Citation
Collaborative research in the international agricultural research and development network

Material Information

Title:
Collaborative research in the international agricultural research and development network a case study : progress report of the BeanCowpea Collaborative Research Support Program (CRSP) Michigan State University
Creator:
Bean/Cowpea Collaborative Research Support Program
Place of Publication:
East Lansing Mich
Publisher:
Bean/Cowpea CRSP
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
ii, 157 p. : ill. ; 1984.

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Subjects / Keywords:
Cowpea -- Research ( lcsh )
Beans -- Research ( lcsh )
Agriculture -- Research ( lcsh )
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non-fiction ( marcgt )

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Funding:
Electronic resources created as part of a prototype UF Institutional Repository and Faculty Papers project by the University of Florida.

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ACX6925 ( NOTIS )

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COLLABORATIVE RESEARCH IN THE
I NTERNATI ONAL AGRI CULTURAL RESEARCH
AND DEVELOPMENT NETWORK:
A CASE STUDY
PROGRESS REPORT OF THE BEAN/COWPEA COLLABORATIVE RESEARCH SUPPORT PROGRAM (CRSP)
MICHIGAN STATE UNIVERSITY MAY 1984
An international community of persons, institutions, agencies and governments committed to collectively strengthening health and nutrition in developing
countries by improving the availability
and utilization of beans and cowpeas




For further information contact:
Bean/Cowpea CRSP 200 Center for International Programs
Michigan State University
East Lansing, Michigan 48824-1035
USA
Telephone: (517) 355-4693 Telex: 8102510737 MSU INT PRO ELSG
Funded through USAID/BIFAD Grant No. AID/DSAN-XII-G-0261




PROLOGUE
In thoughtful discussions among the outstanding US and non-US professionals associated with this CRSP, various points of view have been shared in attempts to identify research strategies which will contribute to human well-being throughout the world. From the array of national, cultural, ethnic, gender, class and disciplinary perspectives, their interactions with one another have opened new horizons to the development and application of evolving science and technology. The researchers, most of whom had been wrestling with global issues independently long before coming together in the CRSP, have been stimulated by one another and have found excitement and power in the expanded peer relationships. The professional traffic of scholars among CRSP countries highlights the mutual benefits of such relationships and emphasizes a growing appreciation of the mutual dependency. As Professor Paul Streeten has pointed out "knowledge is a common good and its pursuit unites scholars across the world."11 This intellectual dependency is a mirror image of the economic and environmental interdependence that exists among all countries including the US and the developing countries which are the Host Countries (HCs) of this CRSP. World hunger and malnutrition are undeniable and poignant examples which are experienced at some level in all countries.
According to the Washington, DC Environmental Fund, the US population is approximately 235,000,000 people. However, US land available to produce food for this growing mass is being lost at an average of over a million acres a year, mostly to urban sprawl. Presently, US agriculture, the most prolific in the world, produces an abundance of food for US consumption. The US also produces, each year, millions of dollars worth of food for export.2
Some of this surplus food is sold on the international market and helps address the US balance of payments deficit. That deficit is recently reported to be over
$40 billion this year and expected to surpass $80 billion by the end of 1985--a foreign debt level that dwarfs that of most developing countries.3 Other surplus food from the US enters the international arena as foreign assistance to poverty- and famine-ridden areas of the world. Such areas are often plagued by instability and political strife which threaten the existence of all nations. Basic commodity shortages frequently fan those flames, jeopardizing international efforts to address such global concerns as pollution, population growth, nuclear weapons and security. An additional complication is that developing countries
represent the largest growth markets for the sale of US exports compared to US exports to developed countries. These same developing countries are also the countries from whom the US imports raw materials critical to commercial industries and defense.4
The importance of US food production to the US and the rest of the world presents a serious and complex dilemma. The Environmental Fund projects that if the population of the US continues to increase at the present rate and the land available for agriculture continues to decrease, by the year 2000 all the food produced by the US will need to be consumed within the US. A vanishing US export market capacity and depleted food assistance program could have dire implications.
Further, no country can avoid being affected by such recent occurrences as the expanded use of chemical warfare, changing weather patterns worldwide and the large numbers of severely stressed national economies. All of these issues demonstrate that the US lacks immunity to the painful unemployment, mass poverty, hunger, drought, infestation and disease problems suffered by many countries of the world. In reality, the US too is a developing country. It, too, will benefit from a sharing of resources and the strengthening of national institutions with whom it can collaborate.
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Thus, for world humanitarian needs as well as for US survival requirements, the US agricultural network, especially its Land-Grant community, must play an even more prominent role in the international arena than it has in the past. HC and US students entering this arena, for which most contemporary professionals were never prepared, require from their educational institutions greater international participation. HC and US faculty, who must face those young men and women in classrooms and supervise their research in laboratories and in the field, require increased international professional experience and continuing education. For US and HC participants, CRSPs can provide an example of human resource development based on shared scientific, technical and socio-cultural understanding.
The promise of US Title XII and HC institutions is heightened by their joining together the best of HC and US scientific and traditional agriculture and the related disciplines. Through their heterogeneous resources, their composite experience and their vast research capacity, such collaboration is a natural extension of the Land-Grant tradition. The new findings emerging from the array of Bean/Cowpea CRSP projects only hint at the long-term potential: US and HC cowpea germ plasm crosses in A~frica outperformed other exotic and traditional lines during the recent severe drought there; basic research contributes to scientific understanding of genetic, agronomic and socio-cultural factors important in the maintenance of rich natural germplasm pools--a constantly changing trust especially important for those who rely on beans and cowpeas as food; monoclonal antibody procedures developed for quick, simple and inexpensive detection of seed borne viruses in beans; native fungal isolates showing promise in biological insect control which can minimize use of expensive and often toxic synthetic insecticides; village level technology for increasing, among rural and urban populations, the availability of inexpensive cowpea meal acceptable in the
preparation of traditional foods.
Through such research efforts new mutually rewarding relationships are being fashioned with sensitivity and care. Over the long term they will provide the foundation for strengthening communication, respect and trust among future agricultural leaders. To the extent that the CRSPs function well and are truly collaborative research and training programs, they will leave behind a major human and scientific legacy. If we are lucky, they will also make a noticeable impact on world poverty, malnutrition and hunger.
Pat Barnes-McConnell
Program Director
Michigan State University
1 Paul P. Streeten. Social Science Research on Development: Some Problems in
the Use and Transfer of an Intellectual Technology. The Agricultural
Development Council, Inc., July, 1975.
2 Bradford Morse. "W~here 80% of UN Resources Go." Christian Science Monitor,
April 19, 1983.
3 Alan Mrray. "Payments Gap Rose in Fourth Period to $15.29 Billion." Wall
Street Journal, March 20, 1984.
4 Edmiund S. Muskie. "The West's Stake in Third-World Aid." Christian Science
Monitor, August 6, 1980.




TABLE OF CONTENTS
PROLOGUE .............................................
INTRODUCTION ............... ............... i
Program Goal .. .. .. .. .. .. . 2
Program Purpose ............... ........... 2
PLANNING PROCESS .................. .... 3
Program Constraints .............. ....... .. 5
Evolution of the Global Plan .......... ............. 7
Global Plan (original) ........... ......... 8
Global Plan (revised) ............ ....... 9
Host Country/US Administrative Linkages--Africa ...... ..... 10
Host Country/US Administrative Linkages--Latin America..... . 11
Bean/Cowpea CRSP Log Frame ....... ........... 12
PROGRAM REPORT ................ ....... 14
Reference Listing ......... ....... .... 14
Management Organization ............ ...... 14
Management Entity .......................... . 14
Management Office.............................. . 14
MO Interaction Chart. ..... . ......... 16
MO Organization Chart .......... ........ 17
External Review Panel ............ ..... 18
Institutional Representatives ......... ....... 18
Board of Directors............................ . 18
Institutional Participation on Board of Directors .... . 20
Technical Committee ........... .......... .. 20
Institutional Participation on Technical Committee. .... 21
International Travel of Management Groups ...... ...... 22
Bean/Cowpea CRSP International Travel Through 9/30/83. ... 22
Country Research Project Organization ......... .... 22
Country Research Project Personnel...................... . 23
Professional Researchers Participating in CRSP .. .. .. 23 US Researchers in Residence in HCs for 6 Months or Longer 23 Bean/Cowpea CRSP International Project Travel Through 9/30/83 24




Women-in-Development Strategy . ............ 24
Project-Centered Areas of Concentration ........... 24
Program-Centered Areas of Concentration ........... 26
Documenting the Effectiveness of WID ............ 26
Program Research Achievements ............... 27
Achievements in Addressing Constraints by Project ....... 29
Program Training Achievements.. ....... ..... 30
1983 Bean/Cowpea CRSP Training Component...... .. . 31
Bean/Cowpea CRSP Trainees by Country of Origin and Gender . . 32 Bean/Cowpea CRSP Student Trainees by Funding Source and Gender 33
Linkages with International Agricultural Research Centers..... . 34 PROJECT EVALUATIONS AND REVIEW PROFILES.. ....... . . 36
External Review Panel Evaluations and Follow-Up ........ 36
Summary 1983 External Review Panel Evaluation Profiles . 37 Summary of ERP Recommendations and Followup ......... 38
Board of Directors Extension Evaluations ................... . 42
Summary 1983 Board of Directors Extension Rating...... . 43
Country Research Project Review Profiles and Logical Frameworks . 44
Botswana........... ........ ................... . 45
Brazil/BTI.................................... . 49
Brazil/WI/Bliss ................... 53
Brazil/WI/Hagedorn .................. 57
Cameroon ..................... 61
Dominican Republic/UNE ................ 65
Dominican Republic/UPR ................ 69
Ecuador .. .................. 73
Guatemala ..................... 77
Honduras 79
I NCAP..... ................. 83
Kenya................. ........ ............... . 87
Malawi . .................... 91
Mexico................... ..................... . 93
Nigeria/MSU 95
Nigeria/UGA . 97
Senegal .O.................... 101
Tanzania........... ........ ................. . 103




Project Evaluations by Institutional Representatives.... i.. 107
Botswana ............ ........ .. .108
Brazil/WI .......... ........... ... .. .109
Cameroon and Nigeria/UGA ............. il
Dominican Republic/UNE ........... . ....... 112
Ecuador................................ ... 116
Guatemala ................ ....... 119
Honduras and Dominican Republic/UPR.... .....122
INCAP ....... .. ........... 128
Malawi ............. .......... .. 130
Mexico ............... ....... . 131
Nigeria/MSU ........... ........... ... 132
Senegal............. .......... ........... . . 133
Tanzania ........... ........... .. ... 135
Project Evaluations by AID Missions. ...... . ...137
Botswana ............ ......... .. .138
Brazil .......... ........ ... ... 140
Cameroon. ..... .............142
Dominican Republic ....... . .. .....144
Ecuador ........... .... .....145
Guatemala ....... ................ ....147
Honduras ............ ... ....148
Kenya.. ....... ........... 149
Malawi.. ................. 150
Nigeria ............ .. ........... .151
Senegal ............... ....... .. 152
1983 BUDGET REPORT..... ......................... . .153
Distribution of Direct and Indirect Costs and Contributions 154 Explanation of Data Components.... .........155
Management Office Expenditures by Function ........156 CONCLUSION ............ ............ ....... 157




INTRODUCTION
The Bean/Cowpea Collaborative Research Support Program (CRSP) is a program of coordinated projects in Africa and Latin America addressing hunger and malnutrition through research on the production and utilization of beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) and cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata). The CRSP reflects the Title XII "Famine Prevention and Freedom from Bunger" mission of the US Foreign Assistance Act under which the program is funded. Contributing to the alleviation of hunger and malnutrition in developing countries by improving the availability and utilization of beans and cowpeas, the CRSP also makes a significant contribution to agriculture in the US. The research findings and identified biological resources hold potential for solving or reducing important agricultural constraints to the availability of beans and cowpeas in all legume-producing nations.
The problems being addressed by the Bean/Cowpea CRSP, by their nature, are systemic, rooted deep in a complex of interacting variables and will require long-term research and training to adequately address. As stated in the grant which established the Bean/Cowpea CRSP,
"This program is a long-term effort designed to bring together the
research capabilities of participating universities, collaborating Title
XII institutions including USDA and other federal research agencies,
appropriate LDC institutions and international centers into a comprehensive and coordinated effort in research and training to generate and apply knowledge that can assist in alleviating principal constraints to improved production, marketing and utilization of beans and cowpeas in
LDCs. It is based on the assumption that there are large areas of overlap between U.S. and developing country needs for research, marketing and utilization of these two crops. Substantial mutual advantages are
expected to result from joint research program efforts which cut across national boundaries and different levels of agricultural development."
The Bean/Cowpea CRSP is one of seven CRSPs which through interactions among the partners (AID-US Institutions-Host Country [HCI Institutions) has evolved a research and training effort to address issues of food availability in designated areas throughout the world. Although the seven have many basic characteristics in common, each CRSP has a configuration which is somewhat unique. These differences emerged from the resources and needs of the respective partners, the research requirements of the commodity and the stage of Title XII development at the time the particular program was begun.
As the third such program to be developed, following the Small Ruminant CRSP and the Sorghum/Millet CRSP, the Bean/Cowpea CRSP was the beneficiary of two especially critical lessons. First, it was determined that the Host Countries to participate should be identified early in the planning process. This facilitated HC involvement in planning the specific research, their acceptance of a role in that research and their readiness to begin work once the program was implemented. Secondly, to avoid a great deal of unproductive transition time, it was determined that the Planning Entity should be allowed to be a serious candidate for Management Entity when the CRSP was implemented. These two changes from the original guidelines for CRSP development have been major factors in the important achievements of the Bean/Cowpea CRSP despite its short time in existence.




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Even though at program initiation all prospective participants were identified, the first year was taken up with acquiring the final approvals which could not precede actual funding. Official government and institutional signatures on the required documents in the US and thirteen participating HCs had to be acquired. The task for the second year was getting the projects off the ground--funds could begin to flow, identified professionals could request released time, students could apply for training and, if admitted right away, could be sent off to begin that training, approvals for equipment purchases could be requested from AID and the lucky few receiving the approvals promptly could order the first equipment before the end of the year. Thus, for the most part, it was not until late in the third year that preliminary research was enough under way to suggest tentative initial findings. There are striking exceptions where important and significant results have already been obtained. These are frequently the consequences of the program's being able to capitalize on previous long-term thinking, associations and background research which fitted the precise needs of the CRSP and required only its guided human and financial resources to push the work over the top. An excellent example of this is the work reported in the first issue of the CRSP Vanguard series by a senior US researcher, his former student who is presently a research leader in the participating HC, and a current graduate student working with the team (Vanguard Vol. 1, No. 1, "Temperature X Photoperiod, Adaptation and Yield in Phaseolus vulgaris" by Donald H. Wallace, Porfirio N. Masaya and Paul A. Cniffke, available from the CRSP Management Office).
PROGRAM GOAL
By making available to the international agricultural research and development system a new avenue to the US agricultural research network, the Bean/Cowpea MSP is organized to make important contributions to the resolution of difficult and persistent problems associated with bean and cowpea production and utilization.
The grant document puts forward the following goal of the Bean/Cowpea CRSP:
"The goal to which this program is to make a significant contribution
is improvement in living conditions of small farm producers in LDCs and increased availability of low cost nutritious foodstuffs in the marketplace for the rural and urban poor in LDCs."
PROGRAM PURPOSE
The grant document further identifies the following purpose of the CRSP:
"The purpose of this program is to organize and mobilize financial and
human resources necessary for mounting a major multi-institutional U.S.LDC collaborative effort in research and training. This effort is
expected to provide the knowledge base necessary to achieve significant
advances in alleviating the principal constraints to improved production, marketing and utilization of beans and cowpeas in LDCs. A subpurpose is to improve the capabilities of appropriate LDC institutions
to generate, adopt and apply improved knowledge to local conditions."




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PLANNING PROCESS
During planning, a thorough identification was made of HC and US problem areas, interests and capabilities. The planning group met with HC nationals engaged in legume research individually and in groups at national and international meetings and conferences. International groups were invited to the US to further refine the effort. Extensively researched and honed to the needs of the HC and the international agricultural community, the CRSP research projects evolved from this comprehensive process. Below is a chronology of the Bean/Cowpea CRSP planning process as presented in the Final Planning Report.
Chronology of the Bean/Cowpea CRSP Planning Process
July, 1978 BIFAD authorized planning for Bean/Cowpea CRSP.
August, 1978 Experiment Station representatives met in Chicago authorizing
MSU to submit the planning grant proposal.
October, 1978 Planning grant awarded to MSU, effective as of this date.
October, 1978- Dr. Donald Wallace, on leave from Cornell, joined with Dr.
June, 1979 Wayne Adams of MSU to carry out the planning effort.
October, 1978 Letter to Title XII institutions requesting indications of
manifest interest--forty-three responded.
October, 1978 Wallace and Adams made orientation trips to University of
Missouri and USAID-Washington. LDC questionnaires subsequently developed and disseminated.
December, 1978 Wallace attended Western Regional Project #150 Participants
Meeting in Berkeley, California to present a report on the objectives and expected planning procedures of this CRSP.
January- Wallace and Adams visited CIAT, Guatemala, Panama, Costa
February, 1979 Rica, Colombia and Chile. Collected information on constraints. Met potential collaborators.
February, 1979 Adams visited Dominican Republic, FAO meeting. Wallace
visited IITA. Collected information on constraints. Met potential collaborators.
February, 1979 Wallace attended Southern Region Meeting of American Society
of Horticultural Science in New Orleans to acquaint cowpea workers of the south and southeastern US with the goals and procedures of the Bean/Cowpea CRSP.
March, 1979 Adams attended PCCMCA meeting, Honduras. Collected
information on constraints. Met potential collaborators.
April-May, 1979 Fact-finding team visits to South America, Caribbean and
Mexico, West Africa and East Africa--team members from various Title XII institutions. Collected information on constraints. Met potential collaborators.




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May, 1979 Bean/Cowpea proposals received from interested institutions
responding to RFP. Proposals received from seventy-seven persons representing twenty-five institutions.
May, 1979 Dr. Pat Barnes-McConnell joined Planning Office.
June, 1979 Planning team presented Interim Report to JRC, Iowa.
June, 1979 Barnes-McConnell attended Grain Legume Workshop, University
of the West Indies, Trinidad. Collected information on constraints. Met potential collaborators.
June, 1979 International Peer Review Panel Meeting to evaluate proposals
received. Sixteen panel experts represented CIAT, IITA, IICA and US senior legume scientists.
July, 1979 Progress report to JRC, Virginia.
August, 1979 Adams and Barnes-McConnell attended Grain Legume Workshop at
University of Nairobi. Collected information on constraints. Met potential collaborators.
September, 1979 Barnes-McConnell visited Tanzania, University of Dar es
Salaam, College of Agriculture. Collected information on constraints. Met potential collaborators.
October, 1979 Host Country Advisory Group Meeting, MSU. Prioritized
constraints relative to country needs. Subsequently matched country needs with US evaluated proposal topics.
November, 1979 Meeting with JRC for approvals of Title XII institutions and
collaborating research scientists abroad.
December, 1979 Meeting of the representatives of US institutions approved
for involvement in further planning. Constraints by geographic areas reviewed. Potential US research teams designed. Country research response sheets sent to potential developing country collaborators.
January, 1980 JRC meeting--approval of overseas trips by US representatives
of potential research teams.
March, 1980 Attendance at East African Bean Conference, Malawi--Adams and
Barnes-McConnell. Confirmation of constraints chosen for research in Africa. Attendance at PCCMCA meeting, Guatemala--Adams. Confirmation of constraints chosen for research in Latin America.
March-April, 1980 Meetings on-site of potential US and HC collaborators-a) familiarizing US collaborators with the specific resources, problems and culture of the country in which work to be conducted; and




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b) providing an opportunity for scientists of the US and the HCs to get to know each others' interests, capabilities and approaches to problem solving, in preparation for: c) developing specific research designs and budgets to address the problems identified. April, 1980 3RC meeting--approval of ten institutions to participate in
the CRSP.
April, 1980 CRSP Development Meeting, Chicago O'Hare, with the ten
institutions approved for CRSP involvement. Brief report of the collaborators' meetings, the Global Plan, decisions on the CRSP Management Entity and the initial five institutions to be members of the first Board of Directors. May, 1980 Review and comment on the Global Plan received from
participating US institutions. 3une, 1980 Presentation of Bean/Cowpea Global Plan and proposal to
implement the CRSP to JRC and AID (one institution subsequently omitted).
PROGRAM CONSTRAINTS
The constraints to the availability of beans and cowpeas, as identified during the planning process, became the basis for the development of the global or master plan. These constraints as presented in that plan defined the major issues which the project research was designed to address. The constraints are as follows:
1. Limitations due to pests and diseases,
2. Plant response limitations,
3. Limitations of the physical environment,
4. Farming practices limitations,
5. Storage problems,
6. Production-consumption economics,
7. Nutrition, food preparation and health,
8. Socio-cultural factors and
9. Education, training and research capability.
The first four constraints represent prioritized agricultural production problems and the remaining represent other related areas in bean/cowpea availability, utilization or consumption. Both sections are important in CRSP development and the various components of these sections are being addressed.




