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FY ... annual report.

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Title:
FY ... annual report.
Series Title:
FY ... annual report.
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Bean/Cowpea Collaborative Research Support Program
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East Lansing, Mich.
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Bean/Cowpea CRSP, Michigan State University
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English
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v. ; 28 cm.

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Subjects / Keywords:
Farming ( LCSH )
Agriculture ( LCSH )
Farm life ( LCSH )
Beans -- Research -- International cooperation ( LCSH )
Cowpea -- Research -- International cooperation ( LCSH )
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serial ( sobekcm )

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Electronic resources created as part of a prototype UF Institutional Repository and Faculty Papers project by the University of Florida.

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Full Text
10 Year of Colbrtv Research 0M 0 M 0 0 *
Bea/Cope Colaoraiv ReerhSppr rga




10 YEARS OF COLLABORATIVE RESEARCH ON BEANS AND COWPEAS
000D
FY 90 ANNUAL REPORT
000
Bean/Cowpea Collaborative Research Support Program




THE BEAN/COWPEA CRSP
An international community of
persons, institutions, agencies, and governments committed to collectively strengthening health and nutrition in developing countries by improving the
availability and utilization of
beans and cowpeas
MICHIGAN STATE UNIVERSITY
December 1990
Grant No. DAN-1310-G-SS-6008-00
Agency for International Development
Washington, DC




TABLE OF CONTENTS
INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . 1
PROJECT HIGHLIGHTS
CRSP Management . . . . . . . . 2
Management Office Annual Report. . . . . 6
Training Summary . . . . . . . . 11
Women in Development Annual Report . . . . . 13 Roster of Projects . . . ............. 18
BRAZIL/BOYCE THOMPSON INSTITUTE . . . . . . 19
CAMEROON/PURDUE UNIVERSITY . ... . . . . 63
DOMINICAN REPUBLIC/UNIVERSITY OF NEBRASKA . . . 82 DOMINICAN REPUBLIC/UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN . . . . 96 ECUADOR/UNIVERSITY OF MINNESOTA. . . . . . 111
GUATEMALA/CORNELL UNIVERSITY ... . . . 122
HONDURAS/UNIVERSITY OF PUERTO RICO . . . . . 135
INCAP/WASHINGTON STATE UNIVERSITY . . . . . . 154
MALAWI/UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA-Davis . . ........ 174
MEXICO/MICHIGAN STATE UNIVERSITY . . . . . . 190
NIGERIA/UNIVERSITY OF GEORGIA . . . . . . 218
SENEGAL/UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA-Riverside . . . . 235 TANZANIA/WASHINGTON STATE UNIVERSITY . . . . . 247
List of Abbreviations and Acronyms . . . . . 263
Cover design by Chris Altese




iNTRODUCTION
When Hubert Humphrey was sold on the idea of bringing into a three-way partnership the Agency for International Development (A.I.D.), developing countries, and the U.S. Land-Grant college system, it was an exciting notion that caught the attention of many in the development community. A.I.D., with funds for U.S. development efforts, was losing much of its scientific and technical staff. The U.S. Land-Grant system, while rich in scientific and technical staff and physical infrastructure important for the conduct of research, was facing limited availability of funds for participation in development. Developing countries were short on staff, physical infrastructure and financial resources but had indigenous knowledge, germplasm, ecologies, and the epidemics to study, needed by the research system. In addition, as demographers pointed to the aging of the baby boomers with the resulting drop in university enrollments, many universities saw developing countries as a source of new student clientele. Identified as an initiative of Title XII of the U.S. Foreign Assistance Act, it was a partnership made in Heaven.
The Bean/Cowpea CRSP was the third Collaborative Research Support Program to evolve from this initiative. It is a coordinated effort which addresses hunger and malnutrition in Africa, Latin America, and the Caribbean through research on
beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) and cowpeas (Vignza unguiculata). The focus of the CRSP is collaboration, a characteristic which distinguishes it from more traditional agricultural research. The collaborative approach includes financial, as well as operation, collaboration in the conduct of the projects. That is, U.S. and Host Country (HC) institutions, as well as A.I.D., provide monetary or in-kind support necessary for the scientific undertakings.
Among the unique aspects of the CRSP are the extensive linkages which are forged over time and which support the collegial, multiple-way flow of information, innovative ideas, and scientific resources. These linkages are composed of diverse disciplines, nationalities, and cultures. As the partners exchange data with one another, the benefits of their research enrich both the U.S. and HCs and contribute to the development of sustainability in the agricultural production systems around the world.
In the research projects of the CRSP, attention is focused on particular aspects of bean and cowpea production (e.g., improved varieties with resistance to diseases and/or insects) and utilization (e.g., issues of storage, processing or nutrition) as identified in the Global Plan. Working together, the research teams are generating responses beneficial for U.S. farmers as well as smallscale producers and the rural and urban poor in developing countries. Since the initiation of this program in 1980, major successes have been achieved well beyond that envisioned in the original scopes of work. Indeed, in the most recent review by the External Evaluation Panel, this CRSP was judged to be outstanding. This report of the tenth year of Bean/Cowpea CRSP research and training documents the validity of that assessment.




