• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 List of Figures
 Summary
 Introduction
 1. Background: A general description...
 2. Farming systems
 3. Socioeconomic system
 4. Integrated farming system
 5. Contraints to increased...
 6. Proposed interventions
 Acknowledgement
 Literature cited
 I. Itinerary
 II. The agricultural sub-districts...
 III. Weeds of cultivated land,...
 IV. General and specific information...






Title: Carriacou: a reconnaisance survey
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00054825/00001
 Material Information
Title: Carriacou: a reconnaisance survey
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Creator: Buckmire, K. U.
Chase, V. M.
Hammerton, J. L.
Rao, M. M.
Publisher: Caribbean Agricultural Research and Development Institute (CARDI)
 Subjects
Subject: Farming   ( lcsh )
Agriculture   ( lcsh )
Farm life   ( lcsh )
Caribbean   ( lcsh )
Spatial Coverage: Caribbean
 Notes
Funding: Electronic resources created as part of a prototype UF Institutional Repository and Faculty Papers project by the University of Florida.
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Bibliographic ID: UF00054825
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
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Resource Identifier: oclc - 29301579

Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Title Page
    Table of Contents
        Page i
        Page ii
    List of Figures
        Page iii
    Summary
        Page iv
        Page v
    Introduction
        Page 1
        Page 1-a
    1. Background: A general description of Carriacou
        Page 2
        1.1. General
            Page 2
        1.2. Climate
            Page 2
        1.3. Topography and geology
            Page 2
            Plate
        1.4. Soils
            Page 3
            Page 4
        1.5. Vegetation
            Page 5
        1.6. Land Use
            Page 5
            Page 6
            Page 7
        1.7. Human resources
            Page 8
        1.8. Institutional
            Page 9
    2. Farming systems
        Page 10
        2.1. The corn/pigeon pea system
            Page 10
            Page 11
            Page 12
            Page 13
            Page 14
            Page 15
            Page 16
            Page 17
            Page 18
            Page 19
        2.2. The ruminant livestock/pasture system
            Page 20
            Page 21
            Page 22
            Page 23
        2.3. The pigs and poultry system
            Page 24
        2.4. The Musa spp. system
            Page 25
        2.5. The tree crop system
            Page 25
        2.6. The mixed vegetable system
            Page 26
        2.7. The coconut system
            Page 26
    3. Socioeconomic system
        Page 27
        3.1. Endogenous determinants
            Page 27
            Page 28
            Page 29
            Page 30
            Page 31
        3.2. Exogenous determinants
            Page 32
            Page 33
    4. Integrated farming system
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
    5. Contraints to increased production
        Page 38
        5.1. General and institutional
            Page 38
        5.2. Corn/pigeon pea system
            Page 39
        5.3.Ruminant livestock/pasture system
            Page 39
        5.4. Pigs and poultry system
            Page 40
        5.6. Tree crop system
            Page 41
        5.7. Mixed vegetable system
            Page 41
        5.8. Coconut system
            Page 41
    6. Proposed interventions
        Page 42
        6.1. General and institutional
            Page 43
        6.2. Corn/pigeon pea system
            Page 43
        6.3. Ruminant livestock/pasture system
            Page 44
        6.4. Musa spp. system
            Page 45
        6.5. Tree crop system
            Page 45
        6.5. Mixed vegetable system
            Page 45
    Acknowledgement
        Page 46
    Literature cited
        Page 47
    I. Itinerary
        Page 48
    II. The agricultural sub-districts and watersheds of Carriacou
        Page 49
        Page 50
    III. Weeds of cultivated land, mainly in corn and pigeon peas
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
    IV. General and specific information on corn/pigeon pea gardens
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
Full Text








0


K. U. BUCKMIRE
V. M. CHASE
J. L. HAMvMERTON
M. M. RAO


AN OUTPUT OF THE
CARDI/USAID FARMING SYSTEMS RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
PROJECT NO. 538-0099


CARIBBEAN
AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH
AND
DEVELOPMENT INSTITUTE

CARDD)


CARRIACOU A RECONNAISSANCE SURVEY


f22.~IPI(











TABLE OF CONTENTS


PAGE NO,

ii iii

1


PRODUCTION
INTRODUCTION


1. BACKGROUND: A GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF CARRIACOU


General

Climate ...

Topography and Geology

Soils .

Vegetation ...
Land Use ...
Human Resources

Institutional


2. FARMING SYSTEMS


The
The

The

The

The
The
The


Corn/Pigeon Pea System
Rminant Livestock/Pasture

Pigs and Poultry System

Musa spp. System .
Tree Crop System ***

Mixed Vegetable System
Coconut System


3. SOCIO-ECONOMIC SYSTEMS


3.1 Endogenous Determinants ...

3.2 Exogenous Determinants ...



4. INTEGRATED FARMING SYSTEM


System...



**
*


..


S 10

20

24
25

S 25
S 26
.. 26


.. 27

27

S 32



... 34


.*


1.1 '

1.2
1.3.

1.4

1.5
1.6

1.7
3 1.8


S..


2.1
2.2

2.3.
2.4

2.5

2.6
2.7


. *


. .















.








Page No.


5. CONSTRAINTS TO INCREASED PRODUCTION ... ... 38

5.1 General and Institutional ... ... 38
5.2 Corn/Pigeon Pea System ... ... ... 39
5.3 Ruminant Livestock/Pasture System ... .. 39
5.4 Pigs and Poultry System ...... ... 40
5.5 eMa app. System ... ... ... 40
5.6 Tree Crop System ... ... ... 41
5.7 Mixed Vegetable System .. ... .. 41
5.8 Coconut System ... ... ... 41


6. PROPOSED INTERVENTIONS ... ... 42

6.1 General and Institutional ... ... 43
6.2 Corn/Pigeon Pea System ... f.. ... 43
6.3 Ruminant Livestock/pasture System .. ... 44
6.4 Musa spp. System ... ... ... 45
6.5 Tree Crop System ... ... ... 45
6.6 Mixed Vegetable System ... ... ... 45


7. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ... ... ... 46
S LITERATURE CITED ... ... ... ... 47
APPENDICES:


I Itinerary ... ... ... *.. 48

II The Agricultural Sub-districts and water-
sheds of Carriacou ... ... ... 49

III Weeds of cultivated land, ainly in corn
and oigeon peas ...... .o. 51

IV General and Specific information on
Corn/pigeon pea gardens ... .., ... 54











Page No.


FIGURES AND- TABLES:


Figure I


Figure II


Figure III



Figure IV


Figure V


Table I


Table II


Reduced ordinance survey map,
including extension sub-districts

Planting patterns of corn and
pigeon peas ... ..

Schematic representation of the
socio-economic determinants of
a typical Carriacou family

The interactions and flows for a
typical farm production system

Summary of a typical Carriacou
Farming System

General information on 25 corn/
pigeon pea gardens ... ...


Specific information on 25
corn/pigeon pea gardens


******t**


iii


... ...








SUMMARY


Carriacou, with an estimated population of 7,000 is the largest
of the Grenadines which is a volcanic island chain linking Grenada
to Saint Vincent. The climate of Carriacou is semi-arid with an
average annual rainfall of about O050mm, most of which falls between
June and November. The land area of Carriacou is 3370 ha but only
about 500 ha is presently under cultivation for crop production. much
of Carriacou is covered by remnants of deciduous seasonal forest,
thorny woodlands and cactus scrub. Wind and water erosion is very
severe. None of the Carriacou soils are suitable for cultivation on
slopes of 100 or more, yet cultivation has been and continues to be
carried out on much steeper slopes with little use of anti-erosion
measures.

A typical farming system in Carriacou is a simple one with two
distinct components: a cropping system which is maintained primarily
for the consumption of the farm household and a livestock system which
is maintained primarily for sale.


The predominant cropping
there may or may not be other
components are sweet potatoes
peanuts, cucurbits and okra.
planted sporadically over the


system is a corn and pigeon pea system;
components. The commonest of these other
and cassava, bonavist beans, lima beans,
These subsidiary intercrops are often
field, often at low densities.


Small gardens of bananas, plantains and bluggoe are also to be -
found on many holdings usually within the yard or fenced-in. Tree crops
are found in yards, in pastures or along pasture fence lines. Only
a few farmers cultivate vegetables for sale in the local market.

The livestock system is divided into two components: poultry
and swine which are reared for home consumption and for sale within
Carriacou; and ruminants which are reared for export to Grenada and
Trinidad.












Every single family in Carriacou owns livestock and cultivates,
if nothing else, at least corn and pigeon peas. Presumably every single
family also has relatives living abroad. These relatives send regular
remittances which have become an integral part of the household's
income and expenditure.

The farm family is the decision making unit linking the unit of
production and the unit of consumption: it allocates two factors of
production (land(and tabour) to three processes (crop, livestock and
off-farm enterprises). Farm income is generated primarily from the
sale of livestock. The farm family is also dependent on remittances.
The income that is generated by the farm family is very seldom
used for the development of the farming system itself. Instead it is
used to purchase food and items of conspicuous consumption.


* *







INTRODUCTION


The island of Carriacou forms part of the independent state of Grenada.
This outlying dependency has for a long time not been brought into line
with developments occurring in agriculture in the region. In an effort
to present a state of the art as far as agricultural development is
concerned, it was thought that the speediest and most economic way to
achieve this was to mount a reconnaissance survey of the island. This
it was hoped would provide initial insights into the inter-relationships
that exist within the agricultural milieu and the opportunities for
agricultural development.


This reconnaissance survey of Carriacou was carried out between August 18
and 25, 1984. The direct purpose was to obtain as much information on the
farming systems of Carriacou to inform the planning of a Farming Systems
Research and Development (FSR/D) Programme of On-farm and supportive research
activities.


The specific objects of the survey were:

(i) to determine present land use
(ii) to describe and analyse the present farming systems
(iii) to obtain background socio-economic information on traditions
and beliefs which influence farming systems
(iv) to determine constraints to agricultural development and
(v) to develop guidelines for relevant on-farm trials and supportive
socio-economic research so as to improve production, productivity
and well being of the farming community.


The survey team was multi-disciplinary and comprised the following members:
Ken Buckmire Entomologist
Vasantha Chase Socio-Economist
John Hammerton Agronomist
Murali Rao Systems Agronomist







Introduction cont'd


The survey team gathered information primarily by observations and
interviews. The team observed inter alia major soil characteristics,
climatic indicators, major crop and cropping patterns and methods of
cultivation, livestock types and methods of rearing. In addition the team
conducted interviews with persons involved in both the farming and non-
farming activities. Interviews were held with farmers, community leaders,
local historians, taxi-drivers, agricultural officers, government officials
and others. The team also made use of available secondary sources of data
such as Aand Use Surveys.


The product that follows is therefore a result of an informal survey.











CALIXTE GEORGE
Project Manager, Farming Systems
Research & Development Project


April, 1985









I. BACKGROUND: A GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF CARRIACOU


1.1 GENERAL:


Carriacou ,is the largest of the Grenadines, the island chain linking
St. Vincent and Grenada. It lies about 26 Km north of Grenada, about
12030' north and 61 28' west. Carriacou is about .12 Km long from south-
west to north-east and 4 km wide, with a total area of 33.7 km2
Politically, Carriacou is part of the independent state of Grenada.
Together with the neighboring and much smaller island of Petit Martinique,
it is administered by a Commissioner resident in Carriacou. Hillsborough
is the largest town and capital of Carriacou. The population is estimated
at about 7,000, but no reliable census data are available. Many
Carriacouans live overseas, mainly in the U.K. and U.S.A.


1.2 CLIMATE:

Carriacou has a semi-arid climate. Temperatures average about 32 C,
the relative humidity ranges from 60-80%, and the average annual rainfall
is about 1050 mm. Most of this falls during June to November, and the
December to May period is usually very dry. There are also short occasional
dry periods during the rainy season. Apparently there are no exact reliable
long-term rainfall records. The island appears to be a single agro-ecological
zone, although there is some evidence that the Craigston and Harvey Vale
areas (Pig. 1) are rather drier than other parts of the island. There
appear also to be a few small rain-shadow areas in the vicinity of the
highest hills.


1.3 TOPOGRAPHY AND GEOLOGY:

Carriacou comprises a series of hills and ridges and spurs with a
number of lowlying gently sloping broad valleys, such as those around
Hillsborough, Dumftles, Dover and Limlair, Brunswick and Harvey Vale.









I. BACKGROUND: A GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF CARRIACOU


1.1 GENERAL:


Carriacou ,is the largest of the Grenadines, the island chain linking
St. Vincent and Grenada. It lies about 26 Km north of Grenada, about
12030' north and 61 28' west. Carriacou is about .12 Km long from south-
west to north-east and 4 km wide, with a total area of 33.7 km2
Politically, Carriacou is part of the independent state of Grenada.
Together with the neighboring and much smaller island of Petit Martinique,
it is administered by a Commissioner resident in Carriacou. Hillsborough
is the largest town and capital of Carriacou. The population is estimated
at about 7,000, but no reliable census data are available. Many
Carriacouans live overseas, mainly in the U.K. and U.S.A.


1.2 CLIMATE:

Carriacou has a semi-arid climate. Temperatures average about 32 C,
the relative humidity ranges from 60-80%, and the average annual rainfall
is about 1050 mm. Most of this falls during June to November, and the
December to May period is usually very dry. There are also short occasional
dry periods during the rainy season. Apparently there are no exact reliable
long-term rainfall records. The island appears to be a single agro-ecological
zone, although there is some evidence that the Craigston and Harvey Vale
areas (Pig. 1) are rather drier than other parts of the island. There
appear also to be a few small rain-shadow areas in the vicinity of the
highest hills.


