temperature) were measured
or recorded on sixteen varieties grown under
undefined "stressed" and "unstressed" conditions at Durango. This is a continuation of a similar trial
in 1985, the analysis of which is mentioned below.
No quantitative data on yields, even of the successful entries, or on the time courses of the water
balances through the seasons at the different locations are presented in the report. It is not
possible to tell how consistent the results were, how
marked was the success of the successful entries, or
how far variations in the nature of the dry conditions may explain differences among varieties and
sites. No one entry appears to have been successful in all trials: one might have thought that successful entries from earlier years would be included in
later trials to provide some standard of reference
or comparison. It does not seem that any useful general conclusions can be drawn to guide future
breeding or agronomic research.
b) Rhizobium
Sixty strains of R. phaseoli were tested for "fixation
efficiency" in the glasshouse and twenty-five were
studied for survival in the field at Zacatecas in 1986.
No data are yet available. Three hundred entries (lines)
of beans were tested in 1985 for "N-fixation efficiency"
in a drought nursery at Chapingo, with and without inoculation and with varying levels of N and P fertilizer.
One hundred fifty of them were similarly grown in 1986.
No data are offered.
Without any numbers at all, it is not possible to evaluate these reports or to feel confident that they will
lead, some day, to a Rhizobium industry or to the incorporation of characters conferring superior N-fixing ability on host plants into the breeding program in
Mexico. Some of the best talents in the world in this
field are associated with the Bean/Cowpea CRSP. In the
100th year after the seminal publication by Wilfarth and
Hellriegel, ought we not to be doing better than this?
b. United States--MSU
1) Field studies
Field studies of the effects of dry conditions on entries
of beans were conducted at Prosser, Washington; in Montcalm County, Michigan (two trials); and at MSU.




-55
a) The Prosser experiment used a line source sprinkler
system to compare the effects of subsoiling and
distance from source on the growth and yield of nine
entries. No data are offered on the quantities of water present in the profile before the trial began
or on the differences in water regime associated with
the differences in position. Although the site
appears to have been so variable that the report
questions the value of an "in-depth" analysis, it
would have been helpful to go as far as the calculation of treatment means and an analysis of variance.
It is clear that subsoiling had little average effect
and that there was a substantial and consistent main
effect of position. Without an analysis of variance,
it is not possible to separate what look like real
differences between entries in potential yield from the entry x position interaction, which is what the
experiment was intended to measure and analyze. The most important thing is to analyze and interpret the primary data. In the absence of that analysis, some
interesting flirtations with ratios and some selected
tabulations of intermediate data do not help to
explain what happened at Prosser.
However, it seems that the trial confirmed useful
adaptation to dry conditions in four of the entries.
It is suggested that the reasons for the differences
in adaptation are to be sought in the distributions
of roots, on which no information was collected.
b) In Montcalm County 1, ten navy and black bean entries
were grown with or without small supplemental sprinkler irrigations (2 x 1 in.)(two replications each).
Though no means are presented for the water treatment, a percentage reduction in yield associated with
"drought" is offered for each entry, and there do
seem to be important differences between the entries.
In the absence of standard errors or an analysis of variance, it is not possible to assess their significance, but the data are said to support the release
of entry N84016, more or less the first equal in yield (with the known drought adapated N~8017 [C.
Samper]) without irrigation, and more or less the
second-equal under irrigation.
No information is recorded on the water balance
conditions in this experiment, though the store of water in the soil from winter precipitation must be
important in interpreting the results.




-56
c) In Montcalm County 2, 99 lines derived from crosses
between Puebla 152 and two other entries, Jamapa and
Sanilac, backcrossed to Jamapa and Sanilac and then
selfed "to homozygosity" and tested by Dr. Fred Bliss
"for N-fixation" by the acetylene reduction method,
were grown, along with the parents and five check varieties under contrasted water conditions. The
entries covered a range of capability to fix N. The
object was to find out whether a bean genotype can
be both tolerant of drought and efficient as a
nitrogen fixer.
No data were available when the report was written.
Moreover, the report casts doubt on the logical
structure of the trial, since none of the parents is
known to have any special adaptation to dry
conditions.
d) These difficulties may be avoided in an experiment
at MSU of which the analysis has not yet been
completed. One hundred twenty-one entries of F6
material from eight CIAT crosses (presumably made in
1983), between lines varying in drought resistance
and capability to fix nitrogen, were grown, with the
parents as checks, inside and outside the rain-out
shelter at MSU. One of the parents in two of the
crosses was N81017, which C. Samper found to be
well-adapted to dry conditions in 1984. It is not
clear whether it was selected for this reason or
because it is also good at fixing nitrogen.
The data tabulated show that the shelter did indeed
decrease growth and yield, but no information is yet
available on the performance of the entries in
respect of the evidently considerable number of
variates recorded or measured. The text indicates
that N81017 was first equal in yield outside the shelter. It is to be hoped that this potentially
very interesting study will be completed.
2) Glasshouse investigations
The report includes an account by E. Watt on a
comparative study made in 1984 of the effect of
variations in water supply on the growth and partitioning of dry matter in beans and cowpeas. It is
interpreted to show that in N81017 a larger proportion of the seed weight in plants which had experienced water shortages came from materials originally derived from assimilation before anthesis, and from
anthesis to mid-podfill, than in the droughtsusceptible variety B790131. The two cowpea vari-




-57
eties did not behave according to specification, but it is clear that growth in these cowpeas differed in many respects from growth in the two bean varieties.
Much interesting material could yet be extracted
from this report.
3) Analysis of data from stress experiment at Durango,
1 985
In this experiment 22 variates or derived variates were measured or calculated for each of 16 entries
grown either under water stress or unstressed. The
experimental details are not given. The associations
among the variates, pooling all entries, were
examined for the stressed and unstressed treatments
separately, by factor analysis. This was done in such a way that all the variance was partitioned
among five factors. As the report points out, the
next stage is to imagine what the material significance of the factors may be. As interpreted, the
factors are assigned different meanings in the two conditions, three of which are more or less common
to the two conditions.
In itself, this does not in fact get us much further: its use is to form testable hypotheses to be examined
in further research. It is not clear whether this
is reflected in the proposed program for 1987, which
does however provide for the analysis of the data
from the comparable field trial at Durango in 1986.
c. United States--Minnesota
Peter Graham at Minnesota cooperates with MSU and with CIAT in evaluating bean materials for capability to fix nitrogen
and in selecting and testing strains of Rhizobium. In the
work-'on strains, 348 were screened: there were large
differences in yield (no information presented on nitrogen
fixed per unit of carbon retained) and 42 were selected for
further study.
In the work on microbial strains, clear differences were
once more found in competitiveness and effectiveness in
fixing N. Unfortunately the strains which succeed in one
experiment are not heard of in the others.
d. General comment on research
Though the title of the project refers to environmental
stress, the main constraint with which it is concerned is
"drought"; and its main defect is that the diverse natures
of drought, whether in the H-ost Country environment or in the




-58
field or glasshouse experiments in the US, are not adequately
specified, either quantitatively or qualitatively. It seems
to be implicitly assumed that drought at Aguascalientes or
Durango, at Prosser, Washington, or in Montcalm County,
Michigan, or in pots in a glasshouse are all essentially the
same and that the same attributes (or genes) will serve to
adapt a bean (or cowpea) variety to all of them.
The start of any study of drought should surely be a
description of the drought to which adaptation is sought or
which was experienced in a particular season at a particular
place, in terms of the seasonal course of the water balance
in the soil-plant-atmosphere system. No such descriptions
are offered in the report under review, with the partial
exception of Watt's pot experiment. Of course, there are
general biophysical attributes, and maybe some morphological
ones, which may be helpful in any arid environment; but if the nature of the experimental environment is so basically
different from the target environment as that of Michigan is
from that of Durango, work in it is not likely to identify or analyze the important attributes required in the target
environment.
2. Research results disseminated and in use
No improved cultivars, inoculants, tests, methods or systems have
yet gone out from this work, although some may be on the way.
3. Other research-related results
a. Germplasm conservation and use
A great deal of material is held in Mexico by INIA and in the
US by Dr. M. W. Adams and his colleagues. All the material
in the US is probably duplicated in safe storage by USDA, but
only a small portion has been evaluated or documented. The
report offers no information about the fate or future of the
thousands of lines reported from Mexico.
b. Seed production (or other materials) and distribution of
CRSP-produced cultivars (or materials)
c. Impact of other CRSP-produced or recommended technology
The report contains ho evidence that any seed or inoculum or
any new technical methods for use by farmers have so far gone
out from this project, either in the US or in Mexico. This may reflect a lacuna in the report rather than the facts of
the case.




