• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Preface
 Introduction
 Bean/cowpea production statistics...
 Country constraints and national...
 Interpretative summary
 Source documents
 Back Cover






Title: Beans--cowpeas
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 Material Information
Title: Beans--cowpeas
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Creator: Adams, M. W.
Publisher: Michigan State University
Publication Date: 1984
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Subject: Farming   ( lcsh )
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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Title Page
        Title Page
    Table of Contents
        Page i
    Preface
        Page ii
    Introduction
        Page iii
    Bean/cowpea production statistics - an assessment
        Page 1
        Beans
            Page 1
            Africa
                Page 1
            North and central America
                Page 2
            South America
                Page 2
            Table 1
                Page 3
            Table 2
                Page 4
            Table 3
                Page 5
            Table 4
                Page 6
            Figure 1
                Page 7
            Figure 2
                Page 8
            Figure 3
                Page 9
                Page 10
        Cowpeas
            Page 11
            Africa
                Page 11
            Westen Hemisphere
                Page 11
            Table 5
                Page 12
            Table 6
                Page 13
            Table 7
                Page 14
            Figure 4
                Page 15
            Figure 5
                Page 15
            Figure 6
                Page 16
    Country constraints and national programs
        Page 17
        East Africa
            Page 17
            Burundi
                Page 17
            Ethiopia
                Page 17
            Kenya
                Page 18
                Page 19
                Page 20
                Page 21
            Malawi
                Page 22
            Rwanda
                Page 23
            Tanzania
                Page 24
                Page 25
            Uganda
                Page 26
            Zambia
                Page 27
        Central and west Africa
            Page 28
            Cameroon
                Page 28
                Page 29
                Page 30
                Page 31
                Page 32 - 33
                Page 34
                Page 35
                Page 36
            Niger
                Page 37
            Nigeria
                Page 38
            Senegal
                Page 39
            Upper volta
                Page 40
        Latin America
            Page 41
            General overview
                Page 41
            Argentina
                Page 42
            Brazil
                Page 42
                Page 43
                Page 44
            Chile
                Page 45
            Colombia
                Page 45
            Costa rica
                Page 46
            Dominican republic
                Page 47
                Page 48
            Ecuador
                Page 49
                Page 50
            Guatemala
                Page 51
            Haiti
                Page 51
            Honduras
                Page 52
            Mexico
                Page 53
                Page 54
                Page 55
            Peru
                Page 56
            Venezuela
                Page 57
                Page 58
        The caribbean, central America and panama selected countries
            Page 59
            Belize
                Page 59
            El Salvador
                Page 60
            Guyana
                Page 60
            Jamaica
                Page 60
            Nicaragua
                Page 60
            Panama
                Page 60
        International centers
            Page 61
            CIAT
                Page 61
            IITA
                Page 61
                Page 62
    Interpretative summary
        Page 63
        Page 64
    Source documents
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
    Back Cover
        Page 68
Full Text


















BEANS COWPEAS
Production Constraints

I and
National Programs


Bean/Cowpea collaborative
research support programs
Michigan State University








BEANS COWPEAS

Production Constraints
and
National Programs


Compiled by M. W. Adams, professor
Department of Crop and Soil Sciences
Michigan State University
Completed in partial fulfillment
of the planning grant
made by USAID-BIFAD to MSU


March 1984
























Table of Contents


Page

PREFACE .................................. ii

INTRODUCTION ........................... iii

BEAN/COWPEA PRODUCTION
STATISTICS-An Assessment ................. 1


B eans .......................
A frica .....................
North and Central America ..
South America ..............
T able 1 ...................
Table 2 ....................
T able 3 ...................
T able 4 ...................
Figure 1 ...................
Figure 2 ...................
Figure 3 ...................
Cowpeas .................. ..
A frica .....................
Western Hemisphere ........
T able 5 ...................
T able 6 ...................
Table 7 .................
Figure 4 ...................
Figure 5 ...................
Figure 6 ...................


COUNTRY CONSTRAINTS AND


NATIONAL PROGRAMS ...................
E ast A frica ..................... ...........
B urundi ................................
E thiopia ................................
K enya .................................
M alaw i .............................
R w anda ................................
Tanzania ........................ .....


Uganda .................. .......... .. 26
Zambia ............. ................. 27
Central and West Africa .................... 28
Cam eroon ............... .. .......... 28
N iger ............................ . 37
Nigeria ............... .............. 38
Senegal ................................. 39
Upper Volta ............................. 40
Latin Am erica ............................. 41
General Overview ...................... 41
Argentina ............................. 42
Brazil .............. ... .............. 42
Chile ................... .............. 45
Colom bia ............................. 45
Costa Rica .......................... ... 46
Dominican Republic ................... .. 47
E cuador ................................ 49
G uatem ala ................ .... ......... 51
Haiti ................. .............. 51
Honduras ................ .......... 52
M exico ......................... ........ 53
Peru ................................... 56
Venezuela .............................. 57
The Caribbean, Central America and Panama:
Selected Countries ....................... 59
B elize .................................. 59
El Salvador .............. ............... 60
G uyana ................. ... ............ 60
Jam aica ........................... 60
N icaragua ............... ... .......... 60
Panam a ................................ 60
International Centers .................. .. 61
C IA T ................... .............. 61
IIT A ..................... ............. 61

INTERPRETATIVE SUMMARY ............... 63

SOURCE DOCUMENTS ..................... 65






















Preface


Information presented in this report has been drawn
from sources in 26 countries in Africa, Latin America,
and the Caribbean. Most of the information has been
taken from official documents from Ministries of Agri-
culture, university program directors or project leaders
and their representatives. Principal emphasis has been
placed upon production and utilization constraints, and
bean and cowpea research and utilization programs in
each country. This report is not intended as a research
monograph in beans and cowpeas.
Views concerning constraints are the judgements of
those most closely connected with research activities in
beans and cowpeas in the respective countries. Upon
their perceptions are based the objectives of national
programs, and in particular, the special projects of the
Title XII Bean/Cowpea Collaborative Research Support
Program (B/C CRSP).
Generally, the source documents upon which this
report has been based were prepared prior to and in-
dependent of the inception of the Bean/Cowpea CRSP,
representing viewpoints and program strategies
prevailing at the beginning of the decade of the 1980's.
Exceptions include: data compiled by the four con-
straints study teams sent from the United States to
selected countries in Africa, Latin America, Central
America and the Caribbean during the early stages of
CRSP planning; information drawn from regional
grain legume workers conferences; and information


gathered by personal contacts and/or country visits. A
particularly helpful source of information for some
Caribbean countries was found in a series of recently
released Food and Agriculture Organization (of the
United Nations) publications.
This document was put together as fulfillment, in
part, of obligations set forth in the Title XII B/C CRSP
Planning Grant from the Board of International Food
and Agricultural Development (BIFAD) and the U.S.
Agency for International Development (USAID), to
Michigan State University. A principal function of this
report is to serve as a benchmark statement against
which to review and measure the effects of research
and utilization activities during the 1980's.
Many individuals and their institutions, through
papers, documents and personal contact, contributed to
and made this report possible. To each of them, I ex-
press my personal thanks and appreciation.
The supportive collegial relationships established
with Dr. Donald H. Wallace, of Cornell University, Dr.
Patricia Barnes-McConnell, of Michigan State Univer-
sity, Dr. John Yohe, of USAID, and with Director
Donald Isleib and the staff in the management office of
the B/C CRSP are gratefully acknowledged. I am
especially appreciative of the encouragement and loyal
support given by my department chairman. Dr. D. D.
Harpstead, throughout the period of the CRSP planning
project and during the preparation of this report.