1.3 TOPOGRAPHY AND GEOLOGY:

Carriacou comprises a series of hills and ridges and spurs with a
number of lowlying gently sloping broad valleys, such as those around
Hillsborough, Dumftles, Dover and Limlair, Brunswick and Harvey Vale.









I. BACKGROUND: A GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF CARRIACOU


1.1 GENERAL:


Carriacou ,is the largest of the Grenadines, the island chain linking
St. Vincent and Grenada. It lies about 26 Km north of Grenada, about
12030' north and 61 28' west. Carriacou is about .12 Km long from south-
west to north-east and 4 km wide, with a total area of 33.7 km2
Politically, Carriacou is part of the independent state of Grenada.
Together with the neighboring and much smaller island of Petit Martinique,
it is administered by a Commissioner resident in Carriacou. Hillsborough
is the largest town and capital of Carriacou. The population is estimated
at about 7,000, but no reliable census data are available. Many
Carriacouans live overseas, mainly in the U.K. and U.S.A.


1.2 CLIMATE:

Carriacou has a semi-arid climate. Temperatures average about 32 C,
the relative humidity ranges from 60-80%, and the average annual rainfall
is about 1050 mm. Most of this falls during June to November, and the
December to May period is usually very dry. There are also short occasional
dry periods during the rainy season. Apparently there are no exact reliable
long-term rainfall records. The island appears to be a single agro-ecological
zone, although there is some evidence that the Craigston and Harvey Vale
areas (Pig. 1) are rather drier than other parts of the island. There
appear also to be a few small rain-shadow areas in the vicinity of the
highest hills.


1.3 TOPOGRAPHY AND GEOLOGY:

Carriacou comprises a series of hills and ridges and spurs with a
number of lowlying gently sloping broad valleys, such as those around
Hillsborough, Dumftles, Dover and Limlair, Brunswick and Harvey Vale.









I. BACKGROUND: A GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF CARRIACOU


1.1 GENERAL:


Carriacou ,is the largest of the Grenadines, the island chain linking
St. Vincent and Grenada. It lies about 26 Km north of Grenada, about
12030' north and 61 28' west. Carriacou is about .12 Km long from south-
west to north-east and 4 km wide, with a total area of 33.7 km2
Politically, Carriacou is part of the independent state of Grenada.
Together with the neighboring and much smaller island of Petit Martinique,
it is administered by a Commissioner resident in Carriacou. Hillsborough
is the largest town and capital of Carriacou. The population is estimated
at about 7,000, but no reliable census data are available. Many
Carriacouans live overseas, mainly in the U.K. and U.S.A.


1.2 CLIMATE:

Carriacou has a semi-arid climate. Temperatures average about 32 C,
the relative humidity ranges from 60-80%, and the average annual rainfall
is about 1050 mm. Most of this falls during June to November, and the
December to May period is usually very dry. There are also short occasional
dry periods during the rainy season. Apparently there are no exact reliable
long-term rainfall records. The island appears to be a single agro-ecological
zone, although there is some evidence that the Craigston and Harvey Vale
areas (Pig. 1) are rather drier than other parts of the island. There
appear also to be a few small rain-shadow areas in the vicinity of the
highest hills.


1.3 TOPOGRAPHY AND GEOLOGY:

Carriacou comprises a series of hills and ridges and spurs with a
number of lowlying gently sloping broad valleys, such as those around
Hillsborough, Dumftles, Dover and Limlair, Brunswick and Harvey Vale.















C S..,CI
Sf


l .. ... ... ...


em.
-em
Il~5igrt rn~mm-~b
*g Ce. SeI


"-- 4.
-- C -


s-C--

I-
r--


Se S


A reduction of the ordinance survey map showing the principal

features, including roads and settlements. The heavy dashed

line indicates the boundaries of the three Extension Sub-districti


FIG. I.


~'II*,,,
---













There are two high points almost equal in height at High North
(955 ft or 291.1 m) and Chapeau Carre or High South (954 ft or 290.8 m).
A ridge runs nort-- iouth sloping steeply on the western side, above
Hillsborough, but more gently on the other (Fig. 1).


Carriacou is largely volcanic in origin. It is mainly composed of
andesite ashes, with some agglomerates and andesitic lava, which is coated
with a thin limestone layer in the north-east. Small outcrops of limestone
occur in isolated patches along the coast. There are no true alluvia, but
the slopes of the steeper ridges are overlain by ashy or limestone-derived
colluvial materials (Vernon et al., 1959).


1.4 SOILS:

The following six soil types make up just over 90% of the total land
re a.
Soil Type Area (ha)

Wcburn clay loam (21) 1480
Woburn clay loam (strong & bouldery
phase) (22) 770
Limlaii clay (24) 565
Bet.sh clay loam (52) 130
Tophill stony clay (50) 110
Perseverance clay (28) 110

The remaining 9-10% is accounted for by another five soil types
plus mangroves, beaches and salinas. The numbers in parenthesis are those
used in the soil survey (Vernon et al., 1959).


T. I burn clay loams are well to excessively drained shallow soils
over ash and agglomerate. They are found over much of the island, usually
in large tracts, and often on slopes of 20 300 and over. Erosion is
often severe. The stony and bouldery phase is dominant in the north of the
island. The Woburn clay loams are considered suitable for cultivation on
slopes up to 200: their major limitations is the shallowness. On steeper
slopes cultivation is marginal and the danger of erosion increases.









Limlair clay is found mainly in the Limlair area in the north-east
of the island but occurs also around the south-west of Dumfries, around
Harveyvale, and inland and to the west of Hillsborough. It is a heavy
colluvial soil, moderately drained, and suitable for cultivation, except
in those (small) areas where it occurs on slopes of more than 100. It
is heavy to work and sticky when wet.


Betish clay loam is a shallow grey soil over soft limestone with
good to excessive drainage. Apart from a few small pockets and a
larger area near Sabizan it is found in association with TopHill stony
clay in a large tract to the north and north-west of TopHill. Betish clay
loam is drought and suffers severe erosion under cultivation, so is
unsuitable for cultivation of any sort on steeper slopes.

TopHill stony clay is a shallow brown soil overlying hard limestone.
It is found in association with Betish clay loam. Its drainage is good
to excessive and it is unsuitable for cultivation: it is invariably
found on steep slopes and is severely eroded.

Perseverance clay is a heavy brown or black soil, with poor to moderate
drainage. It occurs in generally small isolated pockets in the Grand Bay,
south of Bay a l'eau, near L'Eaterre and south of Bogles. It generally
occurs on gentle slopes, shows little erosion and is suitable for
cultivation on such slopes, but the drainage may make it difficult to
work and it may lay wet.

In general, according to Vernon et al., (1959) none of the Carriacou
soils are suitable for cultivation on slopes exceeding 20% and for some
the suggested limit is lower. Yet cultivation has been and continues
to be carried out on much steeper slopes with little, if any, use of anti-
erosion measures. Vernon et al., (1959) give estimates of the area with
different categories of slopes as follows: (ha)
< 2 80
2 5 465 800
5 10 255
10 20 930
20 30 1460 2490
>30 100
4 .../










Less than a quarter of the land area of Carriacou has slopes of 100 or less!
The same authors estimate the area with no limitation or only moderate
limitation with erosion as the main hazard at 565 ha. or less than 20% cf
the total area.

1.5 VEGETATION:

Much of C."riacou is covered by remnants of deciduous seasonal forest,
thorny woodlands and cactus scrub. The larger forest trees have long since
been cut for ship building, and for firewood. There are small forest reserves
and some planting of teak and blue mahoe has been done. At present most of
the steeper, higher slopes are in secondary forest with only small areas of
ruinate pasture or "slash-and-burn" cultivation. The flatter lands are
either cultivated or in pasture.:, much of the latter overgrown with scrub,
9 6
including Acacia spp. and Opuntia spp. The gentler lower slopes and some
of the higher and steeper slopes are also cultivated or in poor pasture.
There is clear evidence of erosion on both lands now cultivated and those
under ruinate pasture.


1.6 LAND USE:
2
The land area of Carriacou is 33.7 km or 3,370 ha. About a quarter of
this -(910 ha)is forest reserve, hill tops and ridges, coastal mangrove swampE.
ravines and gullies, playing fields and cemetries (Anon, 1972). About
1210 ha comprise poor and badly eroded lands, mainly in scrub and ruinate
pasture. Of the remaining 1250 ha, it is estimated that less than a half
(about 500 ha)is presently under cultivation for crop production: the
remainder is tumble-down or ruinate pasture. Erosion both by wind and
water is severe.

Very few farmers cultivating sloping land practise any soil conservation,
though there are remnants of old Vetiver (Khus-khus) bunds. Overgrazing has
resulted in soil slippage and in many instances inva3fsr'by Acacia spp;

Opuntia opp. and other thorny plants.










Less than a quarter of the land area of Carriacou has slopes of 100 or less!
The same authors estimate the area with no limitation or only moderate
limitation with erosion as the main hazard at 565 ha. or less than 20% cf
the total area.

1.5 VEGETATION:

Much of C."riacou is covered by remnants of deciduous seasonal forest,
thorny woodlands and cactus scrub. The larger forest trees have long since
been cut for ship building, and for firewood. There are small forest reserves
and some planting of teak and blue mahoe has been done. At present most of
the steeper, higher slopes are in secondary forest with only small areas of
ruinate pasture or "slash-and-burn" cultivation. The flatter lands are
either cultivated or in pasture.:, much of the latter overgrown with scrub,
9 6
including Acacia spp. and Opuntia spp. The gentler lower slopes and some
of the higher and steeper slopes are also cultivated or in poor pasture.
There is clear evidence of erosion on both lands now cultivated and those
under ruinate pasture.


1.6 LAND USE:
2
The land area of Carriacou is 33.7 km or 3,370 ha. About a quarter of
this -(910 ha)is forest reserve, hill tops and ridges, coastal mangrove swampE.
ravines and gullies, playing fields and cemetries (Anon, 1972). About
1210 ha comprise poor and badly eroded lands, mainly in scrub and ruinate
pasture. Of the remaining 1250 ha, it is estimated that less than a half
(about 500 ha)is presently under cultivation for crop production: the
remainder is tumble-down or ruinate pasture. Erosion both by wind and
water is severe.

Very few farmers cultivating sloping land practise any soil conservation,
though there are remnants of old Vetiver (Khus-khus) bunds. Overgrazing has
resulted in soil slippage and in many instances inva3fsr'by Acacia spp;

Opuntia opp. and other thorny plants.












Carriacou has a long history of agriculture. In the late 18th
century sugar (and rum), cotton, coffee, cocoa and indigo were produced
for export. Sugarcane was grown on estates of which the largest were
Craigston, Limlair and Grand Bay. Cotton was grown by small farmers, or
peasants, and for long remained the major crop of Carriacou : indeed it
faded away as recently as the early 1980's. Sugarcane went out of production
in about 1928, and was replaced by limes, for the production of lime oil and
lime juice concentrate. There were several lime estates Craigston,
Dumfries and Sabazon, for example, but the crop was also grown by many
small farmers. The trees were badly hit by Hurricane Janet in the 1955 and
production declined. Poor prices for lime oil and other products and low
yields due to poor crop husbandry (e.g. no fertilizer use and no pest and
disease control) led inevitably to Carriacou going out of production.

Cotton remained however, -The varieties grown were "Marie Galante"
and "Antilles" : both have a slightly shorter staple than Sea Island Cotton.
The crop was traditionally intercropped with corn and pigeon peas. All the
work was done by hand and few purchased inputs were used. There were
several ginneries. Poor prices for cotton, and a lack of labour (consequent
on migration), led to a decline in production and its recent demise.

Cotton can still be seen as a weed, and relics of the lime orchards
are still evident at Craigston, and at Dumfries, for example.

The most widely grown crops in Carriacou (at the time of writing) are
corn and pigeon peas, almost invariably grown as a mixture. About 350 ha
are planted to these crops annually, largely for home consumption. The
"gardens" are small and scattered so that estimates of area vary. An aerial-
photo-survey, carried out during dry season of 1982 estimated the area at
only 32 ha, but to this must be added an area of grazing lands mixed with
food crops, estimated at 30% of 550 ha or 167 ha, giving about 200 ha.
Another method of estimation is to assume a population of 7000 or 1400
households. If all but 10% of these have an average of 0.4 ha of garden,
then a figure of 504 ha is derived.









Corn yields are estimated at 800 to 1100 kg ha-1 (Anon.1972).
Pigeon pea yields are almost certainly much lower and more variable. They
are invariably grown as mixed crops, but planting patterns vary.

Some peanuts and sweet potatoes are grown, often as an intercrop in
corn/pigeon pea crops. Production has declined for both crops: the imports
of sweet potatoes from St. Vincent has apparently discouraged local production.
Cassava production, mostly for preparation of farine, but often times used
for making "bit" and starch, is also declining. The bitter varieties are the
more common but some Tweet cassava is also grown, for cooking. Cassava is
usually interplanted in corn and pigeon peas.