-59
d. Contributions to and participation in international
bean/cowpea research networks, e.g. IARCs and other
Both the MSU and the University of Minnesota workers cooperate effectively with CIAT and, through CIAT and no doubt
also the US Bean Cooperative, with workers in other nations.
e. How the research findings address the needs of small-scale
farmers and women
It can be maintained that all of the work is relevant to the needs of women in their capacities as producers of food and providers of family meals. Insofar as many of the producers
of beans in the drier areas of Mexico and elsewhere are
"1small-scale farmers," they could benefit at the end of the day from a reliable supply of reliably drought-adapted bean seeds of types in demand in the home or in the market place.
B. Changes in National Production
1. Hectares planted
2. Yields per hectare
3. Total production
The report does not cover these points sufficiently. The FAQ
production yearbook 1985 and the trade yearbook 1984 record
(from Mexican official data) the following:
1979-81 1983 1984 1985
Area harvested, m ha 1.584 1.996 2.158 2.032
Yield, kg/ha 641 642 589 534
Output, m tons 1.015 1.282 1.270 1.085
1982 1983 1984 1985
Imports (pulses), tons 148,430 1,675 119,119
Exports (pulses), tons 64,664 113,714 175,510
Net imports N+ or
exports (-), tons +83,766 -112,039 -56,391
Without further information, it is not possible to interpret the
data.
C. Training
The report refers to one doctoral student in the US, one graduate
who is back in Mexico, and two dropouts from Minnesota and to some research equipment provided for the Mexican workers. Two Mexicans
are expected to graduate and return to Mexico in 1987-88.




-60
1. Numbers and kinds in process
US: None
Non-US: 1 Ph.D.
1 M.S.
2. Numbers and kinds completed during FY 86
US: None
Non-US: None
D. Institutional Development
Changes in 1986--The report says that there were none. II. FUNDING/FISCAL MANAGEMENT A. Custody and Maintenance of Vehicles and Equipment
Not reported
B. Audit/Project Management Reviews
No audit has one been requested/planned.
C. Adequacy of Funding
1. AID--Reported as not being adequate
2. Host Country--Reported as not adequate
3. US university--Satisfactory
D. Problems
Some problems in Government of Mexico funding of MSU students
E. Adequacy of Current Policies and Procedures
Reported as satisfactory III. PLANS FOR 1987
A. Research
The proposals represent a continuation of what has been done in 1986.
There are no proposals for comparative water regime or other agroclimatological studies, which seem to be essential to characterize the long- and short-term attributes of the environment. The longterm features determine the goals of the program, and the attributes
of each year are essential to explain the results obtained in it.




-61
B. Expected Changes
None reported
IV. STATUS
A. Appropriateness of Activities to Goals of Global Plan
The objectives are appropriate, but the EEP notes that a far more
specific program of physiological and morphological research on
adaptation to drought may emerge from the analysis of the mass of
data from the experiment to be conducted for a third time at Durango
in 1987.
B. Balance between Research and Training
Satisfactory
C. Balance of US versus Overseas Activities
Satisfactory
D. Level of Collaboration/Cooperation between US and Host Country
Appears to be fully satisfactory
E. Relative Contributions of Collaborating Institutions and Individuals
toward Accomplishment of Objectives
Sati sfactory
F. Interest, Involvement and Support of USAID Mission and/or US Embassy
Not applicable
G. Domestic and International Linkages and Cooperation/Collaboration
Cooperation with CIAT and with the University of Wisconsin, University of Minnesota and Washington State University/USDA seem to be
very satisfactory.
H. Cost Effectiveness, Especially Regarding Level of Activity versus
Funding
Not able to review
I. Institutionalization of Host Country Component
Seems to be fully embedded in INIA and collaborating well with the
University of Chapingo




-62
V. PUBLICATIONS
No publications in 1986
VI. OVERALL EVALUATION: 2--Satisfactory
Satisfactory for continuation with the recommendation that close
attention be given to the specific agro-ecological circumstances in
which droughts arise in different experimental situations.




-63
1986 EEP REVIEW
NIGERIA/UNIVERSITY OF GEORGIA BEAN/COWPEA CRSP PROJECT
"Appropriate Technology for Cowpea Preservation and Processing and a Study of Its Socio-Economic Impact on Rural Populations in Nigeria"
This project seeks to increase availability of cowpeas to consumers in Nigeria through improved technologies to reduce postharvest storage losses and to simplify preparation of cowpeas for human consumption by making meal/flour suitable for use in making traditional West African foods.
I. PROGRESS
A. Research Contributions
1. Research in process
a. In Nigeria
In summer 1986 University of Nigeria personnel conducted a socio-economic survey of 300 households in 11 of the 14 communities in Isi-Uzo local government area of Anambra State
(located on the northern border of the capital, Enugu). The smallest community, Ogbodu-Aba (population 4,037), was selected as the site for installation and operation of a village mill to process cowpeas. The Ogbodu-Aba Community Development Association and the community's traditional
ruler, Igwe Okwor, provided substantial material assistance
in construction of the mill. Equipment is being installed
and a team will be trained to operate the mill. It is
expected that the mill will be operational by early December,
just about the time cowpeas will be harvested locally.
The community of Ogbodu-Aba was one of the areas in which a
nutrition survey had been conducted several years earlier.
The same survey will be repeated, with some additional
information to be gathered. A subsample of the 250-300
selected households will be drawn for measurement of
four-day and seven-day weighed food intakes. (Not clear when this information will be collected--both before and after mill is operating?) The contribution of cowpeas to
nutrient intake will be monitored.
Previous studies of infant feeding practices in Anambra State
have shown that cereals, legumes, roots and tubers predominate. Cowpeas were introduced into infants' diets between
seven and twelve months by almost two-thirds of the mothers.
One-third introduced cowpeas between birth and six months
and a few only after one year. In an urban area (Onitsha),




-64
two-thirds of the mothers interviewed did not know that
cowpea flour was available in Nigerian markets. Almost 90
percent said they would be willing to buy a weaning food
based on cowpeas if it was within their financial resources.
The amount of cowpeas fed to infants was not as large as
recommended by health workers because the time required for
cooking was too long. Blends of cowpeas and corn, cowpeas
and rice, cowpeas and sorghum, and cowpeas and yams were
evaluated for biological value and net protein utilization
with growing rats. Except for the blend of cowpeas and yams, the blends of cowpeas were similar in nutritional
value. Organoleptic evaluation of the blends by 110 mothers from different economic strata indicated that acceptability
of cowpeas with corn, cowpeas with rice and cowpeas with
yams were not statistically different.
Studies of flatulence factors in cowpeas were made with
several populations in both rural and urban communities (200
households, 80 students in secondary schools, 100
undergraduate students at the University of Nigeria, 60
children). By structured questionnaire, general food habits
and consumption patterns of cowpeas are being obtained.
Oligosaccharides will be assayed in cowpea preparations and
metabolic studies will be conducted to determine stool
weight and frequency, microflora in the stool, transit time
and N balance.
Physico-chemical properties of protein fractions of various
cowpea pastes are being measured and so is susceptibility of dehulled and undehulled cowpeas to insect infestation during
storage.
b. In Georgia
The effects of pre-decortication drying temperatures from 50 to 1300 C on characteristics of the subsequently prepared cowpea meal, paste and akara have been measured at the
University of Georgia. Percent extraction rate was high
(ca. 90 percent) for each of the pretreated samples and did
not differ statistically. Thiamin content was reduced by
increasing temperature but riboflavin was not. Meal color
was not adversely affected from 500 to 110 C, but water absorption capacity, protein solubility and starch yield
decreased when the predrying temperatures were above 900 C.
Organaleptically, akara prepared from cowpeas dried at 500, 700 and 900 C compared favorably with the unheated control.
The particle size distribution of the heated cowpeas differed
from the control unheated sample of dehulled cowpeas. As
temperature rose from 50 to 900 C, particle size increased,
then decreased from 90 to 1300 C. Although the pretreatment




-65
drying at 1300 C resulted in a meal with particle sizes
similar to the control, the akara prepared from the meal had
unacceptable sensory attributes. Hence, particle size is not
the sole factor affecting the acceptability of the prepared
cowpea product (particle size distribution had been reported
earlier as essential for good akara-making quality). The
akara from cowpeas pretreated by drying at 50, 70 and 900
C was generally acceptable with respect to color, flavor,
tenderness and sponginess.
Long-term storage of cowpea meal at -18, 210 and 370 C (up
to 12 months) indicated that no microbiological deterioration
occurred, nor were there changes in thiamin and riboflavin
content and in protein digestibility. At 370 C, the meal developed a deeper yellow color over time, had a reduced
water absorption capacity after eight months, and had a
reduced protein solubility after two months. The quality of
cowpea meal for akara preparation was maintained through 12
months of storage at -18 and 21 C.
Solar energy to dry cowpeas produced no adverse changes in
color and effectively killed adult beetles. The development
of the hard-to-cook attribute in cowpeas can be accelerated
during storage. Germination is associated with increased
alphagalactosidase activity and presumably reduced
oligosaccharides.
2. Research results disseminated and in use
In Nigeria, processors of cowpeas have adopted the predecortication drying treatment developed by the Bean/Cowpea CRSP
project and actively seek advice from the Food Science and
Technology faculty members at Nsukka.
The active cooperation of community groups in construction and operation of a new mill for processing cowpeas further demonstrates development of active cooperation between practitioners
and researchers in food science and technology.
3. Other research-related results
a. A visiting scientist, Dr. Bene W. Abbey, from the Department
of Nutritional Biochemistry, University of Port Harcourt,
Nigeria, spent nine months at the University of Georgia
where she is studying the contribution of cowpea components,
in addition to oligosaccharides, to flatulence.
b. The major beneficiaries of the research will be women who
are the principal individuals responsible for storage, processing and preparation of cowpeas as food for the
family. Ready-to-cook meal will reduce the time and effort
required to prepare traditional cowpea foods and will




