• TABLE OF CONTENTS
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 Front Cover
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Introduction
 Program evaluation: Summary
 Program evaluation: Project...
 Program evaluation: Fiscal and...
 Attatchment A: Scope of work for...
 Attachment B: Individual project...
 Attachment C: Members and affiliations...
 Attachment D: Letter re overseas...
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Introduction
 Program evaluation: Summary
 Program evaluation: Training and...
 Program evaluation: Project...
 Program evaluation: Fiscal and...
 Attachment A: Scope of work for...
 Attachment B: Individual project...
 Attachment C: Bean/cowpea CRSP...






Group Title: Report of the External Evaluation Panel of the Bean/Cowpea CRSP for FY ...
Title: Report of the External Evaluation Panel of the BeanCowpea CRSP for FY ..
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE PAGE TEXT
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00054832/00001
 Material Information
Title: Report of the External Evaluation Panel of the BeanCowpea CRSP for FY ..
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Bean/Cowpea Collaborative Research Summary Program
Publisher: Bean/Cowpea CRSP, Michigan State University
Place of Publication: East Lansing Mich
Frequency: annual
regular
 Subjects
Subject: Beans -- Research -- Developing countries   ( lcsh )
Cowpeas -- Research -- Developing countries   ( lcsh )
 Notes
General Note: Description based on: FY88.
Funding: Electronic resources created as part of a prototype UF Institutional Repository and Faculty Papers project by the University of Florida.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00054832
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 52816139
 Related Items
Preceded by: Annual report. External Review Panel

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Title Page
        Title Page
    Table of Contents
        Table of Contents
    Introduction
        Page 1
        Members of the 1986 external evaluation panel
            Page 1
        Organization of the bean/cowpea CRSP
            Page 1
        1986 EEP review: Sequence of events
            Page 2
    Program evaluation: Summary
        Page 3
    Program evaluation: Project ratings
        Page 4
        Bases of evaluation: Rating categories/format
            Page 4
        Summary of project ratings
            Page 4
    Program evaluation: Fiscal and administrative management
        Page 5
        Adjustments to 1986 budget reductions
            Page 5
        CRSP funding
            Page 5
            Page 6
        Administrative management
            Page 7
            Page 8
    Attatchment A: Scope of work for external evaluation panel
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
    Attachment B: Individual project reviews
        Page 12a
        Botswana
            Page 13
            Page 14
            Page 15
            Page 16
            Page 17
            Page 18
        Brazil/UWI
            Page 19
            Page 20
            Page 21
            Page 22
            Page 23
        Brazil/BTI
            Page 24
            Page 25
            Page 26
            Page 27
            Page 28
            Page 29
        Cameroon
            Page 30
        Dominican Republic
            Page 31
            Page 32
            Page 33
            Page 34
            Page 35
            Page 36
        Guatemala
            Page 37
            Page 38
            Page 39
            Page 40
            Page 41
        Honduras
            Page 42
            Page 43
            Page 44
            Page 45
            Page 46
        INCAP
            Page 47
        Malawi
            Page 48
            Page 49
            Page 50
            Page 51
            Page 52
        Mexico
            Page 53
            Page 54
            Page 55
            Page 56
            Page 57
            Page 58
            Page 59
            Page 60
            Page 61
            Page 62
        Nigeria
            Page 63
            Page 64
            Page 65
            Page 66
            Page 67
            Page 68
        Senegal
            Page 69
            Page 70
            Page 71
            Page 72
            Page 73
            Page 74
            Page 75
        Tanzania
            Page 76
            Page 77
            Page 78
            Page 79
            Page 80
            Page 81
            Page 82
    Attachment C: Members and affiliations of the 1986 EEP
        Page 83
    Attachment D: Letter re overseas audits
        Page 84
        Page 85
    Title Page
        Page i
    Table of Contents
        Page ii
    Introduction
        Page 1
        The FY 87 external evaluation panel
            Page 1
        Organization of the bean/cowpea CRSP
            Page 1
        FY 87 EEP review: Sequence of events
            Page 2
    Program evaluation: Summary
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
    Program evaluation: Training and women in development
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Training
            Page 6
        Women in development
            Page 6
    Program evaluation: Project ratings
        Page 8
        Bases for evaluation: Rating categories/format
            Page 8
        Summary of project ratings
            Page 8
    Program evaluation: Fiscal and administrative
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
    Attachment A: Scope of work for external evaluation panel
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
    Attachment B: Individual project reviews
        Page 17
        Botswana
            Page 17
            Page 18
            Page 19
            Page 20
            Page 21
            Page 22
            Page 23
            Page 24
        Brazil/UWI
            Page 25
            Page 26
            Page 27
            Page 28
            Page 29
            Page 30
            Page 31
            Page 32
            Page 33
            Page 34
            Page 35
            Page 36
            Page 37
            Page 38
        Brazil/BTI
            Page 39
            Page 40
            Page 41
            Page 42
            Page 43
            Page 44
        Cameroon
            Page 45
            Page 46
        Dominican Republic
            Page 47
            Page 48
            Page 49
            Page 50
            Page 51
            Page 52
            Page 53
            Page 54
        Guatemala
            Page 55
            Page 56
            Page 57
            Page 58
        Honduras
            Page 59
            Page 60
            Page 61
            Page 62
            Page 63
            Page 64
        INCAP
            Page 65
            Page 66
            Page 67
            Page 68
            Page 69
            Page 70
        Malawi
            Page 71
            Page 72
            Page 73
            Page 74
        Mexico
            Page 75
            Page 76
            Page 77
            Page 78
            Page 79
            Page 80
            Page 81
            Page 82
        Nigeria
            Page 83
            Page 84
            Page 85
            Page 86
            Page 87
            Page 88
            Page 89
            Page 90
            Page 91
            Page 92
        Senegal
            Page 93
            Page 94
            Page 95
            Page 96
            Page 97
            Page 98
            Page 99
            Page 100
            Page 101
            Page 102
        Tanzania
            Page 103
            Page 104
            Page 105
            Page 106
            Page 107
            Page 108
            Page 109
            Page 110
            Page 111
            Page 112
    Attachment C: Bean/cowpea CRSP FY 87 external evaluation panel
        Page 113
Full Text





THE BEAN/COWPEA
COLLABORATIVE RESEARCH
SUPPORT PROGRAM (CRSP)


Bean/Cowpea CRSP
200 Center for International Programs
Michigan State University
East Lansing, Michigan 48824-1035 USA
Telephone: (517) 355-4693
Telex: 810 251 0737 MSU INT PRO ELSG


Funded through USAID/BIFAD Grant NO. AID/DSAN-XII-G-0261


" Yor ~e~a~ ~






















REPORT OF THE EXTERNAL EVALUATION PANEL OF THE
BEAN/COWPEA CRSP FOR FY 86


January 5-9, 1987










REPORT OF
THE EXTERNAL EVALUATION PANEL OF
THE BEAN/COWPEA COLLABORATIVE RESEARCH SUPPORT PROGRAM
FOR FY 86

TABLE OF CONTENTS

I. Introduction . . . . . .
A. Members of the 1986 External Evaluation Panel . .
B. Organization of the Bean/Cowpea CRSP . . .
C. 1986 EEP Review: Sequence of Events . . .

II. Program Evaluation: Summary . . . . .

III. Program Evaluation: Project Ratings . . . .
A. Bases of Evaluation: Rating Categories/Format . .
B. Summary of Project Ratings . . . .

IV. Program Evaluation: Fiscal and Administrative Management .


A. Adjustments to 1986 Budget Reductions


B. CRSP Funding . . . . .
C. Administrative Management . . .

V. Attachments


Attachment A: Scope of Work for External E
Attachment B: Individual Project Reviews


Botswana ..


Brazil/UWI .
Brazil/BTI .
Cameroon ..
Dominican Republ
Guatemala .
Honduras .
INCAP . .
Malawi . .
Mexico . .
Nigeria ..
Senegal ..
Tanzania .


Attachment C: Members and Affiliations of
Attachment D: Letter re Overseas Audits .


valuation Panel






















the 1986 EEP


. . 84


. 9
. 13
. 13

. 19
. 24
. 30
. 31
. 37
S. .42
. 47
. 48
. 53
. 63
. 69
. 76
* 83


ijii















REPORT OF
THE EXTERNAL EVALUATION PANEL OF
THE BEAN/COWPEA COLLABORATIVE RESEARCH SUPPORT PROGRAM
FOR FY 86


I. Introduction

The Bean/Cowpea Collaborative Research Support Program (CRSP) was originally
funded in September 1980. This report covers a review of progress in FY 86,
the sixth year of the program. During FY 86, the original Bean/Cowpea CRSP
grant came to an end and a new extension grant was awarded. This evaluation
covers FY 86 activities including both the portion funded from the original
grant and that funded from the first year of the three-year extension which
began May 7, 1986.

Evaluations during this review were based primarily on project reports written
by project Principal Investigators. Honduras and Brazil reviews also included
information from site visits. Management Office officials provided additional
information.

A. Members of the 1986 External Evaluation Panel (EEP)

During 1986, two of the original members of the EEP--Dr. Melvin Blase and
Dr. Luis H. Camacho--retired from the EEP. Current members, all appointed
in 1980-81, are:

Dr. Clarence C. Gray, III (Chair)
Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University

Dr. A. H. Bunting
University of Reading

Dr. Peter E. Hildebrand
University of Florida

Dr. Antonio M. Pinchinat
IICA

Dr. Charlotte E. Roderuck
Iowa State University

B. Organization of the Bean/Cowpea CRSP

The Bean/Cowpea CRSP was originally comprised of eighteen projects in
thirteen countries of Africa and Central and South America in collaboration
with ten US institutions with major roles (nine Land-Grant Universities and
one private institution). By the end of 1986, there were thirteen projects
for review (beans--eight; cowpeas--five) as several of the original
projects had been terminated or had been consolidated. The remaining
projects are located in eleven countries with ten US lead institutions.









REPORT OF
THE EXTERNAL EVALUATION PANEL OF
THE BEAN/COWPEA COLLABORATIVE RESEARCH SUPPORT PROGRAM
FOR FY 86


I. Introduction

The Bean/Cowpea Collaborative Research Support Program (CRSP) was originally
funded in September 1980. This report covers a review of progress in FY 86,
the sixth year of the program. During FY 86, the original Bean/Cowpea CRSP
grant came to an end and a new extension grant was awarded. This evaluation
covers FY 86 activities including both the portion funded from the original
grant and that funded from the first year of the three-year extension which
began May 7, 1986.

Evaluations during this review were based primarily on project reports written
by project Principal Investigators. Honduras and Brazil reviews also included
information from site visits. Management Office officials provided additional
information.

A. Members of the 1986 External Evaluation Panel (EEP)

During 1986, two of the original members of the EEP--Dr. Melvin Blase and
Dr. Luis H. Camacho--retired from the EEP. Current members, all appointed
in 1980-81, are:

Dr. Clarence C. Gray, III (Chair)
Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University

Dr. A. H. Bunting
University of Reading

Dr. Peter E. Hildebrand
University of Florida

Dr. Antonio M. Pinchinat
IICA

Dr. Charlotte E. Roderuck
Iowa State University

B. Organization of the Bean/Cowpea CRSP

The Bean/Cowpea CRSP was originally comprised of eighteen projects in
thirteen countries of Africa and Central and South America in collaboration
with ten US institutions with major roles (nine Land-Grant Universities and
one private institution). By the end of 1986, there were thirteen projects
for review (beans--eight; cowpeas--five) as several of the original
projects had been terminated or had been consolidated. The remaining
projects are located in eleven countries with ten US lead institutions.









REPORT OF
THE EXTERNAL EVALUATION PANEL OF
THE BEAN/COWPEA COLLABORATIVE RESEARCH SUPPORT PROGRAM
FOR FY 86


I. Introduction

The Bean/Cowpea Collaborative Research Support Program (CRSP) was originally
funded in September 1980. This report covers a review of progress in FY 86,
the sixth year of the program. During FY 86, the original Bean/Cowpea CRSP
grant came to an end and a new extension grant was awarded. This evaluation
covers FY 86 activities including both the portion funded from the original
grant and that funded from the first year of the three-year extension which
began May 7, 1986.

Evaluations during this review were based primarily on project reports written
by project Principal Investigators. Honduras and Brazil reviews also included
information from site visits. Management Office officials provided additional
information.

A. Members of the 1986 External Evaluation Panel (EEP)

During 1986, two of the original members of the EEP--Dr. Melvin Blase and
Dr. Luis H. Camacho--retired from the EEP. Current members, all appointed
in 1980-81, are:

Dr. Clarence C. Gray, III (Chair)
Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University

Dr. A. H. Bunting
University of Reading

Dr. Peter E. Hildebrand
University of Florida

Dr. Antonio M. Pinchinat
IICA

Dr. Charlotte E. Roderuck
Iowa State University

B. Organization of the Bean/Cowpea CRSP

The Bean/Cowpea CRSP was originally comprised of eighteen projects in
thirteen countries of Africa and Central and South America in collaboration
with ten US institutions with major roles (nine Land-Grant Universities and
one private institution). By the end of 1986, there were thirteen projects
for review (beans--eight; cowpeas--five) as several of the original
projects had been terminated or had been consolidated. The remaining
projects are located in eleven countries with ten US lead institutions.












Host Country

Botswana
Brazil
Brazil
Cameroon
Dominican Republic
Guatemala
Guatemala/INCAP
Honduras
Malawi
Mexico
Nigeria
Senegal
Tanzania


Crop

Cowpeas
Cowpeas
Beans
Cowpeas
Beans
Beans
Beans
Beans
Beans
Beans
Cowpeas
Cowpeas
Beans


US Institution


Colorado State University
Boyce Thompson Institute
University of Wisconsin
University of Georgia
University of Nebraska
Cornell University
Washington State University
University of Puerto Rico
Michigan State University
Michigan State University
University of Georgia
University of California-Riverside
Washington State University


The Bean/Cowpea CRSP projects are developed and executed by Principal
Investigators in collaborating US and Host Country institutions. Oversight
and participation in the approval of plans and budgets are made by the
Technical Committee (TC), Management Office/Management Entity (MO/ME) and
Board of Directors (BOD).

C. Sequence of Events--1986 EEP Review

The following are events which comprised the FY 86 EEP review process.

1. A Scope of Work (see Attachment A) was developed by the Chair of the
EEP and the Program Director/MO, using the AID Guidelines and input
from the TC and the BOD. This Scope of Work was distributed to the
Principal Investigators to guide their preparation of 1986 annual
reports which were due in the MO on or about November 1, 1986.

2. An outline of the information needed by the EEP re fiscal and
administrative management evaluation was provided to the MO on or
about November 15, 1986.

3. Annual reports of individual projects were sent to EEP members on or
before December 1, 1986.

4. Each EEP member was assigned three to four projects for intensive
study/review prior to the January 1987 EEP meeting. Draft reviews, as
assigned, were prepared by EEP members in advance and, where applicable,
included information from limited EEP reviews of Host Country sites.

5. Draft reviews were discussed by the EEP at the January meeting. Final
evaluations were made on the basis of discussions and additional
information as requested from the MO and the AID Program Officer.

6. A fiscal and administrative management evaluation was made from data
provided by, and from discussions with, the MO.












7. A summary overall evaluation of the Bean/Cowpea CRSP was made on the
basis of results of individual project reviews, information provided
by the MO and discussions with officials of the MO.

8. A draft EEP report was prepared January 8, 1987 and discussed with the
TC, MO and other officials on January 9, 1987.


II. Program Evaluation: Summary

For this FY 86 review, thirteen individual CRSP projects were to be evaluated
with special regard to status, funding, progress, plans and prospects. Annual
reports prepared by project Principal Investigators provided the principal
bases for individual evaluations and ratings. Two site reviews were made in
1986 (in Honduras of the University of Puerto Rico project and in Brazil of
the Wisconsin and BTI projects). Six projects were rated highly satisfactory;
four, satisfactory; one, satisfactory with suggested changes; and none,
unsatisfactory. Two were not evaluated for reasons given.

With few exceptions, individual CRSP projects appear well organized and
operated with good to excellent prospects for contributing knowledge and
technologies to increase the production and utilization of beans and cowpeas
in developing countries and the US.

In addition to substantial progress in many projects toward research objec-
tives, a prototype processing plant was established in a village in eastern
Nigeria to apply, on a small-scale commercial basis, the methods for preparing
cowpea meal which were developed by the University of Georgia/University of
Nigeria project.

In 1986, one person completed the requirements for the B.S. degree, nine for
the M.S. degree and one for the Ph.D. degree. In addition, 110 persons com-
pleted various non-formal technical training programs. Currently, 10 persons
are enrolled for the B.S. degree, 37 for the M.S. and 33 for the Ph.D.

During 1986, CRSP officials initiated or completed actions to correct weak-
nesses in collaboration between US and Host Country institutions. Some
projects were brought to a close by the end of FY 86, others were consolidated
during that year.

While no specific external financial audits were made on the use of funds for
FY 86, a cursory examination of expenditures indicates US Government funds were
used for the purposes authorized, the overall 25 percent matching requirement
was met, and cooperating Host Countries made significant contributions in-kind
and in local currencies. The CRSP was able to sustain the reduction in
funding imposed in FY 86 and continue operations at satisfactory levels.

The present mode of funding by the US Government inevitably leads to difficulty
in planning and maintaining continuity in both research and training and
materially reduces cost effectiveness. The EEP recommends that a system of












three-year forward funding, as provided by CRSP Guidelines,1 be instituted
to minimize these difficulties.

The CRSP is operating effectively with experienced and capable Principal
Investigators, supported by the Technical Committee and effectively assisted
by the Management Office.

Overall, the Bean/Cowpea CRSP and its operations in FY 86 are judged very
satisfactory.


III. Program Evaluation: Project Ratings

A. Bases of Evaluation

Following BIFAD/AID Guidelines,2 a Scope of Work was developed which
provided for an evaluation of the status, funding, progress, plans and
prospects for each CRSP project (see Attachment A). These criteria were
assessed on the bases of the reports submitted by the projects' Principal
Investigators, project site visits, data provided by the MO and
discussions with MO officials. Each CRSP project was given one of the
following category designations, ratings and recommendations for FY 86:

Category Rating and Recommendation

1 Highly Satisfactory

2 Satisfactory

3 Satisfactory--CRSP officials may wish to consider major
adjustments.

4 Unsatisfactory--CRSP officials may wish to consider orderly
phaseout.

B. Summary of Project Ratings

Category 1 BRAZIL/University of Wisconsin, BRAZIL/Boyce Thompson
Institute, GUATEMALA/Cornell University, NIGERIA/University of
Georgia, SENEGAL/University of California-Riverside, TANZANIA/
Washington State University

Category 2 BOTSWANA/Colorado State University, DOMINICAN REPUBLIC/
University of Nebraska, HONDURAS/University of Puerto Rico,
MEXICO/Michigan State University

1Board for International Food and Agricultural Development and Agency for
International Development. 1985. Guidelines for the Collaborative Research
Support Programs, Washington, DC, p. 31.

2Ibid., p. 12.












three-year forward funding, as provided by CRSP Guidelines,1 be instituted
to minimize these difficulties.