M.W. Adams
1983






















Introduction


Food legumes, as validated in section I of this report,
are produced world-wide, and form an essential and
substantial dietary component of peoples worldwide.
The dry bean, Phaseolus vulgaris, and cowpea, Vigna
unguiculata, are two of the most commonly grown food
grain legumes, particularly in the countries of Africa
and Latin America. They are staples in the diets of both
the urban and rural poor. Their roles in production, in
multiple and associated cropping, in soil improvement
and in human nutrition are universally acknowledged.
All but the very poorest or smallest of countries, in
recognition of the unique characteristics of these crops,
attempt to carry out programs of research addressing
the urgent problems besetting the growing and/or use of
these grain legumes in commercial and small-farm
agriculture.
However, no single country of Africa or Latin
America has found it possible to support a comprehen-
sive research or development program for these crops.
In many instances the programs are uni-dimensional,
consisting primarily of such activities as selection for


resistance to diseases, agronomic practices testing, or of
conducting variety or herbicide trials. The narrowness
of such country programs is a reflection of insufficient
finances, alternative priorities, and/or too few or insuf-
ficiently trained professional personnel available.
Viewing these problems and programs from a
temperate climatic zone perspective, one must be
reminded that agriculture on small farms in the tropical
zones is confronted with a very broad spectrum of prob-
lems. It simply is not to be expected, given the resources
of the developing nations, that any single country work-
ing on its own can support comprehensive national or
regional programs.
In the following sections of this report, country-by-
country summaries are presented of principal con-
straints to production and utilization of beans/cowpeas,
of present program objectives and activities, and of
perceived need by the various national program leaders,
to the extent that reliable information has been avail-
able. Sources of data and information are given in an
Appendix.

















Bean/Cowpea

Production Statistics -

An Assessment


Beans (Tables 1-4, Figures 1-3)

Africa
Since a majority of the beans in Africa are grown in
small fields, usually in a subsistence type farming system
with no systematic platting of land area per farm, the
production statistics are not likely to be very precise. A
similar imprecision exists for per hectare yields and total
tonnage per country. Very few growers weigh their
harvested beans and any estimate is likely to be in terms
of a volume measure. A large portion of beans produced
on the subsistence farms never enters markets where
production estimates might be possible. Therefore, it
seems prudent to treat the statistics presented in the
tables only as approximations. The reader should keep
this qualification in mind when examining the tables
and drawing inferences from them.
Data on bean production are reported for twenty-
four countries in Africa. Seven countries, Uganda,
Tanzania, Burundi, Rwanda, Zaire, Cameroon and
Angola, report large areas in production. These ranged
from nearly 120,000 hectares annually for Angola, to
more than 350,000 hectares for Uganda. Two of the
smallest countries, Burundi and Rwanda, are among
the largest producers. Since 1961 about one-half of the
countries have shown an increase in area devoted to
beans, and one-half have shown no trend or a slight
decrease. The effects of civil war on hectarage reported
can be seen in the figures for Ethiopia, Uganda, and
Zimbabwe. Reasons for other large fluctuations are less
easy to understand.
Annual variations in per hectare yields are expected
because of the effects of favorable or unfavorable
weather, the determining element usually being mois-
ture. In a country where beans are mostly irrigated, less
fluctuation is expected. Egypt is an example. Most beans
in the Sudan are also irrigated but yield efficiency
appears to fluctuate unreasonably. The abrupt rise in
average yield in Lesotho from about 399 kilograms/hec-
tare for 1961-1977 to 1,154 in each of 1978, 1979 and


1980 is unexplained. That the change is real, however,
is extremely unlikely.
Average yields over the 20-year period, 1961-1980,
for African bean producing countries appears to have
risen from 480 to over 600 kilograms/hectare. That this
is a real increase, however, is questionable since the
change essentially occurred with the 1974 reporting year
and has been maintained at that level ever since.
If gradually increasing availability of yield promoting
technology (fertilizers, pesticides, improved varieties)
were to have a positive impact on country yield aver-
ages, one should expect to see an increase in the figures
for the years 1961 to 1980. Perhaps some of the country
yield increases noted can be attributed to technologic in-
puts; Madagascar and Cameroon may be examples. But
Malawi shows very little real increase, yet there has
been a significant increase in the availability and use of
fertilizer for maize in Malawi in the past two decades.
Since 50 percent or more of bean production occurs in
association with maize one would expect some benefits
to have accrued to the beans.
Although the annual fluctuations are extreme for
South Africa, that country has experienced a 100 per-
cent average yield/hectare increase in the 1976-1980 five
year period as compared to the 1961-1965 period. The
trend is consistent throughout the 20-yeai term. Given
the availability of technological inputs and promotional
efforts in South Africa (and subject to the level of
reliability of the data) the yield improvement in South
Africa may reflect a technological impact.
In the future, if one were to evaluate the impact of
a research and extension program upon productivity, by
reference to country-wide base-line yields (as has been
proposed by one international center), one should be
aware of the lack of precision in the current yield
estimates for many under-developed nations. There is a
need to establish "early-on" a sound base and valid
methodology for arriving at reliable yield estimates.

















Bean/Cowpea

Production Statistics -

An Assessment


Beans (Tables 1-4, Figures 1-3)

Africa
Since a majority of the beans in Africa are grown in
small fields, usually in a subsistence type farming system
with no systematic platting of land area per farm, the
production statistics are not likely to be very precise. A
similar imprecision exists for per hectare yields and total
tonnage per country. Very few growers weigh their
harvested beans and any estimate is likely to be in terms
of a volume measure. A large portion of beans produced
on the subsistence farms never enters markets where
production estimates might be possible. Therefore, it
seems prudent to treat the statistics presented in the
tables only as approximations. The reader should keep
this qualification in mind when examining the tables
and drawing inferences from them.
Data on bean production are reported for twenty-
four countries in Africa. Seven countries, Uganda,
Tanzania, Burundi, Rwanda, Zaire, Cameroon and
Angola, report large areas in production. These ranged
from nearly 120,000 hectares annually for Angola, to
more than 350,000 hectares for Uganda. Two of the
smallest countries, Burundi and Rwanda, are among
the largest producers. Since 1961 about one-half of the
countries have shown an increase in area devoted to
beans, and one-half have shown no trend or a slight
decrease. The effects of civil war on hectarage reported
can be seen in the figures for Ethiopia, Uganda, and
Zimbabwe. Reasons for other large fluctuations are less
easy to understand.
Annual variations in per hectare yields are expected
because of the effects of favorable or unfavorable
weather, the determining element usually being mois-
ture. In a country where beans are mostly irrigated, less
fluctuation is expected. Egypt is an example. Most beans
in the Sudan are also irrigated but yield efficiency
appears to fluctuate unreasonably. The abrupt rise in
average yield in Lesotho from about 399 kilograms/hec-
tare for 1961-1977 to 1,154 in each of 1978, 1979 and


1980 is unexplained. That the change is real, however,
is extremely unlikely.
Average yields over the 20-year period, 1961-1980,
for African bean producing countries appears to have
risen from 480 to over 600 kilograms/hectare. That this
is a real increase, however, is questionable since the
change essentially occurred with the 1974 reporting year
and has been maintained at that level ever since.
If gradually increasing availability of yield promoting
technology (fertilizers, pesticides, improved varieties)
were to have a positive impact on country yield aver-
ages, one should expect to see an increase in the figures
for the years 1961 to 1980. Perhaps some of the country
yield increases noted can be attributed to technologic in-
puts; Madagascar and Cameroon may be examples. But
Malawi shows very little real increase, yet there has
been a significant increase in the availability and use of
fertilizer for maize in Malawi in the past two decades.
Since 50 percent or more of bean production occurs in
association with maize one would expect some benefits
to have accrued to the beans.
Although the annual fluctuations are extreme for
South Africa, that country has experienced a 100 per-
cent average yield/hectare increase in the 1976-1980 five
year period as compared to the 1961-1965 period. The
trend is consistent throughout the 20-yeai term. Given
the availability of technological inputs and promotional
efforts in South Africa (and subject to the level of
reliability of the data) the yield improvement in South
Africa may reflect a technological impact.
In the future, if one were to evaluate the impact of
a research and extension program upon productivity, by
reference to country-wide base-line yields (as has been
proposed by one international center), one should be
aware of the lack of precision in the current yield
estimates for many under-developed nations. There is a
need to establish "early-on" a sound base and valid
methodology for arriving at reliable yield estimates.

