-66
encourage consumption of larger quantities of cowpeas. The mill installed in a Nigerian village, if successful, should
increase opportunities for women to find additional
employment outside the home. However, no mention was made
of this significant opportunity to open up income generation
potential for women through ownership and management of the
mill (e.g., female cooperative).
B. Changes in National Production
Too early to observe whether increased demand for cowpeas will result and therefore whether production of cowpeas will be increased to meet
demand.
C. Training
Three students at the University of Georgia and seven at the
University of Nigeria are expected to finish M.S. (3) and Ph.D. (7) degrees by 1988. Plans are being made for workshops in Nigeria on
uses and applications of new cowpea products. Training programs for
small-scale, rural food processors and millers will be conducted at
the village mill site.
1. Numbers and kinds in process
US: 1 Ph.D.
Non-US: 1 Ph.D.
1 M.S.
2. Numbers and kinds completed during FY 86
US: None
Non-US: None
D. Institutional Development
Laboratories in Nigeria and Georgia are much better equipped to
examine science and technology related to storage and utilization of cowpeas than before the CRSP began. The Host Country institution is
increasing its capacity to offer educational and research programs
in legume utilization.
II. FUNDING/FISCAL MANAGEMENT
A. Audits annually are conducted at the University of Georgia and at
the University of Nigeria.. No findings with respect to the B/C CRSP
have been reported at either location.
B. The University of Nigeria pays salaries of senior scientists in the
CRSP project and supports students so that CRSP funds can be used for technical support, travel and supplies. At the University of
Georgia, CRSP funds are budgeted primarily for personnel and travel,
so operating funds are a constraint.




-67
Transfer of funds to the Host Country is-a slow, tedious process requiring the constant attention of CRSP personnel. Shipment of
items to Nigeria also presents problems that have required
considerable time and effort on the University of Georgia's part and
on the University of Nigeria's representative in Lagos (to claim
shipments on arrival). Annual inventories are maintained for vehicles and equipment purchased with CRSP funds. Repairs and
modifications are handled by university support services, service
contracts with the supplier, or the manufacturer. Consultation of
University of Georgia personnel with the bursar at the University of
Nigeria may improve release of funds for research in Nsukka before
official acknowledgment of the transfer of funds has occurred
(Georgia will send a photocopy of check, when issued, to the bursar).
III. PLANS FOR 1987
No expected changes/additions/deletions from 1986
IV. STATUS
A. Appropriateness of Activities to Goals of Global Plan
Goals of Global Plan addressed by this project are to i.ncrease
availability and consumption of cowpeas through (a) reduced losses
during storage, (b) development of convenience foods, thus eliminating the time-consuming activities necessary in preparing traditional
cowpea dishes and (c) reduction of oligosaccharide content of cowpeas, thus making possible consumption by individuals particularly
susceptible to indigestible sugars.
B. Balance between Research and Training
Students are conducting research for advanced degrees within the
project at both the University of Georgia and the University of
Nigeria. When the village mill becomes operable, training will be
expanded to include millers and small-scale entrepreneurs.
C. Balance of US versus Overseas Activities
Both teams of researchers (in Georgia and in Nigeria) are conducting
studies using complementary strengths of the two institutions.
Initially, the work being carried out in the two institutions seemed
poorly coordinated, but over time collegial relationships have
developed. Research objectives and work plans are developed
collaboratively and activities are assigned to each institution on the basis of appropriateness. The program may appear to be larger
in Nigeria, but related research has been reported in addition to
project research. Georgia has conducted research on underlying
factors affecting nutritional, functional and microbiological
characteristics of fresh and stored cowpea products. Nigeria is
dealing with implementation and assessment of technology in a
village site as well as development and evaluation of technology in
its research laboratories.




-68
D. Level of Collaboration between US and Host Country
Both institutions are making contributions through published papers
and presentations at workshops and professional meetings. Of
special interest was the initiation of information exchange among the CRSPs that have food science, food technology and nutritional
components.
E. Relative Contributions of Collaborating Institutions and Individuals
toward Accomplishment of Objectives
See above
F. Interest, Involvement and Support of USAID Mission and/or US Embassy
No involvement of USAID Mission but USAID contact at Embassy in
Lagos is kept informed.
G. Domestic and International Linkages and Cooperation/Collaboration
Linkages in the US include those with the INCAP/Washington State
University project on hard-to-cook phenomenon in beans and with food
science components of other CRSPs.
H. Cost Effectiveness, Especially Regarding Level of Activity versus
Funding
Satisfactory
I. Institutionalization of Host Country Component
The B/C CRSP project at the University of Nigeria has involved
nearly all staff members in the food science and nutrition departments. Laboratory facilities are primarily used for CRSP or
CRSP-related research. The University of Nigeria has provided
additional funds for research and to pay salaries of research staff.
V. PUBLICATIONS
Papers have been presented at professional meetings and published in
refereed journals. The researchers at the University of Georgia have
produced six refereed publications and fifteen papers in edited proceedings or at professional meetings. The University of Nigeria has published two papers in Tropical Science (refereed) and two papers at
professional meetings (one of which is in a compilation of papers from a
workshop).
VI. OVERALL RATING: 1--Highly Satisfactory




-69
1986 EEP REVIEW
SENEGAL/UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA-RIVERSIDE BEAN/COWPEA CRSP PROJECT
"A Program to Develop Improved Cowpea Cultivars, Management Methods,
and Storage Practices for Semiarid Zones"
I. PROGRESS
A. Research Contributions
1. Research in process
This is one of two CRSP projects in the West African Sahel. Its
collaboration with Senegal has been impressive.
Production methods. In each of the three zones of the arid
northern regions of Senegal, five minikit trials, testing three
varieties, were conducted by farmers. Adjacent fields were
intended to provide comparative information, but it seems that
the farmers managed the trials better than they or their
neighbors managed their fields, which were highly variable in
respect to varieties and the effects of caterpillars and aphids.
Eleven trials succeeded, and an IITA variety (TVx 3236) was the
most productive in all three zones. The season was dry (described at one point as the start of another cycle of drought) and
the IITA variety seems to have fitted the timetable better than
the longer cycle variety 58-57 which was developed in Senegal in
earlier years. An even shorter season type yielded less well.
More work will be needed, in part because TVx 3236, which has been vigorously promoted, was less acceptable to producers and
less saleable in the market than the other varieties.
California Blackeye 5 (CB5) was not included in these trials,
although their recent experiences have led producers to value it.
However it is sensitive to cowpea aphid and to pod rots, so that
it may have to be reselected, if it contains sufficient variation, or replaced by a more resistant variety of similar phenology--which may indeed exist already in West Africa.
The project staff and cooperators believe that producers in this
arid, variable and unpredictable environment need at least two
cowpea varieties, of different phenology, to buffer them against the environmental risks. Consequently, the breeding part of the program seeks to produce an appropriate range, equipped also with
resistances to pests and diseases, and the agronomic part is
studying how best the materials might be combined with one
another and with other crops in cropping systems (not necessarily
as mixed cultures).