CRSP MANAGEMENT
THE MANAGEMENT OFFICE
The Bean/Cowpea CRSP Management Office is the operational component of the Management Entity, Michigan State University. The ME is represented by the MSU Vice-President for Finance, the official recipient of the prime grant from A.I.D., and the Dean of the College of Agriculture and Natural Resources, in whose unit the CRSP is organizationally located. The MO, on behalf of the ME, is the link between A.I.D. and CRSP projects organized through subcontracts to ten U.S. lead universities and one private research institute. These institutions in turn support participating HC institutions in Africa, Latin America, and the Caribbean. The MO encourages the development of active, well-coordinated research teams and is the prime support of the management support groups (e.g., Board of Directors) which undergird the overall administration of the CRSP. The major responsibilities of the MO are to:
1. Generate and maintain a Global Plan 8. Encourage project networking and
with U.S. and HC input to give complementarity;
direction and order to the conduct
of the CRSP. 9. Facilitate communications
throughout the CRSP and with
2. Receive and reallocate funds external groups;
against that plan, documenting
usage of all A.I.D. funds to the 10. Provide staff and administrative
CRSP; support to the Board of
Directors, the Technical
3. Establish a system for effective Committee, and the External
program management, fiscal Evaluation Panel;
accountability and the accounting
of funds, including the required 11. Enforce the policies and approved
institutional match; recommendations of these groups
and A.I.D.;
4. Monitor project fiscal, research
and training activity in the U.S. 12. Assist in developing and
and HCs; executing legal documents and
agreements between CRSP
5. Provide fiscal/administrative institutions;
support (e.g., travel clearances,
equipment purchase approvals from 13. Organize and carry out national
A.I.D.) and guidance to the lead and international meetings,
institutions; conferences and workshops in
support of CRSP goals;
6. Coordinate and guide project work
plans, research and training to 14. Represent the CRSP throughout the
keep them compatible with the goals national and international
of the prime grant and the Global agriculture and development
Plan; community;
7. Keep the basic orientation of the 15. Provide documentation as
CRSP (i.e., small-scale farmers and requested by A.I.D., BIFAD,
women) central in program special review teams, and the
operations; offices of the Management Entity.
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Although CRSP management is complex, this management arrangement makes it possible for a broad array of scientific and technological expertise and facilities to be engaged in a coordinated way in addressing critical problems of world hunger. Smooth and efficient operation of the MO is essential to the functioning and success of the overall CRSP.
In 1990, the MO staff included:
Dr. Pat Barnes-McConnell, Director
Dr. Russell Freed, Deputy Director
Ms. Sue Bengry, Administrative Officer Ms. Bonnie Zell, Program Secretary
MANAGEMENT SUPPORT GROUPS
Three advisory groups support the management of the CRSP: A Board of Directors (BOD), a Technical Committee (TC), and an External Evaluation Panel (EEP). These groups work closely with the MO to guide the CRSP through policy decisions, budget allocations, research strategy, review, and evaluation. In addition, the CRSP enjoys important support both from an A.I.D. Program Officer, Dr. Harvey Hortik, and a liaison to the Board for International Food and Agricultural Development (BIFAD), Mr. W. Fred Johnson.
The Board of Directors:
The BOD is the executive committee for CRSP policy and budget. It consists of five institutional representatives (IRs) from the U.S. lead institutions. Members serve for three years. IRs are designated by the chief executives of their institutions to represent them in CRSP policy and administrative matters. These IRs are typically administrators of international agriculture programs, deans of agriculture or experiment station directors. The BOD elects its own chairperson and secretary. The Program Director is the MO liaison to the BOD. The A.I.D. Program Officer (Dr. Hortik) is the A.I.D. liaison to the BOD.
Members of the BOD for FY 90 were:
Dr. Louis J. Boyd Dr. D. Woods Thomas*
Coordinator, Internat'l Agriculture Director, Internat'l Programs in Agr
201 Conner Hall, Cedar Street 26 Agricultural Administration Building
University of Georgia State and Marsetellar Streets
Athens, GA 30602 Purdue University
West Lafayette, IN 47907
Dr. Carlos Cruz, Director
Department of Crop Protection
University of Puerto Rico Dr. Dale Vanderholm**
Pinero Annex 313 Associate Dean
Mayaguez, PR 00708 Agricultural Research Division
109 Agricultural Hall
Dr. Eldor A. Paul, Chair University of Nebraska-Lincoln
Department of Crop and Soil Sciences Lincoln, NE 68583-0704
286 Plant and Soil Sciences Building Michigan State University
East Lansing, MI 48824
*BOD Secretary
**BOD Chair
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The BOD held three meetings and conference calls during the year. Action taken at those meetings included:
1. Review of the EEP report and enactment of policy decisions as appropriate in
response to the EEP findings.
2. Guidance in developing grant extension proposal.
3. Guidance and support in the organization and functioning of CRSP management.
4. Review and approval of project and MO budgets for FY 91.
The Technical Committee:
The TC advises the BOD and MO in areas of project management, technical research strategy, and technology development. It has specific responsibility for technical monitoring of the CRSP projects, review/revision of the CRSP Global Plan, establishment of priorities for new research, evaluation of new proposals, reviewing budgets, and development of criteria for evaluation of existing projects. The TC consists of five investigators engaged in CRSP projects from U.S. institutions plus a scientist from a participating HC institution. TC members are appointed to three-year terms by the BOD. Representatives of the relevant international research centers (CIAT and IITA) also meet with the Technical Committee.
The members of the TC for FY 90 were:
Dr. James Beaver Dr. Douglas Pachico
Department of Agronomy & Soils Coordinator, Bean Program
University of Puerto Rico CIAT
Pinero 221 Apartado Aereo 6713
Mayaguez, PR 00708 Cali, Colombia
Dr. Peter H. Graham Dr. R. Dixon Phillips
Department of Soil Science Department of Food Science
University of Minnesota University of Georgia
256 Borlaug Hall Melton Bldg., Woodruff Dr. at Hwy 3
1991 Upper Buford Circle Griffin, GA 30223-1797
St. Paul, MN 55108
Dr. Shiv R. Singh
Dr. Douglas P. Maxwell* IITA Nigeria
Department of Plant Pathology c/o Mrs. M. Larkin
University of Wisconsin L. W. Lambourn & Co.
284 Russell Labs, 1630 Linden Dr. Carolyn House, 26 Dingwall Rd.
Madison, WI 53706 Croydon CR9 3EE England
Dr. Larry Murdock** Dr. James Teri
Professor and Coordinator, RIISP Sokoine University of Agriculture
Entomology Hall, S. University Dr. Box 3005 Subpost Office, Chuo Kikuu
Purdue University Morogoro, Tanzania
West Lafayette, IN 47907
*TC Secretary
**TC Chair
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The WID Specialist is an ex-officio member of this committee. The Deputy Director is the MO liaison to the Technical Committee. The A.I.D. Program Officer for the CRSP (Dr. Hortik) is the A.I.D. liaison.
The TC held three meetings and conference calls during the year. Actions taken included:
1. Review of project annual report evaluations and follow-up of the EEP
recommendations, with appropriate action taken, including recommendations
for FY 91 workplans and budgets.
2. Recommendations for project adjustments.
3. Review and recommendation of log frame modifications for extension grant
proposal.
4. Review and recommendations of extension proposals for FY 89-92.
5. Initiation of CRSP-wide germplasm conservation activities for both beans and
cowpeas.
External Evaluation Panel:
The EEP, responsible directly to A.I.D. and BIFAD, reviews and evaluates the CRSP management and the progress of project research and training. Annual Reports of each project are used in the review. In addition, each year the HC or U.S. components of some projects are reviewed in the field. A fiscal and administrative management evaluation is made from data provided by the MO. The report of the Panel is published by the MO each year following their annual meeting with the BOD.
For FY 90, panel members, nominated by the BOD and approved by A.I.D. and BIFAD, were:
Dr. Jack Robins** Dr. Kenneth Rachie
6707 55th Street, Ct. W. 13 Coronado Trace
Tacoma, WA 98467 Hot Spring Village, AR 71909
Dr. Edna McBreen, Director Dr. Art Siedler
Office of International Programs Department of Food Science
2112 Agricultural Sciences Building College of Agriculture
West Virginia University University of Illinois
Morgantown, WV 26506 Urbana, IL 61801
**EEP Chair
A schedule of EEP site visits to eight HCs was executed during the August-December 1990 period, usually involving two EEP/MO members/staff. EEP members McBreen, Rachie and Siedler were assigned the four projects not covered by HC site visits and the Women in Development and training programs.
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MANAGEMENT OFFICE ANNUAL REPORT
Fiscal year 1990 was an exceptionally demanding year for the Management Office
(MO). In addition to the regular management duties which support the effective functioning of the individual projects, there were many new activities taken on by the MO, the major ones of which are listed below. These and other activities were spread throughout the year but because of their complexity, constant demands were maintained on the four person MO staff (3.65 FTE). The Program Director and the Deputy Director, both of whom recently had been promoted to full professor, maintain tenured positions in their respective departments in the MSU College of Agriculture and Natural Resources (.35 FTE). Major areas of activity in the MO included:
1. Maintaining regular programmatic support to, and communication with, the CRSP projects (e.g., all international travel--approvals, dates and whereabouts; equipment--purchase approvals processed through A.I.D.;
troubleshoot any difficulties or misunderstandings in the HC or in the U.S.;
new or changed A.I.D. rules and regulations).
2. Staying current with regular fiscal and contract responsibilities (e.g.,
receiving and posting quarterly reports from projects, processing the quarterly reimbursements, compiling monthly fiscal status reports for
internal management, reconciling accounts against approved budgets).
3. Hosting the FY 89 EEP meeting coordinated with the annual meeting of the IRs
and BOD, preparing and publishing the FY 89 EEP Report; for FY 90, preparing
the materials for, and the reports of, the FY 90 EEP; organizing the FY 90
EEP HC site visits, travel clearances, travel reservations and arrangements;
making preparations for the FY 90 EEP meeting coordinated with the annual
meeting of the IRs and BOD.
4. Hosting TC meetings; preparing materials for, and reports from, the TC;
organizing travel clearances and arrangements; organizing conference calls.
5. Hosting BOD meetings; preparing materials for, and reports from, the BOD;
making travel arrangements; organizing conference calls.
6. Initiating documentation and approval procedures for the next extension (to
be a five-year extension) because this was the second year of the current
three-year extension (May, 1989 to March, 1892).
7. Facilitating the phaseout of three projects (Brazil, Guatemala, and INCAP).
8. Facilitating the reorganization of two projects (Nigeria--new HC to
collaborate with University of Georgia; Malawi-new U.S. lead institution to replace Michigan State: University of California-Davis identified with input
from TC and collaborators from the HC and U.S. social science teams).
9. Working closely with the newly formed CRSP Council, which is an organization
of leaders from the eight existing CRSPs convened to generate greater
political and financial support, facilitate inter-CRSP research and training, and to provide a focal point for A.I.D./CRSP interactions.
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10. Concluding, and reporting the results of, the Senegal economic impact study
carried out through the MO.
11. Maintaining training records, reporting training activities and providing
support to HC students regarding visas, income taxes, etc.
12. Concluding, and reporting the results of, the Bean/Cowpea CRSP-wide
training study from the returned training survey forms sent to all CRSP
alumni who could be located (return rate 53 percent).
13. Negotiating, and implementing buy-ins to the Bean/Cowpea CRSP for
additional activity in support of related goals (i.e., Economic Impact
Studies for all CRSPs with technology ready for evaluation for
A.I.D./S&T/AGR-$200,000; Purdue post-doc for storage research technical assistance to Cameroon--$80,500; three-year, cowpea improvement research
collaboration with the Ministry of Agriculture in Egypt, negotiated in
FY 90 but funding actually not received until FY 91--$230,000).
14. Organizing and hosting a major international researchers meeting (see
publication of proceedings) with the participation of U.S. and HC PIs and
their colleagues and students, CRSP IRs, and representatives from IARCs, the CRSP Council, A.I.D. and non-CRSP developing countries interested in
beans and cowpeas (during this time period, the MO hosted and participated
in concurrent meetings organized for the TC and the CRSP Council).
15. Maintaining information storage, retrieval and dissemination systems
through up-to-date office computerization, also important for maintaining
fiscal accountability and reporting.
Many of the CRSP responsibilities reflected above required MO travel, domestic and international. A schedule of this travel is listed below.
FY 90 MO TRAVEL
October 10/10-13 Freed, OIT Contractors' Conference, Washington, D.C.
1989 10/12-13 Bengry, OIT Contractors' Conference, Washington, D.C.
10/29-11/3 Barnes-McConnell, Centers' Week, Washington, DC
November 11/5-9 Barnes-McConnell, Bean Improvement Cooperative, Toronto
1989 11/15-18 Freed, Participate in EEP Evaluation of INCAP, Pullman, WA
11/28-30 Barnes-McConnell, Cross-CRSP Meeting, Washington, DC
11/30 Bengry, meet with project staff re accounting procedures,
Minneapolis, MN
December 12/5-6 Barnes-McConnell, participate in EEP review, Madison, WI
1989 12/7-8 Freed, participate in EEP review Ecuador project, St.
Paul, MN
January 1/10-13 Freed, TC meeting, Phoenix, AZ
1990 1/5-9 Barnes-McConnell, meet with USAID & IRA officials, Cameroon
1/10-13 Barnes-McConnell, TC meeting, Phoenix, AZ
1/20-26 Barnes-McConnell, BOD Meeting, Orlando, FL
1/20-26 Bengry, BOD Meeting, Orlando, FL
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February 2/6-9 Barnei-McConnell, CRSP Council Presentations,
Washington, DC
1990 2/26-3/23 Barnes-McConnell, discuss buy-ins, Malawi, Tanzania,
Zimbabwe
2/22-3/12 Bengry, meetings with project personnel re reimbursement process, Malawi
June 6/1-15 Barnes-McConnell, discuss buy-in, Egypt
1990 6/18 Freed, discuss Bean/Cowpea CRSP and Cameroon National
Cereals Research and Extension Project (NCR/E), Fort Wayne, IN
July 7/14-17 Barnes-McConnell, BOD meeting, Riverside, CA
1990 7/14-17 Bengry, BOD meeting, Riverside, CA
7/20-21 Barnes-McConnell, SANREM Meeting, Washington, DC
August 8/2-5 Bengry, meet with project personnel regarding budget
1990 practices, UC-Davis
September 9/4-5 Barnes-McConnell, Board on Agriculture, Washington, DC
1990 9/13-26 Freed, attend Sokoine Bean Workshop, Tanzania; meet with
personnel of newly reorganized project, Malawi 9/22-10/13 Barnes-McConnell, discuss buy-ins with administrators in Niger and Zimbabwe
The complexity of the CRSP is demonstrated by the fact that the multiple projects involve women and men from twelve developing countries and twelve U.S. institutions representing different disciplines, languages and cultures. In addition, the diverse institutions require acknowledgement of a significant number of sometimes conflicting bureaucratic regulations emanating from A.I.D., the ME university, each participating U.S. institution, and the HC institutions. The dedication of the MO staff and the cooperation of all of the relevant contracts officers at the ME, the participating universities and A.I.D. have been crucial for successful CRSP management.
In this regard, it is with sadness that the MO acknowledged in FY 90, the retirement of the MSU Contracts Officer, Mr. Jerry Jacobs. The amicable and extremely competent Mr. Jacobs helped the CRSP through the Planning Grant in the late 1970s and worked closely with the Contracts Office at A.I.D. in negotiating a way to make this new CRSP mode implementable. The subsequent grant language and the agreed-upon language interpretation have been critical to the success of the Bean/Cowpea CRSP. The new contracts officers in both of those offices, as well as their counterparts at the other collaborating institutions, most fortunately, are carrying on in that tradition.
For the MO, the year was organized according to responsibility needs and activity deadlines-the staff met each of these in turn. The extensive monthly output by the MO, as reflected below, highlights the noteworthy level of achievement in managing the intricacies of this program.
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OCTOBER-Prepared paper for.Bean Improvement Cooperative meeting in. Toronto; to support increased coordination with IARCs, attended Centers' Week in Washington and concurrent CRSP Council meetings to plan for spring 1990 Congressional presentation; worked with EEP for project reviews; projects' encumbrances received and processed.
NOVEMBER-Received annual reports from the projects--organized, duplicated and distributed them to the TC, EEP and BOD; accompanied EEP on site review to Washington State; finalized arrangements for EEP meeting in conjunction with annual IRs meeting hosted by the BOD to be held in Orlando, Florida in January; received last of FY 89 Quarterly reports, reconciled accounts and constructed final FY 89 financial report; received information and slides from other CRSPs for spring Congressional presentation and constructed multi-media presentation; wrote and distributed draft script for suggestions; engaged MSU media center in making velcro poster board display for that event; Bean/Cowpea CRSP Budget Process Book published and distributed.
DECEMBER--Accompanied EEP on site review to Wisconsin and Minnesota; prepared final materials for EEP, IRs, BOD and TC meetings and sent out to them; for spring Congressional presentation, continued polishing script and working with other CRSPs to get necessary input for two-projector, two-speaker, Cross-CRSP slide show; put together information needed by Small Ruminant CRSP for the Cross-CRSP booklet they were doing for the same event; PulseBeat, the CRSP newsletter, produced and prepared for publication.
JANUARY--Hosted Technical Committee meeting in Phoenix; negotiated Cameroon BOA (Basic Ordering Agreement) buy-in with the Cameroon A.I.D. Mission and took negotiated agreements to TC meeting for input prior to submission to BOD for approval; in Orlando, hosted EEP meeting and annual meeting of IRs with BOD; continued polishing two-projector slide show integrating input from other CRSPs into script and coordinating contributed slides; PulseBeat published and distributed.
FEBRUARY-Distributed final two-projector slide show script to CRSP Council and second speaker and convened day before presentation to practice; made presentation to Congress, the Environmental Community, the World Bank and A.I.D. administrators; began development of Cross-CRSP Socio-Economic Impact Study proposal; started preparing materials for April International Researchers Meeting; EEP Report published; distributed Malawi project preproposals to TC in preparation for conference call.
MARCH--Negotiated local currency buy-in by Zimbabwe Ministry of Agriculture and worked with their cowpea team to develop scope of work for cowpea farming systems research and identify responsibilities; discussed potential buy-in with Tanzania Mission; conducted internal audit in Malawi regarding close-out of MSU project account (in preparation for new U.S. lead institution), organized 20-page list of receipts needed from Malawi with instructions to Malawi as to how to proceed, and received commitment from Malawi to cooperate with the first receipts submitted promptly; hosted TC conference call to screen preproposals for Malawi project; communicated with the final four institutional candidates for the Malawi project regarding submission of full proposals; continued preparations for April International Researchers Meeting.
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APRIL--Made final travel arrangements, logistical support, and materials preparations for International Researchers Meeting, TC meeting, and CRSP Council meeting; held meeting with A.I.D. representative regarding development of new Sustainable Agriculture CRSP; discussed schedule for up-coming EEP HC reviews for next CRSP extension with project personnel; discussed Economic Impact Study with other CRSPs and developed plan.
MAY--Concluded International Researchers Meeting and current meetings of the CRSP Council (to plan Impact Studies and other business) and the TC (to review FY 91 proposed workplans and budgets, the Global Plan and new U.S. institution for the Malawi project); contacted CRSP researchers and, based on their input, wrote five proposals for Egypt per A.I.D. instructions for subsequent buy-in negotiations; worked with Tanzania PI, in the U.S. for the TC and Researchers Meeting, to write Tanzania Mission buy-in proposal; Cameroon buy-in received.
JUNE--Negotiated with Egypt Mission and Ministry of Agriculture regarding buy-in, with Egyptian counterparts rewrote proposal to meet circumstances and developed budget; Cameroon sub-grant to Purdue sent out and funding put in place; held cooperation discussions in Ft. Wayne with representative of Cameroon NCR/E project and U.S. PI for CRSP/Cameroon project; processed subcontracts amendments to obligate the second half of each projects' FY 90 budget minus their FY 89 carry-forward.
JULY-Prepared and sent out BOD materials; held BOD meeting at University of California-Riverside; received materials on SANREM (Sustainable Agriculture and Natural Resource Management CRSP) and attended first SANREM planning meeting and presented paper; distributed, received back and returned to A.I.D., the A.I.D./BIFAD directory questionnaires.
AUGUST--Prepared first draft of Researchers Meeting Proceedings; organized and coordinated first HC review trips of EEP; began preparations for the December EEP meeting to be held concurrent with the annual meeting of the IRs hosted by the BOD; reconciled newest stack of Malawi receipts received.
SEPTEMBER-Received signed ten column budget sheets for FY 91; funds finally received for Economic Impact Study; project extension proposals received, organized and distributed to TC, BOD and EEP; began work on latest returns from training survey mailed worldwide to CRSP graduates; Processed subcontract amendments to obligate to each project the first half of their FY 91 funds; participated in CRSP Bean Workshop in Tanzania co-sponsored with CIAT and gave MSTAT training; in Malawi, assisted in further introduction of new U.S. and Malawi teams.
This overview of the monthly activities of the MO suggest the pressure on the staff but nonetheless the level of accomplishment generated. The EEP, in this year's review, has acknowledged the excellent performance of the MO in spite of the load it has assumed. Undoubtedly, this performance is a product of the dedication, professionalism, and patience of all of the participants of this CRSP, U.S. and HC, who at all levels, scientific and administrative, contribute time, energy and cooperation far exceeding the call of duty. Because of this, we all reap great benefits-U.S. farmers, small-scale producers in developing countries and, ultimately, consumers--we all profit from the scientific and interpersonal achievements of the successfully functioning initiative known as the Bean/Cowpea CRSP.
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TRAINING SUMMARY
The collaboration among CRSP scientists is significantly strengthened by the CRSP training component. Training research scientists through degree and non-degree programs has increased the number and efficiency of bean and cowpea workers around the world. These linkages, established through graduate study at the various CRSP institutions, extend collaboration among CRSP scientists well beyond the life of any project. Life-long student/teacher relationships provide innumerable opportunities for the exchange of ideas and information.
Twelve students received advanced degrees in FY 90 (see chart). Currently 71 students are enrolled in degree programs. To date the CRSP has trained 204 students (60 Bachelors, 91 Masters and 53 PhDs). The MO has published a Training Report book which covers the ten-year period 1980-90 and lists all the degree and non-degree students.
DEGREE TRAINING COMPLETED IN FY 90
NAME CITIZENSHIP GENDER DEGREE UNIVERSITY DEPT. CRSP PROJECT
Abdulla, H. Sudan H HSc UC-Rvrside Plant Sci. Hall
Carranaza, 0. Guatemala H BSc INCAP Food Sci. Swanson
Dessert, K. USA F PhD HSU Crop Sci. Swanson
Godoy, G. Dom. Rep. F PhD UNL Plant Path. Coyne
Herrera, B. Guatemala H BSc INCAP Food Sci. Swanson
Hoyos, R. Colombia H MSc MSU Crop Sci. Swanson
Hsieh, H. Taiwan F HSc WSU Fd Sci/Tech Swanson
Khairallah, H. Lebanon F PhD MSU Crop Sci. Harpstead
Mafuleka, H. Halawi F PhD HSU Food Sci. Isleib
Magalhaes, B. Brazil H PhD Cornell Entomology Roberts
Nzuzi, L. Zaire M PhD WSU Fd Sci/Hm Nt Swanson
Tuan, Y. F MSc UGA Food Sci. McWatters
In June of 1987 the Technical Committee developed guidelines concerning degree training which were distributed again to the PIs. This document served to remind the PIs of the importance of training as well as the realities of operating a training program through a research grant.
The Management Office has initiated several studies related to training under the direction of Dr. James Oehmke, MSU agricultural economist, and several graduate students. In 1990 they completed the "Impact Study of the Bean/Cowpea CRSP in Senegal." This study lists several impacts of the CRSP training:
1. For each returned degree candidate, Senegal saved up to $200,000 which is the
cost per year of an expatriate scientist.
2. Because of the returned graduates, a multidisciplinary team has been
assembled to conduct research on the major aspects of cowpea production.
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3. There appears to be a lower turnover rate of CRSP-trained Senegalese
scientists as compared with those trained in other programs.
Dr. Oehmke's group has finished a draft paper on "Returns to Education: The Impacts of MSU Training of West African Scientists." This study-showed a 22 percent rate of return (monetary only) to training and a 31 percent rate of return when both monetary and non-monetary benefits are considered. The paper concludes that "the investments made by the CRSP in educational and training have had positive returns."
Their third study concerns the impact of CRSP training in Malawi and Tanzania. This study is still in process, but should show some very impressive impacts in eastern and southern Africa. Sokoine University has one of the most impressive HC multidisciplinary bean teams in Africa. Bunda College is a very close second. In addition to their research efforts, the CRSP trainees, through their teaching assignments, are making significant contributions to the training of other African scientists.
The CRSP has been very effective in using training to advance the research goals of the CRSP as well as building strong research and teaching institutions in the HCs. In the extension proposals each project is required to outline their training schedule for the extension period. The training plan is developed in collaboration with the HC PI and the research and personnel directors in the HC. These plans include both degree and non-degree programs. The chart below summarizes each project's training plan for the 1989-92 extension period. It also outlines the current status of those plans.
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WOMEN-IN-DEVELOPMENT (WID) ANNUAL REPORT
The WID Program provides support to CRSP projects on gender and social science concerns and assists PIs in identifying researchers to meet project needs in these areas. In addition to this support function, the WID specialist, Dr. Anne Ferguson, conducts primary research on women's and other small-scale farmers' roles in bean pro- duction in Malawi as a Co-PI on the UC-Davis (previously MSU) project. Both functions are reviewed in this report which is divided into four sections: I., WID support to the CRSP projects; II., WID-related primary research; III., Linkages; and IV., WID-related publications.
I. WID Support to the CRSP Projects: In this capacity Dr. Ferguson participated as an ex-officio member of the TC in its evaluation of project annual
reports and extension proposals, acted as a resource person for the PIs on
WID and social science issues, and represented the CRSP WID program at
workshops and conferences. Each function is briefly described:
A. Support to the Technical Committee:
1. The 1992-97 extension process got underway during 1990 with projects
writing and submitting their extension proposals. Dr. Ferguson
participated in these efforts in two ways:
Preparation of the WID extension proposal. In addition to the functions currently performed and pending additional financial support (level 3 budget request), the WID program proposes to
develop a model of socioeconomic impact evaluation and to develop
participatory research strategies which can be used by CRSP PIs and others. The social impact analysis model will present ways projects
can monitor the effects of their technology development process in the HCs. The participatory research strategies will provide means
for women and other farmers and consumers to have input into the
early stages of technology development (for both production oriented
and food technology projects).
Review of project extension proposals. Together with the TC, Dr.
Ferguson reviewed the 1992-97 project extension proposals. Written suggestions regarding WID and social science were included with the TC reviews of each of the projects and copies were sent to all PIs.
2. Also, Dr. Ferguson reviewed the 1989 project annual reports and
participated in the TC discussion and evaluations of these reports.
B. Direct Support to PIs: Dr. Ferguson worked closely with the following
projects during FY 1990:
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1. Ecuador/UMN. This project, which is just getting underway, focuses
on biological nitrogen fixation. Dr. Ferguson sent the U.S. P1,
Dr. Peter Graham, copies of research reports and articles on bean
production and farming systems which were generated under the auspices
of the previous Ecuador/Cornell project. Dr. Patricia Garrett, the
U.S. Co-PI together with Dr. Jorge Uquillas, HC Co-PI, conducted
surveys of bean production in a number of provinces in Ecuador where Dr. Graham is working. These could be useful to him in his research.
Dr. Ferguson has also been in contact with two graduate students at
the UMN who are working with the project gathering information on soils and farming practices in Ecuador, and she has recently begun efforts to identify resource people within Ecuador who could be of
assistance to the project.
2. Nigeria/UGA. This food technology project is undergoing reorganization as part of the extension process. A new HC is being sought and
a new research agenda will be established. Dr. Ferguson has worked
with the U.S. PIs, Dr. R. Phillips and Ms. McWatters, on the draft of
the extension proposal in which key constraints to cowpea processing
and use were identified, and she will continue to assist them in
institutionalizing WID/social science once they identify a country
and specific research topics.
3. Senecqal/UC-Riverside. Progress has been made in identifying someone
to examine the impact of project technologies in Senegal. During
1990, an ISRA researcher, Madame Seynabou Tall, was engaged to
examine adoption of the cowpea minikit. She conducted a survey which is currently being analyzed. It is anticipated that Madame Tall will
also explore the socio-economics of improved cowpea storage methods
and of fresh pod production, considering in both cases class and
gender issues. Dr. Ferguson has made arrangements to meet with
Madame Tall and discuss her research when she visits Riverside for
the annual project meeting in January 1991.
4. Tanzania/WSU. The new U.S. Co-PI, Dr. Lorna Butler, began work with
the Tanzania Project this year. Dr. Butler, who will take over
direction of the project when Dr. Silbernagel retires in 1992, is an
anthropologist with strong interests in participatory research and
training. During 1990, Dr. Ferguson worked closely with Dr. Butler
in a number of ways. First, she provided Dr. Butler with projectrelated reports and articles written by the previous U.S. Co-PI,
Dr. Jean Due, so that she would have an understanding of the socioeconomic and WID research undertaken by the CRSP. Second, Drs.
Ferguson and Butler sponsored a participatory research workshop for
agricultural scientists from Tanzania and Malawi at the end of September. This is described in greater detail in Section I.C.
5. Other Projects: Dr. Ferguson continued to provide assistance to the
Cameroon/Purdue investigators who are conducting surveys of cowpea
storage practices and forming a panel of farmers to evaluate project
technologies. Also, she and Dr. Jim Beaver shared information on various artisanal seed production projects underway in the Central American region which could be of interest to other CRSP projects.
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C. Represent the CRSP/WID Program in Training Workshops and Conferences:
1. Participatory Research Workshop. Drs. Butler and Ferguson gave a
mini-workshop on participatory research techniques at Sokoine University of Agriculture in Morogoro, Tanzania, September 24-25, 1990.
It was held at the close of the joint Bean/Cowpea CRSP-SokoineCIAT-SADCC Bean Workshop held September 17-22. The mini-workshop,
attended by 18 researchers from Tanzania and Malawi, included
principally biological scientists but also some agricultural
extension and social science researchers. They presented a general
introduction to participatory research (contrasting it with other paradigms of agricultural research such as transfer of technology and farming systems), discussed three participatory research case
studies, and provided a brief field experience for participants
using some of the research techniques discussed.
The workshop was well received, and they anticipate holding a more
extensive one during 1991 for CRSP researchers from Tanzania and
Malawi. A workshop agenda is available as is a copy of the
presentation on participatory research (part of a larger paper
delivered at the CRSP-CIAT-SADCC workshop). A more extensive
discussion of the workshop is presented in the Tanzania/WSU annual
report in this book.
2. American Anthropological Association Symposium: Agriculture and
Nutrition: Exploring the Links, co-organized with Ms. M. Graham and
Dr. A. Millard, held at the American Anthropological Association
Meetings, Washington, D.C., November 15-19, 1989. They organized a
panel of eight researchers to discuss the relationship between
agricultural change and nutritional status in various African and
Latin American countries. Dr. Ferguson presented a paper, "Agriculture and Nutrition in Malawi: Exploring the Links," co-authored
with Ann V. Millard and Stanley Khaila.
3. In addition, the following papers on CRSP/WID related research were
presented at workshops and professional conferences: (A list of WID-related articles/books which were published or accepted for
publication during 1989-90 is included in Section IV.)
"So the Grandparents May Survive: Farmer Participation in Bean
Improvement in Malawi," presented at the Ninth Sokoine University of
Agriculture Bean/Cowpea CRSP and Second CIAT/SADCC Bean Research
Workshop, Morogoro, Tanzania, September 17-22, 1990.
"Component Breeding: A Strategy for Bean Improvement in Eastern Africa and Other Regions Where Beans are Grown as Mixtures," coauthored with S. Sprecher, presented at First SADCC Regional Bean
Research Workshop, Mbabane, Swaziland, October 4-7, 1989.
II. WID-Related Primary Research: In addition to the CRSP-wide support
functions, the WID specialist is a Co-PI on the Malawi/MSU project (now the
UC-Davis project with a sub-contract to MSU). The research examines
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smallholder bean production and seed handling practices with a special
focus on the role of women in these areas. It is carried out in
collaboration with Dr. Richard Mkandawire, a rural sociologist in the
Department of Crop Production at Bunda College of Agriculture. An extended
discussion of the 1990 research is found in the Malawi/MSU annual report
below. A list of activities undertaken during 1990 is provided here.
A. A survey of bean production and seed handling practices was carried out
in the Southern Region-in Matapwata EPA, Blantyre/Shire Highlands
Agricultural Development District-during 1990. The south was the only part of the country not yet surveyed in the CRSP socioeconomic research.
This study took place in April and involved a team of twelve Bunda
College students, four of them women. A total of 300 farmers was interviewed. A summary of the research findings is in the Malawi
report below.
B. Papers on component breeding, a plant improvement strategy proposed to
maintain crop genetic diversity and meet smallholders needs, were
presented at two conferences.
C. Considerable time and effort were spent in identifying a new U.S. lead
institution for the Malawi project, assisting with the transition
between lead institutions and in writing the 1992-97 Malawi project
extension proposal.
III. Linkages:
A. During 1990, Drs. Butler and Ferguson worked to establish collaborative
ties between their respective projects in Malawi and Tanzania and
between the CRSP and the CIAT/SADCC/Great Lakes participatory research program. They discussed CRSP participation in a participatory research
seminar Dr. Louise Sperling (CIAT/Great Lakes Program) is proposing to
hold in June or July 1991. In addition, researchers from Dr. Todo
Edje's CIAT/SADCC participatory research program took part in the
September mini-workshop in Morogoro, Tanzania.
B. Dr. Ferguson also began exploring the possibility of collaboration with
Dr. J. Ashby at CIAT, Cali, Colombia to meet the needs of CRSP Latin
American projects for training in participatory research methodologies.
C. Dr. Ferguson routinely shares information generated by the CRSP
projects with other CRSP projects for which the information is relevant.
D. Dr. Ferguson also maintains ties with the Rockefeller Southern Africa
program, and with numerous WID organizations both in the U.S and abroad.
IV. PUBLICATIONS AND PRESENTATIONS
Ferguson, A., Gallin, R.S., and M. Aronoff (Eds.). 1989. The Women and
International Development Annual, Vol.l. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
Ferguson, A., Gallin, R.S., and M. Aronoff. 1989. Women and International
Development: Creating an Agenda. In R.S. Gallin, M. Aronoff and A.
Ferguson (Eds.), The Women and International Development Annual, Vol.1.
Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1989, pp. 1-24.
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Ferguson, A. and S. Whiteford (Eds). Harvest of Want: Struggles for Food
Security in Mexico and Central America. Accepted for publication.
Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
Ferguson, A. and S. Whiteford (Eds). Social Dimensions of Food Security
and Hunger: An Overview. In Harvest of Want: Struggles for Food Security in Mexico and Central America. Accepted for publication.
Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
Ferguson, A. and R.S. Gallin (Eds). The Women and International
Development Annual, Vol.2. Accepted for publication. Boulder, CO:
Westview Press.
Ferguson, A. and R.S. Gallin (Eds). Gender, Class and Ethnicity:
Exploring the Links. In The Women and International Development Annual,
Vol.2. Accepted for publication. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
Ferguson, A., Millard A., and S. Khaila. Crop Improvement Programs and Nutrition in Malawi: Exploring the Links. Accepted for publication. Food and Nutrition Bulletin.
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BEAN/COWPEA CRSP PROJECTS, FY 90
Title of Project Host Country/U.S. Institution
Insect Pathogens in Cowpea Pest Management Brazil/Boyce Thompson
Systems for Developing Nations Institute
Preservation of Post Harvest Cowpeas by Cameroon/Purdue University
Subsistence Farmers in Cameroon
Biology, Epidemiology, Genetics and Breeding for Dominican Republic/University Resistance to Pathogens of Beans with Emphasis of Nebraska-Lincoln on Those Causing Bacterial and Rust Diseases
Molecular Approaches for the Control of Bean Dominican Republic/University
Golden Mosaic Virus of Wisconsin-Madison
Improving the Productivity of Phaseolus Beans Ecuador/University of
Under Conditions of Low-Input Agriculture Through Minnesota Genetic Selection of Host Cultivars and Rhizobium Strains for Enhanced Symbiotic Efficiency
Agronomic, Sociological, and Genetic Aspects of Guatemala/Cornell University Bean Yield and Adaptation
Improvement of Bean Production in Honduras Honduras/University of Puerto
Through Breeding for Multiple Disease Resistance Rico
Improving of Dry Bean Nutritional Quality and INCAP/Washington State
Acceptability University
Improvement and Host Pathogen Co-Adaptation in Malawi/University of Malawi, a Secondary Center of Diversity California-Davis
Improving Resistance of Environmental Stress in Mexico/Michigan State Beans Through Genetic Selection for Carbohydrate University Partitioning and Efficiency of Biological Nitrogen Fixation
Appropriate Technology for Cowpea Preservation Nigeria/University of Georgia and Processing and a Study of Its Socioeconomic Impact on Rural Populations in Nigeria
A Program to Develop Improved Cowpea Cultivars, Senegal/University of Management Methods and Storage Practices for California-Riverside
Semiarid Zones
Breeding Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) for Tanzania/Washington State
Disease, Insect and Stress Resistance and University
Determination of Socioeconomic Impact on Smallholder Farm Families
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BRAZIL BOYCE THOMPSON INSTITUTE
INSECT PATHOGENS IN COWPEA PEST MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS FOR DEVELOPING NATIONS
Principal Investigators:
Donald W. Roberts (U.S.) Biological Control Program Boyce Thompson Institute
Eliane Quintela (HC) Entomology Department EMBRAPA/CNPAF
Co-Investigators:
Leslie I. Allee Plant Protection Program Boyce Thompson Institute
Jose Emilson Cardoso Plant Pathology EMBRAPA/CNPAF
Raymond Carruthers Plant Protection Unit USDA/ARS
Heidi Firstencel Plant Protection Unit USDA/ARS
Steven Kreuger Biological Control Program Boyce Thompson Institute
Raymond St. Leger Plant Protection Program Boyce Thompson Institute
Claudio L. Messias Genetics Department University Campinas
Stephen P. Wraight Biological Control Program Boyce Thompson Institute
I. PROGRESS DURING FY 90
A. Specific Research Contributions
1. Research results
Host Country
Control of Empoasca leafhoppers with Zoophthora radicans. We have
been investigating this pathogen since the beginning of the project and found considerable early success in developing mass production,
formulation, and application techniques. Introductions of this
fungus into alfalfa and beans (Phaseolus) in New York in 1985, in
cowpeas in Goias in 1986, and in beans in Sao Paulo in 1990 (see
below) resulted in spectacular field-wide epizootics. However, our
inability to duplicate these successes in cowpeas in northeastern
Brazil over the past three field seasons indicate that this pathogen
is not adapted to the environmental conditions of that region
(especially the equatorial temperatures). Moreover, even within its
natural range, the fungus is limited by moisture conditions; in 1989, field tests in Goias failed in dry, windy weather. Nevertheless, the successes we have encountered, especially this past
season in southern Brazil, indicate that use of this pathogen could
constitute an important component of integrated pest management
programs (IPM) both in Brazil and the U.S. (in this country, USDA
scientists are also currently studying this pathogen for leafhopper
control in alfalfa and potatoes).
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Laboratory tests initiated in 1989 to determine the effects of temperature on spore germination and the host invasion process (S. Galaini-Wraight, Ph.D. thesis) were completed and the data analyzed. Observations of spores inoculated onto leafhopper nymphs indicated that the optimal temperature for spore germination, appressorium development, and host infection is ca. 250C (Tables 1-4). The time required for infection of 50 percent of the leafhoppers decreased from 35.2 hours at 100C to less than six hours at 25*C. The extended period of time required for penetration at low temperatures is partially explained by the fact that low temperatures stimulate production of secondary capilloconidia which must, in turn, germinate to effect host penetration (Fig. 1). We have observed a maximum of 14-15 hours of overnight moisture (dew) in bean and cowpea fields in Brazil. Thus, the data in Table 4 showing 10 percent infection after 13.6 hours at 100C indicate that this temperature may be close to the threshold for Zoophthora radicans transmission in leafhopper populations. The most critical phase in the invasion process appears to be spore germination, since at 30*C only 6 percent of the spores germinated (Table 1), but the germlings were nearly as successful at invading the host as were germlings produced within the range of optimum temperatures (Table 4). These results suggest that one might initiate an attempt to identify strains with a greater potential for application in the warm tropics simply by selecting for germinability at high temperatures.
Studies of temperature and instar effects on Z. radicans spore production on leafhopper cadavers was also completed during FY 90 (L. Leite, M.S. thesis). Total spore production increased nearly geometrically with instar and was optimal at 20-250C (Tables 5, 6).
Discussions with Dr. R. Freed during the 1989 project review resolved that we should conduct field trials of Z. radicans in beans (Phaseolus) in southern Brazil (on the assumption that we would encounter environmental conditions more favorable to disease transmission than in the northeast). Applications of a dry mycelium of Z. radicans strain 2282 (originally isolated from Empoasca vitis in Yugoslavia) were made in a 30-day-old 0.5 ha planting of beans owned by a small farmer in Capo Bonito, Sao Paulo on April 15. The leafhopper infestation was rapidly increasing in the field; and the small plants, with a mean of less than five trifoliates, were showing signs of severe stress. Pretrial observations revealed that a native strain of Z. radicans was present in the field, but infection rates were extremely low, and no infected leafhoppers were found in samples collected the morning of April 16. Four days after application, mean percent infection in the test plots treated at a rate of 0.25-0.5 g fungus per m2 was 16.2 percent while in plots that received 1-2 g per m2 infection was 33.5 percent. At the same time, untreated plots located 5 m from the treated plots showed a mean infection rate of 6.8 percent while more distant control plots (18 and 36 m) showed 3.4 percent (Table 7). Subsequent samples collected at three to four day intervals revealed that the treatments had apparently initiated a field-wide epizootic which, on April 30, culminated in infection levels of 55-70 percent over all sample plots (treated and untreated). Epizootic development was clearly stimulated by near optimal conditions of moisture and temperature beginning April 23 (Figs. 2, 3).