Bean/Cowpea

Production Statistics -

An Assessment


Beans (Tables 1-4, Figures 1-3)

Africa
Since a majority of the beans in Africa are grown in
small fields, usually in a subsistence type farming system
with no systematic platting of land area per farm, the
production statistics are not likely to be very precise. A
similar imprecision exists for per hectare yields and total
tonnage per country. Very few growers weigh their
harvested beans and any estimate is likely to be in terms
of a volume measure. A large portion of beans produced
on the subsistence farms never enters markets where
production estimates might be possible. Therefore, it
seems prudent to treat the statistics presented in the
tables only as approximations. The reader should keep
this qualification in mind when examining the tables
and drawing inferences from them.
Data on bean production are reported for twenty-
four countries in Africa. Seven countries, Uganda,
Tanzania, Burundi, Rwanda, Zaire, Cameroon and
Angola, report large areas in production. These ranged
from nearly 120,000 hectares annually for Angola, to
more than 350,000 hectares for Uganda. Two of the
smallest countries, Burundi and Rwanda, are among
the largest producers. Since 1961 about one-half of the
countries have shown an increase in area devoted to
beans, and one-half have shown no trend or a slight
decrease. The effects of civil war on hectarage reported
can be seen in the figures for Ethiopia, Uganda, and
Zimbabwe. Reasons for other large fluctuations are less
easy to understand.
Annual variations in per hectare yields are expected
because of the effects of favorable or unfavorable
weather, the determining element usually being mois-
ture. In a country where beans are mostly irrigated, less
fluctuation is expected. Egypt is an example. Most beans
in the Sudan are also irrigated but yield efficiency
appears to fluctuate unreasonably. The abrupt rise in
average yield in Lesotho from about 399 kilograms/hec-
tare for 1961-1977 to 1,154 in each of 1978, 1979 and


1980 is unexplained. That the change is real, however,
is extremely unlikely.
Average yields over the 20-year period, 1961-1980,
for African bean producing countries appears to have
risen from 480 to over 600 kilograms/hectare. That this
is a real increase, however, is questionable since the
change essentially occurred with the 1974 reporting year
and has been maintained at that level ever since.
If gradually increasing availability of yield promoting
technology (fertilizers, pesticides, improved varieties)
were to have a positive impact on country yield aver-
ages, one should expect to see an increase in the figures
for the years 1961 to 1980. Perhaps some of the country
yield increases noted can be attributed to technologic in-
puts; Madagascar and Cameroon may be examples. But
Malawi shows very little real increase, yet there has
been a significant increase in the availability and use of
fertilizer for maize in Malawi in the past two decades.
Since 50 percent or more of bean production occurs in
association with maize one would expect some benefits
to have accrued to the beans.
Although the annual fluctuations are extreme for
South Africa, that country has experienced a 100 per-
cent average yield/hectare increase in the 1976-1980 five
year period as compared to the 1961-1965 period. The
trend is consistent throughout the 20-yeai term. Given
the availability of technological inputs and promotional
efforts in South Africa (and subject to the level of
reliability of the data) the yield improvement in South
Africa may reflect a technological impact.
In the future, if one were to evaluate the impact of
a research and extension program upon productivity, by
reference to country-wide base-line yields (as has been
proposed by one international center), one should be
aware of the lack of precision in the current yield
estimates for many under-developed nations. There is a
need to establish "early-on" a sound base and valid
methodology for arriving at reliable yield estimates.









North and Central America
In this group of countries, Mexico dominates in area
consigned to bean production and in total beans pro-
duced. Average yields for Mexico reflect the fact that
about 90 percent of the country's crop is grown under
a climate of limited rainfall. The 1980 hectarage figures
for both Mexico and the United States depart signif-
icantly from the preceding long-term trend. This
reflects a decline in production in Mexico starting in
1976 which led to anticipated shortages in 1979 and un-
precedented efforts both in Mexico and the United
States in 1980 (and 1981) to replenish the supply of
beans in that country. Note that total production in
Mexico rose in 1980, not due to an average yield in-
crease but wholly from an increase in hectarage grown.
There are some other interesting trends to be noted in
Central America. Costa Rica, in recent years, has
become an importer of beans whereas some 20 years ago
it was self-sufficient. Labor costs and a rising popula-
tion, coupled with a centrally controlled farm price for
beans, are chiefly responsible. However, per hectare
yields in Costa Rica have actually appeared to rise.
Bean hectarages in Guatemala, El Salvador, the
Dominican Republic, Haiti and Nicaragua appear to
have increased since 1961. However, there has been no
corresponding increase in most of the countries in per
hectare yields, with the possible exceptions of the
Dominican Republic and Costa Rica.
The personal experience of some observers would sug-
gest that the bean area reported for Puerto Rico is
unrealistically high. It is interesting that in both Canada
and the United States, where numerous major bean im-


provements and extension programs occur, average per
hectare yields have changed little in the past 20 years.
One possible explanation is that improvement efforts
have emphasized such factors as disease resistance,
earlier maturity and quality which have only minor
effects, if any, on yield per se.


South America
Brazil is by far the largest producer of beans in the
world, with harvested area increasing from 2,936,000
hectares annually for the period 1961-1965 to 4,347,999
in 1976-1980. As noted for many other countries during
this time, there has not been any significant increase in
per hectare yields. In fact, the trend has been down-
ward from 650 kilograms/hectare to just over 500
kilograms/hectare in 1979.
For South America, bean hectarage has increased in
six countries, decreased in one and held steady in three.
In no single country of South America, with the possible
exception of Colombia (Bolivia shows an increase in the
last five years, but the figures are suspect), was there a
significant yield/hectare increase. As observed previous-
ly, there is no discernible impact on average yield effi-
ciency in most countries attributable to the growing
technological base. Whether effects due to improved
technology have been masked in expansion of hectarages
to less favorable soils and climatic conditions and to the
less skilled grower, or whether the technology has had
its impact in reduced risk of growing beans and other
non-yield conveniences, cannot be determined in the
present statistics.