The CRSP is operating effectively with experienced and capable Principal
Investigators, supported by the Technical Committee and effectively assisted
by the Management Office.

Overall, the Bean/Cowpea CRSP and its operations in FY 86 are judged very
satisfactory.


III. Program Evaluation: Project Ratings

A. Bases of Evaluation

Following BIFAD/AID Guidelines,2 a Scope of Work was developed which
provided for an evaluation of the status, funding, progress, plans and
prospects for each CRSP project (see Attachment A). These criteria were
assessed on the bases of the reports submitted by the projects' Principal
Investigators, project site visits, data provided by the MO and
discussions with MO officials. Each CRSP project was given one of the
following category designations, ratings and recommendations for FY 86:

Category Rating and Recommendation

1 Highly Satisfactory

2 Satisfactory

3 Satisfactory--CRSP officials may wish to consider major
adjustments.

4 Unsatisfactory--CRSP officials may wish to consider orderly
phaseout.

B. Summary of Project Ratings

Category 1 BRAZIL/University of Wisconsin, BRAZIL/Boyce Thompson
Institute, GUATEMALA/Cornell University, NIGERIA/University of
Georgia, SENEGAL/University of California-Riverside, TANZANIA/
Washington State University

Category 2 BOTSWANA/Colorado State University, DOMINICAN REPUBLIC/
University of Nebraska, HONDURAS/University of Puerto Rico,
MEXICO/Michigan State University

1Board for International Food and Agricultural Development and Agency for
International Development. 1985. Guidelines for the Collaborative Research
Support Programs, Washington, DC, p. 31.

2Ibid., p. 12.












three-year forward funding, as provided by CRSP Guidelines,1 be instituted
to minimize these difficulties.

The CRSP is operating effectively with experienced and capable Principal
Investigators, supported by the Technical Committee and effectively assisted
by the Management Office.

Overall, the Bean/Cowpea CRSP and its operations in FY 86 are judged very
satisfactory.


III. Program Evaluation: Project Ratings

A. Bases of Evaluation

Following BIFAD/AID Guidelines,2 a Scope of Work was developed which
provided for an evaluation of the status, funding, progress, plans and
prospects for each CRSP project (see Attachment A). These criteria were
assessed on the bases of the reports submitted by the projects' Principal
Investigators, project site visits, data provided by the MO and
discussions with MO officials. Each CRSP project was given one of the
following category designations, ratings and recommendations for FY 86:

Category Rating and Recommendation

1 Highly Satisfactory

2 Satisfactory

3 Satisfactory--CRSP officials may wish to consider major
adjustments.

4 Unsatisfactory--CRSP officials may wish to consider orderly
phaseout.

B. Summary of Project Ratings

Category 1 BRAZIL/University of Wisconsin, BRAZIL/Boyce Thompson
Institute, GUATEMALA/Cornell University, NIGERIA/University of
Georgia, SENEGAL/University of California-Riverside, TANZANIA/
Washington State University

Category 2 BOTSWANA/Colorado State University, DOMINICAN REPUBLIC/
University of Nebraska, HONDURAS/University of Puerto Rico,
MEXICO/Michigan State University

1Board for International Food and Agricultural Development and Agency for
International Development. 1985. Guidelines for the Collaborative Research
Support Programs, Washington, DC, p. 31.

2Ibid., p. 12.












Category 3 MALAWI/Michigan State University

Category 4 None

Not Rated CAMEROON/University of Georgia, INCAP/Washington State
University

IV. Program Evaluation--Fiscal and Administrative Management

A. Adjustments to 1986 Budget Reductions

In FY 86 the Bean/Cowpea CRSP assumed a substantial budget reduction. The
impact was felt in both the projects and management components. Several
actions were taken which allowed the program to accommodate to this
reduction:

1. Eighteen projects were reduced to thirteen by closing-out three
projects, four projects were consolidated into two, and the budgets of
three projects were considerably reduced through reductions in their
programs.

2. The technical assistance component of two projects was phased-out.

3. A moratorium on non-essential travel and equipment was placed on the
projects.

4. For three months (February-April 1986), projects reduced expenditures
to essential personnel only.

5. Some of the field staff were recalled to the US earlier than originally
planned.

6. The initiation of new degree training was discouraged.

7. The numbers of meetings for the TC and BOD were reduced with the
substitution of conference calls to facilitate the actions of these
groups.

8. The EEP met for the FY 86 review without direct input from PIs and
only limited Host Country site reviews.

9. The MO was reduced from 6.0 FTE to 3.5 FTE and the activities of the
MO were significantly reduced (publications, travel, etc.).

B. CRSP Expenditures

1. In 1986, CRSP funding reductions were sudden and substantial.
Relevant expenditures are: FY 84--$4.2 million; FY 85--$4.7 million;
FY 86--$4.2 million; and projected FY 87--$2.8 million. Thus, there
has been unanticipated curtailment of scheduled activities, along with
an increase in uncertainty as to activities which could be sustained.












Category 3 MALAWI/Michigan State University

Category 4 None

Not Rated CAMEROON/University of Georgia, INCAP/Washington State
University

IV. Program Evaluation--Fiscal and Administrative Management

A. Adjustments to 1986 Budget Reductions

In FY 86 the Bean/Cowpea CRSP assumed a substantial budget reduction. The
impact was felt in both the projects and management components. Several
actions were taken which allowed the program to accommodate to this
reduction:

1. Eighteen projects were reduced to thirteen by closing-out three
projects, four projects were consolidated into two, and the budgets of
three projects were considerably reduced through reductions in their
programs.

2. The technical assistance component of two projects was phased-out.

3. A moratorium on non-essential travel and equipment was placed on the
projects.

4. For three months (February-April 1986), projects reduced expenditures
to essential personnel only.

5. Some of the field staff were recalled to the US earlier than originally
planned.

6. The initiation of new degree training was discouraged.

7. The numbers of meetings for the TC and BOD were reduced with the
substitution of conference calls to facilitate the actions of these
groups.

8. The EEP met for the FY 86 review without direct input from PIs and
only limited Host Country site reviews.

9. The MO was reduced from 6.0 FTE to 3.5 FTE and the activities of the
MO were significantly reduced (publications, travel, etc.).

B. CRSP Expenditures

1. In 1986, CRSP funding reductions were sudden and substantial.
Relevant expenditures are: FY 84--$4.2 million; FY 85--$4.7 million;
FY 86--$4.2 million; and projected FY 87--$2.8 million. Thus, there
has been unanticipated curtailment of scheduled activities, along with
an increase in uncertainty as to activities which could be sustained.












Category 3 MALAWI/Michigan State University

Category 4 None

Not Rated CAMEROON/University of Georgia, INCAP/Washington State
University

IV. Program Evaluation--Fiscal and Administrative Management

A. Adjustments to 1986 Budget Reductions

In FY 86 the Bean/Cowpea CRSP assumed a substantial budget reduction. The
impact was felt in both the projects and management components. Several
actions were taken which allowed the program to accommodate to this
reduction:

1. Eighteen projects were reduced to thirteen by closing-out three
projects, four projects were consolidated into two, and the budgets of
three projects were considerably reduced through reductions in their
programs.

2. The technical assistance component of two projects was phased-out.

3. A moratorium on non-essential travel and equipment was placed on the
projects.

4. For three months (February-April 1986), projects reduced expenditures
to essential personnel only.

5. Some of the field staff were recalled to the US earlier than originally
planned.

6. The initiation of new degree training was discouraged.

7. The numbers of meetings for the TC and BOD were reduced with the
substitution of conference calls to facilitate the actions of these
groups.

8. The EEP met for the FY 86 review without direct input from PIs and
only limited Host Country site reviews.

9. The MO was reduced from 6.0 FTE to 3.5 FTE and the activities of the
MO were significantly reduced (publications, travel, etc.).

B. CRSP Expenditures

1. In 1986, CRSP funding reductions were sudden and substantial.
Relevant expenditures are: FY 84--$4.2 million; FY 85--$4.7 million;
FY 86--$4.2 million; and projected FY 87--$2.8 million. Thus, there
has been unanticipated curtailment of scheduled activities, along with
an increase in uncertainty as to activities which could be sustained.












Despite the suddenness and pervasiveness of the circumstances, CRSP
officials and participants at all levels acted responsibly, swiftly
and successfully in maintaining CRSP operations.

Overall, approximately 51 percent of direct costs were spent in or on
behalf of Host Countries. Although project by project the percentages
varied widely from approximately 24 to 75 percent, project requirements
generally justified the differences. Similarly, expenditures for
personnel, equipment, travel and other costs varied widely according
to specific requirements and needs of projects. The EEP, however,
suggests that CRSP authorities review project personnel rosters, both
in the US and in Host Countries, relative to project requirements.

2. Data available indicate that the 25 percent matching requirement by US
institutions has been met.

3. Reports on expenditures are current within six months and indicate US
funds have been used for the purposes intended.

Budget Process--Financial management of the Bean/Cowpea CRSP is
facilitated by extensive support and monitoring by the MO. Included
in the process is direct participation in budget preparation and
project allocation by the MO and the TC with final approval from the
BOD. Each of the lead institution's Principal Investigators and the
Contract and Grant Officers, with whom the MO maintains active commun-
ication, as well as the Host Country PIs is involved in the process.

Each year the MO prepares a projected budget document for the TC and
BOD which is the basis for planning and eventually for advising the PIs
in the development of a preliminary budget. An analysis is made from
the financial history of each project, previous project reviews, the
proposed scope of work and the current budgetary situation.

Formal preliminary budgets are forwarded from the PIs through their
contract officers to the MO for review. The MO budget review includes
line item screening against the total budget for each project. Prev-
ious quarterly reports are compared to the proposed spending pattern
in the new budget. The preliminary budgets are forwarded to the TC,
with the scopes of work, for their review and recommendation to the
BOD. MO recommendations for the project budgets are taken into con-
sideration by the TC. The budgets are then forwarded to the BOD where
TC recommendations are analyzed and the budgets are given final
approval.

Upon final budget approval, the MO notifies the PIs in writing and
requests from each of them a detailed budget (ten-column spread sheet).
These figures establish the detailed budget which the MO monitors. The
five-months advance of funds, allocation of new monies and amendments
to the sub-grants are administered by the MO. The quarterly reports
are reviewed and matched against the budgets to control overspend.












Cost sharing is closely monitored to meet compliance with AID regula-
tions. When questions arise, the PI or the Contract Officer is con-
tacted. Reimbursements to the projects are controlled by the 10 and
directed to the MSU Contract Officer for payment. The CRSP Admini-
strative Officer and the MSU Contract and Grant Officer maintain con-
stant communication to insure appropriate fiscal management of the
projects.

International travel requests and requests for purchase of equipment
are screened and processed by the MO. The requests are reviewed
against the project's annual approved travel plan and budget.

4. The financial accounts of Michigan State University were audited in
1985 by Arthur Young and Company. This successful audit covered a
sample of all University accounts, domestic and international, includ-
ing the CRSP for the years ended June 30, 1985 and 1984. Plans are
underway for an audit in early 1987 of CRSP accounts in a representa-
tive six projects in Africa and Central and South America.

5. Balance in the use of funds in the CRSP has to be considered in several
ways.
A minimum of 50 percent in expenditures for direct costs in or on
behalf of Host Countries is required by the CRSP. We find that this
balance is 51/49 HC/US over the period for which figures are available.
This ratio varied from 24 to 75 percent in Host Country. We have
examined the reasons for this variation and are satisfied that they
are in agreement with the approved purposes of the projects.

Balance is also important between the different components of projects
such as management, travel, training, field and laboratory operations,
equipment and personnel. Through FY 86, total personnel costs appear
high. We are satisfied that the oversight by the MO and AID of
expenditures on travel and equipment ensures that these expenditures
are in accordance with purposes approved. One hundred fifty-nine
persons have received or are receiving degree training and 777 have
had training of shorter duration. We are not able to estimate the
total expenditure on this component, but it is evident that training
is one of the most valuable products of the CRSP.
C. Administrative Management

Management of the CRSP in 1986 during a period of funding reductions and
uncertainty has been quite .difficult. Notwithstanding and under stress of
reduced availability of personnel, the MO has carried out its functions in
an exceptional manner, apart from the requirement to observe and monitor
on-site CRSP activities in the US and overseas on a regular basis. This
deficiency is becoming increasingly apparent and requires correction. The
EEP requests the Board of Directors and Management Entity to consider
whether the MO's and the TC's responsibilities would not be more effec-












tively discharged if members of the MO and TC were enabled to visit over-
seas and domestic locations more frequently than has been possible in the
past two years. The EEP feels that the MO and TC require more funds to
enable them to perform their duties effectively. The EEP does not believe
it is desirable to achieve further economies by decreasing yet further the
allocations to individual projects. In the EEP's view, funds can only be
freed for these purposes by rearrangements within CRSP projects, which may
have to include the termination of part or all of specific projects.

The ME should look into opportunities for increasing the efficiency of the
MO by expanding its electronic capabilities for handling data and communi-
cations.






ATTACHMENT A


-9-

1986 EXTERNAL EVALUATION PANEL SCOPE OF WORK

I. PROGRESS

A. Specific research contributions (to date and in early prospect)
toward amelioration of national (HC and US) and global constraints.
Cite constraint and specific contribution, with special regard to
the following:

1. Research in process in Host Country and in US

2. Research results disseminated and in use in Host Country and
US. Give examples such as:

a. Improved cultivars; inoculants; tests; methods; systems; and
technical papers, reports and bulletins produced and
released for public use

b. Evidence of extent of use

3. Other research-related results, such as:

a. Germplasm conservation and use

(1) Accessions collected/acquired/in storage and kinds and
amounts distributed domestically

(2) International exchange

b. Seed production (or other materials) and distribution of
CRSP-produced cultivars (or materials)

c. Impact of other CRSP-produced or -recommended technology,
including production inputs such as fertilizers, inoculants,
insecticides, equipment and machines

d. Contributions to and participation in international
bean/cowpea research networks, e.g., IARCs and other

e. How the research findings specifically address the needs of
small-scale farmers and women

B. Changes in national production of beans and cowpeas in Host Country

1. Hectares planted

2. .Yields per hectare

3. Total production












C. Training (only CRSP-sponsored funded in 1986)

1. Numbers and kinds in process in US and non-US

2. Numbers and kinds completed--US and non-US

3. Cumulative training totals--thru 1986

4. Project training targets during three-year extension period
(1986-88)

D. Institutional development, i.e. strengthening Host Country bean
and/or cowpea research and improvement systems

1. Cite changes in 1986-

2. Over life of project (where are we?)

3. In prospect (where are we going and how long to get there?)

II. FUNDING/FISCAL MANAGEMENT

A. Levels and sources 1985, 1986 and 1987 (projected)

1. Total

2. USAID totals for 1985 and 1986 and %

3. US university totals for 1985, 1986 and %

4. Host Country totals for 1985, 1986 and %

B. Use of funds--budgets and expenditures by categories for 1985 and
1986

1. Salaries

2. Vehicles

3. Equipment, machines, apparatus

4. Supplies

5. Training

6. Conferences/meetings/consultations

7. Travel

8. Other








-11-


C. Custody and maintenance of vehicles, equipment and other
non-expendable CRSP-purchased property

1. Inventory (or records)

2. Accountable individuals and institutions

D. Audit/project management reviews

1. Date, by whom, and findings and follow-up

2. If no audit, has one been requested?

E. Adequacy of funding (to accomplish objectives) by CRSP participants

1. AID

2. Host Country--comments/actions

3. US university--comments/actions

F. Problems regarding funding, budgeting, release of funds, procurement
and other--in US and Host Country

G. Adequacy of current policies and procedures (especially regarding
follow-up on use of funds and commodities)

III. PLANNING

A. Work plan for 1986

1. TC and/or ME guidance/approach, if any

2. How prepared?

3. Who prepared?

4. When prepared?

5. Budget and work plan related?

B. Review of 1986 work plan during implementation

1. Adjustments/changes/additions/deletions--ME notified? TC?

2. 1986.work plan--accomplishments and shortfalls

C. Plans for 1987

1. Research in Host Country and US









-12-


2. Expected changes/additions/deletions from 1986 regarding
funding, personnel, research activities, commodities or other
and their reasons (i.e. availability of funds; failures;
marginal activities; inadequate performance; unrealistic plans)

IV. STATUS

A. Appropriateness of activities to goals of Global Plan

B. Balance between research and training

C. Balance of domestic vs overseas activities with respect to program
constraints

D. Level of collaboration/cooperation between US and Host Country
institutions and personnel

E. Relative contributions of collaborating institutions and individuals
towards accomplishment of objectives

F. Interest, involvement and support of US and Mission and/or US
Embassy

G. Domestic and international linkages and cooperation/collaboration

H. Cost effectiveness, especially regarding level of activity vs.
funding

I. Institutionalization of Host Country component--evidence of

V. PUBLICATIONS

VI. OVERALL RATING
































ATTACHMENT B


INDIVIDUAL PROJECT REVIEWS









-13-


1986 EEP REVIEW
BOTSWANA/COLORADO STATE UNIVERSITY BEAN/COWPEA CRSP PROJECT

"Development of Integrated Cowpea Production Systems in Semiarid Botswana"

I. PROGRESS

A. Research Contributions

1. Research in process

All the research of this project has been located in Botswana.
A large number of research activities were planned and were to
be undertaken at several locations: at Sebele; at district
experimental farms at Goodhope, Mahalapye and Motopi; and
Perhaps at unspecified locations. These planned research
activities included:

a. Variety testing and screening trials re agronomy, pathology
and entomology;

b. Evaluation of breeding lines developed in cooperation with
IITA and SAFGRAD;

c. Initiation of a Botswana cowpea breeding program;

d. Evaluation of local cowpea germplasm and maintenance of
cowpea genebank;

e. Evaluation of cultural practices and new animal-drawn
equipment and improved harnesses;

f. Evaluation of intercropping of sorghum and cowpeas;

g. Investigation of integrated approaches to pest control;

h. Investigation of micronutrient (B, Cu, Mo, Zn) and secondary
nutrient (Mg and S) requirements for cowpeas in Botswana;

i. Study of the effect of leaf harvesting on grain yield;

j. Study of cooking time and quality of seven cowpea genotypes.

The severe drought in Botswana in 1986, reduction in CRSP fund-
ing and shortcomings in Government of Botswana (GOB) support
combined to sharply curtail several of the planned activities;
however, very important progress was made in (1) continuing the
identification of very early maturing cowpea varieties adapted
to Botswana conditions and (2) increasing, describing, maintain-
ing and using (including international exchange) a significant
Botswana cowpea germplasm collection.









-14-


2. Research results disseminated and in use

a. Cowpea variety ER-7, developed by IITA, was tested by the
CRSP and released by the GOB for use in 1983-84. Approxi-
mately 18 tons of ER-7 seed were multiplied in 1984-85 and
distributed to farmers.

b. Two additional varieties, TVX 3236-01G and IT82E-9, also
developed by IITA, have been tested by the CRSP and
recommended to the GOB for release.

c. A third volume of the Botswana Cowpea Germplasm Catalogue
has been completed. Two earlier volumes in the series
prepared by the CRSP were published by the GOB and
distributed to interested individuals and institutions,
including several international agricultural research
centers (IARCs).