There are few coconuts, but small groves are found south and west of
Hillsborough Carriacou is free of "Red Ring" disease, but Hurricane Janet
destroyed many trees in 1955. Attempts at replanting have been thwarted by
grazing animals. There are many tamarind, chinese plum, jamaica plum, soursop,
sugar-apple and custard-apple trees, but these occur mainly in hedgerows,
around dwelling houses and in pastures. Apart from "relic" lime trees there
is little citrus. Tamarind are exported to Trinidad, but other fruits may
go unreaped and are certainly not exploited commercially.

Only small quantities of vegetables are grown. Pumpkin and okra are
sometimes found as intercrops in corn/pigeon pea systems. Very few farmers
grow tomatoes, cabbage, sweet pepper, lettuce, beans, carrots and cucumbers
for sale, but most of the vegetables consumed are shipped in from Grenada.

Corn and pigeon peas are grown primarily for home consumption. Ruminant
livestock are raised for sale: cattle, sheep and goats are sold as live
animals to Grenada and Trinidad. They may constitute the sole source of farm
income. Constraints to the expansion of the livestock component in Carriacou
include poor past:;.,.,. low nutrition during the dry season and wild dogi-.
The latter live in the scrubby bush and attack mainly sheep.

There are scattered small plantings of Musa spp. especially of bluggoe,
but bananas and plantains are also grown. These are usually in small fenced
"gardens" or around the house. Moko disease is present and bluggoe is unfor-
tunately the most susceptible.











1.7 HUMAN RESOURCES:


The population of Carriacou is estimated to be between 6,000 and 7,000.

There is evidence to suggest that although no data are available, that
every household has at least one family member overseas. Many households
have most of their family members in the 30 to 50 year age group overseas.
There is a tradition that Carriacouans overseas send regular remittances back
home, and this source of income is very important in meeting household expenses.

There are an estimated 1400 households in Carriacou with an average

size of five person (this excludes those living abroad). About 59% of farmers
are female. This preponderance of females may be due to male migration and
to the primary occupations of fishing and shipbuilding. About 67% of farmers
are part-time and 78% of these reported that farming war:,not a significant
contributor to household incomes (Campbell & Henry 1982). These latter are
often heavily subsidized by remittances.

Carriacou has a total of 42 communities or villages including
Hillsborough. With the exceptions of L'Esterce, Harvey Vale, Hillsborough
and Windward, these villages are dispersed along the road system. Most of
the road system is drivable: the exceptions are from Prospect to Petit
Carenage in the north-west, and Sabazon to Grand Bay in the south-east. In
the interior roads run along the ridges or on top of the spurs. Houses are
located on both sides of the road and in some instances are below the level
of the road. House plots invariably have a small garden of corn and pigeon peas
around the house. Except in Hillsboruugh, there is almost invariably a pig
tethered nearby, and there are a number of yard fowls.

In L'Esterre, and the other villages mentioned above, the settlement
pattern is nucleated, and the houses tended to be of better quality ccrU-T:u '-
usually of concrete with a galvanized roof. Even the more substantial houses
usually have a small garden of corn and pigeon peas in the yard. If housing
is used as an indicator of "the quality of life", then the standard of living
tends to be higher in coastal communities (e.g. Windward, L'Esterre and Mount
Pleasant) than in those in the interior (e.g. Six Roads, La Resouce and Belvedere).
Villages along the coast tended to enjoy better facilities such as schools
and clinics than those inland.












Off-farm employment is limited and largely confined to fishing, shipbuilding

-r.fficking (speculating or huckstering) and road building. Retail trade
nrovidCs some employment, as does clerical work in Government offices and

.;otcl and restaurant work. Such off-farm employment is limited but important
:, it is a source of employment providing very limited opportunities for
;arriacou's workforce, especially for school leavers.


.8 INSTITUTIONAL:

Carriacou has a remarkably widespread road network, though it is not
always in good repairs. Only two stretches are not drivable (see above).
There are numerous small tracks and foctpaths leading to homesteads, many of
these roughly paved. Several privately owned transport vehicles ply 'for
hire on regular routes throughout the island.


Hillsbornugh has a central market and a branch of the Marketing and
nationall Import Board (MNIB). Most of the perishable food items fruits
and vegetables available in Carriacou are brought in by boat on Wednesdays
and on Sundays by the MNIB. The MNIB also brings in ground provisions
dasheenn, tannia, eddoe and sweet potato) and rice.


There are two commercial banks (Barclays and National Commercial) in
Hillsborough and a Post Office which has a number of postal agencies in the
-illages.


Supplies of some farm inputs such as hand tools, wire, staples and
building materials are available. Recently vegetable seeds have been stocked:
formerly they were available only from Grenada.


Domestic water is rainwater collected from roofs or small catchment areas
in private or public tanks. There are a few ponds for watering animals. In
times of severe drought, water is imported from Grenada by boat.










2. FARMING SYSTEMS



The Farm Pro.duction Systems of Carriacou comprise a subset of at

least two of the following systems:
corn/pigeon peas

ruminant livestock/paEture

pigs and poultry

Musa spp
tree crops
mixed vegetables

coconuts


The first three production systems are widespread among small farmers.

Only in Hillsborough would the pig and poultry system be absent. The
"typical" small farm system would consist of one or more corn/pigeon pea
gardens (possibly interplanted with one or more other crops), plus some
ruminant livestock, plus at least one pig and several heads of poultry.
The small farm system might also include a small Musa garden, and/or a
few tree crops.


About six farmers only grow vegetables for sale on the local market,
usually as a subsidiary production system to the others. The total area of

vegetables in Carriacou probably does not exceed 2 ha. A few farmers may
have a very small kitchen garden producing seasonally a few vegetables.


These seven production systems will be described and discussed one
by one.


2,. THE CORN/PIGEON PEA SYSTEM:

This is practised by virtually every household in Carriacou to produce
food for home consumption. Only occasionally is any produce sold. The supply
of grain usually may last for a year or two and there are normally no purchased

inputs used: the farm family provides labour and the seed. On flatter lands
a tractor may be hired to plough, at a subsidized rate of $30 per hour.










2. FARMING SYSTEMS



The Farm Pro.duction Systems of Carriacou comprise a subset of at

least two of the following systems:
corn/pigeon peas

ruminant livestock/paEture

pigs and poultry

Musa spp
tree crops
mixed vegetables

coconuts


The first three production systems are widespread among small farmers.

Only in Hillsborough would the pig and poultry system be absent. The
"typical" small farm system would consist of one or more corn/pigeon pea
gardens (possibly interplanted with one or more other crops), plus some
ruminant livestock, plus at least one pig and several heads of poultry.
The small farm system might also include a small Musa garden, and/or a
few tree crops.


About six farmers only grow vegetables for sale on the local market,
usually as a subsidiary production system to the others. The total area of

vegetables in Carriacou probably does not exceed 2 ha. A few farmers may
have a very small kitchen garden producing seasonally a few vegetables.


These seven production systems will be described and discussed one
by one.


2,. THE CORN/PIGEON PEA SYSTEM:

This is practised by virtually every household in Carriacou to produce
food for home consumption. Only occasionally is any produce sold. The supply
of grain usually may last for a year or two and there are normally no purchased

inputs used: the farm family provides labour and the seed. On flatter lands
a tractor may be hired to plough, at a subsidized rate of $30 per hour.










The parcels cultivated under this system : : usually referred to as

"gardens" vary in size from less than O.Olha to about 1.0 ha. Many
households have several gardens at various distances from the homestead,
often with different tenurial arrangements. The gardens may be fenced or
unfenced. Fencing minimises damage by livestock and enables the farmers
to pen his own animals in the garden to graze crop residues during the dry
season "leggo" season)


Historically, the corn and pigeon peas were interplanted in cotton
when the latter was a cash crop and the former were subsistence (food)
crops. With the demise of cotton, the system has become one in which corn
and pigeon peas are the major and consistent components: there may or may
not be other components. The commonest of these other components are sweet
potato and cassava, but also observed were bonavist beans (Lab-lab niger),
lima beans, peanuts, Vigna spp and cucurbits and okras. These subsidiary
intercrops are often planted sporadically over the garden, often at low
densities (i.e. wide spacings). Some may be volunteers from the previous
year. Carriacou farmers are unwilling to remove any useful plant.


Examples of the planting patterns observed and measured are given in
Figure 2. Appendix IV Tables I, and II summarise the data and observations
made. Corn and pigeon peas may be planted in the same hole (or hill), as in
Fig. 2A, or in separate holes or hills, as in Fig. 2B. (For clarity, the
separate holes or hillL of pigeon peas has been referred to as a "clump").
A variant on this latter is to locate the clumps a short distance to the side
of the corn hill (Fig. 2C), rather than midway between the rows of corn hills.
Another variant is to have pigeon peas both in the corn hills and in clumps,
as in Figs. 2D and F, though both these examples include additional intercrops.

Fig. 2E shows separate corn hills and pigeon pea clumps with apparently
randomly planted sweet potatoes. Fig. 2F shows a system with cassava and
sweet potatoes and with an unusually large number of pigeon pea clumps,
somewhat haphazardly arranged. The patterns in Fig. 2 are all to scale, and
the numbers of corn, pigeon pea plants and other intercrops shown are based
on actual counts.
















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Fig, 2 Planting patterns of oorn and pigeon peas in the corn/pigeon pea system.
See text for descriptions.








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Based on 25 sets of measurements and counts, the planting patterns
can be summarised as follows:

Mean area per hill 1.86 m2 (+ 0.627), with a range from 1.00 m2
to 3.23 m2

Mean plant population of corn 294 per 100 m2 (+ 113.0), with a
range from 122 to 600 (per 100 m2 ). Note that 100 m2 is 1/100 ha,
so the plant population per ha can easily be derived.

Mean plant population of pigeon peas 272 per 100 m2 (+ 168.1), with
a range from 91 to 840. Sixteen gardens had pigeon peas in the
corn hill, with a mean plant population of 122 (+ 56.0) and range
of 66 to 240. Nineteen gardens hd. pigeon peas in clumps, with a
mean plant population of 254 (+ 167.5) and range 102 to 773.

Mean number of corn plants per hill 4.9 + 1.12, with a range from
3.1 to 7.3.

Mean number of pigeon pea plants per hill 2.1 + 0.94 with a range
from 0.8 to 3.9, and in clumps 4.0 + 1.79 with a range from 2.0
to 9.3.


Only one corn/pigeon pea crop is taken per year, the crop lasting from
June (or July, depending on the start of the rains) until February or March
when the last of the pigeon peas will have been reaped. The crop residues
are then grazed, either by animals penned in the garden if it is fenced, or
by any animals under the leggo system if it is not fenced. The same land
is put into corn and pigeon peas the next year and so on. Pasture lands
may be put into corn/pigeon peas, usually by a process of minimal tillage.
Only one example of slash-and-burn cultivation was seen: a small area of
secondary woodland had been cut for charcoal, the brush heaped and burnt and
planting done among the ashes and stumps using a heavy hoe. Very few examples
of ratoon pigeon peas were seen. One garden of about 0.5 ha and well-fenced
had a very weedy ratoon crop of pigeon peas. Our impression was that it had











been abandoned. One farmer had a small area of cut-back and ratooned
pigeon peas, interplanted with corn and volunteer sweet potatoes. Land
which has carried several annual crops of corn and pigeon peas occasionally
is allowed to tumble down to pasture. either by design or because the family
can no longer work such a large area. Few farmers plant-pastures.


The sequence of operations and approximate timing is given below:

Land clearing this is done in April .or May. Crop residues,
especially pigeon pea,roots and stumps from thenrrevious year are
pulled or cut, heaped and burnt.


Land preparation the clear lands are either ploughed by-tractor

.(hired from MOA at $30 per hour) or prepared by heavy, hoe or by
forking.- Ploughing is possibly only on-flatter:lands with good.
access. Steeper lands, and less accessible lands are prepared by
hoeing or forking. This contributes to considerablysoil erosion,
both by wind and by the first heavy rains. Land preparation is
normally done in May and June. Older farmers may start earlier.
No other land preparation is done other than the operations mentioned
above. Of the 25 gardens observed,.11 used tractor ploughing, one
of these also forking the steeper, unploughable areas;eight used
solely k'. forking, five for hoeing and one *- a combination of
these two.


Planting is done in June with the first rains.. Early planting is
favoured, as it is thought to reduce armyworm damage. Several seeds
of corn alone, or corn and pigeon peas are dropped in holes made by
a hoe. If pigeon peas are to be planted in clumps, this is done
later, as soon as the corn (or corn and pigeon pea) hills have emerged
to indicate the rows. One farmer stated that she planted corn.and
pigeon peas separately if she had time, but together if she was in
a hurry. Seeds are covered after planting. Seed is. always from
the previous year's crop. Supplying is usually done later after the
first weeding: this results in considerable variations in height and
growth stage a.oxagghills, and a consequent spread iniharvest.











-Weeding this is normally done in July or August, depending on
planting time and weed growth. The first weeding is done late, when
weeds are 30-40 cm high. The corn and pigeon peas are often chlorotic
at the time of weeding. The practice of using relatively widely
spaced hills may be related to the practice of late weeding: hills
are more easily seen amidst the weeds than .ingle..plants add
weeding is easier as there is more room to manoeuvre. A hoe is
invariably used for the first weeding, which is combined with a
-moulding-up. At the first weeding, weeds are usually heaped among
the hills, but may be carried off to feed to animals. Weeds within
the hills, or close to the hills are removed by hand. Some loss of
corn plants, but more: especially of pigeon peas occurs during this
first weeding. All detailed observations reported herein were made
on crops weeded and usually .also moulded up, partly at least because
late planted crops were uncommon. Most gardens had a very low level
of weed cover: 75% of gardens visited had 5% or less weed cover. A
tentative weed list is given in Appendix 3.