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Specific problems are addressed within constraint areas. In recognition of the impracticality of mounting and supporting large, comprehensive research thrusts in each of these constraint areas, the problems were narrowed to the following proposed activities.
1. Lack of generalized disease and pest resistance and/or effective biological control methods in field and in storage.
2. Low yields and low yield stability.
3. Plant sensitivity to environmental stress and lack of wide adaptation.
4. Inefficiency of nitrogen fixation in the field.
5. Hard seededness necessitating prolonged cooking time.
6. Lack of understanding of traditional farming systems, including pertinent socio-cultural issues and the role of women.
7. Difficulties in the digestibility of legume protein, for adults and especially for small children.
8. Lack of improved practical processing and preserving methods to insure high quality fooos from beans/cowpeas.
9. Lack of information on the comparative economic values of introduced technology versus traditional practices (financial, health, labor costs,
including sex roles, etc.).
10. Limited indigenous professional competencies to address critical constraints.
Clearly, these are not independent problems. They are both interdependent andi universal. Based on LOC priorities and other information received, they are problems which are geographically widely dispersed.
In the development of the research projects, the planning officers considered it of fundamental significance that the US planners did not impose their wishes unilaterally upon national programs. However, the reverse was also true in that planning office responsibility demanded concern for comprehensive coverage of constraint areas which minimizes expensive duplication of effort. In the spirit of true collaboration, it was determined that the actual functioning research plans would have to be prepared jointly by US researchers and Host Country program personnel.
It should be pointed out, however, that the reality of matching professional Host Country needs and expectations with US scientists' needs and goals, within the framework of a global CRSP, has dictated some compromise of the ideal. The global CIRSP plan had to focus on universal problems that can be addressed through a local and specific Host Country linkage, with enough specificity to serve a Host Country need, and sufficient generality to permit extension of research findings to the region or to the world.




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EVOLUTION OF THE GLOBAL PLAN
The Global Plan for the Bean/Cowpea CRSP was developed by the Planning Entity based on the identified constraints.. Implemented during the first year of this program, the plan presented a configuration of nine US lead institutions providing leadership in eighteen projects all of which are presently in existence.
Early on, just before the presentation and approval of the initial Global Plan, a tenth lead institution (Mississippi) withdrew from involvement. After plan approval, there were two other revisions made in the plan--Mexico was substituted for CIAT (although CIAT remains involved) and Botswana was substituted for Guyana. Nonetheless, the worldwide research needs for beans and cowpeas which were identified as needing to be included in the initial efforts of the CRSP are all being addressed.
At the time that the initial plan was evolving, much about the CRSP mode was new and uncharted. Guidelines for program implementation had to be developed which would reinforce the mission and keep the program on track. It was determined that the Bean/Cowpea CRSP projects were:
1. To be individual but structurally integrated in order to make the maximum contribution to the availability of beans and cowpeas in areas where they
are important to human diet;
2. To emphasize multidisciplinary research integrating production and nonproduction issues;
3. To focus on research in traditional settings;
4. To build strong and collegial professional relationships among the HC and US researchers in each project;
5. To make financial resources available for both HC and US research activity;
6. To contribute to the strengthening of HC institutions through the enhancement of facilities and equipment needed to support that research;
7. To contribute to the strengthening of HC institutions through a significant level of graduate and undergraduate study, short-term courses, conferences
and workshops;
8. To pay specific attention to the roles and participation of women;
9. To be alert to mechanisms for information dissemination; and
10. To provide an opportunity for private sector participation in research
activity and in the dissemination of products.




GLOBAL RESEARCH PLAN
BEAN/COWPEA CRSP
Nigeria Kenya
Cowpes paccessing and pre- Drought and heat resistance
servation, child health in disease-resistant beans
associated with cowpea foods for semi-arid regions
Tanzania
Cameroon
A F R I C A Responses to bean insect and
Hun-pesticide control of disease problems and their
covpea pests in field and economic viability for small
storage IITA farmers
Collaboration and interaction
Z Senegal with CRSP programs in Brazil Mlawt
0 and West Africa
N A program to improve the Bean germplasm evaluations
quality of cowpea varieties and the basis of maintenance
for production and utilitz- of land ;ace diversity
clon in seni-arid zones oI ln i
INCAP
Brazil .. bean loDominican Republic
1 p1 iat I *";ollu! LU
Cooking time and protein stress and N-fixntIon
Hiltiple disease resistance digestibility Introgression of diseasescreening; coupes instec ------- --- -------- resistant germ plasm in
pathogensi N-use efficiency adapted bean cultivars N
for the Caribbean.
cuyana LAT IN AMERICA
aCowpe farming systems Increase and stabilization
research and variety of Honduran bean production
evaluation through disease resistance
Ecuador Guatemala
Nature of vide adaptation in Nature of wide adaptation in
beins and socto-cultural beans and socio-cultural
interpretations (replication interpretation (replication
varying natural environmental varying natural environmental
f .actors-see .uat.mala) factors-see Ecuador




GLOBAL RESEARCH PLAN (Revised)
BEAN/COWPEA CRSP
NIGERIA KENYA
1. Cowpea processing and Drought and heat resistance in
preservation; 2. child health disease-resistant beans for
associated with cowpea foods semi- arid regions
CAMEROON TANZANIA
Non-pesticide control of A F R I C A Responses to bean insect and I
cowpea pests in field and disease problems and their
storage economic viability foi small '
farmers
IITA _SENEGAL Ii
Collaboration and interaction MALAW1
with CRSP cowoea programs LZ A program to improve the
quality of cowpea varieties
0for production and utiliza-I Bean germplasm evaluate n and I =
ti o f insem ari eies Vie basis of maintenance of
N tion in semi-arid zones land race diversity V
CIAT - -__
BOTSWANA Collaboration and interaction
- with CRSP bean programs DOMINICAN REPUBLIC
Cowpea farming systems
research and variety i Introgression of diseaseevaluation in semi-arid areas resistant germ plasm ineSadapted Dean cultivars for
L A T I N A M E R I C A the Caribbean
BRAZIL
1. Multiple bean disease HONDURAS
resistance screening;
rn 2. cowpea insect pathogens;
3. N-use efficiency of bean Increase and stabilization
production of Honduran bean production
INCAP through disease resistance
Cooking time and protein
ECUADOR digestibility of beans GUATEMALA
Nature of wide adaptation in MEXICO Nature of wide adaptation in
beans and socio-cultural beans and socio-cultural
interpretations (replication interpretation (replication
varying natural environmental &ean plant responses to varying g natural environmental
factors -- see Guatemala) stress and N-f'ixation factors -- see Ecuador)
-I




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HOST COUNTRY/US ADMINISTRATIVE LINKAGES--AFRICA
Projects were developed in the identified African countries through agreements and collaboration with the Host Country administrative units indicated.
BOTSWANA CAMEROON
Ministry of Agriculture D616gation Gendrale A la
---------------------------------- Recherche Scientifique
Colorado State University et Technique (DGRST)
Institut de Recherche
Agronomique (IRA)
KENYA MALAWI
Ministry of Agriculture Ministry of Agriculture
College of Agriculture of Bunda College of Agriculture of
University of Nairobi University of Malawi
at Kabete --------------------------------------------------------------------- Michigan State University with
University of California Virginia State University
at Davis and Riverside
NIGERIA SENEGAL
Ministry of Economic Planning Government of Senegal
Department of Food and Science of Institut Sgnigalais de
University of Nigeria at Nsukka Recherches Agricoles (ISRA)
Department of Medicine of Bambey Station
University of Nigeria at Jos -----------------------------------Department of Human Nutrition of University of CaliforniaUniversity of Ibadan Riverside with
----------------------- University of Arizona
University of Georgia and Michigan State University
TANZANIA
Government of Tanzania
College of Agriculture of University of Dar es Salaam
at Morogoro
Washington State University with
University of Illinois




-11
HOST COUNTRY/US ADMINISTRATIVE LINKAGES--LATIN AMERICA
Projects were developed in the identified Latin American countries through agreements and collaboration with the Host Country administrative units indicated.
BRAZIL DOMINICAN REPUBLIC
Ministry of Agriculture Ministry of Agriculture
Empresa Brasileira de Pequisa ----------------------------------Agropecuaria (EMBRAPA) University of Nebraska and
---------------------------------- University of Puerto Rico with
Boyce Thompson Institute and Mayaguiz Institute of
University of Wisconsin Tropical Agriculture (MITA)
ECUADOR GUATEMALA
Ministry of Foreign Affairs Ministry of Agriculture
Instituto Nacional de Instituto de Ciencia y
Investigaciones Technologia Agricolas
Agropecuarias (INIAP) (ICTA)
------------------------------ ----------------------------------Cornell University Cornell University
HONDURAS INCAP
Ministry of Agriculture Institute of Nutrition of
Escuela Agricola Panamericana Central America and Panama
(EAP) at Zamorano (INCAP)
------------------------------ ----------------------------------University of Puerto Rico Washington State University with
with MITA Colorado State University
Kansas State University
Michigan State University
University of Puerto Rico
MEXICO
National Institute for
Agricultural Research (INIA)
of Department of Agriculture and
Water Resources of the United States of Mexico
Michigan State University




BEAN/COWPEA GRSP LOG FRAME
Program Goal Ojectively Verifiable Indicators Verifiers Assumptions
make a significant contribution to Development of important research Annual reports and positive TC/ERP Food and nutrition problems in the
the improvement of living conditions results addressing identified reviews of progress. developing nations can be solved in
of small farm producers in developing constraints, part through research.
countries and increase the availabil- Increased overall size of national
ity of low cost, nutritious food in Stronger national research program program research team with greater Collaboration between US and HC can be
the marketplace for the rural and addressing identified constraints, multidisciplinary competence and of mutual benefit.
urban poor. HG investment in the project.
CRSP products accepted by farmers, Achievement from tnis program can
extension agents, HC private initia- Adaptation of findings by external reach the rural and urban poor.
tives in ways which will advance goal. -agents: farmers, IAR~s, extension agents, commercial interests. Achievements of this Program can conIncreased participation of women. tribute to development in ways which
Increased male and especially do not increase the marginalization of
female CRSP graduates in the women and their families.
professional pipeline.
Purpose Objectively Verifiable Indicators Verifiers Assumptions
Organize and mobilize financial and US/HG administrations' support of Smooth management with good HG will maintain interest in the
human resources necessary for mount- projects. communication with MO. commodity and in CRSP participation..
ing a major multi-institutional US/HG
collaborative effort in research and HG and US teams functioning with good US/HG quarterly and annual reports. Coups and other forms of political or
training, working relationships established, social disturbances will not be of a
Formal commitment of participants. magnitude at project sites as to
Provide the knowledge base necessary Research teams operating with effective severely and insurmountably affect
to achieve significant advances in level of equipment, supplies and tech- Consistent pattern of student progress.
alleviating the principal constraints nical support. training established.
to improved production, marketing and Ne~cessary basic equipment, facilities
utilization of beans and cowpeas in Effective communications among all par- Documentation of secondary data. and supplies will be available or acH~s. ticipants especially among those work- quirable within reasonable time frame.
ing on the same constraints across Primary data analyses available in
Improve the capabilities of HG insti- projects. reports and publications. There is a sufficiently large pool of
tutions to generate, adopt and apply stuoents from which to draw for
improved knowledge to local condi- Mechanism established for the identi- HG contributions to CRSP documented advanced training at least at the
tions. fication and support of US and HG male in each year's budget analysis. secondary school graduate level.
and female CRSP students.
Useful secondary data identified.
Improved research infrastructure with
laboratory and field research in
process.




Outputs Oojectively Verifiable Indicators Verifiers Assumptions
Strong, better quality yields pro- Yield increase under an array of Yield data from local and national There exists in the HC at least a
duced under stressful conditions. stressful conditions to which produced census. skeletal infrastructure for informavarieties are resistant. tion dissemination.
Greater understanding by US and HC Reports of projects incorporate
collaborators of the socio-cultural Multidisciplinary research generated. and integrate socio-cultural with There are HC and US women sufficiently
and the agri-cultural environment. agri-cultural information, interested in advanced education and
Informational materials available. professional employment to work their
Products of research packaged Materials acknowledged as received way through the system when it is
appropriately for consumer use. Interest of wider international and by many groups and increased con- opened to them.
national research and development sumer demand.
Information dissemination for a community in products.
variety of audiences. Requests from professional community
Better health among those making use for information and products Production and utilization research of project outputs. increased.
findings useful for the wider
research community. Male and especially female graduates Site visits.
returning to HC research institutions.
Many male and female graduates of CRSP graduates identified in HC
training programs. research positions.
Increased numbers of male and female
students continually in short-term
and long-term training.
Inputs Objectively Verifiable Indicators Verifiers Assumptions
Necessary long-term/short-term Annual allocation from AID. Increase in communications initiated AID will generate necessary approvals
personnel from HC/US institutions by participants with one another. in timely fashion.
who can communicate with each other. CRSP funds flowing on regular bases to US and HC research teams. Review of annual documents by AID will have funds available for
Financial contributions from AID and TC and BOD. use by the CRSP.
US and HC institutions. Annual plan of work and budget document with US/HC contributions. AID letter of credit authorizing All parties making input will continue
Equipment such as vehicles, lab, funds. to feel the mutual benefits worth the
field and office equipment. Frequent and regular communication investments.
among AID, MO, US and HC. Regular reimbursement requests with
Facilities and supplies for HC/US quarterly reports.
teams. Participation in CRSP research and
training activity by external groups AID approvals to purchase indicated Management support from MO, US and (i.e., AID-sponsored FSR teams, IARCs, equipment received. HC institution administrations. USAID missions).
Site visits.
Information and support from external
groups. Meetings and other forms of communication with external agents.




-14
PROGRAM REPORT
REFERENCE LISTING
Throughout this section, reference will be made to other CRSP publications which provide additional information. These publications, available on request from the Management Office are as follows:
Bean/Cowpea CRSP Brochure
1983 Annual Report: Executive Summary
Bean/Cowpea CRSP Women-in-Development Pamphlet
Beans-Cowpeas Production Constraints and National Programs
1983 Annual Report: Technical Summary
Vanguard Vol. 1, No. 1
Pulse Beat, Spring 1984 with Bean/Cowpea CRSP Bibliography insert
Research Highlights Vol. 1, Nos. 1-5 Women-in-Agriculture Guide--Cameroon
Monographs Vol. 1, No. 1
1983 Annual Report: External Review Panel
MANAGEMENT ORGANIZATION
Management Entity (ME)--Michigan State University Total program and fiscal responsibility for the performance of the CRSP rests with the Management Entity. The administrative work of the CRSP, organized and funded through the Management Entity, is achieved through the participation of groups as follows:
Management Office (MO)
This is the operational office of the Management Entity for the Bean/Cowpea CRSP. It is located on the Michigan State University campus but maintains constant communications with the project personnel in the US and HCs as well as the management support groups listed below. The MO is organized with the following staff positions.
Director 100%
Deputy Director 50%
WID/Program Specialist (50%/50%) 100%
Administrative Officer 100%
Executive Secretary 100%
Secretary-Receptionist 100%




-15
Despite almost one hundred percent turnover in staff within the last one-and-ahalf years, the Management Office has continued (1) to monitor project activity in US and HCs as needed, (2) to provide support and guidance to all projects,
(3) to reinforce attention to the WID perspective, (4) to reinforce communication among the various participants of the CRSP, (5) to encourage better project integration in the lead and HC institutions, (6) to provide staff support to the BOD, TC and ERP, (7) to carry out the policies and recommendations of these groups, (8) to maintain communication flow between the CRSP and AID/BIFAD, (9) to increase the published output and (10) to represent the CRSP in wider national and international settings.
The MO is responsible for compiling, editing and publishing the following documents:
CRSP Brochure
Annual Report: Executive Summary Annual Report: Technical Summary
Detailed Annual Report
External Review Panel Report
Pulse Beat
Vanguard
Research Highlights
Women-in-Agriculture Resource Guides
WID Pamphlet
The Management Office further supports the projects through communication with outside organizations, workshops and conferences. The active level of CRSP-wide communication is demonstrated by the MO-documented average daily output of twenty-five phone communications (local and long distance), one telex/cable (incoming or outgoing), twenty-five incoming pieces of mail handled, fifty pieces of mail outgoing and two visitors (local or from out of town). There are multiple phone and mail communications between the MO and the AID and BIFAD program officers weekly.




-16
BEAN/COWPEA CRSP MANAGEMENT OFFICE INTERACTION CHART January 1, 1984
Director Pat Barnes-McConnell
PROGRAM ADMINISTRATION CLERICAL
Deputy Director and Executive
Information Officer Secretary
(Open as of above date) Sue Bengry
Finance and Administrative Officer
John Niles
WID and Program Program Secretary
Specialist and Communications
Coordinator Anne Ferguson Irma Gutierrez
Student Office Assistant Cassie McClendon




-17
BEAN/COWPEA CRSP MANAGEMENT OFFICE ORGANIZATION CHART January 1, 1984
Director
Pat Barnes-McConnell
ADMINISTRATION PROGRAM CLERICAL
Deputy Director and Information Officer (Open as of above date)
Finance and WID and Program Executive
Administrative Specialist Secretary
Officer
John Niles Anne Ferguson Sue Bengry
Program Secretary and Communications Coordinator Irma Gutierrez
Student Office Assistant
Cassie McClendon




-18
External Review Panel (ERP) 7 members
Eminent scientists from an array of disciplines with no previous connection to the CRSP are appointed by BIFAD to annually review and evaluate the individual CRSP projects and the program as a whole. The ERP has completed two reviews of the CRSP. A report of their findings each year presents the results of US and HC site visits and project progress reviews. These ERP reports are used by all of the other management groups in monitoring individual projects and in conducting general CRSP affairs. The comprehensive 1983 Annual Report: External Review Panel is available from the Management Office.
After its third review to be held in 1984-85, the members of the ERP will be rotating off in a 2-2-2-1 pattern, establishing four-year staggered terms.
Institutional Representatives (IRs) 10 members
There is one IR from each of the nine lead institutions plus an additional one from the University of California-Riverside/Davis system. There are no regularly scheduled meetings but frequent mailings from the MO keep them informed of overall CRSP activity. They are the senior link between the CRSP project personnel at their institution and the administration there. Excerpts from IRs' letters indicating the role and contributions of the projects in their institutions are included in this document. These letters reinforce the extent of US institutional support of CRSP activity.
Board of Directors 5 members
The Board is the policy-making group of the CRSP; members are elected from among the nine lead institutions' Institutional Representatives. One member is a standing member representing the Management Entity. In addition to these five members, the Board invites consulting members to its meetings from among the HC administrators. An average of three meetings are held per year staffed by the Management Office. Policies passed by the Board are presented below.
1. Bean/Cowpea CRSP Policy on US/HC Distribution of Funds:
A. The existing policy previously adopted by the CRSP Board indicates that
not less than 50 percent of USAID funds for support of projects be spent
in or directly on behalf of Host Countries. In order:
(1) To insure CRSP focus on the solution of Host Country problems
rather than on the maintenance of existing research programs of US
institutions and
(2) To nourish a climate of collaboration and partnership between the
US and Host Country PIs,
this policy is upheld and is to be based on each total grant period.
B. However, experience has demonstrated that the US PI is uniquely
restricted when institutional indirect costs for project support are
taken solely from the US 50 percent of the total funds. Therefore, the
50/50 split is to be applied to the total project budget exclusive of
all indirect costs.