3. Other research-related results

a. Germplasm conservation and use

(1) The CRSP-sponsored cowpea germplasm collection has grown
to 852 accessions. This represents a substantial but
incomplete portion of Botswana's cowpea resources. A
total of 390 accessions have been grown in the field for
evaluation and seed increase. With the departure of the
CRSP-sponsored PI and his associate (and spouse), the
collection, thought to be the largest in southern
Africa, has been turned over to a newly appointed
Botswana research officer for care and maintenance.
Current facilities for housing the collection are
inadequate.

(2) The CRSP has been involved in the exchange of cowpea
germplasm to IITA (450 Botswana accessions sent) and to
other CRSP projects in Nebraska and California (Davis
and Riverside).

b. Seed production and distribution

Previously reported under 2a above.

c. Impact of other CRSP-produced or recommended technology

A CRSP-developed, animal-drawn, prototype planter has been
evaluated by the Botswana Rural Industries Innovation Center
and approved for replication and further testing by Botswana
Agricultural Field and Extension Services. In addition, the
CRSP has introduced improved donkey harnesses which promote
greater work output and prevent injury. Along with other
animal-drawn, light-weight tillage implements, these addi-









-15-


tions--the planter and the improved harness--have direct
benefits for small farms, especially those involving women
as farm workers.

B. Changes in National Production

No data provided, but yields per hectare of cowpeas are thought to
be less than 25 percent of long-term average." The
long-term average is not given.

C. Training

1. Numbers and kinds in process

US: 1 Ph.D.
Non-US: 1 B.Sc.
2 M.S.

2. Numbers and kinds completed during FY 86

US: None
Non-US: 7 non-degree

D. Institutional Development

Transfers of responsibilities for activities carried out in Botswana
by CRSP-provided personnel have been made to GOB personnel. In
addition, two M.S. degree students are expected to have completed
their studies and returned to Botswana by the end of-1986. One is
expected to become the Host Country Principal Investigator for the
project. In the interim, arrangements were made for a US Peace
Corps volunteer to manage the project. The TC and MO/ME may wish to
determine if this arrangement is appropriate.

Plans are underway for the US PI to spend two months each year in
Botswana to assist with continued improvement of cowpea research and
development. This arrangement should be reviewed and approved by
the TC and the MO.

Prospects for satisfactory continuation of this CRSP project appear
uncertain and suspect, given the inexperience of current and
prospective Botswana personnel; the general lack of necessary
arrangements, facilities and infrastructure for the conduct of
reliable agricultural research; and the likely inability of the GOB
to provide adequate financial support. Credit must be given to the
CRSP and the GOB for their efforts to make the best of a difficult
situation, but their efforts probably cannot take the place of more
promising options. One option might be for an assistance donor
(multilateral or bilateral) to arrange appropriate technical
assistance to help Botswana build a capacity to conduct cowpea
research. Another option might be to designate Botswana as a CRSP
prime country site and arrange for long-term assignments of US










-16-


scientists in Botswana (see pages 8-9, Guidelines for Collaborative
Research Support Program, June 21, 1985).

Botswana is a prime site for the INTSORMIL CRSP. Under further
budget reductions, an arrangement whereby the two CRSPs jointly
support resident US scientists in Botswana may be a way to sustain
and build on the investment and progress made in Botswana with
sorghum and cowpeas. Any such arrangement should be in accordance
with the priorities of the GOB and should be associated with the
regional SADCC research coordination program.

II. FUNDING/FISCAL MANAGEMENT

A. Custody and Maintenance of Vehicles and Equipment

1. Inventory/records--Satisfactory

2. Accountable individuals and institutions--Satisfactory

B. Audit/Project Management Reviews

1. Management review in 1985--Satisfactory

2. No audit made or requested

C. Adequacy of Funding

Satisfactory until recent funding reductions created dislocations
and termination of some activities.

D. Problems

The US PI reports that the land made available by the Government of
Botswana was inadequate in respect to both quantity and quality.
This is a serious shortcoming that needs attention if the project is
to continue.

E. Adequacy of Current Policies and Procedures

Satisfactory

III. PLANS FOR 1987

The EEP notes that plans and arrangements for 1987 are in place. These
plans are judged satisfactory.

IV. STATUS

A. Appropriateness of Activities to the Goals of Global Plan

Most of the activities undertaken under this CRSP project are
location-specific, designed for Botswana. At some point in time,









-17-


some of the cultivars developed and accompanying adapted technol-
ogies may be useful elsewhere. So far, Botswana has been the
recipient of improved varieties and technologies developed at IITA
and elsewhere. The Botswana germplasm collection may prove to be
valuable in cowpea breeding and improvement programs in other loca-
tions, especially in areas with conditions similar to Botswana. In
this connection, it should be noted that descriptions of conditions
at the experimental sites in Botswana were not provided in the
annual report and there is no indication such data is included in
experimental reports.

B. Balance between Research and Training

Satisfactory

C. Balance of US versus Overseas Activities

Very little activity in the US. Plans are underway to achieve a
better balance of activities.

D. Level of Collaboration between US and Host Country

Excellent

E. Relative Contributions of Collaborating Institutions and Individuals
Toward Accomplishment of Objectives

Heavily weighted toward the US PI in Botswana

F. Interest, Involvement and Support of USAID Mission and/or US Embassy

Excellent

G. Domestic and International Linkages and Cooperation/Collaboration

Outstanding--Diverse, highly supportive linkages

H. Cost Effectiveness, Especially Regarding Level of Activity versus
Funding

Satisfactory

I. Institutionalization of Host Country Component

Improving, but capacity of GOB to continue satisfactory cowpea
research without direct technical assistance is considered to be
doubtful.

V. PUBLICATIONS

Output satisfactory, but all except one report was authored by the US PI
or his associate.









-18-


It would appear desirable for most publications, particularly those
using Host Country data, to have at least a junior author from the Host
Country, in order to reflect the collaborative nature of CRSP projects.

VI. OVERALL RATING: 2--Satisfactory

Although the project is judged satisfactory, future prospects are
uncertain, perhaps bleak. It is recommended that the Technical
Committee and Management Office review this project with special regard
to plans and prospects, including role of Colorado State University, and
report their findings to the Board of Directors for final review and
disposition. Any future activity in Botswana should be developed in the
light of the results of farming system research in Botswana by the team
led by David Norman and colleagues.

With the departure of the US PI from Botswana, adequate maintenance of
the Botswana Cowpea Germplasm Collection should be a matter of concern.
Loss of this collection would be a serious setback. The GOB should be
encouraged to continue its present practice of insuring the safe,
long-term storage of cowpea material collected in Botswana.









-19-


1986 EEP REVIEW

BRAZIL/UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN BEAN/COWPEA CRSP PROJECT

"Plant Microbial Interactions in Beans:
Improvement of Nitrogen Fixation and Disease Resistance"

I. PROGRESS

A. Research Contributions

1. Research in process

a. For enhanced biological nitrogen fixation, the project has
identified superior bean rhizobial isolates, has produced
promising improved bean germplasm and is developing advanced
breeding and cropping methodology. This, if properly
exploited, should lead to the development of high N-fixing
bean varieties suitable to different farming systems,
especially in the LDCs where the use of commercial N
fertilizer in bean production is limited.
b. Breeding methodology for multiple disease resistance (MDR)
to increase bean production could become more effective and
efficient as a result of the techniques that have been
developed by the project to sequentially test reactions of
the plant to several fungal and bacterial pathogens.

c. By emphasizing research in molecular biology of the bean
golden mosaic virus and in identification of sources of
resistance/tolerance to the disease, the project may greatly
contribute to alleviating this major constraint to bean
production in many parts of the world.

2. Research results disseminated and in use

a. Superior N fixing breeding lines of beans selected by the
project are being evaluated in several regions in the HC.

b. Selection for N-fixation is becoming an integral part of bean
research at Centro Nacional de Pesquisa Arroz e Feijao
(CNPAF).

c. The MDR techniques developed by the project, including the
dry inoculum method for the initiation of diseases, are
being used in bean research in Brazil and elsewhere.

d. Research results from the project have been published in
scientific journals, books or other media.









-20-


3. Other research-related results

Bean germplasm and rhizobial strains collected or developed by
the project are being preserved in the HC and US. Some of the
materials have been exchanged with interested scientists or
institutions.

B. Changes in National Production

It is too early for the project to have any meaningful impact on
bean production in the HC. This will require the availability of
superior bean varieties and cropping technologies suitable to
different farming systems, strong linkages between research and
extension, and favorable official policies. Over the last five
years, the country's bean production has slightly increased, but
seasonal yields have remained very low.

C. Training

1. Numbers and kinds in process

US: 1 Ph.D.
Non-US: 1 M.S.

2. Numbers and kinds completed during FY 86

US: None reported
Non-US: 4 non-degree

D. Institutional Development

1. Changes in 1986

a. Evaluation of N-fixation in preliminary stages of development
of improved bean varieties

b. Intensification of research on BGMV

c. Initiation of work on isozyme markers in fungal pathogens

d. Introduction of silica gel technique for long-term storage
of plant pathogenic fungi into the bean research program at
CNPAF

2. Over life of project

a. Enhanced N-fixation has developed into a strong line of work
in the National Bean Research Program in Brazil.

b. Bean pathology research is being strengthened at CNPAF.









-21-


3. In prospect

Significant contribution to CNPAF's institution building

II. FUNDING/FISCAL MANAGEMENT

A. Custody and Maintenance of Vehicles and Equipment

1. Inventory/records--Information incomplete

2. Accountable individuals and institutions--Satisfactory

B. Audit/Project Management Reviews


No audit or management problems have been reported.
reviewed by an EEP member in December 1986. Report
review of this project in 1986 was not available at


The
from
this


project was
an AID
writing.


C. Adequacy of Funding

1. AID--Adequate

2. Host Country--Adequate

3. US university--Adequate

D. Problems

Present rules on procurement at AID and in the HC caused serious
difficulties in equipping the project. Cumbersome administrative
procedures regarding CRSP funding and release of funds complicated
project management by the PIs. The uses of funds and the split
between expenditures in the US and Brazil may be questionable.

E. Adequacy of Current Policies and Procedures

Policies and procedures regarding follow-up on use of funds and
commodities seem to be adequate; however, slow response in AID is a
problem.

III. PLANS FOR 1987


Research in HC and US will be
tolerance to BGMV. The major
sums up to decreasing work on
increasing activities in BGMV.
directed to:


centered on enhanced BNF and resistance/
change in the project's MDR research plan
fungal and bacterial diseases of beans and
In rhizobiology, more attention will be


A. Developing a non-nodulating bean genotype to use in research

B. Improving methods of estimating N-fixation capacity in beans,
especially using isotope N-marker









-22-


C. Studying ecology of R. phaseoli in field rhizospheres

D. Understanding premature nodule senescence

These plans are subject to review by the Technical Committee.

IV. STATUS

A. Appropriateness of Activities to Goals of Global Plan

The activities of the project conform to the goals of the CRSP
Global Plan regarding the reduction of plant response limitations
and alleviation of disease constraints. The nature and level of
project research on BNF and BGMV appropriately complement research
in the other B/C CRSP projects.

B. Balance between Research and Training

Research seems to have edged training in the project. It may be
desirable to have more Brazilians trained at the graduate level
(especially Ph.D. degree) in rhizobiology, plant breeding and
molecular virology for bean improvement.

C. Balance of US versus Overseas Activities

The balance between US and HC research activities has been quite
satisfactory, especially in the BNF leg of the project.

D. Level of Collaboration between US and Host Country

The level of collaboration and interaction between the US and HC
research personnel and institutions has been excellent.

E. Relative Contributions of Collaborating Institutions and Individuals
toward Accomplishment of Objectives

The relative contributions of US and HC personnel and institutions
toward accomplishment of the project objectives also has been
excellent.

F. Interest, Involvement and Support of USAID Mission and/or US Embassy

Interest, involvement and support of USAID, through the US Embassy
in Brazil, has been reported to be improving, although qualification
of Brazil as HC base for CRSP-funded projects may have been
questioned in the US.

G. Domestic and International Linkages and Cooperation/Collaboration

The project has developed strong and extensive linkages in the HC,
US and international community. Cooperation with the Centro
International de Agricultura Tropical (CIAT) has markedly grown
during FY 86.










-23-


H. Cost Effectiveness, Especially Regarding Level of Activity versus
Funding

The project appears to be cost effective, when judged by the amount
of voluntary support it receives from the participating US and HC
institutions, relative to accomplishments in research.

I. Institutionalization of Host Country Component

The project is being institutionalized at CNPAF and has become an
integral part of the National Bean Research Program in Brazil.

Prospective development of the project seems to be very promising.
Except for cumbersome administrative procedures like those reported in
FY 86, no major problem is anticipated in the operation of the project.

The project has been quite successful in advancing research on enhanced
BNF and developing techniques for improving breeding methodology for MDR
in beans. This is laying strong scientific and practical basis for
improving bean production in the world. The project, especially as
restructured, is expected to make significant contributions toward
achieving the objectives of the B/C CRSP Global Plan.

V. PUBLICATIONS

Satisfactory

VI. OVERALL RATING: 1--Highly Satisfactory

The two University of Wisconsin projects have been merged. The work on
BNF continues to be outstanding. Research on MDR is satisfactory. The
EEP recommends that means be sought to enable Dr. Bliss to contribute to
the work on biological nitrogen fixation in any projects in the CRSP.









-24-


1986 EEP REVIEW

BRAZIL/BOYCE THOMPSON INSTITUTE BEAN/COWPEA CRSP PROJECT

"Insect Pathogens in Cowpea Pest Management Systems
for Developing Nations"

I. PROGRESS

A. Research Contributions

1. Research in process

a. In Brazil:

1) The project in Brazil during FY 86 added 24 new fungal
isolates to the culture collection of entomopathogens at
CNPAF, thereby increasing its potential for microbial
control of insect pests in cowpeas and other crops. The
same isolates were shared with the USDA collection at
BTI.
2) Very high pathogenicity resulted from direct spraying of
the fungus Beauvaria bassiana onto larvae of the
Chalcodermus aeneus weevil of cowpea.

3) Preliminary research in the ecology and epizootiology of
entomopathogens is providing basic information for
improving microbial control of the cowpea pests.

4) Simple-technology formulations of B. bassiana and
Metharhizium anisopliae are in the initial stage of
development at CNPAF, for low-cost control of coleopteran
cowpea pests in Brazil.

b. In the US:

1) At BTI, refinements of laboratory bioassay protocol have
revealed the extremely high infection potential of the
fungus Erynia radicans against Empoasca leafhoppers.

2) Additional basic information has been gathered on
moisture and temperature requirements as well as on
invasion processes of E. radicans into Empoasca fabae
leafhopper, a major insect pest of beans, cowpeas.and
other leguminous crops.

3) New protectants are being researched to prevent rapid
loss of activity in entomopathogenic fungus formulations,
especially in those based on B. bassiana and M.
anisopliae.









-25-


4) Work with E. radicans dry mycelium is showing great
potential for possible control of the forage legume
alfalfa and beans in the US and suggesting that intro-
duction of the fungus into cowpea fields showing closed
canopy would prevent leafhopper populations from
increasing to severely damaging levels.

2. Research results disseminated and in use
a. Isolates of B. bassiana, M. anisopliae and E. radicans from
the project are reported to be in experimental use at several
institutions in Brazil, but they are not being used by cowpea
producers. Isolates of E. radicans are being field tested
in two states of the US.

b. Research results about the dried-mycelium inoculation
technique have been widely disseminated in the US, Brazil
and other countries.

3. Other research-related results

a. Over 200 isolates of fungal entomopathogens are being pre-
served at CNPAF and BTI, and some of them have been exchanged
with interested institutions in Brazil and elsewhere.

b. Eventual development of simple-technology, low-cost entomo-
pathogen formulations will facilitate insect pest control at
the small-farm level, especially benefitting cowpea produc-
tion in the LDCs.

B. Changes in National Production

From 1970 through 1983 in Northeastern Brazil, which is the major
cowpea-producing region of the country, the area planted increased by
2.2 percent, but yields decreased by 7.6 percent, causing an output
reduction of 5.4 percent per year.

From approximately 500 kg/ha in the early 1970s, yields were about
half that much in the early 1980s with few exceptions. These figures
are at best rough estimates, since statistics on cowpea production
in the country are normally pooled with those on common bean produc-
tion. Total cowpea production may have increased in the NE region
since 1984-1986 (informal communication from CNPAF), but not as a
direct result of the project.

Though the scientific achievements of the project are satisfactory
and promising, no operational product has emerged as yet. It
therefore has not affected cowpea output in the country.

C. Training

The CRSP-sponsored training program in the project is as follows:









-26-


1. Numbers and kinds in process
US: 1 Ph.D.
1 M.S.
Non-US: 4 M.S.

2. Numbers and kinds completed during FY 86

US: None
Non-US: 12 technicians
D. Institutional Development

1. The new CNPAF administration recognizes the Insect Pathology
Laboratory on its campus as an integral part of its National
Cowpea Research Program.

2. The project has sponsored training of five professionals from
Brazil at the M.S. degree level. They are expected to decisively
contribute toward the strengthening of research in microbial
control of insect pests in the country's farming systems.

3. Actions are being taken to enroll the HC Principal Investigator
in a Ph.D. degree program in the US under Brazilian sponsorship.

4. The next short course in microbial control of bean/cowpea pests
is scheduled for June 1987 at CNPAF.
II. FUNDING/FISCAL MANAGEMENT

A. Custody and Maintenance of Vehicles and Equipment

1. Inventory/records--Not available

2. Accountable individuals and institutions--Adequate

B. Audit/Project Management Reviews

No audit requested. Management review accomplished 1986.

C. Adequacy of Funding

1. AID--Marginally adequate and unpredictable

2. Host Country--Satisfactory

3. US Institution--Satisfactory

D. Problems

1. The project continued to receive unpredictable amount of money
from CRSP during FY 86.









-27-


2. Restrictive rules at AID on the purchasing of non-US-manufactured
equipment and similar rules adopted by the Brazilian Goverment
on imports caused serious difficulties in the procurement of
non-expendable equipment for the project from CRSP funds.

E. Adequacy of Current Policies and Procedures

Current policies and procedures on the use of funds and commodities
and follow-up, both at CNPAF and BTI, seem to be adequate although
the administrative paper work may be excessive.

III. PLANS FOR 1987

A. Research in HC and US

1. Research in 1987 will continue to be centered on E. radicans, B.
bassiana and M. anisopliae.

2. In the HC, development of simple technology formulations of
entomopathogenic fungi (especially B. bassiana and M. anisopliae)
and field/laboratory studies on E. radicans will be emphasized
as will research on the impact of entomopathogens on non-target
insects.

3. In the US, research will focus principally on entomopathogen
penetration processes (especially in leafhoppers and chrysomelid
beetles). Techniques for prolonging the effectiveness of
entomopathogenic formulation will be further advanced.

B. Expected Changes

In addition to the change in research emphasis, there will be some
modification in research team composition. Dr. J. Lord will be
replaced by Dr. S. P. Wraight in Brazil. The latter and Dr. S.
Galaini-Wraight will be replaced by an insect pathology/microbial
control specialist at BTI.