-70
Materials found in California to be adapted to heat and drought,
in trials designed to simulate the seasonal cycle of water
balance of the Sahelian region, are being tested in Senegal.
This has already made the work in the US at least as relevant as that of any other project in this CRSP to the specific environmental conditions of the Host Country.
The ureide method of assessing the fixation of nitrogen by
nodules, applied a number of years ago at IITA, has been used successfuly in petiole tissues at UCR and has been transferred to Senegal. In growth physiology, a study of the partitioning of carbohydrate in different varieties has begun, which could
evidently benefit from closer association with Dr. Summerfield
and his colleagues at the Plant Environment Laboratory at
Reading.
Studies of the population dynamics of insect pests of the crop,
and of their predators and parasites, have led to successful trials of methods of chemical control. In work on storage,
methods of using preparations and extracts of neem (Azadirachta
indica) (long known as an insecticide and repellent in India)
'aveadvanced, and work continues on hermetic storage.
2. Research results disseminated and in use
The project scored a notable public success in 1985, after a severe drought year in 1984 and against the background of the continuing difficulties of the region, when the Government of
Senegal, with help from the European Economic Community and
USAID, imported some hundreds of tons of seed of CBS. CB5 had been grown by the project, but it had not yet been recommended
for Senegal. It was chosen because it was the most likely
candidate variety of which significant amounts of reliable seed
could be obtained quickly. The crops produced from this seed are said to have saved one million people from famine because
they were photoneutral and short season and were able to yield
in the difficult conditions of the 1985 season. The experience
was repeated in 1986.
The gamble paid off, but it had risks which are still with us.
Farmers value CB5, although (like TVx 3236) it is not without
defects. Perhaps the most important benefits have been the
increased importance which the Government now assigns to cowpeas,
the confidence the operation has given the Senegalese cowpea workers, the realization that phenology is all-important in
adaptation to dry conditions, and the demonstration of the value
of international cooperation conducted as between equals.
Materials from the program are being tested (by Sudanese graduates of UCR) in the Western Sudan. In the US, heat tolerance is being incorporated in varieties of vegetable cowpeas, originally
introduced from India, in the hope of producing heat-adapted
types for producers in the US as well as in developing countries.




-71
3. Other research-related results
a. Germplasm conservation and use
The project holds a small collection (447) of cowpea entries
and thousands of breeding lines. It is important that
arrangements be made for the conservation and documentation of these; and this should be discussed with IITA, which may
be able to provide storage for duplicates of the Senegal
collection.
Advanced breeding materials have been distributed to
cooperators in many countries.
b. Production and distribution of seed (or other materials)
produced by the CRSP
The project has cooperated with the Senegalese extension
agency SODEVA in developing methods for multiplying,
inspecting and certifying healthy seed.
c. Impact of other technical methods produced or recommended by
the CRSP, including production inputs such as fertilizers,
inoculants, insecticides, equipment and machines
The report refers to the use by Senegalese farmers of modified peanut planters to sow cowpeas, of horse-drawn cultivators, and of storage in sealed drums. Of these only the last
is likely to be primarily due to the project: we should
beware of claiming too much.
d. Contributions to and participation in international
bean/cowpea research networks, e.g. IARCs and other
In the work of the project on the screening of cowpeas for
adaptation to heat and sensitivity to photoperiod, and in
subsequent breeding, the project has cooperated closely with IITA. As has already been suggested, it could benefit from
fuller association with the Reading crop physiology group.
e. How the research findings address the needs of small-scale
farmers and women
Small-scale farmers who harvested little or no millet or
peanuts in 1985 and 1986 have been sustained by cowpeas, both
as food for their own use and as a marketed crop which
enables them to buy other foods. The work of the project is
claimed to have expanded the market for cowpeas in northern
Senegal and to have made it more stable and competitive.
Improved storage can help farmers to take advantage of the
new opportunities. All this lessens hardship and poverty
and benefits all members of the family.




-72
B. Changes in National Production
1. Hectares planted
2. Yields per hectare
3. Total production
The following data, for total pulses, are from the FAO production
yearbook for 1985 and the trade yearbook for 1984.
1979-81 1983 1984 1985
Area harvested, ha 52,000 40,000 53,000 121,000
Yield, kg/ha 401 329 303 546
Output, tons 21,000 13,000 16,000 66,000
1982 1983 1984
Imports, tons 212 307 270
355 132
The output gain in 1985 seems likely to have been due in part to
the influence of the CRSP, in cooperation of course with the EEC
and USAID, and above all with the national staff, the farmers,
and the Government of Senegal. Without the CRSP and Dr. Hall's
earlier endeavours in Senegal (since the mid-seventies), it is
most unlikely to have occurred.
C. Training
1. Numbers and kinds in process
US: 1 B.S.
Non-US: 1 Ph.D.
1 M.S.
2 B.S.
2. Numbers and kinds completed during FY 86
US: None
Non-US: None
D. Institutional Development
The Government of Senegal began actively to prom6te cowpeas in
1985 and this continued in 1986. Since 1976, research on cowpeas has advanced substantially and an effective team is now in place.
The team is close-knit and productive, and it seems to know how to operate on the national stage. It is closely associated with
UCR.




-73
II. FUNDING/FISCAL MANAGEMENT
A. Custody and Maintenance of Vehicles and Equipment
1. Inventory/records--Satisfactory
2. Accountable individuals and institutions--Satisfactory
B. Audit/Project Management Reviews
No audit performed. The CRSP Management Entity has scheduled an
audit in Senegal in early 1987.
C. Adequacy of Funding
The Government of Senegal seems to be playing its part well, and no
defects in the support of UCR are reported. A donor is sought to fund closer collaboration between IITA and the project in Senegal.
The most useful suggestion is that the Government of Senegal should consult those of its multilateral and bilateral donors who are also
donors to IITA and suggest to them that parts of their aid allocations to Senegal be used to fund the cooperation. If the Government
of Senegal is able to assign an appropriate priority to this activity, as against all the other needs it has for aid, the donors are not likely to refuse. Conversely, there is doubt whether any donor
would be supportive if the Government of Senegal itself did not
assign sufficient priority to this matter.
D. Problems
Funding reductions absorbed with difficulty
E. Adequacy of Current Policies and Procedures
Funding levels unreliable
III. PLANS FOR 1987
A. Research
The report proposes to continue along the established lines in
Senegal--minikit trials on farms in cooperation with the national
research agency; breeding for appropriate durations, resistance to pests and diseases, and effective fixation of nitrogen; trials of improved materials at many locations; methods for field control of
insect pests; study of hydrologic balances of sites of minikit trials
and of weather in relation to the population dynamics of pests; storage methods; and support for national seed production. The
seasonal weather of the sites of the multilocational trials should
be studied.




-74
In California, the analysis of the effects of heat and drought on
reproductive stages in contrasted forms of cowpeas will be associated
with breeding and screening for adaptation to these factors; studies
of the efficiency with which different varieties use stored soil
water by both gas exchange and discrimination between carbon-12 and
-13; respiration in stored seeds and effects on it of neem materials;
partitioning of carbohydrate in different genotypes at different
spacings; vegetable cowpeas.
B. Expected Changes
The 1987 program will therefore be much like 1986, but just as it is
important to know about the hydrologic balances of the sites of
multilocation and minikit trials, it must be important to describe
the conditions at UCR and other experimental sites also. IV. STATUS
A. Appropriateness of Activities to Goals of Global Plan
The program seems to be appropriate to these goals.
B. Balance between Research and Training
Satisfactory
C. Balance of US versus Overseas Activities
The two parts are effectively dovetailed together.
D. Level of Collaboration/Cooperation between US and Host Country
Excellent
E. Relative Contributions of Collaborating Institutions and Individuals
towards Accomplishment of Objectives
There is more than a division of labor between more basic work in
California and application in Senegal: the program is enabling and
encouraging the Senegalese participants to make more analytical
studies in their own environment.
F. Interest, Involvement and Support of USAID Mission and/or US Embassy
Sati sfactory
G. Domestic and International Linkages and Cooperation/Collaboration
Linkages with IITA, with cowpea workers in the US and with cowpea
producers in California are satisfactory.




-75
H. Cost Effectiveness, Especially Regarding Level of Activity versus
Funding
In this project it is not unfair to compare the value of the extra output of say 45,000 tons of cowpeas (at about $1,000 per ton, the
approximate import price indicated in the FAQ Trade Yearbook, or even
at the export price of about $300 per ton) with the cost of the
project. If on top we consider the effects of this extra output on human survival, it seems reasonable to suggest that the cost effectiveness, though still not precisely measurable, is very substantial.
I. Institutionalization of Host Country Component
The cooperation with ISRA has the effect of building the work into
the structure of government, so that institutionalization is
satisfactory and adequate for present purposes. V. PUBLICATIONS
A. US Researchers
Nine publications listed, two of them in refereed journals
B. HC Researchers
Twelve publications listed, none in refereed journals VI. OVERALL EVALUATION: 1--Highly Satisfactory