North and Central America
In this group of countries, Mexico dominates in area
consigned to bean production and in total beans pro-
duced. Average yields for Mexico reflect the fact that
about 90 percent of the country's crop is grown under
a climate of limited rainfall. The 1980 hectarage figures
for both Mexico and the United States depart signif-
icantly from the preceding long-term trend. This
reflects a decline in production in Mexico starting in
1976 which led to anticipated shortages in 1979 and un-
precedented efforts both in Mexico and the United
States in 1980 (and 1981) to replenish the supply of
beans in that country. Note that total production in
Mexico rose in 1980, not due to an average yield in-
crease but wholly from an increase in hectarage grown.
There are some other interesting trends to be noted in
Central America. Costa Rica, in recent years, has
become an importer of beans whereas some 20 years ago
it was self-sufficient. Labor costs and a rising popula-
tion, coupled with a centrally controlled farm price for
beans, are chiefly responsible. However, per hectare
yields in Costa Rica have actually appeared to rise.
Bean hectarages in Guatemala, El Salvador, the
Dominican Republic, Haiti and Nicaragua appear to
have increased since 1961. However, there has been no
corresponding increase in most of the countries in per
hectare yields, with the possible exceptions of the
Dominican Republic and Costa Rica.
The personal experience of some observers would sug-
gest that the bean area reported for Puerto Rico is
unrealistically high. It is interesting that in both Canada
and the United States, where numerous major bean im-


provements and extension programs occur, average per
hectare yields have changed little in the past 20 years.
One possible explanation is that improvement efforts
have emphasized such factors as disease resistance,
earlier maturity and quality which have only minor
effects, if any, on yield per se.


South America
Brazil is by far the largest producer of beans in the
world, with harvested area increasing from 2,936,000
hectares annually for the period 1961-1965 to 4,347,999
in 1976-1980. As noted for many other countries during
this time, there has not been any significant increase in
per hectare yields. In fact, the trend has been down-
ward from 650 kilograms/hectare to just over 500
kilograms/hectare in 1979.
For South America, bean hectarage has increased in
six countries, decreased in one and held steady in three.
In no single country of South America, with the possible
exception of Colombia (Bolivia shows an increase in the
last five years, but the figures are suspect), was there a
significant yield/hectare increase. As observed previous-
ly, there is no discernible impact on average yield effi-
ciency in most countries attributable to the growing
technological base. Whether effects due to improved
technology have been masked in expansion of hectarages
to less favorable soils and climatic conditions and to the
less skilled grower, or whether the technology has had
its impact in reduced risk of growing beans and other
non-yield conveniences, cannot be determined in the
present statistics.






Table 1. DRY BEANS: HARVESTED AREA BY CONTINENT AND COUNTRY, 1961-1980 (in 1000 Hectares)


Continent
and Country


1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980


Africa
Algeria
Angola
Benin
Burundi
Cameroon
Chad
Egypt
Ethiopia
Kenya
Lesotho
Madagascar
Malawi
Morocco
Reunion
Rwanda
Somalia
South Africa
Sudan
Swaziland
Tanzania
Togo
Uganda
c3 Zaire
Zimbabwe
Totals
N & C America
Belize
Canada
Costa Rica
Cuba
Dominican Rep.
El Salvador
Guatemala
Haiti
Honduras
Mexico
Nicaragua
Panama
Puerto Rico
USA
Totals
South America
Argentina
Bolivia
Brazil
Chile
Colombia
Ecuador
Paraguay
Peruy
Uruguay
Venezuela
Totals


1 1 2F 2 2 2 1 4 5 7 5F 5F 6 5 4 2 4F 2 2 2F
65F 65F 67F 68F 119* 119* 119* 119* 120F 120F 120F 120F 120F 120F 120F 120F 120F 120F 120F 110F
126 96 98 63 89 56 91 70F 78 79 76 72 60F 42 36 44 67 76 80 75F
155 169 172 181 188 206 207 207 247 291 300F 322 534 240F 245F 252F 259F 255F 255F 258F
58 61 77 53 31 31 63 70 75 70F 73F 73F 110F 103F 123F 125F 130F 145F 152F 154F
No data No data No data 100F 100F 100F 100F 97F 97F 97F
1 1 2 6 5 5 4 5 5 5 6 6 7* 7F 7* 7* 7F 6 5 7F
86 88 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 98F 132 74 47 45 46F 20 17* 15*
No data No data No data No data No data
5 5F 5F 8F 8F 8F 9F 9 12 16 17F 10F 11F 12F 30F 30F 30F 13F 13F 13F
34 60 62 63 63 62 62 62 64 64 68F 72F 64 67 65F 71F 70F 50 59 53
12F 13F 12 13 13F 13F 13F 13F 13F 13F 13F 15F 15F 15F 12F 12F 12F 95F 96F 95F
5 5 7 6 6 8 9 9F 8F 8F 8F 8F 8F 9F 4 2 9 10F 10F 10F
-- 1 1 1 --- IF --- --- --- --- --- IF IF F F IF IF
130 120 120F 108F 127F 154F 155F 156 162 160 160 155 160 187 191 203 203F 215 216F 216F
4 2 2 3F 3F 3F 3F 3F 3F 3F 3F 13 13F 13F 13F 13F 13F 13F 13F 13F
87F 100F 82F 80F 76F 81F 80F 77F 76F 74F 75F 78F 70 72 70 68* 69* 77 71* 63*
4 4 6 7 7 7 6 4 5 5F 4F 13F 3 3 5 4 4F 2 3 3F
2 2F 2 2 2F 2 2 2F 2 2F 2 2 2 2F 2F 2F 2F 2F 2F 2F
190 202F 210F 231F 177F 234F 204F 220 207 262 260 280F 280F 260F 268 294 300F 300F 298F 300F
40F 43 50 54 57 56 61 44 39 97 97 50F 74 68 61 62F 65F 60F 60F 63F
292 140F 140F 150F 150F 163 219F 270 250F 260F 270F 270F 300F 469 407 537 550F 357F 360F 360F
No data No data No data No data 164 165F 166F
42F 45F 50F 64F 61F 50F 50F 50F 50F 50F 50F 50F 50F 50F 50F 50F 50F 50F No data
1339 1225 1255 1252 1274 1352 1450 1486 1509 1681 1703 1713 2020 1919 1861 2044 2111 2127 2149 2130

--- --- --- --- --- --- -- 2 2 2 2F 2F 2F 2 2F
27 27 29 34 38 48 35 37 36 33 46 54 54 69 66 67 70 60 34 38
52* 44 44 47 58 43 37 43 25 24 18 12 27 36 36 36 35F 17 25* 21*
40* 40* 40F 40F 35F 35F 35F 35F 35F 35F 35F 35F 35F 35F 35F 35F 35F 35F 35F 35F
16F 30F 30F 36F 36F 44F 34 28 28F 33F 33F 31* 21* 44F 42* 45* 47* 53 46 49*
21 37 31 24 27 30 32 34 33 36 39 40 45 51 56 53 55* 52 55 55F
51 64 75 92 88 78 81 101 85 96F 100F 100F 101* 101* 93 138 126* 135* 95* 116
26F 38F 39F 40F 40F 40F 41F 40F 40F 41F 41F 41F 41F 41F 41F 42F 42F 88 90 90
89 71 77 87 63 72 79 85 73 73* 75* 60* 80* 90* 80* 90* 91* 78* 84* 69*
1555 1674 1711 2091 2117 2240 1894 1874 1733 1747 1781 1576 1870 1329 1753 1316 1506 1580 1054 1936
46 48 48 55 59 63 66 67 66 64F 64F 61 64 90 56 68 82 67 67F 65F
19 26 25 20 15 22 21 18 17 17 18 12 10 12 16 17 16 15 12 15*
6 6 5 4 4 4 4 4F 4F 4F 4F 4F 4F 4F 4F 4F 4F 4F 4F 4F
581 582 564 570 610 610 501 576 594 570 533 567 553 624 593 607 511 589 560 743
2529 2685 2718 3140 3188 3328 2860 2941 2768 2774 2786 2594 2907 2529 2873 2520 2620 2773 2163 3239