IV. STATUS

A. Appropriateness of Activities to Goals of Global Plan

The work on microbial control of insect pests in cowpeas is quite
appropriate for meeting the objectives of the Global Plan by
attempting to remove severe insect constraints to bean/cowpea
production worldwide.

B. Balance between Research and Training

The balance between research and training in the project has been
excellent.









-28-


C. Balance of US versus Overseas Activities

The project has maintained a remarkable balance between US and HC
activities with respect to program constraints, especially in its
training segment. In research, the more sophisticated laboratory
studies at BTI are completed with the more applied field work in the
HC.

D. Level of Collaboration between US and Host Country

The level of collaboration between the US and HC institutions and
professional personnel on the project has been extremely high and
effective.

E. Relative Contributions of Collaborating Institutions and Individuals
toward Accomplishment of Objectives

The US and HC institutions and personnel have contributed in a
balanced way toward achieving project objectives, coupling the
advanced scientific knowledge and experience of BTI with the
eagerness and drive of CNPAF.

F. Interest, Involvement and Support of USAID Mission and/or US Embassy

The FY 86 report seems to suggests that the interest, involvement
and support of USAID, through the US Embassy/Brazil, have markedly
increased with regard to the project.

G. Domestic and International Linkages and Cooperation/Collaboration

The domestic linkages of the project are extensive and effective.
International relationships need to be strengthened.

H. Cost Effectiveness, Especially Regarding Level of Activity versus
Funding

The project seems to be cost effective when judged on the number of
professionals trained, amount of research performed and voluntary
institutional support received in relation to effective CRSP budget
consumed.

I. Institutionalization of Host Country Component

The project is on its way to being firmly institutionalized at CNPAF.
Its Insect Pathology Laboratory there is bound to play the role of
an active resource center for insect pathology research in Brazil
and other countries.

V. PUBLICATIONS

Outstanding--In FY 86, twenty publications ranging from book chapters
and journal articles to notes in technical bulletins have been produced
by authors or co-authors from the project.









-29-


VI. OVERALL RATING: 1--Highly Satisfactory

Insect pathology is developing worldwide in both developing and developed
countries (including the US) as a means of controlling pests. This
project has been able to utilize the environmental diversity and the
relatively advanced infrastructure of Brazil to explore the prospects of
this line of bio-control research for developing countries.









-30-


1986 EEP REVIEW

CAMEROON/UNIVERSITY OF GEORGIA BEAN/COWPEA CRSP PROJECT

"Pest Management Strategies for Optimizing Cowpea Yields in Cameroon"


The Cameroon project is not being reviewed for FY 86 because plans are underway
to restructure the project. The EEP wishes, nevertheless, to record its
appreciation of the technical quality of the work by the University of Georgia
under the direction of Dr. Richard C. Chalfant in Cameroon. The Cameroon has
made substantial progress in building a capacity to do cowpea research. The
EEP notes the important, effective work of Dr. Moffi Ta'Ama.









-31-


1986 EEP REVIEW

DOMINICAN REPUBLIC/UNIVERSITY OF NEBRASKA BEAN/COWPEA CRSP PROJECT

"Biology, Epidemiology, Genetics and Breeding for Resistance to Pathogens
of Beans with Emphasis on Those Causing Bacterial and Rust Diseases"


I. PROGRESS

A. Research Contributions

1. Research in process

a. US--Nebraska

Ongoing studies in the US have provided a basic set of tools
that are being used in a number of experiments, including the
cloning of virulence and pathogenicity genes of Xanthomonas
campestris pv. phaseoli (Xcp). Due to the simplicity of the
methodologies, technical persons from the DR will be able to
conduct similar epidemiology studies in their country. The
studies may also provide information as to why cultivars bred
in the US under long photoperiods for resistance to common
blight are susceptible in the tropics and why susceptible
tropical lines in the DR are moderately tolerant under long
days in Nebraska.

Inheritance studies indicate that single plant selection for
resistance would not be effective in early generations.
Lines should be evaluated for resistance in replicated tests
in advanced generations.

Studies in the variation of rust virulence indicate a major
effect of environment on the appearance of pathogen races
rather than a selection of host genotypes. Hence, resistance
genes must be identified in both field and greenhouse trials
for use in a breeding program.

In seed hardness studies, genotype x temperature x humidity
and genotype x date of planting x humidity x temperature
interactions were observed.

b. US--Puerto Rico

Work on beans at the University of Puerto Rico provides
useful background data and a location for screening of
materials from Nebraska, CIAT and other projects.









-32-


c. HC--Dominican Republic

Replicated disease nurseries were conducted over different
planting dates at several locations to detect sources of
disease resistance and improved yields. An important
collection of variants of Pompadour germplasm was also
evaluated. The red-mottled bean PC-157 (Type I) yielded well
under stress conditions and appears promising for small-scale
farmer situations; however, the seed size of Type I and Type
II red-mottled lines is too small for consumer acceptance.

An experiment was conducted to study the effect of location
of production, type of storage container and months in
storage on germination and water uptake of eight varieties.
Germination was affected by all three factors but amount of
water uptake at twenty-four hours did not differ among
varieties.

2. Research results disseminated and in use

Foundation seed of two recently released and recommended small,
red-mottled cultivars and one black-seeded variety was produced
and will be increased for distribution to small growers in the
DR. The small white Arroyo Loro #1 is now being grown in the DR.
However, this type of bean occupies only a small part of the bean
production. A testing method to screen for resistance to ashy
stem blight was developed in the DR and is now used in screening
and genetic studies. The importance of leaf age in screening for
resistance to rust was detected and has led to standardization
of age to provide a consistent comparison between lines within
and between tests.

3. Other research-related results

a. Germplasm conservation and use

Germplasm collections for use in genetics, breeding and plant
pathological and physiological experiments are maintained
under suitable conditions in the DR, PR and NE.

b. Seed production

The project has cooperated with the Seed Department of the
Ministry of Agriculture (SEA) in the DR in producing 5.3
million tons of foundation seed of PC-150, Bat 1412-CIAT,
and PC-157.

c. Impact of other CRSP-produced or recommended technology

The annual report states that "the introduction of the new
disease resistant varieties served to increase (also
stabilize) yield, produce a better quality seed for consumer









-33-


use and reduce costs of production (no fungicide needed)".
(The underline is the reviewer's.) Review of the report
indicates no evidence to substantiate this statement.

d. Cooperation with CIAT

Several activities (training, testing and workshops) have
been held in cooperation with CIAT.

e. Needs of small-scale farmers and women

Disease resistant varieties will reduce costs for those
farmers who spray and will increase yields for small
producers. But again, no evidence is presented and state-
ments are futuristic.

B. Changes in National Production

The years 1982 and 1985 are compared. For red-mottled beans, the
most important in the country, production increased 26 percent (21
percent increase in area and 5 percent increase in yield). The
figures presented for black beans have an error so no comparison can
be made. A comparison of only two years is hardly adequate to show
trends.

C. Training

Three students from the DR are expected to complete two M.S. and one
Ph.D. degrees at UNL in 1987-89. Two will attend UPR for M.S.
degrees programmed for completion in 1988. Two of the three at UNL
are financed by LASPAU.

1. Numbers and kinds in process

US: None
Non-US: 4 M.S.
1 B.S.

2. Numbers and kinds completed during FY 86

US: None
Non-US: 1 M.S.
1 B.S.
31 non-degree
D. Institutional Development

1. Changes in 1986


None reported









-34-


2. Changes over life of project

An identifiable bean program now exists in the DR. Before 1981
only a loose legume program geared to testing CIAT lines existed.
A breeding/research bean program commitment was made by the SEA
of the former government.

3. In prospect

To be discussed with the new government will be the objective
that the DR pay most or all of the current Title XII bean
personnel so that when the project is terminated, the bean
research program will be maintained at a high level of activity.
At the present time, the project is paying 100 percent of the
salary of 19 persons in the DR, including the HC PI, and part of
the salary (an average of 21.4 percent) of another 17 persons.

Future prospects for the project look dim given the perpetual
state of the budget in the DR and the rather drastic swings in
funding and program when the government changes. With such a
large component being paid by CRSP funds, it is difficult to have
confidence in the institutionalization of the project in the HC.

II. FUNDS/FISCAL MANAGEMENT

A. Custody and Maintenance of Vehicles and Equipment

All items appear in an inventory in Appendix A of the report.

B. Audit/Project Management Reviews

An audit was conducted at UNL in July 1986. The CRSP Management
Entity has scheduled an audit in the DR in early 1987. The report
from an AID review of this project in 1986 is not yet available.

C. Adequacy of Funding

1. AID--Reported as generally not adequate. Also lack of forward
funding for the "new" grant caused many problems at all three
locations. The decrease in funding is reducing basic research
under the project.

2. Host Country--Financial management reported efficient in the HC
over the past year because of reorganization in the SEA.

3. US university--Funding reductions, combined with reduced state
and industry support, are reported to have seriously eroded
research capacity at UNL. Note: No mention was made of effect
at UPR.









-35-


D. Problems

Budgeting is reported as being more difficult each year with less
money and more reporting. The HC nearly lost the bean program due
to an election transition when no funds were available for two
months.

E. Adequacy of Current Policies and Procedures

Over-regulation and over-reporting, reported to limit research time,
requires some solution.

III. PLANS FOR 1987

The EEP recommends that the Technical Committee review and approve plans
for 1987 with respect to the work being done in the Dominican Republic,
particularly with regard to seed size and color. There is need at UPR
to develop a selection and breeding strategy to improve disease resis-
tance in large-seeded beans. The work on small-seeded beans may be
useful for other countries.

IV. STATUS

A. Appropriateness of Activities to Goals of Global Plan

The work to develop stable genetic resistance to rust and to common
blight and to other diseases is fully appropriate to the Global Plan.
B. Balance between Research and Training

Excellent
C. Balance of US versus Overseas Activities

Integration of the UNL and UPR components has improved and will
continue to improve since the projects .merged with UPR providing an
effective interface between UNL and the DR. Efforts should be
focused to evaluate materials over a wide range of environmental
conditions in the DR to enhance progress in developing adapted and
preferred varieties.

D. Level of Collaboration between US and Host Country

Appears to be fully adequate given the problems of the changing
government in the DR

E. Relative Contributions of Collaborating Institutions and Individuals
toward Accomplishment of Objectives


Satisfactory









-36-


F. Interest, Involvement and Support of USAID Mission and/or US Embassy

Fully satisfactory

G. Domestic and International Linkages and Cooperation/Collaboration

Strong linkages exist within the organizations and disciplines with
which the PIs are associated and with CIAT. Linkages with other
projects within this CRSP should be improved.

H. Cost Effectiveness, Especially Regarding Level of Activity versus
Funding

Difficult to evaluate for this specific project. The general argu-
ment that the funds leverage a large amount of scientific expertise
otherwise not working on this specific effort in a coordinated manner
is relevant and sound. The capability the project provides for
evaluating materials across climates is valuable and is resulting in
new discoveries which probably would have been longer in coming in
the absence of the project. The outlook is for improved disease
resistant cultivars for both the US and tropical situations which
should reduce costs of production and improve productivity of the
resources used. However, it would appear that the output of the HC
component is not in keeping with the number of persons directly
employed by the project in the DR.

I. Institutionalization of Host Country Component

An identifiable bean program now exists in HC, and a breeding/
research commitment was made by the SEA of the former government.
Until the new government takes action, the permanence of this
progress will be uncertain. Because of the large number of persons
in the HC on the payroll of the CRSP (including the HC PI), it does
not appear certain that the project will be successfully
institutionalized.

V. PUBLICATIONS

Fully acceptable--Several presentations were made by project personnel
during the year and there is an impressive list of articles published or
accepted for publication.

VI. OVERALL RATING: 2--Satisfactory pending appropriate review by the
Technical Committee and CRSP authorities

With the merger of the UNL and UPR components, the division of research
seems to be progressing well and in a coordinated manner. The DR com-
ponent should be reviewed in-depth to ascertain if improvements can be
made in the process of developing adapted disease resistant and preferred
cultivars. The review should also address the size of the payroll in the
HC and the potential for institutionalizing a bean program in the DR as
well as the appropriateness of hardness research at UNL and seed deter-
ioration in storage research in the DR.









-37-


1986 EEP REVIEW
GUATEMALA/CORNELL UNIVERSITY BEAN/COWPEA CRSP PROJECT

"Agronomic, Sociological and Genetic Aspects of Bean Yield and Adaptation"


I. PROGRESS

A. Research Contributions

This report was particularly difficult to evaluate. In the FY 86
Annual Report, the account of work done in 1986 consists almost
entirely of statements of a general, repetitive and rhetorical
nature, unsupported by specific observational or experimental data.
Only in the light of other knowledge of the phenological, morpho-
logical and physiological components of the yield of indeterminate
plants in specific locations is it possible to assess what may
actually have been done in this project in FY 86.
1. Research in process

The research has been directed to better understanding the
factors--physiological and morphological characteristics of
beans--that determine crop yield. The report indicates that
procedures have been developed which allow these characteristics
o be selected in early generations after crosses. It seems
likely that these procedures will be more efficient and thus
less costly than conventional selection for yield alone in large
populations. The sociological component of this project is now
being handled by collaborators in Guatemala.

2. Research results disseminated and in use

The above philosophy for improving the efficiency of breeding for
higher bean yield are in use in both Guatemala and New York. As
this work began, inclusion of the whole-plant yield-system made
it difficult to explain. The current more holistic inclusion of
time duration and rates is not difficult to comprehend, and its
application facilitates improved efficiency of breeding for
higher yield. Acceptance and application by other breeders will
require time and favorable results but should be forthcoming.
With this prospect, a symposium on breeding for higher yield will
be conducted in.Guatemala in April 1987, and a similar but more
in-depth symposium will be conducted in the US in the near future.

3. Other research-related results

a. Guatemala

Analysis was completed on 1984 data collected from the F2
populations of the six possible crosses among four Guatemalan









-38-


cultivars of different maturities, each planted the same day
at three different locations: 1786 meters, 19 degrees; 895
meters, 23 degrees; and 50 meters, 29 degrees. Compared with
the high and low temperatures, the intermediate temperature
reduced the range and variation of days to flowering for all
six crosses. This indicates limited expression of genetic
differences by the different F2 genotypes at the inter-
mediate temperatures, which have the fewest days to flowering
and the lowest variability.

The inheritance of maturity of climbing beans for the
tropical highlands of Guatemala was shown to be controlled
by only one or two genes, similar to the inheritance for
bush beans.

b. New York

F2 segregation of a Redkloud (early and photoperiod insen-
sitive) x Redkote (late and photoperiod sensitive) cross
varied from no apparent gene control (all plants early in
the growth chamber under short daylength), to two genes with
dominance for earliness (in the growth chamber under long
daylength), to two genes with dominance for lateness (in the
field under long daylength and a warm night summer), to one
gene with dominance for lateness (under the same long day-
length but a cool night summer). The results (four flowering
phenotypes labeled early, intermediate, late, and very late)
indicate activity by zero, one, or two genes, depending on
the daylength-temperature.

In breeding for higher yielding cultivars for New York, 1985
plant weights were extremely low because of drought and
because the drought led to a large population of aphids which
brought about more bean virus than for any of the last 30
years. The summer of 1986 was the opposite, having about the
most rainfall of any year. This caused the 1986 yield trials
to be destroyed by anthracnose which had never before been
devastatingly present. This illustrates the ever present
difficulty that yield expression is vulnerable to negative
impacts by one or only a few of its thousands of physio-
logical genetic components.

B. Changes in National Production

In the southeast, the production per unit of land area is generally
upward because more and more farmers are using improved varieties.
However, the 1986 yields were down due to drought. New bean produc-
tion is emerging in the northeast where sole cropping is being prac-
ticed. The more accessible highlands are changing from bean/maize
to vegetable production.









-39-


C. Training

1. Numbers and kinds in process

US: 2 Ph.D.
Non-US: 1 M.S.

2. Numbers and kinds completed during FY 86

US: None
Non-US: None

D. Institutional Development

The Guatemalan PI now devotes nearly 100 percent of his time to the
CRSP. He was made bean program leader emeritus with responsibility
to concentrate on breeding for higher yield. This was possible
because CRSP and other training permitted increasing the responsi-
bility of bean program staff.

II. FUNDING/FISCAL MANAGEMENT

A. Custody and Maintenance of Vehicles and Equipment

The inventory value of equipment and other non-expendable property
exceeds equipment purchased by $3,376. With the information
furnished, it is not possible to determine the source of the
additional property. This is not viewed as a serious problem.

B. Audit/Project Management Reviews

The only review was made by the EEP. As reported, the social
science component for Guatemala is now being handled by ICTA.

C. Adequacy of Funding

1. AID--Reported as adequate

2. Host Country--Funding has been adequate for biological component,
but there were some problems with international transfer of
funds. Additional funds may be needed for FY 87-88 for field
testing of potential high yielding cultivars under on-farm
environments. Some may be made available by cessation of long-
term training.

3. US university--Not reported

D. Problems

Management difficulties are reported for this project by the US
institution. Funds are received three to six months after the start
of the budget period. The USAID Mission has refused to assist in










-40-


transferring funds into Guatemala. It is also nearly impossible to
have unspent funds returned to the US.

The 50/50 expenditure ratio is impossible to implement because the
rate of spending by the HC cannot be controlled. To maintain parity
would restrict US activity caused by delays in HC expenditures.
Resulting HC expenditure is 42.5 percent of total to date.

Equipment approval in AID continues to be woefully slow and appears
to contractor to be arbitrary.

E. Adequacy of Current Policies and Procedures

Nothing reported

III. PLANS FOR 1987

A. Guatemala

The knowledge gained about relationships among maturity, adaptation
and yield will be used to divide the breeding for higher bean yield
into three efforts. One will aim to maximize yields on marginal
lands (mostly steep, sloping hillsides) by developing early bush
cultivars. A second will develop later maturing cultivars for the
more productive lands. A third effort will breed higher yielding
climbing beans that are relatively early (less aggressive) and
therefore do not reduce the yields of the associated maize.

B. New York

Homozygous F8 genotypes will be grown under long daylength in the
field and growth chamber and under the short daylength of winter to
see if the expected two-gene and zero-gene controls will be
expressed. Yield system analysis of the International Bean Flowering
and Adaptation Nursery will be continued. Yield trials that differ-
entiate the phenotypic and genetic components of the yield system
characteristics for 100 bean accessions of multiple country origin
will be continued.

IV. STATUS

A. Appropriateness of Activities to Goals of Global Plan

The goal of elucidating the near-fully integrated components of yield
and learning how to apply them toward more efficiently breeding for
higher yield is fully appropriate.

B. Balance between Research and Training

There is no training summary in the report nor a comparison between
research and training.









-41-


C. Balance of US versus Overseas Activities

Very well conceived and executed

D. Level of Collaboration/Cooperation between US and Host Country

Excellent--Among the best of the CRSP

E. Relative Contributions of Collaborating Institutions and Individuals
toward Accomplishment of Objectives

Highly balanced, near equal participation

F. Interest, Involvement and Support of USAID Mission and/or US Embassy

Little involvement or support

G. Domestic and International Linkages and Cooperation/Collaboration

Excellent

H. Cost Effectiveness, Especially Regarding Level of Activity versus
Funding

Apparently excellent--The CRSP contribution strengthens the Bean
Program in ICTA and permits a level of excellence not often found in
a developing country.