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The trial comprised a non-random array of treatment and control plots designed to provide evidence that infections observed outside the treatment plots resulted from dispersal of the applied fungus rather than an outbreak of the native pathogen. Each dose of fungus was applied in a different area of the field (the areas separated by ca. 20 m). Within each treatment area, fungus was applied to three replicated 2 x 2 m plots, and two control (untreated) plots were established ca. 5 m from treatment plots. The April 26 data in Table 7 show that infection in the untreated plots associated with the 0.25, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 g/m2 treatment plots was 23.1, 36.8, 41.1, and 41.9 percent, respectively, providing strong evidence that the fungus we applied actually caused the observed epizootic. Isozyme analysis of strains isolated from the field are planned to verify this conclusion.
The overall results of the trial were extremely impressive, demonstrating the explosive epizootic potential of Z. radicans in leafhopper populations. Infection increased from nearly 0 percent on April 16 to 60-70 percent within 14 days. Over the total three-week monitoring period, leafhopper densities decreased from approximately 6/trifoliate to less than 1/trifoliate, representing an approximate 85 percent reduction in the pest population to a level below the economic threshold. This was accomplished through application of dry mycelium at a rate of only 100 g per ha.
These results demonstrate that the Z. radicans dry mycelium technology developed over the long course of the project has considerable potential for control of Empoasca leafhoppers in beans in southern Brazil. We have transferred all aspects of the technology to the collaborating scientists of the Instituto Biologico of Sao Paulo state (primarily via project-trained M.S. student, Luis Leite, who is employed by the institute). They now have the expertise to independently conduct the final stages of evaluation and pilot testing of our project.
We have, unfortunately, not been successful in applying this technology to cowpeas in northeastern Brazil (see 1989 report). In 1990 we made a third attempt at field applications. On the nights of the trials, temperatures remained high until 22:00 hours, inhibiting dew formation. Ultimately, wet conditions did not prevail long enough during the night to support sporulation of the mycelium, and no infection occurred. These results, combined with the failures of the previous two field seasons, strongly suggest that Z. radicans is not adapted to the harsh environmental conditions of northeastern Brazil and will have little potential for control of leafhoppers in that region unless strains can be developed that are effective under high temperature--low moisture conditions.
Control of the cowpea curculio with Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana. A low-cost, low-technology method has been developed for biological control of Chalcodermus weevils, the principal field pest of cowpea in Brazil. Field trials of this methodology (spray application of conidia to the soil at the base of plants) in experimental plots at CNPAF (central cerrado) and EPACE (arid serto) in 1988 and in subsistence-level cultures in northern
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Ceara (humid litoral) in 1989, have consistently demonstrated 30-50 percent control of weevil larvae. Our project scientists and collaborating EPACE researchers consider these results encouraging, but recognize that, to prove economically feasible, this marginal level of control will need to be augmented by cultural and other control measures in an integrated management system. Accordingly, the ongoing research in Ceara includes damage evaluations needed to establish economic thresholds, and at one of the study sites, all pods are being removed from the fields after the principal harvest period to prevent them from serving as pest reservoirs, and the harvested pods are being sprayed during drying and storage to infect emerging larvae and prevent their development to the adult stage. A major effort was put into this research in FY 90 by CNPAF, EPACE, and BTI staff, but abnormally low weevil infestations near Fortaleza this year will delay data collection until the FY 91 season.
Control of bruchid beetles in stored cowpeas with Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae: Treatment of stored cowpea seeds with dry spores of B. bassiana and M. anisopliae was identified last year as a promising new low-technology method for control of the highly destructive cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus. We determined that initiation of this research at such a late point in the project was justified because of the great potential benefits from success and ease of conduct of the experiments. In recently completed tests, fungal treatments provided levels of control nearly equal to Vertimec--a commercially produced avermectin-based pesticide (Table 8). These highly encouraging results indicate that continued CRSP support of this work is warranted--perhaps at an increased level. Moreover, if our results continue to show promise, studies could be readily initiated in Africa at minimal cost to the CRSP.
Biology of Cerotoma arcuata. Chrysomelid beetles of the genus Cerotoma are among the most important cowpea and bean defoliators in Brazil and throughout Latin America. However, at the time this project was initiated, virtually nothing was known of the biology of the principal Brazilian species, and no laboratory colonies existed. An important achievement of this project has been the successful colonization of C. arcuata (related in last year's report), and the elucidation of various aspects of the biology of this pest. During 1990, laboratory studies revealed that the larval stage has three instars (Fig. 5), and that females produce a mean of 1291.6 eggs (Fig. 6). Mean longevity of females and males is 68 and 69 days, respectively, under laboratory conditions. Our success in this area of research was realized through a long-term commitment to basic research made possible by the Bean/Cowpea CRSP.
Compatibility of entomopathogenic fungi with chemical insecticides. Since there are some occasions when insecticides may be used in conjunction with entomopathogenic fungi in integrated pest management programs, the effect of several insecticides on two of the most likely fungal candidates for insect control, viz., Retarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana, was examined in the laboratory. Two dosages were tested: the dosage per ha recommended by the producer of the product and half of this dose in potato dextrose agar based on 200 liters of water sprayed per hectare. The
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products were Cypermethrin, Deltamethrin, Diflubenzuron, Trichlorfon, Methyl Parathion, Demeton-S-Methyl, Fenvalerate, and Endosulfan. The chemicals were mixed into the culture medium when it was approximately 500 + 20C and immediately poured into petri dishes. Each plate was inoculated in three places with a suspension containing 104 spores. After 12 days, the diameter of the fungal colonies, and the number and viability of spores on a disc cut from the colony was evaluated (Tables 9, 10). Each treatment had ten replications. Pathogenicity of B. bassiana and M. anisopliae was evaluated using adult Cerotoma arcuata and fifth instar larvae of Chalcodermus bimaculatus, respectively, at a dosage of 107 conidia per ml with 40 insects per treatment and four repetitions. At the high dose of Methyl Parathion there was no growth of the fungi, and with Endosulfan the diameter of the colonies was 0.7 and 0.2 cm while the control was 3.7 and 3.6 cm for B. bassiana and M. anisopliae respectively. The pathogenicity of B. bassiana to C. arcuata was not changed by exposure to chemical pesticides. M. anisopliae, treated with Trichlorfon at the half dose and Diflubenzuron at the normal dose killed 95 and 92 percent of C. bimaculatus larvae, respectively, whereas untreated fungus produced only 47 percent mortality (Table 11).
Control of cowpea/cotton intercrop pests with Beauveria bassiana. Approximately 80 percent of cowpea production in northeastern Brazil is done through intercropping. The most common intercropped plants are cassava, watermelon, corn, and cotton. The small amount of cotton produced by subsistence farmers in consortium with cowpea is important to the family economies. The cotton boll weevil did not occur in Brazil until about five years ago when it was introduced into southern Brazil. It has recently arrived in northeastern Brazil where it presents a hazard to cotton production. As part of our subsistence farmer program, we were asked by our collaborating group in northeastern Brazil, EPACE, to evaluate the susceptibility of this insect to some of the pathogens we are using against another weevil pest, viz. the Chalcodermus bimaculatus weevil of cowpea. Laboratory tests indicated the insect was susceptible to Beauveria bassiana. In small scale field plots the fungus alone was not effective against the boll worm, whereas one of the insecticides tested, Deltamethrin at a dose of 10 kg/ha, did yield approximately 60 percent reduction in insect attack of cotton squares four days after the fourth pesticide application (Table 12). The same level of control was attained when the fungus was applied in combination with a reduced rate of Deltamethrin (1 kg/ha). This is a very promising result since a 90 percent reduction of chemical insecticides would be of great financial and health value to subsistence farmers.
Control of the whitefly, Bemisia tabaci, with Verticillium lecanii.
The whitefly has recently emerged as the single most important pest of common beans (Phaseolus) in Brazil, due to its role as a plant disease vector. The present critical situation has lead most Brazilian bean entomologists to begin studying the problem. During the past year, the project HC PI (bean entomologist E.D. Quintela) initiated research on the biological control of whitefly, and these investigations were naturally integrated into the CRSP project.
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Whiteflies, being members of the order Homoptera (as are leafhoppers), are significantly affected by only one group of insect pathogens, the fungi. Among the fungal pathogens of whiteflies, the hyphomycete V. lecanii is one of the most commonly encountered in the field. Laboratory screening of five isolates of this fungus during FY 90 revealed substantial differences in virulence (Table 13) and identified at least one promising candidate for further investigation (stain VL-6).
U.S.
Control of Diabrotica larvae with Beauveria and Metarhizium. In Brazil, the larvae of Diabrotica beetles develop on the roots of corn that is commonly intercropped with cowpea. When adults emerge from the soil they frequently defoliate young cowpea plants. In the U.S., Diabrotica is comprised of a complex of species that are major pests of corn and vegetable crops in which damage and treatment costs exceed $1 billion per year. Improvements were made during FY 1990 on bioassay techniques for applying M. anisopliae and B. bassiana conidia to Diabrotica larvae. These techniques allow for accurate determination of dosage rates in terms of viable conidia applied per surface area. Data pooled from six bioassays of B. bassiana (ARSEF 731) against mid-second instar larvae (eight to nine days old) showed that at eight days post-application mortality was equal to, or greater than 60 percent in all dosage groups (Fig. 1). A significant increase in daily larval mortality appeared to occur as dosage rates exceeded 6 x 103 conidia/mm2 and again as rates exceeded 10 x 103 conidia/mm2. The LDso0 at day five of the bioassay was determined to be 9.02 x 103 conidia/mm2. The mean times to death ranged between 5.45 days (standard deviation = 1.44 days) for larvae treated with 4-6 x 103 conidia/mm2 and 4.42 days (standard deviation = 1.83 days) for larvae treated with 10-12 x 10 conidia/mm2. Scanning electron micrographs of larvae inoculated with ca. 7.3 x 103 conidia/mm2 revealed that conidia do not remain attached to raised, exposed portions of the cuticle. Instead, they may be scraped off and/or pushed into lower, intersegmental regions of the cuticle by the movements of larvae. The high dosage rates of conidia required to kill Diabrotica larvae support our work with mycelial particles as the best form of fungal inoculum to apply to soil for control of the larval life stage. Mycelial particles are capable of producing and transferring large quantities of conidia to the host which, by "mass action," more effectively penetrate the cuticle and kill the host (see control of scarab grubs below).
Storage of dry mycelial particles. A study on the long-term (one year) storage of M. anisopliae (ARSEF 925) and B. bassiana (ARSEF 731) mycelial particles was initiated. Included as treatments were two particle sizes (125-250im and 250-500pm), two particle types (standard [unlyophilized] and lyophilized), and four storage temperatures (40, 11*, 210, and 30aC). After 14 weeks of storage, mean conidia production (per milligram of mycelium) of both fungi was not significantly affected by particle size, type, or storage temperature when compared to initial levels of conidia production (Figs. 8 and 9). Although not yet carried to term, these extremely positive results underscore the potential for industrial-scale development of mycelial particles as an practical form of inoculum.
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Control of scarab grubs with Metarhizium and Beauveria mycelial particles. Investigations were completed that confirmed preliminary results of earlier studies of factors that may influence the efficacy of entomopathogenic fungi against white grubs. Bioassay of different types of 1. anisopliae inoculum (conidia vs. various sizes of standard and lyophilized mycelial particles) against Japanese beetle grubs showed that mortality occurred significantly quicker in mycelium compared to conidia-treated soil (Fig. 10). These were surprising results considering it may take several days for the full complement of infectious conidia to be formed on mycelial particles in soil. In addition, dosage was not a factor because initial levels of inoculum in conidia-treated soil were equal to, or higher than, inoculum levels detected 21 days post-treatment in mycelium treated soil. One explanation for the greater efficacy of mycelial particles may be their potential to transfer conidia to the host cuticle in high density clusters. Conidia, in close proximity to each other, have been shown to interact during the invasion process (fusion of germ tubes and appressoria) which results in more effective entry to the host body cavity.
Bioassays were also conducted that demonstrated soil temperature and moisture may significantly impact the effectiveness of fungal applications against grubs. In soil inoculated with M. anisopliae mycelial particles, Japanese beetle grubs died more quickly in the high temperature/low moisture environment and survived longest in the low temperature/high moisture environment (Fig. 11). The difference in mortality rates may be attributed to better sporulation and survival of fungal inoculum and higher levels of grub stress in the low moisture environments. In contrast to the M. anisopliae/Japanese beetle relationship, European chafer mortality in B. brongniartii-treated soil was inversely related to soil temperature and not affected by soil moisture (Fig. 12). The relatively low temperature optimum for growth and infectivity of B. brongniartii (generally assumed to be 230C) was probably the driving factor that determined host mortality.
In vitro studies of the nutritional, environmental, and molecular biology of the germination and infection processes of Zoophthora
radicans. The basic studies summarized here comprise the Ph.D. thesis of Bonifacio Magalhaes, who has now returned to Brazil and resumed his former position as HC PI. This work commenced with the discovery of a novel in vitro system for induction of appressorium formation that opened the door to investigations of key factors regulating this critical step in the host infection process. A poster presentation of a part of this work was recognized as the best student contribution at the 1989 annual meeting of the Society for Invertebrate Pathology.
Conidium germination and differentiation of Zoophthora radicans on water agar were investigated to identify requirements for the production of appressoria. Appressorium formation was more sensitive to environmental and nutritional changes than conidium germination. Appressorium formation was optimal when a large volume of liquid medium (3 ml/962 mm2) was used (Fig. 13). Temperature affected both formation of germ tubes and appressoria, and an
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optimal temperature-nutrient interaction was found for appressorium
formation at 25-300C and 1 percent yeast extract (Fig. 14). At
15cC, conidium germination was depressed independent of the nutrient
concentration and appressoria did not form. Of 12 nitrogen sources
tested, the best for germination and appressorium formation were
yeast extract and Bacto-Soytone (Table 14). Glucose, maltose, and
starch were the best of the 12 carbon sources tested (Table 15).
Increasing osmotic pressure caused by different concentrations of
maltose and polyethylene glycol adversely affected formation of germ
tubes and appressoria (Fig. 15). Subculturing did not affect
formation of germ tubes, but the frequency of appressorium formation
decreased after 12 transfers (Fig. 16). The optimal pH for
appressorium formation was between 7.0 and 7.2 (Fig. 17). Z.
radicans produced appressoria on cuticles of dead Empoasca fabae
(Harris) nymphs.
The fungus Zoophthora radicans requires external Ca2+ for
appressorium formation but not for conidium germination. The number
of appressoria formed is dependent on the Ca2+ concentration of the
medium (Fig. 18). At low Ca2+ concentration (100 pM), nuclear
division and germ tube growth were significantly reduced compared to
higher Ca2+ concentrations (10 and 1000 pM) (Table 16). Treatment of conidia with a Ca2+-antagonist (Nd3+) and a Ca2+-channel blocker (nifedipine) inhibited differentiation, showing that a Ca2+ influx
is required for appressorium formation (Fig. 19, 20). Furthermore,
the partial yet saturating inhibition by nifedipine and complete inhibition by Nd3+ indicated that two kinds of Ca2+ channels are
involved in differentiation. A contribution of intracellular Ca2+ in the signal transduction chain for the formation of appressoria
was demonstrated by the inhibitory effect of the intracellular Ca2+
antagonist TMB-8 (Fig. 21). The calmodulin antagonists R24571, TFP,
W-7, and W-5 inhibited appressoria at concentrations which had no effect on germination (Fig. 22), indicating that a Ca2+/calmodulin
system was involved in regulating appressorium formation.
2. Other research-related results
Technical research publications. The project published or had in
press 11 research publications for FY 90. An additional four
manuscripts were submitted for publication. Also, 12 reports on
project research were presented at scientific meetings.
Geraplasm conservation and use. Ten strains of entomopathogenic
fungi were added to the IPRC/Brazil germplasm collection during FY
90 (Table 17). The culture collection now contains nearly 300
isolates. More than 100 of these have been provided to Brazilian
university and government laboratories where their potential for biological control of a wide variety of field crop, garden, and
pasture pests is being investigated. In addition, the USDA
repository in Ithaca met numerous requests worldwide for Brazilian
isolates collected by our CRSP project.
CRSP-produced or -recommended technology available for use in the e
and other developing countries. Methods for mass culture and
formulation of entomopathogenic fungi developed at BTI and other
institutions have been successfully adapted for mass production of
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our most promising fungal pathogens of cowpea insect pests using low-cost materials and equipment available in developing countries. The resultant technology is adequate for production of sufficient quantities of fungal inoculum required for small- to moderate-scale field trials and could readily be modified for mass production at the cottage industry or grower-cooperative level.
CRSP-produced or -recommended technology available for use worldwide. A spray-application chamber designed specifically for uniform topical inoculation of test insects with aqueous suspensions of fungal conidia was constructed at BTI. Shortly after the project's inception, a similar tower was built at the IPRC/Brazil laboratory where it is currently utilized for screening and bioassay of candidate pathogens. The schematic for the chamber and the modified spray nozzle were requested by and provided to other insect pathologists in Brazil. At present, five of these chambers are in use or under construction in two government and two university research centers.
Socio-economic impact of biological control technologies for cowpea in northeastern Brazil-A rapid rural appraisal in Ceara. Cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata [L.1 Walp.) are the most important legume crop in Ceara state in northeastern Brazil. Ceara is, in turn, the largest cowpea production area in Brazil. Cowpeas, on average, comprise 51.5 percent of bean consumption in the diet of the Ceara population. Nearly 62 percent of the cowpea consumed in the region is unpurchased. Cowpea production is scattered and restricted to small land areas throughout the state and production yield is highly variable, often depending on rainfall. The level of technological input, use of labor, and methods of pest control also varies considerably.
Project aim. The rural appraisal covered nine cities in major producing regions of Ceara state. The research group was composed of an agricultural economist of the socio-economic research area, an entomologist of EPACE (the state agricultural research enterprise) and an M.Sc. student from the Agricultural Economics Department at the University of Ceara.
Three cowpea production systems were formerly identified for sample classification: rainfed, usually under consortium; swamp land (varzeas) with a certain degree of moisture and higher yields; and channel or sprinkler irrigated systems. An attempt was made to cover the three production systems even though stratified appropriate samples could not be anticipated.
The data collected comprised a series of socio-economic variables in a three page questionnaire which aimed at general social information (education levels, family size), use of land and other production factors, production costs and detailed information on the common knowledge of pests and control.
A total of 83 families in 41 communities were visited and information collected. Of these, 45 farmers own the land they farm, while three have no title to the land and the other 35 farmers are related to cooperatives in irrigated perimeters.
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Another questionnaire was discussed and developed in Fortaleza with the technician (lara Oliveira) working for BTI, in the hope that she would be able to apply it to obtain a more detailed information set
for cost analysis and technology follow-up. She will be working
with a farm family evaluating results of biological control techniques and will participate in the socioeconomic study.
We hope to be able, from this experience, to discuss four points
based on the visited areas:
- Can we extrapolate general socio-economic aspects of cowpea
production from aggregate data to the micro level, with detail
on farmers, families, role of women and characterization?
- What is the potential impact of biological control techniques on
the basis of incidence of pests and farmers' reaction to
alternative control measures?
- What is the cost analysis for different systems analyzed?
- How should we ensure farmer follow-up for technology
implementation and future tests?
The FY 90 research has generated considerable baseline data on the
economics of cowpea production in Ceara (Tables 18-23). These data indicate that use of chemical pesticides increases cowpea yields by
93.5 percent (Table 19), but at a 64.9 percent increase in total
production costs (Table 20). This information will ultimately
provide the basis for determining the economic feasibility of our
proposed Chalcodermus weevil control technology. Answers to the
questions outlined above as well as an assessment of the potential impact of these new technologies on small-scale farmers and women
should be available by the end of FY 91.
3. Changes in national production/consumption of beans/cowpeas in the
Host Country. Small-scale field trials conducted in farmers' fields
indicate that the technologies we have developed for control of
Chalcodermus weevils and Empoasca leafhoppers may be useful.
Additional field trials and economic viability studies are planned
for 1991. Since the proposed technologies are still in the
experimental stage, they have not yet affected production at the
national level.
B. Institutional Development and Training
1. Changes since FY 89. The state of Ceara is the major producer of
cowpea in Brazil. For the past three years, our project has
collaborated with the state agricultural research agency of that
state (EPACE). Two of their scientists have made major commitments
to our microbial control efforts. As an important part of the
institutionalization of our project in Brazil, we undertook in FY 90
an upgrading of the research laboratory of this team at Pitaguari
near Fortaleza. The director of the station made available to us a
room approximately four times the size of the facility previously
used for the insect pathology work. We have provided the materials
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for renovation of this space. The work was commenced in mid-1990
and will be completed before the end of 1990. The new facility is
adjacent to that of the plant pathology section of the station, and
the two groups have agreed to share the previously existing plant pathology equipment such as autoclaves and ovens. Both the HC PI
and the U.S. PI were personally involved in design of the facility
and in procurement of supplies. With the completion of this
laboratory, we will have two microbial control units in Brazil as
the result of Bean/Cowpea CRSP activity.
An important final step in the institutionalization of the project
at CNPAF, Goiania, was realized in 1990 when EMBRAPA scientist
Bonifacio Magalhaes completed his doctoral program at Cornell/BTI
and returned to Brazil to resume his former position as HC PI.
2. Over the life of the project. It can be judged at this time that
virtually all of our efforts in the area of project institutionalization have been fully successful. The insect pathology laboratory
we established in Brazil has been fully integrated into CNPAF's
newly established Integrated Pest Management (IPM) Program. The laboratory is fully equipped and staffed by two project-trained scientists, Dr. Bonifacio Magalhaes and M.S.-level entomologist Eliane Quintela (FY 90, HC PI). Both are full-time, permanent
EMBRAPA scientists with the expertise to continue the work initiated by the project and attract external support after the CRSP phase-out
in October 1991. Establishment of the research facility in Ceara
(described above) will make possible the continuation of project
studies in the principal cowpea producing region of Latin America.
Project training has had, and continues to have, a considerable impact on the Latin American scientific and technical community.
The training of more than 100 agronomists in the project's five short courses (one to two weeks) and four undergraduate student
interns (one month to one year) has served well to expand and update the knowledge base in the fields of insect pathology and integrated
pest management. The project's four Brazilian graduate students (trained at the M.S. level in Brazilian universities) have been
highly successful in securing government research and university
faculty positions. Project-trained entomologist Luis Leite of the
Instituto Biologico, Sao Paulo, is currently collaborating with
project scientists in assessing the potential of Z. radicans for
leafhopper control in southern Brazil. The project has achieved its
goal to promote the professional development of women. One of the project's two Ph.D. students, two of five M.S. students, three of
four student interns, and approximately half of the agronomists
trained in the short courses are women.
3. Project training to be completed by the end of the project period.
Our two remaining CRSP-supported graduate student, U.S. Ph.D.
candidate Sandra Galaini-Wraight and Brazilian M.S. candidate Luis
Leite will complete their degree requirements in FY 91.
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C. Progress Achieved in Relation to the Extension Proposal Log Frame
Our project has been engaged in the current lines of research addressing
the objectives outlined in the log frame since the inception of the
Bean/Cowpea CRSP in 1982. The project objectives were originally
planned to be achievable by the end of the FY 89-91 extension period,
and thus approximately one year remains for achievement of the
objectives.
It is our judgment that the project is essentially on schedule. The log
frame lists four project purposes: (1) Develop microbial agents for
control of cowpea pests and assist Brazilian institutions in
implementing this technology at the small farm level. A methodology based on soil applications of entomopathogenic hyphomycetes has been
developed and is being tested in concert with cultural control measures for low-technology management of Chalcodermus weevils in the field, and
applications of the same pathogens show promise for control of cowpea
storage weevils. A third method employing an entomophthoralean fungus
has been developed for control of Empoasca leafhoppers. The highly successful FY 90 field trial described in this report indicates that
this method may find application in common beans (Phaseolus) in southern
Brazil. Additional field and laboratory tests and socioeconomic
analyses of these technologies are planned for 1991 in collaboration
with Brazilian scientists. If the indications from these final
CRSP-supported evaluations are positive, we have confidence that the
scientists trained by our project possess the expertise and dedication
to carry on toward the ultimate goal of incorporating these technologies
into the IPM systems that are currently being developed for bean and
cowpea culture. (2) Establish a permanent insect pathology laboratory
and resource center at CNPAF, and (3) Train Latin American scientists in insect pathology. These goals have been achieved as reported in section
I.B. (4) Create a database on cowpea insects and pathogens.
Considerable literature is being produced by this project and many talks
presented. Its team members are compiling existing information and
providing new information. In summary, the goals and timetables of the
project are being satisfactorily fulfilled.
To our knowledge, we are the only group in the world working on the
microbial control of cowpea pests.
The likely contributions of the lines of research reported here are
reductions in cowpea and bean insect pest populations and consequent
increases in yield or grain quality. The potential benefits are
difficult to quantify at this juncture, because none of the pest control
technologies we have developed have yet been implemented at the
small-farm level. We have demonstrated that entomopathogenic fungi can
significantly reduce pest populations in grain legume cultures.
However, these pathogens function in delicate balance with the myriad
other biotic and abiotic components of the field environment and cannot alone provide high levels of pest control over all growing seasons. In
particular, fungal pathogens may be ineffective under drought
conditions. Today, however, especially as environmental and pesticide
resistance concerns continue to grow worldwide, the emphasis in applied
entomology is toward implementation of multiple technology IPM
strategies within sustainable agricultural systems. This trend is
evidenced by the 1989 decision by CNPAF/EMBRAPA to reorganize its
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entomology department into an IPM unit. In this context, we have
developed biological control methods possessing the potential to serve
as important components of IPM systems currently being conceived for
bean and cowpea pest control in Latin America and elsewhere.
We believe that our project has made a significant contribution to the
field of biological crop protection in Brazil. As a direct result of
our project, a well trained and highly motivated team of microbial
control specialists and technicians has been assembled at CNPAF. These CRSP-trained scientists are now members of a newly established IPM unit with an administrative mandate to develop IPM strategies for beans and
cowpeas. Development of biological, environmentally safe methods for
control of insect pests of short-cycle field crops like cowpeas is a
difficult undertaking that will succeed only through long-term
investment in basic and applied research, such as has been made by the
Bean Cowpea/CRSP.
D. Evidence of Biological/Social Sciences Integration
(See section I.A.)
E. Collaboration with Other Bean/Cowpea CRSP Projects; Linkages with Other
CRSPs, and Other External Groups
Our principal collaboration continues to be with the USDA Plant
Protection Research Unit located on the Cornell campus. This unit is
also studying the potential of Z. radicans for control of Empoasca
leafhoppers. USDA systems ecologists are currently developing
simulation models of the E. fabae-Z. radicans host-pathogen system, and
are utilizing data from our studies in Brazil. Collaboration was also
realized in the mass production of Z. radicans dry mycelium formulation
for field applications in the U.S. against leafhoppers on alfalfa.
Scientists from this USDA unit discovered and provided us with the
Yugoslavian strain of Z. radicans (ARSEF 2282) which was successfully
released in Sao Paulo (Section I.A.l.).
Closer relations with the International Center for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT) were established in FY 90 when HC PI Eliane Quintela was invited to the center for a working visit in which she exchanged ideas with CIAT bean entomologists and studied the isoenzyme analysis techniques used at
the center.
Our close collaborations with the Ceara state agricultural research unit
(EPACE) and the Instituto Biologico of Sao Paulo were related in the
foregoing discussions of research results.
II. FUNDING/FISCAL MANAGEMENT
A. Problems Regarding Funding
The project encountered no significant problems in this area during
FY 90.
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B. Adequacy of Current Management System
In Brazil, the CNPAF business office prepares a bill shortly after the
end of each month which is submitted to the HC PI. This document is
copiously documented with copies of all receipts. It is examined by the
HC PI, returned to the CNPAF business office if corrections are needed,
and then transmitted to the U.S. PI who examines the documentation in
detail before signing it off for payment by the BTI business office.
The latter also examines the bills and its documentation before paying
the bill. The time from billing to receipt of payment is usually one
month or less. Because of the exceptional staff involved at ETI and in
Brazil, and because of the detailed accounting procedures required by BTI management, Bean/Cowpea CRSP funds and commodities have been, and
will continue to be, properly utilized for the benefit of the CRSP.
C. Activity Towards Buy-Ins or Other Funding
There have been no possibilities for buy-ins in Brazil because no USAID
Mission exists in that country.
III. PROJECT STATUS
A. Appropriateness of Activities to Goals of the Global Plan
Insects are a major constraint to cowpea production worldwide. Our
Brazil entomology project is currently the only Bean/Cowpea CRSP
project committed to both field and storage insect studies. The major
thrust of the project is development of insect disease agents for use
in integrated pest management programs, especially in concert with
cultural control measures and as alternatives or supplements to
synthetic chemical insecticides. Their safety and their low cost,
technologically-simple mass production methodologies make insect pathogens very attractive insect control agents for growers with
limited resources. Since women actively participate in cowpea and bean
production on small farms in Brazil, increased yields and increased
production reliability will benefit both men and women. The project,
although emphasizing cowpeas, also conducts studies in common beans; thereby increasing the global relevance of the project. Because of
long standing interest by Brazilians in using insect pathogens to control some of their major pests, this country is a particularly
appropriate setting for our biological control study. We are
succeeding in developing a strong core of well trained microbial
control specialists and, if we develop reproducible methods to control
bean and cowpea pests with microorganisms, other nations with large
subsistence farmer populations can call upon this resource in attacking
their insect problems.
B. Balance Between Research and Training
1. Expenditures for research and training. The strong emphasis on
training that has characterized the project from its inception was
continued in FY 90. This training, viewed as essential to
institutionalization, has taken the form of (a) annual short
courses with approximately-15 students each-many of these being
M.S.-level agronomists. (b) intern training of up to one year for
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post-baccalaureate students, and (c) formal degree training at U.S.
and Brazilian universities (five M.S., two Ph.D.). The training activities have been balanced by a very strong research program.
In some cases, the training and research are combined, as in the
thesis research of students. During FY 90, expenditures in Brazil
were made for the salaries and research of the HC PI and US-RA,
research of a collaborating Brazilian economist, technicians'
salaries, research of one Ph.D. student, and for the stipends and
research of three student interns (two in Goiania and one in
Ceara). Expenditures in the U.S. were made for the salary and research of one postdoctoral associate, technicians' salaries,
research (supplies) for two visiting Brazilian scientists, stipend for one Ph.D. student, and for the dissertation research (supplies)
of a second Ph.D. student (returning HC PI, Bonifacio Magalhaes).
2. Expenditures related to research and training Plans. Expenditures
in FY 90 were made without major deviation from the FY 89 plan.
C. Balance of Domestic vs. Overseas Activities
Because of the commitment of the Title XII Program to subsistence
farmers, our project has been focused on research and training which will aid this part of the world population. Accordingly, the numbers
of people supported by the project has been higher in Brazil--where at least 20 million people in the cowpea-consuming region have incomes of
less than $500 per year--than in the United States. A significant
amount of research has been conducted in the United States, and this work was so designed that it can be related to both third world and U.S. farmers. Over the life of the project, considerably more than
one-half of the USAID-provided funds were expended for Brazil.
D. Level of Collaboration/Cooperation Between U.S. and HC Institutions
This project has enjoyed a very high level of collaborative effort
between Brazilian scientists in many parts of the country, but
especially at CNPAF (the HC Institution), and scientists at BTI (the
U.S. Institution). This has been especially true in the past five
years. An extremely compatible team has developed in which most of the people have been members of our group for three years or longer. Both the Brazilian and U.S. personnel have been involved with all aspects of
project planning, budgeting, and training, and have contributed (as
principal authors) to the many research papers that have been published
by the project. E2MBRAPA has expressed, at the highest level, a desire
to collaborate fully in our project; and, as far as financially
possible, they have held true to this promise.
E. Relative Contributions of Collaborating Institutions and Individuals
The commitment and contributions of each of the sponsoring
institutions, viz. EMBRAPA/CNPAF and BTI, have been clearly stated and
implemented by administrators, scientists and students in both
locations. The collaboration has been such between the institutions that it cannot be fairly stated that the commitment of one has been
more than the other. The new chief of CNPAF, Homero Aidar, has been
particularly supportive of our collaborative project.
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F. Interest, Involvement, and Support of USAID Mission and/or U.S. Embassy
USAID is representedin Brazil by a single individual stationed at the
U.S. Embassy in Brasilia. His specialty is not agriculture, and
accordingly, his involvement with the Bean/Cowpea CRSP is not within
his area of primary responsibility. Nevertheless, he has been very
cooperative.
G. Evidence of Institutionalization
1. Faculty recognition. The U.S. PI, Donald Roberts, was awarded the
L.O. Howard Distinguished Achievement Award by the Eastern Branch
of the Entomological Society of America in October 1989. The award
was made largely on the basis of Dr. Roberts' accomplishments at
the international level.
2. Integration with international and domestic commodity research
programs. Integration of our research program with that of the
USDA Plant Protection Research Unit was discussed in section I.E.
The insect pathology laboratory we established in Brazil and its
CRSP-trained staff have been fully integrated into the CNPAF
Integrated Pest Management Program which is an important arm of the
Brazilian national cowpea program. The Brazilian and U.S.
Principal Investigators were invited to give presentations at the two international biological control symposia that have been held
in Brazil (the 2nd Simposio de Controle Biologico was held in
Brasilia during FY 90).
3. Internal project management. Project support from BTI and CNPAF
management has been, and continues to be, extremely high.
4. Student/Professor interactions. In our judgment, student-professor
interaction has been excellent. The reputation of our project has
always been such as to elicit an overwhelming number of applications to our short courses and to our intern and
degree-training programs both at CNPAF and BTI. We have, in most
instances, been able to select our students from among many well
qualified applicants.
IV. PUBLICATIONS AND PRESENTATIONS
U.S. papers and reviews
Allee, L. L., M. S. Goettel, A. Gol'berg, H. S. Whitney and D. W. Roberts.
1990. Infection by Beauveria bassiana of Leptinotarsa decemlineata
Larvae as a Consequence of Fecal Contamination of the Integument
Following per os Inoculation. Mycopathologia 111: 17-24.
Galaini-Wraight, S., S. Wraight, R. I. Carruthers, B. P. Magalhaes, and
D. W. Roberts. Description of a Zoophthora radicans (Zygomycetes:
Entomophthorales) Epizootic in a Population of Empoasca kraemeri
(Homoptera: Cicadellidae) on Beans in Central Brazil. J. Invertebr.
Pathol., submitted.
Goettel, M.S., R.J. St. Leger, S. Bhairi, M.K. Jung, B.R. Oakley, D.W.
Roberts, and R.C. Staples. 1990. Pathogenicity and growth of
Netarhizium anisopliae stably transformed to benomyl resistance. Curr.
Genet. 17: 129-132.
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Krueger, S.R., M.G. Villani, J.P. Nyrop, and D.W. Roberts. 1991. Effect
of soil environment on the efficacy of fungal pathogens against scarab
grubs in laboratory bioassays. Biological Control, submitted.
Krueger, S.R., M.G. Villani, A.S. Martins, and D.W. Roberts. 1991.
Efficacy of soil applications of Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch.) Sorokin
conidia, and standard and lyophilized mycelial particles against scarab
grubs. J. Invertebr. Pathol., submitted.
Roberts, D.W. 1989. World picture of biological control of insects by
fungi. Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, Vol. 84, Supp. III:
89-100.
Roberts, D.W., J. Fuxa, R. Gaugler, M. Goettel, R. Jaques, J. Maddox.
1990. Use of pathogens in insect control. In Pimentel, D. (ed.),
Handbook of Pest Managemenet in Aqriculture. CRC Press, Boca Raton,
Florida. (in press).
Wraight, S.P., T.M. Butt, S. Galiani-Wraight, L.L. Allee, R.S. Soper, and
D.W. Roberts. 1990. Germination and infection processes of the
entomophthoralean fungus Erynia radicans on the potato leafhopper,
Empoasca fabae. J. Invertebr. Pathol. 56: 157-174.
Abstracts and presentations
Krueger, S.R., M.G. Villani, A.S. Martins, and D.W. Roberts. Efficacy of
Metarhizium anisopliae conidia and dry mycelium in soil against scarabeid
larvae. Vth International Colloqcuium on Invertebrate Pathology and
Microbial Control, Adelaide, Australia. August 20-24, 1990.
Krueger, S.R. Interaction of scarab grubs, entomopathogenic fungi, and the
soil environment. Eastern Branch Meeting of the Entomological Society of
America, Baltimore, Maryland. October, 1990.
Roberts, D.W., and A.E. Hajek. Entomopathogenic fungi as bioinsecticides.
Entotech Symposium on Industrial Mycology--IInd Annual Meeting of the
Mycology Society of America, University of Wisconsin, Wisconsin. June
24-28, 1990.
Roberts, D.W. Practical applications of fungi against scarabs.
International Workshop: Pathogens in Scarab Pest Management, Canterbury
Agricultural and Science Centre, Lincoln, New Zealand. August 15-17,
1990.
Roberts, D.W. Presidential Address. Vth International Colloqcuium on
Invertebrate Pathologv and Microbial Control, Adelaide, Australia. August 20-24, 1990.
Roberts, D.W. Metabolite production by entomopathogenic fungi. 2nd
Symposium of Biological Control (SICONBIOL), Instituto Israel Pinheiro,
Brasilia, Brazil. October 14-18, 1990.
Roberts, D.W. Biotechnology and biological control: Fungi. 2nd Symposium
on Biological Control (SICONBIOL), Instituto Israel Pinheiro, Brasilia,
Brazil. October 14-18, 1990.
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St. Leger, R.J., R.C. Staples, and D.W. Roberts. A model to explain
differentiation of appressoria by the entomopathogen, Metarhizium
anisopliae. Vth International Colloquium on Invertebrate Pathology and
Microbial Control, Adelaide, Australia. August 20-24, 1990. Poster
session.
HC papers and reviews
Magalhaes, B.P., T.M. Butt, R.A. Humber, E.J. Shields, and D.W. Roberts.
1990. Formation of appressoria in vitro by the entomopathogenic fungus
Zoophthora radicans (Zygomycetes: Entomophthorales). J. Invertebr.
Pathol. 55: 284-288.
Magalhaes, B.P., R. Wayne, R.A. Humber, E.J. Shields, and D.W. Roberts.
1990. Calcium regulated appressorium formation of the entomopathogenic
fungus Zoophthora radicans. Protoplasma (in press).
Magalhaes, B.P., R.J. St. Leger, R.A. Humber, L.L. Allee, E.J. Shields, and
D.W. Roberts. 1990. Nuclear events during germination and appressorial
formation of the entomopathogenic fungus Zoophthora radicans
(Zygomycetes: Entomophthorales). J. Invertebr. Pathol. (in press).
Magalhaes, B.P., R.A. Humber, E.J. Shields, and D.W. Roberts. 1991.
Effects of environment and nutrition on conidial germination and
appressorium formation by Zoophthora radicans (Zygomycetes:
Entomophthorales): A pathogen of the potato leafhopper (Homoptera:
Cicadellidae). Environ. Entomol. (in press).
Pereira, R.M., and D.W. Roberts. 1990. Dry mycelium preparations of the
entomopathogenic fungi, Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana.
J. Invertebr. Pathol. 56: 39-46.
Quintela, E.D., J.C. Lord, S.P. Wraight, S.B. Alves, and D.W. Roberts.
1990. Pathogenicity of Beauveria bassiana (Hyphomycetes: Moniliales) to
larval and adult Chalcodermus bimaculatus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).
J. Econ. Entomol. 83: 1276-1279.
Quintela,.E.D., J.C. Lord, S.B. Alves, and D.W. Roberts. Persistincia de
Beauveria bassiana em solo do cerrado e sua interaces com microrganismos
dosolo. Anais Socied. Entomol. do Brasil (submitted).
Abstracts and presentations
Alves, H.M., S.E.M. Sanchez, and E.D. Quintela. 1990. Inimigos naturais
de espicies prejudiciais ao feijo e caupi. III Reunio Nacional de
Pesquisa de Feijo, Vitoria, Es. May 13-18. p. 40.
Magalhaes, B.P., R.A. Humber, E.J. Shields, and D.W. Roberts. Effects of
environment and nutrition on conidial germination and appressorial
formation by Zoophthora radicans (Zygomycetes: Entomophthorales): A
pathogen of the potato leafhopper (Homoptera: Cicadellidae). Vth
International Colloquium on Invertebrate Pathology and Microbial Control,
Adelaide, Australia. August 20-24, 1990.
-36-