31 23 28 30 37 28 29 38 57 41 61 62 79 108 137 147 167 136 231 205
3F 6F 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9* 3F 3F 3F 3F 3 3F 3F
2580 2716 2982 3131 3273 3325 3651 3663 3633 3485 3743 3560F 3815 4293 4143 4047 4564 4617 4203 4306
94 75 71 64 58 65 68 53 44 57 70 79 68 74 68 82 57 112 110 111
75F 87 75 76 76 64 69 115 102 88 97 97 94 111 121 101 112 111 112 118
40 44 45 57 55 82 79 60F 70F 82 67 62 66 66 63 68 68F 39 44 52F
22 22 25 32 32 32 30 27 54 50 46 47 43 55F 67 70F 72F 81 79 82
45 47 45 46 54 75 85 66 81 77 72 65F 62* 56* 75F 75F 75F 73F 73F 72F
6 6F 6F 6F 5F 3 4F 4F 4F 4F 4F 4F 4F 4F 4F 4F 4F 5F 5F 5F
90 68 81 87 88 91 93 101 104 91 96 83 67 81 89 89 108* 70 65 73*
2986 3094 3367 3537 3687 3773 4117 4136 4158 3984 4265 4069 4307 4851 4770 4686 5270 5246 4926 5026


F = F.A.O. estimate = Unofficial country estimate


Source: F.A.O. Production Yearbooks








Table 2. DRY BEANS: YIELD PER HECTARE BY CONTINENT AND COUNTRY, 1961-1980 (in Kilograms/Hectare)


1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980


Africa
Algeria
Angola
Benin
Burundi
Cameroon
Chad
Egypt
Ethiopia
Kenya
Lesotho
Madagascar
Malawi
Morocco
Reunion
Rwanda
Somalia
South Africa
Sudan
Swaziland
Tanzania
Togo
Uganda
^ Zaire
Zimbabwe
Means
N & C America
Belize
Canada
Costa Rica
Cuba
Dominican Rep.
El Salvador
Guatemala
Haiti
Honduras
Mexico
Nicaragua
Panama
Puerto Rico
USA
Means
South America
Argentina
Bolivia
Brazil
Chile
Colombia
Ecuador
Paraguay
Peruy
Uruguay
Venezuela
Means


800 833 765 740
800F 866 895 926
290 285 227 255
644 785 632
420F 379 1222 502
No data
1370 2381 1429 1701
700 700 700 710
No data
270 280 320 200
780 717 839 799
590F 569 563 548
940 577 659 751
1231 1231 1231
769 803 647
250 93 136 283
1060F 492 565 518
1480 1271 1077 1466
430 500 276 270
421 423 436
230 299 286 222
370 650 650 653
No data


615 615
504 538
211 254
750 752
620 572

1732 1515
720 730

200 200
798 813
538 523
684 413
1750 1500
689 850
667 333
506 557
1480 1653
333 278
487 500
272 282
653 669


507 399
532 532
315 257
597 583
411 421
No data
1587 1732
742 755
No data
222 255
756 797
538 538
532 556
1750 1750
850 744
500 500
585 752
1185 931
262 227
499 479
282 591
712 630
No data


353
529
321
608
440

1948
772

257
875
538
533
1750
900
500
660
1177
392
531
231
464


227
625
320
584
429

1831
789

226
883
542
600
1750
900
500
667
1170
370
490
474
650


400 404 359
583 583 600
406 331 347
833 726 459
479 479 500
No data
2040 2063 2273
771 776 680
No data
235 240 245
799 853 834
538 467 452
625 642 646
1667 1500
900 850 831
500 327 346
684 767 643
930 1231 1587
358 542 409
500 577 571
515 320 446
667 667 567
No data


755
600
325
604
534
420
2164
690

250
880
528
667
1500
615
346
1153
1190
476
500
193
419


969
583
296
604
593
440
2264
760

292
842
494
767
1639
801
346
829
807
524
500
259
480


860
583
346
596
608
447
2515
649

290
841
500
800
1639
805
346
889
768
545
497
258
480


818
600
377
589
615
454
2458
696

317
871
500
655
1613
808
346
742
750
545
509
278
480


811
341
1235
1429
545
500
250
484
549


341 667
458 378
464 467
667 671
625 636
412 412
2026 1970
1506 899
No data
1154 1154
937 1037
625 653
710 706

813 815
343 343
915 1217
1600 1600
682 682
500 500
267 275
500 500
564 564


800 460 414 320 339 450 560 480 480 480 500 500 500 500 512 524 536 500 No data
480 465 520 465 480 482 455 444 406 434 463 516 450 563 596 571 570 604 600 605

No data No data 529 607 561 576 600 664 671 676
1360 1463 1457 1663 1556 1671 1122 1199 1458 1523 1769 1620 1457 1391 1379 1358 1567 1278 1812 1821
370* 365 364 364 388 391 395 397 399 402 409 837 413 391 456 516 429 522 480 619
840* 850 750 675 714 657 629 629 657 629 657 657 671 671 671 671 671 714 729 743
1210F 690 700 701 711 714 718 795 1000 758 848 955 958 997 719 836 687 721 772 878
940 622 580 643 785 653 684 712 799 827 875 688 834 656 710 658 727 829 844 855
640 650 650 650 650 650 650 651 651 650 651 653 721 767 692 565 532 596 895 688
650 1005 1026 1005 1015 1028 1024 900 988 976 1024 1049 1049 1073 1098 1108 1102 519 579 500
430 629 647 664 683 700 718 735 752 753 733 583 600 611 536 534 549 569 454 548
470 392 296 426 406 452 475 469 465 529 465 514 539 674 586 562 495 600 570 584
700 747 842 814 833 835 838 839 837 836 844 710 736 569 785 785 785 834 776 769
270 265 285 246 277 312 334 329 304 291 184 276 303 289 252 253 212 272 277 310
380 380 380 534 520 577 577 575 600 575 600 600 600 600 600 600 600 600 600 600
1540 1405 1615 1389 1230 1490 1389 1372 1443 1384 1356 1448 1343 1479 1333 1330 1446 1459 1659 1593
740 661 700 648 614 690 676 689 728 746 698 772 736 896 774 790 740 805 899 844

1060 1069 1150 961 1023 1052 951 597 563 956 973 932 926 1068 791 1160 1080 978 1016 1146
710F 360 363 367 365 365 385 379 379 379 400 400 400 804 810 833 833 800 800 800
680 630 651 623 700 646 698 661 606 635 668 659 584 521 548 455 510 475 517 459
970 990 906 1001 1008 1063 1312 1219 1062 1146 1032 1043 962 1013 1089 862 1155 1003 1057 761
590F 547 584 553 526 547 551 478 488 489 598 608 617 703 745 669 645 674 664 697
530 477 508 441 576 452 482 469 500 568 449 419 482 423 417 471 471 480 523 558
750 800 760 749 600 700 600 650 641 651 554 683 788 771 783 786 778 794 731 793
950 966 940 967 897 876 902 768 793 812 808 738 695 724 853 853 867 772 772 764
640 667 667 626 800 658 500 500 500 500 500 500 512 500 512 568 568 578 578 553
490 519 472 419 423 442 446 365 332 361 369 355 377 408 416 461 602 486 588 630
680 640 657 628 697 650 700 653 602 637 667 661 596 547 572 501 553 513 564 512


Source: F.A.O. Production Yearbooks F = F.A.O. estimate


Continent
and Country


* = Unofficial country estimate







Table 3. DRY BEANS: TOTAL PRODUCTION BY CONTINENT AND COUNTRY, 1961-1980 (in 1000 metric tons)