I. Institutionalization of Host Country Component

Outstanding

V. PUBLICATIONS

Perhaps could be improved--None reported for 1986. One reported for 1985
and several in process for publication in 1987.

VI. OVERALL RATING: 1--Highly Satisfactory

Overall, very well balanced and productive. Appears to be making an
impact on bean breeding in Guatemala and with potential for global impact
from the breeding and selecting methods developed. The Technical Com-
mittee is invited to determine.whether more basic physiological-genetic
work has reached a point of declining productivity and whether the work
of this project cannot now be carried out entirely by ICTA.









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1986 EEP REVIEW

HONDURAS/UNIVERSITY OF PUERTO RICO BEAN/COWPEA CRSP PROJECT

"Improvement of Bean Production in Honduras
through Breeding for Multiple Resistance"

I. PROGRESS

A. Research Contributions

1. Research in process

The University of Puerto Rico is engaged in a broad range of bean
research activities, CRSP and non-CRSP sponsored, which benefit
the CRSP directly and indirectly. The University collaborates
with several international organizations in conducting bean
germplasm evaluation nurseries of special value to the CRSP.

In 1986, the following nurseries were carried out at selected
locations in Puerto Rico: the Central American Yield and Adapta-
tion Nursery (VICAR), the International Bean Research Nursery
(IBRN), and the International Bean Golden Mosaic Nursery (IBGMN).
CRSP funding has supported the screening of disease resistant
bean germplasm for biological nitrogen fixation, the screening
of Honduran varieties for resistance to common mosaic, and an
investigation of seed-borne pathogens associated with seed grown
by small-scale farmers. These several bean research activities
underway, CRSP and non-CRSP, are complementary and supplementary.

The CRSP bean research being carried out in Honduras is linked
directly to and benefits greatly from research in Puerto Rico;
in fact, the Honduran work appears to be largely an extension of
some of the work underway in Puerto Rico. Through the CRSP, the
strong bean program in Puerto Rico is brought into direct, close
support of bean improvement in Honduras--a good example of
effective international collaboration.

The bean breeding program in Honduras, which seeks to develop
small, red-seeded bean germplasm with multiple disease resis-
tance, holds great promise because yields of beans are quite low
due mainly to susceptibility of existing cultivars to various
diseases. An extensive crossing program is underway with progeny
being tested in Puerto Rico as well as in Honduras. The CRSP
work in Honduras is being conducted by Dr. Silvio Zuluaga at the
Escuela Agricola Panamericana (EAP) for the Government of
Honduras. Dr. Zuluaga's research in the Zamorano Valley is
directed toward developing desirable cultivars (small, red-seeded
beans) with resistance to local strains and races of pathogens--
a highly appropriate line of research. Very likely, this
Honduran research could produce results of value elsewhere in









-43-


Central America. The development of this research appears to be
in its early stages--some years away from producing improved
varieties for farmer-use.

2. Research results disseminated and in use

None reported

3. Other research-related results

None reported

B. Changes in National Production

1. Hectares


Over the past twenty years, there has been an
73,000 ha to 83,000 ha, an increase of 10,000
percent in twenty years.


increase from
ha--less than 14


2. Yields


Bean yields in
plus or minus,


Honduras have been stagnant at
over the past twenty years.


about 600 kg/ha,


3. Production


Production during the period 1961-65 averaged 48,000 tons.
1984, production was estimated at 52,000 tons.


C. Training

1. Numbers and kinds in process

US: 1 M.S.
Non-US: 1 M.S.
1 B.S.

2. Numbers and kinds completed during FY 86

US: None
Non-US: None

D. Institutional Development

Substantial progress in developing a capacity in Honduras to conduct
quality bean research is being reported. This change is said to be
the result of attention and arrangements made by the Honduran
Ministry of Natural Resources and by the EAP. The External Evalua-
tion Panel has been critical of the EAP arrangement. As a private
institution, the EAP has been judged as being an inappropriate insti-
tution for CRSP research. Recent events suggest that this judgement
may not be valid under the circumstances prevailing in Honduras.









-44-


The efforts directed towards the improvement of grain legumes,
including beans, by the Government of Honduras in association with
several government agencies and organizations and the EAP are
reported to be impressive and worthy of re-evaluation. Because of
favorable policies and actions taken by the Government of Honduras,
existing circumstances in Honduras and the urgent need for progress
in bean improvement, the appropriateness of CRSP bean research
arrangements should be re-appraised. The existing arrangement with
the EAP may be satisfactory for CRSP activities. CRSP authorities
may wish to discuss the arrangements, especially financial inputs,
with the Director of Research, Ministry of Natural Resources,
Government of Honduras, and secure an appropriate Memorandum of
Understanding.

II. FUNDING/FISCAL MANAGEMENT

A. Custody and Maintenance of Vehicles and Equipment

Reports indicate satisfactory arrangements and/or actions taken
during year

B. Audit/Project Management Reviews

No audit made or requested. The report of an AID review of this
project in 1986 is not yet available.

C. Adequacy of Funding

AID funding reductions in Puerto Rico and Honduras have caused some
retrenchment and delays in conduct of scheduled activities. The PIs
report $50,000 is the absolute minimum needed to maintain a
credible Bean/Cowpea CRSP project in Honduras."

D. Problems

Mid-year reductions in funding caused "considerable disruption" in
project activities and added/unexpected expenses (leave pay for
employees discharged because of funding reduction). Delays in
reporting quarterly funding requirements by Honduras (EAP) to the
University of Puerto Rico presented some funding problems for the
EAP.

A major concern of the PIs is the level of assured funding. Uncer-
tainty does not favor effective planning and execution of project
activities and delays progress toward achievement of objectives.

III. PLANS FOR 1987

The PIs have developed a coordinated plan for 1987 which continues
previous research. It builds logically on and extends the work underway.
There is no deviation/diversion of planned activities away from project
targets and objectives. Subject to the CRSP Technical Committee's final










-45-


approval, the plan is judged to be a sound and adequate blueprint to
follow toward achievement of objectives.

IV. STATUS

A. Appropriateness of Activities to the Global Plan

Fully appropriate--Advances in securing small, red-seeded, disease-
resistant, early-maturing bean cultivars in Honduras are valuable
and useful elsewhere in Central America.

B. Balance between Research and Training

Satisfactory

C. Balance of US versus Overseas Activities

Excellent--Well-thoughtout division of effort and an equitable,
appropriate division of funds

D. Level of Collaboration between US and Host Country

Satisfactory

E. Relative Contributions of Collaborating Institutions and Individuals
toward Accomplishment of Objectives

Balanced, complementary and supplementary

F. Interest, Involvement and Support of USAID Mission and/or US Embassy

Adequate

G. Domestic and International Linkages and Cooperation/Collaboration

Satisfactory (domestic) to Excellent (international)

H. Cost Effectiveness, Especially Regarding Level of Activity versus
Funding

Appears to be quite effective. A small amount of CRSP funds appears
to be leveraging substantial Puerto Rican and Honduran funds as well
as benefitting from inputs of several regional and international
agencies.

I. Institutionalization of Host Country Component

Uncertain, but outlook appears promising
V. PUBLICATIONS

Adequate/satisfactory










-46-


VI. OVERALL RATING: 2--Satisfactory

With the arrival of Dr. Zuluaga, bean research in Honduras has increased
and its focus has been sharpened. Strongly supported by the University
of Puerto Rico, integrated into a national grain legume research network,
and adequately accommodated and funded at the EAP, prospects for this
CRSP project to achieve its objectives and contribute to the Global Plan
have improved dramatically. If arrangements for the EAP to be the CRSP
institutional host in Honduras are deemed appropriate, the project is
judged fully satisfactory for continued support without changes. Given
the location of the CRSP PI at the EAP in Zamorano Valley, CRSP officials
may wish to monitor closely relationships with bean research at other
Honduran locations under the Ministry of Natural Resources. In this
connection, CRSP officials may wish to secure a Memorandum of Understand-
ing that details the relationships between the EAP, the Ministry and the
University of Puerto Rico. Perhaps an annual workplan for EAP/Ministry
activities would be desirable.









-47-


1986 EEP REVIEW

INCAP/WASHINGTON STATE UNIVERSITY BEAN/COWPEA CRSP PROJECT

"Improved Biological Utilization and Availability of Dry Beans"

The External Evaluation Panel did not find it possible to evaluate the annual
report as submitted. It was unable to distinguish work done in 1986 with CRSP
funding from work done in earlier years or with other funding. Similarly, the
EEP was not convinced that the work proposed for 1987 could be accomplished
with the CRSP budget as proposed. The EEP therefore requests that a revised
report be submitted, confined strictly to work done in 1986 with CRSP funding
and work proposed for 1987 with CRSP funding. The EEP reiterates the sugges-
tion made at the last meeting that this project should concentrate on the
hard-to-cook phenomenon. Such a restriction would allow a decrease in funding
requirements.










-48-


1986 EEP REVIEW

MALAWI/MICHIGAN STATE UNIVERSITY BEAN/COWPEA CRSP PROJECT

"Genetic, Agronomic and Socio-Cultural Analysis of Diversity
among Bean Landraces in Malawi"

I. PROGRESS

A. Research Contributions

1. The stable yield of mixtures of bean seeds raised a question
about whether or not genotypic shifts occur in farmers' fields
and what would be the significance of such changes.

Progeny of 980 single seeds in the germplasm collection (1600
accessions) at Bunda College were planted and data on nine
measurements were accumulated. The remaining accessions will be
treated similarly after they are planted in November 1986. A
complete catalog of information is expected to be available by
the end of 1987.

Sixty-six collections of bean mixtures from three regions of
Malawi have been increased twice at Bunda. Fluctuation in seed
types observed from two generations of multiplication will be
analyzed.

A manuscript on advantages of competition in intraspecific
mixtures has been prepared by Dr. Eric Ayeh.

Grower selection of seed has not produced more uniform mixtures
over time. Seed exchanges sometimes occur but removal of damaged
seeds at planting time may be the principal method of selection.
Some dietary and culinary preferences may exert a certain amount
of influence on selection, but seed shortages do also. Data from
in-depth questionnaires and observations of farm families will
be analyzed at MSU where necessary computation facilities are
available.

Assay of six isozymes in Malawian beans has been accumulated for
85 percent of 375 selected lines. Variability has been limited
to two major patterns, rather than the sixty-four possible pat-
terns of alleles expected. Large-seeded beans have the set of
alleles called Pattern A and small-seeded beans have Pattern B.
These two patterns also distinguish large-seeded beans and small-
seeded beans from cultures in North and South America and thus
do not appear to be the result of natural selection for adapta-
tion to environmental pressure in Malawi. Barriers to crossing
the two germplasm groups are known to exist in the Americas and
in Africa. In Malawi, genetic diversity of fifteen bean land-
races was implied by analysis of twenty-one different measured









-49-


phenotypic traits (G. Martin, M. S. thesis). Because the iso-
zymes studied are considered primary gene products, the diverse
phenotypic findings are not compatible with the observed limited
number of isozyme patterns. The previous hypothesis of genetic
structure or organization of Malawian landraces must now be
reassessed.

2. Publications

a. Two papers by Martin and Adams have been accepted for
publication in Economic Botany in 1987.

b. A chapter on structure of bean landraces has been prepared
by Adams for book on Evolution and Domestication of
Phaseolus, edited by P. Gepts.

c. Short article by Adams has been accepted for publication in
Diversity (journal).

d. Paper (poster session) presented by S. Morss-Sprecher at
International Legume Symposium in June 1986 in St. Louis, MO.

e. Barnes-McConnell has submitted a manuscript entitled "Keepers
of the Trust" to CERES for possible publication.

f. Host Country researchers--no publications or papers cited.

B. Changes in National Production--NA

C. Training

Two M.S. students have returned to Bunda College and are teaching but
are not engaged in research. Two additional Malawians are studying
for the doctoral degree at MSU (one in food science, one in plant
physiology) and a third Malawian is expected within the current
extension period. Two US doctoral students are also being trained
on this project.

1. Numbers and kinds in process

US: 2 Ph.D.
Non-US: 2 Ph.D.

2. Numbers and kinds completed during FY 86

US: None
Non-US: 2 M.S.

D. Institutional Development

Institutionalization of bean research in Malawi has made no signifi-
cant progress in 1986. Funding in Malawi is largely provided by the
CRSP.










-50-


II. FUNDING/FISCAL MANAGEMENT

A. Custody and Maintenance of Vehicles and Equipment

Maintenance and custody of vehicles and other equipment in Malawi is
the responsibility of the HC PI, Dr. Wilson Msuku, Bunda College.

B. Audit/Project Management Reviews

No audit has been conducted or requested.

C. Adequacy of Funding

Funds are tight, limiting certain activities and reducing domestic
and foreign travel. The HC in-kind contribution has included land
for field experiments and technical support.

III. PLANS FOR 1987

A. Research

1. US research
a. Complete isozyme analyses of Malawian landraces

b. Continue restriction endonuclease analysis of genetic


2.


diversity

c. Finish the thesis research of a Malawian student on drought
resistance in Malawian beans

d. Complete analysis of socio-cultural data obtained in 1984-86
and integrate and interpret all data obtained in MSU project

Host Country research

a. Continue measuring genetic changes in landrace populations
over time, using farmer cooperators in two areas and in both
natural and contrived conditions at Bunda

b. Continue evaluation of germplasm for resistance to pests and
diseases

c. Conduct follow-up socio-cultural research to clarify issues
raised by data obtained from 1984 to 1986

d. Initiate social science studies in the central region


B. Expected Changes

1. Dr. Anne Ferguson has replaced Dr. P. Barnes-McConnell as the
social scientist on the project.









-51-


2. If funds are available and teaching commitment at Bunda College
allows, bring one or more faculty personnel more actively into
the program.

IV. STATUS

A. Appropriateness of Activities to Goals of Global Plan

Studies on genetic diversity and its maintenance in Malawi have
significance beyond the national interest and have global signifi-
cance in the broad area of germplasm resources.

B. Balance between Research and Training

Teaching likely has been strengthened at Bunda College, but research
time is not yet available, or in only limited amounts, for faculty
members.

C. Balance of US versus Overseas Activities

From 1987, most research should be conducted in Malawi and training
in the US.

D. Level of Collaboration between US and Host Country

Collaboration has been satisfactory but too little time allocated to
research at Bunda College.

E. Relative Contributions of Collaborating Institutions and Individuals
toward Accomplishment of Objectives

Most of the recent research in Malawi has been conducted by MSU
personnel in Malawi.

F. Interest, Involvement and Support of USAID Mission and/or US Embassy

USAID Mission personnel have changed so additional efforts may be
necessary to inform them about the project and gain their support.

G. Domestic and International Linkages and Cooperation/Collaboration

A trip by Dr. E. Ayeh, Bunda College, to the CIAT bean project in
Rwanda has been supported. Some germplasm from Malawi has been used
in MSU's breeding program for possible distribution to Michigan
producers.

H. Cost Effectiveness, Especially Regarding Level of Activity versus
Funding

No information provided









-52-


I. Institutionalization of Host Country Component

Little evidence of institutionalization at Bunda College, primarily
because local funds are not available. All reports of project pro-
gress, however, are submitted to the Director of Research in the
Ministry of Agriculture for his use in development of the Annual
Guide to Agriculture Production in Malawi. This publication, which
has a section on beans, is provided to all extension agents and many
farmers.

V. PUBLICATIONS

Satisfactory--See I.A.2.

VI. OVERALL RATING: 3--Satisfactory

Project is judged satisfactory; however, in January 1986 the EEP recom-
mended that phaseout of this project be considered. The EEP reiterates
this recommendation because the project appears to have completed its
tasks and the EEP does not envision any further development gains in the
short-term for Malawi by its continuation. We hope the diverse genetic
materials and information will not be lost. The EEP encourages the
completion of the analysis of 1984-86 socio-cultural data.









-53-


1986 EEP REVIEW

MEXICO/MICHIGAN STATE UNIVERSITY BEAN/COWPEA CRSP PROJECT

"Improving Resistance to Environmental Stress in Beans
through Genetic Selection for Carbohydrate Partitioning
and Efficiency of Biological N-Fixation"


I. PROGRESS

A. Research Contributions

1. Research in process

The investigations reported for 1986 are as follow:

a. Mexico

1) Field screening and testing for adaptation to dry
conditions

a) Two hundred entries selected for further testing out
of thirty-five hundred grown out at Durango (moderate
drought in August after flowering) and Augascalientes
(severe drought before flowering). Prostrate lines
with small leaves and many small pods (described as
semi-domesticated) and "cacahuete" types (whatever
they may be) are reported to be well adapted to dry
conditions. The report does not say how many of the
selected lines did well under dry conditions at both
locations.

b) One hundred eighty-four entries selected out of
fifteen hundred tested in 1985 were grown as a
"drought nursery" at four locations. Ten named
entries "performed well" under drought.

c) Forty-nine entries (described as genotypes) derived
from initial screening in 1984 and selected from the
drought nursery of 1985 were tested under irrigated,
rainfed and droughted (presumably by rain shelters)
conditions. Two named entries were well adapted.
Their names do not appear among the ten mentioned in
the preceding paragraph.

d) A nursery of sixteen entries from an earlier screen-
ing was grown at six locations. Two named entries
appeared outstanding, but once again their names are
new. However, these varieties are thought likely to
be useful commercially in Zacatecas and Durango.









-54-


e) A number of attributes (not specified except for leaf
water potential and leaf temperature) were measured
or recorded on sixteen varieties grown under
undefined "stressed" and "unstressed" conditions at
Durango. This is a continuation of a similar trial
in 1985, the analysis of which is mentioned below.

No quantitative data on yields, even of the success-
ful entries, or on the time courses of the water
balances through the seasons at the different loca-
tions are presented in the report. It is not
possible to tell how consistent the results were, how
marked was the success of the successful entries, or
how far variations in the nature of the dry condi-
tions may explain differences among varieties and
sites. No one entry appears to have been successful
in all trials: one might have thought that success-
ful entries from earlier years would be included in
later trials to provide some standard of reference
or comparison. It does not seem that any useful
general conclusions can be drawn to guide future
breeding or agronomic research.

b) Rhizobium

Sixty strains of R. phaseoli were tested for "fixation
efficiency" in the glasshouse and twenty-five were
studied for survival in the field at Zacatecas in 1986.
No data are yet available. Three hundred entries (lines)
of beans were tested in 1985 for "N-fixation efficiency"
in a drought nursery at Chapingo, with and without inoc-
ulation and with varying levels of N and P fertilizer.
One hundred fifty of them were similarly grown in 1986.
No data are offered.

Without any numbers at all, it is not possible to evalu-
ate these reports or to feel confident that they will
lead, some day, to a Rhizobium industry or to the incor-
poration of characters conferring superior N-fixing
ability on host plants into the breeding program in
Mexico. Some of the best talents in the world in this
field are associated with the Bean/Cowpea CRSP. In the
100th year after the seminal publication by Wilfarth and
Hellriegel, ought we not to be doing better than this?

b. United States--MSU

1) Field studies

Field studies of the effects of dry conditions on entries
of beans were conducted at Prosser, Washington; in
Montcalm County, Michigan (two trials); and at MSU.