Quintela, E.D., S.P. Wright, S. Galiani-Wraight, and D.W. Roberts. 1990.
Patogenicidade de Beauveria bassiana e Metarhizium anisopliae a Cerotoma
arcuata Olivier (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) e Elasmopalpus ligposellus
Zeller (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). III Reunio Nacional de PescnAsa de
Feiio, Vitoria, Es. May 13-18. p. 39.
Quintela, E.D., and D.W. Roberts. 1990. Control de Chalcodermus
bimaculatus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) no solo com fungus
entomopatog enicos. II Simposio de Controle Biolocrico, Brasilia, D.F.
October 14-18. pp. 67-8.
-37-




Table 1. Temperature-dependent germination of Zoophthomra adicans oval primary and
secondary conidia on Empoasca kraemeri.
% Time (hr) to germination
Temperature germination" of 50% of germinable
(*C) (95% CI) spores (95% CI) Probit line slope SE
0.5 0.0 .
5 81.7 0.85 3.4 (3.3-3.6) 8.5 0.58
10 93.4 0.79 3.2 (1.2-5.2) 4.2 0.93
15 94.4 0.99 2.0 (0.8-3.0) 3.5 0.67
20 91.9 1.93 1.1 (0.8-1.3) 1.7 0.21
25 94.3 2.52 1.6 (0.7-2.4) 1.6 0.19
28 70.5 0.99 1.5 (0.2-2.7) 1.8 0.48
30 41.5 3.66 2.9 (1.3-4.0) 4.0 0.56
32 6.4 1.13 -STotal germination observed within 72 hr at 0.5-10-C, 24 hr at 15-C, and 18 hr at 20320C.
Table 2. Effect of temperature on the formation of Zoophthora radicans appressoria on Empoasca
kraemeri
Percent of total Percent of germinated Time (hr) to formation
Temperature inoculum producing inoculum producing of 50% of appressoria Probit line
(*C) appressoria SE appressoria SE (95% CI) slope SE
5 7.3 0.36 9.1 0.52 32.8 (18.2-56.4) 2.4 0.80
10 12.2 1.76 12.8 1.92 22.3 (12.4-29.9) 4.8 1.31
15 13.0 4.86 13.7 4.99 9.0 (7.7-10.5) 4.4 0.44
20 12.3 0.86 13.5 0.90 5.7 (3.7-7.4) 3.7 0.80
25 14.7 1.46 15.5 1.55 5.4 (4.5-6.3) 7.5 1.42
28 9.6 1.28 14.5 1.97 5.5 (4.3-6.7) 7.0 1.55
30 4.1 0.52 10.8 1.51 4.9 (4.3-5.3) 8.8 1.59
32 0.0 0.0
"95% confidence intervals reported for all treatments except 5*C, in which case, the limits presented
are at the 90% confidence level
-38-




Table 3. Temperature-dependent penetration of Empoasca kraemeri by Zoophthora radicans % of total % of germinated % of appressoria % of penetrations Time (hr) to
inoculum inoculum producing from oval conidia: formation of 50%
Temperature producing producing penetrations capilliconidia of penetrations Probit line
(OC) penetrations t SE penetration SE SE (SE) (95% CI) slope SE
5 3.1 0.20 3.8 0.21 42.6 3.32 89.5:10.5 (1.02) 50.0 (39.6-67.0) 6.9 1.82
10 7.0 0.78 7.4 0.82 58.1 2.09 60.7:39.3 (3.59) 25.1 (19.2-30.5) 6.0 1.26
15 8.0 t 2.65 8.4 2.65 64.1 4.11 72.0:28.0 (10.1) 13.8 (11.1-19.0) 5.2 1.05
20 7.3 t 0.51 8.0 0.68 59.7 4.66 77.9:22.1 (1.35) 6.6 (4.7-8.3) 6.3 1.51
25 10.1 2.52 10.6 2.66 63.6 5.42 96.7:3.3 (1.80) 6.1 (5.8-6.4) 8.5 0.86
28 6.1 0.72 8.1 a 1.26 68.9 6.04 98.0:2.0 (2.00) 6.0 (4.8-7.3) 9.4 2.16
30 2.3 0.40 5.7 1.16 55.0 5.85 100:0 (-) 6.6 (5.7-8.6) 6.1 1.83
32 0.0 0.0 ---...
Table 4. Temperature-dependent infection of Empoasca kraemeri by Zoophthora radicans
Dose-spores Time (hr) to Time (hr) to
per leafhopper Total infection of 10% infection of 50%
Temperature standard percent of leafhoppers of leafhoppers Probit line
(*C) deviation infection" (95% CI) (95% CI) slope SE
5 22.2 6.78 42.6 2.14 32.5 (22.2-38.3) 4.0 t 0.99
10 20.5 7.17 73.9 t 7.15 13.6 (8.9-17.4) 35.2 (30.1-41.9) 3.1 0.49
15 25.9 7.78 78.2 t 7.55 6.1 (4.7-7.2) 13.8 (12.3-15.8) 3.6 0.45
20 20.4 6.69 80.2 1.60 4.0 (3.1-4.6) 7.3 (6.7-8.1) 4.8 0.62
25 22.0 7.02 83.8 1.95 3.4 (1.5-.4) 5.8 (4.6-7.1) 5.4 t 0.77
28 21.7 6.85 62.8 4.50 3.0 (1.1-4.2) 8.1 (6.4-10.8) 2.9 0.51
30 20.1 7.36 33.3 2.95 5.0 (3.3.6.0) 3.0 t 0.74
32 22.3 t 8.50 0.0 ..
SPercent of leaffhoppers with at least one Z. radicans penetration observed within 72 hr at 5-10*C, 24 hr at 15*C, and 18 hr at 20-32*C.
-39-




Table 5. Influence of temperature on the production of conidia of Zoophthora radicans on cadavers
of fifth-instar Empoasca kraemeri
Mean time (hr) until production of
Number of Total conidia 2.5, 50, and 97.5% of total conidia Meantime of Temperature cadavers produced following death of leafhoppers' peak production
(*C) monitored (x 10') 2.5% 50% 97.5% of conidia
5 9 1.3 39.1 81.6 171.8 70.6
10 13 1.4 26.7 55.0 116.4 43.7
15 15 2.5 17.9 32.4 62.4 29.0
20 21 2.6 9.1 19.4 42.6 16.6
25 17 2.5 9.5 18.0 34.4 16.1
SMean of times estimated by log normal curves fitted to the sporulation data from each cadaver.
Table 6. Production of conidia of Zoophthora radicans on cadavers of different instars of Empoasca
kraemeri at 20'C
Mean time (hr) until production of
Number of Total conidia 2.5, 50, and 97.5% of total conidia Meantime of Leafhopper cadavers produced following death of leafhoppers peak production
instar monitored (x 103) 2.5% 50% 97.5% of conidia'
First 4 2.2 6.0 15.1 41.1 11.8
Second 14 3.8 6.1 15.1 40.0 11.9
Third 14 7.8 6.2 16.2 47.9 12.3
Fourth 14 12.7 7.0 17.8 46.8 14.0
Fifth 21 26.4 9.1 19.4 42.6 16.6
Adult 9 20.7 13.5 24.3 44.3 22.1
SMean of times estimated by log normal curves fitted to the sporulation data from each cadaver.
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Table 7. Percent infection of Empoasca kraemeri in treated and untreated areas of a bean field (Phaseolus) in Capdo Bonito, Sao
Paulo, following application of dry mycelium of Zoophthora radicans on the night of 15 April, 1990.
Sample dates
16 April 20 April 23 April 26 April 30 April 4 May 7 May
Mean number of leafhoppers
collected per plot SD 7.2 3.5 15.7 7.1 11.3 6.5 11.5 4.5 7.8 4.5 4.5 3.0 2.0 1.8
Treated plots (dose)*
2 g/M2 0.0 29.3 53.0 18.0 67.6 4.8 0.0
1 g/m2 0.0 37.6 28.0 16.5 42.1 80.0 80.0
0.5 g/m2 0.0 18.0 23.3 12.5 55.0 54.2 9.5
0.25 g/m2 0.0 14.4 31.7 14.9 73.7 94.4 77.8
means 0.0 24.8 34.0 15.5 59.6 58.4 41.8
Untreated plots'
(location relative to treatment plots)
5 m from 2 g/m2 plots 0.0 6.3 4.5 41.9 69.4 25.0 33.3
5 m from 1 g/m2 plots 0.0 6.7 39.4 41.1 78.6 61.3 37.5
5 m from 0.5 g/m2 plots 0.0 6.3 10.5 36.8 69.5 37.5 41.7
5 m from 0.25 g/m2 plots 0.0 7.7 13.4 23.1 59.5 58.3 58.3
means 0.0 6.8 17.0 35.7 69.3 45.5 42.7
18 m from 2 g/m2 plot 0.0 13.3 8.5 40.4 35.6 75.0
36 m from 2 g/m2 plot --- 6.7 28.3 10.3 66.7 40.5 45.0
means --- 3.4 20.8 9.4 53.6 38.1 60.0
Samples collected from three 2 x 2 m plots per dose.
Samples collected from two untreated 2 x 2 m plots located approximately 5 m from each group of treatment plots and from three
untreated plots located 18 m and three located 36 m from the 2 g/m2 treatment plots.




Table 8. Number of cowpea seeds damaged by Callosobruchus maculatus following treatment of the seeds with Beauveria bassiana,
Metarhizium anisopliae and Vertimec, and storage for 112 and 137 days.
After 112 days of storage After 137 days of storage
Dose Number of Number of Number of Number of Number of Number of
g/60 kg seeds perforated holes seeds perforated holes
Treatment" of seeds sampled seeds total sampled seeds total
M. anisopliae 100 200 6.0 7.0 100 3.7 4.5
400 200 2.0 3.0 100 4.0 4.0
B. bassiana 100 200 0.0 0.0 100 0.0 0.0
Avermectin 60 200 0.0 0.0 100 0.0 0.0
120 200 0.0 0.0 100 0.0 0.0
Control 0 200 200.0 562.0 100 100.0 462.0
a Treatments conducted in 24 cm high x 13 cm diameter containers with 1000 g of cowpea seeds naturally infested.
Table 9. Growth of Beauveria bassiana or Metarhizium anisopliae on potato dextrose agar treated with two concentrations each of eight insecticides after 12 days.
Colony diameter (cm)
% %
Insecticide Dose- B. bassiana Inhibition M. anisopliae Inhibition
Cypermethrin 1 1.8 51.0 2.0 44.4
2 1.8 51.0 2.1 41.7
Deltametrin 1 2.9 21.6 2.8 22.2
2 8.5 5.4 3.3 8.3
Diflubenzuron 1 3.6 2.7 3.0 16.7
2 3.3 10.8 3.4 5.5
Trichlorfon 1 3.5 5.4 2.8 22.2
2 2.9 21.6 2.2 39.0
Methyl Parathion 1 0.0 100.0 0.0 100.0
2 0.3 92.0 0.0 100.0
Methyl Dimeton 1 1.7 54.0 2.0 44.4
2 1.7 54.0 2.1 41.7
Fenvaralate 1 1.7 54.0 1.5 58.3
2 1.9 48.6 1.5 58.3
Endosulfan 1 0.7 81.1 0.2 94.4
2 1.0 73.0 0.8 77.8
Control 3.7 0.0 3.6 0.0
Dose 1: the lowest dose recommended of the commercial product at the concentration attained when prepared for spraying at 200 liters of water/ha. Dose 2: half of the lowest dose recommended.
Average of ten c.lonies.
-42-




Table 10. Number of conidia of Beauveria bassiana or Metarhizium anisopliae produced on
potato dextrose agar treated with two concentration each of eight insecticides after 12
days.
Number of conidiab
B. bassiana % M. anisopliae %
Insecticide Dose x 10' Produced x 10' Produced
Cypermethrin 1 86.0 110.0 4.4 183.0
2 49.0 62.8 1.5 62.5
Deltametrin 1 43.0 55.1 4.8 200.0
2 47.0 60.2 6.8 283.3
Diflubenzuron 1 42.0 53.8 4.5 187.5
2 63.0 80.8 1.7 70.8
Trichlorfon 1 6.5 8.3 0.3 12.5
2 1.9 2.4 0.07 2.9
Methyl Parathion 1 0.0 0.0 0 0.0
2 0.15 0.19 0 0.0
Methyl Dimeton 1 65.0 83 1.0 41.7
2 45.0 57.7 0.6 25.0
Fenvaralate 1 72.0 92.3 1.6 66.7
2 58.0 74.3 2.0 83.3
Endosulfan 1 0.12 0.15 1.4 58.3
2 0.4 0.51 0.9 37.5
Control 78.0 100.0 2.4 100.0
* Dose 1: the lowest dose recommended of the commercial product to 200 liters of
water/ha. Dose 2: half of the lowest dose recommended.
Average of ten colonies. Sampled by cutting a disc of the colony with a cork borer.
Table 11. Percent mortality of Cerotoma arcuata adults and Chalcodermus bimaculatus
larvae spray-inoculated with Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae respectively,
produced on potato detrose agar treated with two concentrations each of eight insecticides.
% %
Mortality of Cerotoma Mortality of Chalcodermus
Insecticide Dose adults by B. bassiana larvae by M. anisopliaeb
Cypermethrin 1 47.5 59.4
2 57.5 36.8
Deltamethrin 1 62.5 73.7
2 62.5 65.0
Diflubenzuron 1 40.0 92.1
2 67.5 40.5
Trichlorfon 1 40.0 60.5
2 47.5 94.6
Methyl Parathion 1 -NG
2 -NG
Methyl Dimeton 1 27.6 28.2
2 52.5 79.5
Fenvaralate 1 62.5 50.0
2 60.0 56.4
Endosulfan 1 52.5 44.7
2 -- -NR
Control (with fungi) 67.5 47.4
Control (no fungi) 2.5 13.5
Dose 1: the lowest dose recommended of the commercial product to 200 liters of water/ha.
Dose 2: half of the lowest dose recommended.
Values are means determined for four replications of 10 larvae. Spray-inoculated at a
dosage of 10' conidia/ml.
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Table 12. Effect of the fimungus Beauveria bassiana isolate #280 on Anthonomus grandis in
field conditions. Maracanaiti, CearA, Brazil, 1990.
Kg a.i.iha' % SAs Efficiencv'
Treatments G.CJha PT' 7DA2S 4DA4S 7DA2S 4DA4S
Control 0 0 22 43
Deltamethrin + 1.0 kg +
B. bassiana 352.5 g 7 19 18 13.6 58.1
Deltamethrin 10.0 kg 17 4 17 81.8 60.5
Cypermethrin 8.3 kg 15 22 51 0.0 0.0
B. bassiana 352.5 g 14 40 40 9.0 7.0
D.A.E. Phenolology' 1st flower = 43
D.A.E. sprays = 50, 54, 61, and 65.
1 Kg of active ingredient per hectare
2 Grams of conidia per hectare
SPercentage floral squares attacked by boll weevil
SCounts before spraying
s Seven days after the second spraying
Corrected mortality by Abbott's formula SDays after emergence of plants
Table 13. Pathogenicity of the five strains of the fungus Verticillium lecanii to the whitefly,
Bemisia tabaci.
Percent mortality
Number of insects Days after treatment*
Strain tested 3 6
VL-3 40 7.5 20.0
VL-4 28 17.8 28.6
VL-5 34 26.5 50.0
VL-6 45 28.9 73.3
VL-7 43 23.3 55.8
Control 38 0.0 13.1
STest insects exposed to bean leaves spray-inoculated with aqueous suspensions of spores.
The inocula of each isolate contained 10' conidia/ml except VL-3 which contained 10'
conidia/ml.
-44-




Table 14. The effect of nitrogen sources on formation of germ tubes Table 15. Effect of carbon sources on formation of germ tubes and
and appressoria (percentage; mean SD)' of Z. radicans 24 hr appressoria (percentage; mean SD)' of Z. radicans 24 hr
postinoculation in the dark at 25C. postinoculation in the dark 25C.
Nitrogen source (0.3%? Conidia forming Germlings forming Carbon source (1%? Conidia forming Germlings forming
germ tubes appressoria germ tubes appressoria
Nitrate 13.8 a 1.2 a 0.0
Glycerol 35.4 0.7 a 11.2 a 2.3 a be d
Urea 18.7 7.0 a 0.0
Ethyl alcohol 43.4 a 2.2 a b 6.4 1 2.0 a b
I L-Glutamic acid 16.9 3.6 a 0.0 acose 46.3 4.1 a b 2.0 1.8 a
, Lactose 46.3 4.1 a b 2.0 1.8 a
"I L-Phenylalanine 24.8 2 0.2 a b 0.0
Sorbitol 62.7 17.2 b e 8.0 2 3.0 b e d e
Ammonium sulfate 24.9 a 7.6 a b o 0.0
Mannitol 72.5 a 2.5 cd 18.9 a 3.1 bed e
DL.Alanine 36.9 a 1.3 b e 0.0
Cellobiose 75.8 a 2.1 e d 14.6 a 6.9 a b e d e
L-Methionine 36.9 13.2 b e 0.0
Starch 76.4 a 5.4 e d 33.5 a 14.9 d e f
L-Asparagine 43.7 a 7.6 e 0.0
Glucose 78.9 a 6.6 e d 36.9 a 10.9 e f
Ammonium chloride 72.0 a 3.4 d 0.0
Sucrose 81.9 a 8.6 de f 16.7 a 8.4 be de
Casein 75.3 a 0.8 do 6.5 a 2.0 a
Trehalose 88.8 a 2.0 e f 10.9 a 4.3 a b e
Soytone 77.6 a 4.3 do 29.8 a 6.1 b
Maltose 88.9 a 3.4 e f 34.5 a 10.5 e f
Lactalbumin hydrolysate 80.8 a 9.7 d 16.9 a 5.9 b
Fructose 93.8 a 2.5 f 26.1 a 14.6 c d e
Water 88.0 a 2.5 e f 0.0
Control (1% YE) 88.3 a 3.2 e f 52.4 a 2.8 f
Control (1% YE) 95.5 a 1.3 f 54.0 a 3.9 a
'Means within columns followed by the same letter are not significantly different by 'Means within columns followed by the same letter are not significantly different by Tukey's test (a = 0.05) using the transformation arc sine (square root of %). From 3
Tukey's test (a 0.05) using the transfrmation are sine (square root of %). From 3 replicates of 100 conidia or germlings each.
replicates of 100 conidia or germlings each.
'In a basal solution containing (w/v) 0.1% KHPO4. 0.05 % MgSO 4.7H 0O, and 0.3% 'In a basal solution containing (w/v) 0.1% KHPO,, 0.05% MgSO,.7HO, and 1% Soytone.
glucose.