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1986 EEP REVIEW
TANZANIA/WASHINGTON STATE UNIVERSITY BEAN/COWPEA CRSP PROJECT
"Breeding Beans for Disease and Insect Resistance and
Determination of the Economic Impact on Smallholder Farm Families"
I. PROGRESS
A. Research Contributions
1. Research in process
a. Tanzania
Crop science. The search for inherited resistance to bean
fly, Ootheca, bruchids and flower thrips continued, and some
crosses between insect-resistant and disease-resistant
material were in F3. Neem extract can lessen feeding by
Ootheca in the field.
Materials with inherited resistance to bean rust, angular
leaf spot, bean common mosaic virus, anthracnose and common
blight have been crossed with large-yielding, locally adapted lines. In the improvement of screening methods (in which two contrasted environments are used--high, wet and cool and low, hot and dry), the Wisconsin dry-inoculum technique has proved
useful for rust and angular leaf spot; and methods' developed
at MSU have been useful in producing spores of the causal
organism of angular leaf spot for screening.
In surveys at Mbeya in southern Tanzania, bean plants were
found that were both abundantly and effectively nodulated
with indigenous rhizobia. They also seemed to be healthier
than other bean plants. Studies have begun of Rhizobium
strains. Trials of promising lines without inputs, and on
farms, suggest that some lines are better adapted than others
to less-favored conditions.
Promising lines are screened for adaptation to dry conditions
at Morogoro and at Davis, California. The methods are not described, so it is not possible to assess how relevant the
two screens will be to each other.
Studies of time of cooking seem to be retracing old ground; but no doubt they have been discussed with investigators in
other projects in this CRSP. Perhaps not surprisingly,
magadi (a naturally-occurring mixture of carbonates which
crystallizes" out, as seasonal alkali pools dry in the arid
central regions of Kenya and Tanzania Masailand, and which
was, and probably still is, extracted commercially in Kenya)




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lessened cooking time. Variation in time of cooking has been found among otherwise promising lines.
Human science. The work on consumption economics and sociocultural fatrs, formerly confined to Morogoro and Arusha, was extended to Tanga region, in the north-east of Tanzania, where the structure of the local economy is different and more diverse than in the regions studied earlier. Off-farm income is greater per family than in the other regions and was almost equal to income from crop sales.
The relationships between rural families and beans were explored, in directions similar to those developed earlier in Morogoro and Arusha. More bean lines are used in Tanga region, in different and more complex farming systems. The training-and-visit system of extension (since abandoned because of its cost) was studied in Tanga by a Tanzanian M.S. student, who brought to light important differences between male- and female-headed households.
* Farmers liked two bean varieties offered (one for higher and
the other for lower altitudes) for testing on their farms. The reasons why the low-altitude type, TMO 101, was preferred to customary varieties were explored. Though it was as
susceptible to pests and diseases,. it was upright and compact, matured evenly and yielded more in a dry year, but it appeared to be more variable in yield.
b. United States
The work at Prosser developed the established program of breeding and screening for resistances to strains of bean common mosaic virus and halo blight. It included the further development of immunological methods for diagnosis, and crosses between drought-resistant and multiple diseaseresistant lines. The report does not specify to what type
of dry conditions the drought-resistant parents are adapted or how the adaptation was measured. "Drought" means different things for plants in different environments.
Though the report on these topics is very brief, it seems that the work in the United States is so conducted that it not only supports the work in Tanzania but also contributes directly and valuably to bean research in the United States.
2. Research results disseminated and in use
Though promising materials are available and have been tested on
farms, no new lines have been made generally available to producers in Tanzania. It may be that in Tanzania, which has the
remains at least of a seed industry, it will in fact be possible
to "release" new materials effectively. No other product of the
program is being promoted on a practical scale either.




-78
The proceedings of successive bean workshops at Morogoro have
been widely distributed, and a Tanzanian technical report on
farming systems data and trials was made available.
3. Other research-related results
a. Germplasm conservation and use
The program has assembled more than 1,000 entries of bean materials, which are freely exchanged among the three bean
programs in Tanzania and are made available to workers in
other countries. Nothing is reported about the documentation
or conservation of this material; but it may be that duplicates are held at CIAT.
b. Production and distribution of seed (or other materials)
produced by the CRSP
Seed has been produced for research purposes only. No seed
has been distributed yet. One can question whether it could have been possible, in time, not only to identify and screen promising materials but also to test them in enough locations and seasons to have the confidence to produce foundation seed
and arrange for large-scale multiplication and distribution.
There comes a point, even if all else is favorable, when the eager researcher has to face the possible consequences of an
unforeseen fail ure.
c. Impact of other technical methods produced or recommended by
the CRSP, including production inputs such as fertilizers,
inoculants, insecticides, equipment and machines
Only within the program itself
d. Contributions to and participation in international bean/
cowpea research networks, e.g. IARCs and other
At first on its own, and now in cooperation with CIAT and ICIPE, the program has promoted substantial international
cooperation in bean research in East Africa and in the SADCC countries. There is much further to go along this road, and
CIAT and SADCC will have to take the lead, but it may be that
AID and other donors will see the advances made by this CRSP
program as yet one more piece of evidence of the value of a
specific cooperative link between an overseas institution
and a national program.
e. How the research findings address the needs of small-scale
farmers and women
The whole of this program is about beans in the lives of
small-scale producers. Many of them are women; and the
program has documented the specific difficulties of female-




-79
headed households. The work on cooking-time of beans may lessen the needs for time, fuel and water and so lighten women's work loads. (It may be worth recording that at least in parts of Tanzania men collect fuel also; they are not everywhere the idle hedonistic slobs of mythology.)
B. Changes in National Production
The official statistics show that of 315-360,000 tons of pulses
(which do not include soya or peanuts) produced per year in Tanzania between 1979 and 1985, from 250-280,000 tons were beans. In 1982-84, imports of pulses were small--around 1-300 tons only, at $600-750 per
ton. Exports in 1982 were 50,000 tons at about $200 per ton. In
1983 and 1984 7,000 and 6,000 tons were exported at about $550 per
ton. There is no reason to ascribe any of these fluctuations to the
CRSP.
C. Training
The report proposes to continue the training of four students for
higher degrees, in spite of the cost.
-1. Numbers and kinds in process
US: 1 M.S.
Non-US: 2 Ph.D.
1 M.S.
2. Numbers and kinds completed during FY 86
US: 1 Ph.D.
1 M.S.
Non-US: 1 Ph.D.
1 M.S.
33 non-degree
0. Institutional Development
Nineteen names appear on the list of participants in Tanzania. One
is a member of the USAID Mission in Dar es Salaam and one is an
administrator, who must surely be welcome as a team member. Two are
from the University of Dar es Salaam. None is listed from Uyole,
though workers there certainly cooperate, as do -the workers of the
Agricul tural Research Corporation.
The CRSP is well established. The most significant products are a
better understanding of how rural life systems work in different
regions and environments in Tanzania; advances in plant breeding for
multiple attributes; and a strong and cohesive collective of bean
research workers in Tanzania. It is clear that the CRSP is serving
a great deal more than subsistence, it does not yet know enough about the place of beans in the economy of the nation or of the natures and
sizes of the effective demands for beans and bean products in local,
regional, national and foreign markets.




-80
The project has suffered from continual changes in HC personnel and
may well continue to do so. The senior entomological cooperator,
Dr. Karel, is expected to leave in 1987; it is most important that
his work should be continued.
Prospects are difficult to assess, partly for lack of knowledge about effective demand for beans and bean products. Tanzania may well soon
have excellent plant material and production practices, tested at
Morogoro and on some farms, but no way of moving these products out
to users on a large scale or even knowledge of the tactically most
suitable areas into which to move them.
II. FUNDING/FISCAL MANAGEMENT
A. Custody and Maintenance of Vehicles and Equipment
1. Inventory/records--Satisfactory
2. Accountable individuals and institutions--Satisfactory
B. Audit/Project Management Reviews
Audited in 1985 by the Tanzania Audit Corporation. The CRSP
Management Entity has scheduled an audit in Tanzania in early 1987.
C. Adequacy of Funding
This project has used its funds well and has done what it could both
economically and uncomplainingly. The local institutions are very
short of funds, but it seems certain that they have contributed
resources at some real cost as well as the time of staff and the use
of existing facilities.
D. Problems
Delays in Customs clearing of imports
E. Adequacy of Current Policies and Procedures
Not satisfactory, especially at Sokoine University of Agriculture
III. PLANS FOR 1987
A. Research
Much as before. In Tanzania, in addition to the existing tests at zero inputs, some studies will be made with more complete inputs to
find out what might be possible in commercial farming--which must be expected to become more important as technical methods become available and will have a legitimate call on research services. Studies of digestibility of bean proteins will be undertaken. Like the work
on cooking time, this will no doubt benefit from consultation with
other relevant programs in this CRSP.




