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Carriacou: a reconnaisance survey

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Title:
Carriacou: a reconnaisance survey
Creator:
Buckmire, K. U.
Chase, V. M.
Hammerton, J. L.
Rao, M. M.
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Caribbean Agricultural Research and Development Institute (CARDI)
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English

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Subjects / Keywords:
Farming ( LCSH )
Agriculture ( LCSH )
Farm life ( LCSH )
Caribbean ( LCSH )
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Caribbean

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Electronic resources created as part of a prototype UF Institutional Repository and Faculty Papers project by the University of Florida.

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Full Text
CARIBBEAN AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH AND
* DEVELOPMENT INSTITUTE
1 (CARDI)
CARRIACOU A RECONNAISANCE SURVEY
S11 i
i !I'
I I l
I i I
F! :, i :/ h : ,ll iki'
K. U. BUCKMIRE V. M. CHASE J. L. HAMYERTON M.M. RAO
AN OUTPUT OF THE CARDI/USAID FARMING SYSTEMS RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
PROJECT NO. 538-0099




TABLE OF CONTENTS
PAGE NO,
SUMMAT' ""it 1 INTRODUCTION ... ... .... 1
1. BACKGROUND: A GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF CARRIACOU *. 2
1.1 General ... ... .. .. 2
1.2 Climate ..... ... 2
1.3. Topography and Geology ...
1.4 Soils ... ... .. ... 3
1.5 Vegetation ... ... ... ... 5
1.6 Land Use ... ...... 5
1.7 Human Resources ... ... ... 8
1 1.8 Institutional ... ... ... 9
2. FARMING SYSTEMS 10
2.1 The Corn/Pigeon Pea System *.. 10
2.2 The Ruminant Livestock/Pasture System... *** 20
2.3. The Pigs and Poultry System ...t* 24
2.4 The Msa app. System ... ... *.* 25
2.5 The Tree Crop System ... ... **. 25
2.6 The Mixed Vegetable System **.* 26
2.7 The Coconut System ...... ... 26
3. SbCIO-ECONOMIC SYSTEMS ... .. ... 27
3.1 Endogenous Determinants ...... ... 27
3.2 Exogenous Determinants ... 32
4. INTEGRATED FARMING SYSTEM ... ... 34




Page No.
5. CONSTRAINTS TO INCREASED PRODUCTION ... ... 38
5.1 General and Institutional ... ... 38
5.2 Corn/Pigeon Pea System ... ... ... 39
5.3 Ruminant Livestock/Pasture System .. ... 39
5.4 Pigs and Poultry System.. ... ... 40
5.5 Mwa app. System ... ... *... 40
5.6 Tree Crop System ... ... ... 41
5.7 Mixed Vegetable System ... ... ... 41
5.8 Coconut System ... ... .. 41
6. PROPOSED INTERVENTIONS ** .* *** 42
6.1 General and Institutional ... ... 43
6.2 Corn/Pigeon Pea System ... .. *.. 43
6.3 Ruminant Livestock/pasture System .. ... 44
6.4 Musa spp. System ... ... ... 45
6.5 Tree Crop System ... ... ... 45
6.6 Mixed Vegetable System ...... ... 45
7. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ... 46
LITERATURE CITED ... ...... ... 47
APPENDICES:
I Itinerary ... .. 48
II The Agricultural Sub-districts and watersheds of Carriacou ...... ... 49
III Weeds of cultivated land, &Uly inu corn
and ~geon peas ... ... .. 51
IV General and Specific information on
Corn/pigeon pea gardens ....., ... 54
ii




Page No.
FIGURES AND-TABLES:
Figure I Reduced ordinance survey map,
including extension sub-districts ... 3b
Figure II Planting patterns of corn and
pigeon peas ... ... ... ... 12
Figure III Schematic representation of the
socio-economic determinants of a typical Carriacou family ... 28
Figure IV The interactions and flows for a
typical farm production system ... 35
Figure V Summary of a typical Carriacou
Farming System ... 37
Table I General information/on 25 corn/
pigeon pea gardens ... ... ... 54
Table II Specific information on 25
corn/pigeon pea gardens ... ... 58
iii




S MARY
Carriacou, with an estimated population of 7,000 is the largest of the Grenadines which is a volcanic island chain linking Grenada to Saint Vincent. The climate of Carriacou is semi-arid with an average annual rainfall of about 1OiOnmn, most of which falls between June and November. The land area of Carriacou is 3370 ha but only about 500 ha is presently under cultivation for crop production, much of Carriacou is covered by remnants of deciduous seasonal forest, thorny woodlands and cactus scrub. Wind and water erosion is very severe. None of the Carriacou soils are suitable for cultivation on slopes of 100 or more, yet cultivation has been and continues to be carried out on ".much steeper slopes with little use of anti-erosion
measures.
A typical farming system in Carriacou is a simple one with two
distinct components: a cropping system which is maintained primarily for the consption of the farm household and a livestock system which is maintained primarily for sale.
The predominant cropping system is a corn and pigeon pea system.
there may or may not be other components. The comnest of these other components are sweet potatoes and cassava, bonavist beans, lima beans, peanuts, cucurbits and okra. These subsidiary intercrops are often planted sporadically over the field often at low densities.
Small gardens of bananas, plantains and bluggoe are also to be
found on many holdings usually within the yard or fenced-in. Tree crops.
are found in yards, in pastures or along pasture fence lines. Only a few farmers cultivate vegetables for sale in the local market.
The livestock system is divided into two components: poultry
and swine which are reared for home consumption and for sale within Carriacou; and ruminants which are reared for export to Grenada and 2rinidad.
iv




Every single family in Carriacou owns livestock and cultivate,
if nothing else, at least corn and pigeon peas. Presumably every single family also has relatives living abroad. These relatives send reuzzr remittances which have become an integral part of the household's income and expenditure.
The farm family is the decision making unit linking the unit of production and the unit of consumption: it allocates two factors of production (land (and Zabour) to three processes (crop, livestock and off-farm enterprises). Farn income is generated primarily from the sale of livestock. The farm family is also dependent on remittances. The income that is generated by the farm family is--. very seldom used for the development of the farming system itself. Instead it is used to purchase food and items of conspicuous consxnption.




INTRODUCTION
The island of Carriacou forms part of the independent state of Grenada. This outlying dependency has for a long time not been brought into line with developments occurring in agriculture in the region. In an effort to present a state of the art as far as agricultural development is concerned, it was thought that the speediest and most economic way to achieve this was to mount a reconnaissance survey of the island. This it was hoped would provide initial insights into the inter-relationships that exist within the agricultural milieu and the opportunities for agricultural development.
This reconnaissance survey of Carriacou was carried out between August 18 and 25, 1984. The direct purpose was to obtain as much information on the farming systems of Carriacou to inform the planning of a Farming Systems Research and Development (FSR/D) Programme of On-farm and supportive research activities.
The specific objects of the survey were:
(i) to determine present land use
(ii) to describe and analyse the present farming systems
(iii) to obtain background socio-economic information on traditions
and beliefs which influence farming systems
(iv) to determine constraints to agricultural development and
(v) to develop guidelines for relevant on-farm trials and supportive
socio-economic research so as to improve production, productivity
and well being of the farming community.
The survey team was multi-disciplinary and comprised the following membersKen Buckmire Entomologist
Vasantha Chase Socio-Economist
John Hammerton Agronomist
Murali Rao Systems Agronomist




Introduction cont' d
The survey team gathered information primarily by observations and interviews. The team observed inter alia major soil characteristics, climatic indicators, major crop and cropping patterns and methods of cultivation, livestock types and methods of rearing. In addition the team conducted interviews with persons involved in both the farming and nonfarming activities. Interviews were held with farmers, community leaders, local historians, taxi-drivers, agricultural officers, government officials and others. The team also made use of available secondary sources of data such as Aand Use Surveys.
The product that follows is therefore a result of an informal survey.
CALIXTE GEORGE
Project Manager, Farming Systems
Research & Development Project
April, 1985




I. BACKGROUND: A GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF CARRIACOU
1.1 GENERAL:
Carriacou ,is the largest of the Grenadines, the island chain linking St. Vincent and Grenada. It lies about 26 Km north of Grenada, about 12 030' north and 61 28' west. Carriacou is about .12 Km long from south2
west to north-east and 4 km wide, with a total area of 33.7 km Politically, Carriacou is part of the independent state of Grenada. Together with the neighbouring and much smaller island of Petit Martinique, it is administered by a Commissioner resident in Carriacou. Hillsborough is the largest town and capital of Carriacou. The population is estimated at about 7,000, but no reliable census data are available. Many Carriacouans live overseas, mainly in the U.K. and U.S.A.
1.2 CLIMATE:
Carriacou has a semi-arid climate. Temperatures average about 32 C, the relative humidity ranges from 60-80%, and the average annual rainfall is about 1050 mm. Most of this falls during June to November, and the December to May period is usually very dry. There are also short occasional dry periods during the rainy season. Apparently there are no exact reliable long-term rainfall records. The island appears to be a single agro-ecological zone, although there is some evidence that the Craigston and Harvey Vale areas (Pig. 1) are rather drier than other parts of the island. There appear also to be a few small rain-shadow areas in the vicinity of the highest hills.
1.3 TOPOGRAPHY-AND GEOLOGY:
Carriacou comprises a series of hills and ridges and spurs with a number of lowlying gently sloping broad valleys, such as those around Hillsborough, Dumnzes, Dover and Limlair, Brunswick and Harvey Vale.
2




e~e~.. w . ..... ...m
mam*a
- --7
4
FIG.I *A rducionof he rdiancesurey ap hoanq he rinipa
fetrs. nldigras n etlmns TehayWose line~~~~A iniaefh oudre fte he xesonSbdetit




There are two high points almost equal in height at High North (955 ft or 291.1 m) and Chapeau Carre or High South (954 ft or 290.8 m). A ridge runs nortl- outh sloping steeply on the western side, above Hillaborough, but more gently on the other (Fig. 1).
Carriacou is largely volcanic in origin. It is mainly composed of
andesite ashes, with some agglomerates and andesitic lava, which is coated with a thin limestone layer in the north-east. Small outcrops of limestone occur in isolated patches along the coast. There are no true alluvia, but the slopes of the steeper ridges are overlain by ashy or limestone-derived colluvial materials (Vernon et al., 1959).
1.4 SOILS:
The following six soil types make up just over 90% of the total land
Soil Type Area (ha)
Wcburn clay loam (21) 1480
Woburn clay loam (strong & bouldery
phase) (22) 770
Limlalz clay (24) 565
Bet:.h clay loam (52) 130
Tophi. stony clay (50) 110
Perseverance clay (28) 110
The remaining 9-10% is accounted for by another five soil types
plus mangroves, beaches and salinas. The numbers in parenthesis are those used in the soil survey (Vernon et al., 1959).
T.; ,burn clay foams are well to excessively drained shallow soils over ash and agglomerate. They are found over much of the island, usually in large tracts, and often on slopes of 20 30 and over. Erosion is often severe. The stony and bouldery phase is dominant in the north of the island. The Woburn clay loams are considered suitable for cultivation on slopes up to 200: Lheir major limitations is the shallowness. On steeper Slopes cultivation is marginal and the danger of erosion increases.
3