Continent
and Country


Africa
Algeria
Angola
Benin
Burundi
Cameroon
Chad
Egypt
Ethiopia
Kenya
Lesotho
Madagascar
Malawi
Morocco
Reunion
Rwanda
Somalia
South Africa
Sudan
Swaziland
Tanzania
Togo
Uganda
cr Zaire
Zimbabwe
Totals
N & C America
Belize
Canada
Costa Rica
Cuba
Dominican Rep.
El Salvador
Guatemala
Haiti
Honduras
Mexico
Nicaragua
Panama
Puerto Rico
USA
Totals
South America
Argentina
Bolivia
Brazil
Chile
Colombia
Ecuador
Paraguay
Peru
Uruguay
Venezuela
Totals


1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980


1 1 1F 2 1 1 1 2 2 2 2F 2F 2 4 3 2 4F 1 1 2F
52 58* 60* 63* 60* 64* 64* 64* 64* 75 70 70F 72F 72F 70F 70F 72F 65F 55F 42
36 27 22 16 19 14 29 18F 25 25 31 24 21 14 11 15 25 39 37 35F
109 135 114 141 155 123 121 150F 170F 250F 234 245 145F 148F 150F 153F 162F 170F 173F
24F 23 94 26 19 18 26 29 33 30F 35F 35F 55F 55F 73F 76F 80F 90F 95* 98F
No data No data 42F 44F 45F 45F 40F 40F 40F
1 2 3 10 8 7 6 8 9 10 12 13 15* 15F 16* 17* 18F 12 11 13F
60 62 62 63 65 66 68 70 72 75 74F 76F 90 51 35 29 32F 13 25F 13*
No data available No data No data No data
1 IF 2F 2F 2F 2F 2F 2 3 4 4F 2 3F 3F 9 9 10F 15F 15F 15F
27 43 52 50 50 50 47 49 56 57 55 61 54 59 55 60 61 45 56 55
7F 7F 7 7 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7 7 7F 7 8 6 6F 6F 62F 60F 62F
5 3 5 5 4 3 5 5F 4* 5F 5F 5F 5F 6F 3 IF 6F 7F 7F 7F
15F 1 1 1 1 IF 1 1 1 1 1 1 1F IF 1* 1* IF
92 96 70 87 131 132 116 146 144 144 131 133 115 153 163 164F 174 175F 176F
1 1 2 1F 2F 2F 2F 2F 2F 4 5F 5F 5F 5F 5F 5F 5F 5F
50 49 46 41 38 45 47 58 50 49 51 56 45 83 58 60 51* 95 65 77
6 5 6 11 10 11 7 4 6 6F 4 16 4 3 4* 3* 3F 3 4 4F
1 F --- --- 1F 1 1 --- 1 IF 1 1 1 IF IF 1F IF 1F 2* 2F
85F 89 101 86 117 102 105 110 129F 130F 162 160F 130F 134 146 153F 150F 149F 150F
9F 13 14 12 16 16 17 26 9 46 50F 16F 33 13 15F 16F 18F 15* 16F 17*
107F 91F 91F 98F 98F 109F 156 170F 116F 169F 180F 180F 170F 196 195 258 264F 173F 180F 180F
No data No data No data 90 93F 94F
21F 21F 21F 21F 23F 23F 24F 24F 24F 25F 25F 25F 25F 26F 26F 27F 25F 23F 23F
588 698 811 717 740 844 867 885 896 1032 1137 1126 1145 912 1020 1267 1307 1284 1289 1288

-- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 1 1 1 IF IF 1 2 IF
36 39 42 56 60 80 39 44 53 51 79 88 79 97 90 91 110 77 62 70
19* 16 16 17 23 17 15 17 10 10 7 10 11 14 16 19 15* 9 12 13*
34* 34* 30* 27* 25* 23* 22* 22* 23* 22F 23F 23F 24F 24F 24F 24F 24F 25F 26F 26F
19 20 21 25 25 31 25 22 28 25* 28* 30* 20* 44* 30 38 32* 38 36 43
20 23 18 16 21 19 22 24 26 30 35 27 37 34 40 40 40 43 47 47F
33 41 49 60 57 51 53 66 56 63 65 65 73 78 65 78 67 81* 85* 80
17F 38F 40F 40F 41F 41 42 36 40 40 42 43F 43F 44F 45 46F 46F 46 52 45F
38 45 50 58 43 50 57 63 55- 55* 55* 35* 48* 55* 43 48 50* 44* 38* 38*
723 656 677 892 860 1013 899 878 806 925 828 809 1009 896 1027 740 745 949 601 1130
32 36 40 45 49 53 55 56 55 53 54F 43 47 51 44 53 64 55 52F 50F
5 7 7 5 4 7 7 6 5 5 3 3 3 3 4 4 3 4 3 5
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2F 2F 2F 2F 2F 2F 2F 2F 2F 2F 2F 2F 2F
896 818 911 792 751 909 696 791 858 789 722 822 743 923 791 807 739 859 929 1184
1874 1775 1903 2034 1959 2297 1934 2026 2017 2070 1944 2002 2140 2265 2222 1991 1938 2232 1945 2734

33 24 33 29 38 30 27 23 32 40 59 58 73 115 109 171 180 133 235 235
2F 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4* 2F 2 3F 3F 2 2F 2F
1745 1710 1942 1951 2290 2148 2548 2420 2200 2211 2500 2347* 2229 2238 2271 1842 2327 2194 2174 1975
91 74 64 64 59 69 90 65 47 66 72 83 65 75 74 70 112 112 116 84
44 48 44 42 40 35 38 55 50 43 58 59 58 78 90 68 72 75 75 82
21 21 23 25 31 37 38 28 35F 46 30 26 32 28 26 32 32F 19 23 29*
17 18 19 24 19 23 18 17 35 32 26 32 34 42F 52 55F 56F 65 58 65
43 45 42 45 48 65 76 51 65 63 58 48* 43* 41* 64F 64F 65F 56F 56F 55F
4 4 4 4 4 2 2 2 2 2 2F 2F 2F 2F 2F 3F 3F 3F 3F 3F
44 35 38 37 37 40 42 37 34 33 35 30 25 33 37 41* 65* 34 39 46*
2044 1982 2212 2223 2571 2452 2883 2701 2502 2539 2844 2688 2565 2654 2728 2348 2915 2692 2780 2576


Source: F.A.O. Production Yearbooks F = F.A.O. estimate = Unofficial country estimate










Table 4. DRY BEANS: FIVE-YEAR AVERAGES BY CONTINENT AND COUNTRY, 1961-1980.
Harvested Area by Cont. & Co. Total Production by Cont. & Co.
Continent (in Hectares) Yield per Hectare by Cont. & Co. (in 1000 megatons)
and Country '61-'65 '66-'70 '71-'75 '76-'80 '61-'65 '66-'70 '71-'75 '76-'80 '61-'65 '66-'70 '71-'75 '76-'80


Africa
Algeria
Angola
Benin
Burundi
Cameroon
Chad
Egypt
Ethiopia
Kenya
Lesotho
Madagascar
Malawi
Morocco
Reunion
Rwanda
Somalia
South Africa
Sudan
Swaziland
Tanzania
Togo
Uganda
Zaire
Zimbabwe
Totals
N & C America
Belize
Canada
Costa Rica
Cuba
Dominican Rep.
El Salvador
Guatemala
Haiti
Honduras
Mexico
Nicaragua
Panama
Puerto Rico
USA
Totals
South America