-55-


a) The Prosser experiment used a line source sprinkler
system to compare the effects of subsoiling and
distance from source on the growth and yield of nine
entries. No data are offered on the quantities of
water present in the profile before the trial began
or on the differences in water regime associated with
the differences in position. Although the site
appears to have been so variable that the report
questions the value of an "in-depth" analysis, it
would have been helpful to go as far as the calcula-
tion of treatment means and an analysis of variance.
It is clear that subsoiling had little average effect
and that there was a substantial and consistent main
effect of position. Without an analysis of variance,
it is not possible to separate what look like real
differences between entries in potential yield from
the entry x position interaction, which is what the
experiment was intended to measure and analyze. The
most important thing is to analyze and interpret the
primary data. In the absence of that analysis, some
interesting flirtations with ratios and some selected
tabulations of intermediate data do not help to
explain what happened at Prosser.

However, it seems that the trial confirmed useful
adaptation to dry conditions in four of the entries.
It is suggested that the reasons for the differences
in adaptation are to be sought in the distributions
of roots, on which no information was collected.

b) In Montcalm County 1, ten navy and black bean entries
were grown with or without small supplemental sprink-
ler irrigations (2 x 1 in.)(two replications each).

Though no means are presented for the water treat-
ment, a percentage reduction in yield associated with
"drought" is offered for each entry, and there do
seem to be important differences between the entries.
In the absence of standard errors or an analysis of
variance, it is not possible to assess their signif-
icance, but the data are said to support the release
of entry N84016, more or less the first equal in
yield (with the known drought adapted N81017 [C.
Samper]) without irrigation, and more or less the
second-equal under irrigation.

No information is recorded on the water balance
conditions in this experiment, though the store of
water in the soil from winter precipitation must be
important in interpreting the results.










-56-


c) In Montcalm County 2, 99 lines derived from crosses
between Puebla 152 and two other entries, Jamapa and
Sanilac, backcrossed to Jamapa and Sanilac and then
selfed "to homozygosity" and tested by Dr. Fred Bliss
"for N-fixation" by the acetylene reduction method,
were grown, along with the parents and five check
varieties under contrasted water conditions. The
entries covered a range of capability to fix N. The
object was to find out whether a bean genotype can
be both tolerant of drought and efficient as a
nitrogen fixer.

No data were available when the report was written.
Moreover, the report casts doubt on the logical
structure of the trial, since none of the parents is
known to have any special adaptation to dry
conditions.

d) These difficulties may be avoided in an experiment
at MSU of which the analysis has not yet been
completed. One hundred twenty-one entries of F6
material from eight CIAT crosses (presumably made in
1983), between lines varying in drought resistance
and capability to fix nitrogen, were grown, with the
parents as checks, inside and outside the rain-out
shelter at MSU. One of the parents in two of the
crosses was N81017, which C. Samper found to be
well-adapted to dry conditions in 1984. It is not
clear whether it was selected for this reason or
because it is also good at fixing nitrogen.

The data tabulated show that the shelter did indeed
decrease growth and yield, but no information is yet
available on the performance of the entries in
respect of the evidently considerable number of
variates recorded or measured. The text indicates
that N81017 was first equal in yield outside the
shelter. It is to be hoped that this potentially
very interesting study will be completed.

2) Glasshouse investigations

The report includes an account by E. Watt on a
comparative study made in 1984 of the effect of
variations in water supply on the growth and parti-
tioning of dry matter in beans and cowpeas. It is
interpreted to show that in N81017 a larger propor-
tion of the seed weight in plants which had experi-
enced water shortages came from materials originally
derived from assimilation before anthesis, and from
anthesis to mid-podfill, than in the drought-
susceptible variety B790131. The two cowpea vari-









-57-


eties did not behave according to specification, but
it is clear that growth in these cowpeas differed in
many respects from growth in the two bean varieties.
Much interesting material could yet be extracted
from this report.

3) Analysis of data from stress experiment at Durango,
1985

In this experiment 22 variates or derived variates
were measured or calculated for each of 16 entries
grown either under water stress or unstressed. The
experimental details are not given. The associations
among the variates, pooling all entries, were
examined for the stressed and unstressed treatments
separately, by factor analysis. This was done in
such a way that all the variance was partitioned
among five factors. As the report points out, the
next stage is to imagine what the material signifi-
cance of the factors may be. As interpreted, the
factors are assigned different meanings in the two
conditions, three of which are more or less common
to the two conditions.

In itself, this does not in fact get us much further:
its use is to form testable hypotheses to be examined
in further research. It is not clear whether this
is reflected in the proposed program for 1987, which
does however provide for the analysis of the data
from the comparable field trial at Durango in 1986.

c. United States--Minnesota

Peter Graham at Minnesota cooperates with MSU and with CIAT
in evaluating bean materials for capability to fix nitrogen
and in selecting and testing strains of Rhizobium. In the
work on strains, 348 were screened: there were large
differences in yield (no information presented on nitrogen
fixed per unit of carbon retained) and 42 were selected for
further study.

In the work on microbial strains, clear differences were
once more found in competitiveness and effectiveness in
fixing N. Unfortunately the strains which succeed in one
experiment are not heard of in the others.

d. General comment on research

Though the title of the project refers to environmental
stress, the main constraint with which it is concerned is
"drought"; and its main defect is that the diverse natures
of drought, whether in the Host Country environment or in the









-58-


field or glasshouse experiments in the US, are not adequately
specified, either quantitatively or qualitatively. It seems
to be implicitly assumed that drought at Aguascalientes or
Durango, at Prosser, Washington, or in Montcalm County,
Michigan, or in pots in a glasshouse are all essentially the
same and that the same attributes (or genes) will serve to
adapt a bean (or cowpea) variety to all of them.

The start of any study of drought should surely be a
description of the drought to which adaptation is sought or
which was experienced in a particular season at a particular
place, in terms of the seasonal course of the water balance
in the soil-plant-atmosphere system. No such descriptions
are offered in the report under review, with the partial
exception of Watt's pot experiment. Of course, there are
general biophysical attributes, and maybe some morphological
ones, which may be helpful in any arid environment; but if
the nature of the experimental environment is so basically
different from the target environment as that of Michigan is
from that of Durango, work in it is not likely to identify
or analyze the important attributes required in the target
environment.

2. Research results disseminated and in use

No improved cultivars, inoculants, tests, methods or systems have
yet gone out from this work, although some may be on the way.

3. Other research-related results

a. Germplasm conservation and use

A great deal of material is held in Mexico by INIA and in the
US by Dr. M. W. Adams and his colleagues. All the material
in the US is probably duplicated in safe storage by USDA, but
only a small portion has been evaluated or documented. The
report offers no information about the fate or future of the
thousands of lines reported from Mexico.

b. Seed production (or other materials) and distribution of
CRSP-produced cultivars (or materials)
c. Impact of other CRSP-produced or recommended technology

The report contains ho evidence that any seed or inoculum or
any new technical methods for use by farmers have so far gone
out from this project, either in the US or in Mexico. This
may reflect a lacuna in the report rather than the facts of
the case.









-59-


d. Contributions to and participation in international
bean/cowpea research networks, e.g. IARCs and other

Both the MSU and the University of Minnesota workers cooper-
ate effectively with CIAT and, through CIAT and no doubt
also the US Bean Cooperative, with workers in other nations.

e. How the research findings address the needs of small-scale
farmers and women

It can be maintained that all of the work is relevant to the
needs of women in their capacities as producers of food and
providers of family meals. Insofar as many of the producers
of beans in the drier areas of Mexico and elsewhere are
"small-scale farmers," they could benefit at the end of the
day from a reliable supply of reliably drought-adapted bean
seeds of types in demand in the home or in the market place.

B. Changes in National Production

1. Hectares planted
2. Yields per hectare
3. Total production

The report does not cover these points sufficiently. The FAO
production yearbook 1985 and the trade yearbook 1984 record
(from Mexican official data) the following:

1979-81 1983 1984 1985

Area harvested, m ha 1.584 1.996 2.158 2.032
Yield, kg/ha 641 642 589 534
Output, m tons 1.015 1.282 1.270 1.085

1982 1983 1984 1985

Imports (pulses), tons 148,430 1,675 119,119
Exports (pulses), tons 64,664 113,714 175,510
Net imports (+) or
exports (-), tons +83,766 -112,039 -56,391

Without further information, it is not possible to interpret the
data.

C. Training

The report refers to one doctoral student in the US, one graduate
who is back in Mexico, and two dropouts from Minnesota and to some
research equipment provided for the Mexican workers. Two Mexicans
are expected to graduate and return to Mexico in 1987-88.









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1. Numbers


and kinds in process


US: None
Non-US: 1 Ph.D.
1 M.S.

2. Numbers and kinds completed during FY 86

US: None
Non-US: None

D. Institutional Development

Changes in 1986--The report says that there were none.

II. FUNDING/FISCAL MANAGEMENT

A. Custody and Maintenance of Vehicles and Equipment

Not reported

B. Audit/Project Management Reviews

No audit has one been requested/planned.

C. Adequacy of Funding

1. AID--Reported as not being adequate

2. Host Country--Reported as not adequate

3. US university--Satisfactory


D. Problems

Some problems in Government of Mexico funding of MSU students

E. Adequacy of Current Policies and Procedures

Reported as satisfactory

III. PLANS FOR 1987

A. Research

The proposals represent a continuation of what has been done in 1986.
There are no proposals for comparative water regime or other agro-
climatological studies, which seem to be essential to characterize
the long- and short-term attributes of the environment. The long-
term features determine the goals of the program, and the attributes
of each year are essential to explain the results obtained in it.









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B. Expected Changes

None reported

IV. STATUS

A. Appropriateness of Activities to Goals of Global Plan

The objectives are appropriate, but the EEP notes that a far more
specific program of physiological and morphological research on
adaptation to drought may emerge from the analysis of the mass of
data from the experiment to be conducted for a third time at Durango
in 1987.

B. Balance between Research and Training

Satisfactory

C. Balance of US versus Overseas Activities

Satisfactory

D. Level of Collaboration/Cooperation between US and Host Country

Appears to be fully satisfactory
E. Relative Contributions of Collaborating Institutions and Individuals
toward Accomplishment of Objectives

Satisfactory

F. Interest, Involvement and Support of USAID Mission and/or US Embassy

Not applicable

G. Domestic and International Linkages and Cooperation/Collaboration

Cooperation with CIAT and with the University of Wisconsin, Univer-
sity of Minnesota and Washington State University/USDA seem to be
very satisfactory.

H. Cost Effectiveness, Especially Regarding Level of Activity versus
Funding

Not able to review

I. Institutionalization of Host Country Component

Seems to be fully embedded in INIA and collaborating well with the
University of Chapingo










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V. PUBLICATIONS

No publications in 1986

VI. OVERALL EVALUATION: 2--Satisfactory

Satisfactory for continuation with the recommendation that close
attention be given to the specific agro-ecological circumstances in
which droughts arise in different experimental situations.









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1986 EEP REVIEW

NIGERIA/UNIVERSITY OF GEORGIA BEAN/COWPEA CRSP PROJECT

"Appropriate Technology for Cowpea Preservation and Processing and a
Study of Its Socio-Economic Impact on Rural Populations in Nigeria"

This project seeks to increase availability of cowpeas to consumers in Nigeria
through improved technologies to reduce postharvest storage losses and to
simplify preparation of cowpeas for human consumption by making meal/flour
suitable for use in making traditional West African foods.

I. PROGRESS

A. Research Contributions

1. Research in process

a. In Nigeria

In summer 1986 University of Nigeria personnel conducted a
socio-economic survey of 300 households in 11 of the 14 com-
munities in Isi-Uzo local government area of Anambra State
(located on the northern border of the capital, Enugu). The
smallest community, Ogbodu-Aba (population 4,037), was
selected as the site for installation and operation of a
village mill to process cowpeas. The Ogbodu-Aba Community
Development Association and the community's traditional
ruler, Igwe Okwor, provided substantial material assistance
in construction of the mill. Equipment is being installed
and a team will be trained to operate the mill. It is
expected that the mill will be operational by early December,
just about the time cowpeas will be harvested locally.

The community of Ogbodu-Aba was one of the areas in which a
nutrition survey had been conducted several years earlier.
The same survey will be repeated, with some additional
information to be gathered. A subsample of the 250-300
selected households will be drawn for measurement of
four-day and seven-day weighed food intakes. (Not clear
when this information will be collected--both before and
after mill is operating?) The contribution of cowpeas to
nutrient intake will be monitored.

Previous studies of infant feeding practices in Anambra State
have shown that cereals, legumes, roots and tubers predomi-
nate. Cowpeas were introduced into infants' diets between
seven and twelve months by almost two-thirds of the mothers.
One-third introduced cowpeas between birth and six months
and a few only after one year. In an urban area (Onitsha),









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two-thirds of the mothers interviewed did not know that
cowpea flour was available in Nigerian markets. Almost 90
percent said they would be willing to buy a weaning food
based on cowpeas if it was within their financial resources.

The amount of cowpeas fed to infants was not as large as
recommended by health workers because the time required for
cooking was too long. Blends of cowpeas and corn, cowpeas
and rice, cowpeas and sorghum, and cowpeas and yams were
evaluated for biological value and net protein utilization
with growing rats. Except for the blend of cowpeas and
yams, the blends of cowpeas were similar in nutritional
value. Organoleptic evaluation of the blends by 110 mothers
from different economic strata indicated that acceptability
of cowpeas with corn, cowpeas with rice and cowpeas with
yams were not statistically different.

Studies of flatulence factors in cowpeas were made with
several populations in both rural and urban communities (200
households, 80 students in secondary schools, 100
undergraduate students at the University of Nigeria, 60
children). By structured questionnaire, general food habits
and consumption patterns of cowpeas are being obtained.
Oligosaccharides will be assayed in cowpea preparations and
metabolic studies will be conducted to determine stool
weight and frequency, microflora in the stool, transit time
and N balance.
Physico-chemical properties of protein fractions of various
cowpea pastes are being measured and so is susceptibility of
dehulled and undehulled cowpeas to insect infestation during
storage.

b. In Georgia

The effects of pre-decortication drying temperatures from
50 to 130" C on characteristics of the subsequently pre-
pared cowpea meal, paste and akara have been measured at the
University of Georgia. Percent extraction rate was high
(ca. 90 percent) for each of the pretreated samples and did
not differ statistically. Thiamin content was reduced by
increasing temperature but riboflavin was not. Meal color
was not adversely affected from 50" to 110" C, but water
absorption capacity, protein solubility and starch yield
decreased when the predrying temperatures were above 90" C.
Organaleptically, akara prepared from cowpeas dried at 50,
70" and 90 C compared favorably with the unheated control.

The particle size distribution of the heated cowpeas differed
from the control unheated sample of dehulled cowpeas. As
temperature rose from 50 to 90 C, particle size increased,
then decreased from 90" to 1300 C. Although the pretreatment









-65-


drying at 130 C resulted in a meal with particle sizes
similar to the control, the akara prepared from the meal had
unacceptable sensory attributes. Hence, particle size is not
the sole factor affecting the acceptability of the prepared
cowpea product (particle size distribution had been reported
earlier as essential for good akara-making quality). The
akara from cowpeas pretreated by drying at 50, 70 and 90*
C was generally acceptable with respect to color, flavor,
tenderness and sponginess.

Long-term storage of cowpea meal at -18, 21 and 37 C (up
to 12 months) indicated that no microbiological deterioration
occurred, nor were there changes in thiamin and riboflavin
content and in protein digestibility. At 37" C, the meal
developed a deeper yellow color over time, had a reduced
water absorption capacity after eight months, and had a
reduced protein solubility after two months. The quality of
cowpea meal for akara preparation was maintained through 12
months of storage at -18 and 21 C.

Solar energy to dry cowpeas produced no adverse changes in
color and effectively killed adult beetles. The development
of the hard-to-cook attribute in.cowpeas can be accelerated
during storage. Germination is associated with increased
alphagalactosidase activity and presumably reduced
oligosaccharides.

2. Research results disseminated and in use

In Nigeria, processors of cowpeas have adopted the pre-
decortication drying treatment developed by the Bean/Cowpea CRSP
project and actively seek advice from the Food Science and
Technology faculty members at Nsukka.

The active cooperation of community groups in construction and
operation of a new mill for processing cowpeas further demon-
strates development of active cooperation between practitioners
and researchers in food science and technology.

3. Other research-related results

a. A visiting scientist, Dr. Bene W. Abbey, from the Department
of Nutritional Biochemistry, University of Port Harcourt,
Nigeria, spent nine months at the University of Georgia
where she is studying the contribution of cowpea components,
in addition to oligosaccharides, to flatulence.

b. The major beneficiaries of the research will be women who
are the principal individuals responsible for storage,
processing and preparation of cowpeas as food for the
family. Ready-to-cook meal will reduce the time and effort
required to prepare traditional cowpea foods and will









-66-


encourage consumption of larger quantities of cowpeas. The
mill installed in a Nigerian village, if successful, should
increase opportunities for women to find additional
employment outside the home. However, no mention was made
of this significant opportunity to open up income generation
potential for women through ownership and management of the
mill (e.g., female cooperative).

B. Changes in National Production

Too early to observe whether increased demand for cowpeas will result
and therefore whether production of cowpeas will be increased to meet
demand.

C. Training

Three students at the University of Georgia and seven at the
University of Nigeria are expected to finish M.S. (3) and Ph.D. (7)
degrees by 1988. Plans are being made for workshops in Nigeria on
uses and applications of new cowpea products. Training programs for
small-scale, rural food processors and millers will be conducted at
the village mill site.

1. Numbers and kinds in process

US: 1 Ph.D.
Non-US: 1 Ph.D.
1 M.S.

2. Numbers and kinds completed during FY 86

US: None
Non-US: None

D. Institutional Development

Laboratories in Nigeria and Georgia are much better equipped to
examine science and technology related to storage and utilization of
cowpeas than before the CRSP began. The Host Country institution is
increasing its capacity to offer educational and research programs
in legume utilization.

II. FUNDING/FISCAL MANAGEMENT

A. Audits annually are conducted at the University of Georgia and at
the University of Nigeria. No findings with respect to the B/C CRSP
have been reported at either location.

B. The University of Nigeria pays salaries of senior scientists in the
CRSP project and supports students so that CRSP funds can be used
for technical support, travel and supplies. At the University of
Georgia, CRSP funds are budgeted primarily for personnel and travel,
so operating funds are a constraint.









-67-


Transfer of funds to the Host Country is-a slow, tedious process
requiring the constant attention of CRSP personnel. Shipment of
items to Nigeria also presents problems that have required
considerable time and effort on the University of Georgia's part and
on the University of Nigeria's representative in Lagos (to claim
shipments on arrival). Annual inventories are maintained for
vehicles and equipment purchased with CRSP funds. Repairs and
modifications are handled by university support services, service
contracts with the supplier, or the manufacturer. Consultation of
University of Georgia personnel with the bursar at the University of
Nigeria may improve release of funds for research in Nsukka before
official acknowledgment of the transfer of funds has occurred
(Georgia will send a photocopy of check, when issued, to the bursar).