Limlair clay is found mainly in the Limlair area in the north-east of the island but occurs also around the soutb-west of Dumfries, around Harveyvale, and inland and to the west of Hillsborough. It is a heavy colluvial soil, moderately drained, and suitable for cultivation, except in those (small) areas where it occurs on slopes of more than 100. It is heavy to work and sticky when wet.
Betish clay loam is a shallow grey soil over soft limestone with good to excessive drainage. Apart from a few small pockets and a larger area near Sabizan it is found in association with TopHill stony clay in a large tract to the north and north-west of TopHill. Betish clay loam is droughty and suffers severe erosion under cultivation, so is unsuitable for cultivation of any sort on steeper slopes.
TopHill stony clay is a shallow brown soil overlying hard limestone. It is found in association with Betish clay loam. Its drainage is good to excessive and it is unsuitable for cultivation: it is invariably found on steep slopes and is severely eroded.
Perseverance clay is a heavy brown or black soil, with poor to moderate drainage. It occurs in generally small isolated pockets in the Grand Bay, south of Bay A l'eau, near L'Eaterre and south of Bogles. It generally occurs on gentle slopes, shows little erosion and is suitable for cultivation on such slopes, but the drainage may make it difficult to work and it may lay wet.
In general, according to Vernon et al., (1959) none of the Carriacou soils are suitable for cultivation on slopes exceeding 20% and for some the suggested limit is lower. Yet cultivation has been and continues to be carried out on much steeper slopes with little, if any, use of antierosion measures. Vernon et al., (1959) give estimates of the area with different categories of slopes as follows: (ha)
2b 580
- 2 465 800
5 255
00 -2 930
20 30 1460 2490
30 100
4 ...




Less than a quarter of the land area of Carriacou has slopes of 100 or less! The same authors estimate the area with no limitation or only moderate limitation with erosion as the main hazard at 565 ha. or less than 20% cf the total area.
1.5 VEGETATION:
Much of C."riacou is covered by remnant of deciduous seasonal forest, thorny woodlands and cactus scrub. The larger forest trees have long since been cut for ship building, and for firewrod. There are small forest reserves and some planting of teak and blue mahoe has been done. At present most of the steeper, higher slopes are in secondary forest with only small areas of ruinate pasture or "slash-and-burn" cultivation. The flatter lands are eithe cultivated or in pasture.:, much of the latter overgrown with scrub,
9 6
including Acacia spp. and Opuntia spp. The gentle lower slopes and some of the higher and steeper slopes are also cultivated or in poor pasture. There is clear evidence of erosion on both lands now cultivated and those under ruinate pasture.
1.6 LAND USE:
2
The land area of Carriacou is 33.7 km or ,370 ha. About a quarter of
this -(910 ha)is forest reserve, hill tops and ridges, coastal mangrove swampL. ravines and gullies, playing fields and cemetries (Anon, 1972). About 1210 ha comprise poor and badly eroded lands, mainly in scrub and ruinate pasture. Of the remaining 1250 ha, it is estimated that less than a half (about 500 ha)is presently under cultivation for crop production: the remainder is tumble-down or ruinate pasture. Erosion both by wind and water is severe.
Very few farmers cultivating sloping land practiee any soil conservation, though there are remnants of old Vetiver (Khus-khus) bunids. Overgrazing has resulted in soil slippage and in many instances inVa3cnrby Acacia spp; Opuntia spp. and other thorny plants.
5




Carriacou has a long history of agriculture. In the late 18th
century sugar (and rum), cotton, coffee, cocoa and indigo were produced for export. Sugarcane was grown on estates of which the largest were Craigston, Limlair and Grand Bay. Cotton was grown by small farmers, or peasants, and for long remained the major crop of Carriacou : indeed it faded away as recently as the early 1980's. Sugarcane went out of production in about 1928, and was replaced by limes, for the production of lime oil and lime juice concentrate. There were several lime estates Craigaton, Dumfries and Sabazon, for example, but the crop was also grown by many small farmers. The trees were badly hit by Hurricane Janet in the 1955 and production declined. Poor prices for lime oil and other products and low yields due to poor crop husbandry (e.g. no fertilizer use and no pest and disease control) led inevitably to Carriacou going out of production.
Cotton remained however, -The varieties grown were "Marie Galante"
and "Antilles" : both have a slightly shorter staple than Sea Island Cotton. The crop was traditionally intercropped with corn and pigeon peas. All the work was done by hand and few purchased inputs were used. There were several ginneries. Poor prices for cotton, and a lack of labour (consequent on migration), led to a decline in production and its recent demise.
Cotton can still be seen as a weed, and relics of the lime orchards are still evident at Craigston, and at Dumfries, for example.
The most widely grown crops in Carriacou (at the time of writing) are corn and pigeon peas, almost invariably grown as a mixture. About 350 ha are planted to these crops annually, largely for home consumption. The "gardens" are small and scattered so that estimates of area vary. An aerialphoto-survey, carried out during dry season of 1982 estimated the area at only 32 ha, but to this must be added an area of grazing lands mixed with food crops, estimated at 30% of 550 ha or 167 ha, giving about 200 ha. Another method of estimation is to assume a population of 7000 or 1400 households. If all but 10% of these have an average of 0.4 ha of garden, then a figure of 504 ha is derived.
6




Corn yields are estimated at 800 to 1100 kg ha-1 (Anon.1972).
Pigeon pea yields are almost certainly much lower and more variable. They
are invariably grown as mixed crops, but planting patterns vary.
Some peanuts and sweet potatoes are grown, often as an intercrop in
corn/pigeon pea crops. Production has declined for both crops: the imports of sweet potatoes from St. Vincent has apparently discouraged local production. Cassava production, mostly for preparation of farine, but often times used for making "bit" and starch, is also declining. The bitter varieties are the more common but some Tweet cassava is also grown, for cooking. Cassava is usually interplanted in corn and pigeon peas.
There are few coconuts, but small groves are found south and west of Hillsborough Carriacou is free of "Red Ring" disease, but Hurricane Janet destroyed many trees in 1955. Attempts at replanting have been thwarted by
grazing animals. There are many tamarind, chinese plum, jamaica plum, soursop, sugar-apple and custard-apple trees, but these occur mainly in hedgerows, around dwelling houses and in pastures. Apart from "relic" lime trees there is little citrus. Tamarind are exported to Trinidad, but other fruits may go unreaped and are certainly not exploited commercially.
Only small quantities of vegetables are grown. Pumpkin and okra are
sometimes found as intercrops in corn/pigeon pea systems. Very few farmers grow tomatoes, cabbage, sweet pepper, lettuce, beans, carrots and cucumbers for sale, but most of the vegetables consumed are shipped in from Grenada.
Corn and pigeon peas are grown primarily for home consumption. Ruminant livestock are raised for sale: cattle, sheep and goats are sold as live animal. to Grenada and Trinidad. They may constitute the sole source of farm income. Constraints to the expansion of the livestock component in Carriacou
include poor past:,.,,.. low nutrition during the dry season and wild dogi. The latter live in the scrubby bush and attack mainly sheep.
There are scattered small plantings of Musa spp. especially of bluggoe, but bananas and plantains are also grown. These are usually in small fenced gardens" or around the house. Moko disease is present and bluggoe is unfortunately the most susceptible.
7




1.7 HUMAN RESOURCES:
The population of Carriacou is estimated to be between 6,000 and 7,000. here is evidence to suggest that although no data are available, that every household has at least one family member overseas. Many households have most of their family members in the 30 to 50 year age group overseas. There is a tradition that Carriacouans overseas send regular remittances back home, and this source of income is very important in meeting household expenses.
There are an estimated 1400 households in Carriacou with an average
size of five person (this excludes those living abroad). About 59% of farmers arp female. This preponderance of females may be due to male migration and to the primary occupations of fishing and shipbuilding. About 67% of farmers are part-time and 78% of these reported that faximing waE:,not a significant contributor to household incomes (Campbell & Henry 1982). These latter are often heavily subsidized by remittances.
Carriacou has a total of 42 communities or villages including
Hillaborough. With the exceptions of L'Esterre, Harvey Vale, Hillsborough and Windward, these villages are dispersed along the road system. Most of the road system is drivable: the exceptions are from Prospect to Petit Carenage in the north-west, and Sabazon to Grand Bay in the south-east. In the interior roads run along the ridges or on top of the spurs. Houses are located on both sides of the road and in some instances are below the level of the road. House plots invariably have a small garden of corn and pigeon peas around the house. Except in Hillsbornugh, there is almost invariably a pig tethered nearby, and there are a number of yard fowls.
In L'Esterre, and the other villages mentioned above, the settlement
pattern is nucleated, and the houses tended to be of better quality ccz_ :u-_-" usually of concrete with a galvanized roof. Even the more substantial houses usually have a small garden of corn and pigeon peas in the yard. If housing is used as an indicator of "the quality of life", then the standard of living tends to be higher in coastal communities (e.g. Windwzrd, LIEsterre and Mount Pleasant) than in those in the interior (e.g. Six Roads, La Resouce and Belvedere). Villages along the coast tended to enjoy better facilities such as schools and clinics than those inland.
8




Off-farm employment is limited and largely confined to fishing, shipbuilding
-rfficking (speculating or huckstering) and road building. Retail trade provides some employment, as does clerical work in Government offices and notel and restaurant work. Such off-farm employment is limited but important
5 it is a source of employment providing very limited opportunities for arriacou's workforce, especially for school leavers.
!.8 INSTITUTIONAL:
Carriacou has a remarkably widespread road network, though it is not always in good repairs. Only two stretches are not drivable (see above). There are numerous small tracks and foctpaths leading to homesteads, many of those roughly paved. Several privately owned transport vehicles ply 'for hire on regular routes throughout the island.
Hillsbornugh has a central market and a branch of the Marketing and National Import Board (MNIB). Most of the perishable food items fruits and vegetables available in Carriacou are brought in by boat on Wednesdays and on Sundays by the MNIB. The MNIB also brings in ground provisions (dasheen, tannia, eddoe and sweet potato) and rice.
There are two commercial banks (Barclays and National Commercial) in Hillsborough and a Post Office which has a number of postal agencies in the
-illages.
Supplies of some farm inputs such as hand tools, wire, staples and
building materials are available. Recently vegetable seeds have been stocked:
formerly they were available only from Grenada.
Domestic water is rainwater collected from roofs or small catchment areas in private or public tanks. There are a few ponds for watering animals. In times of severe drought, water is imported from Grenada by boat.
9