-19
C. Some projects have not settled into a spending pattern in the Host
Country comparable to that in the US. Thus, in order to maintain a
50/50 split, more of each year's funds must be alloted to the half of
the team spending less. Assuming that authorized project spending
suggests the progress of approved research activity, it is appropriate
to encourage Host Country utilization of project funds. Therefore,
where Host Country spending patterns are seriously below the expected
level, the Host Country and US PIs will be requested to submit to the MO
for TC discussion the reasons for the spending patterns and their
suggestions for addressing the issue, including possible recognition of
an unrealistic Host Country budget level.
2. Bean/Cowpea CRSP Policy on Institutional Involvement:
The Bean/Cowpea CRSP Board of Directors is concerned about the degree to
which institutional participation occurs in CRSP projects beyond activities
associated with the individual PIs. Of special concern is the extent to
which PIs interact with their Institutional Representatives and the extent
to which the administration of the lead institution is aware of the project's
progress. It is strongly recommended therefore that at each institution significant steps be taken to strengthen institutional ownership through
(a) internal project reviews with attention to greater institutional
integration, (b) identification of project strengths and weaknesses with
appropriate institutional response and (c) when relevant, institutional
participation in on-site project analyses.
3. Bean/Cowpea CRSP Policy on Project Allocations:
If there is an effective and consistent quarterly spending pattern of 80
percent (actual costs reimbursement not including encumbrances) projects may be considered for allocations up to 100 percent of project need as requested
and demonstrated by the Principal Investigator. Maintenance of spending
patterns less than 80 percent receive allocations commensurate with the prior
spending pattern at a level which will discourage the accumulation of excess
carry-forward funds.
4. Bean/Cowpea CRSP Policy on Training:
The Bean/Cowpea CRSP has as a major goal the strengthening of HC institutions
through the training of HC nationals, a critical resource necessary for
successful long-term research. To achieve this goal, CRSP projects are to give emphasis to the training of Host Country persons over the training of
US persons. This policy adopts a Host Country priority rather than US
exclusion and refers to both short-term training and graduate education.
5. Bean/Cowpea CRSP Policy on Participation of Non-CRSP Developing Countries:
Whereas the Bean/Cowpea CRSP has institution building and strengthening as a
major goal, the BOD endorses the concept of CRSP Host Countries inviting scientists, representing limited-resource nations in CRSP regions of the
world, to participate in Host Country collaborative research and training
efforts which may provide mutual benefits.




-20
INSTITUTIONAL PARTICIPATION ON THE BEAN/COWPEA CRSP BOARD OF DIRECTORS
FY 81 FY 82 FY 83 FY 84 FY 85 FY 86 FY 87 FY 88 Colorado State University X X
Cornell University X X
Michigan State University X X X X X X X X
University of California X X X X
University of Georgia X X X X
University of Nebraska X x x x
University of Puerto Rico^ X X
University of Wisconsin X X X X X
Washington State University X X X
Technical Committee (TC) 7 members
Composed of researchers associated with the CRSP, this group is responsible for internal project review and research coordination. Members and their alternates are appointed by the Board. It is made up of:
Researchers from CRSP US institutions 5
Researchers from CRSP HC institutions 1
Representatives from IARCs (CIAT or IITA) 1
An average of five meetings are held per year staffed by the Management Office. Some of the major activities of this group have been (1) monitoring progress of projects, (2) reviewing requested changes in projects, (3) responding to ERP recommendations, (4) identifying new areas for collaboration and cooperation,
(5) determining most efficient and effective methods for disseminating CRSP information and (6) making recommendations to the Board regarding policies needed for the successful operation of the projects.




-21
INSTITUTIONAL PARTICIPATION ON THE BEAN/COWPEA CRSP TECHNICAL COMMITTEE
FY 81 FY 82 FY 83 FY 84 FY 85 FY 86 FY 87 FY 88
II
Botswana
Brazil/Boyce Thompson BTI BTI
Brazil/Wisconsin/Bliss UW UWL
Brazil/Wisconsin/Hagedorn Cameroon
Dominican Republic/Coyne UNE UNE
Ecuador Guatemala Dominican Republic/UPR Honduras
INCAP HC HC&MSU MSU
Kenya UCD UCD
Malawi
Mexico Nigeria/U of GA GA&HC GA&HC GA GA
Nigeria/MSU Senegal UCR UCR
Tanzania U-IL WSU WSU
CIAT X X X* X X X
IITA X X X* X X X
*Starting from 1985, CIAT and IITA representatives will alternate attendance at Technical Committee meetings.




-22
INTERNATIONAL TRAVEL OF MANAGEMENT GROUPS
To carry out the responsibilities assigned by the grant, most of the groups described above were required to travel internationally. Information on that travel is presented below.
BEAN/COWPEA CRSP INTERNATIONAL TRAVEL THROUGH 9-30-83 (Person Trips)
To Collaborating Prof. Mtg. in
Project Country Another Country To IARCs
Board of Directors 0 0 0
External Review Panel 10 0 0
Technical Committee 0 0 7
Total 10 0 7
Management Office 28 0 2
COUNTRY RESEARCH PROJECT ORGANIZATION
The research of the CRSP is organized in sets of HC and US teams collaborating in addressing one or more constraints to bean or cowpea production and utilization. No projects are free standing in the US without HC alliances. All evolved from the two-year planning effort.
Total projects 18
Africa 8
Latin America 10
Host Countries 13
Africa 7
Latin America 6
Bean projects 12
Africa 3
Latin America 9
Cowpea projects 6
Africa 5
Latin America 1
US lead institutions 9
US institutions contributing resource scientists 14
Cooperating International Research Centers 2




-23
COUNTRY RESEARCH PROJECT PERSONNEL
Notwithstanding coups or serious coup attempts in five of the CRSP HCs, food riots and other forms of political unrest, the projects continue their steady forward progress. This noteworthy achievement is undoubtedly the product of convivial professional relationships formed among the heterogeneous group of competent people whose human natures seem to demand that, in the midst of confusion and havoc, they seek the path of greatest dedication to the application of science in solving social problems.
PROFESSIONAL RESEARCHERS PARTICIPATING IN CYSP
Males Females Total
HC 90 11 101
us 53 16 69
Total 143 27 170
US RESEARCHERS IN RESIDENCE IN HCS FOR 6 MONTHS OR LONGER
6 males 2 females 8 total
The organization of project research teams has developed based on the needs and existing resources of the projects and the professional relationships established between the HC and US PIs. Three successful models have emerged:
1. No US scientists are stationed in the HCs but active communication, professional cooperation and collegial relationships are maintained. This model
is especially appropriate where the HC, similar to the US, maintains a
critical mass of scientists including effective senior scientists.
Example: Senegal.
2. Junior scientists (including post-doctorates or advanced Ph.D. students) are
stationed in HCs, under close and frequent supervision of senior US PIs, to
work with national programs. This model is especially successful where there
is an effective HC team but less than a critical mass in the identified
research area. Example: Brazil.
3. Senior US scientists are stationed in HCs to work with national programs.
This model is especially effective where the HC has very limited research
personnel and the US PI acts as a stimulus to building a critical mass.
Example: Botswana.
These models of collaboration are only three among many possibilities, but they evolved from surveys of existing needs and resources and candid negotiations among the principals during the planning and early implementation phases. Because the structure of model #1 is the most equitable and mutually rewarding for the long term, those projects for whom models #2 or #3 are currently the most appropriate are motivated to focus attention on a comprehensive plan to achieve that level of operation.
To reinforce and maintain professional relationships within and among the US/HC teams, project personnel consult with one another frequently, visiting one
another's programs and assessing the progress of laboratory and field research strategies jointly developed. The international travel sustained by the projects through the first three years of the CRSP is presented below.




-24
BEAN/COWPEA CRSP INTERNATIONAL PROJECT TRAVEL THROUGH 9-30-83 (Person Trips)
To Collaborating Prof. Mtg. in
Project Country Another Country Traininq--IARCs
Botswana/CSU 2 0 1
Brazil/BTI 12 2 0
Brazil/Bliss 7 1 0
Brazil/Hagedorn 2 0 0
Cameroon/UGA 6 3 1
Dom. Republic/UNE 14 0 2
Dom. Republic/UPR 5 3 3
Ecuador/COR 20 1 2
Guatemala/COR 15 2 1
Honduras/UPR 8 3 0
INCAP/WSU 8 1 0
Kenya/UCD 7 0 0
Malawi/MSU 14 0 1
Mexico/MSU 4 0 0
Nigeria/UGA 4 14 2
Nigeria/MSU 3 4 0
Senegal/UCR 9 1 0
Tanzania/WSU 9 5 2
Total Project Trips 149 40.0 15.0
Average US/HC Trips
Per Project Per Year 3 .7 .3
WOMEN-IN-DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY
Recognizing the significant role played by women in many developing countries in bean and cowpea production, this CRSP has incorporated a strong Women-inDevelopment focus and has included a WID Specialist on its Management Office staff. This was originally a quarter-time appointment but effective September, 1983 it became a full-time position with half of the work effort given to WID and the remainder to more general program-related tasks such as editing the CRSP newsletter and annual reports. A CRSP Women-in-Development pamphlet that provides an overview of women's roles in bean and cowpea production in the HCs and outlines Bean/Cowpea CRSP strategies to incorporate women as agricultural producers, researchers and students has been prepared. A work plan has also been developed and is being implemented. Briefly, three areas of concentration are identified: those with a project focus, those related to the program as a whole and those that address broader policy issues of concern to the WID field.
Project-Centered Areas of Concentration
The major purpose is to increase awareness of how the role played by HC women and children in agriculture may affect, and be affected by, project activities. This input is tailored to the individual projects and takes various forms:




-25
A. For those projects identified by the External Review Panel as needing greater
concentration on WID issues the following plan has been adopted:
1. The Project Paper, Annual Reports, Trip Reports, ERP Reports and other
relevant materials are reviewed in order to document the extent to which
goals and accomplishments have addressed WID issues.
2. Planning discussions are held with the PI so as to better identify where
WID inputs may be most appropriate.
3. A Women-in-Agriculture Resource Guide is prepared. This includes:
a. A description of women's roles in the farming systems of the HC drawn
largely from secondary source materials.
b. An examination of the implications of this literature for project
activities.
c. Information on women's organizations in the HC and, where possible,
identification of US and HC researchers who could serve as consultants
to the project.
d. An annotated bibliography on farming systems and women's roles in
agricultural production in the HC. This guide is made available to
US and HC project researchers.
4. Once a specific strategy is agreed upon, efforts are made to assist in
implementation.
B. A slightly different approach is used with regard to those projects the ERP
judged as demonstrating adequate attention to WID:
1. By reading the Project Paper, Annual Reports, Trip Reports and other
relevant information, the WID Specialist identifies WID concerns that have been successfully addressed and documents the methodologies used.
2. This information is disseminated to the other projects. For example,
copies of articles where WID concerns are well addressed are circulated
and PIs are familiarized with successful data collection techniques used
in their geographic/cultural areas.
3. Project researchers are encouraged to make mention of WID issues in their
publications and to further expand their efforts to incorporate women
through:
a. Hiring competent female researchers and technicians, both in the US
and in the HCs. Where possible, the WID Specialist assists in this process by providing lists of relevant organizations and individuals
for consideration.
b. Training of HC and US females in both degree and non-degree programs.




-26
Program-Centered Areas of Concentration:
In addition to project-centered activities, a number of program-wide activities are carried out by the WID Specialist:
A. Workshops and Training: Training of HC nationals is an important component
of the Bean/Cowpea CRSP. Many projects include opportunities for individuals
to pursue graduate degree studies and/or participate in non-degree programs.
CRSP efforts to recruit women have been successful and will be continued in
the future. Attention will also be paid to familiarizing researchers and
students with women's roles in agricultural production in developing countries. The feasibility of locating existing WID curricula, or designing short
seminars which could be held either separately or in conjunction with other
Bean/Cowpea CRSP programs or workshops, is being investigated. Where
possible, those individuals in degree programs may also be encouraged to take
a course or participate in some formal offering related to Women-inDevelopment. In a related vein, students who have conducted research
addressing women's roles in agricultural production and/or processing may be encouraged to present their findings at appropriate professional association
meetings (AWID and others). Training is of particular importance because many of the HC students will command top research and administrative positions when
they return home. In these policy-making roles they may significantly
influence training and research opportunities for women and build WID concerns
into development efforts.
B. While the Bean/Cowpea CRSP newsletter, Pulse Beat, is already an important
means of disseminating information, it can be used to address WID concerns in
a more systematic fashion. For example, brief reviews of relevant books and
articles can be included, female researchers and students highlighted and
WID-related findings from the various projects reported.
C. Being well acquainted with the eighteen projects, the WID Specialist identifies areas of concern to women that are not currently receiving attention in
the program. Recommendations are made as to how these can be incorporated in
future planning efforts.
Documenting the Effectiveness of WID
As the program evolves, an increasingly important responsibility will be to demonstrate the effects of having incorporated females as researchers, students and agriculturalists in the projects. This will be done through writing articles, participating in conferences and seminars and other appropriate means.
This plan of work was presented to the Technical Committee on April 26, 1984 and to the Board of Directors on May 10, 1984 where it received positive endorsements. One Women-in-Ariculture Resource Guide (on Cameroon) has been prepared to date and is available from the Management Office.




-27
PROGRAM RESEARCH ACHIEVEMENTS
In the less than three years of actual operations, CRSP researchers are already reporting significant contributions to CRSP goals. For example,
1. Research illuminating the interaction of altitude (temperature) and latitude (daylength) now suggests it is possible to identify each cultivar's optimal
environment (see Vanguard Vol. 1, No. 1).
2. Large collections of bean and cowpea germplasm have been made throughout Africa and Latin America.
3. Large numbers of local and exotic bean and cowpea lines have been screened for
Pest resistance
Disease resistance
Heat resistance
Drought resistance
4. Breeding programs were initiated incorporating these materials with those of the US collections and the IARCs--these materials also shared with national
and international programs. Testing has begun at many sites offering an
array of altitude/latitude variations.
5. One national germplasm guide, growing out of the extensive germplasm survey and research, has been prepared for publication.
6. Extremely early cowpeas were developed producing acceptable yield under the recent severe African drought and heat conditions (see Research Highlights
Vol. 1, No. 1).
7. Bean-tepary crosses have progressed to field trials which have identified drought resistance (see Research Highlights Vol. 1, No. 6 [in process]).
8. Quick, inexpensive and technically feasible methodology was deeloped for assessment of viral contamination of lines to be transported across national
boundaries (see Research Highlights Vol. 1, No. 5).
9. Five new multiple disease resistant bean genotypes were released and made available to breeding programs (see Research Highlights Vol. 1, No. 2).
10. Basic research on the genetics of inheritance of resistance is proceeding.
11. Research on variations among strains of plant pathogens is generating
information critical to disease control.
12. Interactions were identified among bacterial isolates, their concentrations
and host plant genotypes as important components in disease control.
13. Over one hundred isolates of insect pathogens were collected for research on
biological insect control (see Research Highlights Vol. 1, No. 3).




-28
14. Insect control research on identified cowpea pests' life-cycles and
reproductive habits is generating important preliminary findings.
15. Experimental results with superior bean selections and superior isolates of
Rhizobium phaseoli is suggesting greater than usual levels of nitrogenfixing potential adequate for commercial level bean production on small
farms using traditional cropping systems.
16. Secondary research is generating important information on the role of women
in food production (see Women-in-Agriculture Guide--Cameroon).
17. Socio-cultural and socio-economic studies are generating important
information which will contribute to decision making in breeding programs.
18. Methodology is being developed for village-level production of cowpea meal
acceptable for preparation of traditional foods (see Research Highlights
Vol. 1, No. 4).
19. An extensive canvassing of the variety of methods used for evaluation of
bean quality has been done, and a report of these methods is being organized
for use by the scientific community (see Monographs Vol. 1, No. 2 [in
process]).
20. Extensive secondary research completed on the eating of legume leaves and
their role in traditional diets (see Monographs Vol. 1, No. 1).
21. Appropriate farming implements were developed (jointly with other groups)
suitable for an identified Host Country farming system and environment.
22. Collaboration achieved with other international agricultural programs funded
by AID and other bilateral donors.
23. CRSP-sponsored, -organized and -run workshops and short courses (i.e., BNF,
biological insect control, MSTAT) have been contributing to the professional programs of CRSP students and the continuing education of CRSP professionals.
Details of research achievements--1983 Annual Report: Technical Summary.




ACHIEVEMENTS IN ADDRESSING CONSTRAINTS BY PROJECT
OMINA.NT CONS&TRAINT BTSWiNA BRZL/R BRZL/B 6RL/ 04 NIRC HR ECAO GTMAL' )-URAS IN2AP KENYA MALAWI M'EXICO NORIA/M NGRIA/c SENEGAL TNZNIA fla-LIMITATIONS DUE TO PESTS- --Achievement 03a *39-44
Achievement #4 13013
Achievement 013 10-3
Achievement #14 39-44 __Achievement #16 3--- --4 __Achievement 022 18-24 .39-44 f
Achievement #23182
fib-LLIMTATIONS1-------------------------------------------- -U
TO DISEASES
Achievement f3b 33-38 45-51 52-56 130-138
Achievement #4 ___45-51 52-56 -72-76 ___ ___ 130-138
A-hie-vement #8 130-138
Achievement #9 -52-56 ___72-76 _ _______Achievement #10 45-51
Achievement ill___ 45-51 ___ ___ ____130-138
Achievement #12 -45-51
Achievement #22 33-38 1 45-51152-56 ______ ___02-PLANT RESPONSE _LDIITATIONS
Achievement #2 91-99
Achievement f3a 91-99
Achievement 0b
Achievement #3d -91-99 100-108Achievement #15 25-32
Achievement #22 ____25-32 1111
chieve-ment #23 75-3 -19 -10 -0 a-10
#-LIMITATIOS F THE
PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENTAL
Achievement #1 65-711
Achievement #2 ___ __ ___ 120-129
Acievement #3c 86-901 T20-2-9
Achievement 03d ____ ___ __ __86-90 ___ ___ 120-129
Achievement 14 -__ - -65--771 86-9c 120-129
Achievement #6 _120-1291
Achievement P7 86-9C
Achievement #22 ____120-129 _44-FF#41G PRACTICES----------------------------- ___LIMITAT IONS
Achievement #2 11-17
Achievement f3d 11-17 1___ 1__1Achievement #4 77-7- __ -___Achievement 05 11-17 _ -_
Achievement 021 -11-17
Achievement #22 11-17 ___ __*5-STORAGE PROBLEMS
Achievement 03 39-44
Achievement #19 ____- 77-85 - _______ ______#6-MOOR C ION-CNSU4PTINd- ___ --___ __ ___ _ECONOMY ICS
Achievement #17------------------------------------ 1 -1 -130.138
0- TITI10N, FO
PREPARATION AND HEALTH
Achievement #17 109-111
Achievement 018 112-119
18-!)ULIUwLLT(RAL FACTORLS --
Achievement #17 1 57-64 19 ___ ____ 130-138
09-EDLICArION, TRAINING N
RESEARCH CAPAU3!LITY A LL P R0 JE C T S
*See pages 27-28 for details. **Refers to paqes in 1983 Technical Summary.