Table 16. The effect of Ca' on nuclear division, hyphal length and
hyphal width of Z. radicans 24 hr after inoculations
Nuclear Hyphal Hyphal Hyphal
Icek] division length Width volume'
mr(m x 10') (m x 10') (in x 10.")
pca 10 (1 pM) O.&L0.9a 101.7123.78a 5.83k1.1.. 2,710
pO. 5 (10pM) 34.94.2 b 239.7187.5 b 6.93i1.5a 9,040'
pCa 3 (1000 pM) 10.4&2.5 c 230.36:t88.8 b 6.20*1.3a 6,950'
'Numbers indicate mean t SD. Means within columns followed by the same letter are not significantly different by orthogonal comparisons (at 0.05; n = 300).
'Percent data transformed to arc sine (square root of %) for analysis and retranslated.
'Assuming hyphae are cylindrical.
'Due to the spatulate form of the appressoria these values are underestimates.
Table 17. Isolates of entomopathogenic fungi added to the IPRC/Brazil culture collection
during FY 1990.
OP 285 Metarhizium anisopiiae OP 290 Verticillium lecani
Acc: 89-11-9 Acc: VL-5
Date: 9 November 1989 Date: 1990
site: cNPAF, Goiania, Goins Site: Col~mbia
Host: Queen Isoptera (termite) Hoat: Trialeurodes vaporariorum
Coil: Cecilia Ozepak Coil: Alex E.B. Pardey E.E. Tillio
Ospica, ICA
Cl 286 Verticillium lecanii Op 291 Verticillium lecanii
Ac: VL-1 Ace: VL-6
Date: 1990 Date: 1990
Site: Col6mbia Site: Ool~mbia
Host: Erinnyis ello Yuca Host: Spodoptera fr-ugiperda
Coil: Alex E.B. Pardey E.E. Tdlio Coil: Alex E.B. Pardey E.E. Tdli
Qapica, ICA Ospica, ICA
OP 287 Verticillium lecanii OP 292 Verticillium lecanfi
Ace: VL-2 Acc: VL-7
Date: 1990 Date: 1990
Site: England Site: Col6mbia
Host: Triolcurodes vaporariorum Host: Mysus persicae Crisantemo
Coil: Alex E.B. Pardey E.E. Tdlio Coil: Alex E.B. Pardey E.E. Whlo
Ospica, ICA Ospica, ICA
OP 288 Verticilium lecanii OP 293 -Beauveria bassiana
Ace: VL-3 Acc: VL-8
Date: 1990 Date: 1990
Site: Col~mbia Site: Col~mbia
Host: Trialeurodes vaporariorum Host: Diaspididae (Scale)
Coil: Alex E.B. Pardey E.E. Tdlio Coil: Alex E.B. Pardey E.E. lTdlio
Ospica, ICA Ospica, ICA
OP 289 -Verticillium lecanii OP 294 Beauveria bassiana
Ace: VIA4 Acc: VL-9
Date: 1990 Date: 1990
Site: Col~mbia Site: Col~mbia
Host: Trialeurodes vaporariorum Host: Saissetia caffeae
Coll: Alex E.B. Pardey E.E. Tiilio Coil: Alex E.B. Pardey E.E. Tfslio
Ospica, ICA Ospica, ICA
-46-




Table 18. Cowpea production, area, and yields by farm size (ha) (on average) by
stratum Cear, July, 1990.
Average production Average cowpea area Average yields Strata (in ha) No. in stratum (kg) in stratum (ha) in stratum (kg/ha)
I (<50 ha) 34 1063.9 1.9 582.7
11 (6-10 ha) 15 1678.9 3.2 557.1
III (11-50 ha) 26 1185.2 3.6 390.9
IV (51-100 ha) 5 3196.0 6.3 479.6
V (101-500) 2 3805.0 15.0 661.0
Table 19. Mean productivity under various conditions of technology use in culture of
cowpea in the state of CearA.
Method Yes No Relative
No. Mean (kg/ha) No. Mean (kg/ha) Gain (%)
Mixed cropping 16 325 62 548 68.6
Irrigation 36 734 42 303 142.2
Pesticide spraying 52 598 26 309 93.5
Mechanized soil
preparation 45 635 33 321 97.8
Fertilizer 27 766 55 401 90.8
Table 20. Average variable cost of production using different technologies in culture of cowpea in the state of Ceard.
Cost of labor Cost of other factors Total cost
Method Yes No % Yes No % Yes No %
Mixed cropping 9382 6885 36.3 3653 1665 19.4 13034 8550 52.4 Irrigation 10287 7571 35.9 5413 1252 33.2 15701 8823 77.9
Pesticide spraying 9704 7067 37.9 4105 1308 21.4 13808 8375 64.9 Mechanized soil
preparation 9633 7722 24.7 4687 1107 23.4 14321 8830 62.2
Fertilizer 9988 8673 15.2 7094 2661 16.7 17082 11334 50.7
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Table 21. Median variable costs of production per hectare of cowpea (Vigna
unguiculata) on farms of different sizes.
No. of Cost of labor (A) Other cost Total cost (A+B)
Size class farms % (per ha) factors (B) Cr$ US$
I (<50 ha) 33 42.3 9012 3719 12731 153.40
11 (6-10 ha) 15 19.2 7415 3873 12287 136.00
III (11-50 ha) 25 32.0 9062 1929 10991 132.42
IV (51-100 ha) 5 6.4 10630 3693 14323 172.57
Total or avg. 78 99.9 8825 3173 11998 144.55
Table 22. Matrix of correlations (standard error) of economic variables associated with cowpea production.
Cost of Cost of Cost
Production Yield from spraying Cost of preparing without Cost of Total
returns irrigation pesticides fertilizing soil labor labor costs Production 1.00 0.52 0.267 0.907 0.400 0.664 0.325 0.551
returns (0.0001) (0.055) (0.0007) (0.007) (0.0001) (0.004) (0.0001)
Yield from 1.0 0.099 0.508 0.411 0.757 0.255 0.534
irrigation (0.48) (0.16) (0.005) (0.0001) (0.024) (0.0001)
Cost of
spraying 1.0 0.863 0.338 0.398 0.341 0.459
pesticides (0.006) (0.038) (0.0035) (0.013) (0.0006)
Cost of 1.0 0.706 0.847 -0.43 0.511
fertilizing (0.05) (0.004) (0.244) (0.16)
Cost of soil 1.0 0.742 -0.12 0.172
preparation (0.0001) (0.436) (0.265)
Cost without 1.0 0.195 0.587
labor (0.09) (0.001)
Cost of 1.0 0.908
labor (0.0001)
Total costs
(labor + machinery) 1.0
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Table 23. Productivity (kglha) of different cultivars of cowpea in CearA.
No. of Productivity
Name of cultivar fields (kglha)
BR-i Paty' 33 623.4
Corujab 30 464.0
EPACE7 11 466.0
Vinagre b 2 838.0
Barrigudob 2 234.2
CanapUMb 3 214.2
Quarentenhab 2 443.3
Pitiuba' 12 573.3
Casca Pubal 5 234.3
Sempre Verde 1 800.0
Carioca (P. vulgaris)' 2 1086.7
*Breeder's line
Native line
100
S70
60
c50
0
0-30
0
- 0
5 10 15 20 25 28 30 32
Temperature C'C)
Mode of germination:
0 germ tubes capillicanidiophores [Q replicative conldiophores
Fig. 1. Influence of temperature on the miode of germination of oval primary and secondary spares of Zoophthora raf cans on Empoasca kraemed.
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80
70 60 60
F
C 40
C
20"
M104 20/04 23/04 2104 0/04 04/06 07/06
0.78
o o&
* 1
D
0 E
V
CL
A 102
L M
16 10M
6- 4
0 1
WD4 2004 28/94 29/94 30/94 040 07/0 DaA
Fig. 2. Percent infection of Empoasca kraemeri by Zoophthora radicans following applications of dry mycelium in a bean field in Sao Paulo, Brazil with associated inoculum and environmental moisture data. Mean percent infection is reported for fungus-treated plots (---), untreated plots located approximately 5 m from the treated plots (-), and untreated plots located 18 and 36 m from the treated plots (-..*.*). Inoculum levels are expressed as the number of leafhopper cadavers supporting active (sporulating) fungus per trifoliate and moisture is recorded as the number of hours during which foliage was wet each night and and daily rainfall in mam.
A 10-50U 4A
A
L
T0 2
Fig. 2. Percent infection of Empoasca kraemneri by Zoo phthora radicans following applications of dry mycelium in a bean field in Sao Paulo, Brazil with associated inoculum and environmental moisture data. Mean percent infection is reported for fungus-treated plots (--,untreated plots located approximately 5 m from the treated plots (-), and untreated plots located 18 and 36 m from the treated plots (..). Inoculum levels are expressed as the number of leafhopper cadavers supporting active (sporulating) fungus per trifoliate and moisture is recorded as the number of hours during which foliage was wet each night and and daily rainfall in mm.
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30
20
26
241
22
36- C 20
301 IS.
A 8 12AN 10
16/04 20104 23104 28104 30104 04/05 07108 4
DATA 21
Fig. 3. Temperature expressed as the daily maximum, minimum, and hourly mean 0,t9 0,23 0,27 43 03 0,39 0,43 0,47 0,i1
recoded within the canopy of a been field In Sao Paulo, Brazil following applications of LARGIJRA DA CAPSULA CEFi(LICA Z~ o hth ra adi ans forlea h op er ont ol.FI .S. C u r v a de d i s t r i b u i~ l o de f r e q ufin c i a s d e 1 ar q2L
ras de Cipsulas Cefflicas de C. arcuata em Cau pi (Viq a uTnquiculata).
280
240
dt 220 0V0S/q < 15 >2.749 1291,6
200 OOS/q TOTAL 1097,9
180
0
following applications of Zoophthora radicans. Numbers of leafhoppers per trifoliate 60 are reported for funguS-Ireated plots (--,untreated plots located approximately 5 m W~ 4a from the treated plots (-), and untreated plots located 15 and 38 m from the treated 2
1 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 1t0 120126 DIAS DE OVIPOSIQAO
Fig. 6. 1 16mero mdio de eves per f~mea de C. ar
Cuata a intervals de 10 dies.
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7
-90
6
-70
- 60
5 50 0
-
400
30 C
20
0~ 10
30
3 4 5 6 7 8 9
TI ME (DAYS)
Figure 7. Bioassay of Beauveria bassiana (ARSEF 731) conidia against second instar Diabrotica undecimpunctata larvae.
Symbol and line legend:
- 2-4 x 103 conidia/mm, -4-6 x 103 conidia/mm
*- -6-8x103 conidia/mm2; .*8-10 xl10 conidia/mm
*-- -10-12 x 103 conidia/mm2
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125-250 um diameter 250-500 um diameter
108 11 108
STANDARD STANDARD
Cn
N 1 10
< 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14
Z 10 8 108
0
6 LYOPHILIZED LYOPHILIZED
1 0 7 t l I l I I I III IIl 1 0 7
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 TIME (WEEKS)
Figure 8. Conidia production from two sizes of B. bassiana
(ARSEF 731) standard and lyophilized mycelium particles stored
at different temperatures.
Symbol and line legend:
S 40C; y" 11OC; m ...... 210C; -30C
-53-




125-250 um diameter 250-500 um diameter
108 108
STANDARD STANDARD

E 107 10 7
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14
_10 10" io
0
U LYOPHILIZED LYOPHILIZED
6
z
............... ...
E 10 71 107
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 TIME (WEEKS)
Figure 9. Conidia production from two sizes of M. anisopliae (ARSEF
925) standard and lyophilized mycelium particles stored at different
temperatures.
Symbol and line legend:
0 40C; V -- 1VC; N ......210OC; *- -300C
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I II I / / I I I
-7/1 ,- ,,-71/ i,,
10
a a
100 a -- ---,-abs ab .C z
z b ab .10C En
80 -{ --.60 6
rni b ."- 10 -M
40
c *b 05
20 -0"
cdo 0
c
d C C
0 =71Z i ,--- -I _/ i i 4
0 20 25 30 35 0 20 25 30 35
TIME (DAYS) TIME (DAYS)
Figure 10. Bioassay number 1: Mean Japanese beetle mortality and mean M. anisopliae soil titer. Means within each sample date with the
same letter are not significantly different (P<0.05; LSMEANS
Procedure, [SAS, 1985]). Error bars denote standard deviation.
Symbol and line legend:
V - -control; 0 conidia; El ........ S<125; 0 S125;
S........ S250; *- L125; A- -L250
Mortality in the L1 25 and L250 treatments was 100% for all sample dates.




M. anisoptiae
JB Mortality Soil Titer
7
I I I I I I Ii i I I I I I
100 600 600 10
100 -" -T
6 0 -. / -,o - - e-.1
40 :/ ... C 10
/
80 -60
20 -, -- t t t t t t t 1 5 "<12 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 12 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 :;
,I.llII
60-
0 /
pM
40 7i i
01 2 6 8 9 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
II I
100 120K
~ 07'1?10 6 (.
80 --0
80
-j 60
-56
40 10
20
U z 01
12 3 4 5 6 7 8 91 23456789
100 C control s
Legend:
80 .-. 21 C, 41 % MS
600- -0- 21 0C, 65% MS
U-0-----U 27C, 41% MS
40 ~ 27C, 65% MS
20
TIME (WEEKS)
Figure 11. Effect of soil environment on mean Japanese beetle grub mortality and mean M. anisopliae titer in soil that was inoculated with either 600 or 120 PCMV plus an uninoculated control soil. Error bars denote standard error of the mean.
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B. brongniartii
EC Mortality Soil Titer
10
I II I I I I I I I I 10 c
Z
100 120 120 C
(n
80 1060 -2
40 -- -- 0
-/ C(/)
- 20 /- /-5
O .0
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
LUJ LL
0
Z 100 Control
LU
CL.. Legend:
0 80 -D 0 210C, 41% MS
L 60 o--- -o 210C, 65% MS
-------- 270C, 41% MS
40- o---- 270C, 65% MS
20
0 I I
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
TIME (WEEKS)
Figure 12. Effect of soil environment on mean European chafer grub mortality and mean B. brongniartii titer in soil that was inoculated with 120 PCM plus an uninoculated control soil. Error bars denote standard error of the mean.
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r 7."" 0
10
eO
(q,40 0.Fig. 13. Appressorium formation by Z. radicans using three yeast extract
concentrations and three volumes of liquid medium 24 hr postinoculation at
25C in the dark.
o30
tions, 15 hr postinoculation on water agar.
-58
"10 "1
Fi adIS.anpsst u f or meatures b adic sn three yeast extract cneta conrtions an15e olmso iui eim2 hr postinoculation atwtr gr
25*C in he-5ark