III. PLANS FOR 1987

No expected changes/additions/deletions from 1986
IV. STATUS

A. Appropriateness of Activities to Goals of Global Plan

Goals of Global Plan addressed by this project are to increase
availability and consumption of cowpeas through (a) reduced losses
during storage, (b) development of convenience foods, thus eliminat-
ing the time-consuming activities necessary in preparing traditional
cowpea dishes and (c) reduction of oligosaccharide content of cow-
peas, thus making possible consumption by individuals particularly
susceptible to indigestible sugars.

B. Balance between Research and Training

Students are conducting research for advanced degrees within the
project at both the University of Georgia and the University of
Nigeria. When the village mill becomes operable, training will be
expanded to include millers and small-scale entrepreneurs.

C. Balance of US versus Overseas Activities

Both teams of researchers (in Georgia and in Nigeria) are conducting
studies using complementary strengths of the two institutions.
Initially, the work being carried out in the two institutions seemed
poorly coordinated, but over time collegial relationships have
developed. Research objectives and work plans are developed
collaboratively and activities are assigned to each institution on
the basis of appropriateness. The program may appear to be larger
in Nigeria, but related research has been reported in addition to
project research. Georgia has conducted research on underlying
factors affecting nutritional, functional and microbiological
characteristics of fresh and stored cowpea products. Nigeria is
dealing with implementation and assessment of technology in a
village site as well as development and evaluation of technology in
its research laboratories.









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D. Level of Collaboration between US and Host Country

Both institutions are making contributions through published papers
and presentations at workshops and professional meetings. Of
special interest was the initiation of information exchange among
the CRSPs that have food science, food technology and nutritional
components.

E. Relative Contributions of Collaborating Institutions and Individuals
toward Accomplishment of Objectives

See above

F. Interest, Involvement and Support of USAID Mission and/or US Embassy

No involvement of USAID Mission but USAID contact at Embassy in
Lagos is kept informed.

G. Domestic and International Linkages and Cooperation/Collaboration

Linkages in the US include those with the INCAP/Washington State
University project on hard-to-cook phenomenon in beans and with food
science components of other CRSPs.

H. Cost Effectiveness, Especially Regarding Level of Activity versus
Funding

Satisfactory

I. Institutionalization of Host Country Component

The B/C CRSP project at the University of Nigeria has involved
nearly all staff members in the food science and nutrition depart-
ments. Laboratory facilities are primarily used for CRSP or
CRSP-related research. The University of Nigeria has provided
additional funds for research and to pay salaries of research staff.

V. PUBLICATIONS

Papers have been presented at professional meetings and published in
refereed journals. The researchers at the University of Georgia have
produced six refereed publications and fifteen papers in edited proceed-
ings or at professional meetings. The University of Nigeria has pub-
lished two papers in Tropical Science (refereed) and two papers at
professional meetings (one of which is in a compilation of papers from a
workshop).


1--Highly Satisfactory


VI. OVERALL RATING:









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1986 EEP REVIEW

SENEGAL/UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA-RIVERSIDE BEAN/COWPEA CRSP PROJECT

"A Program to Develop Improved Cowpea Cultivars, Management Methods,
and Storage Practices for Semiarid Zones"

I. PROGRESS

A. Research Contributions

1. Research in process

This is one of two CRSP projects in the West African Sahel. Its
collaboration with Senegal has been impressive.

Production methods. In each of the three zones of the arid
northern regions of Senegal, five minikit trials, testing three
varieties, were conducted by farmers. Adjacent fields were
intended to provide comparative information, but it seems that
the farmers managed the trials better than they or their
neighbors managed their fields, which were highly variable in
respect to varieties and the effects of caterpillars and aphids.

Eleven trials succeeded, and an IITA variety (TVx 3236) was the
most productive in all three zones. The season was dry (des-
cribed at one point as the start of another cycle of drought) and
the IITA variety seems to have fitted the timetable better than
the longer cycle variety 58-57 which was developed in Senegal in
earlier years. An even shorter season type yielded less well.
More work will be needed, in part because TVx 3236, which has
been vigorously promoted, was less acceptable to producers and
less saleable in the market than the other varieties.

California Blackeye 5 (CB5) was not included in these trials,
although their recent experiences have led producers to value it.
However it is sensitive to cowpea aphid and to pod rots, so that
it may have to be reselected, if it contains sufficient varia-
tion, or replaced by a more resistant variety of similar phenol-
ogy--which may indeed exist already in West Africa.

The project staff and cooperators believe that producers in this
arid, variable and unpredictable environment need at least two
cowpea varieties, of different phenology, to buffer them against
the environmental risks. Consequently, the breeding part of the
program seeks to produce an appropriate range, equipped also with
resistances to pests and diseases, and the agronomic part is
studying how best the materials might be combined with one
another and with other crops in cropping systems (not necessarily
as mixed cultures).









-70-


Materials found in California to be adapted to heat and drought,
in trials designed to simulate the seasonal cycle of water
balance of the Sahelian region, are being tested in Senegal.
This has already made the work in the US at least as relevant as
that of any other project in this CRSP to the specific environ-
mental conditions of the Host Country.

The ureide method of assessing the fixation of nitrogen by
nodules, applied a number of years ago at IITA, has been used
successful in petiole tissues at UCR and has been transferred
to Senegal. In growth physiology, a study of the partitioning
of carbohydrate in different varieties has begun, which could
evidently benefit from closer association with Dr. Summerfield
and his colleagues at the Plant Environment Laboratory at
Reading.

Studies of the population dynamics of insect pests of the crop,
and of their predators and parasites, have led to successful
trials of methods of chemical control. In work on storage,
methods of using preparations and extracts of neem (Azadirachta
indica) (long known as an insecticide and repellent in India)
have advanced, and work continues on hermetic storage.

2. Research results disseminated and in use

The project scored a notable public success in 1985, after a
severe drought year in 1984 and against the background of the
continuing difficulties of the region, when the Government of
Senegal, with help from the European Economic Community and
USAID, imported some hundreds of tons of seed of CB5. CB5 had
been grown by the project, but it had not yet been recommended
for Senegal. It was chosen because it was the most likely
candidate variety of which significant amounts of reliable seed
could be obtained quickly. The crops produced from this seed
are said to have saved one million people from famine because
they were photoneutral and short season and were able to yield
in the difficult conditions of the 1985 season. The experience
was repeated in 1986.

The gamble paid off, but it had risks which are still with us.
Farmers value CB5, although (like TVx 3236) it is not without
defects. Perhaps the most important benefits have been the
increased importance which the Government now assigns to cowpeas,
the confidence the operation has given the Senegalese cowpea
workers, the realization that phenology is all-important in
adaptation to dry conditions, and the demonstration of the value
of international cooperation conducted as between equals.

Materials from the program are being tested (by Sudanese gradu-
ates of UCR) in the Western Sudan. In the US, heat tolerance is
being incorporated in varieties of vegetable cowpeas, originally
introduced from India, in the hope of producing heat-adapted
types for producers in the US as well as in developing countries.









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3. Other research-related results

a. Germplasm conservation and use

The project holds a small collection (447) of cowpea entries
and thousands of breeding lines. It is important that
arrangements be made for the conservation and documentation
of these; and this should be discussed with IITA, which may
be able to provide storage for duplicates of the Senegal
collection.

Advanced breeding materials have been distributed to
cooperators in many countries.

b. Production and distribution of seed (or other materials)
produced by the CRSP

The project has cooperated with the Senegalese extension
agency SODEVA in developing methods for multiplying,
inspecting and certifying healthy seed.

c. Impact of other technical methods produced or recommended by
the CRSP, including production inputs such as fertilizers,
inoculants, insecticides, equipment and machines

The report refers to the use by Senegalese farmers of modi-
fied peanut planters to sow cowpeas, of horse-drawn cultiva-
tors, and of storage in sealed drums. Of these only the last
is likely to be primarily due to the project: we should
beware of claiming too much.

d. Contributions to and participation in international
bean/cowpea research networks, e.g. IARCs and other

In the work of the project on the screening of cowpeas for
adaptation to heat and sensitivity to photoperiod, and in
subsequent breeding, the project has cooperated closely with
IITA. As has already been suggested, it could benefit from
fuller association with the Reading crop physiology group.

e. How the research findings address the needs of small-scale
farmers and women

Small-scale farmers who harvested little or no millet or
peanuts in 1985 and 1986 have been sustained by cowpeas, both
as food for their own use and as a marketed crop which
enables them to buy other foods. The work of the project is
claimed to have expanded the market for cowpeas in northern
Senegal and to have made it more stable and competitive.
Improved storage can help farmers to take advantage of the
new opportunities. All this lessens hardship and poverty
and benefits all members of the family.









-72-


B. Changes in National Production

1. Hectares planted
2. Yields per hectare
3. Total production

The following data, for total pulses, are from the FAO production
yearbook for 1985 and the trade yearbook for 1984.

1979-81 1983 1984 1985

Area harvested, ha 52,000 40,000 53,000 121,000
Yield, kg/ha 401 329 303 546
Output, tons 21,000 13,000 16,000 66,000

1982 1983 1984

Imports, tons 212 307 270
355 132

The output gain in 1985 seems likely to have been due in part to
the influence of the CRSP, in cooperation of course with the EEC
and USAID, and above all with the national staff, the farmers,
and the Government of Senegal. Without the CRSP and Dr. Hall's
earlier endeavours in Senegal (since the mid-seventies), it is
most unlikely to have occurred.

C. Training

1. Numbers and kinds in process

US: 1 B.S.
Non-US: 1 Ph.D.
1 M.S.
2 B.S.

2. Numbers and kinds completed during FY 86

US: None
Non-US: None

D. Institutional Development

The Government of Senegal began actively to promote cowpeas in
1985 and this continued in 1986. Since 1976, research on cowpeas
has advanced substantially and an effective team is now in place.
The team is close-knit and productive, and it seems to know how
to operate on the national stage. It is closely associated with
UCR.









-73-


II. FUNDING/FISCAL MANAGEMENT

A. Custody and Maintenance of Vehicles and Equipment

1. Inventory/records--Satisfactory
2. Accountable individuals and institutions--Satisfactory

B. Audit/Project Management Reviews

No audit performed. The CRSP Management Entity has scheduled an
audit in Senegal in early 1987.

C. Adequacy of Funding

The Government of Senegal seems to be playing its part well, and no
defects in the support of UCR are reported. A donor is sought to
fund closer collaboration between IITA and the project in Senegal.
The most useful suggestion is that the Government of Senegal should
consult those of its multilateral and bilateral donors who are also
donors to IITA and suggest to them that parts of their aid alloca-
tions to Senegal be used to fund the cooperation. If the Government
of Senegal is able to assign an appropriate priority to this acti-
vity, as against all the other needs it has for aid, the donors are
not likely to refuse. Conversely, there is doubt whether any donor
would be supportive if the Government of Senegal itself did not
assign sufficient priority to this matter.

D. Problems

Funding reductions absorbed with difficulty

E. Adequacy of Current Policies and Procedures

Funding levels unreliable

III. PLANS FOR 1987

A. Research

The report proposes to continue along the established lines in
Senegal--minikit trials on farms in cooperation with the national
research agency; breeding for appropriate durations, resistance to
pests and diseases, and effective fixation of nitrogen; trials of
improved materials at many locations; methods for field control of
insect pests; study of hydrologic balances of sites of minikit trials
and of weather in relation to the population dynamics of pests;
storage methods; and support for national seed production. The
seasonal weather of the sites of the multilocational trials should
be studied.









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In California, the analysis of the effects of heat and drought on
reproductive stages in contrasted forms of cowpeas will be associated
with breeding and screening for adaptation to these factors; studies
of the efficiency with which different varieties use stored soil
water by both gas exchange and discrimination between carbon-12 and
-13; respiration in stored seeds and effects on it of neem materials;
partitioning of carbohydrate in different genotypes at different
spacings; vegetable cowpeas.

B. Expected Changes

The 1987 program will therefore be much like 1986, but just as it is
important to know about the hydrologic balances of the sites of
multilocation and minikit trials, it must be important to describe
the conditions at UCR and other experimental sites also.

IV. STATUS

A. Appropriateness of Activities to Goals of Global Plan

The program seems to be appropriate to these goals.

B. Balance between Research and Training

Satisfactory

C. Balance of US versus Overseas Activities

The two parts are effectively dovetailed together.

D. Level of Collaboration/Cooperation between US and Host Country

Excellent

E. Relative Contributions of Collaborating Institutions and Individuals
towards Accomplishment of Objectives

There is more than a division of labor between more basic work in
California and application in Senegal: the program is enabling and
encouraging the Senegalese participants to make more analytical
studies in their own environment.

F. Interest, Involvement and Support of USAID Mission and/or US Embassy

Satisfactory

G. Domestic and International Linkages and Cooperation/Collaboration

Linkages with IITA, with cowpea workers in the US and with cowpea
producers in California are satisfactory.









-75-


H. Cost Effectiveness, Especially Regarding Level of Activity versus
Funding

In this project it is not unfair to compare the value of the extra
output of say 45,000 tons of cowpeas (at about $1,000 per ton, the
approximate import price indicated in the FAO Trade Yearbook, or even
at the export price of about $300 per ton) with the cost of the
project. If on top we consider the effects of this extra output on
human survival, it seems reasonable to suggest that the cost effec-
tiveness, though still not precisely measurable, is very substantial.

I. Institutionalization of Host Country Component

The cooperation with ISRA has the effect of building the work into
the structure of government, so that institutionalization is
satisfactory and adequate for present purposes.

V. PUBLICATIONS

A. US Researchers

Nine publications listed, two of them in refereed journals

B. HC Researchers

Twelve publications listed, none in refereed journals


VI. OVERALL EVALUATION:


1--Highly Satisfactory










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1986 EEP REVIEW

TANZANIA/WASHINGTON STATE UNIVERSITY BEAN/COWPEA CRSP PROJECT

"Breeding Beans for Disease and Insect Resistance and
Determination of the Economic Impact on Smallholder Farm Families"


I. PROGRESS

A. Research Contributions

1. Research in process

a. Tanzania

Crop science. The search for inherited resistance to bean
fly, Ootheca, bruchids and flower thrips continued, and some
crosses between insect-resistant and disease-resistant
material were in F3. Neem extract can lessen feeding by
Ootheca in the field.

Materials with inherited resistance to bean rust, angular
leaf spot, bean common mosaic virus, anthracnose and common
blight have been crossed with large-yielding, locally adapted
lines. In the improvement of screening methods (in which two
contrasted environments are used--high, wet and cool and low,
hot and dry), the Wisconsin dry-inoculum technique has proved
useful for rust and angular leaf spot; and methods developed
at MSU have been useful in producing spores of the causal
organism of angular leaf spot for screening.

In surveys at Mbeya in southern Tanzania, bean plants were
found that were both abundantly and effectively nodulated
with indigenous rhizobia. They also seemed to be healthier
than other bean plants. Studies have begun of Rhizobium
strains. Trials of promising lines without inputs, and on
farms, suggest that some lines are better adapted than others
to less-favored conditions.

Promising lines are screened for adaptation to dry conditions
at Morogoro and at Davis, California. The methods are not
described, so it is not possible to assess how relevant the
two screens will be to each other.

Studies of time of cooking seem to be retracing old ground;
but no doubt they have been discussed with investigators in
other projects in this CRSP. Perhaps not surprisingly,
magadi (a naturally-occurring mixture of carbonates which
"crystallizes" out, as seasonal alkali pools dry in the arid
central regions of Kenya and Tanzania Masailand, and which
was, and probably still is, extracted commercially in Kenya)









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lessened cooking time. Variation in time of cooking has
been found among otherwise promising lines.

Human science. The work on consumption economics and socio-
cultural factors, formerly confined to Morogoro and Arusha,
was extended to Tanga region, in the north-east of Tanzania,
where the structure of the local economy is different and
more diverse than in the regions studied earlier. Off-farm
income is greater per family than in the other regions and
was almost equal to income from crop sales.

The relationships between rural families and beans were
explored, in directions similar to those developed earlier
in Morogoro and Arusha. More bean lines are used in Tanga
region, in different and more complex farming systems. The
training-and-visit system of extension (since abandoned
because of its cost) was studied in Tanga by a Tanzanian
M.S. student, who brought to light important differences
between male- and female-headed households.

Farmers liked two bean varieties offered (one for higher and
the other for lower altitudes) for testing on their farms.
The reasons why the low-altitude type, TMO 101, was preferred
to customary varieties were explored. Though it was as
susceptible to pests and diseases,, it was upright and
compact, matured evenly and yielded more in a dry year, but
it appeared to be more variable in yield.

b. United States

The work at Prosser developed the established program of
breeding and screening for resistances to strains of bean
common mosaic virus and halo blight. It included the further
development of immunological methods for diagnosis, and
crosses between drought-resistant and multiple disease-
resistant lines. The report does not specify to what type
of dry conditions the drought-resistant parents are adapted
or how the adaptation was measured. "Drought" means
different things for plants in different environments.

Though the report on these topics is very brief, it seems
that the work in the United States is so conducted that it
not only supports the work in Tanzania but also contributes
directly and valuably to bean research in the United States.

2. Research results disseminated and in use

Though promising materials are available and have been tested on
farms, no new lines have been made generally available to pro-
ducers in Tanzania. It may be that in Tanzania, which has the
remains at least of a seed industry, it will in fact be possible
to "release" new materials effectively. No other product of the
program is being promoted on a practical scale either.









-78-


The proceedings of successive bean workshops at Morogoro have
been widely distributed, and a Tanzanian technical report on
farming systems data and trials was made available.

3. Other research-related results

a. Germplasm conservation and use

The program has assembled more than 1,000 entries of bean
materials, which are freely exchanged among the three bean
programs in Tanzania and are made available to workers in
other countries. Nothing is reported about the documentation
or conservation of this material; but it may be that dupli-
cates are held at CIAT.

b. Production and distribution of seed (or other materials)
produced by the CRSP

Seed has been produced for research purposes only. No seed
has been distributed yet. One can question whether it could
have been possible, in time, not only to identify and screen
promising materials but also to test them in enough locations
and seasons to have the confidence to produce foundation seed
and arrange for large-scale multiplication and distribution.
There comes a point, even if all else is favorable, when the
eager researcher has to face the possible consequences of an
unforeseen failure.

c. Impact of other technical methods produced or recommended by
the CRSP, including production inputs such as fertilizers,
inoculants, insecticides, equipment and machines

Only within the program itself

d. Contributions to and participation in international bean/
cowpea research networks, e.g. IARCs and other

At first on its own, and now in cooperation with CIAT and
ICIPE, the program has promoted substantial international
cooperation in bean research in East Africa and in the SADCC
countries. There is much further to go along this road, and
CIAT and SADCC will have to take the lead, but it may be that
AID and other donors will see the advances made by this CRSP
program as yet one more piece of evidence of the value of a
specific cooperative link between an overseas institution
and a national program.

e. How the research findings address the needs of small-scale
farmers and women

The whole of this program is about beans in the lives of
small-scale producers. Many of them are women; and the
program has documented the specific difficulties of female-









-79-


headed households. The work on cooking-time of beans may
lessen the needs for time, fuel and water and so lighten
women's work loads. (It may be worth recording that at least
in parts of Tanzania men collect fuel also; they are not
everywhere the idle hedonistic slobs of mythology.)