- .Supplying this follows weeding. Other intercrops may be planted
at this time especially cassava and sweet potatoes. If pigeon pea
numbers in the hills are low, clumps may be planted between the rows
at this time.


- Moulding-up and a second weeding this is done in August or
early September, by hoe. Only one instance of a machete being used
for this second weeding was noted. Weeds are usually small and
sparse, as this operation is done only three or four weeks after
the first weeding. Soil is pulled up around the corn or corn/
pigeon pea hills. Moulds varied in height some were very marked
and 15-20 cm high, others usually where there were intercrops were
much lower. Pigeon pea clumps were hardly moulded.










Thinning this is done with the second weeding and moulding-up
usually. Although most farmers indicated that they thinned their
corn at least, there was evidence from some gardens that this was
either not done, or done very inconsistently. Standard errors of
the mean number of corn plants per hill were sometimes large
relative to means. One garden had a mean of 7.0 + 0.00, indicating
very careful thinning whilst another with a mean of 7.2 + 2.10 had
a range (among 10 hills) from 3 to 10. In a few recently weeded
gardens direct evidence of thinning could be seen.


Some farmers feed the corn thinnings to their livestock particularly

pigs, but this is far from common practice. Pigeon peas may or may not be
thinned but it is likely that some"self-thinning" occurs in the denser hills
and clumps.


Insect Control All but one garden showed armyworm (Spodoptra epp,)
damage on the corn. In four instances this was regarded as economy,
The percentage of plants damaged was in a few cases up to 90% eleven
(of the 25) gardens had 50% or more plants showing damage. A few
farmers use Sevin as a means of control usually at an excessive rat-.
The method of application was from a squeeze bottle an old washing-up
detergent bottle. The other control method was to sprinkle some
soil in the corn whorl, but many farmers attempted no control at
all. The MOA had recently brought in a mist-blower, knapsack sprayer
and an insecticide and intended to carry out some control.


Reaping of Corn This begins in September continuing into October.
Green corn will be taken as soon as ready for boiling or roasting,
but most of the crop will be reaped dry. If the area is large, so
that reaping of dry corn must be protracted, some plants will be ben;
to. shed water from the dry cobs. Dry cobs are shelled, usually by










hand or with a grater and stored in 45-gallon oil drums, after a
period of sun-drying. Black pepper, freshly ground may be added

as an insect repellent. The drums are sealed and corn may be

stored for two or more years. The stover may be pushed down to

the ground or cut and fed to animals. A few farmers may cut the

tops of the plants while still green, for feeding. After reaping
the corn there is usually no weeding done nor any other operation.


- Weeding of Pigeon Peas This is sometimes done using a machete,

after the corn has been reaped, and the corn plants cut or pushed

down or removed.


- Reaping of Pigeon Peas This is done over a period of time from
December to February and most are reaped dry. Storage is either
in pods, in bags or shelled in drums, with black pepper with or

without addition of ground cinnamon and cloves. The dry peas examined

were all in good condition with a minimum of insect damage.


- Grazing By the time reaping of pigeon peas has finished, the dry
season has long since started. Corn/pigeon peas gardens are grazed
either by the farmers own animals, if fenced or by any animals if

not, during the "leggo" season. Only occasionally is grazing not

done, and the pigeon peas kept over to the next season, or cut back
for ratooning. One farm had corn and sweet potatoes planted in cut-
back and ratooned pigeon peas.









Some Points to Note are:


-No use of fertilizer : apart from its local unavailability unless
brought in from Grenada, farmers maintain that the soil is fertile
and needs no fertilizer. The only chlorotic looking crops seen were
those very recently weeded, or not yet weeded where corn and
weeds were about 40-50 cm tall..


-For most farmers there is no cash outlay involved. Very few
farmers hire any labour, and the only purchased input used is by
just a few farmers who use Sevin insecticide for armywdrm control.


Most farmers had no other crops other than those grown as part
of their corn/pigeon peas system (i.e. other intercrops), apart
from a few fruit trees.


Labour requirements are distinctly peaked : land preparation,
weeding and moulding-up and reaping would all require many man days.
Since there are no other production systems requiring at these
times, a substantial input of labour there would appear not to
be competition for labour between systems. But labour resources
may well limit the area that can be prepared, planted and cared for.


There would appear to be considerable "intra-hill" competition
among corn plants, but our visit was too early to enable any
examination of this. Some corn plants in the denser hill did
appear to have small ears.









2.2 THE RUMINANT LIVESTOCK/PASTURE SYSTEM:


Estimates of li-estock numbers in Carriacou and Petit Martinique,

based on the 1982 sample survey (Ministry of Planning, 1984) give the
following numbers:
Cattle 760
Goats 1090
Sheep 2945

However, unless the livestock population has declined dramatically,

these figures do not tally with records of sales made in 1977-78, when nearly
3000 sheep and about 2000 goats were shipped to Trinidad alone. Ruminants
constitute the major income source for Carriacou farmers. Animals are shipped
live to Trinidad and Grenada and fresh beef and sheep or goat mutton are not
easily obtained in Carriacou.


The livestock can be, described as "creole". Many sheep and goats are
rather small. There have been attempts to improve the sheep by introducing
Barbados blackbelly rams, and the Ministry of Agriculture currently have a
project on sheep imprc-ement based at the Agricultural Stations at Dumfries
and Limlair. This aims at improving the genetic potential but also has a
pasture improvement component. Craigston Estate has a large flock (ca 500?)
of black-belly sheep. There were indications that some of the cattle were of
the red-poll type.


Pastures are poor, and with few exceptions there are no attempts at
improvement even of fenced pastures. Pasture grasses include Andropogos spp.
Digitaria spp., Axonopus compressus, Cynodos dactylon Chloris spp. and others.
Pasture legumes, except for a few Desmodium spp. are almost entirely absent.
Gliricidia depium and wild Leucaena leucocephala and other woody legume
species are found in hedgerows and thickets and are browsed. However many
pastures, especially unfenced "common" lands at some distance from homesteads

abound in Acacia spp, Opuntia spp. and other scrubby plants. On the steeper









slopes these weeds may perform the valuable function of conserving soil.
Cn some lowland pastures, la.ge areas had been invaded by Dativa stramonium

(thornapple), a highly toxic plant.


Many pastures are unfenced and are in effect communal : these may be

Crown lands that at one time were managed as communal pastures, private lands
that are unused and old estate lands that have been abandoned. Farmer gardens
on the steeper hillsides are in many instances used as pastures. But for
grazing pressure they would probably have reverted to secondary woodland.


Alo3 used for grazing during the dry season are most of the corn/pigeon pea

gardens: the exceptions are those fenced gardens where the farmer wishes to
ratoon or crry over his pigeon peas.

Fenced pastures appear little better than the unfenced pastures: there

is no attempt at weed control or control of grazing. The only instances
o improved ;zaturzcz observed were at Dumfries and Limlair Agricultural
Stations: these were areas of elephant and guinea grass. A nursery area for
Leucaena was being established at Dumfries, under the auspices of the National
Science and Technology Council. Two farmers at least planned to plant fenced
paddocks to improved grasses, one at Dover and one south of Windward.


Pasture resources th-n are poor. Overgrazing discourages or eliminates

the more productive species .nd leads to soil erosion and the invasion of
weeds and crubc. -liny instances of soil slippage were seen on sloping lands.


The typical mani-gemcnt of ruminants is as follows. From June ti:rough

February they are normally tethered on communal grazing lands, old gardens,
roadside or on private pastures. Even in fence' pastures sheep and goats
were often tethered, presumably for ease of control. Water is carried to the
animals once a day unless they are to be taken home at night. Some animals

are not taken at night but are moved daily to a new area.











From February or March, many animals are "let go" : this is the "leggo"

season. The start of the leggo season varies from place to place in the
island, and depends on the amount of forage available, and on the farmers'
forage resources. Farmers with fenced pastures may not let their animals

go er may delay this until their forage resources make it necessary. A
few farmers use cut-and-carry to feed their animals duringg the beginning of
the "leggo" season, but with depletion of forage resources they usually have
to eventually let them go. Animals wander far and wide in search of forage.
Cattle and sheep may return home at night, especially if they are watered
at a particular time. But many farmers would not see their animals, especially
goats for many months.


Inevitably the animals lose condition : the quantity and quality of the
forage available progressively declines. Animals are re-possessed at the
start of the rainy season. This is crucial to the corn/pigeon pea system
and in many locations means that only a short time is available for land
preparation. Animals are sold live year round, but there is a peak in sales
towards the end of the dry season, possibly due to a need for cash at this
time.


Cattle are seldom milked, farmers preferring to allow the calf to
suckle. Milk yields would be low, but there is some scope for household use
of fresh milk. The supply would be seasonal, and presumably negligible during
much of the leggo season.


There is a wild goat problem: these live on the uppe- slopes of the
hills and prevent any reafforestation. One suggestion was the planting of
mauby as this is not debarked or browsed by goats, and spreads by root suckers.
These wild goats are sometimes caught by driving them into nets. Some farmers
lay claim to these goats, so proposals to eradicate them have not been followed
up. There are also a few wild .ogs that periodically prey on sheep.














Water resources for animals are limited. At one time there were a

number of ponds which were fenced and had a pump to raise water into drinking
troughs. These ponds are now unfenced, and animals must go down into the
pond to drink resulting in occasional losses. There is a need for more ponds
and better watering facilities.


Veterinary care is minimal. Carriacou does not have a resident

veterinary officer but there are two animal health officers. A deworming
programme was started using the broad-spectrum dewormer Panacur. This was
available at EC$1.00 per dose, but farmers have not continued to practice'
regular deworming. There is thought to be a high incidence of coccidiosis,

but this needs to be investigated.


There was at one time a fencing subsidy, and many gardens and pastures

are fenced. There has been little recent fencing done, but a few farmers
are embarking on a programme of pasture improvement, and have fenced their
paddocks.

Points to Note Include:

This system entails little cash expenditure. Occasionally ropes for
tethering and buckets for providing water must be purchased.
Labour requirements are low: the seasonal pattern depends on how
the animals are handled during the leggo season. During the rainy
season ars hour or two may be spent moving animals and watering them.

There is no conservation of forage except the saving of pigeon peas
for browse, nor is there much "cut and carry"

With few exceptions there are no attempts to improve pastures
by weed control, planting, fertilisinzg or regulation of stocking
rates and resting of pasture:. The island is overstocked with its
present forage resources,.





23









2.3 THE PIGS AND POULTRY SYSTEM:


Pi-s are of "creole" unimproved stock, but based on the saddleback

breed. Pig-keeping is a backyard activity, with the pigs kept in mall
sties, tethered under a tree or on rough pasture, or penned in a corner
of a field. Only occasionally were free ranging pigs observed.


There is no serious breeding, but some farmers do produce weaners

for sale to others : many farmers keep only one or two pigs at a time
to fatten.


Pigs are fed largely on kitchen scraps and farm wastes. Browsing

pigs would pick up fallen fruits, and would dig for insect grubs, roots etc.
There is little supplemental feeding, but cracked grains and peas are
fed, and many farmers occasionally purchase a little coconut meal imported
from Grenada to feed to their pigs. Pigs are not dewormed, and many appear
to carry a heavy worm burden.


Pig meat is the only meat consistently available as fresh meat in

the local market, so some farmers do earn some income from their pigs.
The quality of meat is predictably poor : thick back fat and tough lean
meat. Farmers killing for the household normally "corn" (i.e. pickle) some
of the meat, and may sundry some for storage.


Poultry are invariably "creole" fowl,kept on a free-range system

and roosting wherever they can. Few eggs are collected and many are
doubtless lost to rats. Fowvi are killed for eating from time to time, but
chicks are regularly being hatched :- by broody hens to maintain the flock.
As with the pigs, the poultry forage for weed seeds and insects and are
fed kitchen scrape, cracked grains and farm wastes. There is virtually
no trade in local eggs and poultry meat : these items are imported regularly.











2.4 THE MUSA SPP SYSTEM


Small gardens of bananas, plantains and bluggoe are to be found on

many holdings, usually within the yard, or fenced in. Bluggoe is the most
widely grown Musa spp. Because of its susceptibility to Moko Disease, an
attempt is being made to eradicate bluggoe and other Musa spp that are
affected by the disease. This proposal has met with some resistance, based
largely on the matter of compensation and was not being actively implemented
at the time of the survey.


The Musa gardens are not fertilized, nor do they receive other inputs.

Many apparently receive little atLfention. Bluggoe, plantain and bananas
are important in household diets and are also a minor source of income to
some farmers.


2.5 THE TREE CROP SYSTEM:


Lime trees are a relic of the former lime industry scattered and
neglected trees are found in ruinate pasture, and, less commonly overgrown
with scrub, especially on the former lime estates of Craigston, Dumfries and
Sabazan. Other tree crops include various Annona spp. soursopp, sweetsop
or sugar apple and custard apple), tamarind, breadfruit and occasionally
mangoes, oranges and grapefruit, Avocadoes are almost totally absent.