-81
In the US, the relationship between level of resistance to halo
blight and seed transmission will be more closely studied--a potentially very interesting topic. Failure to transmit a virus in seed can be seen as a form of resistance which in many groups is in fact
the norm.
B. Expected Changes
Entomological work is expected to continue somehow until Martha
Quentin returns to Tanzania. Sokoine University may not be able to
continue the same volume of support as in the past, for lack of
funds. Inoculation with Rhizobium is to be tested on farms--but on
what hosts and with what sources of inocula is not clear. Dr. Due is to undertake some studies of the requirements and contraints in the production, distribution and marketing of improved seeds. More
quantitative information about the nature of drought in different
regions and at different sites in Tanzania and Washington State and
of year-to-year variations would make it easier to interpret the
results of experiments. Terry Woodhead's old publication on evaporation rates in Tanzania would help (Woodhead, T. 1968. Studies of
Potential Evaporation in Tanzania. Nairobi: East African Agriculture and Forestry Research Organization). It is probably in
libraries in Dar es Salaam, Arusha or SUA.
IV. STATUS
A. Appropriateness of Activities to Goals of Global Plan
B. Balance between Research and Training
C. Balance of US versus Overseas Activities
All seem satisfactory as reported, except that graduate training is
consuming about three-quarters of the remaining budget for Tanzania-a burden the Sokoine University is willing to bear. The studies at
Prosser of resistance and breeding in relation to disease are so
conducted that they could benefit the US producer as well as lead to
materials useful in Tanzania and in CIAT's programs. Work on the main constraints is well distributed between the US and HC groups.
D. Level of Collaboration/Cooperation between US and Host Country
E. Relative Contributions of Collaborating Institutions and Individuals
toward Accomplishment of Objectives
These matters are considered in careful detail in the report. -The
EEP commends the way in which this program has used and extended its
direct and cooperative resources for the tasks in hand.
F. Interest, Involvement and Support of USAID Mission and/or US Embassy
Appears to be satisfactory
G. Domestic and International Linkages and Cooperation/Collaboration
Comments earlier in this review have referred to the cooperation
among research organizations in Tanzania, with bean researchers in




-82
other African nations, with CIAT, and with the developing cooperative
research activities of SADCC. The research director of SADCC, Dr.
Martin Kyomo, is a former Dean at Morogoro and Dr. David Allen, now
at Arusha for CIAT/SSDCC, is an old friend of the CRSP.
H. Cost Effectiveness, Especially Regarding Level of Activity versus
Funding
This program gets value for money but it would be difficult to put
even a shadow value on the uncompleted and unmarketed products or on
the institutional development and international cooperation.
I. Institutionalization of Host Country Component
In addition to Sokoine University, Uyole and the Agricultural
Research Corporation feel themselves to be involved, even though none
of their staff members are listed in the team. But the next stages
will need more than this. In Tanzania, there is a Ministry of
Agriculture, without which no development (as distinct from research)
is possible beyond the gate of the research station, and there may
still be a Ministry of Rural Development. There is certainly a
Planning Ministry and a Natural Resources Institute. The Extension Service was, and may still be, attached to the provincial and district administrations and so attached to the Office of the Prime
Minister.
All this makes Sokoine University of Agriculture a very different
place from a state agricultural university in the United States, which, through its unified management of research, education and
extension and its links with USDA, is able to play a leading part, alongside the farmers themselves, in generating agricultural progress. No doubt the studies Dr. Due is to undertake in relation to
seeds will bring her into touch with the complexities that need to
be taken into consideration.
V. PUBLICATIONS
A. US Researchers
Four publications listed, three in refereed journals
B. HC Researchers
Thirteen publications listed, five (all bearing Dr. Karel's name) in
refereed journals
VI. OVERALL RATING: 1--Highly Satisfactory




-83
BEAN/COWPEA CRSP FY 87 EXTERNAL EVALUATION PANEL
Dr. Clarence C. Gray, III (Chair) Professor
International Extension and International Studies Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University Office: 9945 Great Oaks Way Fairfax, VA 22030 (703) 352-5895
Dr. A. Hugh Bunting, Professor University of Reading Q 7/8, No. 4 Earley Gate Whiteknights Road Reading, Berks. England RG6 2AR Phone: 011-44-734-64640 Telex: 851 847813 RULIB
Dr. Peter E. Hildebrand, Professor Food and Resource Economics Department 1125 McCarty Hall Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences University of Florida Gainesville, Florida 32611 (904) 392-5830
Dr. Antonio M. Pinchinat Tropical Agricultural Research and Development Specialist IICA
P. 0. Box 11185 Lima 14 Peru Phone: 011-51-14-222833 Telex: 394 25281 OEAPERU
Dr. Charlotte E. Roderuck, Director World Food Institute Iowa State University 102 E. 0. Building Ames, Iowa 50011 (515) 294-7699




MICHIGAN STATE UNIVERSITY -84- ATTACHMENT D
VICE PRESIDENT FOR FINANCE AND OPERATIONS AND TREASURER EAST LANSING MICHIGAN 48824.1046 CONTRACT AND GRANT ADMINISTRATION 302 ADMINISTRATION BUILDING TELEPHONE (517) 355.5040
November 17, 1986
Mr. James Mrowka
Arthur Young and Company
100 Renaissance Center
Detroit, Michigan 48243
Subject: Audit of Michigan State University
Bean/Cowpea Overseas Projects
Dear Mr. Mrowka:
I am enclosing the information received from the U. S. Institutions
in connection with the audit through May 6, 1986 for the following
six locations:
Location U. S. Subgrantor
1. Centro Sur de Univ. of Puerto Rico
Desarrollo Agropecuario San Christobal Dominican Republic
2. Centro Sur de Univ. of Nebraska
Desarrollo Agropecuario San Christobal Dominican Republic
3. Instituto de Nutricion Washington St. Univ.
de Centroamerica y Panama
Guatemala City, Guatemala
4. Univ. of Nairobi Univ. of Calif. (Davis)
Kabete,' Kenya
5. Sokoine Univ. of Agr. Washington St. Univ.
Morogora, Tanzania
6. Centre National de Univ. of Calif. (Riverside)
Recherches Agronomiques Bambey, Senegal
AfSU is an Affimative Action/Equal Oportunity Institution




Page 2
Mr. James Mrowka Arthur Young and Company 100 Renaissance Center Detroit, Michigan 48243
Please refer to our previous correspondence. If you need any additional information, please call the undersigned at (517) 355-4476. Si merely
Gerald L. Ja obs Contract and Grant Administration GLJ/sh
Enclosure cc: Carolyn Snow
4
A




REPORT OF THE EXTERNAL EVALUATION PANEL OF THE
BEAN/COWPEA CRSP FOR FY 87
February 25-27, 1988




REPORT OF
THE EXTERNAL EVALUATION PANEL OF THE BEAN/COWPEA COLLABORATIVE RESEARCH SUPPORT PROGRAM FOR FY 87
TABLE OF CONTENTS
I. Introduction . . .......................... 1
A. The FY 87 External Evaluation Panel .............. 1
B. Organization of the Bean/Cowpea CRSP ...... .............. 1
C. FY 87 EEP Review: Sequence of Events . . . . . . 2
II. Program Evaluation: Summary . . . . . . . . . . 3
III. Program Evaluation: Training and Women in Development . . . 6
A. Training ...... .................... . . . .. 6
B. Women in Development . . . . . . . . . . . 6
IV. Program Evaluation: Project Ratings . . . . . . . .. 8
A. Bases for Evaluation: Rating Categories/Format . . . .. 8
B. Summary of Project Ratings ....... ................... 8
V. Program Evaluation: Fiscal and Administrative ..... ........... 9
VI. Attachments
Attachment A: Scope of Work for External Evaluation Panel . . 13
Attachment B: Individual Project Reviews . . . . . . 17
Botswana ..................... 17
Brazil/UWI .......... 25
Brazil/BTI .... .............. 39
Cameroon .. ...... ... 45
Dominican Republic ............. 47
Guatemala .......... ... 55
Honduras ..... ..................... ... 59
INCAP . . . . . . . . . 65
Malawi . . . . . . . . . 71
Mexico . . . . . . 75
Nigeria . ................ . 83
Senegal . . . . . . ......... 93
Tanzania ................... 103
Attachment C: Bean/Cowpea CRSP FY 87 External Evaluation Panel . 113




REPORT OF
THE EXTERNAL EVALUATION PANEL OF
THE BEAN/COWPEA COLLABORATIVE RESEARCH SUPPORT PROGRAM FOR FY 87
I. Introduction
The Bean/Cowpea Collaborative Research Support Program (CRSP) began with funding in September 1980. This original Bean/Cowpea CRSP grant came to an end during FY 86, and a new extension grant was awarded. The present review report covers FY 87 activities, the second year of the three-year extension. Included as a part of this review are the Panel's comments on individual proposals for a second extension for the period FY 89 through FY 92.
Evaluations reported here are based on project annual reports and on-site reviews. EEP members reviewed CRSP activities in Dominican Republic, Guatemala, Malawi, Michigan, Nigeria, Puerto Rico and Tanzania. Management Office and AID officials provided additional information.
A. The FY 87 External Evaluation Panel (EEP)
Originally the EEP consisted of seven members, all appointed in 1980-81.
During 1986, two members--Dr. Melvin Blase and Dr. Luis H. Camacho--retired from the EEP, reducing the number of members to five. In 1987, another two of the original seven retired--Dr. Antonio M. Pinchinat and Dr. Charlotte E.
Roderuck. They were replaced by Dr. Edna McBreen and Dr. Kenneth 0. Rachie.
Current members and their affiliations are given in Attachment C.
B. Organization of the Bean/Cowpea CRSP
When it was organized, the Bean/Cowpea CRSP was comprised of eighteen
projects in thirteen countries of Africa and Central and South America in collaboration with ten US lead institutions (nine Land Grant universities
and one private institution). At the end of FY 87, there were thirteen
projects for review (beans--eight and cowpeas--five). Several of the
original projects were terminated or consolidated. The thirteen remaining
projects are located in eleven countries and are conducted by eleven US
lead institutions.
Host Country Crop US Institution
Botswana Cowpeas Colorado State University
Brazil Cowpeas Boyce Thompson Institute
Brazil Beans University of Wisconsin
Cameroon Cowpeas Purdue University
Dominican Republic Beans University of Nebraska
Guatemala Beans Cornell University
Guatemala/INCAP Beans Washington State University
Honduras Beans University of Puerto Rico
Malawi Beans Michigan State University
Mexico Beans Michigan State University
Nigeria Cowpeas University of Georgia
Senegal Cowpeas University of California-Riverside
Tanzania Beans Washington State University