2 4 5 2.4
77 119 120F 118F
94 75F 57 68
173 232 328 256F
56 62F 96F 141F
Incomplete data 98
3 5 7 6.5F
88 93 89 28F
No data
6 11F 16F 20F
56 63 67 61
13 13F 14F 62
6 8F 7F 8
1 -- 1 nd
121 157F 171 210F
3 3F 11F 13F
85 76F 73 70F
6 5F 6 3F
2 2F 2F 2F
202 225F 270F 298F
49 59 70 62F
174 232F 343 432F
No data
52 50F 50F


740 400 577 670
767 555 592 512
256 293 351 435
694 621 622 632
435 435 532 621
367 Incomplete data 427
1695 1723 2161 2189
706 753 730 884
No data
245 230 253 814
803 825 850 918
561 536 496 586
718 527 669 714
1300 -
714 854 799 810
250 467 373 344
439 658 808 1000
1432 1223 1149 1229
336 306 462 600
432 502 530 501
285 389 357 266
595 621 536 489
No data
382 480 500


1269 1503 1803 2112 Means 586 444 441


590 Totals 719


1 -- Incomplete data 2F -- inc. 636
31 38 58 55 1510 1395 1500 1567 46
47 35 26 27 370 400 501 513 17
39 35F 35F 35F 767 628 686 840 30
32 33F 34* 48* 644 789 882 779 21
29 33 46 54 633 727 761 751 18
76 88F 99* 122* 649 650 697 655 50
39 40F 41F 70 1013 1000 1049 762 39
73 76 77* 82* 648 737 610 539 48
1829 1898 1662 1478 416 476 550 562 761
52 65F 67 78 802 831 716 790 42
21 19 14 15 268 314 354 265 6
5 4F 4F 4F 429 581 600 600 2
581 570 574 602 1433 1419 1394 1497 833
2856 2934 2737 2583 Means 670 705 772 816 Totals 1914


Argentina 30 39 89 177 1049 769 933 1076 31
Bolivia 8 9 7F 3F 371 377 563 853 3
Brazil 2936 3551 3911 4347 656 649 592 483 1927
Chile 69 57 72 94 973 1175 1028 968 67
Colombia 79 88 104 111 550 500 663 670 44
Ecuador 49 74 65 54 507 500 431 501 25
Paraguay 27 39 52 77 724 641 712 776 19
Peru 47 77 66F 72F 943 831 773 806 45
Uruguay 6 4F 4F 4.5F 676 532 505 569 4
Venezuela 83 96 83 81 463 385 386 553 38
Totals 3334 4034 4452 5030 Means 661 648 606 529 Totals 2204
Source: F.A.O. Production Yearbooks F = F.A.O. estimate = Unofficial country estimate inc. Incomplete data


2 3F 2F
66 71F 61F
22 20 30
144 204F 162F
27 51F 88F
Incomplete data 42F
8 14* 14F
70 65F 22F
No data
3F 4F 13F
52 57 55
7F 7 39F
4F 5F 5F
1F 1F
134 135 170F
2F 4F 5F
50 59 70
7F 6 3F
1F 1F 1F
113F 143F 150F
23 25F 16F
144 184F 211
Incomplete data
24F 25F 24
904 1068 1287


-- 1
53 87
14 12
22F 24F
26* 30*
24 35
58 69
40 43
56* 47*
904 914
54 48
6 3
2F 2F
809 800


1F
82
14
25F
37
43
78
47F
44*
837
55
4
2F
904


2068 2115 2168

30 83 191
3 3 2F
2306 2317 2102
67 74 98
44 69 74
37F 28 27
25 37 60F
64 51* 59F
2 2F 3F
37 32 45*
2615 2696 2662













I I

4000 SOUTH AMERICA

3800

3600

, 3400 Brazil

< 3200 -
I-
wu 3000

S 2800

D 2600
O
- 1000 N.A.
AFRICA
800 Niger -



400 / **** '.
Tanzania **w MW =Now
200
*.* :.** .. *.. ...* .
0 I I I
1960 1965 1970 1975 1980

YEARS

SOUTH AMERICA (con't)


400
(Chile, little change) Argentina
200 Colombia .- ..
............ .... ..AllI********* .....****. '* .. ****....***..****
ol**~"~ ~^ -- "- =1----I-----
1960 1965 1970 1975 1980

YEARS

Figure 1. Dry Beans: Harvested Area by Continents' Major Countries, 1961-80.

































60 65 70 75

Figure 1 (continued). Dry Beans: Harvested Area by Continents' Major Countries, 1961-80.


1960


1965 1970 1975


YEARS

Figure 2. Dry Beans: Yield/Ha by Continents' Major Countries, 1961-80.


1980






















' 1300 U.S.A.
c 1300
I-
0 1250 -
I
S 650

cc 600
O
S550 -

500 Mexico

450 -

400

350-


1960 1965 1970 1975

YEARS
Figure 2 (continued). Dry Beans: Yield/Ha By Continents' Major Countries, 1961-80.


200

150 -

100 -

50 -

0

300

250

200

150

100

50

0
1960


1965


1970


1975


YEARS
Figure 3. Dry Beans: Total Production By Continents' Major Countries, 1961-80.


I I I

SOUTH AMERICA


I
I -

Argentina /

*.Chile ..
-......... .. .." ,*,** Colombia

-


AFRICA Uganda.....

Burundi,/
/....... V*.... *
S ..-.. --.-...\ ,--



STanzania
Niger

I I I


1980















NORTH & CENTRAL AMERICA


I-I


I,-
S900 Mexico

800
S.A.S.A.

X /U.S.A. X
700
I-
Mexico

600I
1960 1965 1970 1975 1980



SOUTH AMERICA (con't)

2300 -

Brazil
2200

o
I-
_ 2100
I-
2
o 2000
z

0O
I 1900



1800



0 T
1960 1965 1970 1975 1980

YEARS

Figure 3. (continued). Dry Beans: Total Produciton By Continents' Major Countries, 1961-80.









Cowpeas (Tables 5-7, Figures 4-6)


Africa
Nigeria is the largest producer of cowpeas in the
world, and the area devoted to the crop has shown an
upward trend since 1961 (Table 5). Niger and Upper
Volta are also relatively large producing countries, as
compared with other African states. Some countries ap-
pear reasonably stable in area harvested (Upper Volta),
while others (Uganda, South Africa) show a decline
during the last two decades. A change as consistent and
marked as Nigeria reflects a force or forces greater than
simple diffusion. If the growth in hectarage were pri-
marily diffusion of particularly attractive yielding
varieties or of seed types, other adjacent states should be
expected to show a similar increase. In fact, in Nigeria,
per hectare grain yields have either not changed or have
slightly decreased. More likely, the increased hectarage
in Nigeria reflects government policy in the form of
economic incentives, opening up of new lands, indirect
effects of a rapidly expanding population, etc., which
have not been the case elsewhere.
The influence of irrigation on yields is apparent from
the figures for Egypt, which show a very pronounced
jump in average yield/hectare for 1974-1975. In many
countries, average yields are low because cowpeas are
relegated to the hotter and drier sections of the country,
sections where other legumes are less well suited than
cowpeas. Tanzania is a good example. Even so, cowpea
yields are competitive with yields of dry beans in these
countries.


Western Hemisphere
Brazil is the largest producer of cowpeas in the
Americas but, unfortunately for comparative purposes,
the production statistics for cowpeas are merged with
those on common dry beans under the name "feijao."