-30
PROGRAM TRAINING ACHIEVEMENTS
From the beginning the CRSP has made an on-going effort to emphasize the training of US and HC scientists prepared to work together in the international agriculture context. This effort is the result of a CRSP philosophy that research capacity must be strengthened to build a long-term attack on constraints to food availability throughout the world. While not emphasized to the same extent as the training of HC nationals, US students are also supported under the CRSP. These students, often in exchange arrangements to HCs, provide good counterparts to HC students studying in the US. Frequently important potentially long-term professional relationships evolve (some of the US and HC PIs were students together years ago at a Title XII institution). In addition, US students are provided invaluable learning experiences that will render them more knowledgeable future professors of US and HC students studying in the US in subsequent years. Thus, all is done with an eye toward what will exist after a CRSP project comes to an end.
Strengthening HC institutions through short-term and long-term training in informal and formal settings is encouraged by each of the CRSP's projects. Especially encouraged is graduate-level education to help build a critical mass of professional researchers in the Host Countries participating in this CRSP.
As a part of that effort, projects maintain a strong concern for the educational advancement of women and, through the support of their Host Country colleagues, are gradually being successful. The potential for human resource development is especially significant in this program because of continuing efforts to reinforce gender as well as national/ethnic diversity. The following charts and diagrams show CRSP training activity over the first three years.




-31
1983 BEAN/COWPEA CRSP TRAINING COMPONENT
OTHER DEVELOPING
HOST COUNTRY UNITED STATES COUNTRIES TOTAL
Degree* Nbn-Degree** Degree Non-Degree Degree Non-Degree
M F M F M F M F M F M F
BOTSWANA 0 1 2 0 0 2 0 1 0 0 0 0 6
BRAZIL/ROBERTS 0 0 14 24 01 1 2 0 0 0 0 42
BRAZIL/BLISS 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2
BRAZIL/HAGEDORN 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
CAMEROON 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1
DR/COYNE 2 0 2 0 1 1 0 0 2 0 0 0 8
DR/LOPEZ-ROSA 3 0 21 1 0 4 2 0 0 0 0 13
ECUADOR 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 2
GUATEMALA 3 0 1 0 2 0 1 0 1 0 2 0 10
HONDURAS 1 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3
INCAP 5 6 6 2 5 5 0 0 2 0 1 0 32
KENYA 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 6
MALAWI 2 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 4
MEXICO 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 4
NIG./MARKAKIS 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1
NIG./MCWATTERS 0 0 0 0 2 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 4
SENEGAL 2 0 1 0 1 2 0 0 6 0 4 0 16
TANZANIA 2 1 4 3 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 12
Total 23 10 37 31 14 14 6 8 12 2 8 1 **166
* The majority of these students are enrolled in Masters or Ph.D. programs in
US institutions. In a few cases individuals are completing Bachelors
degrees prior to enrollment in graduate programs.
** Included here are programs of from a few days to nearly a year's duration attended by students and technicians associated with the CRSP.
*** It should be noted that some degree students have also participated in
non-degree training and in these cases have been counted in each category.
While the total number of traineeships is 166, the actual number of
individuals is 149.




-32
BEAWCOWPEA CRSP TRAINEES BY COUNTRY OF ORIGIN AND GENDER*
========================== 4 7 ..6 %
US Citizens
CRSP 25.3%
Host
Countries Y
60.8%
86.9%
59.4 ...Other Developing
Countries
13.9
Male Female Total
Funding Total Funding Total
CRSP Other CRSP Other
Degree Programs
US Citizen 6 8 14 8 6 14 28
Host Country 15 8 23 4 6 10 33
Other Developing Countries 9 3 12 2 0 2 14
Subtotal 30 i-9 49 14 12 26 75
Non-Degree Programs
US Citizen 5 1 6 8 0 8 14
Host Country 31 6 37 28 3 31 68
Other Developing Countries 5 3 8 1 0 1 9
Subtotal 41 i-0 51 37 3 40 91
Total 71 29 100 51 15 66 166
*Some trainees participated in degree and non-degree programs and, in these cases, have been counted in both categories. The actual number of individuals trained is 149 (86 males and 63 females).




-33
BEAN/COWPEA CRSP STUDENT TRAINEES BY FUNDING SOURCE AND GENDER
Male
Degree and Non-Degree
100 Total
29.0%
Other Funding
Female Degree and Non-Degree 66 Total
22.70/6 Other Funding
X,
'7,/,/7/, / 7
/- .,//
////,,/,/
/ 47777,Z 77/' thrFudn




-34
LINKAGES WITH INTERNATIONAL AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH CENTERS (IARCs)
From the beginning, when the heads of the respective legume programs at CIAT and IITA were invited to participate in CRSP planning (i.e., Peter Graham and subsequently Aart van Schoonhoven from CIAT; Peter Goldsworthy and subsequently Shiv Singh from IITA), CRSP and IARC scientists have maintained collegial professional relationships which in many cases predated the birth of the CRSP. These relationships have, in most cases, grown to the mutual advantage of both groups. Examples of the relationships are as follows:
1. The heads of the legume programs of the cooperating IARCs alternate on the
Technical Committee (Shiv Singh of IITA and Aart van Schoonhoven of CIAT).
2. IARC scientists have taken sabbatical leaves to study with senior CRSP
scientists and CRSP scientists have spent their sabbaticals at the IARCs
(i.e., CIAT's Steve Temple to Wisconsin; IITA's Earl Watt to Michigan State
University; CRSP's Matt Silbernagel to CIAT).
3. CRSP graduate students (i.e., Paul Gniffke from Cornell) and trainees (i.e.,
Betty Gondwe from Tanzania) trained and conducted research at IARCs. The
CRSP has sponsored several such trainees. IARC-trained graduates (i.e.,
Moffi Ta'Ama) have found positions in CRSP projects.
4. IARC plant material is included among lines in CRSP trials (i.e., Dominican
Republic) and among the material evaluated in the CRSP food science research
(i.e., INCAP).
5. Conversely, CRSP material has been used by CIAT and additional lines have
been requested and are being furnished to IARCs by CRSP teams (i.e.,
Kenya/University of California tepary crosses).
6. CRSP and CIAT cooperate in agronomic and varietal on-farm research such as
presently being planned in Honduras.
7. The CRSP and CIAT have worked together sponsoring important joint professional meetings such as the Rust Workshop held in 1983 in the Dominican
Republic. At this meeting, international leaders in rust research reached agreement on new evaluation criteria and labels to be used worldwide as the
standard in rust evaluation trials.
8. The CRSP and IITA are co-sponsoring a Worldwide Cowpea Conference in November
of 1984 in Ibadan, Nigeria.
These cooperative efforts evolved as mutual advantage was perceived by the respective units. The MOUs between the CRSP and the IARCs demonstrate the extent to which both groups are concerned that duplication is held to a minimum, complementarity is enhanced and our respective resources are used as efficiently and appropriately as possible to increase the availability of beans and cowpeas in the food deficient areas of the world.




-35-




-36
PROJECT EVALUATIONS AND REVIEW PROFILES
EXTERNAL REVIEW PANEL EVALUATIONS AND FOLLOW-UP
At the Annual Meeting of the ERP, the progress reports of the projects and site reviews were discussed at length and evaluated. A summary is presented here. Project Evaluation Scales
Each project was assessed in seven categories related to the review issues agreed upon at the beginning of the process. The categories are:
1. Administration of Project 2. Technical Personnel
1.1 Host Country 2.1 Host Country
1.2 United States 2.2 United States
1.3 AID 2.3 Collaboration
1.4 Interaction
3. Project Progress
3.1 Log Frame/Consistency of Objectives with Activities
3.2 Achievement of Natural Science Objectives
3.3 Achievement of Social Science Objectives
3.4 Achievement of Training Objectives
3.5 Publications/Information Dissemination
3.6 Food and Nutritional Component
3.7 Consideration of Women in Development (WID) Issues
3.8 Application to Systems Used by Small Farmers
3.9 Contribution to Development in the Host Country
4. Linkages 5. Overall Major Project Strengths/Deficiencies
4.1 Host Country (See complete 1983 ERP Report)
4.2 AID Projects 6. Response to Prior ERP Project Recommendations
4.3 International 7. Overall Recommendation Rating
The items within the categories were assessed using the scales presented below.
Overall Rating: General performance was considered with projects receiving one
of three recommendations: #1 continuation with no major changes, #2
continuation with some changes recommended and #3 continuation only with
identified changes.
Five-Point Evaluation Scale (for items 1-3.8, 4 and 6): Within a project each
category was judged to be Exceptional (E), Highly Satisfactory (HS),
Satisfactory (5), Less than Satisfactory (LS) and Un.kacceptable (UA). In
some cases a specific criterion was not applicable and thus was rated Not
Applicable (NA).
Contribution to Development in the Host Country (for item 3.9): Evolving
development potential was evaluated on the basic of Limited (L), Potentially
Limited (PL), Potentially Important (PoI), Potentially Useful (PU), Already
Important (AI), Highly Promising (HP), Long-Term Potential (LTP) and
Beginning to Show Potential Worldwide Significance (WW).
Overall Major Project Strengths/Deficiences (for Item 5): Brief descriptive
statements included in texts of Project Evaluation Profiles are presented in
the complete 1983 ERP Report.




SUMMARY 1 9 8 3 EXTERNAL REVIEW PANEL EVALUATI 0 N PRO FILES
RESPONSE
ADMINISTRATIVE TECHNICAL PROGRESS LINKAGES TO ERP RATING*
1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 '2.1 2.2 2.3 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8 3.9 4.1 4.2 4.3 6 7
BOTSWANA HS HS S S LS HS S S E LS HS S NA S HS Pol E LS HS S 1
BRAZIL/ROBERTS S HS S S LS HS LS HS E NA S S NA S HS PU S NA HS S 2
BRAZIL/BLISS HSHS S SLS E HSHS E NA HS HS NA LS S Pol E NA HS NA 1
BRAZIL/HAGEDORN S LS S UA LS HS UA S LS NA LS NA NA LS NA L S NA LS UA 3
CAvEROON LS LS S LS UA HS LS HS HS NA LS S NA LS S Pol S S S UA 3
DR/COYNE S HS HS HS HS HS E S HS S HS HS NA HS S Pol S NA S HS 1
DR/L6PEZ-ROSA S HS HS E HS HS E S HS S HS HS NA HS HS AI S NA S HS 1
ECUADOR S S HS HS S S HS LS S HS LS S S HS HS HP HS S S HS 2
GUATEMALA HS S S S HS HS/UA HS LS E UA S S LS LS HS WW S S HS S 2
HONoURAS LS S S LS LS S LS S S LS S S NA UA S Pol S S S S 3
INCAP S S S S E HS S S HS S S S HS LS S Pol S S HS HS 1
KENYA UA LS S LS S HS LS S S NA S S NA S S PU S S S LS 3
MALAWI S S S S HS HS HSHS HS S HS HS S S HS HS LTP HS S S NA 1
NEXICO HS HS NA HS HS HS HS S HS NA S S NA S HS Pol S NA S NA 1
NIGERIA/MARKAKIS S S S S S S LS S S S S LS S S S PoI UA NA S S 2
NIGERIA/MC WATTERS HS S S S HS HS LS S HS LS S HS HS S S Pol LS NA S S 2
SENEGAL HS HS HS HS HS HS E S HS NA HS HS NA S HS AI HS HS HS NA 1
TANZANIA S HS S S S HS HS S S HS HS S S HS HS PoI HS S S NA 1
KEY:
E Exceptional UA Unacceptable PU Potentially Useful LTP Long-Term Potential
HS Highly Satisfactory NA Not Applicable PoI Potentially Important WW Worldwide
S Satisfactory L Limited AI Already Important
LS Less Than Satisfactory PL Potentially Limited HP Highly Promising
*See text of individual project profiles for clarification of additional issues considered in this evaluation.




-38
SUMMARY OF ERP RECOMMENDATIONS AND FOLLOWUP
PROJECT RECOMMENDATION BY ERP--1983 ACTIONS TAKEN
BOTSWANA/CSU Coordination with USAID-supported Issues have been communicated
Agricultural Technology Improve- to US PI. Further discussions
ment Program needs to be improved, will be held while US team
Training initiatives need to be is on home leave in US in
intensified. Development of social summer of 1984.
science component has been slow.
BRAZIL/BTI Lack of a HC PI who is a working A HC PI who is a working reresearcher inhibits the full in- searcher has been identified
stitutionalization of the project. (Mr. Bonifacio Magalhaes).
BRAZIL/BLISS Post-graduate training needs to Studies are in process to adbe increased. Women should be dress these problems.
more directly involved in the project research and training.
BRAZIL/ Brazil needs to designate a HC PI New peer panel identified.
HAGEDORN prepared to contribute directly to Wisconsin administrator and MO
research objective of project. A director joined Pathologist's
technical assessment is required Review Panel (PRP)for on-site
of the relationship of the project visit to assess the project
to the overall program of CNPAF from disciplinary perspective.
with attention to existing work on With PRP report TC reviewed
varietal development. An assess- project again. New US PI (Dr.
ment needs to be made of the meth- Douglas Maxwell) has been
odology, its appropriateness and named. Broader institutionallikely effectiveness in Brazil. ization of project at WisconA small group of disciplinary sin. Dr. Almiro Blumenschein
peers should be identified to (CNPAF Director) visited US
assess present research strategy. and new work plan was developed focusing on simultaneous
inoculation, general resistance, etc. Dr. Blumenschein
reaffirmed project commitment
and new direction at BOD
presentation.
CAMEROON/UGA HC PI needs to be provided by the HC PI has been named (Mr.
Government of Cameroon within an Zachee Boli Baboule). New HC
arrangement that will provide PI and AID Mission Director
training for personnel and move invited to US institutions for
toward the institutionalization discussion of work plan and
of the research. In the US some budget. Broader institutionpublic relations work may be in alization of project at Georgia
order. with participation of additional researchers and administrative support.




-39
PROJECT RECOMMENDATION BY ERP--1983 ACTIONS TAKEN
DOM. REP./ A comprehensive graduate training Studies are in process to
UNE plan should be constructed which address these problems.
lays out (1) a broader array of disciplines which can contribute
to the national bean research program and (2) opportunities for the
professional advancement of DR women.
DOM. REP./ There is a serious need for more Activities in process to
UPR training in plant breeding. address this problem.
ECUADOR/COR Weaknesses must be corrected in The project Log Frame is being
(1) the project's Logical Framework updated. An agronomist (Wesley
(2) the training component and Kline) and sociologist (Dr.
(3) failure to have yet identified Kris Merschrod) have been named
the technical personnel it had and will begin work in HC implanned to place in Ecuador. mediately. Training component
weaknesses are being studied.
GUATEMALA/ Progress with respect to socio- Broader institutionalization of
COR logical objectives is unacceptable. project at Cornell. New sociRequires implementation or atten- ologist (Dr. Harold Capener) tion to procedures for adjusting named to address ERP issues.
project objectives.
HONDURAS/UPR High turnover of HC PIs and inade- New HC PI has been named (Mr.
quate HC institutionalization are Rafael Diaz). Director of HC weaknesses which have compromised institution (EAP) attended May the value of the project. Greater '84 BOD meeting and reaffirmed
US collaboration with HC needed. commitment to project. Previous HC contributions now
recognized. New US PI named
(Dr. James Beaver).
INCAP/WSU Contributions and coordination US PI has increased level of
among the five US institutions, communication with participarticularly the cost effective- pants. Special attention being
ness of the current arrangement, paid to coordinating research
needs to be assessed, objectives and procedures.
KENYA/UCD The approaches being used to assess US PI and MO finance officer
drought tolerance should be re- joined project team for on-site
viewed by TC. Level of project review and meeting. Univ. of
activities and accomplishments by Nairobi controller has supplied
HC in relation to level of finan- all financial reports. New
cial support used should also be fiscal procedures in place with
reviewed by TC. HC financial UN controller in charge of all
reporting to UCD is unsatisfactory. finances. New HC PI named
(Dr. David Ngugi). Dr. Ngugi
visited UCD and developed new
plan of work, which reorganizes




-40
PROJECT RECOMMENDATION BY ERP--1983 ACTIONS TAKEN
KENYA/UCD HC team and responsibilities.
(continued) Dr. Ngugi attended BOD meeting
to discuss new arrangements.
TC reviewed new project draft
plan of work.
MALAWI/MSU Needs better Agronomic/Social First report now available.
Science integration. More work in process to address
this issue.
MEXICO/MSU Lack of trained personnel at the Activities are in process to
Ph.D. level for the breeding and address these problems. Help
physiology research at Durango. of AID representative sought.
Lack of adequate laboratory and
greenhouse facilities to supplement
field plot research at Durango.
Limited involvement of HC women
researchers.
NIGERIA/MSU Training component needs strength- Activities to address these
ening. Domestic and international problems are in process.
linkages, including those with Closer links with other projother CRSP projects, need to be ects are being developed.
improved. Communication between Structural problems within
US and HC needs improvement. Nigeria inhibit communication.
Greater resources may be required to maintain required
level of communication.
NIGERIA/UGA Sociological component needs im- Socio-economic surveys will be
provement. Special attention expanded. Closer links between
should be given to building the two Nigerian projects are
stronger links between the two being developed. Joint
Nigeria projects. meeting for November 1984.
SENEGAL/UCR Graduate degree training, espe- Activities are in process to
cially for women, is limited and address these problems. TC
should be intensified to include requested ERP evaluation of
training in the US. Cooperation Arizona project.
from Univ. of Arizona is weak.
TANZANIA/WSU Absence on HC side of any person Activities are in process to
who devotes more than 20% to the address these problems. US
CRSP leading the day-to-day work researcher to go to Tanzania
of the group is a weakness. Poor being sought.
linkages in HC between the agricultural and social sciences.
Physical facilities and organization for managing and conserving
the genetic resource material
need to be developed.




-41
PROJECT RECOMMENDAT ION BY ERP--1983 ACTIONS TAKEN
MANAGEMENT (1) An early warning system, appro- These recommendations are in
OFFICE priate to the model, needs to be set the process of being
up so that MO identification of poten- implemented.
tial problems and better communication between US and HC PIs are facilitated.
(2) An open line of communication among
all CRSP components should be maintained.
(3) Attention should be directed to
building a stronger sense of community across projects within the CRSP. This includes: research-sharing workshops;
sharing publications; increasing the
dissemination of CRSP information
through publications which are made available to US and HC participants;
adding publications listings to Pulse Beat, the CRSP newsletter; involving
HC graduate students in more crossproject activities which will encourage them to continue working with the CRSP
projects when they return home.
(4) More open communication with the
CGIAR system should be established.
Existing cooperation with IARCs
should be strengthened.
PROGRAM (1) The CRSP collegial and financial These recommendations are in
EVALUATION activity may alter the balance of the process of being
priorities within HCs, not in their addressed.
own best interest. (2) Collaboration
with other overseas development programs and agricultural research efforts is inadequate. Especially important is cooperation with other US bilateral efforts within the same HCs. (3) Economic analyses of production systems and the acquisition of baseline data are lagging behind
biological research. (4) Linkages with
other development agencies and institutions
in the HCs such as extension are weak.
Dissemination of research findings therefore
is likely to be poor. (5) Some HC PIs are
administrators rather than working researchers. While administrative support
is critical to project success, having a PI
who is an administrator inhibits the progress of the actual research, the building
of professional collegial relationships
among peers and the institutionalization of
the project research at the operational
level.




-42
BOA~RD OF DIRECTORS EXTENSION EVA~LUATIONS
On May 10, 1984 the BOO reviewed the eighteen CRSP projects, considering the appropriateness of each for a three-year extension beyond the initial five-year period. Utilizing all documentation, the BOD members engaged in lengthy discussions of the information available as follows:
1. Progress reports by individual projects.
2. ERP evaluations and recommendations.
3. TC review and recommendations.
4. Reports from MO, lead institutions' and HC institutions' actions taken in
response to those recommendations.
5. Current and projected status of each project based on the resolutions
accomplished.
General performance, importance of the research to the CRSP Global Plan and current potential for making the promised contribution as a result of the recent changes were issues receiving particular attention in those projects previously judged as less than satisfactory by the ERP.
BOD Rating Scale:
1 The project is making important contributions to the CRSP goals and is
therefore appropriate for extension.
2 The project has potential importance for the CRSP goal but is appropriate
for extension only if, after one year, the major changes made result in
significant progress.
3 The project is inappropriate for extension beyond the original commitment.