100 G e
80
60
soo
20 Appressria
0
64.0 74.5 79.5 94.0
Maltose (mOsm) 100oo B
80 so
r 60
S
IL 40
20
Appressria
0
64.0 77.0 94.5 144.0
Polstysr my/o (0- )
Fig. 15. Formation of germ tubes and appressoria of Z. radicans
under different concentrations of (A) maltose and (B) polyethylene glycol 24 hr postinoculation at 25*C.
100 o
80 Germ tube
60
I. 40
20 Appressoria
0 I
0 20 40 60 80 100
Time (days)
Fig. 16. Percent formation of germ tubes and appressoria by _.
radicans 24 hr postinoculation as affected by subculturing weekly
at 250C. Fungal cultures maintained at 20*C on SDAY.
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100
80Germ tubes
S60
*
4. 40
20
Appresrsia
0
4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0 8.0 9.0 10.0 pH
Fig. 17. Formation of germ tubes and appressoria by Z. radicans in
1% yeast extract at different pHs 24 hr postinoculation at 25C.
100 90 --
Germ tubes 8070 60
4) 50
0.c) 40
30
0 -Appressoria 10 0
10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3
pCa
Fig. 18. The effect of external Ca' concentration on germination and
appressorium formation. Cells were maintained in each concentration for
24 hr in the dark. pCa = -log[Ca'i'].
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100 ,
90
9 ~Germ tubes
80 70
60
o 50 A 40
30 Appressoria
20 10
00 10 9 8 7 6
pNd
Fig. 19. The effect of concentration of external NdC13 on germination
and appressorium formation. Cells were maintained in each
concentration for 24 hr in the dark. pNd = -log[Nd3*].
100
0 Germ tubes
70
S60
50 40
30 Appressoria
20
10 1
0 I I
0 2 4 6 B 10
Nifedipine (gM)
Fig. 20. The effect of nifedipine on formation of germ tubes and
appressoria determined 24 hr after inoculation. All treatments
included 0.25% DMSO.
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100 -,
90
80
70
60
50
40
30 L Appressoria(*
20 10 0
0 10 20 30
TMB-8 (pM)
Fig. 21. The effect of TMB-8 on germination and differentiation.
Differentiation was determined 24 hr postinoculation.
100 100
A B
60 o .Germ tubes 0
Gem tubes
40 1 40
Appressrle
20 20
0 o 0 !'I
05 De nriaA
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 0 5 10 15 20 25 30
.Calmidazolium (AM) Trifluoperazine ( rAM)
100 100 1 1 1
40 40 r appear
Appresor
fluoperazine. c) W-7. d) W-5. Differentiation was determined 24 hr postinoculation. The experiment with W-5 was repeated two
times with three replicates per experiment.
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o 20 40 60 60 t00 20 40 60 80 100
W-7 (IpM) W-5 (AsM)
Fig. 22. The effect of Caeicalmodulin complex inhibitors on formation of germ tubes and appressoria formation. a) R24571. b) Trifluoperazine. c0 W-7. d) W-5. Differentiation was determined 24 hr postinoculation. The experiment with W-5 was repeated two
times with three replicates per experiment.
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CAMEROON PURDUE UNIVERSITY
PRESERVATION OF POST HARVEST COWPEAS BY SUBSISTENCE FARMERS IN CAMEROON
Principal Investigators:
Larry Murdock (U.S.) Department of Entomology Purdue University
Zachee Boli (HC) Experiment Station/Maroua Institut de la Recherche Agro.
Co-Investigators:
Ousman Boukar Agronomy/Garoua Institut de la Recherche
Endondo Chevalier Department of Agronomy Institut de la Recherche
Laurie W. Kitch Department of Entomology Purdue University
Georges Ntoukam Entomology/Maroua Institut de la Recherche
Richard E. Shade Department of Entomology Purdue University
Moffi E. Ta'Ama Entomology/Maroua Institut de la Recherche
Jane L. Wolfson Department of Entomology Purdue University
I. PROGRESS DURING FY 90
A. Specific Research Contributions
1. Research results
Third-year survey of farmer storage practices. When our project in
north Cameroon was initiated in 1987, we recognized that we didn't know enough about peoples' awareness of and attitudes about losses of cowpeas to storage pests, about the insect species involved, or
about postharvest storage practices. Reliable knowledge about these components of the system was essential if we were to (1) address the
most important insect constraint first, and not a secondary, local, or sporadic pest (2) develop effective technologies to relieve the
constraint and (3) devise technologies which would ultimately be
implementable. We believed that such knowledge would also serve as
a baseline to help us assess the impact of our project-developed
technologies after they began to be disseminated.
We obtained the required information by sending Dr. Jane Wolfson to Cameroon for three to five weeks during the storage season of each
of the first three full years of the project. In Cameroon, she
worked with IRA scientists and technicians and traveled extensively
through the region, observing cowpea storage among low resource
farms and interviewing women and men farmers. During the first year
she worked in Cameroon in November, during the second in January,
and during the third, in March. Following is a summary of her
observations made in March 1990, a time well into the storage
season. Her goals, as laid out in the FY 90 Research Workplan,
were: (1) to complete the description of cowpea storage
methodologies and of attendant insect infestations on low resource
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farms in areas previously covered in northern Cameroon; (2) to initiate the survey in previously unsurveyed area of Waza and further north and .(3) to seek additional information on economics of cowpea storage, particularly losses to bruchids.
In addition to interviews with 117 farmer households, from which cowpea samples were collected, 29 cowpea samples were purchased at 11 local markets. Localities visited in past seasons were again visited (areas around Maroua, Mokolo, Koza, Mora and Bogo). For the first time, the region around Waza and north of Waza was visited. The farmers interviewed belonged to 21 different ethnic groups. Twenty-five percent of the farmers visited in 1990 were re-visits from previous years in an attempt to confirm earlier responses. The information gathered confirmed and extended that gathered in previous years. Information was collected on (i) household demographics, (ii) cowpea agronomic practices, (iii) field size and
(iv) cowpea yields, (v) cowpea storage practices, (vi) farmer perceptions of cowpea storage losses, (vii) farmer's familiarity with bruchid weevils, (viii) cowpea consumption patterns, (ix) insecticide usage patterns and the factors influencing those patterns. Samples (50 pods or 100 g of seeds) obtained from farmers and markets were analyzed for bruchids and bruchid damage. Samples stored in pods were assessed for breakage. In addition, seed samples were brought back to Purdue for seed increase and testing for bruchid resistance (cf. section I.A.2.).
This year's data strengthens many of the conclusions drawn last year. Women were found, as before, to have primary responsibility for storage in most households. Further, they were involved in cowpea production in 92 percent of the households, although they often shared this responsibility with the men. Gender-specific responsibilities depended upon ethnic group, e.g., among the Kapski and Mandara only males stored cowpeas, whereas among the Mafa, Guidar, Guiziga and Moufou most storage was done by women.
Confirming earlier observations, it was clear that cowpea storage was generally a process; the crop is moved at least once at some time during the storage season. The "danki" (pole platform) was used as the primary storage site by all but 15 farmers. The length of storage on the danki ranged from less than one week to the entire dry season (until the rains began the following year); 11 percent stored on the danki less than one month, 39 percent one to two months, 22 percent three to five months, 28 percent six months or longer. The reasons people gave for moving the crop off the danki and into the second storage site and-in those cases where the danki was not used at all-the reason for not storing on the danki, were usually the same: insects. Eighty seven percent of farmers who did not use a danki treated their cowpeas immediately after harvest to control insects. Eighty two percent of farmers who used a danki indicated that insects were the key factor determining the time at which they moved and/or threshed and/or treated their stored cowpeas. Farmers were quite aware of the presence of weevils in the field and in storage; only eight of 115 farmers indicated that they did not see them.
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Our sampling in past years indicated that there are two important bruchids infesting cowpeas in this region; Bruchidius atrolineatus and Callosobruchu maculatus. These insects have different patterns of seasonal abundance, B. atrolineatus is common at harvest and then disappears while C. maculatus is uncommon at harvest but increases in numbers during storage. Some farmers spoke of two different weevils and indicated that they moved their cowpeas during the time when the first insect had decreased in number and before the second one began to increase. Farmers often explained that they moved their cowpeas off of the danki at the time of year when they did because, "if they moved them earlier they had greater losses and if they moved them later they had greater losses." This year, the logic of this explanation and the implied understanding of the insects dynamics that underlie it became clear.
In an attempt to gain a fuller understanding of the importance of cowpeas to the farmers in the region under study, farmers were asked about their cowpea consumption patterns. The results indicate that cowpeas are even more important to these farmers than we had imagined. Most farmers (62 percent) consume cowpeas every single day and 91 percent of these eat cowpeas at both daily meals. Less than 20 percent consumed cowpeas less than four times a week. Farmers have different strategies for replacing dietary cowpeas when their harvest has been consumed; 59 percent indicated that they purchase more cowpeas at the market; 24 percent indicated that they purchase if they have the funds to do so; 9 percent budget their cowpeas so that they do not run out and 7 percent do without when their stores are depleted, saying, "the sauce is thin."
Mean cowpea hectarage per household (mean number of household persons 11.9, mode 9) for cowpea cultivation is about 1 ha but in fact only 20 households grew cowpeas on over 1 ha (field size in the mountainous regions were not reported in hectares and are excluded from this discussion). The mean hectarage farmed per cowpea producer was only 0.25 ha. Cowpeas were grown as a monocrop by 27 percent of farmers, and intercropped with sorghum, millet or cotton by 67 percent of farmers; only 7 percent of farmers used both methods. All but 15 farmers rotated either their fields or rows within the fields.
Thirty one percent of farmers applied insecticides to their cowpeas in the field with the numbers of treatments numbering from 2-10. There were five reasons given for not applying insecticides. The most common reason (57 percent) was that insecticides were not available for the farmers to use. Farmers who do not have access to Sodecoton agents cannot obtain field insecticides but even those who do live in cotton growing regions often report that Sodecoton will not sell insecticides for non-cotton crops. Other reasons for not using insecticides are: (1) a general lack of information regarding insecticides (even that they exist and can be useful); (2) lack of money; (3) and that insecticides burn sorghum leaves which is important to farmers who intercrop. An even smaller proportion of the farmers interviewed use insecticides on their stored food grain (16 percent). Insecticides for storage are apparently more easily available than insecticides for field application; only 17 percent
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of farmers who use them report access problems. The most common reasons for not using insecticides on food grain were lack of cash (32 percent). no information regarding utility (18 percent), fear of toxicity ((16 percent);. and satisfaction with the current storage method (16 percent).
A little over half of the cowpea samples collected in March, 1990 (four to five months into the storage season) were grain samples (53 percent), the remaining samples were still in pods. At the time of collection, some samples were very heavily damaged (97 percent of the grains in the samples had holes), while other samples were undamaged. The numbers of insects emerging from the cowpeas within 35 days of sampling was monitored and ranged from 0 to over 2000. Storage methods associated with those samples having the smallest numbers of emerging insects were storage in drums, with ash, with herbs, and with insecticides although, some samples with few emerging insects were from untreated danki-stored pods that had been grown without insecticides.
We believe that the survey component of the project has successfully completed the goals set forth in the log frame. We now have a good understanding of (i) the storage practices that are used in northern Cameroon, (ii) the persons in the household responsible for production and storage, (iii) the methods currently used in attempts to mitigate losses. This information has strongly influenced our choice of research objectives and should assist the Cameroon national programs in targeting their extension activities. We also have baseline data on the insect infestation levels that farmers experience. We have not yet been able to sort out those components of the farmers production methods that contribute most significantly to reducing losses, and work needs to continue in this arena. Numerous herbs have been identified by farmers as protectants and should be evaluated.
During FY 91, it is our intention to complete the analysis of the data gathered during the three year survey, formulate the conclusions, and to publish the results as a formal report.
Assessment of farmer cowpea preferences and growing practices. Little or no published data exists concerning the types of cowpeas (plant and seed types) preferred by farmers in northern Cameroon. Because our project is seeking to breed cowpea types incorporating combined seed and pod resistance and thus suitable for storage, we began exploratory work to develop a better understanding of farmer preferences with respect to cowpea varieties. We conducted farmer interviews in 17 villages in two major farming system zones with the major objective to understand cowpea preferences and growing practices preferences among farmers in the region. This survey was conducted by Dr. Laurie Kitch and Mr. Georges Ntoukam.
Eight of the villages where interviews were conducted were selected from a list of representative villages developed by Dr. Jane Wolfson, based on her storage methods survey (i.e., representative of larger regions where particular storage practices predominate). Selection of other villages was based on discussions with NCRE/TLU
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(National Cereals Research and Extension Project/Testing and Liaison Unit) researchers who helped guide us to areas where cowpeas were considered an important crop. The 17 villages visited were found in two major farming system zones. One zone (Farming System Zone 1) was in the Mandara Mountains, northwest of Maroua, the other covered Farming System Zone 3, a large area of plains primarily south and west of Maroua. A total of 131 farmers were interviewed, many of whom were men. In each village, the chief was contacted and purpose of the visit explained. He was asked to help identify important cowpea farmers from the village to see their crop and discuss with them their cowpea cultivation practices. Interviews were normally conducted on-site, at the farmers' field, and were usually one-on-one where possible. Except for the responses to the question about constraints to production, the percentages given below are expressed as the percentage of responses given for each question since in some cases an individual farmer could respond more than once (for example, some farmers planted both in association and had another intercropped field of cowpeas, therefore the total number of responses was 138 rather than 131). Some of the principal observations are summarized below.
Mean area planted to cowpeas in this survey group was slightly more than one-half hectare. Nearly three-fifths of the interviewed farmers grew cowpea in association rather than as a monocrop. When cowpea was grown as a monocrop, the variety used was almost without exception a variety released by IRA (IRA varieties, developed as a result of the IRA/CRSP project, are VYA--a local, BR-l [IITA cultivar IT81D-9851 and BR-2 [IITA cultivar [IT81D-994). The mean yield was 260 kg/ha. The farmers got their seed primarily from the marketplace (43 percent), saved it themselves (32 percent) or got it from IRA or Sodecoton, the cotton parastatal (18 percent). Two farmers out of five regularly used insecticides. They say insects are the chief constraints to production or availability of cowpeas (89 percent said field insects are a problem, 55 percent said storage insects are a problem); other problems paled by comparison. Two farmers out of three store their cowpeas for at least one month after harvest; nine out of ten use some sort of treatment to preserve their store from insects (34 percent use insecticides, 34 percent ash, and 19 percent herbs). Farmers from the two zones strongly prefer large, white seeds, with brown and red seeds preferred by smaller but significant numbers. Favored pod characteristics are long and large, non-dehiscent, and white. Nearly four out of five people interviewed use cowpea leaves for "sauce," and nine out of ten use cowpeas as forage.
The results of the Kitch survey and the Wolfson survey summarized above are not formally comparable for geographical, methodological, socio-economic, ethnic, and seasonal reasons as well as the fact that the studies differed in objectives, approach, and personnel (male interviewer in one study, female in the other). Nevertheless, where there is overlap, our initial impression is that there is good overall agreement regarding (i) the importance of cowpea to low resource farmers, (ii) farmers' awareness of postharvest losses to insects, (iii) need for preventive measures (iv) actual preventive measures taken, (v) amounts of cowpeas stored after harvest in a
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typical farming unit, and (vi) importance of leaves as food and as fodder. From the outset, our project has tried hard to understand the views, attitudes, and remedies used by the eventual users of project-developed technologies, and to gain first-hand experience through observation. We saw these sources of information as the keys to developing effective and implementable technologies. The results of our surveys need yet to be more fully analyzed and summarized, but we feel that they have already benefitted our project enormously by increasing our understanding of the complexity of the human and agricultural systems in which we hope to intervene usefully.
Bases of seed and pod resistance to cowpea weevil. From the outset, our project strategy was to devise or adapt a variety of effective, implementable technologies which can protect cowpeas from cowpea weevil and other postharvest insect pests. North Cameroon has numerous ethnic groups, among whom there is a variety of postharvest cowpea storage and processing practices. To meet the needs of this variety of peoples who live in a range of agroecologies, we felt it was essential to provide a range of storage technologies which could be combined in different ways to promote cowpea storage. By doing so, we would also better serve the broader needs of the CRSP because the variety of technologies would likely include forms which could be exported to other regions or even applied to common bean as well.
One technology we are convinced will be useful and acceptable involves developing cowpea types which store well. Our idea was to breed cowpeas which combine seed and pod resistance traits. This would take into account the fact that farmers currently store cowpeas in pod form for extended periods before they thresh and subsequently store the cowpeas as loose grain. Cowpea types with combined seed and pod resistance should therefore be readily acceptable in current postharvest storage and processing systems. IITA researchers have laid an excellent foundation for our work by:
(1) developing cowpea lines with seed resistance to cowpea weevil; and (2) by recognizing that the cowpea pod can provide a substantial degree of protection against cowpea weevil as long as the pod wall remains intact.
Our approach was to build upon this knowledge by systematically screening cowpeas in pod form for overall resistance to cowpea weevil. Promising lines were then studied to ascertain the basis of combined seed/pod resistance. During the past year, we screened 30 cultivars as intact pods against cowpea weevil. Pod resistance was measured as pre-establishment larval mortality (PreM); those larvae dying after egg hatch but before penetrating into the seeds, and as post-establishment within-seed mortality (PostM). Among the 30 varieties examined, PreM ranged from 58 percent to 99.4 percent and PostM from 6.7 to 82.6 percent. Ten varieties exhibited total intact pod mortality greater than 95 percent.
In searching for the basis of intact pod resistance, we explored whether it was due to seed resistance factors, pod-wall factors, or to interactions between pod and seed. It was clear that resistance
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to breakage was a necessary characteristic for overall protection against the cowpea weevil, but that other factors are also important. In this connection we note parenthetically that we have observed that farmer-selected local cultivars from the region are invariably tough and non-dehiscent. Seed coat thickness was the factor among several tested (pod wall thickness, breakage index, pod strength, pod:seed ratio, seed cavity space, and seed coat thickness) which correlated highly with total mortality and pre-establishment larval mortality. Our conclusion is that it is the interactions between seed and pod which are decisive in PreM, not pod wall or seed characters alone. The methods and hypotheses developed during the last year will give much momentum to our goal of breeding for combined seed and pod resistance. As part of the process of developing this effort, Dr. Laurie Kitch has prepared a long term breeding plan.
Initial hybridizations to combine seed and pod resistance. Crosses have been made between/among the following varieties: IT8lD-985, IT81D-994, IT81D-1137, IT87S-1393, IT81D-897, VYA, and Maroua 16. The objectives are to transfer disease- and insect-resistant characteristics into local Cameroon lines (VYA and Maroua 16) as well as improving the pod resistance of materials such as IT81D-994 and IT81D-985. F, plants of these crosses are presently (November 1990) growing under irrigation for projected harvest of F2 seeds in December.
Crosses have been made between pod resistant lines TVu 1890, Tars 36 and pod susceptible lines IT81D-975 and TVx 3236. F, plants from these crosses are currently growing in an off-season nursery. They will be analyzed using methods developed in the past year to assess the inheritance of pod resistance.
Several highly pod-dehiscent lines have also been selected this year (from lines in the pod screening trial) which will be of potential use in inheritance studies of dehiscence.
Ash for postharvest preservation of copeas-laboratory studies.
Our surveys and observations among low resource farmers in north Cameroon had revealed that the use of ash for preservation of cowpeas was widespread, but that some users were not confident that the method was effective. The survey had also revealed that the amount of ash used and the details of the technology varied among farmers. We have continued our efforts to understand the conditions under which ash can protect cowpeas against cowpea weevils. Studies at Purdue by Jane Wolfson, Dick Shade, Paul Menzer, and Larry Murdock and by Georges Ntoukam in Cameroon demonstrated that: (1) co-storage of cowpeas and ash arrests the development of cowpea weevil infestations; (2) a minimum ratio of three volumes of ash to four volumes of cowpea completely arrests weevil population growth; and (3) a 3 cm layer of ash on top of a container of stored seeds will prevent reinfestation by adult weevils. On the basis of these observations, demonstration tests of this technology have begun in the early postharvest storage season of 1990 (cf. Section I.A.l. below).
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Solar disinfestation of cowpeas. During the past two years we have shown that cowpeas infested with cowpea weevil can be disinfested by heating them to 570C. for a few minutes, that all stages of this insect are killed, that germination and cooking time are little affected, at least with California Blackeye 5 (CB5) seeds, and that a simple, cheap solar heater will serve to produce the desired temperatures. During the past year we have continued our efforts to develop this methodology, understand its limitations, and bring it to farmers in demonstration tests. The results of the experiments of the past year have not been fully analyzed and are not yet available.
At Purdue, we have begun to examine more closely the effects on cowpea germination of exposure of cowpeas to elevated temperatures. In experiments carried out by Mr. Endondo Chevalier while he was studying for his M.S. degree in Agronomy at Purdue, exposure of CB5 seeds to temperatures as high as 80C for one hour did not significantly reduce germination, while at 85*C and above germination was substantially reduced. Plans are for Mr. Endondo to continue these experiments in Cameroon using the three cultivars released by IRA (VYA, BR-1, and BR-2).
In Cameroon, the solar treatment procedure has been improved and expanded. While data are not yet available, preliminary experiments indicate that the solar heater can be assembled using 3 m x 3 m squares of black and translucent plastic sheeting. With this expanded area, it is possible to treat 50 kg of cowpea seeds at a time, and to reach within seed temperatures of 70*C.
Varietal adaptation trials. A new approach has been adopted this year to simplify and bring more focus to the varietal screening trials procedure. In the past, a great deal of energy has been expended to take very precise yield data on large numbers of lines which are very clearly not adapted to the far north of Cameroon. This has been very demanding with regards to time as well as project resources. In view of the initiation of the breeding work and the upcoming need to evaluate larger number of breeding lines we adopted a new approach to evaluating exotic lines from IITA or from other sources.
Evidence of extent of use to date. In the fall of 1990 we have just begun to test our project-developed solar technology and our ash storage technology, working with the TLU and individual cowpea farmers. Results of our work are thus not yet disseminated, but are getting closer to the farmers. Our demonstration/testing plan follows: Tests will be carried out in cooperation with the Maroua TLU at four villages with ten farmers per village. Four storage techniques which are in the developmental stage will be demonstrated to obtain farmer feedback on the potential usefulness of each technology and possible changes to make the technology more practical or effective.
The tests will be conducted with two farmers assigned to each technique. Since farmers were earlier given seeds of either BR-2 or VYA to plant, their own harvest will be used for the tests. (It
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will be important to insure that tests are carried out with VYA only when possible.) If not, care must be taken that BR-2 is not used as
the local control .(since it has seed resistance). We observed
however, that in most fields farmers had mixed either locals or VYA
with BR-2, so that for most tests we will probably be using a
mixture of susceptible and resistant seeds.
Farmers will be asked to store their cowpeas unthreshed, in pod form, until the tests are conducted. Four technologies will be
evaluated: Ash storage, solar heater treatment followed by storage in double bag (clear), double bagging (sac en ecaille covered with
clear bag on outside), and long-term storage in pods on the danki of
BR-2, which has a breakage-resistant pod and seed resistance. In
each village, a local control treatment assigned to two farmers will
consist of storing cowpea seeds in sacks or granaries untreated.
The quantity of seed treated in the demonstrations will be 40kg.
An important aspect of the tests will be the artificial infestation of the farmers' seeds used in each treatment with bruchid infested
seeds from the laboratory. This infestation will be done at the
rate of 1 percent, i.e. 1 percent of the seeds used in each
demonstration will be infested seeds from our Maroua laboratory.
Each infested seed will have two to three bruchid larvae within
which will be expected to emerge within one week after setting up
the demonstration. This level of initial infestation is sufficient
to ensure that nearly every seed would be damaged by the end of
three to four months.
Based upon the results of these tests we shall develop technical
bulletins and recommendations to disseminate the information through
nation programs.
Information generated in the project is being made available through
publications submitted or in preparation (see below). Here it
should be pointed out that, thanks to the efforts of Mr. Georges
Ntoukam, our project has been identified as a lead center for cowpea
storage in the SAFGRAD RENACO network (RENACO is the West and
Central Africa Cowpea Research Network). Mr. Ntoukam has
participated as a board member of the network and has used this
mechanism to begin alerting other National Agricultural Scientists
in the region (cf. Section IV, Publications, below).
2. Other research-related results
Germplasm conservation and evaluation. Seed Resistance Bioassays.
A total of 166 cowpea accessions collected from individual farmers or purchased in local markets by Dr. Jane Wolfson were brought to
Purdue and assayed for resistance to cowpea weevil. Five lines
showed significant resistance as measured by delays in developmental
time-the most reliable measure of resistance--in a single blind
assay. However, all five lines proved to be improved types derived from IITA's TVu 2027. The materials collected are also being grown
out in Cameroon to assay for combined seed/pod resistance.
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Dr. Laurie Kitch and Mr. Georges Ntoukam also made a large collection of local varieties during 1990 and conducted preliminary bioassays for seed resistance. Eight promising lines were sent to Purdue for further evaluation. These lines are being grown out at the time of writing for subsequent assay. Preliminary indications are that one line may exhibit non-preference resistance, but confirmation is necessary.
Collections were also made this year of some locals near Mayo-Oldeme which appear to possess resistance or tolerance to flower thrips, in that under high infestation pressure (10 + thrips per flower) they continue to set four to five pods per raceme. This is a remote area in the Mandara Mountains where insecticides are not used, and this local variety is well known in the area for its tendency to set four to five pods per raceme while others typically only have one or at most two pods.
Pod Resistance Bioassays. The general objective of the pod resistance screening is to identify additional sources of pod resistance, especially among rough-seeded cowpea types. Approximately 300 exotic cowpea lines in addition to the above mentioned 150 locals (#2) have been grown out this year and pods harvested from all materials. We are presently multiplying the laboratory bruchid culture to begin the pod resistance screening.
Materials collected will be shared with Dr. Tony Hall of the UC Riverside CRSP project as well as made available to the IITA germplasm unit.
Seed production. While seed production is not a part of our project, the IRA CRSP activity has in the past assisted Project Semencier, the seed production activity in the north, by supplying foundation seed. Because of concerns about virus infestations on our research plots, we have not provided the seed production unit with seed during the past year. However, we are currently attempting to grow sufficient virus-free seed of three IRA-released varieties and make them available for seed increase next year.
Impact of otherCRSP-produced technology. None arising directly from our project as yet, but interest has been expressed to project participants concerning using solar heating for other crops, including common bean and maize Interest has also been expressed by USDA scientists in developing applications of the Purdue-developed biomonitor device to study other stored products insect species-the biomonitor being developed before we began participating in the CRSP.
Impact on production/storage of cowpeas. While systematic figures are not available, our surveys during the past year indicate that varieties identified as adapted to north Cameroon by the Georgia phase of the IRA-CRSP project and released by IRA are being accepted and disseminated in the region. Dr. Laurie Kitch's initial survey indicates that one farmer in four in the two Farming System Zones examined uses IRA-released varieties. It is premature to expect impact of our storage project, but initial impressions growing out
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of the first demonstration-tests of project developed storage
technologies indicate a high degree of interest among extension
agents and farmers. Our project continues to test, on a small
scale, insecticides available in the north for efficacy in
controlling cowpea insects in the field. Information on treatment schedules, application rates, sprayer types and methods are shared
with Sodecoton, a principal source of insecticides in the region.
How research findings address needs of small-scale farmers and
women. Our surveys (cf Section I.A.I.) show that women are heavily involved in cowpea production and storage in most regions and ethnic
groups in north Cameroon. The surveys by Dr. Wolfson and by Dr.
Kitch as well as observations by other CRSP team members have served
to sensitize us to the real problems and needs of small farmers,
including women. Because of this awareness, all of the technology
developed has the ultimate users of it in mind. We have learned
from the people extensively, for they have served as sources of
researchable ideas. Among their contributions are: (1) the notion of ash storage; (2) solar exposure of grain for drying--which led us to the idea of a solar heater for cowpea disinfestation (although we have learned subsequently that this idea of using solar heating for
disinfestation is not novel with us and acknowledge the prior
publication of solar heating for insect control by our colleagues at
the University of Georgia); (3) the use of local cultivars which
universally have tough, non-dehiscent pods; and (4) the widespread
use of storage of cowpeas in pod form.
3. Changes in national production/consumption of beans/cowpeas in the
Host Country. No data available.
B. Institutional Development and Training
The project is on track with regards to its long-term plan of developing
a team of IRA researchers (entomologist/agronomist/breeder) capable of
dealing with cowpea and related legumes. Under this plan, Mr. Chevalier
Endondo completed his degree in production agronomy at Purdue
University, West Lafayette, IN, in August 1990. Plans are for Mr.
Georges Ntoukam, IRA entomologist, to begin work toward his Ph.D early
in 1991. Mr. Boukar Ousman, IRA cowpea breeder, will work with Dr.
Laurie Kitch on cowpea breeding for storage resistance and thereby gain
experience and develop his capacity as a breeder. In due course, he
will go on for training as a cowpea breeder.
C. Progress Achieved in Relation to the Extension Proposal Log Frame
We have made considerable progress toward developing cowpea storage
technologies suitable for low resource farmers in Cameroon to minimize
losses to storage insects. We have far greater understanding of the
role of cowpea in the farm/family/nutritional economy of low resource
farmers in the north, the role of women, and the nature of post-harvest
processing. We have convincing evidence that ash storage is an
effective method for storing small to medium amounts of cowpeas and we are currently preparing a technical bulletin describing how ash can be
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used by low resource people for cowpea storage. As part of the process
of preparing that bulletin, we are (autumn 1990) testing the methods
with groups of cooperating farmers in four villages in north Cameroon.
We have made substantial strides toward developing a disinfestation technique using solar heating and cheap materials, and are likewise
testing the method with cooperating farmers. With further experience,
we believe it may be possible to treat as much as 50 kg of cowpeas at a
time-roughly one third of an average family's yield. Other technologies are at various stages of development and further
exploration, including double bagging, drum storage with insecticide, and co-storage with botanicals. We have laid the basis for breeding
cowpea types which will store well, and have initiated a breeding effort which will lead to types adapted to the region, which have combined seed
and pod resistance and which will "fit in" to the cowpea processing
systems people now use.
We have likewise made excellent progress toward developing an
institutional capacity in IRA to deal with cowpeas, as outlined above.
Considering that our project is has just completed its third full year,
and that we are already virtually on the threshold of beginning to
disseminate project-developed technology, we feel we have fulfilled or
exceeded every reasonable expectation.
D. Evidence of Biological/Social Sciences Integration
From the outset our project sought to develop technology which will be
implementable. We felt that to succeed in doing this it would be
absolutely essential that we understand the sociological and biological
milieu in which we are working. Accordingly, we have expended
considerable resources in each of the first three years to sensitively assess the roles of both women and men in the growing, processing, and
marketing of cowpeas-primarily the work of Dr. Jane Wolfson, who
frequently obtained excellent guidance from Dr. Ann Ferguson at MSU.
While not yet completely analyzed, Dr. Wolfson's data and input (plus
those of all team members in or visiting Cameroon) have profoundly
affected decisions about the kinds of research we should undertake (ash,
solar, bagging, plant breeding) both at Purdue and in Cameroon.
E. Collaboration with Other Bean/Cowpea CRSP Projects; Linkages with Other
CRSPs, and Other External Groups
Our project has enjoyed good relationships with other CRSP projects,
particularly those which deal with cowpeas. We have shared germplasm
with the Hall/Riverside project-have grown our some 150 lines of
cowpeas from Senegal in Cameroon during the last year, looking for pod
resistant types, given entomological advice, traded visits at various
times, etc. We have also enjoyed cordial relationships with the
McWatters/UGA project. The IRA/Purdue project has likewise collaborated
with Judith Hall, who was associated with the Roberts/BTI project,
assessing the efficacy of various oil treatments--devised for common
bean protection against common bean weevil--on cowpeas weevils. Leaders
of the three ongoing CRSP cowpea projects have agreed to meet sometime
in the coming year-and perhaps annually after that--to increase the
level understanding among the projects, to open new channels for
communication, and to explore specific opportunities for collaboration.
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The Purdue CRSP teams collaboration with IITA is excellent. All of the
CRSP team members, plus many other Purdue scientists from four departments are participating in a concerted effort to bring
biotechnology to bear on cowpea improvement. Principal objectives are
to introduce insect resistance into cowpea (1) through interspecific
hybridization and (2) through specific gene transfer. Ongoing
collaborative work involves scientists from the IITA Grain Legume
Improvement Program led by Dr. S.R. Singh and a team of scientists from
several Italian Institutes, led by Professor Luigi Monti of the
University of Naples. Scientists from several additional U.S.
universities are beginning to participate in the work, including Professors Oyette Chambliss (cowpea breeder) and Narendra Singh
(molecular biology) of Auburn University, Prof. Nevin Young of the
University of Minnesota (RFLP analysis), and Prof. Richard Pratt, of
Ohio State University (interspecific hybridization). These researchers
plus nine Italians (including Board Member Gerardo Perlsasca), and eight
from IITA (including GLIP Director S. R. Singh and Deputy Director General--Research Ken Fischer), convened at Purdue University, West
Lafayette, IN, July 16-19, 1990 to discuss research related to the use of biotechnology for cowpea improvement. The intention of the group is
to seek major funding for cowpea improvement for insect resistance
through biotechnology under a collaborative program that would encompass
a Purdue-led consortium of American universities, IITA-GLIP, and the
Italian Institutes led by Professor Monti.
Cordial relations continue with Dr. B.B. Singh, IITA cowpea breeder and
officer-in-charge of IITA's Kano Substation, where a large effort is
being mounted to breed cowpeas adapted for intercropping. The CRSP team
has kept up a steady collaboration with Dr. B.B. Singh for more than five years; most recently we are completing a study of the impact of locality on the expression of the cowpea weevil resistance character.
Dr. B.B. Singh visited Purdue to discuss this and related matters in
early October 1990.
The Purdue CRSP team is also maintaining good relations with CIAT. Many
of the techniques and technologies developed for cowpea weevil are
potentially applicable to common bean bruchids as well. Most recently, Larry Murdock was an invited participant to CIAT's week-long meeting in
Cali, Colombia, to form an "Advanced Phaseolus network."
II. FUNDING/FISCAL MANAGEMENT
A. Problems Regarding Funding
We continue to experience some degree of delay in funds reaching the
project in Maroua. Revolving fund expenses are reimbursed to the
IRA/CRSP team in Maroua upon arrival of receipts at Purdue University.
Turn-around time at Purdue is about one or two weeks. The reimbursement is then sent to IRA/Yaounde by wire or by DHL for subsequent transfer to
Maroua. While funds have sometimes been passed on rapidly, at other
times there have been substantial delays in their reaching Maroua. In
those cases, project activities have been hindered due to lack of funds,
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sometimes seriously. Consequently, project personnel have sometimes
found it necessary to use personal funds to keep project activities
going while awaiting reimbursement--in effect making personal loans to
the project.
This is not only bad for morale, it is a drag on project performance.
B. Adequacy of Current Management System
The most serious problem relates to procurement of capital items that
are not of American source origin. We applied for permission to
purchase a Toyota or Nissan truck for the project in November of 1989
and we are still, in November 1990, awaiting approval from
USAID/Washington. Our reasons for wanting a Toyota or Nissan are
remarkably simple--dealers of each and service for each are available in
the area, while dealers and service for American origin vehicles are
not. Fortunately, we have been able to maintain project activities
during the interim for a simple reason indeed--the USAID Mission/Yaounde
made available to us for the time being a serviceable vehicle--a Toyota
Landcruiser, incidentally. Why each purchase of each non-American
source origin capital item takes a year or more is hard to understand.
These delays damage morale and project performance.
C. Activity Towards Buy-Ins or Other Funding
Working with the USAID Mission in Yaounde, our project requested and obtained a buy-in for the sum of $81,000. These funds served to keep
our project viable during the period of transition between Phase II and
Phase III of the NCRE project. During Phase II of the NCRE project,
resources had been made available to support an ex-patriate scientist assigned to the project. Because IRA project scientists are trained only at the Ing. Agronome or M.S. degree level, and require guidance,