Many of these trees.are found in yards, in pastures or along pasture
fencelines. There is little or no trade in these fruits- but some tamarind
is exported to Trinidad and they are used mainly in the home. Tree crops
receive no real care. One farmer visited had a grape trellis, producing for
the local market.











2.4 THE MUSA SPP SYSTEM


Small gardens of bananas, plantains and bluggoe are to be found on

many holdings, usually within the yard, or fenced in. Bluggoe is the most
widely grown Musa spp. Because of its susceptibility to Moko Disease, an
attempt is being made to eradicate bluggoe and other Musa spp that are
affected by the disease. This proposal has met with some resistance, based
largely on the matter of compensation and was not being actively implemented
at the time of the survey.


The Musa gardens are not fertilized, nor do they receive other inputs.

Many apparently receive little atLfention. Bluggoe, plantain and bananas
are important in household diets and are also a minor source of income to
some farmers.


2.5 THE TREE CROP SYSTEM:


Lime trees are a relic of the former lime industry scattered and
neglected trees are found in ruinate pasture, and, less commonly overgrown
with scrub, especially on the former lime estates of Craigston, Dumfries and
Sabazan. Other tree crops include various Annona spp. soursopp, sweetsop
or sugar apple and custard apple), tamarind, breadfruit and occasionally
mangoes, oranges and grapefruit, Avocadoes are almost totally absent.


Many of these trees.are found in yards, in pastures or along pasture
fencelines. There is little or no trade in these fruits- but some tamarind
is exported to Trinidad and they are used mainly in the home. Tree crops
receive no real care. One farmer visited had a grape trellis, producing for
the local market.










2.6 THE MIXED VEGETABLE SYSTEM:


About six farmers only grow vegetables for sale. One area of about

1.0 ha contained hot and sweet peppers, tomato, bodi bean, okra, carrots,
lettuce, cabbage, cauliflower, watermelon, suap (pole) beans and beet.
Also grown in this area were corn and pigeon peas, bananas, sorrel, peanuts,
sweet potato, citrus, tumeric and some herbs. This garden was run by a
group of Rastafarians who aimed to be largely self-sufficient in food, but
made an income from sales of some of these vegetables.


Other vegetable growers had a much more limited range of vegetables
and operated smaller areas.


Vegetables generally receive inputs of fertilizer and/or manure and
pesticides. Production is highly seasonal : none of these farmers had
irrigation and water is a major constraint. The income derived from vegetable
is probably mall. Other farmers may grow a very small quantity of one or
two vegetables in the yard.


The Ministry of Agriculture currently has a programme to increase home
production of vegetables, recognizing that these would improve family nutrition,
and reduce the need for imports into Carriacou from Grenada.



2.7 TEE COCONUT SYSTEM :

Small graves are found, mainly on sandy soils above the beaches, along the
road from the cirport to Hillsborough, and in L'Esterre where corn and pigeon peas
are grc-n on sandy soils under coconuts. Elsewhere, only scattered coconut
palms are to be found. The palms are old (probably at least 45years old) and
the groves were severely thinned by Hurricane Janet in 1955. They are now
neglected with an understory of sea-grape, mangrove or scrub. No fertilizer is
used and there is little concerted effort to reap fallen nuts. Attempts at
replanting have been consistently thwarted by grazing animals during the "leggo"
season, when most ruminants are released to browse all over the place.










2.6 THE MIXED VEGETABLE SYSTEM:


About six farmers only grow vegetables for sale. One area of about

1.0 ha contained hot and sweet peppers, tomato, bodi bean, okra, carrots,
lettuce, cabbage, cauliflower, watermelon, suap (pole) beans and beet.
Also grown in this area were corn and pigeon peas, bananas, sorrel, peanuts,
sweet potato, citrus, tumeric and some herbs. This garden was run by a
group of Rastafarians who aimed to be largely self-sufficient in food, but
made an income from sales of some of these vegetables.


Other vegetable growers had a much more limited range of vegetables
and operated smaller areas.


Vegetables generally receive inputs of fertilizer and/or manure and
pesticides. Production is highly seasonal : none of these farmers had
irrigation and water is a major constraint. The income derived from vegetable
is probably mall. Other farmers may grow a very small quantity of one or
two vegetables in the yard.


The Ministry of Agriculture currently has a programme to increase home
production of vegetables, recognizing that these would improve family nutrition,
and reduce the need for imports into Carriacou from Grenada.



2.7 TEE COCONUT SYSTEM :

Small graves are found, mainly on sandy soils above the beaches, along the
road from the cirport to Hillsborough, and in L'Esterre where corn and pigeon peas
are grc-n on sandy soils under coconuts. Elsewhere, only scattered coconut
palms are to be found. The palms are old (probably at least 45years old) and
the groves were severely thinned by Hurricane Janet in 1955. They are now
neglected with an understory of sea-grape, mangrove or scrub. No fertilizer is
used and there is little concerted effort to reap fallen nuts. Attempts at
replanting have been consistently thwarted by grazing animals during the "leggo"
season, when most ruminants are released to browse all over the place.









3. SOCIOECONOMIC SYSTEM


A schematic representation of the socioeconomic determinants of

a typical Carriacouan farm household is presented in Figure 3. There are
two major categories of socioeconomic determinants: endogenous determinants
and exogenous determinants. The former involves the farm household, the
factors of production that it controls' and allocates, and its decision
making processes as it relates to production and consumption; the latter
involves the social milieu in which the farming household, operates i.e.
the realm of community structures, norms and beliefs, all of which influence
farm decisions.


3.1 ENDOGENOUS DETERMINANTS:


Farm Househ(:.d This is the focus of all decision making. Furthermore,

because the Carriacouan farm family tends to be subsistence oriented, the
unit of production is also the unit of consumption : Surplu .food is fed
to the livestock or given away to friends and relatives. Food(rice, macaroni,
salt, sugarmilk, canned fish and meats, cooking oil) which is not produced
within the farm itself is purchased with money from off-farm employment
(when available) and more so from remittances and from savings.


Every single family in Carriacou owns livestock and cultivates if nothing
else, at least, corn and pigeon peas. Presumablyevery single family also
has relatives living abroad. These relatives send remittances regularly. As
such remittances become an integral part of the households' income and
expenditure.









3. SOCIOECONOMIC SYSTEM


A schematic representation of the socioeconomic determinants of

a typical Carriacouan farm household is presented in Figure 3. There are
two major categories of socioeconomic determinants: endogenous determinants
and exogenous determinants. The former involves the farm household, the
factors of production that it controls' and allocates, and its decision
making processes as it relates to production and consumption; the latter
involves the social milieu in which the farming household, operates i.e.
the realm of community structures, norms and beliefs, all of which influence
farm decisions.


3.1 ENDOGENOUS DETERMINANTS:


Farm Househ(:.d This is the focus of all decision making. Furthermore,

because the Carriacouan farm family tends to be subsistence oriented, the
unit of production is also the unit of consumption : Surplu .food is fed
to the livestock or given away to friends and relatives. Food(rice, macaroni,
salt, sugarmilk, canned fish and meats, cooking oil) which is not produced
within the farm itself is purchased with money from off-farm employment
(when available) and more so from remittances and from savings.


Every single family in Carriacou owns livestock and cultivates if nothing
else, at least, corn and pigeon peas. Presumablyevery single family also
has relatives living abroad. These relatives send remittances regularly. As
such remittances become an integral part of the households' income and
expenditure.










SCHEMATIC REPRESENTATION OF THE SOCIO-ECONOMIC DETERMINANTS OF A
----TYPC AL CARIACUAN FARM FAMIL
TYPICAL CARRIACOUAN FARM FAMILY


Exogenous


-I Integrated
canmnities
Strong family ties
Moonshine
traditions and
beliefs
Fbod exchange
Payment of labour
in kind
Exste onal
Institutions


K>


Land


Crops
L_


Edlogenous




Farm Household
- --ecisi- on Mak--- -ers
Decision Makers


Capital


Labour


purchased food


Consunoption



Savings -
: limited )


Management
f


Livestock


Crop/livestock interaction
crop residue: feed
pen manure: fertilizer


I,


I. --- r


.r Off-fan employment
Income ( .-


Remittance















i' .


FIG. 3.


-- ---- ------------- -- I


__


--- -


--


__


(


p,














Although the farm household's production system is substantial enough
to provide for a fairly well balanced meal,at least during the rainy season,.

:.e money received as remittances helps to diversify the diet by providing
for the purchase of energy foods. It is also the general opinion of farm
householdss that food purchases increase during the dry season the younger
generationn do not quite like food prepared from dry corn- at which time the
importance of remittances becomes even more significant.


Apart from remittances, another source of income, not generated by the
farming system itself is savings. Many of the older Carriacouans have
returned home after having lived and worked in such places as Aruba and the
unitedd Kingdom. Whilst working abroad they sent home money to build houses
and to save. Also some of them who worked in the public and private
sector in the United Kingdom now receive a pension.


Farm Production The typical farm household in Carriacou allocates
two factors of production (land and labour) to three processes (crop, livestock
and off-farm enterprises). Although capital is ordinarily an important factor
of production, the level of capital input (i.e. only in terms of cash outlay)
is so minimal as to be negligible. The only capital expense that was recorded
in nearly all instances was that used for the purchase of farm implements
(fork, hoe, cutlass, spade) and in some instances for the hire of tractor
services (at $30 an hour) for land preparation. In the extremely small
number of instances where the farm household recorded a cash outlay the
expenses incurred were that of seed material (primarily for vegetables) and
hired labour which is paid both in cash and in food refreshments.


The farm family is the decision making unit linking the unit of production
sad theunit of consumption. All decisions pertaining to level of production
depend on a combination of the following:












a. size of family and therefore amount of food, particularly corn
and pigeon peas, needed for consumption;

b. amount of corn and pigeon peas left over from the previous harvest;

c. the surplus food needed in the event of a feast and for gifts to
neighbours and relatives;

d. the availability of planting material;

e. the availability of family labour;

f. the time of the first rains.

g. the se.erity of the dry season.


Discussions with farm households reveal that land is not a limiting
factor. Although much of the land tends to be held in family ownership, land
disputes are extremely rare because many of the members of the family which
has ownership rights to the land are abroad or too old to work the land.
Furthermore, since the predominant cropping system is one of short term crops,
land is always available for any family member who decides to farm. In any
event there is such a strong emphasis on food exchange that a family member
has rights to the produce of the land even if he/she did not help in the
cultivation of the crop. Very often dried pigeon peas, corn meal and
corned-pork are also sent to relatives who live abroad. It is therefore very
typical for a Carriacouan. family to produce a surplus for storage. There
are many families who have corn which was harvested two years ago. Corn
more than two years old is used as feed for the yard fowls.


If the farm family decides that the corn and pigeon peas in storage
far exceeds the anticipated demand, it cuts back on production for that year.
In this way the farm family is able to manipulate its corn and pigeon pea-
supplies according to the family consumption demands. This process does not
however apply to other crops i) which are perishable and cannot therefore be
stored and ii) whose production primarily depends on the availability of
Planting material.









Livestock production is geared first for the market and then for
family consumption. Sheep, goats and cattle are reared for sale while
poultry and swine are reared for the farm family's meat protein. Only on
very rare occasions are the ruminants slaughtered for home consumption and
that too usually in August when family members living abroad return for the
yearly Regatta. Moot families prefer to purchase imported frozen chicken
parts, usually the wings and if a pig is slaughtered much of the meat is
salted and dried for storage and for sending away to relatives and friends
living outside Carriacou.


Since the livestock is regarded as an income earning component of the
farming systems. The farm family is willing to spend money on its maintenance.
During the wet season when the animals are tethered in pastures usually
quite away from the homestead*4 water is carried to them. Their grazing spots
are also changed daily and money is sometimes spent on purchasing vetir.rary
medicines.


The size of the herd depends on:
i) the availability of family labour;
ii) the amount of money needed for expenses;
iii) the demand for family consumption.

Most Carriacouans regard livestock as a source of saving; the interest
on the savings is computed on the number of surviving newborns and the increase
in the size of the herd.


Off Farm Employment Agricultural production is seasonal. This coupled
with the very unpredictable rains makes off-farm employment.very desirous.
Unfortunately employment opportunities in Carriacou are extremely limited.
Public sector employment in an island the size of Carriacou is understandably
restricted. Whatever employment is available is mostly self generated. The
number of small grocery rum liquor stores scattered throughout the island is
quite remarkable. These stores usually provide credit facilities.



*/The animals have to be kept away from all cultivated land.







3.2 EXOGENOUS DETERMINANTS


Community Structure:

Community Structure: Due to the smallness in size of the community,
social integration is very marked.

This is reflected in:
1) labour exchange
2) food exchange
3) payment in kind, usually by way of food and liquor.

Some farmers claimed that such cohesiveness sometimes worked to their
detriment, i.e. they were expected to give away the food free than to
sell it. On the other hand, because the community is well integrated, it
also functions as a sanctioning institution. Nearly every family in
Carriacou plants corn and pigeon peas (even if there is sufficient corn and
peas stored away)not only because it needs the food but because it does not
want to be shamed and accused of being lazy. i.e. "where were you when the
rains came?"

Familial relationships The cohesiveness that is observed at the
communal level is reflected at the family level too. Most households are
extended families and span at least three generations. Very close ties
are also maintained with those relatives who live abroad.

Most farming activities are carried out by the farm family.