B. Changes in National Production

The official statistics show that of 315-360,000 tons of pulses
(which do not include soya or peanuts) produced per year in Tanzania
between 1979 and 1985, from 250-280,000 tons were beans. In 1982-84,
imports of pulses were small--around 1-300 tons only, at $600-750 per
ton. Exports in 1982 were 50,000 tons at about $200 per ton. In
1983 and 1984 7,000 and 6,000 tons were exported at about $550 per
ton. There is no reason to ascribe any of these fluctuations to the
CRSP.


C. Training


The report proposes to continue the training
higher degrees, in spite of the cost.


of four students for


1. Numbers and kinds in process


US: 1
Non-US: 2
1


M.S.
Ph.D.
M.S.


2. Numbers and kinds completed during FY 86

US: 1 Ph.D.
1 M.S.
Non-US: 1 Ph.D.
1 M.S.
33 non-degree

D. Institutional Development

Nineteen names appear on the list of participants in Tanzania. One
is a member of the USAID Mission in Dar es Salaam and one is an
administrator, who must surely be welcome as a team member. Two are
from the University of Dar es Salaam. None is listed from Uyole,
though workers there certainly cooperate, as do the workers of the
Agricultural Research Corporation.

The CRSP is well established. The most significant products are a
better understanding of how rural life systems work in different
regions and environments in Tanzania; advances in plant breeding for
multiple attributes; and a strong and cohesive collective of bean
research workers in Tanzania. It is clear that the CRSP is serving
a great deal more than subsistence, it does not yet know enough about
the place of beans in the economy of the nation or of the natures and
sizes of the effective demands for beans and bean products in local,
regional, national and foreign markets.









-80-


The project has suffered from continual changes in HC personnel and
may well continue to do so. The senior entomological cooperator,
Dr. Karel, is expected to leave in 1987; it is most important that
his work should be continued.

Prospects are difficult to assess, partly for lack of knowledge about
effective demand for beans and bean products. Tanzania may well soon
have excellent plant material and production practices, tested at
Morogoro and on some farms, but no way of moving these products out
to users on a large scale or even knowledge of the tactically most
suitable areas into which to move them.

II. FUNDING/FISCAL MANAGEMENT

A. Custody and Maintenance of Vehicles and Equipment

1. Inventory/records--Satisfactory

2. Accountable individuals and institutions--Satisfactory

B. Audit/Project Management Reviews

Audited in 1985 by the Tanzania Audit Corporation. The CRSP
Management Entity has scheduled an audit in Tanzania in early 1987.

C. Adequacy of Funding

This project has used its funds well and has done what it could both
economically and uncomplainingly. The local institutions are very
short of funds, but it seems certain that they have contributed
resources at some real cost as well as the time of staff and the use
of existing facilities.

D. Problems

Delays in Customs clearing of imports

E. Adequacy of Current Policies and Procedures

Not satisfactory, especially at Sokoine University of Agriculture

III. PLANS FOR 1987

A. Research

Much as before. In Tanzania, in addition to the existing tests at
zero inputs, some studies will be made with more complete inputs to
find out what might be possible in commercial farming--which must be
expected to become more important as technical methods become avail-
able and will have a legitimate call on research services. Studies
of digestibility of bean proteins will be undertaken. Like the work
on cooking time, this will no doubt benefit from consultation with
other relevant programs in this CRSP.









-81-


In the US, the relationship between level of resistance to halo
blight and seed transmission will be more closely studied--a poten-
tially very interesting topic. Failure to transmit a virus in seed
can be seen as a form of resistance which in many groups is in fact
the norm.

B. Expected Changes

Entomological work is expected to continue somehow until Martha
Quentin returns to Tanzania. Sokoine University may not be able to
continue the same volume of support as in the past, for lack of
funds. Inoculation with Rhizobium is to be tested on farms--but on
what hosts and with what sources of inocula is not clear. Dr. Due
is to undertake some studies of the requirements and contraints in
the production, distribution and marketing of improved seeds. More
quantitative information about the nature of drought in different
regions and at different sites in Tanzania and Washington State and
of year-to-year variations would make it easier to interpret the
results of experiments. Terry Woodhead's old publication on evapor-
ation rates in Tanzania would help (Woodhead, T. 1968. Studies of
Potential Evaporation in Tanzania. Nairobi: East African Agri-
culture and Forestry Research Organization). It is probably in
libraries in Dar es Salaam, Arusha or SUA.

IV. STATUS

A. Appropriateness of Activities to Goals of Global Plan
B. Balance between Research and Training
C. Balance of US versus Overseas Activities

All seem satisfactory as reported, except that graduate training is
consuming about three-quarters of the remaining budget for Tanzania--
a burden the Sokoine University is willing to bear. The studies at
Prosser of resistance and breeding in relation to disease are so
conducted that they could benefit the US producer as well as lead to
materials useful in Tanzania and in CIAT's programs. Work on the
main constraints is well distributed between the US and HC groups.

D. Level of Collaboration/Cooperation between US and Host Country
E. Relative Contributions of Collaborating Institutions and Individuals
toward Accomplishment of Objectives

These matters are considered in careful detail in the report. "The
EEP commends the way in which this program has used and extended its
direct and cooperative resources for the tasks in hand.

F. Interest, Involvement and Support of USAID Mission and/or US Embassy

Appears to be satisfactory

G. Domestic and International Linkages and Cooperation/Collaboration

Comments earlier in this review have referred to the cooperation
among research organizations in Tanzania, with bean researchers in









-82-


other African nations, with CIAT, and with the developing cooperative
research activities of SADCC. The research director of SADCC, Dr.
Martin Kyomo, is a former Dean at Morogoro and Dr. David Allen, now
at Arusha for CIAT/SSDCC, is an old friend of the CRSP.

H. Cost Effectiveness, Especially Regarding Level of Activity versus
Funding

This program gets value for money but it would be difficult to put
even a shadow value on the uncompleted and unmarketed products or on
the institutional development and international cooperation.

I. Institutionalization of Host Country Component

In addition to Sokoine University, Uyole and the Agricultural
Research Corporation feel themselves to be involved, even though none
of their staff members are listed in the team. But the next stages
will need more than this. In Tanzania, there is a Ministry of
Agriculture, without which no development (as distinct from research)
is possible beyond the gate of the research station, and there may
still be a Ministry of Rural Development. There is certainly a
Planning Ministry and a Natural Resources Institute. The Extension
Service was, and may still be, attached to the provincial and dis-
trict administrations and so attached to the Office of the Prime
Minister.

All this makes Sokoine University of Agriculture a very different
place from a state agricultural university in the United States,
which, through its unified management of research, education and
extension and its links with USDA, is able to play a leading part,
alongside the farmers themselves, in generating agricultural pro-
gress. No doubt the studies Dr. Due is to undertake in relation to
seeds will bring her into touch with the complexities that need to
be taken into consideration.

V. PUBLICATIONS

A. US Researchers

Four publications listed, three in refereed journals

B. HC Researchers

Thirteen publications listed, five (all bearing Dr. Karel's name) in
refereed journals


1--Highly Satisfactory


VI. OVERALL RATING:









-83-


BEAN/COWPEA CRSP FY 87 EXTERNAL EVALUATION PANEL


Dr. Clarence C. Gray, III (Chair)
Professor
International Extension and International Studies
Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University
Office: 9945 Great Oaks Way
Fairfax, VA 22030
(703) 352-5895

Dr. A. Hugh Bunting, Professor
University of Reading
Q 7/8, No. 4 Earley Gate
Whiteknights Road
Reading, Berks.
England RG6 2AR
Phone: 011-44-734-64640
Telex: 851 847813 RULIB

Dr. Peter E. Hildebrand, Professor
Food and Resource Economics Department
1125 McCarty Hall
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
University of Florida
Gainesville, Florida 32611
(904) 392-5830

Dr. Antonio M. Pinchinat
Tropical Agricultural Research and Development Specialist
IICA
P. 0. Box 11185
Lima 14 Peru
Phone: 011-51-14-222833
Telex: 394 25281 OEAPERU

Dr. Charlotte E. Roderuck, Director
World Food Institute
Iowa State University
102 E. 0. Building
Ames, Iowa 50011
(515) 294-7699






-84- ATTACHMENT D
ATTACHMENT D


VICE PRESIDENT FOR FINANCE AND OPERATIONS AND TREASURER
CONTRACT AND GRANT ADMINISTRATION
302 ADMINISTRATION BUILDING
TELEPHONE (517) 355.5040


EAST LANSING MICHIGAN 48824-1046


November 17, 1986



Mr. James Mrowka
Arthur Young and Company
100 Renaissance Center
Detroit, Michigan 48243

Subject: Audit of Michigan State University
Bean/Cowpea Overseas Projects

Dear Mr. Mrowka:

I am enclosing the information received from the U. S. Institutions
in connection with the audit through May 6, 1986 for the following
six locations:


Location


U. S. Subgrantor


1. Centro Sur de
Desarrollo Agropecuario
San Christobal
Dominican Republic

2. Centro Sur de
Desarrollo Agropecuario
San Christobal
Dominican Republic

3. Institute de Nutricion
de Centroamerica y
Panama
Guatemala City,
Guatemala

4. Univ. of Nairobi
Kabete, Kenya

5. Sokoine Univ. of Agr.
Morogora, Tanzania

6. Centre National de
Recherches Agronomiques
Bambey, Senegal


Univ. of Puerto Rico




Univ. of Nebraska




Washington St. Univ.






Univ. of Calif. (Davis)


Washington St. Univ.


Univ. of Calif. (Riverside)


MSU is an Affirmative Action/Equal Opportunity Institution


MICHIGAN STATE UNIVERSITY







Page 2


Mr. James Mrowka
Arthur Young and Company
100 Renaissance Center
Detroit, Michigan 48243



Please refer to our previous correspondence. If you need any
additional information, please call the undersigned at (517)
355-4476.

Sincerely,



Gerald L. Ja obs
Contract and Grant Administration

GLJ/sh

Enclosure


cc: Carolyn Snow























REPORT OF THE EXTERNAL EVALUATION PANEL OF THE
BEAN/COWPEA CRSP FOR FY 87


February 25-27, 1988









REPORT OF
THE EXTERNAL EVALUATION PANEL OF
THE BEAN/COWPEA COLLABORATIVE RESEARCH SUPPORT PROGRAM
FOR FY 87


TABLE OF CONTENTS


I. Introduction . . . . . . 1

A. The FY 87 External Evaluation Panel . . ...
B. Organization of the Bean/Cowpea CRSP . . . .. 1
C. FY 87 EEP Review: Sequence of Events . . . 2


II. Program Evaluation: Summary . . . . ... 3


III. Program Evaluation: Training and Women in Development . 6

A. Training . . . . ... . .. 6
B. Women in Development . . . . .. 6


IV. Program Evaluation: Project Ratings . . . . 8

A. Bases for Evaluation: Rating Categories/Format . .. 8
B. Summary of Project Ratings . . . . 8


V. Program Evaluation: Fiscal and Administrative . . 9


VI. Attachments

Attachment A: Scope of Work for External Evaluation Panel . 13

Attachment B: Individual Project Reviews . . 17
Botswana . . . . 17
Brazil/UWI . . . . 25
Brazil/BTI . . . . . 39
Cameroon . . . ... 45
Dominican Republic . . . 47
Guatemala . . . ...... 55
Honduras . . . . ... .. 59
INCAP . . . .. 65
Malawi . . . . 71
Mexico . . . .. 75
Nigeria . . . . 83
Senegal . . . . 93
Tanzania . . . ... 103


Attachment C: Bean/Cowpea CRSP FY 87 External Evaluation Panel .


113









REPORT OF
THE EXTERNAL EVALUATION PANEL OF
THE BEAN/COWPEA COLLABORATIVE RESEARCH SUPPORT PROGRAM
FOR FY 87


I. Introduction


The Bean/Cowpea Collaborative Research Support Program (CRSP) began with
funding in September 1980. This original Bean/Cowpea CRSP grant came to an
end during FY 86, and a new extension grant was awarded. The present review
report covers FY 87 activities, the second year of the three-year extension.
Included as a part of this review are the Panel's comments on individual
proposals for a second extension for the period FY 89 through FY 92.

Evaluations reported here are based on project annual reports and on-site
reviews. EEP members reviewed CRSP activities in Dominican Republic,
Guatemala, Malawi, Michigan, Nigeria, Puerto Rico and Tanzania. Management
Office and AID officials provided additional information.

A. The FY 87 External Evaluation Panel (EEP)

Originally the EEP consisted of seven members, all appointed in 1980-81.
During 1986, two members--Dr. Melvin Blase and Dr. Luis H. Camacho--retired
from the EEP, reducing the number of members to five. In 1987, another two
of the original seven retired--Dr. Antonio M. Pinchinat and Dr. Charlotte E.
Roderuck. They were replaced by Dr. Edna McBreen and Dr. Kenneth 0. Rachie.
Current members and their affiliations are given in Attachment C.

B. Organization of the Bean/Cowpea CRSP

When it was organized, the Bean/Cowpea CRSP was comprised of eighteen
projects in thirteen countries of Africa and Central and South America in
collaboration with ten US lead institutions (nine Land Grant universities
and one private institution). At the end of FY 87, there were thirteen
projects for review (beans--eight and cowpeas--five). Several of the
original projects were terminated or consolidated. The thirteen remaining
projects are located in eleven countries and are conducted by eleven US
lead institutions.


Host Country
Botswana
Brazil
Brazil
Cameroon
Dominican Republic
Guatemala
Guatemala/INCAP
Honduras
Malawi
Mexico
Nigeria
Senegal
Tanzania


Crop
Cowpeas
Cowpeas
Beans
Cowpeas
Beans
Beans
Beans
Beans
Beans
Beans
Cowpeas
Cowpeas
Beans


US Institution
Colorado State University
Boyce Thompson Institute
University of Wisconsin
Purdue University
University of Nebraska
Cornell University
Washington State University
University of Puerto Rico
Michigan State University
Michigan State University
University of Georgia
University of California-Riverside
Washington State University









REPORT OF
THE EXTERNAL EVALUATION PANEL OF
THE BEAN/COWPEA COLLABORATIVE RESEARCH SUPPORT PROGRAM
FOR FY 87


I. Introduction


The Bean/Cowpea Collaborative Research Support Program (CRSP) began with
funding in September 1980. This original Bean/Cowpea CRSP grant came to an
end during FY 86, and a new extension grant was awarded. The present review
report covers FY 87 activities, the second year of the three-year extension.
Included as a part of this review are the Panel's comments on individual
proposals for a second extension for the period FY 89 through FY 92.

Evaluations reported here are based on project annual reports and on-site
reviews. EEP members reviewed CRSP activities in Dominican Republic,
Guatemala, Malawi, Michigan, Nigeria, Puerto Rico and Tanzania. Management
Office and AID officials provided additional information.

A. The FY 87 External Evaluation Panel (EEP)

Originally the EEP consisted of seven members, all appointed in 1980-81.
During 1986, two members--Dr. Melvin Blase and Dr. Luis H. Camacho--retired
from the EEP, reducing the number of members to five. In 1987, another two
of the original seven retired--Dr. Antonio M. Pinchinat and Dr. Charlotte E.
Roderuck. They were replaced by Dr. Edna McBreen and Dr. Kenneth 0. Rachie.
Current members and their affiliations are given in Attachment C.

B. Organization of the Bean/Cowpea CRSP

When it was organized, the Bean/Cowpea CRSP was comprised of eighteen
projects in thirteen countries of Africa and Central and South America in
collaboration with ten US lead institutions (nine Land Grant universities
and one private institution). At the end of FY 87, there were thirteen
projects for review (beans--eight and cowpeas--five). Several of the
original projects were terminated or consolidated. The thirteen remaining
projects are located in eleven countries and are conducted by eleven US
lead institutions.


Host Country
Botswana
Brazil
Brazil
Cameroon
Dominican Republic
Guatemala
Guatemala/INCAP
Honduras
Malawi
Mexico
Nigeria
Senegal
Tanzania


Crop
Cowpeas
Cowpeas
Beans
Cowpeas
Beans
Beans
Beans
Beans
Beans
Beans
Cowpeas
Cowpeas
Beans


US Institution
Colorado State University
Boyce Thompson Institute
University of Wisconsin
Purdue University
University of Nebraska
Cornell University
Washington State University
University of Puerto Rico
Michigan State University
Michigan State University
University of Georgia
University of California-Riverside
Washington State University









REPORT OF
THE EXTERNAL EVALUATION PANEL OF
THE BEAN/COWPEA COLLABORATIVE RESEARCH SUPPORT PROGRAM
FOR FY 87


I. Introduction


The Bean/Cowpea Collaborative Research Support Program (CRSP) began with
funding in September 1980. This original Bean/Cowpea CRSP grant came to an
end during FY 86, and a new extension grant was awarded. The present review
report covers FY 87 activities, the second year of the three-year extension.
Included as a part of this review are the Panel's comments on individual
proposals for a second extension for the period FY 89 through FY 92.

Evaluations reported here are based on project annual reports and on-site
reviews. EEP members reviewed CRSP activities in Dominican Republic,
Guatemala, Malawi, Michigan, Nigeria, Puerto Rico and Tanzania. Management
Office and AID officials provided additional information.

A. The FY 87 External Evaluation Panel (EEP)

Originally the EEP consisted of seven members, all appointed in 1980-81.
During 1986, two members--Dr. Melvin Blase and Dr. Luis H. Camacho--retired
from the EEP, reducing the number of members to five. In 1987, another two
of the original seven retired--Dr. Antonio M. Pinchinat and Dr. Charlotte E.
Roderuck. They were replaced by Dr. Edna McBreen and Dr. Kenneth 0. Rachie.
Current members and their affiliations are given in Attachment C.

B. Organization of the Bean/Cowpea CRSP

When it was organized, the Bean/Cowpea CRSP was comprised of eighteen
projects in thirteen countries of Africa and Central and South America in
collaboration with ten US lead institutions (nine Land Grant universities
and one private institution). At the end of FY 87, there were thirteen
projects for review (beans--eight and cowpeas--five). Several of the
original projects were terminated or consolidated. The thirteen remaining
projects are located in eleven countries and are conducted by eleven US
lead institutions.


Host Country
Botswana
Brazil
Brazil
Cameroon
Dominican Republic
Guatemala
Guatemala/INCAP
Honduras
Malawi
Mexico
Nigeria
Senegal
Tanzania


Crop
Cowpeas
Cowpeas
Beans
Cowpeas
Beans
Beans
Beans
Beans
Beans
Beans
Cowpeas
Cowpeas
Beans


US Institution
Colorado State University
Boyce Thompson Institute
University of Wisconsin
Purdue University
University of Nebraska
Cornell University
Washington State University
University of Puerto Rico
Michigan State University
Michigan State University
University of Georgia
University of California-Riverside
Washington State University




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