SUMMARY 1983 BOARD OF DIRECTORS EXTENSION RATING
Comments Rating
BOTSWANA Interest expressed in monitoring project strengthening as identified by ERP. 1
BRAZIL/ROBERTS Planned change important and will be monitored for effectiveness. 1
BRAZIL/BLISS Service role in CRSP significant. 1
BRAZIL/HAGEDORN Significant changes, indicated by ERP, PRP and TC and made as a result of commitment and 2
great effort on parts of US and HC administrators, are impressive. CAMEROON Identification of HC PI plus greater institutionalization of this project within UGA may 2
have addressed concerns identified by ERP.
DOM. REP./COYNE This project will provide important foundation for disease research in several projects. 1
DR/LOPEZ-ROSA Existing level of coordination should magnify the contributions from this group. 1
ECUADOR Sociologist and agronomist on site are expected to move project forward rapidly. 2
GUATEMALA Initiation of socio-agronomic research planned.FY 84 is expected to bring this component 2
more closely in line with successful agronomic component.
HONDURAS Identification of HC PI and clarification of significant HC contributions give promise of 2
rapid movement in objectives. Reports of farmers already growing the new lines impressive. INCAP Improved coordination/communications among project researchers, service role in CRSP significant. 1
KENYA All ERP-identified problems vigorously addressed by changes in HC PI, financial reporting, 2
improvements in research design and new plan of work. US and HC administrative efforts suggest project turn-around.
MALAWI Important contribution to CRSP anticipated. 1
MEXICO Important contribution to CRSP anticipated. 1
NIGERIA/MARKAKIS New HC PI anticipated will move research more quickly. Promised closer cooperation and 2
improved communications among researchers will be monitored for effectiveness. NIGERIA/MCWATTERS Important contribution to CRSP goal evolving. 1
SENEGAL Important contribution to CRSP goal evolving. 1
TANZANIA Important contribution to CRSP goal evolving. i




-44
COUNTRY RESEARCH PROJECT REVIEW PROFILES
The following pages present for each of the eighteen projects, a one-sheet profile which gives a brief overview of the important information on goals, achievements, evaluations and problem resolutions. These Project Review Profiles are useful as a quick summary of project flow. The Profiles presented here present both the success stories as well as the CRSP projects that have received a less-than-satisfactory evaluation. Brief statements of what major changes have been made demonstrate (1) the level of response to the evaluations and (2) the extent of efforts made to maintain the viability and integrity of the original research objectives still judged by the TC, BOD and ERP to be important for the achievement of CRSP goals. The Board Rating for project extension based on the prior resolution activity concludes each sheet.
Thus for each project, information is given as follows:
Goal
Description
Role in Global Plan
Achievements
Contributions
To HC To US
Major Problems as Identified by ERP
ERP Rating
Actions Taken
Resolution
Subsequent BOD Extension Rating
Following each Project Review Profile is the project's Logical Framework.




-45
PROJECT REVIEW PROFILE
BOTSWANA 0 COLORADO STATE UNIVERSITY (Initiated July 1982) COWPEAS
deMooy
DEVELOPMENT OF INTEGRATED COWPEA PRODUCTION SYSTEMS IN SEMIARID BOTSWANA
GOAL: Provide small farmers with an acceptable package of integrated practices
for cowpea growing and harvesting including improved varieties and
implementation as required to realize increased yields.
DESCRIPTION: This project adopts a comprehensive cropping systems approach to
improving yields. Attention is given to tillage practices, planting
practices and moisture conservation as well as variety testing, cultural
practices and harvesting techniques. A senior and a junior expatriate
researcher have been in place in Botswana although the latter will return
to the US for graduate work in the fifth year of the CRSP.
ROLE IN GLOBAL PLAN: This is the major comprehensive cropping systems project.
Dominant constraint #4 (farming practices limitations).
ACHIEVEMENTS:
1. A newly introduced variety, surpassing the nationally recognized
variety in yields, has been accepted for release by the Botswana
Ministry of Agriculture (MAG).
2. A cowpea germplasm collection was established, seeds available upon
request. A Botswana Cowpea Germplasm Catalog, with a description of
180 local varieties, is being published by the MAG and a second
volume is in preparation.
3. A once-over cultivating/planting procedure for minimum tillage
implements and reduction in draft animal power is being designed.
Demonstration plots on farmers' fields were arranged.
CONTRIBUTIONS:
To HC--Making a unique contribution to production practices, intercropping
systems and harvesting techniques, the project will contribute
practical solutions to the problems of low yield characteristic of
small farms.
To US--Some of the problems characteristic of cowpea production in
Botswana, such as soil crust formation, are characteristic of semiarid zones in the US and elsewhere in the world, hence an investigation of these issues has potential widespread ramifications. In addition, the
cowpea germplasm collection is a valuable resource to US agriculture.
MAJOR PROBLEMS IDENTIFIED BY ERP (RATED 1): None. However, US PI in Botswana
needs to coordinate better with AID Farming Sytems Project there.
ACTIONS TAKEN: This issue communicated to US PI. Further discussions to be
held while team is on home leave in US summer 1984.
RESOLUTION:
1. Better in-country coordination in process.
2. Expanded plant screening activities being initiated, with breeding
assistance identified.
3. HC PI will be in place after completion of graduate program.
SUBSEQUENT BOD EXTENSION RATING 1.




LOr FPA;.E COLORADO STATE UNIVERSITY,' BTSWANA
June 1, 1983
Narrative Summa-y Objectively Verifiable Means of Verification Assumptions
indicators
Program or Sector Goals: Measures of Achievement: Assur:cticns for Goal AchievementIncrease in yield per ha and yield Yields consistently in Means of field trials for 1inimum of 3 years of project
stability of cowpeas under specific excess of base line certain regions under various operation.
semi-arid conditions survey records, seasonal conditions compared Continuing field support from
with standard varieties and DAR and USAID.
traditional productionmethods.Sufficient level of interest from CSOB Agricultural Field
Services personnel in various
regions of the country.
Base line survey data exist or
will be made available.
Increased returns in cowpea production Greater production per Socio-economic data recorded Small farmers willing to follow
per unit of labor and/ or financial input farm family unit compa- for cooperating farmers in up on agricultural extension on sample farms. red with previous stat- field trials. recommrendatic-s and interested
istical records. in prcgressir; beyond minimum
subsistence p oduction.
Project Purpose: Conditions Indicating Assumptions for Project
1. Identification of constraints in cowpea ProjectT Achievement: Results of experiments. Achievement:
production process stemming from a combi- Packages of improved Published reports. Continuation of H.C. administranation of: tillage/ cultivation, planting,cultural practices adept- tive and technical support
spacing, and intercropping practices, ed to specific sets of
choice of variety, draft power supply, environmental or socioinsect and disease infestation, harvesting, economic conditions. threshing, storage, labor or other resource
input factors.
2. Finding solutions for constraints. Acceptance of project Survey of rate of acceptance Continued interest of farmers
3. Testing of solutions for acceptability recommendations by more of recommended practices by to cooperate with project.
in farmers' fields. than one-half of the cooperating farmers and their Participation of Agricultural
4. Institutionalization of research farmers in sample having neighbors. Field Services regional staff
techniques and capacity. identified constraints. and Farming Systems groups.
Project Outputs: Magnitude of Outputs: Consistent superior perform- Output Assumptions:
1. Selection of HYV from local and internat- umber of varieties ance of introduced varieties Continued cooperation with
ional germplasm collection and trials; identified, quantities in regional field trials.' IITA and SAFGRAD Research
better adapted varieties than those of seed produced. Amount of seed prodtrced by Centers.
presently grown. Seed Multiplication Unit.




LOG FRAME (cont.)
Narrative Sunary Objectively Verifiable Means of Verification Assumptions
Indicators
2. Packages of cultural practices for higher Variety of situations Measured and recorded obser- Cooperationwith EFSAIP in
production/ha ,and yield stability through covered by improved vations in field trials on development of appropriate
better stands, insect and weed control and practices adequate to Agricultural Research Stat- tillage/planting implements.
other cultural practices for specific envi- make substantial prog- ion, Outlying Research Appointment of active cowpea
ronments, socio-economic resource levels, ress over current Farms, and privately owned researcher as H.C. professioand type of draft power availability,. status. farms. nal-counterpart.
3. Faster methods of harvesting, threshing, Economic returns. Recorded comparisons of Presence of suitable cownea
and winnowing with greater returns per harvesting, threshing, and lines in germplasm collection
unit labor. winnowing labor and time,
using hand labor or machine.
4. Training of H.C. research personnel Number of H.C. person- Same H.C. students capable of
at MS degree level at U.S. university nel trained and remain- fulfilling academic requirefor cowpea research career. ing involved in cowpea ments at U.S. university.
research.
Project Inputs: Current project roster Project files containing The negotiated project
1. CSU research personnel in H.C: for personnel involve- progress reports, annual input resources to be
U. Project Leader, 2 graduate students ment. reports, official corres- sustained throughout life
on continuing basis, 1 P.C.volunteer Availability of input pondance and memo's, project of project.
agronomi st. resources recorded in expense accounting. All positions on the project
2. CSU personnel on campus: progress reports. filled within reasonable time
Program administrator and part-time
technical backstop.
3. H.C. research personnel:
H.C.Project Leader, 2 graduate students
on continuing basis. I Technical Assistant,
1/4 time R.O. in entomology and two 1/4 time
assistants, 1/4 time R.O. in phytopathology
and two 1/4 time assistants, clerical
support and supplies.
4. H.C. administrative support:
Program administrator.
5. DPR office/ laboratory facilities,
suitable land & research facilities, equipment and materials, vehicle for
official transportation.




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-49
PROJECT REVIEW PROFILE
BRAZIL e BOYCE THOMPSON INSTITUTE (Initiated October 1981) COWPEAS Roberts
INSECT PATHOGENS IN COWPEA PEST MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS FOR DEVELOPING NATIONS
GOAL: Develop insect pathogens as pest management tools compatible with other
insect control practices for small farms.
DESCRIPTION: This project is advancing technology for biological insect control
in small farmer cowpea production. Short-term training courses in insect
pathology have generated considerable interest. An expatriate scientist
is in place in Brazil (Dr. Richard Daoust).
ROLE IN GLOBAL PLAN: This is the only CRSP project directed totally to
biological control of insects. Dominant constraint #1 (limitations due
to pests).
ACHIEVEMENTS:
1. More than one hundred fungal isolates have been identified in Brazil
and many have been evaluated in the laboratory.
2. Methods for fungal mass production and bioassay have been developed
and refinements of insect-rearing methods have made some cowpea
insect species available for pathology and non-pathology studies.
3. Short courses in insect pathology have been held in Goiania, Brazil
to provide an overview of the current status of microbial control and
to demonstrate simple techniques in laboratory sessions.
CONTRIBUTIONS:
To HC--This project will directly benefit Brazil through the development
of cowpea pest microbial control agents that can be produced
in-country and can be used by small farmers.
To US--Fungal isolates from Brazil have been distributed to interested
scientists in the US for possible use as insect control agents.
Methods for fungal mass production and bioassay are directly
applicable to other studies of entomopathogenic fungi worldwide.
MAJOR PROBLEMS AS IDENTIFIED BY ERP (RATED 2): None. However, the ERP was
concerned about the absence of a HC PI in Brazil who is a working
researcher.
ACTIONS TAKEN: Regular trips to Brazil by the senior US PI support effective
communication and provide necessary research materials.
RESOLUTION:
1. HC PI, who is a working researcher, was established (Mr. Bonifacio
Magalhaes).
2. The possibility of extending the work to include insect pathogens of
beans will be explored.
SUBSEQUENT BOD EXTENSION RATING 1 (with planned changes).




IraziI/Boyce Thompson fitstitute/ioherts
Frame Matrix
Narrative Summary Objectively Verifiable Indicators Means of Verification IImportant Assumptions
utpts: .Magnitude of Outputs: (i) Data will be obtained from (1) Promising pathogens will be
(I) Isolation, taxonomic (I) A number of promising laboratory screening of microbes found and isolated.
etermination, and screening microbial control candidates obtained from pathogen surveys in
)f candidate microbial are found which show potential Brasil and elsewhere. Tests will (2) Efficacious pathogens will
control agents. for control of important cowpea utilize colonies of important be discovered.
pests. cowpea pest insects established
(2) Identification and small at IPRC (Brasil and Boyce (3) Efficacious pathogens are
scale production of effica- (2) Small and large scale test Thompson Institute). economically mass reproducible by
ions pathogens. plot applications are carried subsistence farmers or grower
out and result in significant (2) Data will be obtained From assoc nations.
(3) Development of cost reductions in target insect replicated insect control trials.
effective, low technology, pest populations. (4)
niss production and formu- (3) Control programs are carried a) Effective instCL pest control
lation methodologies. (3) Sufficient quality is out. can be achieved under the conditions I
U1
produced to meet demands of of large scale, operational control CD
(4) Development of operational control pro- (4) Data will be obtained from programs.
operational field applica- grams. replicated yield and insect con- b) Small farmers are able and intertion and/or introduction trol trials and from surveys of eSted in working with technical extenstrategies (including rates, (4) Field applications or small farms where microbial slion personnel.
timing, and integration introduction result in signifi- control methods are applied.
with other control cant reductions in insect pest c) Continued enthusiastic and effotnethods). numbers thereby reducing (5) Published papers and reports. tive technical and administrative
crop damage and producing leadership in Brasil.
(5) IPRC and working significant yield and quality
data base established, increases. (5) Training of students and
aintained, and operated technical staff is continued and
by trained insect patho- (5) High quality program of on- excellence in scholarship is encourlogists. going research in the fields aged.
of insect pathology and microbial control established and
maintained by Brasilian scientists.




Brazil/Boyce Thompson Institute/Roberts
Log Frame Matrix
Narrative Summary Objectively Verifiable Indicators Means of Verification Important Assumptions
Iputs: Inspection of current project Annual project, budget, and trip (a) The present AID/USA and host
(1) Insect Pathology roster to verify continued reports. country institution financial conResource Center, Boyce personnel involvement, and tributions are sustained at the
Thompson Institute, USA. examination of annual reports planned level.
Project leader/principal to determine if facilities
investigator, co-princi- and other listed resources (b) The positions listed under
pal investigator, re- have been available to the inputs in USA and host country will
search associate (residing project. be sustained.
in Brasil), postdoctoral
fellow, technical personnel, (c) Administrative support will be
office, laboratory, green- sustained.
house, and insect rearing
facilities, field test (d) Student and scientist trainees
plots, project vehicle will be available/involved in the
(assigned to Brasil), and project.
equipment and supplies.
(e) Facilities, resources, services
(2) CNPAF/EMBRAPA, Brasil. and equipment listed under inputs
Corresponding principal will remain available and in working
investigator, three co- condition.
investigators, technical
personnel, student and
scientist trainees, office,
laboratory, greenhouse,
and insect rearing facilities, and field plots,
equipment, and labor.




-52-




-53
PROJECT REVIEW PROFILE
BRAZIL 0 UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN (Initiated February 1982) BEANS Bliss
IDENTIFICATION OF SUPERIOR BEAN-JHIZOBIA COMBINATIONS FOR UTILIZATION
IN CROPPING SYSTEMS SUITABLE TO SMALL FARMS IN BRAZIL
GOAL: To develop superior N2 fixing cultivars that in association with
superior strains of R. phaseoli produce high yields under bean-only and
bean-maize cropping systems without supplemental nitrogen fertilizers.
DESCRIPTION: The focus has been on identifying and field testing black bean
breeding lines with high biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) and on
developing methods to transfer characters favoring enhanced BNF into
standard cultivars. An expatriate scientist is in place in Brazil (Dr.
Robert Hanson).
ROLE IN GLOBAL PLAN: This is one of only two bean projects which have BNF
enhancement as a major focus. The HC provides some unique ecology for
this work. Dominant constraint #2 (plant response limitations).
ACHIEVEMENTS:
1. Black bean breeding lines with potential for enhanced BNF (UW 22-34)
ready to be entered into regional trials.
2. Breeding methods facilitating transfer of enhanced BNF characters are
available for immediate use and improved methods of inoculation are
being developed.
3. Information on the effects of mixed cropping on bean plant BNF is
being gathered and isolates of Rhizobium phaseoli selected for
superior competitive ability and BNF potential have been obtained.
4. A BNF Student Trainee Workshop was held at the University of
Wisconsin, July 18-20, 1983 with fourteen students from developing
countries in attendance.
CONTRIBUTIONS:
To HC--Given the often prohibitive cost of nitrogen fertilizer for small
farmers, the development of improved cultivars that incorporate high
N2 fixation represents an efficient means of increasing yields.
To US--Success of this project will allow US bean breeders to obtain
breeding lines with enhanced BNF potential, thus considerably
reducing fertilizer N2 requirements.
MAJOR PROBLEMS AS IDENTIFIED BY ERP (RATED 1): None.
ACTIONS TAKEN: None required.
RESOLUTION:
1. The HC PI will return to CNPAF after completion of an M.S. program.
2. Sponsorship of workshops will continue stressing methodology in
breeding and improving field performance of beans inoculated with
rhizobia.
SUBSEQUENT BOD EXTENSION RATING 1.




Log framework Matrix University of Wisconsin/Brazil N2-Fixation/Bliss July, 1982
Objectively Verifiable
Narrative Summary indicators Means of Verification ~Important Assumptions
Program or Sector Goal: Measure of Goal Achievements Assumions for achieving
goal targets:
Increase production of dry beans Yields of dry beans on small (1) Comparisons of yields of new (1) Needs for dry beans
available to small/subsistence farms with low nitrogen soils cultivars with old cultivars produced on small farms
farmers. will increase without use of N on small farms with low soil with increase or remain
fertilizer. Improved breeding N. the same.
lines will be released by 1988. (2) Improvement of other bean (2) Beans will continue to
lines in National program, be produced on poor
Bean/cowpea CRSP projects, soils.
CIAT etc. for BNF. (3) Cost of N fertilizer
(3) Improved availability of will increase or
food beans to small farmers remain high.
(4) Incentives for bean
production are positive.
(5).Continuing market at
attractive prices
remains.
Conditions that will indicate Assumptions for achievingj
Proje j t Purpo e: purpose has been achieved: purpose:
(i1) Increase dry bean produc- (1) Incorporation of enhanced (1) Demonstration of value ef (1) Low soil N fertility
tion on nitrogen-poor soils BNF traits into Brazilian enhanced BNF in improved continues to be a
without reliance on chemical regional cultivars, e.g. cultivars in trials at major problem.
fertilizer blacks, carioca, whites, experiment stations and (2) Other limiting factors
(2) Develop methods that allow canario will lead to demonstration plots and on e.g. pest resistance
plant breeders to incorpo- increased yields on low N small farms. are minimized by other
rate selection for N2- fields. (2) Use of cultural practices/ research.
fixation into improvement (2) Other bean breeders in Bean/ new cultivars to enhance BNF. (3) Effective interaction
programs. cowpea CRSP and National (3) Brazilian students complete between CRSP components
(3) To educate/train Brazilian programs select for enhanced training, continues.
scientists in plant breed- BNF. (4) Budget becomes more
ing and rhizobiology. (3) Brazilian students begin predictable.
(4) To elucidate the plant/ advanced training.
rhizobia and ecological
factors that limit and/or
enhance N 2-fixation.