2. FARMING SYSTEMS
The Farm Frr-duction Systems of Carriacou comprise a subset of at cast two of the following systems:
- corn/pigeon peas
- ruminant livestock/paEture
- pigs and poultry
- Musa spp
- tree crops
- mixed vegetables
- coconuts
The first three production systems are widespread among small farmers. Only in Hillsborough would the pig and poultry system be absent. The
"typical" small farm system would consist of one or more corn/pigeon pea gardens (possibly interplanted with one or more other crops), plus some
ruminant livestock, plus at least one pig and several heads of poultry. The small farm system might also include a small Musa garden, and/or a few tree crops.
About six farmers only grow vegetables for sale on the local market, usually as a subsidiary production system to the others. The total area of vegetables in Carriacou probably does not exceed 2 ha. A few farmers may have a very small kitchen garden producing seasonally a few vegetables.
These seven production systems will be described and discussed one by one.
2.1 THE CORN/PIGEON PEA SYSTEM:
This is practised by virtually every household in Carriacou to produce
food for home consumption. Only accasionally is any produce sold. The supply of grain usually may last for a year or two and there are normally no purchased inputs used: the farm family provides labour and the seed. On flatter lands a tractor may be hired to plough, at a supsidiced rate of $30 per hour.
10




The parcels cultivated under this system usually referred to as
gardens" vary in size from less than O.Olha to about 1.0 ha. Many households have several gardens at various distances from the homestead, often with different tenurial arrangements. The gardens may be fenced or unfenced. Fencing minimises damage by livestock and enables the farmers to pen his own animals in the garden to graze crop residues during the dry
season "leggo" season)
Historically, the corn and pigeon peas were interplanted in cotton when the latter was a cash crop and the former were subsistence (food) crops. With the demise of cotton, the system has become one in which corn and pigeon peas are the major and consistent components: there may or may not be other components. The commonest of these other components are sweet potato and cassava, but also observed were bonavist beans (Lab-lab niger), lima beans, peanuts, Vigna app and cucurbits and okras. These subsidiary intercrops are often planted sporadically over the garden, often at low densities (i.e. wide spacings). Some may be volunteers from the previous year. Carriacou farmers are unwilling to remove any useful plant.
Examples of the planting patterns observed and measured are given in Figure 2. Append:ix IV Tables I, and II summarise the data and observations made. Corn and pigeon peas may be planted in the same hole (or hill), as in Fig. 2A, or in separate holes or hills, as in Fig. 2B. (Por clarity, the separate holes or hillL of pigeon peas has been referred to as a "clump"). A variant on this latter is to locate the clumps a short distance to the side of the corn hill (Fig. 2C), rather than midway between the rows of corn hills. Another variant is to have pigeon peas both in the corn hills and in clumps, as in Figs. 2D and F, though both these examples include additional intercrops. Fig. 2E shows separate corn hills and pigeon pea clumps with apparently randomly planted sweet potatoes. Fig. 2F shows a system with cassava and sweet potatoes and with an unusually large number of pigeon pea clumps, somewhat haphazardly arranged. The patterns in Fig. 2 are all to scale, and the numbers of corn, pigeon pea plants and other intercrops shown are based on actual counts.
11




Fig. 2 cont*wed ads
x
,c g AP
w Ge k- p a tote




Figa. 2 P~anting patterns of corn and pigeon peas in the corn/pigeon pea system.
See text for descriptions.
'Al
SOA z or
A.x




Based on 25 sets of measurements and counts, the planting patterns can be summarised as follows:
- Mean area per hill 1.86 m2 (+ 0.627), with a range from 1.00 m2
2
to 3.23 m 2
- Mean plant population of corn 294 per 100 m2 (+ 113.0), with a
range from 122 to 600 (per 100 m 2). Note that 100 m2 is 1/100 ha,
so the plant population per ha can easily be derived.
- Mean plant population of pigeon peas 272 per 100 m2 (+ 168.1), with
a range from 91 to 840. Sixteen gardens had pigeon peas in the
corn hill, with a mean plant population of 122 ( 56.0) and range of 66 to 240. Nineteen gardens hd. pigeon peas in clumps, with a
mean plant population of 254 (+ 167.5) and range 102 to 773.
- Mean number of corn plants per hill 4.9 + 1.12, with a range from
3.1 to 7.3.
- Mean number of pigeon pea plants per hill 2.1 + 0.94 with a range
from 0.8 to 3.9, and in clumps 4.0 + 1.79 with a range from 2.0
to 9.3.
Only one corn/pigeon pea-crop is taken per year, the crop lasting from June (or July, depending on the start of the rains) until February or March when the last of the pigeon peas will have been reaped. The crop residues are then grazed, either by animals penned in the garden if it is fenced, or by any animals under the leggo system if it is not fenced. The same land is put into corn and pigeon peas the next year and so on. Pasture lands may be put into corn/pigeon peas, usually by a process of minimal tillage. Only one example of slash-and-burn cultivation was seen: a small area of secondary woodland had been cut for charcoal, the brush heaped and burnt and planting done among the ashes and stumps using a heavy hoe. Very few examples of ratoon pigeon peas were seen. One garden of about 0.5 ha and well-fenced had a very weedy ratoon crop of pigeon peas. Our impression was that it had
14




been abandoned One farmer had a small area of cut-back and ratooned pigeon peas, interplanted with corn and volunteer sweet potatoes. Land which has carried several annual crops of corn and pigeon peas occasionally is allowed to tumble down to pastures.* either by design.or because the family can no longer work such a large area. Few farmers plant-pastures.
The sequence of operations and approximate timing is given below:
Land clearing this is done in April. or May. rop residues,
especially pigeon pea.,roots and stumps from therrevious year are
pulled or cut, heaped and burnt.
Land preparation the clear lands are either ploughed by-tractor
.(hired from MOA at $30 per hour) or prepared by heavy hoe- or by forking.- Ploughing is possibly only on-latter:lands with good
access. Steeper lands, and less accessible lands are prepared by hoeing or-forking, Thks contributes to considerablyrsoil erosion,
both by wind and by the first heavy rains. Land preparation is normally done in May and June. Older farmers -may start earlier.
No other land preparation is done other than the operations mentioned
above. Of the 25 gardens observed,. 11 used tractor ploughing, one of these also forking the steeper, unploughable areas;ei gb used solely k* forking, five for hoeing and one s a combination of
these two.
Planting is done in June with the first rains.. Early planting is
favoured, as it is thought to reduce armyworm damage. Several seeds of corn alone, or corn and pigeon peas are dropped in holes made by
a hoe. If pigeon peas are to be planted in clumps, this is done
later, as soon as the corn (or corn and pigeon pea) hiills have emerged
to indicate the rows. One farmer stated that she planted corn and pigeon peas separately if she had time, but together if she was in
a hurry. Seeds are covered after planting. Seed is.always from
th6 previous year's crop. Supplying is usually done later after the first weeding: this results in considerable variations in height and
growth stage .amag.hills, and a consequent spread iniharvest.
15




Weeding this is normally done in July or August, depending on
planting time and weed growth. The first weeding is done late, when
weeds are 30-40 cm high. The corn and pigeon peas are often chlorotic
at the time of weeding. The practice of using relatively widely
spaced hills may be related to the practice of late weeding: hills
are more easily seen amidst the weeds than aingle..plants'add
weeding is easier as there is more room to manoeuvre. A hoe is invariably used for the first weeding, which is combined with a
-moulding-up. At the first weeding, weeds are usually heaped among the hills, but may be carried off to feed to animals. Weeds within the hills, or close to the hills are removed by hand. Some loss of corn plants, but more: especially of pigeon peas occurs during this
first weeding. All detailed observations reported herein were made on crops weeded and usually also moulded up, partly at least because
late planted crops were uncommon. Most gardens had a very low level of weed cover: 75% of gardens visited had 5% or less weed cover. A
tentative weed list is given in Appendix 3.
- Supplying this follows weeding. Other intercrops may be planted
at this time especially cassava and sweet potatoes. If pigeon pea
numbers in the hills are low, clumps may be planted between the rows
at this time.
Moulding-up and a second weeding this is done in August or
early September, by hoe. Only one instance of a machete being used
for this second weeding was noted. Weeds are usually small and
sparse, as this operation is done only three or four weeks after
the first weeding. Soil is pulled up around the corn or corn/
pigeon pea hills. Moulds varied in height some were very marked and 15-20 cm high, others usually where there were intercrops were
much lower. Pigeon pea clumps were hardly moulded.
16




Thinning this is done with the second weeding and moulding-up
usually. Although most farmers indicated that they thinned their corn at least, there was evidence from some gardens that this was either not done, or done very inconsistently. Standard errors of
the mean number of corn plants per hill were sometimes large
relative to means. One garden had a mean of 7.0 + 0.00, indicating very careful thinning whilst another with a mean of 7.2 + 2.10 had
a range (among 10 hills) from 3 to 10. In a few recently weeded
gardens direct evidence of thinning could be seen.
Some farmers feed the corn thinnings to their livestock particularly pigs, but this is far from common practice. Pigeon peas may or may not bc thinned but it is likely that someIself-thinning" occurs in the denser hilzs and clumps.
- Insect Control All but one garden showed armyworm (Spodoptra opp,)
damage on the corn. In four instances this was regarded as economic The percentage of plants damaged was in a few cases up to 90% eleven
(of *,e 25) gardens had 50% or more plants showing damage. A few
farmers use Sevin as a means of control usually at an excessive rat.o
The method of application was from a squeeze bottle an old washing-up
detergent bottle. The other control method was to sprinkle some soil in the corn whorl, but many farmers attempted no control at
all. The MOA had recently brought in a mist-blower, knapsack sprayer
and an insecticide and intended to carry out some control.
- Reaping of Corn This begins in September continuing into October.
Green corn will be taken as soon as ready for boiling or roasting, but most of the crop will be reaped dry. If the area is large, so
that reaping of dry corn must be protracted, some plants will be ben'.
to: shed water from the dry cobs. Dry cobs are shelled, usually by
17