Moonshine Traditions Most farm households possess a McDonald
Almanac. They claim that they plant according to the phases of the moon
but because the rains are so very unpredictable in Carriacou most people
tend to overlook the moon phase for planting. It is very important at

time of harvest.











Other agriculturally related beliefs include those to ward:off the:.evil
spirit, "to stop people talking about the good corn and pigeon peas in the
field.' It is generally believed that piercing 3 limes in a stick, inverting
a bottle over it and placing the 'charm' in the field will ward away the
spirits as will planting aloes amongst the crops.


Animal sacrifices are common and form an integral part of the rituals
involved in launching a boat. Related rituals are the 'Big Drum' which
is of 'Ibo' tradition and which is performed at major feasts.


In the days when agriculture was an important activity in Carriacou,
the 'Crop Over' was a feast celebrated in October to m~rk the first harvests
of the corn.


Finally, the Mount Royal and Mount D'or areas are usually identified
as areas where 'Shango' (Spirit vworthp)) is still practised.


External Institutions There are two banks in Carriacou (Barclays and
the National Commercial Bank). The Marketing and National Import Board brings
in perishable produce twice a week for sale. There is also a limited amount
of sale in the central market in Hillsborough.


While on the subject of marketing, mention must be made of the traditional
way in which prices are set and of the general attitudes to price setting.
Prices are not set according to the laws of supply and demand. Instead the
farmer wants a price just less than the retail price at which the commodity
is being retailed. Very often the farmer is not willing to reduce the price;
he/she would rather give away the produce than to sell it at a price which
he/she does not think is fair. Farmers also tend to want to set prices according
to the amount of money they need in order to make-other purchases.

The above is a description of the socioeconomic subsystem of the farm
system. It refers to the farm family and its decision making processes. The
socioeconomic subsystem and the agro-ecosystems interact to form a farm system
which will be described in the following chapter.








4. INTEGRATED FARMING SYSTEM


The typical Carriacou Farming System is one with two distinct
components: a cropping system which is maintained primarily for the
consumption of the farm household, and a livestock system which is maintained
primarily for sale. The livestock system is further subdivided into two
categories: poultry and swine which are reared for home consumpticf and
for sale within Carriacou, and ruminants which are reared for export to
Grenada and, more so, to Trinidad. The interaction between the crop and
livestock system is by way of i) utilization of crop residue (corn plants,
sweet potato, vines, corn)as livestock feed, and ii)utilization of pen
manure as organic manure.

Figure 4 summarises some of the interactions for a typical Carriacouan
Farm, with the following component systems:

corn/pigeon pea system in one or more gardens, one of which may
be adjacent to and around the homestead,
ruminant livestock/pasture system, with sheep, goats and cattle,
pigs and poultry system, with the pigs tethered or in pens close
to homestead,
Musa spp. with one or more other fruit trees.
labour (1)invariably provided by the household (or by a close
relative for the heavier activities, such as land clearing and
preparation);
Inputs (I) provided from within the farm at no cash cost include
seeds, planting material (e.g. of cassava and sweet potato),
SCash ($) flows both in and out. inward cash flows come from sales or
remittances, outward cash flows are for rent, purchases of food
and tools, etc. or purchase of inputs.
Food (F)flows into thehousehold for family consumption and
to family members living abroad,
S waste or by-product (W) are used for feed and include corn stalks,
weeds, pigeon pea browse, spoilt or unused fruit.








FIG 4: The interactions and flows for a typical
-farm production system


i$
$ $


F food, L = labour I = farm input,
M manure. A dashed (-) line indicates
may not occur.


W ;. Waste or by-products
that the flow may or










The farm family is the unit of consumption and the unit of production.
Furthermore the cost of production tends towards zero because:


given the limited employment opportunities available, the
opportunity cost for farm labour is zero;

if farm labour is not utilized in the farm itself it will remain
un or under-utilizedl

all planting material is generated from within the farm itself;

the livestock feed is of minimal cost because the animals are
either fed crop residue or left to graze on unimproved pastures

the use of chemical inputs is negligible, and

the cost of land is relatively small.


Farm income is generated primarily from the sale of livestock. The
farm family is also heavily dependent on remittances. Every Carriacou family
has at least one of its members living abroad and it is the tradition, "to
.help out the family back home". Whenever available, employment in a
non-farm enterprise is also an important source of income.

The income that is generated by the farm family is very seldom used for
the development of the farming system itself. Instead it is used to:


supplement the farm family's food requirements (i.e. purchase
of flour, sugar, rice, milk, salt meat and fish protein)


purchase items of conspicuous consumption.


Figure 5 summarizes an integrated farming system in Carriacou.









SUMMARY OF A TYPICAL CARRIACOUAN FARMING SYSTEM


t oo ,nputs


- -" Off-farm employ-
Sment $ Remi.
'I IUnit ff cnn,


Income


L



Labou
Labour


mps Livestock

Scrpe crops
carn fowls
pigeon peas swine
S sweet potatoes sheep
groundnuts goats
( vegetables

I______ spp. ___W.


-U


------- -
-~r, =- --


I


~ii


Market



f





I


I
f


/ ,


(


__~_


FIG. 5






5. CONSTRAINTS TO INCREASED PRODUCTION


The following are the major constraints in the farming systems of
Carriacou:


5.1. GENERAL AND INSTITUTIONAL


Unavailability of inputs, especially pesticides and
fertilizers. With the exception of Sevin, no agricultural
pesticides are available in Carriacou. Fertilizer must be
purchased in, and shipped from, Grenada.


Lack of any local processing facility for using fruits,
packaging corn meal, peas, etc..


S Soil erosion, both gully and sheet erosion by water and
wind. This follows in part from past destruction of
woodland, cultivation of sloping lands, overstocking and
tradition of "leggo" season.


Lack of water conservation measures such as dams and
ponds so that crop production is highly seasonal and
livestock have difficulty finding water during the dry
season.


The 'leggo" system, which results in overgrazing, pasture
degeneration and soil erosion.


Reliance on hand labour for most u4tural practices -
including land preparation except on flatter accessible lands
where the subsidized Ministry tractor service can be used.


S Lack of planting material, especially of sweet potatoes,
vegetables and legumes (other than pigeon peas).






5. CONSTRAINTS TO INCREASED PRODUCTION


The following are the major constraints in the farming systems of
Carriacou:


5.1. GENERAL AND INSTITUTIONAL


Unavailability of inputs, especially pesticides and
fertilizers. With the exception of Sevin, no agricultural
pesticides are available in Carriacou. Fertilizer must be
purchased in, and shipped from, Grenada.


Lack of any local processing facility for using fruits,
packaging corn meal, peas, etc..


S Soil erosion, both gully and sheet erosion by water and
wind. This follows in part from past destruction of
woodland, cultivation of sloping lands, overstocking and
tradition of "leggo" season.


Lack of water conservation measures such as dams and
ponds so that crop production is highly seasonal and
livestock have difficulty finding water during the dry
season.


The 'leggo" system, which results in overgrazing, pasture
degeneration and soil erosion.


Reliance on hand labour for most u4tural practices -
including land preparation except on flatter accessible lands
where the subsidized Ministry tractor service can be used.


S Lack of planting material, especially of sweet potatoes,
vegetables and legumes (other than pigeon peas).







Lack of market channels for the export of produce, other than
live animals.
Lack of fencing which is basic to improvement of pastures and
of livestock management.



5.2 CORN/PIGEON PEA SYSTEM


No fertilizer use on lands that are normally cropped year
after year. Farmers claim that the soil is fertile and
the system does include a legume. The local corn grown may
be adapted to the present tradition of no fertilizer, but
there are no records of any investigations of fertilizer
response.


S Spacing and the plant arrangement are traditional, but
higher yields of corn might be obtained with a more uniform
spacing and pigeon peas might yield better if they did not
suffer early competition from corn.


SPests, and the absence of early and effective control
measures. Army worm appears to be the major pest problem,
but there are no data on the losses suffered.


An abundance of weed species, and the tradition of delayed
control (i.e. of the first weeding).


5. 3. RUMINANT LIVESTOCK/PASTURE SYSTEM


Wild dogs, which prey on sheep.


Poor genetic potential of many animals:- but note that an
improvement programme for sheep is in progress. The wild
goats militate against any programme of goat improvement.







Lack of market channels for the export of produce, other than
live animals.
Lack of fencing which is basic to improvement of pastures and
of livestock management.



5.2 CORN/PIGEON PEA SYSTEM


No fertilizer use on lands that are normally cropped year
after year. Farmers claim that the soil is fertile and
the system does include a legume. The local corn grown may
be adapted to the present tradition of no fertilizer, but
there are no records of any investigations of fertilizer
response.


S Spacing and the plant arrangement are traditional, but
higher yields of corn might be obtained with a more uniform
spacing and pigeon peas might yield better if they did not
suffer early competition from corn.


SPests, and the absence of early and effective control
measures. Army worm appears to be the major pest problem,
but there are no data on the losses suffered.


An abundance of weed species, and the tradition of delayed
control (i.e. of the first weeding).


5. 3. RUMINANT LIVESTOCK/PASTURE SYSTEM


Wild dogs, which prey on sheep.


Poor genetic potential of many animals:- but note that an
improvement programme for sheep is in progress. The wild
goats militate against any programme of goat improvement.










Poor quality pastures resulting in poor live weight gains,
and extremes in forage production over the year.


Lack of any forage conservation, either as hay or silage,
or as protein/energy banks. Note that some Leucaena seedlings
are currently being raised for planting out in protein/energy
banks.


SInternal parasite burdens, especially during .the rainy season,
resulting in mortality among young animals and unthriftiness
and poor live weight gains.


5.4. PIGS AND POULTRY SYSTEM


Poor genetic potential, resulting in poor gains, poor carcase
quality, and low egg production.


Poor nutrition, contributing to poor growth rates,etc..


SHigh incidence of internal helminth parasiste.


5.5. MUSA SPP. SYSTEM


SMoko disease which is present in the island and could become
widespread. Destruction of bluggoe plants and later of the
other Musa spp. followed by a quarantine period is necessary.
Note that some such programme is currently under consideration.


Lack of input use, especially fertilizer and pesticides and
generally poor crop care.









5.6 ThEE CROP SYSTEM


Lack of input use and of any crop care. Annona spp. appear
well adapted and could be used as erosion barriers. Any
increase in production would require effective marketing
or processing channels.

5.7 MIXED VEGETABLE SYSTEM

Unavail
Unavailability of inputs, including seeds. The Ministry
of Agriculture does have a programme to increase
vegetable production, so the availability.of seeds at least
should improve.
Lack of water to extend production into the dry season.

5.8. COCONUT SYSTEM

Inability to replant due to lack of fencing and the 'leggo"
season. Until replanting is done, no effective
coconut system can develop.









5.6 ThEE CROP SYSTEM


Lack of input use and of any crop care. Annona spp. appear
well adapted and could be used as erosion barriers. Any
increase in production would require effective marketing
or processing channels.

5.7 MIXED VEGETABLE SYSTEM

Unavail
Unavailability of inputs, including seeds. The Ministry
of Agriculture does have a programme to increase
vegetable production, so the availability.of seeds at least
should improve.
Lack of water to extend production into the dry season.

5.8. COCONUT SYSTEM

Inability to replant due to lack of fencing and the 'leggo"
season. Until replanting is done, no effective
coconut system can develop.









5.6 ThEE CROP SYSTEM


Lack of input use and of any crop care. Annona spp. appear
well adapted and could be used as erosion barriers. Any
increase in production would require effective marketing
or processing channels.

5.7 MIXED VEGETABLE SYSTEM

Unavail
Unavailability of inputs, including seeds. The Ministry
of Agriculture does have a programme to increase
vegetable production, so the availability.of seeds at least
should improve.
Lack of water to extend production into the dry season.

5.8. COCONUT SYSTEM

Inability to replant due to lack of fencing and the 'leggo"
season. Until replanting is done, no effective
coconut system can develop.










6. PROPOSED INTERVENTIONS


This Chapter lists a number of interventions or activities that
arise directly from the constraints listed in Chapter 5. Not all the
constraints are addressed in detail: many are beyond the scope of
CARDI's Farming Systems Research and Development (FSR/D) Project.
These require action at Governmental level or as discrete projects
(e.g. reafforestation, fencing of forest reserves, etc..) or require
entrepreneurial action (e.g. marketing, processing, importation of
inputs, etc.). Others require communal effort from a group of farmers
(e.g. watershed protection and damming of water) which may be within
the scope of the FSR/D Project, though the Ministry of Agriculture
has plans for a watershed project at some time in the future.


There are other constraints that are amenable to simple inter-
vention, but where the present system appears to suit the socio-
economic environment and the needs of the farm family. For example,
the pig and poultry system could be improved by penning the poultry,
importing superior breeds (of both pigs and poultry), and improving
the nutrition. This does not appear to be justified: the present
system is minimal cost and the benefits from improvement would not appear
to justify the additional costs (both capital and recurrent) involved in
such an intervention.


Those activities that should be given priority within CARDI's FSR/D
Project are marked with an asterisk. It will be necessary to prioritise
these in consultation with the Ministry of Agriculture.









6.1. GENERAL AND INSTITUTIONAL


S *Soil erosion: the introduction and testing of hillside
farming techniques, including the planting of grass bunds,
tree crop bunds (these could be Annona spp., or Leucaena),
or stone bunds. Planting corn/pigeon peas closer in the
rows, with rows along the contours and with every fourth
row or so ridged rather than moulded would help.