_ __ __ ...- -Outputs: Magnitude of outputs: Output Assumptions:
(1) Identification of new plant (1) Yields of new cultivars (1) Yield and production data (1) Continued enthusiastic
with enhanced BNF potential without added N fertilizer obtained from trials demon- and effective coopera(2) Production of new breeding are 90% of old cultivars stration plots, farmers tion between U.S. and
lines and cultivars with with added N fertilizer. fields to show superiority Host country personnel.
enhanced BNF potential and (2) Reduced amounts of N ferti- of new lines over standard (2) Interest in cooperation
adapted to Brazil. lizer required for bean cultivars. by/with small farmers.
(3) New methodology to allow production. (2) Comparison to baseline data. (3) Interchange with
bean breeders to select (3) Cultural practices for breeders/agronomists
routinely for enhanced BNF. intercropping are developed at CNPAF and within
(4) Improved knowledge of that enhance BNF and yields CRSP continue.
agronomic/ecological factors of beans grown with corn.
that reduce/increase B:'F (4) Complete training of
under small farm conditions) Brazilian students.
(5) Brazilian breeders/microbiologists trained in N2fixation research.
Inouts: Input Assumptions:
(1) Univ. of Wisconsin. Use of project reports, budgets, Annual Project Budget and trip (1) AID/U.S. and H.C.
Project leader/Principal etc. to determine ongoing input. reports. financial and techniInvestigator. Lab, green- cal contributions
house, fields. remain at planned
Research Associate in resi-I levels.
dence in Brazil (2) Administrative support
(2) Michigan State Univ. i remains consistent.
Project sub-principal j (3) U.S. Research Associate
investigator, labs. j will work in Brazil
(3) CNPAF, Brazil. 1983-1985.
H.C. Principal Investigator. (4) Brazilian student traiaNational program personnel. ing completed as planSupport for student trainee ned.
(1983-1986). (5) Interaction between
Office, lab, research CRSP and National
facilities, transportation Programes is effective.
in Brazil. Cooperation
with other BNF researchers
and extension personnel.




-56-




-57
PROJECT REVIEW PROFILE
BRAZIL 0 UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN (Initiated June 1982) BEANS Hagedorn
IMPROVED TECHNIQUES FOR DEVELOPMENT OF MUTLIPLE DISEASE RESISTANCE IN BEANS
GOAL: Improved strategies and methods for attaining multiple disease resistance.
DESCRIPTION: Research focused on sequential inoculation especially the production
and use of dry inoculum. Predominant research to date conducted at WI.
ROLE IN GLOBAL PLAN: This is the only CRSP project concentrating on improved low
technology disease resistance screening methods for breeders. Dominant
constraint #1 (limitations due to diseases).
ACHIEVEMENTS:
Preliminary progress on long-term research on disease resistance techniques.
CONTRIBUT IONS:
To HC--Long-term potential good as bean production in Brazil severely constrained by severe multiple disease pressures. Short-term work to date
unclear as dry inoculum technique questioned by some professionals.
To US--More efficient multiple disease resistance screening methods will
allow all bean improvement centers to make faster progress in developing and releasing new varieties. Such techniques will provide for
increased stability of germplasm across environments in the US.
MAJOR PROBLEMS AS IDENTIFIED BY ERP (RATED 3):
1. Administrative and scientific communication between US and HC
unacceptable.
2. Project research strategy and management questioned by two review
teams.
3. HC and US PI designation questioned.
ACTIONS TAKEN:
1. Personnel adjustment requested in Brazil and Wisconsin.
2. Per ERP and Board recommendation, Wisconsin administrator and MO
director joined with second review team for on-site visit to assess
the project's:
a. Relationship to HC's existing program.
b. Current methodology, its appropriateness and effectiveness in
Brazil.
RESOLUTION:
1. New HC PI named (Dr. Josias Faria).
2. New US PI named (Dr. Douglas Maxwell). Michael Havey, at completion
of joint pathology/breeding Ph.D. degree in summer of 1984, will
become the project's resident expatriate at CNPAF.
3. Wisconsin and Brazil made administrative commitment to solving
problems above.
4. US Post-doc requested by Brazil identified and approved by HC.
5. New plan of work written incorporating other parameters of original
research goal--simultaneous inoculation including research on
resistance maintenance.
SUBSEQUENT BOD EXTENSION RATING 2.




Log Frame ?latrix-Univ. of Mi Hagpednrn/Brazil
August 1982
Objectively Verifiable
Narrative Summary Indicators Means of Verification Important Assumptions
Program or Sector Goal: Measures of Goal Achievements Assumptions for Achievingt
Increase quality and produc- Yield and quality of bean lines, Comparison of yields, under Goal Targets:
tivity of dry bean lines available to small farm fami- farm conditions, of new beans Small farmers will continue
available to small farmers in lies through national programs, with baseline data, to be interested in growing
developing countries, will increase. beans for consumption and
sale.
Project Purpose: Conditions that will Indicate
Develop reliable and efficient Purpose has been Achieved: Communication with and visits More efficient multiple
field and greenhouse methods Efficient multiple disease to bean improvement centers in disease resistance screening
to identify resistance to 6 resistance screening methods aredeveloping countries, methods will allow bean improvemajor pathogens. adopted and used by bean nent centers to make faster
improvement researchers at gains in developing and
international and national releasing new beans which will
centers for bean improvement in yield better under pervasive
developing countries, severe disease pressure.
C-n
Outputs: Magnitude of Outputs: Output Assumptions
1) Organize a collection of Researchers at 104 and CNPAF, A nursery of bean lines, whose 1) Studying disease reaction
bean lines and pathogen using a diversity of bean lines reaction to 6 pathogens are of a diversity of bean lines
isolates to use in developing and pathogen isolates at known, will be tested at to various isolates of the
screening methods, selected field sites and in various field and greenhouse pathogens undo controlled
2) Develop inoculation methods, greenhouses, have procedures in sites by the methods developed, conditions will result in an and determine environal hand for identifying multiple and their performance there efficient method for multiple
influences, necessary to resistance to major bean compared with their known disease resistance screening.
observe reactions of beans to pathogens. reactions. 2) Disease testing sites at
several pathogens in field Goiania and elsewhere in
and greenhouse. Brazil will be available.
3) Locate effective diseasetesting sites in Brazil.
4) Study variability of bean
pathogens.
5) Provide PhD training to
Brazilian student in plant
pathology.




Objectively Verifiable Narrative Summary Indications Means of Verification Important Assumptions
for use in this research. 3) PhD training of a Brazilian student will increase expertise for multiple disease resistance
research at EMB APA/ICNPAF.
Inputs:
1) University of Wisconsin Continued involvement of Annual project, budget and trip 1) Funding for investigators,
Project leader/PI project leader and co-investi- reports. students, facilities, travel,
Breeding Collaborator gators in the research, and and technical personnel will
Research Associate good support including continue as planned.
Technical personnel technical personnel, equipment 2) PhD student will be availLab, greenhouse, growth supplies, travel, etc. able and pursue studies at
chamber and field University of Wisconsin.
facilities. 3)Co-operation and frequent
2) CNPAF communication between
Co-investigators University of Wisconsin and
Lab,screenhouse, green- CNPAF will continue.
house and field
facilities
Technical personnel
PhD student.
3) Collaborators at CIAT,
MITA, University of
Nebraska




-60-




-61
PROJECT REVIEW PROFILE
CAMEROON UNIVERSITY OF GEORGIA (Initiated September 1981) 0 COWPEAS Chalfant
PEST MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES FOR OPTIMIZING COWPEA YIELDS IN CAMEROON
GOAL: Develop methods for optimizing yield and quality of cowpeas through pest
management research.
DESCRIPTION: Project has concentrated on varietal screening for pest resistance,
insecticide use research and research on life-cycle and breeding habits of
cowpea insects. An expatriate scientist is in place in Cameroon.'
ROLE IN GLOBAL PLAN: This is the only comprehensive cowpea pest management
project in the CRSP. Dominant constraint #1 (limitations due to pests).
ACHIEVEMENTS:
Important preliminary progress on long-term integrated pest management
research. Project works closely with IITA and builds on prior integrated
pest management work funded by AID.
CONTRIBUTIONS:
To HC--Devastating cowpea losses from insects both pre- and post-harvest
underscore the importance of this project to Cameroon.
To US--Findings will contribute to integrated pest management resources in
US cowpea industry.
MAJOR PROBLEMS AS IDENTIFIED BY ERP (RATED 3):
1. Lack of HC PI who is working researcher.
2. Lack of adequate US/HC communication and US/AID Mission communication.
3. Project management weak.
ACTIONS TAKEN:
1. Personnel adjustment requested in Cameroon.
2. Georgia administration encouraged to participate.
3. Georgia administrator and MO director joined project team meeting in
the HC.
4. Georgia administrators met in Georgia to discuss and resolve the
problems.
RESOLUTION:
1. New HC PI named (Mr. Zachee Boli Baboule).
2. New HC PI and the AID Mission Director invited to Georgia and Boyce
Thompson.
3. Georgia administrator assuming greater role in management of project.
4. New plan of work to be developed when HC PI comes to US in summer 1984.
5. Georgia work on encapsulated pyrethum and bacillus thuringiensis to be
integrated with project and increased work on control of storage
insects.
6. BTI work to concentrate on chemistry of aphid and bruchid resistance.
SUBSEQUENT BOD EXTENSION RATING 2.




CAMEROON--Chalfant
NARRATIVE SUMMARY OBJECTIVELY VERIFIABLE INDICATORS MEANS OF V VERIFICATION TKRTANT ~S TTOn
Program or Sector Goal: Measures of Coals Achievement: Assumptions for achieving goal
increase production and quality of protein- Yield and quality of cowpeas Interviews with small/subsistence targets:
aceous food (cowpeas) available to small/ available to small/subsistence farmers through extension personnal. a. Need for cowpeas to be consu-med
subsistence farmers, farm families will increase signi- on small/subsistence farms
ficantly by 1986. remains constant or increases.
b. A growing market at attractive
prices exists for cowpeas offfarm.
Project Purpose: Conditions that will indicate Assumptions for achieving purpose:
Reduce cowpea losses due to insects in field purpose has been achieved: production and storage a. Pest Management tactics used Visits to snall/subsistence farms Insects continue to be a major cause
successfully by small/subsis- with Cameroonian extension workers of yield and quality loss. tence farmers will increase yiel before, during, and after harvest and quality 100% by 1984. to assess efficacy of recommended
b. A second doubling of yield and tactics on cowpea yield and quality.
quality will occur by 1987 N
through development and application of additional tactics.
Outputs: Magnitude of Outputs: Output Assumptions
a. Basic scientific knowledge of biology of a. Major insect pests, their time a. Insect data from samples CREFPHY, extension service, Young
cowpea insect/host plant relationships, of occurence, and nature of collected from field research Farmers' Schools, Seed Multiplicab. Pest management tactics which are usable damage identified by the end plots. tion Project and Retional Food
b. Pest management tactics which are usable of 1982. .Crop Protection Projects continue.
by small/subsistence farmers, of 1982. b. Verification of recommended Crop Protection Projects continue.
c. Recommendations for cowpea pest management b. Pesticide/protectant tactics tactics and resistant lines in
in place in Caeroonian extension training, developed for use in 1983. demonstration plots conducted
in place in Cameroonian extension training, by CREFPFIY, extension agents,
extension, and advisory services. c. Cowpea lines with resistance to Young Farmers' Schools, the Seed
d. Cameroonian entomologists and technicians one or more insect pests Multiplication Project, and
trained in entomological research methods. identified by the end of 1982. Regional Food Crop Protection
d. Recommendations for management trials.
of 3 major cowpea pests submitted to extension, training and




advisory agencies for 1983 c. Professional training verified
crop season, by M.S. degree.
e. Non-chemical pest management d. lechnical training verified by
tactics developed by 1985. performance capability judged
by U.S. and Cameroonian
f Cameroonian entomologist entomologists.
completes M.S. degree in 1984. e t g
e. Research bulletins and articles g. Cameroonian technicians trained in scientific journals.
in field plot technique, data
collection, and entomological f. Extension bulletins.
lab techniques by 1983.
Inputs: Input Assumptions:
a. Univ. of Ga
Project Leader/Principal Investigator Salaries & Wages 202,663 Monthlya. U.S. entomologist will be
U.S. entomologist in Cameroon. Student Expenses 118,130 budget reports available for work in
Vehicle Expenses 217,150 Cameroon throughout the
Laboratory and field equipment and Equipment 37,950 project.
supplies. Supplies 30,705 b. Cameroonian P.I. and student
Iravel 85,300 trainees will be available.
b. BTI Indirect Costs 232,095
Co-investigators (3) Contingency 15,500 c. Adequate information exchange
Laboratory, growth chamber, and Total 946,693 from small/subsistence
green house facilities. Budget 957,250 farmers to project (and vice
c. I Rikversa) through extension and
Counterpart Principal Investigator other demonstration media
student trainee. takes place.
Office and laboratory facilities. d. Vehicle, equipment and supplie
Field research facilities. are available and arrive on
Cooperation from CREFPHY extension time.
serviceYoung Farmers' Schools.
d. USAID
Logistic support
Cooperation from SAFGRAD)
Seed Multiplication Project)
Regional Food Crop Protection trials.
a-




-64-




-65
PROJECT REVIEW PROFILE
DOMINICAN REPUBLIC 0 UNIVERSITY OF NEBRASKA (Initiated June 1981) 0 BEANS Co yne
BIOLOGY, EPIDEMIOLOGY, GENETICS AND BREEDING FOR RESISTANCE TO BACTERIAL AND RUST PATHOGENS OF BEANS (PHASEOLUS VULGARIS L.)
GOAL: To develop biological, epidemiological, genetic and breeding information
on rust and bacterial pathogens, primarily rust and common blight of beans.
DESCRIPTION: The focus of this project is on character enhancement. Significant
emphasis is placed on knowledge of bacterial blight and rust in the tropics
and the genetics of inherited resistance to these diseases.
ROLE IN GLOBAL PLAN: This project, well integrated with the other two disease
projects in Latin America, is contributing important basic information for
enhancing genetic material useful in cultivar development of the other
projects. Dominant constraint #1 (limitations due to diseases).
ACHIEVEMENTS:
1. Germplasm with resistance to common blight and rust has been
identified.'
2. The importance of plant genotype x bacterial strain interaction has
been demonstrated.
3. The inheritance of resistance in leaf and pod to common blight has
been determined.
4. Pathogenic variation has been determined.
5. One white resistant line (Arroyo Loro) has been developed for increase
and release in the DR.
6. New sources of resistance to common blight and rust have been
identified.
7. Laboratory and screenhouse facilities have been constructed in the DR.
CONTRIBUT IONS:
To HC--The incorporation of high levels of more stable and durable resistance to bacterial blight and rust pathogens of the main DR bean types
will increase yields and hence lessen dependence on imports. Recent
food riots reinforce the importance of this crop.
To US--The genetic material and information generated by the project will
benefit bean-producing areas of the US that have conditions favoring
common blight and rust diseases. Increased understanding of the genetics of the inheritance of diseases will assist all breeding
programs.
MAJOR PROBLEMS AS IDENTIFIED BY ERP (RATED 1): None. Focus on character
enhancement encouraged.
ACTIONS TAKEN: None required.
RESOLUT ION:
An improved nitrogen fixation component may be incorporated to test lines
developed by the Brazil/University of Wisconsin (Bliss) ORSP project for
blight and rust resistance.
SUBSEQUENT BOD EXTENSION RATING 1.




Revised Log Frame Matrix University of Nebraska/Dominican Republic (DR)
December 30, 1983
Narrative Objectively Verifiable Means of Important
Summary Indicators Verification Assumptions
Program or Sector Goal: Measures of Goal Achievements
To improve yield and seed The utilization of biological, (a) Dissemination of informa- Assumptions for achieving goal
quality of beans through utill- epidemiological and genetic tfon in annual reports, peer targets if the incentives and zation of genes for resistance information and germplasm from reviewed publications and interest continue for small
to pathogens. our program in the development conferences. farmers to produce beans as a
of adapted useful cultivars by (b) Identification of our food for their own consumption
UPR and DR programs. program contributions by the and for a cash crop.
UPR and DR breeding programs
for the production of superior cultivars.
Project Purpose: Conditions that will Assumptions for
(1) To develop biological, indicate purpose has (1) Information available in achieving purpose:
epidemiological, genetic and been achieved: annual reports, professional (1) This depends on a continuation
breeding information on rust (1) The derived information, and peer reviewed articles, of effective cooperation between and bacterial pathogens, pri- methods, and germplasm will (2) Information, methods, administrative and professional
marily common blight of beans. be used in the breeding pro- genetic strategy and germ- elements in host country and
(2) To educate/train HC and US grams and pest management plasm being used in UPR, DR Univ. Nebr./Univ. Puerto Rico.
graduate students in plant strategies in the UPR, DR, and and other CRSP projects. (2) Students meet requirements
breeding and plant pathology other CRSP projects. (3) Genes identified by us of training program.
so that they can contribute to (2) Graduate students are utilized in improved culti- (3) Genes can be incorporated
future research efforts in the enrolled at UNL. vars developed by UPR, DR and into adapted, improved bean types.
DR or other LDC countries. others.
(4) Graduate students with
completed academic programs
contribute to bean improvement program in DR or elsewhere.
Outputs: Magnitude of Outputs: Output Assumtions
(1) Identification of sources (1) Information on methods of (1) Information on all of (1) Continued availability,
of stable/durable resistance inoculation, pathogen strain these research areas will be enthusiastic and effective to the strains of common variations, germplasm sources made available in annual technical and administrative
blight and rust pathogens. of resistance, and genetic reports, professional reports leadership in HC.
(2) Identify variation in information will be utilized and meetings, and peer (2) Continued availability of
pathogenicity and monitor in tropical breeding program reviewed papers. facilities.
changes in pathogencity in to develop resistant varieties (2) The germplasm, methods,
rust and blight pathogens. with reduced bacterial seed and epidemiological and biotransmission by DR and UPR logical information will be
programs. used in the UPR, DR and CRSP
projects.




Narrative Objectively Verifiable Means of Important
Summary Indications Verification Assumiptions
Outputs: Magnitude of Outputs:
(3) Study inheritance of (2) Rust resistance stability,
resistant reactions to patho- particularly in the black seed gens and linkage relations with types, needs new strategies. other traits. The incorporation of red pinto
(4) Develop more effective seed type, virus resistance
breeding strategies to incorpo- (UPR), high yield, and rate stable resistance. Pompadour rust resistance will
(5) Select for reduced seed be a major breakthrough.
transmission of common
bacterial blight.
(6) Develop new biological and
epidemiological information on
rust and bacterial blight
pathogens that could be useful
in pest management strategies.
Inputs: Input Assumptions:
(a) Univ. of Nebr. To use current project poster Annual Project, Budget and (1) The present AID/US and HC
Principal Investigator (PI), to determine continued per- trip reports, institution financial contribuCo-PI, Investigator, techni- sonnel involvement and to tions will be available at planned
cians, laboratory, greenhouse, examine annual reports to increased levels.
field, equipment and supplies evaluate if facilities and (2) The positions listed under
availability, other listed resources have inputs in US and HC will be
(b) Dominican Republic been available to the project. sustained.
Corresponding Principal Invest- (3) Administrative support
igator, National Program listed under inputs will be
Technical Personnel, CESDA sustained.
DiretorSuportStuent(4) Graduate student trainees Trainees, Office, Laboratory will be available/involved in the
facilities, Field Research project.
Facilities, Extension Service (5) Facilities, resources, and
Cooperation, Availability of services listed under inputs will
project vehicle, continue to be available.
(6) Vehicle is maintained in
working condition.




-68-




-69
PROJECT REVIEW PROFILE
DOMINICAN REPUBLIC 0 UNIVERSITY OF PUERTO RICO (Initiated June 1981) BEANS L6pez-Rosa
IMPROVEMENT OF BEAN PRODUCTION IN THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC THROUGH BREEDING FOR MULTIPLE DISEASE RESISTANCE (MDR) IN THE PREFERRED STANDARD CULTIVARS
GOAL: Produce a MDR bean germplasm base in order to provide cropping security
over time in the DR. Preserve or improve the agronomic characteristics,
yield and quality of the preferred Dominican cultivars to assure economic
and efficient production that will meet the acceptance and fulfill the
nutritional requirements of the population.
DESCRIPTION: This project focuses primarily on cultivar development and builds
on work begun under the auspices of an AID/USDA/MITA project. Five new
breeding lines with good yield potential and high levels of MDR were
released in 1983.
ROLE IN THE GLOBAL PLAN: This is one of two projects in Latin America (the
second with same US PI) concentrating on MDR cultivar development for this
region. Dominant constraint #1 (limitations due to diseases).
ACHIEVEMENTS:
1. Breeding lines L-226-10, L-227-1, 3M-150, 3M-152 and 4M-99 were made
available through official release to other breeding programs for use
as parents in crossing schemes. White-seeded line 2W-33-2 is being
considered for release in 1984.
2. Articles on the incidence of bean diseases in the DR, the practical
applications of bacterial blight research and the identification of
genotypes with stable yield traits are in preparation.
3. There is a notable high level of cooperation and complementarity with
the Nebraska project.
CONTRIBUTIONS:
To HC--Release of the new lines is a significant contribution toward
increasing bean yields in the DR.
To US--Research results will also help strengthen the Puerto Rico winter
nurseries of the US bean industry.
MAJOR PROBLEMS IDENTIFIED BY ERP (RATED 1): None.
ACTIONS TAKEN: None required.
RESOLUTION:
1. New US PI named (Dr. James Beaver) with the promotion of Dr. Julio
L6pez-Rosa.
2. There is an expected change in HC PI as Dr. Cdsar Paniagua has
indicated his intention to leave the project when he has located a
suitable replacement.
SUBSEQUENT BOD EXTENSION RATING 1.