-2
The Bean/Cowpea CRSP projects are developed and executed by Principal
Investigators (PIs) in collaborating US and Host Country (HC) institutions.
Oversight and participation in the approval of plans and budgets are made
by the Technical Committee (TC), Management Entity/Management Office (ME/MO)
and the Board of Directors (BOD).
C. FY 87 EEP Review: Sequence of Events
The following are events which comprised the FY 87 EEP Review process:
1. A Scope of Work (see Attachment A) was developed by the Chair of the
EEP and the Program Director/MO, using the AID Guidelines and input from the TC and the BOD. This Scope of Work was distributed to the
Principal Investigators to guide the preparation of the annual reports
which were due in the MO by December 1, 1987.
2. Annual reports for FY 87 of individual projects and proposed extensions
for FY 89-92 were sent to EEP members in December 1987 and January 1988.
3. Each EEP member was assigned three to four projects or topics for
intensive study/review prior to the EEP meeting in San Jos6, Costa Rica,
February 22-26, 1988. Draft reviews as assigned were prepared by EEP
members in advance and, where applicable, included information from EEP
reviews at Host Country sites.
4. Draft reviews were discussed at the February meeting. Final evaluations
were made on the basis of these discussions and additional information
received as requested from the MO and the AID Program Officer.
5. A fiscal and administrative management evaluation was made from data
provided by, and from discussions with, the MO.
6. Discussions were held with the AID CRSP Program Office and the Director
of the Bean/Cowpea CRSP Management Office with regard to funding of the
CRSP, relations/operations with AID/W and USAID Missions, and other
matters of mutual interest.
7. Summary, overall evaluation of the Bean/Cowpea CRSP was made on the
basis of the results of the individual project reviews, information
provided by the MO and discussions with officials of the MO.
8. Following the week of deliberations, a draft EEP Report was prepared
February 25, 1988 and discussed with the TC, MO and BOD on February 26,
1988.




-3
II. Program Evaluation: Summary
For the FY 87 review, eleven individual CRSP projects were evaluated with special regard to progress, funding/fiscal management, planning and status/prospects. Because of their status and special circumstances, two projects were not given full reviews and ratings. Five projects were rated Highly Satisfactory; five Satisfactory; and one Satisfactory with the comment that CRSP officials may wish to consider major adjustments.
The Bean/Cowpea CRSP has evolved over the years, winnowing out less successful projects and developing and strengthening others. In FY 87 it included thirteen projects and a supporting activity, Women in Development (WID). Of these, one on cowpeas in Botswana essentially ended with FY 87. The twelve remaining projects include four in cowpeas (three in Africa) and eight on beans (two in Africa). The work proposed in FY 88 could strengthen work on biological nitrogen fixation in beans in the Caribbean and adjacent nations, develop the use of molecular biology and genetics to control the bean golden mosaic group of diseases in the same region, and add a study of the economics of production and marketing of cowpeas in Senegal.
In each project, research in one or more US universities is linked to academic or research initiatives in one or more collaborating HCs. Though the details vary between projects, the EEP is satisfied that the work in the US, in general, provides effective support to the work in the HCs and, in addition, produces results likely to be useful in agriculture in the US.
A number of significant topics appear to require particular attention by all projects in tne future. They are:
A. The study and design of procedures and protocols in each project for
transferring practical useful results to farmers and others who wish to use
them, through the institutions and processes actually available or in
prospect in the HCs.
B. In particular, in all projects which include crop improvement, the development, by appropriate agencies in the nation, of procedures to multiply and
certify seed and other planting materials and distribute them to growers.
C. The description, evaluation, documentation and conservation of plant genetic
resources, in cooperation with national authorities and international
centers, including IBPGR.
D. The establishment of working links between projects which share interests
in particular topics such as biological nitrogen fixation; the hard-to-cook
phenomenon in legume seeds; other aspects of food technologies; multiple
resistances to plant diseases; water relations and adaptations to dry
conditions; and socio-economic and socio-technical studies.
The rapid advances of knowledge and methods in biotechnology (especially immunology, regeneration of plantlets in tissue cultures, and the isolation and transfer of individual genes) make it necessary to strengthen and develop the




-4
means by which the advances can be extended and exploited in less-developed countries. The CRSP model clearly offers a most suitable way of doing this, as the Peanut CRSP project on the rosette viruses in Nigeria has already demonstrated. The work on the bean golden mosaic viruses referred to above should permit comparable links in this CRSP.
Such linkages will also support the increased emphasis this CRSP intends to place on helping cooperating nations to strengthen their crop improvement and development systems in beans and cowpeas. In addition, they will make the research on these crops more relevant and the dissemination of the results more effective.
The CRSP, which is and must continue to be concerned with cooperative research and the strengthening of national research systems on beans and cowpeas, will need to strengthen its associations with AID at all levels from the USAID Missions to AID/Washington.
Numbers in degree training are particularly impressive in light of budget cuts; however, short-term training may not have been used to the greatest advantage. With available data summaries, it is not possible to determine the appropriateness of training in relation to broader aspects of professional responsibilities of students upon return to the HCs.
Centralized WID activities have clearly been, and continue to be, an element of success of the overall CRSP. As the CRSP projects begin to validate results with on-farm trials, it will become particularly important for researchers to consider the gender effect on technology adoption. The EEP strongly encourages the PIs to include gender considerations in their proposals where appropriate.
In response to budget cuts, the MO has been reduced to 3.55 FTEs. No one at present is a full-time employee of the CRSP. As a result, many activities of the MO have been curtailed. In spite of the cuts, and because of the skills of the management staff, the activities they are doing are extremely well done.
Fiscal management in the MO appears to be well in hand. The legal and accounting requirements and financial reporting carried out by the MSU Contract and Grant Officer appear to have been impeccable with respect to receipted payments but do not appear to be able to handle adequately funds committed but not yet spent or longer-term forward commitments.
Summary Comments on the Bean/Cowpea CRSP
Progress: Satisfactory.
There is steady progress toward the achievement of objectives, especially with regard to strengthening institutions and developing capacity to conduct national bean improvement programs.




-5
Funding and Fiscal Management: Satisfactory.
Recent budget reductions have been deep and sudden, producing disruptions and dislocations. CRSP authorities--BOD, ME and TC--arranged to absorb the funding reductions in ways to minimize the damage while maintaining the integrity of the CRSP. Projects were wounded but they were not disabled. Nevertheless, the BOD may wish to determine'if personnel and funding reductions have compromised the ability of the ME/MO to monitor and supervise projects and to promote and pursue buy-in opportunities at the country-Mission level.
Management: Very Satisfactory.
Within the limitations imposed by budget reductions, the ME/MO has performed in. a very satisfactory fashion.
Planning: Satisfactory.
The recent performance of the TC has been impressive and overall planning within the CRSP has improved; however, a major CRSP-wide shortcoming has been a perceived failure to review/adjust projects in the context of prevailing conditions in the countries in which the projects operate. This shortcoming relates to inability of the TC to travel and to limitations on the MO to travel. Onsite observations are necessary to try to insure that CRSP activities are highly relevant to priority global and national developmental needs with special regard to beans and cowpeas.
Prospects: Satisfactory.
The outlook indicators are mixed. On one hand, many of the projects seem to be on the threshold of significant achievements; e.g., superior, disease-resistant, highly productive, consumer-acceptable cultivars are thought to be one or two years from general release and similar "breakthroughs" are imminent in other areas of CRSP research. On the other hand, the CRSP has been operating seven, going on eight, years and the EEP can, for example, find no discernable change in the availability of beans and cowpeas.
It is critically important for project PIs and others to exert special efforts to accelerate the adoption and use of CRSP research results because the CRSP is rapidly reaching the point of expected payoffs.
Prospects for the use of advances in molecular biology/biotechnology to overcome/reduce constraints to bean production are exciting and appear to have great potential. The CRSP model offers an especially suitable means to extend the new technology to developing nations.
Overall Rating: Satisfactory.