Water conservation: this is best done on a watershed
basis constructing.dams-and ponds along the watercourses-
or gullies-to both .slow run off (and reduce erosionn, and to
impound.mater for livestock and possibly for. irrigation.


"Leggo' seasou_annstitut.a nal programme. to phase.thia..
-out.can-follow only from pasture Jimprovemnt-and..f6ag con-
servation.


S *Hand labour: evaluation of small-scale machinery, including
wheel hoes, weed wipers and knapsack sprayers for herbicide
application and the use of herbicides in land preparation.


Fencing: there was previously a fencing subsidy, and it
would be good if this could be reinstated. Unless some
inducement to fence can be introduced, many other interven-
tions become. ineffective..


6.2. CORN/PIGEON PEA SYSTEM


*Fertilizer trials with the local corn and with other (non-
hybrid) varieties (i.e. a fertilizer X variety trial).


*Spacing and plant arrangement studies to determine optimum
plant populations and spatial arrangements of both corn and









6.1. GENERAL AND INSTITUTIONAL


S *Soil erosion: the introduction and testing of hillside
farming techniques, including the planting of grass bunds,
tree crop bunds (these could be Annona spp., or Leucaena),
or stone bunds. Planting corn/pigeon peas closer in the
rows, with rows along the contours and with every fourth
row or so ridged rather than moulded would help.


Water conservation: this is best done on a watershed
basis constructing.dams-and ponds along the watercourses-
or gullies-to both .slow run off (and reduce erosionn, and to
impound.mater for livestock and possibly for. irrigation.


"Leggo' seasou_annstitut.a nal programme. to phase.thia..
-out.can-follow only from pasture Jimprovemnt-and..f6ag con-
servation.


S *Hand labour: evaluation of small-scale machinery, including
wheel hoes, weed wipers and knapsack sprayers for herbicide
application and the use of herbicides in land preparation.


Fencing: there was previously a fencing subsidy, and it
would be good if this could be reinstated. Unless some
inducement to fence can be introduced, many other interven-
tions become. ineffective..


6.2. CORN/PIGEON PEA SYSTEM


*Fertilizer trials with the local corn and with other (non-
hybrid) varieties (i.e. a fertilizer X variety trial).


*Spacing and plant arrangement studies to determine optimum
plant populations and spatial arrangements of both corn and









pigeon peas (including separate pure stand plantings).


*Pest control studies, to determine the losses incurred
from the present level of control (or no control).


*Time of weeding trials, to include herbicide use, to
demonstrate and quantify the effect of delayed weeding.


6.3 RUMINANT LIVESTOCK/PASTURE SYSTEM


Wild dog control programme.


Genetic improvement of goats; this will depend on other
proposed interventions, especially fencing and pasture
improvement. The wild goats should be rounded up but only
if the :leggo" season is phased out. which is also dependent
on fencing, pasture improvement and forage conservation.


*Genetic improvement of sheep.


*Pasture improvement by planting of grasses and legumes (and
fencing Leucaena or GZiricidia fencing could be used to
provide forage.


*Forage conservation: demonstration of hay-making techniques
from pasture shut up for several weeks prior to the end of
the wet season, and the establishment of protein/energy banks.


*Internal parasite control: a deworming programme to
demonstrate and measure improvements in live weight gains,
and in lamb and kid crops.









6.4. MUSA SPP. SYSTEM


S Moko eradication is basic and a programme should be started
as soon as possible.


6.5. TREE CROP SYSTEM


*Planting of selected Annona spp.as contour breaks on loping
land, and on steeper slopes that should not be cultivated.
Other tree crops (e.g. cashew) should also be considered.


6.6. MIXED VEGETABLE SYSTEM

*Stimulation of vegetable production, in conjunction with
the ongoing Ministry programme, including demonstration of
techniques- especially mulching and fertilizing and manuring.
Ultimately, some small-scale irrigated production might be
possible, using trickle systems.









6.4. MUSA SPP. SYSTEM


S Moko eradication is basic and a programme should be started
as soon as possible.


6.5. TREE CROP SYSTEM


*Planting of selected Annona spp.as contour breaks on loping
land, and on steeper slopes that should not be cultivated.
Other tree crops (e.g. cashew) should also be considered.


6.6. MIXED VEGETABLE SYSTEM

*Stimulation of vegetable production, in conjunction with
the ongoing Ministry programme, including demonstration of
techniques- especially mulching and fertilizing and manuring.
Ultimately, some small-scale irrigated production might be
possible, using trickle systems.









6.4. MUSA SPP. SYSTEM


S Moko eradication is basic and a programme should be started
as soon as possible.


6.5. TREE CROP SYSTEM


*Planting of selected Annona spp.as contour breaks on loping
land, and on steeper slopes that should not be cultivated.
Other tree crops (e.g. cashew) should also be considered.


6.6. MIXED VEGETABLE SYSTEM

*Stimulation of vegetable production, in conjunction with
the ongoing Ministry programme, including demonstration of
techniques- especially mulching and fertilizing and manuring.
Ultimately, some small-scale irrigated production might be
possible, using trickle systems.









ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS


It is a pleasure to thank most warmly the following who made our
stay in Carriacou both profitable and enjoyable:

Mr. F. Clements, Conmmissioner for Carriaoou and Petit
Martinique, who welcomed us and provided a valuable
orientation,

Mr. S. Joseph, Extension Officer in-oharge and his entire
Staff, who provided us with a great deal of help and
information on several occasions.

Mr. V. Bullen, Entrepreneur, who proved to be a most
congenial oral historian and observer of the Carriacou sene.

Mr. BA-ha Dunoan, Taxi Driver, who, as well as hiring us a
a .car and providing tcai services, proved a valuable guide
to Caoriacou ways.

The mwpy farmers and their foamiies who took time out to
talk to us, show us their gardens, and cheerfully answered
our many questions; some of which may have to them -
bordered on the simplistic or absurd.












LITERATURE CITED




1. Anonymous (1972). Agriculture in Carriacou. pp. 1-7


2. Campbell, J. and Henry, C., (1982). Final Report on Grenada.
Agricultural Census, Ministry of Planning, August 31, 1982.
pp. 1-17


3. Ministry of Planning (19840. Results of the Grenada Agricultural
Survey. The Agricultural Planning and Analysis Unit. pp. 1-87


4. Vernon, K.C., Payne, H. and Spector, J. (1959). Soil and Land Use
Surveys, No. 9: Grenada. The Regional Research Centre of
the British Caribbean at the Imperial College of Tropical
Agriculture, Trinidad. W.I.









APPENDIX 1

ITINERARY
****


SATURDAY
August 18


SUNDAY
August 19


MONDAY
August 20


TUESDAY
August 21


WEDNESDAY
August 22
THURSDAY
August 23







FRIDAY
August 24





SATURDAY
August 25


A.M.


P.M.


A.M.


P.M.


A.M.


P.M.


A.M.
A.M.
P.M.
A.M.
P.M.
A.M.


A.M.
PIM.
P.M.


A.M.
P.M.


P.M.


A.M.
P.M.


J. Hammerton, V. Chase & M. .za0 leave St. Lucia for
Carriacou, arriving 10:00 a.m.
Reconnaisance.tour of island (J. Hammerton, V. Chase
& M. Rao) 4:00 p.m. to 6:00 p.m.
K. Buckmire arrives Carriacou from Grenada.
Discussions on approach and programme.
Meeting with MOA personnel and preparation of work
plan.
Meeting with Commissioner of Carriacou and Petit
Martinique. Meeting with MOA staff and discus-
sions.
Visit to Hiltsborough market.
Visits to "gardens" and discussions with farmers
in Agricultural Sub-district 1.
Discussions with Land Evaluation Officer.
Farn visits in southern part of Agricultural Sub-
disctict 1.
Farm visits in Agricultural Sub-districts 2 and
3.
Visit to Marketing and National Import Board
(MNIB) Depot.
Farm visits in Agricultiral sub-districts 2 and
3.
Discussions with Mr. V. Bullen.
Writing-up.
Writing-up.
Attend seminar/panel discussion on Marketing
(CARDATS/MOA).
K. Buckmire leaves for Grenada.
Writing-up.
J. Hamnerton and V. Chase leave for St. Lucia.
M. Rao leaves for Grenada.









APPENDIX II


THE AGRICULTURAL SUB-DISTRICTS AND WATERSHEDS OF CARRIACOU


The island of Carriacou is divided into three Agricultural sub-
districts (Fig. 1). These are basically administrative divisions and
not necessarily agro-ecological divisions. Sub-district 1 covers the
south of the island, 2 covers the east, and 3 the western and
northern part of the island. The villages in each sub-district are
listed below:


District I


Hermitage
Harvey Vale
More Jaloux
L'Esterre
Lauriston
Brunswick
Prospect Hill
Mount Desire
Six Roads
Dumfries
Bellevue south
Belmont


Top Hill
La Resouce
Mount Royal
Mount D'Or
Sabazon
Kendeace
Grand Bay
Mount Pleasant
Belair
Limlair
Bay a L'ean
Meldrum
Belvedere
Dover
Windward


Hillsborough
Beausejour
Belair
Craigston
Bogles
Cherry Hill
Prospect
Belpha
Brunswick
Belvedere


There are twenty-two (22) watersheds in Carriacou, seven in
sub-district 1; nine in sub-district 2 and six in sub-district 3.












Nine major watersheds, covering a total of about 1525 ha.,
have been identified for an improvement project. Dumfries is the
largest with an area of 290 ha.. These nine watersheds identified
are either cleared eroded lands, or under poor thorny scrub with
cactus and poor pastures. The soils found in these watersheds are
wobrun clay loam on the upper slopes and Limlair clay in the lower
parts.











APPENDIX III


1. Weeds of cultivated land, mainly in corn and


pigeon peas:


Comietina spp.
Lagasoea mottis
KatZstronmia maxima
Cteome visoosa
C. oiZiata
Parthenium hysterophorus
PiZea microphylta
RuetZa tuberosa
friday prozmbens
Anaranthus app.
Sida spp.
Mormodioa charantia
Cassia oooidentalis
Crotataria spp.
Indigofera spp.
Bidens pilosa
Euphorbia prostrata
Leonotis nepetifolia
Spigetia anthelmia
Antigonon Zeptopus
fhytlanthu8s amrus
MaZvastrum amerioanue
Vernonia oinera
EmiZia sonohifoLia
PortuZaoa oteraoea
A'Zepias ourassavica
Achyranthes indica
Boerhavia diffusa


watergrass
velvet bush
police mooaa
oaia
consumption weed
white top
baby puzste
duppy gun
railway weed
oatZatu


cerasee
wild coffee
rattle bush
indigo
duppy needle
milk weed
christmas oandlestiok
worm grass
coralita
seed-under-Leaf


iron weed
oupid's paint brush
puss ey
red top
devil 's horsewhip
sou meat













Ephorbia spp.
Euphorbia hirta
WedeZ a trilobata
Echinoohloa counwn
Digitaria spp.
Setaria barbata
Paspalmw fimbriatum
Eleusine indioa
Cynodmi dactylon
Cenchrus eohinatus
Chloris barbata
Panicrn fasioulatwmn
Cyperus rotundus
MolZugo vertioilZata
Trianthema portulacastruw
Ageratum conyziodes
Tridax procwnbens
Crotcn lobatus
Petiveria altiacea
Richar-hia eaabra
HeZii'tropiwn indioumn


milk weed
milk weed
marigold
jungle rice
crab grass
corn grass, gamatot


yard grass
baham grass
bur grass
purple top
birdseed grass
nut grass
carpet grass
horse pursZane
goat weed
Tridax


guZZy root


scorpion weed


Unidentified: a climbing, viny legume.


2. Weeds of pasture, excluding the grass species


forming the sword include:


Acacia tortuosa
Acacia spp.
Opuntia spp.
'Datura stramonirn
Lantana Carnava
Nimosa pudica


wild poponaw


prickly pear
thonapple
black sage
tia maria




Psidium guajava
BaemotoxyZum campechianun
CataZtropis procera
AZZamanda violacea
Cassia occidentaZis
AZbizia spp.
Jatropha gossyifolia


guava
Zogwood
french cotton
purple altamanda
wiZd coffee


stinging nettle


Plus many other woody, scrubby species, other cacti and a
shrub with milky sap. (Euphorbiaceae?).













APPENDIX IV


TABLE 1 General information on 25 corn/pigeon pea gardens,
including information on livestock, slope, fencing, etc.


rorn
Insect3
Damage
(x .


Pigeon
Pea 4


Weed
Cover
(2)


Other
Arrange-
ment


Crops


Species


Notes


Brunswick T S 30 N H.B 15 1 pig 8 sheep.
Fenced

Brimswick T V 80 E H <5 OK, CU 2 cows, fowls,
(Alfred) Vetiver bunds.
Fenced

Bellevue F S 15 N B (5 B SW 4 sheep. Fenced
south
(McLaren)

Bellevue F V 60 N B 5 B SW, PU, 4 pigs, fowls, 15+
South PN, OK sheep. Fenced
(Mbrtune)

Bellevue F T 10 N B 40 1B CX
South
(Fortune)


Lauriston T V 75 N B 5 B (PN, SW) ? Sheep ? Pigs.
Fenced.


Lautiston
(Alexander)


Lauriston
(Caton)


20 N


SW (OK)
(PN) (WM)


I I- 4. I- 4 .