Dominican Republic/UPR Bean/Cowpea CRSP Project
LOGICAL FRAMEWORK MATRIX
(December 1983)
Narrative Objectively Verifiable Means of Important
Summary Indicators Verification Assumptions
Program or Sector Goal: The Measures of Goal Achievement (A-3) Assumptions for achieving
broader objective to which this (A-2) goal targets (A-4)
project contributes: (A-I)
To make available to the A measure of the improvement Comparison of the performance Small farmers continue
national legume program of yield stability, and yield of MDR varieties produced by to grow dry beans in the
,,ultiple disease resistant dry level of MDR varieties over the program with original base- Dominican Republic.
bean breeding lines/cultivars traditional varieties line data.
capable of achieving yield (Pompadour seed type) by 1988- The national seed program
stability over time. 1990. Determine the quantity of MDR will increase seed of the
seed planted by small farmers new varieties.
- A measure of acceptance of and the production levels
MDR varieties by small they obtain. The extension service
farmers, will promote their use.
Project Purpose (B-i) Conditions that will indicate (B-3) Assumptions for achieving
purpose has been achieved. purpose (B-4)
End-of-Project status (B-2)
- Reduce losses due to diseases Incorporation of MDR into the Yield loss studies will be Sources of resistance
by Incorporating multiple Pompadour and black bean conducted to determine the incorporated into local
disease resistance (MDR) Into types leading to improved importance of the different varieties remain stable.
productive genotypes with a yield stability level, diseases.
seed type suitable to the A bean disease currently
Dominican consumer. Training of graduate students -DR will be demonstrated by identified as a minor
and technicians, the establishment of demonstra- problem does not emerge
- Enhance the capability of the tion plots on small farms, as a major problem.
Dominican bean research team Improvement of research infra- baseline data,and by test
through training, collabora- structure such as screen plots containing traditional Bean research team in
tive research, and improve- houses, laboratory equipment and MDR cultivars. DR remains active and
ment of facilities, and vehicles. trained personnel
Physical evidence of improve- continue to work with ment of research infra- the project.
structure.
No natural disasters that
might destroy research
infrastructure.




Project Outputs (C-1) Magnitude of Outputs (C-.2) (C-.3) Assumptions for achieving
output (c-4.)
- Identification of stable Development of varieties Sources of MDR will be Reasonably heritable
sources of resistance to the with improved levels of tested at several locations sources of resistance
major diseases affecting bean resistance to one or more in the DR. can be identified for the
production In the Dominican diseases resulting in important bean diseases.
Republic. significantly increased MDR lines will be tested at
yield stability and yield several locations In the DR. Breeding methods are
- Incorporation of these sources level, appropriate to Incorporate
of resistance Into productive Breeder seed of the most these resistances Into
genotypes with a seed type Sufficient quantity of promising lines will be made local seed types.
suitable to the Dominican disease-free seed of the avai-lable to the national
consumer, improved varieties to be made seed program. The national seed program
available to the national 1s capable of increasing
seed program. seed of promising MDR
varieties and making it
available to small
farmers, and the extension
service ef-fectively
promotes their use.
INPUTS (D-1) INDICATORS (0-2) MEANS OF VERIFICATION (0-3) ASSUMPTIONS (D-4)
(What data needed and how to
University of Puerto Rico/ get it)
USDA-AR S
- Principal Investigator Use of project roster to -Use of baseline data to The present USAID. UPR
- Two Co-investigators determine continued involve- measure acceptance of the and HC financial support
- Two Research Associates. ment of personnel. improved MDR varieties by remains at the planned
- One Technician, the small farmers and to level.
- Laborers. Examination of annual reports to verify the yield
to determine performance of stability and yield levels. Involvement of personnel
- Adequate facilities for personnel and to evaluate if at all levels listed in
personnel to conduct research facilities and resources are -Research results obtained from D-I will be continued.
programs in breeding and made available to the project. the Dominican Republic and
pathology. Puerto Rico. Facilities mentioned in
D-l will remain to be
- Administrative infrastructure. Annual Reports. available.




Inuts (D-1) Indicators (D-2) Means of verification (D-3) Assumptions (0-4)
- Bean germplasm of potential Trip reports.
value to the Dominican
Republic. Fiscal reports.
Dominican Republic Quarterly activities and
fiscal reports from the
- Principal investigator. HC.
- Adequate personnel from CESDA
and CENDA to conduct bean
research.
- Adequate facilities at the
Arroyo Loro experiment station
to conduct a bean breeding
program.
- Cooperation from Extension Service.
- Cooperation from local small farmers. N)




-73
PROJECT REVIEW~ PROFILE
ECUADOR e CORNELL UNIVERSITY (Initiated September 1981) 0 BEANS Wallace
AGRONOMIC, SOCIOLOGICAL AND GENETIC ASPECTS OF BEAN YIELD AND ADAPTATION
GOAL: Examine the agronomic and socio-economic aspects of bean production by
small farmers. Adapt appropriate farming systems research (FSR).
DESCRIPTION: Agronomic and genetic research is to be developed but emphasis to
date has been on the sociological work. Through testing various types of interview schedules and microcomputer techniques, a methodology for FSR is
being developed for this site. This methodology and the information it generates will be used to identify agronomic problems. A US researcher
has been on-site in this country.
ROLE IN THE GLOBAL PLAN: This is one of four CRSP projects with a major socioeconomic component. It is the only one taking this particular FSR perspective. Dominant constraints #3 (limitations of the physical
environment) and #8 (socio-cultural factors).
ACHIEVEMENTS:
1. An outline for structured interviews was developed and tested in which
respondents report farm-related practices in the region. The interview
guide is available in three languages; a team report and three
specialized reports on the zone also have been prepared.
2. From a list of all landowners in one zone, a microcomputer program was
used to pull a stratified random sample. An applied questionnaire was
designed and used to interview the sample families.
3. Work is progressing on a microcomputer methodology which will strengthen INIAP's and similar institutions' abilities to conduct FSR. A
manual for the analysis of agricultural census data has been prepared.
CONTRIBUT IONS:
To HC--The emphasis on FSR methodology will allow INIAP to better direct
its agronomic research to the needs Of Various categories of small
farmers.
To US--The methodology developed has similar applications in the US. The
agronomic-genetic component will advance the work being done by the
same team in Guatemala but in a different ecology.
MAJOR PROBLEMS AS IDENTIFIED BY ERP (RATED 2): None. There was a delay in the
identification of technical personnel for residence in Ecuador.
ACTIONS TAKEN: Interviews were held with names submitted to HCs.
RESOLUTION:
1. A US agronomist (Mr. Wesley Kline) and a social scientist (Dr. Kris
Merschrod) were named and approved by HC.
2. Surveys provided guidance and priorities for the agronomic research
component to begin with the arrival of Cornell agronomist and
sociologist.
3. The project Log Frame updated.
SUBSEQUENT SOD EXTENSION RATING 2.




.LOGICAL FRAMEWORK CORNELL/INIAP
Ecuador
NARRATIVE SU)LARY OBJECTIVELY VERIFIABLE MEANS OF IMPORTANT ASSUMPTIONS
INDICATORS VERIFICATION
PROGRAM/SECTOR GOAL MEASURES OF GOAL ASSUMPTIONS FOR ACHIEVING
ACHIEVEMENT GOAL TARGETS
To understand agronomic Professional publications Articles in Continued interest at
and socioeconomic aspects on interface between agro- referred Cornell and INIAP in the
of bean production by nomic and socioeconomic journals organization of smallsmallholders determinants holder production
PROJECT PURPOSE CONDITIONS THAT INDICATE ASSUMPTIONS FOR ACHIEVING
PURPOSE WAS ACHIEVED PURPOSE
1) To conduct FSR diagnostic research con- technical reports re-establishment of stable
in at least one ducted by Cornell/INIAP on province and high exchange rate
province teams;follow up by smaller team published by INIAP
2) to develop an adoption of Cornell methodology costs to apply maintenance of selfeconomic methodology by others methodology after critical attitude by refor FSR two more years of searchers, currently flushed
development by initial success
3) to identify research- establishment of new research
able problems via field programs in legumes at staff and budget strong leadership within
research for experiment experiment stations allocations within legume program plus
rsaion progexppran sl poga resources to expand research
station programs legume program activities




LOGICAL FRAMEWORK CORNELL/INIAP
NARRATIVE SUMMARY OBJECTIVELY VERIFIABLE MEANS OF IMPORTANT ASSUMPTIONS
INDICATORS VERIFICATION
OUTPUTS MAGNITUDE OF OUTPUTS OUTPUT ASSUMPTIONS
1) redefine and opera- document elaborating maps Rnd precise staff stability in the
tionalize concept demarcation rules; documentation on province(s)
"dominios de reco- application of rules to demarcation rules
mendaciones" one province
2) train INIAP staff 10 trained in FY 82; budget allocation motivation of INIAP staff
in methodology another 5-10 to be and technical reports and identification of
trained in FY 83 appropriate province for
diagnostic research
INPUTS INPUT ASSUMPTIONS
1) Cornell, on campus: 3-4 person!months professional calendars informed staff do not
time of Co-I's, in country (We dare you!) and quit in desperation with
secretaries and tip reports paperwork and bureauC.S.'s cratic hassles
2) Cornell off campus: most equipment delivered; budget appropriate students
sociologist, agro- sociologist arrived July, available, interested and
nomist and equipment 1982; agronomist due acceptable to INIAP
January, 1983
3) INIAP
2 counterparts, office staff, office and continued goodwill and
space and support staff, budgetary allocations genuine interest by INIAP
vehicle maintenance and staff; recuperation of
per-diems for INIAP INIAP budget to permit
staff, expenditure of counterpart
funds




-76-




-77
PROJECT REVIEW PROFILE
GUATEMALA 0 CORNELL UNIVERSITY (Initiated September 1981) BEANS Wallace
AGRONOMIC, SOCIOLOGICAL AND GENETIC ASPECTS OF BEAN YIELD AND ADAPTATION
GOAL: Improve the production of beans by small subsistence farmers through
agronomic and socio-economic investigations.. Conduct research aimed at understanding the agricultural systems in the Highlands and to identify
the daylength, temperature and genetic bases for variations in days to
maturity and of adaptation of bean cultivars.
DESCRIPTION: Research has focused on bean plant adaptation to temperature and
daylength because socio-agronomic studies have been hampered by the
unsettled conditions in the Highlands. Work at the experiment station
proceeded well.
ROLE IN GLOBAL PLAN: This is one of four CRSP projects integrating production
and non-production issues. Dominant constraints #3 (limitations of the
physical environment) and #8 (socio-cultural factors).
ACHIEVEMENTS:
1. Project findings regarding bean plant adaptation of temperature and
daylength have wide significance: separate genes for early and late flowering plus for minimal days and optimal temperature interact with
daylength and/or temperature to divide the world into zones.
2. Farming systems studies are planned in three contiguous but vertically
ordered zones managed by indigenous farmers. These investigations
complement the agronomic research by providing information on the
social and economic aspects of bean production.
3. This project is working with the CRSP INCAP project to make maximum
use of human and financial resources.
CONTRIBUTIONS:
To HC--Information yielded to date provides a better understanding of plant
adaptation which will assist in bean breeding all over the world.
To US--Research findings represent a significant contribution to scientific
understanding of the physiological genetics of bean plant maturity.
MAJOR PROBLEMS IDENTIFIED BY ERP (RATED 2): None. Unsettled political situations
in some areas and the difficulty of the US Co-PI (sociologist) participating in these areas have slowed some aspects.
ACTIONS TAKEN: New sociologist Co-PI from Cornell requested.
RESOLUTION:
1. A new US Co-PI is in charge of the sociological component (Dr. Harold
Capener).
2. Links between this project and the CRSP INCAP/Washington State University project being forged, especially with regard to socio-economic
research.
SUBSEQUENT BOD EXTENSION RATING 2.




-78
LOGICAL FRAMEWORK -- CORNELL/ICTA
PHYSIOLOGICAL GENETICS OF MATURITY, ADAPTATION AND YIELD
OBJECTIVELY
NARRATIVE SUMMARY VERIFIABLE MEANS OF IMPORTANT
INDICATORS VERIFICATION ASSUMPTIONS
CRSP Coal Measures of Coal
Achievement
Improve the pro- Yields per unit Productivity cen- Farmers are and will
duction of beans land area will sus. Yield trial continue to be interested
by small/subsis- increase by 1994. data. in increasing bean yields.
tence farmers.
Purpose
To identify the Interpretable Peer reviewed and Daylength, temperature
daylength, tem- knowledge about accepted publica- genotype and time are
perature and the genetic tions on the biol- assumed to be the input
genetic bases for directions over ogy of variations resources used by the
variations in maturity and in days to maturity plant to biointegrate
days to maturity yield, and about and attendant vari- a days to maturity plus and of adapta- the controls over actions in yield the attendant biological
tion of bean this direction of beans, and economic yields.
cultivars, and of that are modulated the consequent by the variations
effects on yield. in daylength and
temperature.
Outputs
Capability to more Identification of Consistent cap- Continuous application efficiently breed breeding lines of ability to ef- of CRSP effort across
new cultivars with different and phy- ficiently breed and at least one to one and consistently high siologically- select lines, to a half durations of the
adaptation and genetically de- evaluate them, 10-12 years normally reyields across fined character- and to release quired to breed, evaluate
years or planting istics of adapt- higher yielding and release a new variety. seasons, or for ation and yield. cultivars in The time must be sufficient
specific climatic fewer years than to elucidate the biology
zones and loca- required before and then use it in applied
tons and plant- the biology of bean breeding.
ing seasons maturity, adaptation and yield
was understood.
Inputs
Physiological, Allotment toward Budget and time CRSP and other funding
genetic and breed- the objectives of commitments and will be adequate,
ing research ef- research efforts their appropriate even after inflation. forts by ICTA by the ICTA and application.
and Cornell. Cornell principal
investigators,
graduate students,
and technicians.




-79
PROJECT REVIEW PROFILE
HONDURAS 0 UNIVERSITY OF PUERTO RICO (Initiated March 1982) BEANS L6pez-Rosa
IMPROVEMENT OF BEAN PRODUCTION IN HONDURAS THROUGH BREEDING FOR MULTIPLE DISEASE RESISTANCE
GOAL: Increase the tropical production of beans and cowpeas through improved
varieties resistant to major diseases and pests.
DESCRIPTION: Most of the work has been done in Puerto Rico although there has
been performance testing in HC at the experiment station and on farmers'
fields of the new breeding lines developed.
ROLE IN GLOBAL PLAN: This project is one of the three CRSP projects focusing on
disease resistance in beans in Latin America and provides an ecology
different from the other two. Its excellent undergraduate host institution
provides another CRSP perspective and resource. Dominant constraint #1
(limitations due to diseases).
ACHIEVEMENTS:
1. Collaborated with other CRSP programs in development of five new
breeding lines.
2. Field trials in Honduras have also been most effective.
3. One of the five new lines (black beans) already being planted by
growers.
CONTRIBUTIONS:
To HC--Multiple disease resistant lines important for HC consumption and
sale.
To US--Multiple disease resistant lines have already been requested by US
breeding programs.
MAJOR PROBLEMS AS IDENTIFIED BY ERP (RATED 3):
1. High turnover in HC PIs.
2. Inadequate HC/US communication.
3. Inadequate HC institutionalization.
4. Greater level of US PI participation in HC needed.
ACTIONS TAKEN:
1. US administrator and MO joined US/HC team meeting per ERP and Board
recommendation.
2. Permanent HC PI requested.
3. Adjustment in US PI contribution requested.
RESOLUTION:
1. New HC PI committed (Mr. Rafael Diaz).
2. Previous US PI promoted and new US PI experienced with this project
identified (Or. Jim Beaver).
3. HC institution commitment obtained.
4. New work expanding research on farmers' fields.
SUBSEQUENT BOD EXTENSION RATING 2.




Honduras/UPR Bean/Cowpea CRSP Project
LOGICAL FRAMEWORK MATRIX
(December 1983)
Narrative Objectively Verifiable Means of Important
Sun"ary Indicators Verification Assumptions
Program or Sector Goal: The Measures of Goal Achievement (A-3) Assumptions for achieving
broader objective to which this (A-0 goal targets (A-4)
project contributes: (A-I)
To make available to the A measure of Improvement Comparison of the performance Small farmers continue
national legume program of yield stability, and yield of MDR varieties produced by to grow dry beans in
multiple disease resistant level of MDR varieties over the program with original base- Honduras.
(MDR) dry bean breeding lines/ traditional varieties (small red line data. cultivars capable of achieving seed type) by 1988-1990. The national seed program
yield stability over time. Determine the quantity of MDR will increase seed of the
- A measure of acceptance of seed planted by small farmers new varieties.
MDR varieties by small and the production levels
farmers, they obtain. The extension service
will promote their use.
Project Purpose (B-I) Conditions that will indicate (B-3) Assumptions for achievin9
purpose has been achieved, purpose (B-4)
End-of-Project status (B-2)
- Reduce losses due to diseases Incorporation of MDR into the Yiel4 loss studies will be Sources of resistance
by incorporating multiple small red bean type leading to conducted to determine the incorporated into local
disease resistance (MDR) into improved yield stability level, importance of the different varieties remain stable.
productive genotypes with a diseases.
seed type suitable to the Training of graduate students MDR will be demonstrated by A bean disease currently
consumer, and technicians, the establishment of demonstra- identified as a minor
tion plots on small farms, problem does not emerge
- Enhance the capability of the baseline data, and by test as a major problem.
Honduran (Escuela Agrtcola plots containing traditional
Panamericana and Secretarla and MDR cultivars. Bean research team in
de Recursos Naturales) bean Honduras remains active
research team through training and trained personnel
and collaborative research, continue to work with
the project.




Project Outputs (C-I) Magnitude of Outputs (C-2) (C-3) Assumptions for achieving
output (C-4)
- identification of stable Development of varieties Sources of MDR will be Reasonably heritable
sources of resistance to the with improved levels of tested at several locations sources of resistance
major diseases affecting bean resistance to one or more in Honduras. can be identified for the
production In Honduras. diseases resulting in important bean diseases.
significantly increased. MDR lines will be tested at
yield stability and yield several locations In Honduras. Breeding methods are
- incorporation of these sources level, appropriate to incorporate
of resistance Into productive Breeder seed of the most these resistances Into
genotypes with a seed type Sufficient quantity of promising lines will be made local seed types.
suitable to the Honduran disease-free seed of the available to the national
consumer. improved varieties to be made seed program. The national seed program
available to the national is capable of increasing
seed program. seed of promising MDR
varieties and making it
available to small
farmers, and the extension
service effectively
promotes their use.
00
INPUTS (0-1) INDICATORS (D-2) MEANS OF VERIFICATION (D-3) ASSUMPTIONS (o-4)
(What data needed and how to
University of Puerto Rico! get it)
USDA -ARS
- Principal investigator Use of project roster to Use of baseline data to The present USAID, UPR
- Two Co-investigators determine continued involve- measure acceptance of the and HC financial support
- Two Research Associates ment of personnel, improved MDR varieties by remains at the planned
- One Technician the small farmers and to level.
- Laborers Examination of arnual reports to verify the yield
to determine performance of stability and yield levels. involvement of personnel
- Adequate facilities for personnel and to evaluate if at all levels listed In
personnel to conduct research facilities and resources are Research results obtained from D-I will be continued.
program In breeding and made available to the project. Honduras and Puerto Rico.
pathology. Facilities mentioned In
- Annual Reports. D-i will remain to be
- Administrative Infrastructure, available.