mentoring, as well as further training, the FY 90 Mission buy-in served to support the expenses of a Purdue CRSP scientist who spent six months
in Cameroon providing administrative guidance to the project, serving as
mentor and collaborator to the IRA scientists, as well as pursuing specific research objectives related to the 1990 Project Workplan.
Outputs of the activity will include solar heater kits ready for extensive on-farm testing, a technical bulletin on ash storage of
cowpeas, a technical bulletin on drum storage, a technical bulletin on
double bagging storage techniques, identified adapted cowpea lines
possessing seed, pod, and combined seed/pod resistance, production of virus-free seed of BR-1 for Project Semencier, and completion of M.S.
training for one IRA scientist, and initiation of Ph.D training for an
IRA entomologist.
Funding to support or enhance project activities was also made available from other sources: (i) from a French project in Maroua coordinated by Mr. Rene Billaz, approximately $8,000 to cover all costs of cowpea work
by IRA cowpea breeder Mr. Boukar Ousman, who is based at the IRA
Sanguere Antenna, Garoua; (ii) from the EEC, $6,000 to cover costs of
pre-extension trials of IRA/CRSP project-developed technology (iii) from
SAFGRAD/RENACO, $2,000 for general project support.
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In October 1990, Larry Murdock and Laurie Kitch prepared, at the request of Mr. Ernest Gibson, ADO at USAID/Yaounde, a draft preproposal for additional buy-in activity covering the years 1991-1994.
The Purdue Bean/Cowpea CRSP team is the core of a larger Purdue group called RIISP (Research Initiative: Insects of Stored Pulses). RIISP scientists are from four different academic departments, and work on a variety of aspects of improvement of beans and cowpeas in international agriculture. While the primary focus is on insect resistance, we employ traditional and biotechnology-based approaches to seed and plant improvement. The success of the group is reflected in the funding it has received--this funding does not impinge directly on the goals of the CRSP cowpea storage project, but it is extremely beneficial to the project nevertheless. Current funding of non-CRSP RIISP activities include: USDA Competitive Grant, PI L.L. Murdock, Co-PIs R.E. Shade and J. Huesing, funding $85,000 for 1990--1992, to carry out structure/activity and mode of action studies of lectins on insects, including the cowpea weevil--lectin genes may prove useful in introducing insect resistance into cowpea through gene transfer.
USDA Competitive Grant, PI L.L. Murdock, Co.-PI Jane Wolfson, funding $100,000 for 1987--June 1991, to assess the impact on Mexican bean beetle of feeding on foliar cysteine proteinase inhibitors--genes coding for cysteine proteinase inhibitors may prove useful for introducing resistance into cowpea through genetic engineering.
USAID Title XII Program Support Grant Funds, L.L. Murdock and R.E. Shade, Co-P.I's, $20,000 for FY 1991, to support activities related to international work of the RIISP group, including evaluation of effects of lectins on cowpea weevil.
Purdue/IITA Memorandum of Understanding, PI L.L. Murdock, Co-PIs R. A. Bressan (Horticulture), R.E. Shade, S.S. Nielsen (Food Science), P.M. Hasegawa (Horticulture), P.E. Dunn (Entomology), $450,000 total for January 1989 through December 1991), to lay the basis for introducing insect resistance into cowpea using biotechnology (interspecific hybridization and genetic transformation using recombinant DNA).
USAID Special Centers Constraints grant, PI P.M. Hasegawa, Co-PIs L.L. Murdock, R.A. Bressan, L.W. Kitch, and R.E. Shade. $90,000 for 1989-1991, to lay the basis for introducing resistance to pod bug and pod borers into cowpea, focusing mainly on interspecific hybridization, in collaboration with IITA.
Purdue University "Crossroads '90" funding, to develop a program for alternative insect management strategies (AIMS) for Indiana, focusing on biotechnology and biological control for insect pest management. L.L. Murdock will be Director of the program, participants include R.A. Bressan, P.M. Hasegawa, P.E. Dunn, R.E. Shade, J. Stuart, S.S. Nielsen, and J. Neal. Funding is $82,500 for three years, July 1990 through July 1993. Activities will include laying the basis for biotechnological improvements of maize for insect resistance using tools, concepts and techniques developed under RIISP.
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III. PROJECT STATUS
A. Appropriateness of Activities to Goals of the Global Plan
We feel that our goals are on target. Our strategy is to develop a
repertoire of technologies which can be used by low resource farmers to store cowpeas from harvest to harvest. These technologies will include
ash storage, cowpea lines with seed and pod resistance, solar heating,
special storage containers, in drums, and with fumigants or
insecticides. In addition, we are in hot pursuit of biotechnological improvements of cowpea-using other sources of funds. Any given low resource farmer (and more affluent farmer as well) in Cameroon--woman
or man-who has cowpeas to store, should find among this
project-developed variety of technologies forms which they can use,
combine in different ways, and afford.
If we indeed succeed in developing and helping disseminate these
technologies to the people of Cameroon and if, as a result, they can
store their cowpeas for much longer periods without loss to insects (or with mitigated loss, at least), we will have succeeded in improving the
lot of small farmers in an LDC and contributing to the solution of a
persistent problem of cowpea production and utilization in an important
area of production.
It may be useful to note that most of the technologies we are
developing are not site- or culture -specific, but can fairly easily be
adapted to other sites or cultures, other commodities, and other
storage pests. Thus we can be confident that the solar technology
could be used to disinfest maize (on the cob or in loose grain form)
infested with maize or rice weevils. The same is probably true for ash
storage, and even for insect resistance genes we identify. Thus, the outputs of our project developed in Cameroon should have far broader
application elsewhere.
B. Balance Between Research and Training
We are committed to training one HC scientist with CRSP funds on a
continuing basis until we will have trained a team of three IRA
researchers, two with M.S. degrees, one in production agronomy, and one
in plant breeding, and a Ph.D. in entomology. This is as far as our
resources can stretch if we are to maintain a viable research effort in
Cameroon: with one of the project scientists out of the country for
training, only two are left to maintain project momentum. We
understand that there is a possibility that the NCRE project may
provide training for one additional IRA/CRSP scientist in Phase III.
C. Balance of Domestic vs. Overseas Activities
We feel that the balance is about right. The more basic aspects of technology development are initiated at Purdue and the more applied
aspects carried forward in the Host Country.
D. Level of Collaboration/Cooperation Between U.S. and HC Institutions
The Purdue and IRA scientists plan their research collaboratively in
annual two to four week-long review and planning sessions, developing a
detailed workplan which is the basis of the following season's work.
Individuals have clear responsibilities under the plan. Purdue
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scientists have visited Cameroon frequently, in some cases for periods lasting several months, to carry out research, conduct surveys, and to
assist in project administration as well as day-to-day management
(during the period since the ex-patriate departed the project). We
feel we are a highly collaborative team, and that the HC team is
getting steadily stronger as a result of training and shared experience.
E. Relative Contributions of Collaborating Institutions and Individuals
The Purdue team has contributed project leadership and guidance and has
led the effort to develop the more basic aspects of the work. The
Cameroon side has contributed greatly to adapting the methodologies to
Cameroon materials and needs, e.g. in developing, from the prototype solar heater which could handle one or two kg of seeds, a practical,
improved heater technology that can treat 40-50 kg of seeds at a time.
The same is true for ash storage technology development. Both sides
have contributed substantially and importantly to project progress.
IRA has supported the project very well in providing scientists,
technicians, and facilities. A further dissection of relative
contributions is hardly useful in a project which is still very new
compared to most other Bean/Cowpea CRSP projects.
F. Interest, Involvement, and Support of USAID Mission and/or U.S. Embassy
The USAID Mission/Yaounde has been very supportive of the project.
This is evident by the encouragement the project gained from A.I.D.
officers during the difficult transition year, 1989, by the $81,000
buy-in provided by the Mission during 1990, and by the request of the
new ADO, Mr. Ernest Gibson, for a preproposal for an additional buy-in.
G. Evidence of Institutionalization
IRA's assignment of three scientists, plus other resources available to
it through a French contribution, reflects a mature, long-term
commitment to develop a research capacity capable of dealing with this
important crop over the long term.
The IRA/CRSP facilities (laboratories, offices, and storage room) at Djarengol (in Maroua) now available to the project reflect a further
commitment of IRA to this project and activity. It is heartening that when space recently became available in the main building at Djarengol,
it was assigned to the project for use as a storage research space.
When this project started in 1987, technicians and scientists knew
little about storage insects, their culture, biology, handling
procedures, and bioassay techniques. After a bit more than three
years, there is a fully functioning storage entomology laboratory at Djarengol, to which is now being added an important new storage area
where project experiments and research can be stored under controlled and secure conditions. Technicians have been trained in many aspects of storage entomology as well as in collection of survey data, record
keeping, and other procedures.
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H. Other Comments
While our project has made much progress, we are currently in a
critical situation as regards continuing our work in Cameroon. To keep
project activities going in Cameroon while one or more IRA scientists
are away for training, it is absolutely essential that a more
experienced scientist be available in Maroua to (i) to carry out
numerous project management duties on site, assisting the younger IRA scientists (ii) carry forward the breeding work (hybridizations, pod
screening), to which the project is committed (iii) to collaborate in
continuing entomological studies and to push forward storage technology
development (iv) coordinate and collaborate with the NCRE phase II
project and with the TLU units to develop needed technological packages needed by small farmers. If this buy-in is funded, our project will be
in excellent condition to pursue its goals over the next four years.
If the buy-in is not funded, we will face the prospect of severely
reduced output of research on the Cameroon side. Considering how far
we have come in three years, we question whether we could accept a
severely curtailed research output in Cameroon--while being forced to
abandon our breeding effort because we would not be financially able to
maintain our Purdue CRSP scientist in Cameroon for the required length
of time-and we feel that our notion of combining seed and pod
resistance through breeding is an innovative and exciting one and we
wish not to abandon it.
Lacking a buy-in (1) we may have to leave Cameroon and seek a site
elsewhere where the needs are similar but where the national program can commit additional and more-experienced scientists to the effort;
(2) we may try to find resources elsewhere-though there seem to be few
sources at present.
IV. PUBLICATIONS AND PRESENTATIONS
L.W. Kitch, R.E. Shade, and L.L. Murdock. 1991. Resistance to the cowpea
weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus, in pods of cowpea, Vigna unguiculata.
Entomologia exp. appl, accepted pending revision.
J.L. Wolfson, R.E. Shade, P. Menzer, and L.L. Murdock. Ash storage for
postharvest preservation of cowpeas. in preparation.
L.L. Murdock and R.E. Shade. Eradication of cowpea weevil infestations
using solar heating. American Entomologist, accepted pending revision.
G. Ntoukam. 1990. Searching for suitable storage methods of cowpea.
SAFGRAD/Newsletter. No. 24, 8-9, June.
L.W. Kitch, L.L. Murdock, and R.E. Shade. 1990. Resistance to
Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) in pods of cowpea Vigna unguiculata. Plant
Resistance to Insects Newsletter 16: 50-51.
G. Ntoukam. 1989. L'Utilisation de l'energie solaire dans la lutte contre
les predateurs du niebe en stockage (Callosobruchus maculatus).
Symposium volume: Reunion Biannuelle de Presentation des Resultats de la
Recherche. Yaounde, Cameroon, 6-10 Fevrier, 1989.
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L.L. Murdock. 1990. "Research + Solar Energy = Lower Crop Losses" Note in
the Information Memorandum for the Administrator, USAID, July 20, 1990.
Related group publications during 1990 which enhanced or supported project activities but are funded by other sources:
Murdock, L.L. Huesing, J.H., Nielsen, S.S., Pratt, R.C., and Shade, R.E.
1990. Biological effects of plant lectins on the cowpea weevil.
Phytochem. 29: 85-89.
Shade, R.E., Furgason, E.S., and Murdock, L.L. 1990. Detection of hidden
insect infestations by feeding-generated ultrasonic signals. American
Entomologist 36: 231-234.
Wolfson, J.L. and Murdock, L.L. 1990. Diversity of digestive proteinase
activity among insects. J. Chem. Ecol. 16: 1089-1102.
Wolfson, J.L. and Murdock, L.L. 1990. Growth of Manduca sexta on wounded
tomato plants: role of induced proteinase inhibitors. Entomol. exp.
appl. 54: 257-264.
Pratt, R.C., Singh, N.K., Shade, R.E., Murdock, L.L. and Bressan, R.A.
1990. Isolation and partial characterization of a seed lectin from
tepary bean that delays bruchid beetle development. Plant Physiol. 93:
1453-1459
Huesing, J.H., Murdock, L.L., and Shade, R.E. 1991. Effect of wheat germ
isolectins on development of cowpea weevil. Phytochemistry, in press.
Wolfson, J.L., and Murdock, L.L. Colorado potato beetle: Influence of
hostplant on midgut digestive proteases. Oecologia, submitted.
Huesing, J.E., Shade, R.E., Chrispeels, M.J., and Murdock, L.L. a-Amylase
inhibitor, not phytohemagglutinin, explains resistance of common bean
seeds to cowpea weevil. Science (Wash.), submitted.
Huesing, J.L., Murdock, L.L. and Shade, R.E. Rice and stinging nettle
lectins: insecticidal activity similar to wheat germ agglutinin.
Entomol. exp. appl, submitted.
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DOMINICAN REPUBLIC UNIVERSITY OF NEBRASKA-LINCOLN
BIOLOGY, EPIDEMIOLOGY, GENETICS, AND BREEDING FOR RESISTANCE TO PATHOGENS OF BEANS WITH EMPHASIS ON THOSE CAUSING BACTERIAL AND RUST DISEASES
Principal Investigators:
Dermot P. Coyne (U.S.) Department of Horticulture University of Nebraska
Freddy Saladin Garcia (HC) CESDA Secretaria de Estado de Agric.
Co-Principal Investigators:
James S. Beaver (U.S.) Department of Agronomy & Soils University of Puerto Rico
James R. Steadman (U.S.) Department of Plant Pathology University of Nebraska Graciela Godoy (HC) CESDA SEA
Investigators:
Cristobal Adames EEAL SEA
Rodrigo Echavez-Badel Crop Protection SEA
Aridia Figueroa CESDA SEA
Adalgisa Mora Garcia EEAL SEA
Miguel Herrera CESDA SEA
Margaret Mmbaga Plant Pathology University of Nebraska
Orlando Bido Montero EEAL SEA
Mohamed Mohamed Horticulture University of Nebraska
Julio Cesar Nin EEAL SEA
Mercedes Rodriguez EEAL SEA
Eladio Arnaud Santana EEAL (Head) SEA
Fernando Oviedo Terrero EEAL SEA
Samuel Concepcion Tio CENDA SEA
Anne K. Vidaver Plant Pathology University of Nebraska
6 0 0 6 0 6 0
I. PROGRESS DURING FY 90
A. Specific Research Contributions
1. Research results
Cultivars. The recently introduced PC-50 cultivar has been
increased, grown, and well received in the Dominican Republic (see below). Great Northern dry bean cultivar "Starlight" (formerly GN NE-85-43) was released in Nebraska. This cultivar has larger and brighter white seed than any of the currently grown cultivars and
should give Nebraska a competitive edge in foreign markets where
improved seed quality is desired. The cultivar has resistance to
rust and its upright open plant canopy provides an avoidance
mechanism to the white mold fungus. The pods of this cultivar
express high resistance to the bacterial diseases common blight and
halo blight.
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Genetic Traits. Information on the traits nonspecific resistance to
rust (leaf pubescence) and leaf and seed pod resistance to the
common blight bacterium in dry beans was disseminated and is in use
(see below).
Methods (Cell and Tissue Culture). No previous reports indicating
regeneration of explants from cotyledons and embryonic axes or from
callus in common dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) existed. However,
we have produced viable and fertile plants from both cotyledonary
and explants of four common dry bean genotypes on Gamborg's B5 medium
supplemented with benzyladenine (BH) (see papers by Mohamed et al.
in Section IV). Both of these techniques can be used in genetic
transformation systems. Also regeneration from embryonic axes may
be used to increase the efficiency of hybrid plant recovery from
embryo cultures in interspecific crosses. This research was reported
to peers at the national annual meetings of the Plant Growth Regulator Society of America and the American Society for Horticultural
Science during 1990. Success also was achieved (a first report)
with two bean genotypes in regeneration of embryonic callus in culture. The plantlets have not yet been transferred to pots.
Technical papers, research notes, reports. Project publications
during 1989-1990 are categorized as follows: 20 refereed technical
articles, five nonrefereed research notes, and two nonrefereed
reports (see Section IV). Nine presentations were made at various
types of meetings (see Section IV).
Evidence of extent of use to date.
Cultivars: Freddy Saladin reported that enough seed of the new Pompadour cultivar "PC-50" was produced during the past year to plant 60 percent of the bean crop in the Dominican Republic. A
survey of the acceptance of "PC-50" by growers in the DR indicated
that 92 percent of growers surveyed liked the new cultivar and would
like to plant it again (Diaz and Almanzor, 1990; see Section IV for citation). Popularity of the variety was due to high yields, seed purity, large seed size and attractive color, wide adaptation, and
type of plant architecture (DR).
Four strip tests of the new GN Starlight were grown on farmers'
fields in western Nebraska in 1990. Five growers produced certified and/or foundation seed of the new cultivar while approximately 3,000 lbs. of foundation seed were produced in Idaho. Grower response was
favorable.
Genetic Traits: Germplasm possessing nonspecific resistance
(pubescence) to rust and high tolerance to common blight were
distributed for use in breeding programs in Tanzania, CIAT, Puerto
Rico, Dominican Republic, North Dakota, and Michigan.
2. Other research-related results
Gernplasa conservation and use. Accessions: A Pompadour landrace
collection was deposited in the Plant Introduction Station, Pullman, WA. An additional collection of Pompadour landraces was made in the
DR during 1990 and stored in the seed bank at the Arroyo Loro
Experiment Station, San Juan de la Maguana.
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International exchange: The Caribbean Adaptation Nursery (CAN) was sent by UPR to cooperators in the Dominican Republic, Haiti, Jamaica, Guatemala (to evaluate for golden bean mosaic virus resistance) and Panama (for evaluation of web blight resistance). A common blight nursery (CIAT) was evaluated at the Fortuna Substation, Puerto Rico and Andean origin CIAT lines were tested for rust and hairiness.
Seed production. Seed of the new "PC-50" was increased and distributed to farmers by the Seed Department, Ministry of Agriculture, Dominican Republic. About 60 percent of the dry bean crop was planted to this cultivar. Seed of two breeding lines were increased for release in 1991. V-030 (UPR) is a white seeded, early maturing, high yielding line with resistance to rust. A black seeded line, H-270 (derived from the MSU breeding program), has an erect plant architecture, good yield potential, and rust resistance. H-270 will replace Venezuela-44 (susceptible to rust in the DR).
XAN 174, XAN 176, and XAN 178 (CIAT) and Belneb #1 (USDA and Nebraska) were found to have high levels of resistance to common bacterial blight (CBB) (Puerto Rico). Preliminary tests indicate that Belneb #1 also has resistance to BGMV. Resistance to common bacterial blight in these lines is derived from Nebraska developed common bacterial blight resistant germplasm. Indeterminate Pompadour type landraces were found to have higher tolerance to common bacterial blight than the determinate landraces (tested at UPR).
Seed of the NE breeding lines Pinto EP-1 (resistant to common bacterial blight and BCMV) and GN 85-55 (resistant to common bacterial blight, rust, and BCMV) has been increased and release of the lines is planned for 1991 (NE). EP-l is the first Pinto breeding line with high resistance to common bacterial blight. GN breeding lines ND6-89-7 and ND6-89-15 also look promising for possible release.
Impact of CRSP recommended technology. At the recommendation of the bean research group in the DR, the planting of beans and other crops that are hosts to the whitefly was suspended in the San Juan de Maguana valley for a period of several weeks. This fallow period appeared to have reduced whitefly populations and, consequently, the incidence of BGMV.
Project impact on production and consumption. It is expected that the introduction of PC-50 will contribute to increased as well as more stable yields and increased bean consumption provided there are price incentives to grow the crop and that the price of beans is affordable to poor people. At the moment because of the deteriorating economy, the poor can only afford to buy limited amounts of beans.
How the research findings address the needs of small-scale farmers
and women. Improved yield potential and stability and greater levels of disease resistance should increase the income of smallscale farmers and result in a greater availability of beans to the DR consumer. Disease resistance will reduce the need to use pesticides.
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3. Changes in national production/consumption of beans/cowpeas in the
Host Country
Comercial. Government statistics on bean production in the DR are
unreliable, so data is not presented here.
Bean seed. It is estimated that 60 percent of the bean crop in the
next year in the DR was planted to the Title XII developed PC-50.
The mean yield of the new cultivar PC-50 obtained from a survey of
52 growers (random sample) from across the country was 987
kg/hectare this past year compared to the mean country yield of 505
kg/hectare for the period (1978-1988).
B. Institutional Development and Training
1. ChanQes since FY 89. Graciela Godoy was awarded her Ph.D. (Plant
Pathology), UNL, and returned to the DR project. She was appointed Co-PI in October 1990, in order to assume increased responsibility
for research. It is expected that Eladio Arnaud will be a Co-PI
when he returns after completing his Ph.D. Dr. Haytham Zaiter
(Syria) completed his postdoctoral training and accepted a
Department of Agronomy position, American University of Beirut,
Lebanon. Fernando Oviedo and Mercedes Rodriguez were assigned to permanent positions in SEA, and the former participated in a plant
breeding course sponsored by CIAT. Miguel Herrera received informal
training in bean breeding at UPR. Alfonsina Sanchez continues to receive partial support from the project to pursue her M.S. degree
in Crop Protection (UPR). Matthew Blair traveled to the DR in
March, 1990 to evaluate bean genotypes for BGMV resistance. Mr.
Blair plans to conduct a major portion of his M.S. thesis research
in the DR during 1991. Bean researchers from Panama, Guatemala,
Costa Rica, Mexico, and the Dominican Republic visited the research
plots at the Isabela Substation in February, 1990 as part of a
PROFRIJOL tour of the Caribbean. Cristobal Adames participated in
this tour. Samuel Concepcion spent four months at the Escuela Agricola Panamericana assisting the Honduras Bean/Cowpea CRSP project conduct research with rust. Mohamed Meskine (Morocco)
(funded by MIAC) started his M.S. program in Plant Pathology (bean
rust) Fall, 1990 under the direction of J.R. Steadman.
2. Over the life of the project. When we first started the cooperative
project (1981-82), the DR bean program lacked sufficient trained
personnel, had insufficient facilities, vehicles, and little
equipment, and lacked financial support to conduct a bean research program. Nine students have since received M.S. or Ph.D. degrees.
Now a viable bean research program has been developed in the DR.
Facilities have been improved, particularly at Arroyo Loro
Experiment Station, where screenhouses, work rooms, a seed storage
room (controlled environment), and a plant pathology laboratory have been established. Basic laboratory equipment, two vehicles, and two
motor bikes were purchased. The bean (legume) team has earned a
good reputation for conducting bean research and, consequently, has
begun to attract support from other donor agencies such as
PROFRIJOL. During the past few years the DR Ministry of Agriculture
(SEA) has supported a greater portion of the salaries of eight
researchers comprising the bean research group. Long-term
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assistance, however, will likely be necessary. The economic outlook
in the DR and other developing countries has continued to worsen, especially due to.the Gulf crisis. At present salary levels and
with increasing inflation, it is difficult for SEA to maintain staff members with advanced degrees. All those receiving M.S. degrees are now employed outside the project in the DR, except one who is at the Arroyo Loro Experiment Station (F. Oviedo), one in Puerto Rico, and
one who is pursuing a Ph.D. degree at UNL.
3. Project traininQ to be completed by the end of the project period.
It is expected that Eladio Arnaud (non-Title XII funds) and Debbie Fujimoto (Canada) (some research supported by Title XII funds) will complete their Ph.D. degrees in 1991. E. Arnaud plans to return to
the Title XII project in the DR. Dr. Mohamed will be hired (on
Title XII funds) as a postdoctoral in Plant Breeding and Genetics
in 1991 when he receives an appropriate visa. Expected to complete
M.S. degrees are: Guen Hwa Jung (Korea) (UNL Title XII funding),
Alfonsina Sanchez (DR) (UPR partial Title XII funding), and Matthew
Blair (UPR-partial Title XII funding). Margaret Mmbaga will complete
her postdoctoral assignment in Plant Pathology within this period.
C. Progress Achieved in Relation to the Extension Proposal Log Frame
Research on various aspects of CBB and rust (as outlined in Log Frame FY
89-92) has been conducted since the extension of the project in 1985.
When the project was merged with UPR in 1987, attention was also given to other disease constraints, particularly web blight and BGMV (see Log
Frame 1989-92) along with improved yield and adaptation of beans.
It was considered that ten years would be required to develop and
introduce new disease resistant dry bean varieties. The project is on schedule. Several varieties have been released and some promising new
lines are being prepared for release.
We have the only Title XII bean project involved with diseases of beans in the lowland tropics. The research conducted by project personnel is well integrated into the national DR legume program. The research also
benefits (both complementary and supplementary) dry bean research
projects throughout the Third World including East Africa, and assists
CIAT and U.S. programs since we have done fundamental research on
resistance to and epidemiology of diseases affecting bean production.
Project members also cooperate with CIAT in planting dry bean nurseries
(Caribbean Adaptation nursery, common bacterial blight and rust
nurseries). Also CIAT materials are evaluated for reaction to web
blight and BGMV. Germplasm (sources of nonspecific resistance to rust
and resistance to common bacterial blight), and information (see
publication list) derived from the project are being utilized around the
world in bean producing countries and by CIAT.
A bean breeding program has been established in the DR. Bean germplasm has been identified which can serve as sources of resistance to the most important diseases (rust, common bacterial blight, BGMV, and web blight) in a number of developing countries, CIAT, and U.S. Improved cultivars have been released in the DR ('PC-50' is now grown on 60 percent of DR
bean acreage), in Nebraska (GN Starlight released in 1990), and in
Puerto Rico. The DR breeding program will release two new cultivars in
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1991 (a white seeded and a black seeded line). The DR program also has
developed new lines with greater levels of disease resistance than
traditional varieties, More testing is needed in order to determine the
performance of these lines on small farms. Limited quantities of seed
of recently released varieties have been multiplied by SEA. Disease
management schemes, especially for CBB, have been improved by research
on survival of the bacteria on weed hosts and on bean leaves and
debris. Rust genetic management has made progress through knowledge of leaf pubescence and virulence, but more epidemiological data is needed.
D. Evidence of Biological/Social Sciences Integration
Women have played an important role in the UNL/UPR/DR project. Dr. Anne
Vidaver, internationally renowned bacteriologist and Head of the Department of Plant Pathology at UNL, is an investigator on this
project. Dr. Graciela Godoy received her Ph.D. in Plant Pathology at
UNL in 1990 and returned to the DR to become a project Co-PI. Dr.
Mildred Zapata received her Ph.D. in Plant Pathology at UNL two years
ago and is now an assistant professor at UPR, Mayaguez, Puerto Rico,
working partially on Title XII with Dr. J. Beaver. Dr. Margaret Mmbaga currently holds a visiting scientist position with J.R. Steadman. Lisa
Sutton (M.S.) is a half-time assistant to D.P. Coyne. Three out of
eight technical personnel on the project at the Arroyo Loro Experiment
Station are women while the former assistant to the PI (DR) was a woman. In addition, four women (DR) have been sent overseas for
training (CIAT, Costa Rica, UPR, and UNL).
The development of beans with improved seed qualities and yield will
contribute to improved nutrition of women and families provided economic
incentives continue to encourage bean production.
E. Collaboration with Other Bean/Cowpea CRSP Projects; Linkages with Other
CRSPs, and Other External Groups
The Bean/Cowpea CRSP projects in the DR and Honduras continue to be
closely linked. Both countries benefit from an exchange of germplasm.
A red mottled line from the DR proved to be a source for both the "I"
gene for resistance to bean common mosaic virus and red seed color. The
dense pubescence found in the Pompadour germplasm collection has been
transferred to small red breeding lines and may provide race nonspecific
resistance to rust. Small red lines are being used as parents in an
attempt to improve the heat tolerance of red mottled beans. S.
Concepcion provided assistance to the Honduras CRSP project on
pubescence and nonspecific rust resistance in beans. Small red lines
from the Honduran project were also evaluated for resistance to BGMV in
the DR this past year.
The project also collaborates with the other Bean/Cowpea CRSP projects which deal with bean diseases. The project has sent bean lines to Dr.
Silbernagel for use in East Africa and he has increased breeding lines in a winter nursery in PR for use in the CRSP project in Tanzania. The project has trained a scientist from Uganda (CBB) and given training in
Africa. The project also collaborates with D.P. Maxwell, UWI, in the collection of plant samples for his molecular studies on bean golden
mosaic virus, supplying germplasm and field sites, identifying trainees,
and overall has integrated well with this project.
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The DR project works closely with the CIAT bean research program. A
common bacterial blight nursery was planted in PR in collaboration with CIAT. The Caribbean Adaptation dry bean nursery was planted in several
countries in the basin in 1990. Several other cooperative nurseries are conducted both in the DR and PR. Travel is planned so that trips to the
DR by CIAT and Bean/Cowpea CRSP personnel (UPR, UNL, UWI) can coincide.
Results from research conducted in the DR will be useful now in Jamaica and in the future in Haiti. Puerto Rico is a member of PROFRIJOL which
provides an opportunity for the exchange of information among bean researchers in the region. A Midwest regional dry bean nursery was
planted in Nebraska (organized by K. Grafton, North Dakota) to evaluate
publicly developed varieties of GN, Pinto, and navy beans.
II. FUNDING/FISCAL MANAGEMENT
A. Problems Regarding Funding
A major problem that has been difficult to solve is transportation.
Because of limits on funding and the need to use budgeted funds for
materials and supplies, supplemental salaries, and operating costs to
support ongoing research, a new vehicle purchase is not possible. Even
if money were available, a non-U.S. source release would be needed.
Purchase of a used vehicle, leasing, and renting have all been
investigated and are nonviable options. The government has no vehicles
to give the project and the U.S. Mission has not been able to help.
Motor bikes are considered death sentences by some workers. Thus,
procurement of adequate transportation remains a major limitation in the
DR with a steady-state A.I.D. budget.
Loss of trained researchers to private industry has continued as
purchasing power of the Dominican peso has lost over 20 percent in
recent months. The government has increased salaries and has instituted
a system of rewarding researchers with advanced degrees but recent
petroleum prices and other inflationary trends have negated these gains.
B. Adequacy of Current Management System
The use of advance funding and reimbursement on the basis of valid
receipts has worked well for both the U.S. and DR accounting systems.
Visits and phone calls keep everyone up-to-date on use of funds and
equipment. A new grant proposal system has been introduced in the DR
whereby a short proposal listing objectives, procedures, and funding
needs is prepared by investigators. Proposals are reviewed by PIs and
Co-PIs from UNL, UPR, and DR with recommendations forwarded to the
project initiators. For the 1990-1991 season, 23 proposals were
submitted. A few projects were rejected for marginal relevance to CRSP
objectives or the need to focus research at one location (Arroyo Loro
Station), some projects were modified, and some were deferred for future
consideration. The process was considered worthwhile, and the project will attempt to incorporate UWI, UNL, and UPR proposals in the future.
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C. Activity Towards Buy-Ins or Other Funding
The research program at UNL has utilized a USDA competitive grant, local
industry grants, company grants, USAID scholarships, and regional
research funds to expand UNL bean research. UPR has utilized local
industry support and other USAID funded legume projects for the bean
program. In the DR, PROFRIJOL (COSUDE-CIAT) (funding from the UNL, USAID, and Swiss Bank) has contributed to bean research. The PNUD
project (UNL funding) helps with on-farm testing. A PL480 seed
production project has been approved by USAID but still needs final approval by the DR government. We plan to pursue the USAID project
MUCIA now with Instituto Superior Agricultura (ISA) to find
opportunities to interact on training. A private DR foundation (USAID
supported partially) also offers individual grant opportunities.
III. PROJECT STATUS
A. Appropriateness of Activities to Goals of the Global Plan
1. Research results. This project is one of three remaining
Bean/Cowpea CRSP projects dealing with bean diseases. In the
recently published CIAT publication on bean production problems, it
states: "of the major world crops, beans are probably one of the most susceptible to disease and insect attacks . diseases and
pests constitute the major factor that significantly lowers on-farm yield." The project is attempting to improve the resistance of red
mottled beans. This seed type is grown in the Caribbean, the
Andes, and in East Africa. In addition, pinto, and large and small
white beans are being improved for multiple disease resistance.
2. Other research-related results. The project in the Dominican
Republic is the only project in the Bean/Cowpea CRSP attempting to
develop beans for altitudes less than 1000 m. Diseases such as
CBB, BGMV, and web blight are important factors limiting bean
production in lower altitudes. Puerto Rico is the only U.S.
location where whiteflies and BGMV can be studied in the field.
There should be more attention paid to the ecological consequence
of increased cultivation of beans in the mountainous regions of the tropics. Increased population pressure has resulted in areas being
cultivated which cannot sustain bean production over a number of
years. Cultivation of beans on the coastal plains during the cool
season provides an alternative to increased production in the
mountains. This system can be applied to other countries.
3. Changes in national production/consumption of beans/cowpeas in the
Host Country. This DR project is the only one located in the
Caribbean. Germplasm and research information developed by the project should be useful throughout the region including needy
countries such as Haiti and Jamaica.
Resistance strategies, race nonspecific rust resistance, common
bacterial blight, and bean golden mosaic resistance sources, and
general disease management strategies as well as improved germplasm
will be available for the bean community in Africa, Central and
South America, as well as North America.
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B. Balance Between Research and Training
Training costs in FY.90 = $6,000; Research costs = $180,000
Training costs projected, FY 91 = $15,600; Research costs = $167,400
In order to maximize research output with an initial decline in our budget and now steady state funding, project resources were diverted
from graduate training to technical assistance. However, the need for
continued training resulted in the use of other options. The project
has had three LASPAU scholars, two departmental assistantships (UNL and
UPR), a shared assistantship with a BNF project, CIAT training grants,
USAID Morocco project assistantship, and visiting scientists.
Short-term training at CIAT, UNL, and UPR for breeding and pathology
has been conducted. Thus, although our CRSP project resources heavily
favor research support, we have balanced training by using other financial sources. There will be a continuing need to train DR
researchers as the DR economic problems create legume program
turnovers. We are planning to pursue the USAID sponsored project MUCIA
for future training opportunities in the DR. The FY 91 plans have
taken into account CRSP-sponsored training as well as the many other
training opportunities.
C. Balance of Domestic vs. Overseas Activities
The activities on the project involve basic research being done
primarily at UNL and some at UPR while applied research is underway at all institutions. This year the level of basic studies in the DR will
increase as some other sources of funding are found (i.e., private
foundation) and more highly trained researchers such as Dr. Godoy and
F. Oviedo are now conducting experiments. The research, especially
basic, will be more collaborative.
D. Level of Collaboration/Cooperation Between U.S. and HC Institutions
Research planning as well as budget development for FY 91 was done at the Bean/Cowpea CRSP PI meeting held at Michigan State University in
May 1990. Research progress was first discussed and then specific
plans for the next year were formulated based on the overall project
objectives. Training needs in the DR were defined and potential
students/trainees identified. Non-CRSP funding possibilities were also explored. Budget plans were formulated at this time as the MO had been
given the FY 91 amount by then. Other trips to DR, PR, or
international meetings were determined and these trips attempted to
have UNL, UPR, DR, UWI, and CIAT representatives available each time.
During these trips for research data collection or presentations,
further interactions on budget, research, training, and publications
occurred.
For FY 90 the project instituted a research proposal format. For this year DR/UNL investigators drafted a brief (one to two pages) write up that covered objectives, procedures, and budget and addressed overall
project objectives. These proposals were reviewed by UPR, UWI, UNL, and DR Co-PIs resulting in elimination of some projects while others
were modified and approved. CIAT also was sent a copy of the research
proposals. We feel this approach has improved collaborative
interactions and we plan to continue it next year.
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E. Relative Contributions of Collaborating Institutions and Individuals
1. U.S. and HC contributions. U.S. contributions for FY 90. were
$71,190. These contributions were based on percent time of PI,
Co-PIs, and investigators devoted to the project plus benefits and
overhead. HC contributions were U.S. $32,200 derived from salary
and benefits of PI and investigators paid by SEA.
2. Other funding. As in most projects, there are contributions such
as laboratory supplies, secretarial assistance, greenhouse
supplies, labor, etc., that cannot be conveniently documented.
Both U.S. and HC have coordinated integrated bean improvement
programs that rely on many contributions to be successful.
Regional Research (USDA) funding for project W-150 has given the
UNL/UPR bean program support for increased involvement in national and international nurseries, germplasm exchange, and coordination of our project with other domestic bean improvement programs. The Nebraska Dry Bean Commission funds some travel to western Nebraska
breeding and disease management nurseries, technical assistance for plot maintenance, and data acquisition and a few supplies. A small grant program from chemical and seed industry is used for travel to
meetings and hourly technical assistance. The dollar amount
estimates for these sources in FY 91 are $13,000 for W-150, $10,000 NDBC, and $3,000 from industry. In FY 90 $7,500 was available from
a CSRS competitive grant on bean rust nonspecific resistance. A renewal effort for a CSRS grant in FY 91-92 is contemplated. The
DR also has PROFRIJOJ (Swiss-funded) support for specific bean
research objectives in the HC.
A.I.D. provides funding that allows the basic bean or legume
programs of the DR, PR, and UNL to interact collaboratively on objectives that have local, regional, and international impact.
The money A.I.D. provides would not be enough to fund, for example,
a breeding program per se with a breeder, pathologist,
entomologist, and agronomist along with the laboratory, greenhouse, and field facilities needed. The institutional bean programs have highly qualified personnel as well as facilities but lack adequate
operating expenses and technical support personnel to assist in the research. The system of mutual contributions works well and is an
excellent concept.
F. Interest, Involvement, and Support of USAID Mission and/or U.S. Embassy
The Mission continues to support the project. It has been suggested by
them that additional support for bean research may be obtained from a
research foundation that has been established in the DR. The existence
of the general problem of core funding vs. mission funding means that the DR Mission cannot spend much time on our project. They have been as helpful as they can be given their goals and demands on their time.
We wish they could help us with the transportation problems.