hand or with a grater and stored in 45-gallon oil drums, after a period of sun-drying. Black pepper, freshly ground may be added as an insect repellent. The drums are sealed and corn may be stored for two or more years. The stover may be pushed down to the ground or cut and fed to animals. A few farmers may cut the tops of the plants while still green. for feeding. After reaping the corn there is usually no weeding done nor any other operation.
- Weeding of Pigeon Peas This is sometimes done using a machete,
after the corn has been reaped, and the corn plants cut or pushed
down or removed.
- Reaping of Pigeon Peas This is done over a period of time from
December to February and most are reaped dry. Storage is either in pods, in bags or shelled in drums, with black pepper with or
without addition of ground cinnamon and cloves. The dry peas examined
were all in good condition with a minimum of insect damage.
- Grazing By the time reaping of pigeon peas has finished, the dry
season has long since started. Corn/pigeon peas gardens are grazed
either by the farmers own animals, if fenced or by any animals if not, during the I"leggo" season. Only occasionally is grazing not
done, and the pigeon peas kept over to the next season, or cut back
for ratooning. One farm had corn and sweet potatoes planted in cutback and ratooned pigeon peas.
18




me Points to Note are:
No use of fertilizer : apart from its local unavailability unless brought in from Grenada, farmers maintain that the soil is fertile
and needs no fertilizer. The only chlorotic looking crops seen were
those very recently weeded, or not yet weeded where corn and
weeds were about 40-50 cm tall..
For most farmers there is no cash outlay involved. Very few
farmers hire any labour, and the only purchased input used is by
just a few farmers who use Sevin insecticide for armywdrm control.
Most farmers had no other crops other than those grown as part of their corn/pigeon peas system (i.e. other intercrops), apart
from a few fruit trees.
Labour requirements are distinctly peaked : land preparation,
weeding and moulding-up and reaping would all require many man days.
Since there are no other production systems requiring at these
times, a substantial input of labour there would appear not to be competition for labour between systems. But labour resources
may well limit the area that can be prepared, planted and cared for.
There would appear to be considerable "intra-hill" competition
among corn plants, but our visit was too early to enable any
examination of this. Some corn plants in the denser hill did
appear to have small ears.
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2.2 THE RUMINANT LIVESTOCK/PASTURE SYSTEM:
Estimates of li-estock numbers in Carriacou and Petit Martinique, based on the 1982 sample survey (Ministry of Planning, 1984) give the following numbers:
Cattle 760 Goats 1090 Sheep 2945
However, unless the livestock population has declined dramatically,
these figures do not tally with records of sales made in 1977-78, when nearly 3000 sheep and about 2000 goats were shipped to Trinidad alone. Ruminants constitute the major income source for Carriacou farmers. Animals are shipped live to Trinidad and Grenada and fresh beef and sheep or goat mutton are not easily obtained in Carriacou.
The livestock can be;,described as "creole". Many sheep and goats are rather small. There have been attempts to improve the sheep by introducing Barbados blackbelly rams, and the Ministry of Agriculture currently have a project on sheep impre-ement based at the Agricultural Stations at Dumfries and Limlair. This aims at improving the genetic potential but also has a pasture, improvement component. Craigaton Estate has a large flock (ca 500?) of black-belly sheep. There were indications that some of the cattle were of
the red-poll type.
Pastures are poor, and with few exceptions there are no attempts at
improvement even of fenced pastures. Pasture grasses include Andropogos spp. Digitaria spp., Axonopus compressus, Cynodos dactylon Chloris spp. and others. Pasture legumes, except for a few Desmodium spp. are almost entirely absent. Gliricidia depium and wild Leucaena leucocephala and other woody legume species are found in hedgerows and thickets and are browsed. However many pastures, especially unfenced "common" lands at some distance from homesteads abound in Acacia spp, Opuntia spp. and other scrubby plants. On the steeper
20




slopeC these weeds may perform the valuable function of conserving soil. Cn some lowland pastures, la.ge areas had been invaded by Dativa stramonium (thornapple), a highly toxic plant.
Maany pastures are unfenced and are in effect communal : these may be
Crown lands that zt one time were managed as communal pastures, private lands that are unused and old estate lands that have been abandoned. Farmer gardens on the steeper hillsides are in many instances used as pastures. But for grazing pressure they would probably have reverted to secondary woodland.
Alzo vsed for grazing during the dry season are most of the corn/pigeon pea gardens: the exceptions are those fenced gardens where the farmer wishes to
ratoon or ca7rry over his pigeon peas.
Fenced pastures appear little better than the unfenced pastures: there is no attempt at weed control or control of grazing. The only instances o' mprovzd ;~zstrcz observed were at Dumfries and Limlair Agricultural Stations: these were areas of elephant and guinea grass. A nursery area for Leucaena was being established at Dumfries, under the auspices of the National Science and Technology Council. Two farmers at least planned to plant fenced paddocks to improved grasses, one at Dover and one south of Windward.
Pastuze resources the-n are poor. Overgrazing discourages or eliminates the more productive species and leads to soil erosion and the invasion of weeds and 1-la i*y instacos of soil slippage were seen on sloping lands.
The typical .nagemcnt of ruminants is as follows. From June ti:rough February they are normally tethered on communal grazing lands, old gardens, roadsidcz or on private pastures. Even in fences pastures sheep and goats were often tethered, presumably for ease of control. Water is carried to the animals once a day unless they are to be taken home at night. Some animals are not taken at night but -are moved daily to a new area.




From February or March, many animals are "let go" : this is the "leggo" season. The start of the leggo season varies from place to place in the island, and depends on the amount of forage available, and on the far-mers' forage resources. Farmers with fenced pastures may not let their animals go er may delay this until their forage resources make it necessary. A few farmers use cut-and-carry to feed their animals duringg the beginning of the "leggo" season, but with depletion of forage resources they usually have to eventually let them go. Animals wander far and wide in search of forage. Cattle and sheep may return home at night, especially if they are watered at a particular time. But many farmers would not see their animals, especially goats for many months.
Inevitably the animals lose condition : the quantity and quality of the forage available progressi.ely declines. Animals are re-possessed at the start of the rainy season. This is crucial to the corn/pigeon pea system and in many locations means that only a short time is available for land preparation. Animals are sold live year round, but there is a peak in sales towards the end of the dry season, possibly due to a need for cash at this time.
Cattle are seldom milked, farmers preferring to allow the calf to
suckle. Milk yields would be low, but there is some scope for household use of fresh milk. The supply would be seasonal, and presumably negligible during much of the leggo season.
There is a wild goat problem: these live on the uppe slopes of the hills and prevent any reafforestation. One suggestion was the planting of mauby as this is not debarked or browsed by goats, and spreads by root suckers. These wild goats are sometimes caught by driving them into nets. Some farmers lay claim to these goats, so proposals to eradicate them have not been followed up. There are also a few wild .ogs that periodically prey on sheep.
22




Water resources for animals are limited. At one time there were a
number of ponds which were fenced and had a pump to raise water into drinking troughs. These ponds are now unfenced, and animals must go down into the pond to drink resulting in occasional losses. There is a need for more ponds and better watering facilities.
Veterinary care is minimal. Carriacou does not have a resident
veterinary officer but there are two animal health officers. A deworming programme was started using the broad-spectrum dewormer Panacur. This was available at EC$1.00 per dose, but farmers have not continued to practiceregular deworming. There is thought to be a high incidence of coccidiosis, but this needs to be investigated.
There was at one time a fencing subsidy, and many gardens and pastures are fenced. There has been little recent fencing done, but a few farmers are embarking on a programme of pasture improvement, and hav te,,Led their paddocks.
Points to Note Include:
- This system entails little cash expenditure. Occasionally ropes for
tethering and buckets for providing water must be purchased.
- Labour requirements are low: the seasonal pattern depends on how
the animals are handled during the leggo season. During the rainy
season ar hour or two may be spent moving animals and watering them.
- There is no conservation of forage except the saving of pigeon peas
for browse, nor is there much "cut and carry"
- With few exceptions there are no attempts to improve pastures
by weed control, planting, fertilisirzg or regulation of stocking rates and resting of pasture.:: The island is overstocked with its
present forage resources,
23




2.3 T41E PIGS AND POULTRY SYSTEM:
Piks are of "creole" unimproved stock, but based on the saddleback
breed. Pig-keeping is a backyard activity, with the pigs kept in small sties, tethered under a tree or on rough pasture, or penned in a corner of a field. Only occasionally were free ranging pigs observed.
There is no serious breeding, but some farmers do produce weaners for sale to others : many farmers keep only one or two pigs at a time to fatten.
Pigs are fed largely on kitchen scraps and farm wastes. Browsing
pigs would pick up fallen fruits, and would dig for insect grubs, roots etc. There is little supplemental feeding, but cracked grains and peas are fed, and many farmers occasionally purchase a little coconut meal imported from Grenada to feed to their pigs. Pigs are not dewormed, and many appear to carry a heavy worm burden.
Pig meat is the only meat consistently available as fresh meat in the local market, so some farmers do earn some income from their pigs. The quality of meat is predictably poor : thick back fat and tough lean meat. Farmers killing for the household normally "corn" (i.e. pickle) some of the meat, and may sundry some for storage.
Poultry are invariably "creole" fowl,kept on a free-range system and roosting wherever they can. Few eggs are collected and many are doubtless lost to rats. Fdw1S are killed for eating from time to time, but chicks are regularly being hatched :- by broody hens to maintain the flock. As with the pigs, the poultry forage for weed seeds and insects and are fed 'kitchen scraps, cracked grains and farm wastes. There is virtually no trade in local eggs and poultry meat : these items are imported regularly.