-6
III. Program Evaluation: Training and Women in Development
A. Training
The need to maintain a balance between training and research in the CRSP has primarily been presented as a competition for funds between research
activities and degree training. With various projects taking into account
Host Country human and financial resources, as well as opportunities for
graduates, concern for an appropriate balance is evident as is concrete
action to maintain that balance. This is especially impressive in light of budgetary constraints. However, funding cuts have resulted in a substantial
drop in training and, since it is impossible to separate graduate training from the success of research projects in universities, a continued decrease in graduate-level degree training may place research efforts at risk. With
the increasing success of CRSP research endeavors and the resultant new
technology, it also becomes increasingly important to focus on the balance between research activities and short-term training, with a specific focus
on training to share research results. The need for balance in training for the CRSP as a whole and for individual projects, as well as a need to increase the focus on short-term training, requires the development of a
planned approach to training.
Deg ree training in the CRSP has been most impressive numerically. The
completion of degree programs by 22 students in 1987, 36 percent of whom
were women and 77 percent of whom were HC nationals, are admirable statistics, especially in light of funding cuts. Non-degree short-term training
is a cost-effective tool for the development of specific skills, the
dissemination of research results and new technology, and networking among
scientists.
With data collection on training concentrating almost entirely on quantitative measures, it is impossible to evaluate the appropriateness of training
programs. Certainly, participants are well trained in their major scientific fields. However, are degree programs planned for the variation in
Host Country educational systems as compared to those in the US (e.g., the
complete specialization of B.Sc. programs often to the exclusion of any
training in management, technological change or microcomputer technology)?
Additionally, are degree programs planned to insure that students are,
indeed, well trained for the activities for which they are to be responsible
(e.g., management)? In fact, what have been the responsibilities of
trainees upon their return home? How has CRSP-funded training coincided with total HC training needs? This stage of the CRSP, with considerable
training completed and a request for a project extension pending, is a
particularly appropriate time to consider these training issues.
B. Women in Development
The activities of the CRSP Women in Development Program, reorganized
external to the core Management office in 1986, have been limited by reduced
funding and personnel allocations. However, the WID Specialist has clearly
accomplished several goals during FY 87:




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1. She has provided specific project support to the INCAP/Washington State
University and Cameroon/Purdue University projects.
2. She has represented WID concerns to the overall CRSP. The challenge of
accomplishing the latter with a half-time position is especially difficult; in fact, if the role involves encouragement as well as monitoring,
it is impossible. If the CRSP's program goal is to be attained, a
concern for WID and small farmers is essential, with that concern being
the responsibility of all researchers, not just the WID Specialist.
Many of the Bean/Cowpea CRSP's activities that relate to the roles of
women in development are a direct result of the inclusion of a WID
component in the program (unlike the other CRSPs). Other WID efforts
are merely the result of a good, comprehensive approach to the development of technology for farmers and/or a situation of recruiting highly
qualified, capable candidates for employment arid training.
The CRSP's record of providing training opportunities to women is particularly impressive. Of the 160 degrees completed by September 30, 1985, 32 percent were granted to women. This, of course, represents numbers for the total CRSP. Individual project numbers vary a great deal, with some training less than 32 percent women and some more. In FY 87, of the 22 students completing degree training, 8 were women (36 percent). Ironically, short-term training has had slightly less representation of women at 29 percent through September 30, 1985. Short-term training is usually a particularly acceptable form of training for professional women--in addition
to the gender-neutral asset of less disruption to an individual 's career, it also causes less disruption to the extensive family responsibilities of most women.
The inclusion of a WID element in the research of the various CRSP projects has not been consistent. Some projects have clearly seen an understanding of WID as essential to success while others are focusing on activities that are deemed gender neutral. Certainly, at certain stages of scientific agricultural research there is minimal concern regarding the ultimate adoption of new technology by the farmer. However, agricultural research ultimately must be linked to production and the producer. Several of the projects have already included farm-based field trials as an integral part of their research and these appear to have at least considered the potential impact of gender-based labor, resource and power allocation. However, several of the projects are just reaching the stage of initiating farm-based field trials. The move to initiate such trials offers researchers the opportunity to: (1) develop a stratified sample of farms to include
variation in gender-related areas; (2) disaggregate results according to gender; and (3) determine whether or not gender issues may prove to be the confounding factor in the ultimate adoption of the technology.
As various CRSP projects are beginning to accomplish their basic research goals and are moving toward field research and dissemination of new technology, the necessity of institutionalization of WID components in Host Country research teams becomes more urgent. The institutionalization of WID can be enhanced through linkages with other WID-related activities in Host Countries, especially in the area of adaptive research and through short-term training activities.




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IV. Program Evaluation: Project Ratings
A. Bases for Evaluation: Rating Categories/Format
Using guidelines provided by BIFAD and AID, a Scope of Work was prepared which provided for an evaluation of progress, funding, plans and status/prospects for each CRSP project (Attachmient A). These criteria were assessed on the bases of reports submitted by the projects' Principal
Investigators, project site visits, data provided by the MO and discussions
with MO officials. Each project was given one of the following category
designations re rating and recommendations. Following these assessments, a
comment was made on the proposed request for extension.
Category Rating and Recommendation
1 Highly Satisfactory
2 Satisfactory
3 Satisfactory--CRSP officials may wish to consider major
adjustments
4 Unsatisfactory--CRSP officials may wish to consider orderly
phaseout
B. Summary of Ratings
Category 1: Brazil/University of Wisconsin/Bliss
Brazil/Boyce Thompson Institute/Roberts Nigeria/University of Georgia/McWatters
Senegal/University of California-Riverside/Hall Tanzania/Washington State University/Silbernagel
Category 2: Botswana/Colorado State University/de Mooy-Brick
Dominican Republic/University of Nebraska/Coyne
Guatemala/Cornell University/Wallace
Honduras/University of Puerto Rico/Beaver
Mexico/Michigan State University/Adams
Category 3: INCAP/Washington State University/Swanson
Category 4: None
Not Rated: Cameroon/Purdue University/Murdock
Malawi/Michigan State University/Adams




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V. Program Evaluation: Fiscal and Administrative
In response to directives from AID and the ME, and by decisions made in the MO following the budget cuts of the last few years, the MO has reduced the number
of FTEs in their office considerably. This was done in an effort to minimize
the effect of the budget cuts on the research of the CRSP. Besides having a
reduced total number of personnel, all those who are working are doing so on a
part-time basis. Together the Director and the Deputy Director total 1.75 FTE.
The Administrative Assistant and the Secretary each have a 0.9 FTE appointment.
In response to some apparent slippages in the MO during the last year, the effect of this cutback in FTEs was one of the primary agenda items in this
evaluation.
After careful deliberations and discussions at various levels, it appears that
most of the problem can be traced to a now-former secretary who was just not
able to do the job that needed to be done to help manage and run a nearly
$3,000,000-a-year program. With the reduced staff, accurate communication and follow-through with tasks was required of each person in the office. When the
secretary misfiled, misplaced or forgot, the slippage that occurred was
inevitable even though procedures in place in the office to avoid it seemed
efficient. Changing the secretary was not an easy task within the administrative structure at MSU and has been a major accomplishment of the MO during the
year. To all appearances, the problem has been solved and a new secretary is
now in place.
0 On the other hand, all activities that had formerly been carried out in the MO
cannot still be accomplished with the reduced office staff even though they
often work longer hours than their part-time FTEs would indicate. Travel by the MO to troubleshoot and help solve problems has been curtailed as has the
number of publications coming out of the MO.
The annual report of the MO argues that the individual scientists are
publishing more as their projects mature and that more of the articles are
refereed. This is a trend that would not be unexpected and, indeed, the MO has
prepared an impressive bibliography of publications emanating from the CRSP.
Without a summary, however, it is difficult to verify the above trend. The
question remains as to whether there are certain kinds of publications that the
MO, itself, should publish. Examples would include a story on the CRSP as a
whole. In gen-er-al, the MO feels that because the CRSP is a research grant, the emphasis should be on journal articles. However, others interviewed during the
review feel that there are some areas where the MO is the most appropriate
entity to publish. No attempt to decide this issue is made here. Rather it
is suggested that the MO, the TC and/or the BOD consider it.
In a previous annual report, the EEP suggested that the TC should travel more
in order to be more effective in its evaluation of projects. The MO argues that
* while this is obviously worthwhile, it is difficult for the members of the TC
to justify more travel in their already busy schedules. This is verified by the
surplus in the TC budget for the last year. Three examples serve to illustrate reasons for MO travel. The Mexico project shows only a small portion of their