Inputs (D-1) indicators (D-2) Means of verification (D-3) Assumptions (D-4)
- Bean germplasm of potential Trip reports.
value to Honduras.
- Fiscal reports. Honduras
- Quarterly activities and
- Co-Principal Investigator fiscal reports from the
HC.
- Adequate personnel and
facilities from the Escuela
Agricola Panamericana to conduct bean research.
- Adequate support(facilities,
experimental plots,
transportation) made available
by the Secretarfa de Recursos
Naturales (GH).
- Cooperation from Extension
Service.
* Cooperation from local small
farmers.




-83
PROJECT REVIEW PROFILE
INCAPO WASHINGTON STATE UNIVERSITY (Initiated November 1981). BEANS Swanson
IMPROVED BIOLOGICAL UTILIZATION AND AVAILABILITY OF DRY BEANS
GOAL: Improve the utilization, availability and nutrient quality of dry beans.
Integrate post-harvest physiology, food technology and nutritional
research with genetic and breeding programs for dry beans.
DESCRIPTION: A standardized methodology for evaluating bean quality has been
developed and nutritional standards for bean breeders are being set.
Constraints to bean utilization in the areas of handling/storage,
utilization/consumption and nutrition are being addressed.
ROLE IN GLOBAL PLAN: This project addresses significant post-harvest issues in
its own right and also helps to link these issues with the breeding and production-oriented research in the total CRSP. Dominant constraint #7
(nutrition, food preparation and health factors).
ACHIEVEMENTS:
1. Methods to reliably estimate in vivo digestibility of common beans, to
determine the procyanidins in testa and cotyledon of dry beans and to estimate biological activity of lectin of kidney beans were developed as was a sophisticated Instron method to determine the optimum beancooking time.
2. Means to reduce the hard-to-cook phenomena were discovered.
3. A survey of the array of professional techniques for assessing bean
quality well underway.
4. A bean quality assessment service to other CRSP projects is being
provided.
CONTRIBUTIONS:
To HC--Because of the limited availability of animal protein, increasing
the nutritional value and digestibility of beans and hence contributing
to improved nutritional status is important in Latin America and
Africa.
To US--This research, especially the efforts to improve biological utilization and to reduce the hard-to-cook phenomena in dry beans, will result
in a better nutritional commodity for the US market as well.
MAJOR PROBLEMS AS IDENTIFIED BY ERP (RATED 1): None. Because of the size of the
project, participants have had to pay special attention to maintaining
communication among the five US institutions.
ACTIONS TAKEN: None required.
RESOLUTION:
1. US PI has increased level of communication with participants.
2. Problems in funds transfer to INCAP resolved.
3. Plans to hold a CRSP-wide workshop on nutritional guidelines for bean
breeders being developed.
SUBSEQUENT BOD EXTENSION RATING 1.




LDOG FRAME Washington State Univ. Swanson/INCAP
rMP7ITIV[ SUMMARY OBJECTIVELY VERIFIABLE INJDICATORS M MEANS OF VERIFICATION IMPORTANT ASSUMPTIONS
Proqran or Sector Goa: Measures of Goals Achievement: Assumptions for Achieving Goal
Integrate post-harvest physiology, food Farmer interest in production of dry beans Comparison of dry bean production, Targets:
technology and nutrition research with and improved storage and cooking interest and use survey taken before and a. Guatemalen and. Central American
genetic and breeding programs for dry technology will increase; the availability after introduction of improved cultivars farmers continue to produce dry bea beans; to enhance production, and consumption of dry beans will increaselof dry beans and storage and cooking store them in their homes for their
nutritional quality, acceptance and the nutrient contribution of dry beans to recommendations to rural populations of own use, and rely upon dry beans to
utilization of dry beans in Central the diet of the rural populations in Guatemala and Central America. fulfill protein and other nutrient
American countries. Central America will increase. requirements of adults and children
Evaluation of nutritional quality of b. The farmers maintain an interest in
available dry bean cultivars. growing dry beans that will provide
more nutritional quality and more
convenient preparation for his
family; and provide for
advantageous marketing to others.
c. Additional nutritional quality and
cooking convenience will be an
advantage to consumers and producerS
of dry beans.
Project Purpos e: Conditions that will indicate purpose Assumptions for Achieving Purpose:
Evaluate and develop methods for the hasa. Dry beans ein a significant
study of nutritional quality, storage Improved cultivars of dry beans will be Evaluation of surveys integrated with protein source in diets of rural
characteristics and cooking potential introduced to farmers. Acceptance and visits and assessment of health of rural families.
of dry beans, use of dry beans will increase in rural populations consuming dry beans.
Central America. b. Dry bean production remains
Assessment of nutritional quality of dry advantageous for farmer storage,
beans available to farmers in Guatemala sale and consumption in preference
and Central America. to producing a more marketable crop
and purchasing other foods.
c. Fuel economy and methods of
preparation remain a factor in
preparation of foods in rural areas
- cooking convenience of dry beans
important to person preparing meals.
d. Improved cultivars of dry beans
developed and distributed to farmers,
co




Oututs: Mgi t1de of O Utputs: ON t~ut Assumptions:
a. Develop analytical methods for a. Dry beans will consistently a. Survey use of dry beans in diets of a. Continued cooperation and
polyphenolic compounds in dry beans. contribute more than WO' of the diet Guatemalan farmers and families, achievement of objectives amono
b. Determine the protein quality and of the rural population. b. Compare digestibility and protein HC and US research scientists.
digestibility of dry beans. b. Digestibility and protein quality of quality of improved cultivars of bear b. Continued availability of
c. Invrstioate conditions of storage in (try beans will be increased by 25T. with initial cultivars of dry beans, facilities ahd resources.
Central America and determine how c. Improved cultivars of nutritious dry c. Assess acceptance of dry beans of C. Maintenance of interest of rural
changes during storage may affect beans will be introduced into rural different colors and flavors by rura' farmers in developed cultivars ana
cooking and nutritional quality of Guatemala. populations. innovations of CRSP research teawS
dry beans. d. Recommendations for storage and d. Assess storage of dry beans and d. Production of dry bean seed and
d. Initiate genetic studies on cooking of dry beans will be incorporation into diet based on recommendations that will be
relationship of dry bean poly- distributed to rural populations of recommendations. distributed to farmers in Central
phenolics to production, storage an Guatemala. America.
nutritional quality, digestibility
and cooking quality.
Injputs: Input Assumptions:
a. Washington State University Review of research progress and Quarterly and annual research progress a. USAID financial support and US an4
Co-Principal Investigator Food personnel involvement. Review annual and financial support statements; trave HC Institution contributions
Scientist progress reports and listed publications. reports. (cost-sharing) and interest remain
Graduate student training Evaluate facilities and resource strong and available.
Laboratory research chemistry and allocation and utilization. b. Training proposals be sustained
nutritional quality and scientists returned to aC to
Animal feeding studies maintain programs.
b. Institute of Nutrition of Central c. Collaborative research progress
Ao.erica and Panama continue and standard methods
Co-Principal Investigator established and accepted by dry
Nutritionist bean breeders, research scientists
Professional Research Scientists and consumers.
Food Chemists
Laboratory Research Chemistry
Human & animal feeding studies Surveys of rural perspectives,
production, utilization and
consumption patterns for dry beans
c. Michigan State University
Research Scientists Agronomist
and Food Scientist
Breeding program and plots Standard lines of dry beans
Laboratory research storage and
cooking quality.
U,




d. University of Puerto Rico
Research Scientists Chemist
and Bean Bres2der
Laboratory research chemistry of
tannins and proteins
e. Colorado State University
Research Scientist Agronomist Breeding, field trials and plots
Evaluate production
environment relationship to
nutrient quality.
Laboratory research nutrient
composi tion
f. Kansas State University
Research Scientist Agronomist
Laboratory research cooking
quality of dry beans




-87
PROJECT REVIEW PROFILE
KENYA 0 UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, DAVIS (Initiated August 1981) e BEANS Webster
IMPROVEMENT OF DROUGHT AND HEAT TOLERANCE OF DISEASE RESISTANT BEANS IN SEMIARID REGIONS OF KENYA
GOAL: Develop improved bean cultivars for growth in semiarid zones which will
contribute to food availability and bean improvement programs of national
and international organizations throughout the world.
DESCRIPTION: Most of the research has taken place in California. Germplasm
exchanges between Kenya and California and the subsequent generations of
crosses provided the material for massive screenings.
ROLE IN GLOBAL PLAN: This is the only CRSP project emphasizing heat as well as
drought resistance in beans. The HC provides some ecology unique in the
CRSP. It is also developing greater collaboration with CIAT, which is
stationing a person in Kenya and has requested the crosses from this
project. Dominant constraint #3 (limitations of the physical environment).
ACHIEVEMENTS:
1. Bean x tepary crosses developed which are fertile.
2. Additional cultivars identified with morphological characteristics
related to drought and heat tolerance.
CONTRIBUTIONS:
To HC--Technology developing for stabilization of bean yield in semiarid
regions.
To US--Beans with identified genes will be able to be grown under more
stressful conditions by US growers.
MAJOR PROBLEMS AS IDENTIFIED BY ERP (RATED 3):
1. Financial management in Kenya has been unacceptable.
2. Research management in Kenya has been unacceptable.
3. Drought tolerance research not sufficiently inclusive.
ACTION TAKEN:
1. Requested PI and team adjustment in Kenya.
2. University of California, Davis administrator and MO finance officer
joined project team for on-site review and meeting.
3. Requested new plan of work.
4. TC reviewed project closely including draft new plan of work.
RESOLUTION:
1. New HC PI named (Dr. David Ngugi).
2. New HC PI travelled to UCD to develop new plan of work with US PI.
3. New fiscal procedures in place with UN controller.
4. Ph.D.-level UCD researcher (Ms. Cynthia Cory) to be placed at UN.
SUBSEQUENT BOD EXTENSION RATING 2.




I. Log Frame Matrix University of California/Kenya February 15, 1983
Narrative Objectively Verifiable Mean of Important
Summary indicators Verification Assumptions
Program or Sector Goal: Measures of Goal Achievements: Comparisons of yields and sta- Continued need for semiTo increase drought and heat Yields of beans grown by sub- bility of yields over time with arid land for crop (bean) tolerance of disease-resistant sistence farmers in semi-arid initial data from pilot experi- growth in Kenya. beans brown by subsistence areas will be stabilized and/ ments in California and Kenya.
farmers in semi-arid regions. or will improve as a result Continued dependence on
of increased tolerance to Visits to appropriate sites rainfall, rather than
environmental stress, reduc- (other CRSP projects and in- developing irrigation
tion in prevalence of disease, ternational centers). systems.
and improved knowledge of
appropriate breeding and Comparisons of initial project Continued population e;xagronomic management tech- results and methodology with pansion in Kenya.
niques, information from other CRSP
and other similar projects. Continued commitment by
US-AID and UC Davis and
Awarding cf degrees for ad- Riverside to the project.
vanced training to Kenyans,
attendance at workshops, pro- Continuea a;rnd/or flucfessional scientific meetings, tuating yields of beans as publications, grown by subsistence fariers.
Adapatability and acceptability
of new cultivars and/or new
techniques by farmniers in the
semi-arid areas of Kenya.
Project Purposes: Conditions that will Screening and sprinkler field
To esta-iTs coiTaB-Fative Indicate Acievement trials in California and Kenya Continued interest in the
relationships among scient- o1 urpose: at appropriate locations. project by Kenyan scientists
ists with interests in the and Kenyan governmental
project. Reduction in incidence of di- Laboratory and greenhouse ex- personnel, cooperation
sease. Reduction in incidence periments on bean/tepary with other CUSP scientTo undertake pilot projects of crop failure or very low crosses, ists and those at interwhich will provide informa- yield in environmentally national agricultural
tion relevant to the program stressed regions. Acceptance of Kenyan students centers,
goals. into programs at UC Davis and
Success in identifying




To instruct scientists in Increased dissemination of Riverside, attendance of stu- promising cultivars from
approaches, techniques and information relevant to bean dents at workshops and pro- screening and sprinkler
methodology of the project. growth and development by fessional meetings. trials in the U.S. and
trained personnel. Kenya.
To develop cultivars and Laboratory studies and publiagronomic management ap- Acceptance and planting of cation on morphological fea- Identification of interproaches consonant with improved cultivars by sub- tures of promising cultivars. ested scientists and evithe project goal. sistence Farmers. dence of willingness
to participate.
Outputs: Magnitude of Outputs:
Screening TFor-dentification Accumulation of appropriate New cultivars and agrcnof cultivars with drought and Improved tolerance and yield information on environmental omic dpproaces will 'c
heat tolerance, of cultivars grown in semi- stress, abscission, disease consonant with need of
arid areas. resistance and yield, and subsistence far vmrs and
Breeding for development of comparisons wiLh s similar in- will be cptChl tO
drought, heat and disease Resistance to disease, heat vestigations in other (CRSP) them.
resistant cultivars. and drought in tepary/bean projects.
Training of Kenyan students crosses.
in project methodologies.
Trained personnel available
Identifying plant character- to interact with scientists istics that enhance tolerance at the University and with to stressful environments, subsistence farmers.
Correlating information on Compilation of information
environmental stress, flower appropriate to all aspects and pod abscission and yield. of the project.
Inputs: Magnitude of Inputs Screening program will
University of California, Indicated by project reports, indicate possible cultiDavis Principal Investiga- budgets, working papers, con- vars for adaptatic: to
tor, Cooperators, technical tinued involvement of per- semi-arid regim:res.
laboratory and field person- sonnel and expansion of pro- Various reports, publicanel, computer operator, green- ject contacts. tions, budgetary data, Drought, heat and dihouse, growth chamber, labora- special information sease resistance cultitory and field facilities and bulletins. vars can be developed
supplies, graduate students, over time.
office personnel and facilities, external consultants. From field trials, cultivars with tolerance
University of California, will have some comu;on
Riverside Co-Principal morphological characterInvestigator, cooperators, istics which are related
to ability to withstand




technical laboratory and environmental stress.
field personnel, greenhouse, laboratory and field facili- Evidence in the form of
ties and supplies, graduate results from field trials
students, office personnel and laboratory studies
and facilities, external con- will gradually accumulate
sultants. and indicate appropriate
directions for further
University of Kenya Co- study.
investigator, cooperators, field personnel, field Funding to continue and
facilities, graduate stu- maintain the investigation
dents, consultants. will continue as originally
planned.
Young Kenyan scientists will continue to come to UC Davis and Riverside to study in graduate programs related to this project; the US commitment will also continue.
The Management Office will continue to facilitate project implementation and continuance, and will respond to PIs difficulties--particularly in budgetary matters and paperwork.




-91
PROJECT REVIEW PROFILE
MALAWI e MICHIGAN STATE UNIVERSITY (Initiated February 1982) o BEANS Adams
GENETIC, AGRONOMIC AND SOCIO-CULTURAL ANALYSIS OF DIVERSITY AMONG BEAN LAND-RACES IN MALAWI
GOAL: Contribute to a viable bean improvement program for small farmers through analysis of biological/social bases for the maintenance of bean diversity.
DESCRIPTION: Project focuses on the natural survival needs of important,
irreplaceable germplasm and on understanding the maintenance and importance
of mixtures in the farm family system. Experiments carried out on
frequency of heterozygosity, heterozygote superiority, yield stability,
outcrossing and genetic variation in beans. Socio-economic data collected
on bean-producing households in Northern Zone emphasize women's roles in agricultural production. Two expatriate researchers (Dr. E. Ayeh and Mr.
G. Martin) in the HC.
ROLE IN GLOBAL PLAN: This is one of the projects with agronomic/socio-economic
integration. Dominant constraints #2 (plant response limitations) and #8
(socio-cultural factors).
ACHIEVEMENTS:
1. Extensive germplasm collections were made in identified areas.
2. Evidence for heterozygosity found in some bean seed collections.
3. Data generated on importance/contributions of mixtures in yield
stability.
4. Socio-economic research instruments tested and refined.
5. Agronomic and social baseline data collected.
CONTRIBUTIONS:
To HC--The study of bean preferences, growing practices of small farmers
and the means by which bean land-races are maintained will contribute
valuable information to the bean improvement program in Malawi.
To US--Many of the issues raised as well as the germplasm collected will
eventually contribute to US researchers and to the US bean industry. MAJOR PROBLEMS IDENTIFIED BY ERP (RATED 1): None. Agronomic/social science
integration of interest to ERP.
ACTIONS TAKEN: A second expatriate researcher (a social scientist) sought.
RESOLUTION:
1. Two expatriate researchers (horticulturalist and sociologist) to be
stationed in Malawi.
2. The name of a female social scientist submitted to the GOM for
approval.
3. Socio-economic studies in the Northern Zone will be expanded and
interwoven more fully with the agronomic research.
SUBSEQUENT BOD EXTENSION RATING 1.




BEAN/COWPEA CRSP MALAWI PROJECT LOGFRAME
NARRATIVE SLMARY CRITERIA OR OBJECTIVES INDICATORS DATA NEEDS OR MEANS OF ASSUMPTIONS OR REQUIRED "GIVENS"
VERIFICATION
Analysis of the biological/ 1. Significant factors in each 1. Identification of relevant 1. Biological/social data can be
GOAL social bases for the maintenance subarea (genetic, agronomic, ecological zones collected on the same farm
of bean diversity in Malawi sociological, cultural) 2. Farm household observations households in each region
identified and surveys 2. Residents, especially women,
2. Factors concerned with 3. Field and greenhouse studies will cooperate
production, distribution, on Malawi beans 3. Biological/social data can be
utilization and consumption integrated In a comprehensive
identified analysis
Provide information necessary 1. Survey and observations of 1. Multivariate analysis of I. A national bean program can
to develop a viable bean small farm households data generated help the bean farmers of Malawi
improvement program supportive throughout production cycle 2. Description of bio-social 2. Residents, especially women,
PURPOSE of small farmers, especially 2. Bean collections from each environment will cooperate
women and their families in area throughout production 3. Definition of roles of family 3. Bio-social data can be
Malawi cycle meters in farm household integrated in an analysis
3. Resident reports of life cycle and the
socio-cultural factors maintenance of diversity
I. Comprehensive report of 1. Multiple copies of report 1. Computer printouts read and 1. Such a report can be valid,
analysis of bean diversity available for distribution interpreted in relation to useful and appropriate
within context of farm 2. Report used by GOM in all other available data 2. Positive use will be made of
family system conjunction with Bunda 2. Findings disaggregated by the information in support of
2. Recommendations for bean College to develop long-term geographic region, point In small farm families
improvement plan for USAID, bean program for Malawi production cycle and gender 3. Information from this project
OM and Bunda 3. US and Malawi scientists 3. Extensive notes kept by US will be useful to others
OUTPUTS 3. Important contributions to publish jointly in and Malawi scientists 4. There are potential students
relevant literature and appropriate journals throughout process prepared and available for
Bean/Cowpea RSP 4. Graduates from identified 4. University records advanced training
4. Increased numbers of graduate programs
Malawian scientists trained
I. Materials, supplies and 1. Landrover, motorcycles, 1. Aprovals requested received, 1. Necessary materials either
equipment bicycles, irrigation and equipment purchased available in Malawi or can be
2. Survey and data gathering greenhouse equipment 2. Personnel at appointed loca- transported into country
INPUTS trips including collecting 2. Trained team of Malawi tions with support materials 2. Women to be hired and trained
seed samples female researchers to gather and logistics in order are available
3. Greenhouse and field space soclo-cultural data 3. Necessary approvals received, 3. Project personnel are
for multiplying and 3. U. S. researchers on site research plan begun compatible and can work
studying plants grown from collaborating with Malawian together
the collections scientists