2.4 THE MUSA SPP SYSTEM
Small gardens of bananas, plantains and bluggoe are to be found on
many holdings, usually within the yard, or fenced in. Bluggoe is the most widely grown Musa spp. Because of its susceptibility to Moko Disease, an attempt is being made to eradicate bluggoe and other Musa spp that are affected by the disease. This proposal has met with some resistance, based largely on the matter of compensation and was not being actively implemented
at the time of the survey.
The Musa gardens are not fertilized, nor do they receive other inputs. Many apparently receive little at'Lention. Bluggoe, plantain and bananas arc important in household diets and are also a minor source of income to some farmers.
2.5 THE TREE CROP SYSTEM:
Lime trees are a relic of the former lime industry scattered and
neglected trees are found in ruinate pasture, and, less commonly overgrown with scrub, especially on the former lime estates of Craigston, Dumfries and Sabazan. Other tree crops include various Annona spp. (soursop, sweetsop or sugar apple and custard apple), tamarind, breadfruit and occasionally mangoes, oranges and grapefruit, Avocadoes are almost totally absent.
Many of these trees are found in yards, in pastures or along pasture fencelines. There is little or no trade in these fruits- but some tamarind is exported to Trinidad and they are used mainly in the home. Tree crops receive no real care. One farmer visited had a grape trellis, producing for the local market.
25




2.6 THE MIXED VEGETABLE SYSTEM:
About six farmers only grow vegetables for sale. One area of about 1.0 ha contained hot and sweet peppers, tomato, bodi bean, okra, carrots, lettuce, cabbage, cauliflower, watermelon, suap (pole) beans and beet. Also grown in this area were corn and pigeon peas, bananas, sorrel, peanuts, sweet potato, citrus, tumeric and some herbs. This garden was run by a
group of Rastafarians who aimed to be largely self-sufficient in food, but made an income from sales of some of these vegetables.
Other vegetable growers had a much more limited range of vegetables nd operated smaller areas.
Vegetables generally receive inputs of fertilizer and/or manure and pesticides. Production is highly seasonal : none of these farmers had irrigation and water is a major constraint. The income derived from vegetable is probably mall. Other farmers may grow a very small quantity of one or
two vegetables in the yard.
The Mnistry of Agriculture currently has a programme to increase home
production of vegetables, recognising that these would improve family nutrition, and reduce the nced for imports into Carriacou from Grenada.
2.7 TEE COCONUT SYSTEM
Small grnves are found, mainly on sandy soils above the beaches, along the road from the vtrrort to Hillsborough, and in L'Esterre where corn and pigeon peas are grc"n on sandy soils under coconuts. Elsewhere, only scattered coconut palms are to be found. The palms are old (probably at least 45years old) and the groves were severely thinned by Hurricane Janet in 1955. They are now neglected with an understory of sea-grape, mangrove or scrub. No fertilizer is used and there is little concerted effort to reap fallen nuts. Attempts at replanting have been consistently thwarted by grazing animals during the "leggo" season, when most ruminants are released to browse all over the place.
26




3. SOCIOECONOMIC SYSTEM
A schematic representation of the socioeconomic determinants of
a typical Carriacouan farm household is presented in Figure 3. There are two major categories of socioeconomic determinants: endogenous determinants and exogenous determinants. The former involves the farm household, the factors of production that it controls' and allocates, and its decision making processes as it relates to production and consumption; the latter involves the social milieu in which the farming household, operates i.e. the realm of community structures, norms and beliefs, all of which influence farm decisions.
3.1 ENDOGENOUS DETERMINANTS:
Farm Househb(-.d This is the focus of all decision making. Furthermore, because the Carriacouan farm family tends to be subsistence oriented, the unit of production is also the unit of consumption : Surpluf .food is fed to the livestock or given away to friends and relatives. Food(rice, macaroni, salt, sugarmilk, canned fish and meats, cooking oil) which is not produced within the farm itself is purchased with money from off-farm employment (when available) and more so from remittances and from savings.
Every single family in Carriacou owns livestock and cultivates if nOthikag else, at least, corn and pigeon peas. Presumablyvery single family also has relatives living abroad. These relatives send remittances regularly. As such remittances become an integral part of the households' income and expenditure.
27




FIG. 3. SCHEMATIC REPRESENTATION OF THE SOCIO-ECONOMIC DETERMINANTS OF A
TYPICAL CARRIACOUAN FARM FAMILY
Exogenous Ecogenous purchased food
I Integrated
camunitie s -- Input Corunsmption .r OW.-fann employmnt
Fann Household a f-rmeln t
Strong family ties --- --. Incane 7
Moonshine
tradtion an Market -2 Decision IMakers Saig Remittance
beliefs (-limited)
Food exchange
Payment of labour
in kind
OE:xternakl
Institutions Land Capital Labour Managnent
Crops Livestock
L Crop/livestock interaction crop residue: feed
pen manure: fertilizer




Although the farm household's production system is substantial enough
to provide for a faLrly well belanced meal,at least during the rainy season,. :.e money received as remittances helps to diversify the diet by providing
for the purchase of energy foods. It is also the general opinion of farm useholds that food purchases increase during the dry season the younger generationn do not quite like food prepared from dry corn- at which time the xzportance of remittances becomes even more significant.
Apart from remittances, another source of income, not generated by the
farming system itself is savings. Many of the older Carriacouans have returned home after having lived and worked in such places as Aruba and the United Kingdom. Whilst working abroad they sent home money to build houses and to save. Also some of them who worked in the public and private
sector in the United Kingdom now receive a pension.
Farm Production The typical farm household in Carriacou allocates
two factors of production (land and labour) to three processes (crop, livestock and off-farm enterprises). Although capital is ordinarily an important factor of production, the level of capital input (i.e. only in terms of cash outlay) is so minimal as to be negligible. The only capital expense that was recorded in nearly all instances was that used for the purchase of farm implements (fork, hoe, cutlass, spade) and in some instances for the hire of tractor services (at $30 an hour) for land preparation. In the extremely small
number of instances where the farm household recorded a cash outlay the expenses incurred were that of seed material (primarily for vegetables) and hired labour which is paid both in cash and in food refreshments.
The farm family is the decision making unit linking the unit of production Abd theunit of consumption. All decisions pertaining to level of production
depend on a combination of the following:
29




a. size of family and therefore amount of food, particularly corn
and pigeon peas, needed for consumption;
b. amount of corn and pigeon peas left over from the previous harvest;
c. the surplus food needed in the event of a feast and for gifts to
neighbours and relatives;
d. the availability of planting material;
e. the availability of family labour;
f. the time of the first rains.
g. the se-.erity of the dry season.
Discussions with farm households reveal that land is not a limiting
factor. Although much of the land tends to be held in family ownership, land disputes are extremely -rare because many of the members of the family which has ownership rights to the land are abroad or too old to work the land. Furthermore, since the predominant cropping system is one of short term crops, land is always available for any family member who decides to farm. In any event there is such a strong emphasis on food exchange that a family member has rights to the produce of the land even if he/she did not help in the cultivation of the crop. Very often dried pigeon peas, corn meal and
corned-pork are also sent to relatives who live abroad. It is therefore very typical for a Carriacouan. family to produce a surplus for storage. There are many families who have corn which was harvested two years ago. Corn more than two years old is used as feed for the yard fowls.
If the farm family decides that the corn and pigeon peas in storage
far exceeds the anticipated demand, it cuts back on production for that year. In this way the farm family is able to manipulate its corn and pigeon peasupplies according to the family consumption demands. This process does not
however apply to other crops i) which are perishable and cannot therefore be stored and ii) whose production primarily depends on the availability of Planting material.
30




Livestock production is geared first for the market and then for family consumption. Sheep, goats and cattle are reared for sale while poultry and swine are reared for the farm family's meat protein. Only on very rare occasions are the ruminants slaughtered for home consumption and that too usually in August when family members living abroad return for the yearly Regatta. Most families prefer to purchase imported frozen chicken parts, usually the wings and if a pig is slaughtered much of the meat is salted and dried for storage and for sending away to relatives and friends living outside Carriacou.
Since the livestock is regarded as an income earning component of the
farming systems. The farm family is willing to spend money on its maintenance. During the wet season when the animals are tethered in pastures usually quite away from the homestead*' water is carried to them. Their grazing spots are also changed daily and money is sometimes spent on purchasing vetir-rary medicines.
The size of the herd depends on:
i) the availability of family labour;
ii) the amount of money needed for expenses;
iii) the demand for family consumption.
Most Carriacouans regard livestock as a source of saving; the interest
on the savings is computed on the number of surviving newborns and the increase in the size of the herd.
Off Farm Employment Agricultural production is seasonal. This coupled with the very unpredictable rains makes off-farm employment.very desirous. Unfortunately employment opportunities in Carriacou are extremely limited. Public sector employment in an island the size of Carriacou is understandably restricted. Whatever employment is available is mostly self generated. The number of small grocery rum liquor stores scattered throughout the island is quite remarkable. These stores usually provide credit facilities.
*/The animals have to be kept away from all cultivated land.
31




3.2 EXOGENOUS DETEMINANTS
Comnunit Structure.
Community Structure: Due to the smallness in size of the community, social integration is very marked.
This is reflected in:
1) labour exchange
2) food exchange
payment in kind, usually by way of food and liquor.
Some farmers claimed that such cohesiveness sometimes worked to their detriment, i.e. they were expected to give away the food free than to sell it. On the other hand, because the community is well integrated, it also functions as a sanctioning institution. Nearly every family in Carriacou plants corn and pigeon peas (even if there is sufficient corn and peas stored away)not only because it needs the food but because it does not want to be shamed and accused of being-lazy. i.e. "where were you when the rains came?"
Familial relationships -- The cohesiveness that is observed at the
communal level is reflected at the family level too. Most households are extended families and span at least three generations. Very close ties are also maintained with those relatives who live abroad.
Most farming activities are carried out by the farm family.
Moonshine Traditions Most farm households possess a McDonald
Almanac. They claim that they plant according to the phases of the moon but because the rains are so very unpredictable in Carriacou most people tend to overlook the moon phase for planting. It is very important at
time of harvest.
32




Other agriculturally related beliefs include those to ward-:off the:.evil spirit, "to stop people talking about the good corn and pigeon peas in the field.' It is generally believed that piercing 3 limes in a stick, inverting a bottle over it and placing the 'charm' in the field will ward away the spirits as will planting aloes amongst the crops.
Animal sacrifices are common and form an integral part of the rituals involved in launching a boat. Related rituals are the 'Big Drum' which is of 'Ibo' tradition and which is performed 3t major feasts.
In the days when agriculture was an important activity in Carriacou,
the 'Crop Over' was a feast celebrated in October to m~rk the first harvests of the corn.
Finally, the Mount Royal and Mount D'or areas are usually identified as areas where 'Shango' (Spirit worship)) is still practised.
External Institutions There are two banks in Carriacou (Barclays and
the National Commercial Bank). The Marketing and National Import Board brings in perishable produce twice a week for sale. There is also a limited amount of sale in the central market in Hillsborough.
While on the subject of marketing, mention must be made of the traditional way in which prices are set and of the general attitudes to price setting. Prices are not set according to the laws of supply and demand. Instead the farmer wants a price just less than the retail price at which the commodity is being retailed. Very often the farmer is not willing to reduce the price; he/she would rather give away the produce than to sell it at a price which he/she does not think is fair. Farmers also tend to want to set prices according to the amount of money they need in order to make-6ther purchases.
The above is a description of the socioeconomic subsystem of the farm
system. It refers to the farm family and its decision making processes. The socioeconomic subsystem and the agro-ecosystems interact to form a farm system which will be described in the following chapter.
33