30 N


?-Sheep ? Pigs


Location
and
(Farmer)


Culti-
Vatien
method


C
Growth
Stage2


V,T


V,T









APPENDIX IV(cont'd)


Coc n ulti- Cc rn Other Crops
atn vation Growt Insect Pigeon Weed Arrange- ,
(Farmer) method Stage Damage 3 Pea 4 Cover ment Species Notes
L'PIsterre H V 5 N H, B 5 B (OK) Under coconuts, on
very sandy soil

L'Esterre T,F V 25 N H,B 5 ? Sheep, Part of
(Steele) land sloping.

Prospect F V 50 N H,B 25 H,B DO, PU ?Pigs, ?Sheep,
Ball 1 cow unfenced. 1
(Ackie) area of pure stand
PP.

Prospect F E 5 N H,B 5 B CX, SW
Hall
(Ackie)

Top Hill F T 45 N H,B 5 H,B DO, PU Dolichos in some
(Primus) hills.

Jean Pierre H V 15 N H,B 5 -
(Dore)

Mt. Pleasant H V/T 60 N H 10 H,B LI? OK Cotton as weed.
(Nedd) Rocky land. Irregular
slopes. 10 sheep,
6 goats.

Mt. Pleasant T T/S 55 E B 5 B OK, SW Flat land. PP
(Nedd) PP deficient


IDover
(Cox)


60 E


Fenced. One paddock
to be planted to
rasns- ? cows 7 "he-p










APPENDIX IV (cont d)


Location Culti- n Othe Crops
ad v n Growth Insect Pigeon Weed Arrange. 6 Notes
~and vai2 3 4 Iment. 5 Species
(farmer) method Stage Damage pea Cover ment. Species
H
Mt.Pleasant T T/S 80 N B 10 B SW, OK One area of
(Charles) ratoon PP with
corn and SW.

Bay a l'ean F V 65 N B 5 H, B LI, DO Lima and Dolichos
PU In some hills.
(Cyrus) Pumpkin between
hills.

Limlair T V 25 N B (5 B SW, OK Vegetable
(Noel) DO producers.

La Resource H V 25 N B 5 B CX, SW Rocky land, 30
(Duncan) slope.
Severe erosion.
Donkey, pigs.

La Resource H T,S IO N H 10 B CX, SW
(Duncan)

Craigston F, H V 0 H, B (5 B (SW) PN One area without
( PP. 250 slope.
Veltiver bunds.

C.aigton T V 75 N B 5 -- 150 slope.
( Fenced. Soil- sed
for insects.
Veltiver bunds.












Location I Culi-
and vation
(farmer) method


Bogles
(Alexander)


Growth2 Insect, Pigeon Weed
Stage dav.-ge I pea 4 cover


90 E


H, B


5


Other Cropu


Arrange-
ments


Species6


(SW)


~----- --* ----- -I--- ---- -*t.-


? cattle. ? sheep.
Problem of wild dogs.


T tractor ploughed, F = forked, H hoed.

2V = vegetative, T = tasseling, S = silking, E = hearing (i.e. close to reaping)


3% of plants damaged: N = non-economic, E economic level of damage (i.e. requiring control).

45H = in-hill (with corn), B = between corn rows (i.e. in clumps)

6Other crop, species: CU = cucumber, CX cassava, DO = :dolichos beans, LI = lima beans OK okra.
PN peanuts, PV = pumpkin, : SW = sweet potato, 1TM = watermelon,
Brackets () indicate a thin, irregular stand, possibly volunteer.


t.1T V oent'd

Notes










APPENCIX IV (cont'd)


TABLE II Specific information on 25 corn/pigeon pea gardens,
including estimates of plant populations


Location Soil Co Row X C orn Pigeon PPeas
(farmer) series(1 intra To. of Height No. (3) No. of Intra- Height .
and area and row spac- plants (mean) of plants) plants row No. of (mean No. of
planted PH (2) ing (in) per per hill) per 100 per clumps plants per hill plants
(ha) and area hill (m) m2 hill per (4 per and per per
per hill (m2) (m) 10 m clump clump) (m) 100 m


Brunswick #21/28 1.5x1.1 5.7 1.6 345 1.2 8.9 5.3 0.40 73+472
( )
0.11 5.2 1.65 + 1.34 +0.20 +1.40 +2.63 +0.12 = 545

Brunswick #21/28 1.4x1.6 4.8 0.4 214 2.9 0.0 0.0 0.12 129+0
(Alfred)
0.08 4.2 -2.24 + 1.14 +0.09 +1.10 +0.03 129

Bellevue #21/22 1.8x1.1 4.6 1.2 232 0.0 14.3 3.3 0.57 0 + 262
South
(McLoren) =1.98 + 0.52 10.16 +0.82 +0.08 262
0.20 4.8- -


Bellevue
South #21/22 1.5x1.5 4.0 1.0 178 0.0 9.8 2.2 0.26 9 + 144
(Fortune) 2.25 +1.56 +0.18 +0.68 +0.11 144
0.40 4.8

Bellevue #21/22 1.5x1.3 7.3 1.2 374 0.0 7.7 4.5 0.32 0 + 231
South
(Fortune) 1.95 +2.31 +0.16 +3.11 +0.21 = 231

0.15 5.2__










APPENDIX IV (Cont'd)


TABLE II Specific information on 25 corn/pigeon pea gardens;
including estimates of plant populations


Location Soil Row X
(farmer) (1) intra- No. (I e e _t o-5
aeries No. (3)
and area and row g. J Intra- Height N (5
planted a2n spacing No. of Height -- row No. of (mean o
(ha) PH(2) (in) and plants (mean) plants No. of clumps plants per hill plant
per 100 per
area pe) per per 2 plants per per and per 2r
hill (m ) hill (m) hill (m) m per hill 10 m(4) clump clump(m) 100 m


Lauriston #24 1.7 x 1.9 5.7 0.6 176 8.9 4.0 9.3 0.27 121+219
( )
0.13 5.0 = 3.23 +0.82 +0.13 +5.32 +2.52 +0.04 -340

Lauriston #24/21 1.6 x 1.7 4.7 0.8 173 0.0 10.4 4.9 0.25 0+319
Alexander
0.41 5.5 = 2.72 + 1.06 +0.08 +1.95 +0.04 = 319

Lauriston #24 1.9 x 1.2 4.3 0.9 189 1.5 10.4 4.8 0.24 66+416
(Caton)
0.41 5.2 =2.28 +1.64 +0.09 +1.78 + 1.48 +0.11 = 482

L'Esterre #11 1.6 xl.9 3.7 0.9 122 3.1 5.4 4.3 0.34 102+145
0.01 5.0 =3.04 + 1.64 + 0.09 + 0.88 + 0.50 +0.09 247

L'Esterre #28 1.2 x 1.1 4,4 0.7 333 2.7 6.8 2.3 0.24 205+130
(Steele)
0.20 = 1.32 + 1.43 + 0.10 + 1.16 + 0.58 +0.08 =335


Prospect
Hall
(Arkie)


#24/21


1.3 x 1.1


5.1


0.8


1.3


8.9


2.8


0.19


r f^ All


91+192
- qO3


1 "Af









APPENDIX IV (Cont'd)


TABLE II Specific information on 25 corn/pigeon pea gardens;
including estimates of plant populations


Row X Corn Pigeon Peas
intra-
Location Soil row (3 Intra- Height 15)
(farmer) (1) spacing No. of Height No. of row (mean No. o
and area ser (in) and plants (mean) plants No. of clumps ans per h1ll plants
planted (2) area per per per pei 100 plants per (4) p and per per 2
(ha) :PH2 hill (m2) hill (m) hill (m) m per hill 10 i" rump clump(m) 100 mi

Prospect
Hall #24/21 1.2x1.0 7.2 1.8 600 0.8 21.1 4.4 0.30 67+773
(Aclie) 5.
0.12 5.8 = 1.20 + 2.10 +0.11 +0.79 I 1.06 I 0.14 -840

Top Hill #50/52 1.0x1.0 4.0 0.5 400 2.4 5.1 2.0 0.24 240+102
(Primus)
0.80 6.2 1.00 + 0.94 + 0.11 +0.52 + 0.0 + 0.06 342

Jean
Pierre # 24 1.1xl.2 3.9 0.5 295 1.2 0.0 0.0 0.15 91 + 0
(Dote)
0.01 5.3 1.32 +0.88 + 0.13 +0.92 + 0.02 91

Mt.Pleasant #21 1.5x1.6 4.0 1.2 167 2.8 0.0 0.0 0.20 117+ 0
(Nedd)
0.03 4.2 = 2.40 + 0.67 + 0.21 +1.40 + 0.0 117

Mr.
Pleasant #24 1.1x1.6 3.1 1.5 176 0.0 7.8 3.6 0.23 0 + 255
(NEdd)
0.C5 5.5 = 1.76 +0.99 + 0.48 + 0.55 +0.04 = 255


Dover
(Cox)
0.13


#24


1.5x1.6

= 2.40


5.4

+0.52


0.5


+0.05


225


0.0


6.3

+ 1.41


3.0

+ 1.41


0.41

+0.07


0 + 126

= 126


__________________ ____________________ ______________________ ____________________ _____________________ _____________________________________________ ________________ _______________


- o.











APPENDIX IV (cont'd)


TABLE II Specific information on 25 corn/pigeon pea gardens:
including estimates of plant populations


Location
(farmer)
and area
planted
(ha)

Mt.
Pleasant
(Charles)
0.12

Bay a
l'ean
(Cyrus)
0.08

Limlair
(Noel)
0.04


Soil
series(1)
and
PH(2)


Row X
intra-
row
spacing
(in) and
area per
hill (m2)


No. of
plants
per
hill (m)


Corn ____


Height
(mean)
per
hill (t


No. of (3)
plants
per 100
m 2


No. of
plants
per hill


Pigeon peas
Intra-
row No. of
clumps plants
nper per


clump


Height)
(mean)
per hill
and per
clump (m)


No. o5)
plants
per 2
100 m


-4 4. 4- 1- -4 I------------- 4 4 4


#24

4.4


1.4x1.9

= 2.66


6.3

+0.95


1.0

+0.22


237


0.0


6.8


3.2

+0.84


0.35

+0.12


0 + 155

= 155


- $I


#24

5.2


1.3x1.0

= 1.30


3.7

+1.06


0.4


+1.17


2.6


0.0


0.0

+0.03


0.23

= 200


-l 1


#24

5.5


1.lxl.1

= 1.21


4.5


+0.53


0.65


+0.09


0.0


11.9


+1.79


0.31


+0.04


200+0


0+411

= 411


La
Resouce #21 1.2x1.2 4.5 0.66 313 2.5 0.0 0.0 0.22 174+0
(Duncan)
0.10 6.3 = 1.44 +0.93 +0.06 = 174

La
Resouce #21 1.3x1.3 5.6 1.6 331 2.4 0.0 0.0 0.30 142+0
(Dcncan)
O.El 5.6 = 1.69 +0.70 +0.20 +0.52 +0.09 = 142


Crrigston
( )
0. fi


#28/21


1.0x1.4

= 1.40


5.4

+0.84


0.9

+0.12


1.0

+2.16


3,7


7.0

+ 1.4


0.31

+0.04


74+259

= 333


'- -~ ----' 1


10 (4)






APPENDIX IV (Cont'd)


TABLE II Specific information on 25 corn/pigeon pea gardens;
including estimates of plant populations


(1) Soil series are:
bouldery phase);
52 = Betish clay


11 = Hillsborough loamy sand;
24 = Limlair clay
loam.


21 = Woburn clay loam;


22 = Woburn clay loam (stony &


28 = Perserverance clay;50 Tophill stony clay;


(2) pH determined by the Kelway Soil pHD Plus.

(3) Number of (corn) plants per 100 m2 derived from

100
x No. plants per hill
area per hill

(4) Inra-row clumps per 10 m run of inter-row space. The mber of clumps per 100 m2 would therefore be
(4) Intra-row clumps per 10 m run of inter-row space. The number of clumps per 100 m would therefore be


given by -


10 x inter-row space


x No. of clumps per 10 m


2
(5) The first figure is the number2of pigeon pea plants (per 100 m ) in the
the number of plants (per 100m ) in clumps, and the third is the total.


corn hills, the second is
The first is derived from -


100 100
-a p100 h x No. of plants per hill, and the second from 0 10
area per hill 10 x inter-row space


x No. of clumps per
10 m
- ?,I F __ rf n 7-rr


Row X
intra- Cor n Pigeon peas
Location Soil (1) row (3) Helgnt (5
(farmer) series spacing No. of Height No. of Intra- No. of (mean) No. of
and atea and (in) and plants (mean) plants No. of rw plants per hill plants
planed area per per per per 100 plants mp" per and per per 2
(ha) PH(2) hill (m2) hill (m) hill (m) m2 per hill 10 m(4) clump clump(m) 100 m
Craigston #28/21 1.2x1.0 4.7 0.2 392 0.0 13.2 3.8 0.15 0+110
( )
0.24 5.2 = 1.20 +1.06 +0.02 +1.64 + 0.03 = 110

Bogles # 22 1.0x1.5 7.0 0.5 467 0.9 5.2 2.3 0.15 60+120

(Alexander)
0.04 5.2 = 1.50 + 0.00 +0.05 +1.10 +0.58 +0.02 = 180
_ _ _ __ _ I. _




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