G. Evidence of Institutionalization
1. Faculty recognition. Dermot P. Coyne received the Nebraska Chapter
of Gamma Sigma Delta. Award of Merit in November 1989. The Nebraska bean improvement research and extension program (includes CRSP) has been nominated for the UNL-ARD-IANR Team Effort Award. F. Saladin
was selected as president of PROFRIJOL project. A.K. Vidaver and
J.R. Steadman were invited to participate in Biotechnology in
developing countries panels convened at CIAT in Cali, Colombia and the National Research Council in Washington, DC, respectively. Dr.
A.K. Vidaver was recognized with a UNL award for her efforts as
Interim Director of the Biotechnology Center at UNL.
2. Integration of commodity research programs with CRSP. The UNL and
UPR breeding and bean improvement programs, as well as the DR
legume program, are closely involved with the Honduras and DR as
well as the UWI CRSP projects. In addition, there is cooperation
with USDA, Tanzanian, and MSU projects. The integration of rust
resistance from the DR Pompadour landrace materials into U.S. and
Honduran breeding programs and the integration of UNL derived
common bacterial blight resistance into the Honduras and DR
programs are examples of program integration. Disease management
strategies have also been derived in the DR from basic information
formulated in the U.S. and applied in the DR. Grad students from HCs have helped further basic research while in the U.S., but have taken the knowledge "home" and have begun to use it to improve HC
research.
3. Internal project management. The UPR and UNL administrative
support has been excellent. Both Grants and Contracts Offices have
given time and expertise for the project. DR administrative
support is also very good despite difficult economic conditions.
4. Student/Professor relationships. Contact between student/professor
has remained after return of students to HC duties. As an example,
G. Godoy returned to work with J.R. Steadman on collaborative
research in July, 1990.
IV. PUBLICATIONS AND PRESENTATIONS
Aggour, A.R., D.P. Coyne, A.K. Vidaver, and K. Eskridge. 1989.
Transmission of the common blight pathogen in bean seed. Journal
American Society for Horticultural Science 114(6):1002-1008.
Angeles-Ramos, R., A.K. Vidaver, P. Heise, and D.P. Coyne. 1990.
Isolation and properties of epiphytic Xanthomonas campestris pv. phaseoli
and pectolytic Xanthomonads from weeds. Phytopathology (accepted, in
press).
Anonymous. 1990. Bean/Cowpea CRSP. Global View, Special Edition (p. 3).
Institute of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Nebraska,
Lincoln, NE.
Arnaud Santana, Eladio, Estela Pena Matos, D.P. Coyne, and Anne Vidaver.
1991. Longevity of Xanthomonas campestris pv. phaseoli in naturally
infested dry bean debris (Phaseolus vulgaris). Plant Disease (submitted).
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Coyne, D.P., J.R. Steadman, D.T. Lindgren, and D.S. Nuland. 1991.
Starlight, Great Northern dry bean. HortScience (accepted, in press).
Coyne, D.P., J.R. Steadman, D.T. Lindgren, D.S. Nuland, J.S. Beaver, F.
Saladin, and E.A. Santana. 1990. Genetics and breeding for resistance to pathogens of beans with emphasis on those causing bacterial and rust diseases in the Dominican Republic and Nebraska. Abstract: 87th Annual Meeting of the North Central Region, American Society for Horticultural
Science, Lincoln, July 25, 1990.
Coyne, D.P. 1990. Report to the Nebraska Dry Bean Commission on dry bean
breeding research during 1988.
Coyne, D., J.R. Steadman, Nuland, D., and Lindgren, D. 1990. Evaluation
of dry bean cultivars grown in common blight inoculated and natural
infectednurseries. Biological and Cultural Tests for Control of Plant
Diseases 5:77.
Diaz, Vianela, and Ramon Almanzor. 1990. Resultado de la encuesta
aplicada a los productores de habichuela de la variedad "PC-50." Report.
p. 1-91.
Echavez-Badel, R. 1990. Choanephora cucurbitarum foliar blight of dry
beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). J. of Agric. of the Univ. of Puerto Rico
74(2):203-205.
Godoy, G., J.R. Steadman, and G. Yuen. 1990. Bean blossom bacteria have
potential for biological control of white mold disease caused by
Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Ann. Rep. Bean Improv. Coop. BIC/NDBC Meeting
33:45.
Godoy, G., J.R. Steadman, M. Dickman, and R. Dam. 1990. Proof that oxalic
acid is the primary determinant of pathogenicity for Sclerotinia
sclerotiorum on bean and implications for white mold disease control.
Ann. Rep. Bean Improv. Coop. Proceedings BIC/NDBC Meeting 33:47.
Godoy, G., J.R. Steadman, R. Dam, and M. Dickman. 1989. Selection and use
of oxalate minus mutants to study pathogenicity of Sclerotinia
sclerotiorum cause of bean white mold disease. Phytopathology 79:1145.
Godoy, G., J.R. Steadman, and G. Yuen. 1990. Erwinia herbicola and
Bacillus polymyxa: Two blossom-resident bacterial antagonists of
Sclerotinia sclerotiorum cause of white mold disease of bean. Annual meeting of the American Phytopathological Society, Caribbean Division,
Mayaguez, Puerto Rico, May 27-31.
Godoy, G., J.R. Steadman, M.B. Dickman, and R. Dam. 1990. Use of mutants
to demonstrate the role of oxalic acid in pathogenicity of Sclerotinia
sclerotiorum on Phaseolus vulgaris. Physiol. and Mol. Plant Pathol. (in
press).
Ishimaru, C., K.M. Eskridge, and A.K. Vidaver. 1990. Distribution
analyses of nationally occurring epiphyte populations of Xanthomonas campestris pv. phaseoli on dry beans. Phytopathology (accepted, in
press).
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Jimenez, J.A., D.P. Coyne, and F. Saladin. 1989. Imbibition, germination
and cooking time of seeds of dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) stored in different containers. .Journal of Agriculture of the University of Puerto
Rico 73(4):327-337.
Lindgren, D., D.P. Coyne, J.R. Steadman, and D. Nuland. 1990. Evaluation
of dry bean cultivars for reactions to rust and bronzing. Biological and
Cultural Tests for Control of Plant Diseases 5:78.
Mateo Solano, M., J.S. Beaver, and F.S. Saladin Garcia. 1989.
Heritabilities and phenotypic correlations of morphological traits of
beans. J. of Agric. of the Univ. of Puerto Rico 73(4):349-359.
Mmbaga, M. and J.R. Steadman. 1990. Adult plant rust resistance and leaf
pubescence on dry beans. Ann. Rep. Bean Improv. Coop. Proceedings
IC/NDBC Meeting 33:61.
Mohamed, Mohamed F., Paul E. Read, and Dermot P. Coyne. 1990. In vitro
response of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cotyledonary explants to
benzyladenine in the medium. Ann. Meeting Plant Growth Regulator Society
of America, St. Paul, MN.
Mohamed, M.F., P.E. Read, and D.P. Coyne. 1990. Plant regeneration in
vitro from the embryonic axis of common and tepary bean. Abstract: 87th Annual Meeting of the American Society for Horticultural Science, Tucson,
AZ.
Nuland, D.S., D.T. Lindgren, D.P. Coyne, and J.R. Steadman. 1990. A
cooperative system for screening dry beans for multiple disease
resistance, yield, and performance in Nebraska. Abstract: North Central Region, American Society for Horticultural Science, Annual Meeting, July
25, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE.
Nuland, D., D. Lindgren, D. Coyne, and J.R. Steadman. 1990. Evaluation of
dry bean cultivars grown in a white mold nursery. Biological and
Cultural Tests for Control of Plant Diseases 5:79.
Oviedo, F., J.S. Beaver, and J.R. Steadman. 1990. Caracterizacion de la
pubescencia acicular en las hojas de genotipos de habichuela. J. of Agric. of the Univ. of Puerto Rico 74(2):111-119.
Oviedo, F., J.S. Beaver, and J.R. Steadman. 1990. Characterization of
trichomes on the lower surface of bean leaves. Ann. Rep. Bean Improv. Coop. Proceedings BIC/NDBC Meeting 33:90-90.
Rodriguez, Mercedes, Alfonsina Sanchez, and Estela Pena. 1990.
Transmision de Mustia hilachosa (Trianatephorus cucumeris) frank sonk a
traves de la semilla de Phaseolus vulgaris L. Trabajo a presentar en la
reunion anual de PCCMCA XXXVI, El Salvador, Marzo, 1990.
Sanchez, A., P.R. Hepperly, R. Echavez-Badel y J.S. Beaver. 1990. Avance
en la identificacion de la microflora en semillas de habichuela
(Phaseolus vulgaris L.) de la Republica Dominicana. Paper presented at
the XXX Anual Meeting of the American Phytopathological Society, Caribbean Division held in Mayaguez, Puerto Rico, May 28-31, 1990.
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Shaik, M., T.A. Dickinson, and J.R. Steadman. 1989. Variation in rust
susceptibility in beans: Predicting lesion size from leaf developmental
stage measured by leaf.age, length, and plastochron index.
Phytopathology 79:1035-1042.
Shaik, M. and J.R. Steadman. 1989. The effect of leaf developmental stage
on the variation of resistant and susceptible reactions of Phaseolus
vulgaris to Uromyces appendiculatus. Phytopathology 79:1028-1035.
Yuen, G.Y., G. Godoy, and J.R. Steadman. 1990. Biocontrol of white mold
disease of dry bean with Erwinia herbicola. Joint Annual Meeting of the
American and Canadian Phytopathological Societies. August 8-9, Grand
Rapids, Michigan.
Zaiter, H.Z., D.P. Coyne, R.B. Clark, and J.R. Steadman. 1990. Soil type
and potting medium influence on rust pustule grade (size) on dry bean
leaves (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Ann. Rep. Bean Improv. Coop. Proceedings
BIC/NDBC Meeting 33:65.
Zaiter, H.Z., D.P. Coyne, and J.R. Steadman. 1990. Inheritance of abaxial
leaf pubescence in beans. Journal American Society for Horticultural
Science 115(1):158-160.
Zaiter, H.Z., D.P. Coyne, and J.R. Steadman. 1990. Rust reaction and
pubescence in Alubia beans. HortScience 25(6):664-665.
Zaiter, H.Z., D.P. Coyne, and J.R. Steadman. 1990. Coinoculation effects
of the pathogens causing common bacterial blight, rust, and bean common
mosaic in Phaseolus vulgaris L. Journal American Society for
Horticultural Science 115(2):319-323.
Zaiter, H.Z., D.P. Coyne, R.B. Clark, and J.R. Steadman. 1990. Soil type
and potting medium influence on rust pustule grade (size) on dry bean
leaves (Phaseolus vulgaris). Abstract: 87th Annual Meeting of the
American Society for Horticultural Science, Tucson, AZ.
Zaiter, H.Z., D.P. Coyne, R.B. Clark, and J.R. Steadman. 1991. Growth media and leaf nutrient concentration influence on rust pustule diameter of leaves of dry beans. Horticultural Science (accepted, in press).
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DOMINICAN REPUBLIC UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN-MADISON
MOLECULAR APPROACHES FOR THE CONTROL OF BEAN GOLDEN MOSAIC VIRUS
Principal Investigators:
Douglas P. Maxwell (U.S.) Department of Plant Pathology University of Wisconsin Freddy Saladin (HC) Bean Program CESDA/SEA
Co-investigators:
Dermot P. Coyne Department of Horticulture University of Nebraska
James S. Beaver Department of Agronomy & Soils University of Puerto Rico
Investigators:
Paul G. Ahlquist Pathology University of Wisconsin
Lee Calvert Virology Unit CIAT (Colombia)
Aridia Figueroa Vegetable Virology CESDA/SEA
Stephen F. Hanson Pathology University of Wisconsin
F. J. Morales Virology Unit CIAT (Colombia)
I. PROGRESS DURING FY 90
A. Specific Research Contributions
1. Research results. Molecular characterization of four isolates of
bean-infecting geminiviruses has shown that the golden mosaic
inducing isolates in the Caribbean and Central America are distinct
from those in Brazil and that separate breeding programs for disease
resistance should be developed for these two regions.
Bean dwarf mosaic geminivirus (BDMV) DNAs A and B were sequenced and
sequence comparisons with other geminiviruses showed that BDMV is a distinct bean-infecting geminiviruses and is not closely related to
other geminiviruses.
General and isolate-specific geminiviral DNA probes have been
developed. These probes were used to detect geminiviruses in bean,
weeds, and other crop plants from Argentina, Brazil, Costa Rica,
Dominican Republic, Egypt, El Salvador, Honduras, Puerto Rico, South
Africa, and U.S. Agdia, Inc., a diagnostic laboratory in Indiana, has recently made arrangements with the Wisconsin Alumni Research
Foundation to evaluate our general geminiviral probe for use in
their commercial laboratory. Our results indicate that weeds are
not a major source of BGMV inoculum in the Dominican Republic. Use of our general probe showed that tomatoes in Florida and Costa Rica
were infected with a whitefly-transmitted geminivirus. Also, we
found that several ornamentals were infected with geminiviruses in
Florida and Utah.
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