4. INTEGRATED FARMING SYSTEM
The typical Carriacou Farming System is one with two distinct
components: a cropping system which is maintained primarily for the consumption of the farm household, and a livestock system which is maintained primarily for sale. The livestock system is further subdivided into two categories; poultry and swine which are reared for home consumption and for sale within Carriacou, and ruminants which are reared for export to Grenada and, more so, to Trinidad. The interaction between the crop and livestock system is by way of i) utilization of crop residue (corn plants. sweet potato, vines, corn)as livestock feed, and ii)utilization of pen manure as organic manure.
Figure 4 summarises some of the interactions for a typical Carriacouan Farm, with the following component systems:
- corn/pigeon pea system in one or more gardens, one of which may
be adjacent to and around the homestead,
- ruminant livestock/pasture system, with sheep, goats and cattle, pigs and poultry system, with the pigs tethered or in pens close
to homestead
Musa spp. with one or more other fruit trees.
- labour (1)invariably provided by the household (or by a close
relative for the heavier activities, such as land clearing and
preparation),
- Inputs (I) provided from within the farm at no cash cost include
seeds, planting material (e.g. of cassava and sweet potato),
-. Cash ($) flows both in and out. inward cash flows come from sales or
remittances, outward cash flows are for rent, purchases of food
and tools, etc. or purchase of inputs.
- Food (F)flows into thehousehold for family consumption and
to family members living abroad,
- waste or by-product (W) are used for feed and include corn stalks,
weeds, pigeon pea browse, spoilt or unused fruit.
34




FIG 4: The interactions and flows for a typical
- farm production system
I'
S $
r- L- Ruminant
SCorn! I FARM W livestock
F- i Corn/ P ARM4 W-4 lvetc
p" HOUSEHOLDit
Pigeon pea- L
(one orImore Y (fenced or
"gardens") M unfenced
( o pastures,
fallows etc.
-M communal
P 4 grazing
Pig W Fowl especially
during
"leggo")
M W M W
Musa app. and/or tree crops
F = food, L = labour I = farm input, W .= Waste or by-products
M = manure. A dashed (-) line indicates that the flow may or
may not occur.
35




The farm family is the unit of consumption anid the unit of production. Furthermore the cost of production tends toward zero because:
- given the limited employment opportunities available, the
opportunity cost for farm labour is zero;
- if farm labour is not utilized in the farm itself it will remain
un or under-utilizedlt
-all planting material is generated from within the farm itself;
-the livestock feed is of minimal cost because the animals are
either fed crop residue or left-to graze on unimproved pastures
-the use of chemical inputs is negligible, and
-the cost of land is relatively small.
Farm income is generated primarily from the sale of livestock. The
farm family is also heavily dependent on remittances. Every Car'riacou family has at least one of its members living abroad and it is the tradition, "to
.help out the family back home". Whenever available, employment in a
non-farm enterprise is also an important source of income.
The income that is generated by the farm family is very seldom used for the development of the farming system itself. Instead it is used to:.
- supplement the farm family's food requirements (i.e. purchase
of flour, sugar, rice, milk, salt meat and fish protein)
- purchase items of conspicuous consumption.
Figure 5 summarizes an integrated farming system in Carriacou.
36




FIG. 5 SUMMARY OF A TYPICAL CARRIACOUAN FARMING SYSTEM
food, nputs
W. F $ Mre
On- -0farm employ- Income
Iment $ RZEmitance Farm produce
Land Capital
amps Livestock
fowls
pigerx peas swine
i seet potatoes shee
groundnuts goats
vegetables C
I. ~ ~ ~ W ----




5. CONSTRAINTS TO INCREASED PRODUCTION
The following are the major constraints in the fwuming systems of Carriacou:
5.1. GENERAL AND INSTITUTIONAL
- Unavailability of inputs, especially pesticides and
fertilizers. With the exception of Sevin, no agricultural pesticides are available in Carriacou. Fertilizer must be
purchased in, and shipped from, Grenada.
- Lack of any local processing facility for using fruits,
packaging corn meal, peas, etc..
- Soil erosion, both gully and sheet erosion by water and
wind. This follows in part from past destruction of
woodland, cultivation of sloping lands, overstocking and
tradition of "'leggo" season.
- Lack of water conservation measures -such as dams and
ponds so that crop production is highly seasonal and livestock have difficulty finding water during the dry
season,
- The "'leggo"~ system, which results in overgrazing, pasture
degeneration and soil erosion.
- Reliance on hand labour for most 04tural practices
including land preparation except on flatter accessible lands
where the subsidised Ministry tractor service can be used.
- Lack of planting material, especially of sweet potatoes,
vegetables and legumes (other than pigeon peas).
38




Lack of market channels for the export of produce, other than
live animals.
- Lack of fencing which is basic to improvement of pastures and
of *livestock management.
5.2 CORN/PIGEON PEA SYSTEM
- No fertilizer use on lands that are normally cropped year
after year. Farmers claim that the soil is fertile and
the system does include a legume. The local corn grown may
be adapted to the present tradition of no fertilizer, but there are no records of any Investigations of fertilizer
response.
- Spacing and the plant arrangement are traditional, but
higher yields of corn might be obtained with a more uniform
spacing and pigeon peas might yield better if they did not
suffer early competition from corn.
- Pests, and the absence of early and effective control
measures. Army worm appears to be the major pest problem,
but there are no data on the losses suffered.
- An abundance of weed species, and the tradition of delayed
control (i.e. of the first weeding).
5. 3. RUMINAN~T LIVESTOGK/PASTURE SYSTEM
- Wild dogs, which prey on sheep.
- Poor genetic potential of many animals:-~ but note that an
Improvement programmne for sheep is in progress.* The wild
goats militate against any programme of goat Improvement.
39




Poor quality pastures resulting in poor live weight gains,
and extremes in forage production over the year.
Lack of any forage conservation, either as hay or silage,
or as protein/energy banks. Note that some Leucaena seedlings
are currently being raised for planting out in protein/energy
banks.
Internal parasite burdens, especially during the rainy season,
resulting in mortality among young animals and unthriftiness
and poor live weight gains.
5.4. PIGS AND POULTRY SYSTEM
Poor genetic potential, resulting in poor gains, poor carcase
quality, and low egg production.
- Poor nutrition, contributing to poor growth rates,etc..
- High incidence of internal helminth parasiste.
5.5. MUSA SPPo SYSTEM
- Moko disease which is present in the island and could become
widespread. Destruction of bluggoe plants and later of the
other Musa app. followed by a quarantine period is necessary.
Note that some such programme is currently under consideration.
Lack of input use, especially fertilizer and pesticides and
generally poor crop care.
40




5.6 nT1EE CROP SYSTEM
Lack of input use and of any crop care. Annona spp.- appear
well adapted and could be used as erosion barriers. Any
increase in production would require effective marketing
or processing channels.
5.7 MIXED VEGETABLE SYSTEM
Unavail
- Unavailability of inputs, including seeds. The Ministry
of Agriculture does have a programme to increase
vegetable production, so the availability-of seeds at least
should improve.
Lack of water to extend production into the dry season.
5.8. COCONUT SYSTEM
-* Inability to replant due to lack of fencing and the "leggo"
season. Until replanting is done, no effective
coconut system can develop.
41




6. PROPOSED INTERVENTIONS
This Chapter lists a number of interventions or activities that arise directly from the constraints listed in Chapter 5. Not all the constraints are addressed in detail: many are beyond the scope of CARDI's Farming Systems Research and Development (FSR/D) Project. These require action at Governmental level or as discrete projects (e.g. reafforestation, fencing of forest reserves, etc..) or require entrepreneurial action (e.g. marketing, processing, importation of inputs,$ etc.). Others require communal effort from a group of farmers (e.g. watershed protection and damming of water) which may be within the scope of the FSR/D Project, though the Ministry of Agriculture has plans for a watershed project at some time in the future.
There are other constraints that are amenable to simple intervention, but where the present system appears to suit the socio-economic environment and the needs of the farm family. For example, the pig and poultry system could be improved by penning the poultry, importing superior breeds (of both pigs and poultry), and improving the nutrition. This does not appear to be justified: the present system is minimal cost and the benefits from improvement would not appear to justify the additional costs (both capital and recurrent) involved in such an intervention.
Those activities that should be given priority within CARDI's FSR/D Project are marked with an asterisk. It will be necessary to prioritise these in consultation with the Ministry of Agriculture.
42




6.1. GENERAL AND INSTITUTIONAL
- *Soil erosion: the introduction and testing of hillside
farming techniques, including the planting of grass bunds, tree crop bunds (these could be Annona spp., or Leucaena), or stone bunds. Planting corn/pigeon peas closer in the
rows, with rows along the contours and with every fourth
row or so ridged rather than moulded would help.
Water conservation: this is best done on a watershed
basis constructing ..dams- and ponds along the .watercoursesor gullies to both .slow run off (and reduce erosionL.and to
impound-ater for livestock and possibly for..rrigation.
'"eggo'u- seasonuLan_Institutional programme to phase thisa...
*out_.can-fUollow only from pasturezimprovm nt-and..Ioage conservation.
- *Hand labour: evaluation of small-scale machinery, including
wheel hoes, weed wipers and knapsack sprayers for herbicide
application and the use of herbicides in land preparation.
- Fencing: there was previously a fencing subsidy, and it
would be good if this could be reinstated. Unless some
inducement to fence can be introduced, many other interventions become.ineffective..
6.2. CORN/PIGEON PEA SYSTEM
- *Fertilizer trials with the local corn and with other (nonhybrid) varieties (i.e. a fertilizer X variety trial).
- *Spacing and plant arrangement studies to determine optimum
plant populations and spatial arrangements of both corn and
43




pigeon peas (including separate pure stand plantings).
*Pest control studies, to determine the losses incurred
from the present level of control (or no control).
*Time of weeding trials, to include herbicide use, to
demonstrate and quantify the effect of delayed weeding.
6.3 RUMINANT LIVESTOCK/PASTURE SYSTEM
Wild dog control programme.
Genetic improvement of goats; this will depend on other
proposed interventions, especially fencing and pasture
improvement. The wild goats should be rounded up but only if the 'leggov season is phased out. which is also dependent
on fencing., pasture improvement and forage conservation.
- *Genetic improvement of sheep.
*Pasture improvement by planting of grasses and legumes (and
fencing Leucaena or Gliricidia fencing could be used to
provide forage.
- *Forage conservation: demonstration of hay-making techniques
from pasture shut up for several weeks prior to the end of
the wet season, and the establishment of protein/energy banks.
*Internal parasite control: a deworming programme to
demonstrate and measure improvements in live weight gains,
and in lamb and kid crops.
44




6.4. MIUSA SPP. SYSTEM
- Moko eradication is basic and a programme should be started
as soon as possible.
6.5. TREE CROP SYSTEM
*Planting of selected Annona spp.as contour breaks on loping
land, and on steeper slopes that should not be cultivated.
Other tree crops (e.g. cashew) should also be considered.
6.6. MIXED VEGETABLE SYSTEM
*Stimulation of vegetable production, in conjunction with the ongoing Ministry programme, including demonstration of
techniques- especially mulching and fertilizing and manuring.
Ultimately, some small-scale irrigated production might be
possible, using trickle systems.
45




ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
It is a pleasure to thank most warmly the foZllowing who made our stay in Carriacou both profitable and enjoyable:
- Mr. F. CZements, Coamissioner for Carriacou and Petit
Martinique, who welcomed us and provided a valuable
orientation.
- Mr. S. Joseph, E tension Officer in-oharge and his entire
Staff, who provided us with a great deal of help and
information on several occasions.
- Ar. V. BullZen, Efntrepreneur, who proved to be a most
congeniaZ oral historian and observer of the Carriacou scene.
- Mr. B a,-ha Dunoan, Tami Driver, who, as well as hiring us a
a .car and providing ta*i services, proved a valuable guide
to Cartiacou ways.
- The moy farmers and their families who took time out to
talk to us, show us their gardens,. and cheerfully answered
our many questions; some of which may have to them
bordered on the simpistic or absurd.
46




LITERATURE CITED
Anonymous (19T2). Agriculture in Carriacou. pp. 1-7
Campbell, J. and Henry, C., (1982). Final Report on Grenada.
Agricultural Census, Ministry of Planning, August 31, 1982.
PP. 1-17
3. Ministry of Planning (19840. Results of the Grenada Agricultural
Survey. The Agricultural Planning and Analysis Unit. PP. 1-87
4. Vernon, K.C., Payne, H. and Spector, J. (1959). Soil and Land Use
Surveys, No. 9: Grenada. The Regional Research Centre of the British Caribbean at the Imperial College of Tropical
Agriculture, Trinidad. W.I.
47




APPENDIX 1
ITINERARY
SATURDAY A.M. J. Hammerton, V. Chase & M..Fa leave St. Lucia for
August 18 Carriacou, arriving 10:00 a.m.
P.M. Reconnaisance. tour of island (J. Bammerton, V. Chase
& M. Rao) 4:00 p.m. to 6:00 p.m. SUNDAY A.M. K. Buckmire arrives Carriacou from Grenada.
August 19 Discussions on approach and progrwamme.
P.M. Meeting with MOA personnel and preparation of work
plan.
MONDAY A.M. Meeting with Commissioner of carriaeou and Petit
August 20 Martinique. Meeting with MOA staff and discussions.
Visit to Hillsborough market.
P.M. Visits to "gardens" and discussions with farmers
in Agricultural Sub-dictrict 1. TUESDAY A.M. Discussions with Land Evaluation Officer.
August 21 A.M. Farn visits in southern part of Agricultural SubP.M. disctict 1.
WEDNESDAY A.M. Farm visits in Agricultural Sub-districts 2 and
August 22 P.M. 3.
THURSDAY A.M. Visit to Marketing and National Import Board
August 23 (MNIB) Depot.
A.M. Farn visits in AgricuZtural sub-districts 2 and
P.M. 3.
P.M. Discussions with Mr. V. Bullen.
Writing-up.
FRIDAY A.M. Writing-up.
August 24 P.M. Attend seminar/panel discussion on Marketing
(CARDATS/MOA).
P.M. K. Buckmire leaves for Grenada.
Writing-up.
SATURDAY A.M. J. HiRerton and V. Chase leave for St. Lucia.
August 25 P.M. M. Rao leaves for Grenada.
48




APPENDIX II
THE AGRICULTURAL SUB-DISTRICTS AND WATERSHEDS OF CARRIACOU
The island of Carriacou is divided into three Agricultural subdistricts (Fig. 1). These are basically administrative divisions and not necessarily agro-ecological divisions. Sub-district 1 covers the south of the island, 2 covers the east, and 3 the western and northern part of the island. The. villages in each sub-district are listed below:
District I
Hermitage Top Hill Hillsborough
Harvey Vale La Resouce Beausejour
Morne Jaloux Mount Royal Belair
L'Esterre Mount D'Or Craigston
Lauriston Sabazon Bogles
Brunswick Kendeace Cherry Hill
Prospect Hill Grand Bay Prospect
Mount Desire Mount Pleasant Belpha
Six Roads Belair Brunswick
Dumfries Limlair Belvedere
Bellevue south Bay a L'ean
Belmont Meldrum
Belvedere
Dover
Windward
There are twenty-two (22) watersheds in Carriacou, seven in sub-district 1; nine in sub-district 2 and six in sub-district 3.
49




Nine major watersheds, covering a total of about 1525 ha.,
have been identified for an improvement project. Dumfries is the largest with an area of 290 ha.. These nine watersheds identified are either cleared eroded lands, or under poor thorny scrub with cactus and poor pastures. The soils found in these watersheds are wobrun clay loam on the upper slopes and Limlair clay in the lower parts.
50




APPENDIX III
1. Weeds of cultivated land, majak in corn and pigeon pSas.
ComoeZina app. watergra8e
Lagaaosa molli8 velvet bush
ZaUatroenrla maxima police macca
Meome viscoea caia
C. ciliata consumption weed
Partheniurn hysterophorus white top
PiZea microphylZa baby puzzle
RueZZa tuberoaa duppy gun
Tridax procwhene railway weed
Amwanthua app caZZaZu
Sida app.
Mormodica charantia cerasee
Cassia occidentaU8 wild coffee
CrotaZaria app. rattle bush
Indigofera app. indigo
Bidene pilosa duppy needle
Euphorbia pro8trata nr!Zk weed
Leonotis nepetifolia chri8tmae candlestick
Spigetia antheWa worm grass
Antigonon Zoptopus coralita
ftllanthu8 amarus seed-under-Zeaf
MaZvaetrurn amerioanus
Vernonia cinema iron weed
DirlZia: sonahifbZia cupid's paint brush
PortuZaca oleracea pusezey
A'WZViaz curassavica red top
Achyranthes indica devil 'a horsewhip
Boerhavia diffuea sow meat
51




amhorbia spp. miZk weed
Euphorbia hirta nrUk weed
WedeZia triZobata marigoZd
EchinochZoa coZunwn jungZe rice
Digitaria, spp. crab grass
Setaria barbata corn grass, gamaZot
PazpaZwn fimbriatum
EZeueine indica yard grass
Cynodmi da--tyZon baha= grass
Cenchrus echinatua bur grass
ChZoriB barbata purpZe top
Pan ,,nm fazicuZatzen birdseed grass
Cyperus rotundus nut grass
molZugo, verticiZZata carpet grass
Trianthema PortuZacastrw horee puraZane
Ageratwn conyziodes goat weed
Tridax procwnbens Tridax
Crotcn lobatus
Petiveria aZZiacea guZZy root
Richar*hLa scabra
HeZi6t.ropiwn indiczen scorpion weed
Unidentified: a cZimbing, viny Zegume.
2. Weeds of pasture, excluding the grass species forming the awbrd include:
Acacia tortuo8a wiZd poponax
Acacia spp.
Opuntia 8pp. prickZy pear
Datura Btzwmiwn thomappZe
Lantana carnava b Uwk sage
Nimosa pudica tia maria
52




Paidim guajava guava
SaemotoxyZurn campechianun Zogwood
CataZtropis procera french cotton
AZZamanda vioZacea purpZe aZZamanda
Caesia occidentaZis wiZd coffee
AZbizia epp.
Jatropha gossyifoZia stinging nettZe
PZus many other woody, scrubby species, other cacti and a shrub with miZky sap. (Euphorbiaceae?).
53




APPEDIX IV
TABLE 1 General information on 25 corn/pigeon pea gardens,
including information on livestock, slope fencing, etc.
Culti- Corn Othe Crops
Location Vatitn growth Insect Pigeon Weed Arrangeand method 2 Damage Pea 4 Cover ment Species Notes
(Fareer> Stage .
(Famer) WZ" Z
Brunswick T S 30 N H.B 15 1 pig 8 sheep.
Fenced
Brimnswtk T V 80 E H <5 OK, CU 2 cows, fowls,
(Alfred) Vetiver bunds.
Fenced
Bellevue F S 15 N B ( 5 B SW 4 sheep. Fenced
south
(McLaren)
Bellevue F V 60 N 3 5 B SW, PU, 4 pigs, fowls, 15+
South PN, OK sheep. Fenced
(Mbrtune)
Bellevue F T 10 N B 40 PB CX
South
(Fortune)
Lauriston T V 75 N B 5 B (PN, SW) ? Sheep ? Pigs.
Fenced.
Lautiston T V,T 20 N B (5 B SW (OK) ?eSheep ? Pigs
(Alexander) (PN) (WM)
Lauriston
(Caton) F V,T 30 N




APPENDIX IV(cont'd)
Location Culti- C rn Other Crops
and vation Growt. Insect Pigeon Weed Arrange(Farmer) method Stage Damage 3 Pea 4 Cover ment Species Notes
L'Psterre H V 5 N H, B 5 B (OK) Under coconuts, on
very sandy soil
L'Esterre T,F V 25 N H,B 5 ? Sheep, Part of
(Steele) land sloping.
Prospect F V 50 N H,B 25 H,B DO, PU ?Pigs, ?Sheep,
Hall 1 cow unfenced. 1
(Ackie) area of pure stand
PP.
Prospect F E 5 N H,B 5 B CX, SW
Hall
(Ackie)
Top Hill F T 45 N HB .5 H,B DO, PU Dolichos in some
(Primus) hills.
Jean Pierre H V 15 N H,B ( 5
(Dore)
Mt. Pleasant H V/T 60 N H 10 H,B LI? OK Cotton as weed.
(Nedd) Rocky land. Irregular
slopes. 10 sheep,
6 goats.
Mt. Pleasant T T/S 55 E B 5 B OK, SW Flat land. PP
(Nedd) PP deficient
Dover T V 60 E B .(5 Fenced. One paddock
(Cox) to be planted to
Cs. c ? aheap




APP END IX IV (cont'd)
Location Cut-C 0 r U Other Crops
and vation Growth Insect Pigeon Weed Arrange- Notes
(famer) method Stagte D amng 3 e Cover Imont. 5 Species6
Mt.Pleasant T T/S 80 N B 10 B S,0OK One area of
(Charles) atooti PP with
(Cha les)corn and SW.
Bay a lean F V 651N B 5 H, B LUD0 Lia and Dolichos
PU In some hills.
(Cyrus) Pumpkin between
hills.
Llilair T V 25 N B <5 B SW, OK Vegetable
(Noel) DO producers.
La Resource H V 251 N. 5 B CX, SW Rocky land, 3O0 %
(Duncan) slope.
Severe erosion.
Donkey, pigs.
La Resource H T,S 10ON H 10 B CX, SW
(Duncan)
Craigston F, H V 0 H, B <5 B (SW) P1 One area without
( PP. 250 slope.
Veltiver bunds.
(Xa18ton T V751N B <5 -.1500 slope.
) Fenced. Soil-,Used
for actsct.
____ ___ ___ ___ ___ __ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ Veltiver bunds.




___ Array~f :Av Location Cult- C 0 RN Other Crpe
and vation Crowth2 Insect, Picon Weed Arrange(farmer) method Stage daLmige pea 4 cover ments Species Notes
Bogles V 90 E H, B 5 B (SW) ? cattle. ? sheep.
(Alexander) Problem of i-ld dogs.
1T = tractor ploughed, F = forked, H = hoed. 2V = vegetative, T = tasseling, S = silking, E = earing (i.e. close to reaping)
3% of plants damaged: N = non-economic, E = economic level of damage (i.e. requiring control). 4H = in-hill (with corn), B = between corn rows (i.e. in clumps) 60Other crop species: CU = cucumber, CX = cassava, DO = 7Edolichos beans, LI = lima beans OK = okra. PN = peanuts, PV = pumpkin, SW'= sweet potato, V14 = watermelon, Brackets ( indicate a thin, irregular stand, possibly volunteer.




APPENCIX IV (cont'd)
TABLE II Specific information on 25 corn/pigeon pea gardens, including estimates of plant populations
Location Soil Row X C o rn Pigeon Peas
(farmer) series(1) intra No. of Height No. (3) No. of Intra- Height (5)
and area and row spac- plants (mean) of plants) plants row No. of (mean No. of
planted PH (2) ing (in) per per hill) per 100 per clumps plants per hill plants
(ha) and area hill (W) m2 hill per per and per per
per hill (12) (m) 10m clump clump) (m) 100 m2
Brunswick #21/28 1.5x1.l1 5.7 1.6 345 1.2 8.9 5.3 0.40 73+472
( )
0.11 5.2 1.65 + 1.34 +0.20 +1.40 +2.63 +0.12 = 545
Brunswick #21/28 1.4x1.6 4.8 0.4 214 2.9 0.0 0.0 0.12 129+0
(Alfred)
0.08 4.2 =2.24 + 1.14 +0.09 +1.10 +0.03 = 129 o
Bellevue #21/22 1.8x1.l 4.6 1.2 232 0.0 14.3 3.3 0.57 0 + 262
South
(McLoren) =1.98 + 0.52 10.16 +0.82 +0.08 262
0.20 4.8
Bellevue
South #21/22 1.5x1.5 4.0 1.0 178 0.0 9.8 2.2 0.26 0 + 144
(Fortune) = 2.25 +1.56 +0.18 +0.68 +0.11 = 144
0.40 4.8
Bellevue #21/22 1.5x1.3 7.3 1.2 374 0.0 7.7 4.5 0.32 0 + 231
South
(Fortune) 1.95 +2.31 +0.16 +3.11 40.21 = 231
0.15 5.2




APPENDIX IV (Cont'd)
TABLE II Spocifi~ information on 25 corn/pigeon pea gardens;
including estimates of plant populations
Location Soil Row X C r n Pigeon peas
(farmer) (1) intra- No (I e peso_aeisNo. (3) o~
and area and row .( Intra- Height No. (5
planted a spacing No. of Height p t row No. of (mean pn
(ha) PH(2) (in) and plants (mean) plants No. of clumps plants per hill plants
per 100 per
area pe per per 2er 100 plants per per and per per2
hill ( ) hill (m) hill (m) a per hill 10 2(4) clump clump(m) 100 m
Lauriston #24 1.7 x 1.9 5.7 0.6 176 8.9 4.0 9.3 0.27 121+219
( )
0.13 5.0 = 3.23 +0.82 +0.13 +5.32 +2.52 40.04 =340
Lauriston #24/21 1.6 x 1.7 4.7 0.8 173 0.0 10.4 4.9 0.25 0+319
Alexander
0.41 5.5 = 2.72 + 1.06 +0.08 +1.95 +0.04 = 319
Lauriston #24 1.9 x 1.2 4.3 0.9 189 1.5 10.4 4.8 0.24 66+416
(Caton)
0.41 5.2 =2.28 +1.64 +0.09 +1.78 + 1.48 +0.11 = 482
L'Esterre #11 1.6 xl.9 3.7 0.9 122 3.1 5.4 4.3 0.34 102+145
0.01 5.0 =3.04 + 1.64 + 0.09 + 0.88 + 0.50 +0.09 = 247
L'Esterre #28 1.2 x 1.1 44 0.7 333 2.7 6.8 2.3 0.24 205+130
(Steele)
0.20 = 1.32 + 1.43 + 0.10 + 1.16 + 0.58 +0.08 =335
Prospect
Hall #24/21 1.3 x 1.1 5.1 0.8 357 1.3 8.9 2.8 0.19 91+192
(AAkiell




APPENDIX IV (Cont'd)
TABLE II Specific information on 25 corn/pigeon pea gardens; including estimates of plant populations
Row X C o r n Pigeon Peas
intraLocation Soil row (3Intra- Height 5)
(farmer) series(l) spacing No. of Height No. of row No. of (mean No. o
and area (in) and plants (mean) plants No. of clumps per hill plants
planted (2) area per per per pei 100 plants per (4) plants and per per 2
(ha) PH2 hill (m2) hill (m) hill (m) m per hill 10 i' rump clump(m) 100 m
Prospect
Hall #24/21 1.2x1.0 7.2 1.8 600 0.8 21.1 4.4 0.30 67+773
(Achie) 5.
0.12 5.8 = 1.20 + 2.10 +0.11 +0.79 I 1.06 I 0.14 -840
Top Hill #50/52 1.0xl.0 4.0 0.5 400 2.4 5.1 2.0 0.24 240+102
(Primus)
0.80 6.2 1.00 + 0.94 + 0.11 +0.52 + 0.0 + 0.06 = 342
Jean
Pierre # 24 1.1xl.2 3.9 0.5 295 1.2 0.0 0.0 0.15 91 + 0
(Dote)
0.01 5.3 = 1.32 +0.88 + 0.13 +0.92 + 0.02 91
Mt.Pleasant #21 1.5x1.6 4.0 1.2 167 2.8 0.0 0.0 0.20 117+ 0
(Nedd)
0.03 4.2 2.40 + 0.67 + 0.21 +1.40 + 0,0 117
Mr.
Pleasant #24 l.lxl.6 3.1 1.5 176 0.0 7.8 3.6 0.23 0 + 255
(NEdd)
0.C5 5.5 = 1.76 +0.99 + 0.48 + 0.55 +0.04 = 255
Dover #24 1.5x1.6 5.4 0.5 225 0.0 6,3 3.0 0,41 0 + 126
(Cox)
0.13 = 2.40 +0.52 +0.05 + 1.41 + 1.41 +0.07 = 126




APPENDIX IV (cont'd)
TABLE II Specific information on 25 corn/pigeon pea gardens; including estimates of plant populations
Row X
intra- Pigeon peas
Location Soil row C o r n-- Intra- Height)
(farmer) Series(1) row(e5 and area and spacing No. of Height No. of (3) row No. of (mean) No. of
and area ad
planted PH(2) (in) and plants (mean) plants No. of clumps plants per hill plants
(ha) area per per per per 100 plants per (4) per and per per 2
(ha) hill (m2) hill (m) hill (m) m 2 per hill 10 m clump clump(m) 100 m
Mt.
Pleasant #24 1.4x1.9 6.3 1.0 237 0.0 6.8 3.2 0.35 0 + 155
(Charles)
0.12 4.4 = 2.66 +0.95 +0.22 +0.84 +0.12 = 155
Bay a'
l'ean #24 1.3x1.0 3.7 0.4 285 2.6 0.0 0.0 0.23 200+0
(Cyrus)
0.08 5.2 = 1.30 +1.06 +1.17 +0.03 = 200
Limlair #24 1.lxl.1 4.5 .0.65 372 0.0 11.9 3.8 0.31 0+411
(Noel)
0.04 5.5 = 1.21 +0.53 +0.09 +1.79 +0.04 = 411
La
Resouce #21 1.2x1.2 4.5 0.66 313 2.5 0.0 0.0 0.22 174+0
(Duncan)
0.10 6.3 = 1.44 +0.93 +0.06 = 174
La
Resouce #21 1.3x1.3 5.6 1.6 331 2.4 0.0 0.0 0.30 142+0
(Drncan)
0.EI 5.6 = 1.69 +0.70 +0.20 +0.52 +0.09 = 142
Crtigston #28/21 1.Oxl.4 5.4 0.9 386 1.0 3.7 7.0 0.31 74+259
(06 1.40 +0.84 +0.12 +2.16 + 1.4 +0.04 )333
O & = 1.40 +0.84 +0o12 +2.16 + 1.4 +0.04 = 333




APPENDIX IV (Contd)
TABLE II Specific information on 25 corn/pigeon pea gardens; including estimates of plant populations
Row X
intra- C o r n Pigeon peas
Location Soil (1) row (3) "Height" (()
(farmer) series spacing No. of Height No. of Intra- No. of (mean) No. of
and atea and (in) and plants (mean) plants No. of rw plants per hill plants
played area per per per per 100 plants tmps per and per per 2
(ha) PH(2) hill (m2) hill (m) hill (m) m2 per hill 0 m4) clump clump(m) 100 m
Craigston #28/21 1.2x1.O 4.7 0.2 392 0.0 13.2 3.8 0.15 0+110
( )
0.24 5.2 = 1.20 +1.06 +0.02 +1.64 + 0.03 = 110
Bogles # 22 1.Oxl.5 7.0 0.5 467 0.9 5.2 2.3 0.15 60+120
(Alexander)
0.04 5.2 = 1.50 + 0.00 +0.05 +1.10 +0.58 +0.02 = 180
(1) Soil series are- 11 = Hillsborough loamy sand; 21 = Woburn clay loam; 22 = Woburn clay loam (stony & bouldery phase); 24 = Limlair clay 28 = Perserverance clay;50 Tophill stony clay;
52 = Betish clay loam.
(2) PH determined by the Kelway Soil pHD Plus.
(3) Number of (corn) plants per 100 m2 derived from
100
x No. plants per hill
area per hill
2
(4) Intra-row clumps per 10 m run of inter-row space. The number of clumps per 100 m2 would therefore be
given by 100
x No. of clumps per 10 m
10 x inter-row space
2
(5) The first Aigure is the number2of pigeon pea plants (per 100 m ) in the corn hills, the second is
the number of plants (per lOOm ) in clumps, and the third is the total. The first is derived from
100 100
ae100 x No. of plants per hill, and the second from 100 x No. of clumps per
area per hill 10 x inter-row space 10 m