An official Brazilian publication (Feijao, published in
Brazilia in 1981 by Departamento Tecnico Cientifico of
Empresa Brasilenis de Pesquisa Agropecuaria,
EMBRAPA) states that on the average, production of
cowpeas corresponds to 21 percent of the national pro-
duction of "feijao." Essentially all of the cowpea pro-
duction of Brazil is in the north and north eastern states,
and the publication referred to above reports that this
area produced 299.3 thousand tons of cowpeas in the
1979-1980 period. Bean production amounted to 1.96
million tons during the same period.
In the United States cowpeas are grown in the south
and southeast, and in the far west (California). Land
planted to cowpeas has declined slightly since the early
1960's, with per hectare yields remaining at about 600
kilograms. This is considerably below average United
States bean yields, but only in California are cowpeas
grown under irrigation.
For "developed" countries, the 666 kilograms/hectare
average yield is three times that of "developing" coun-
tries. Quality of land, uncontrollable climatic hazards
and pests, and the degree to which technological inputs
are employed in production account for the difference.
It is thus not likely, even with much greater use of
pesticides, fertilizers, and improved varieties, that
average country yields can be brought into the same
range as those in the developed countries.
By virtue of the greater adaptation of cowpeas to
marginal soil and climatic conditions, it may be
destined to face production hazards not generally con-
fronted by other grain legumes. There are, of course,
environmental circumstances in the tropics (the lowland
humid sites, for example) where cowpeas suffer com-
parative disadvantages.
Cowpeas are grown in most Caribbean basin coun-
tries, including Panama and Guyana, but production
statistics are not reported frequently enough to suggest
any trends.









Cowpeas (Tables 5-7, Figures 4-6)


Africa
Nigeria is the largest producer of cowpeas in the
world, and the area devoted to the crop has shown an
upward trend since 1961 (Table 5). Niger and Upper
Volta are also relatively large producing countries, as
compared with other African states. Some countries ap-
pear reasonably stable in area harvested (Upper Volta),
while others (Uganda, South Africa) show a decline
during the last two decades. A change as consistent and
marked as Nigeria reflects a force or forces greater than
simple diffusion. If the growth in hectarage were pri-
marily diffusion of particularly attractive yielding
varieties or of seed types, other adjacent states should be
expected to show a similar increase. In fact, in Nigeria,
per hectare grain yields have either not changed or have
slightly decreased. More likely, the increased hectarage
in Nigeria reflects government policy in the form of
economic incentives, opening up of new lands, indirect
effects of a rapidly expanding population, etc., which
have not been the case elsewhere.
The influence of irrigation on yields is apparent from
the figures for Egypt, which show a very pronounced
jump in average yield/hectare for 1974-1975. In many
countries, average yields are low because cowpeas are
relegated to the hotter and drier sections of the country,
sections where other legumes are less well suited than
cowpeas. Tanzania is a good example. Even so, cowpea
yields are competitive with yields of dry beans in these
countries.


Western Hemisphere
Brazil is the largest producer of cowpeas in the
Americas but, unfortunately for comparative purposes,
the production statistics for cowpeas are merged with
those on common dry beans under the name "feijao."


An official Brazilian publication (Feijao, published in
Brazilia in 1981 by Departamento Tecnico Cientifico of
Empresa Brasilenis de Pesquisa Agropecuaria,
EMBRAPA) states that on the average, production of
cowpeas corresponds to 21 percent of the national pro-
duction of "feijao." Essentially all of the cowpea pro-
duction of Brazil is in the north and north eastern states,
and the publication referred to above reports that this
area produced 299.3 thousand tons of cowpeas in the
1979-1980 period. Bean production amounted to 1.96
million tons during the same period.
In the United States cowpeas are grown in the south
and southeast, and in the far west (California). Land
planted to cowpeas has declined slightly since the early
1960's, with per hectare yields remaining at about 600
kilograms. This is considerably below average United
States bean yields, but only in California are cowpeas
grown under irrigation.
For "developed" countries, the 666 kilograms/hectare
average yield is three times that of "developing" coun-
tries. Quality of land, uncontrollable climatic hazards
and pests, and the degree to which technological inputs
are employed in production account for the difference.
It is thus not likely, even with much greater use of
pesticides, fertilizers, and improved varieties, that
average country yields can be brought into the same
range as those in the developed countries.
By virtue of the greater adaptation of cowpeas to
marginal soil and climatic conditions, it may be
destined to face production hazards not generally con-
fronted by other grain legumes. There are, of course,
environmental circumstances in the tropics (the lowland
humid sites, for example) where cowpeas suffer com-
parative disadvantages.
Cowpeas are grown in most Caribbean basin coun-
tries, including Panama and Guyana, but production
statistics are not reported frequently enough to suggest
any trends.









Cowpeas (Tables 5-7, Figures 4-6)


Africa
Nigeria is the largest producer of cowpeas in the
world, and the area devoted to the crop has shown an
upward trend since 1961 (Table 5). Niger and Upper
Volta are also relatively large producing countries, as
compared with other African states. Some countries ap-
pear reasonably stable in area harvested (Upper Volta),
while others (Uganda, South Africa) show a decline
during the last two decades. A change as consistent and
marked as Nigeria reflects a force or forces greater than
simple diffusion. If the growth in hectarage were pri-
marily diffusion of particularly attractive yielding
varieties or of seed types, other adjacent states should be
expected to show a similar increase. In fact, in Nigeria,
per hectare grain yields have either not changed or have
slightly decreased. More likely, the increased hectarage
in Nigeria reflects government policy in the form of
economic incentives, opening up of new lands, indirect
effects of a rapidly expanding population, etc., which
have not been the case elsewhere.
The influence of irrigation on yields is apparent from
the figures for Egypt, which show a very pronounced
jump in average yield/hectare for 1974-1975. In many
countries, average yields are low because cowpeas are
relegated to the hotter and drier sections of the country,
sections where other legumes are less well suited than
cowpeas. Tanzania is a good example. Even so, cowpea
yields are competitive with yields of dry beans in these
countries.


Western Hemisphere
Brazil is the largest producer of cowpeas in the
Americas but, unfortunately for comparative purposes,
the production statistics for cowpeas are merged with
those on common dry beans under the name "feijao."


An official Brazilian publication (Feijao, published in
Brazilia in 1981 by Departamento Tecnico Cientifico of
Empresa Brasilenis de Pesquisa Agropecuaria,
EMBRAPA) states that on the average, production of
cowpeas corresponds to 21 percent of the national pro-
duction of "feijao." Essentially all of the cowpea pro-
duction of Brazil is in the north and north eastern states,
and the publication referred to above reports that this
area produced 299.3 thousand tons of cowpeas in the
1979-1980 period. Bean production amounted to 1.96
million tons during the same period.
In the United States cowpeas are grown in the south
and southeast, and in the far west (California). Land
planted to cowpeas has declined slightly since the early
1960's, with per hectare yields remaining at about 600
kilograms. This is considerably below average United
States bean yields, but only in California are cowpeas
grown under irrigation.
For "developed" countries, the 666 kilograms/hectare
average yield is three times that of "developing" coun-
tries. Quality of land, uncontrollable climatic hazards
and pests, and the degree to which technological inputs
are employed in production account for the difference.
It is thus not likely, even with much greater use of
pesticides, fertilizers, and improved varieties, that
average country yields can be brought into the same
range as those in the developed countries.
By virtue of the greater adaptation of cowpeas to
marginal soil and climatic conditions, it may be
destined to face production hazards not generally con-
fronted by other grain legumes. There are, of course,
environmental circumstances in the tropics (the lowland
humid sites, for example) where cowpeas suffer com-
parative disadvantages.
Cowpeas are grown in most Caribbean basin coun-
tries, including Panama and Guyana, but production
statistics are not reported frequently enough to suggest
any trends.









Table 5. DRY COWPEAS: HARVESTED AREA BY CONTINENT AND COUNTRY, 1961-1975 (in 1000 Hectares)

Continent 5-Year Averages
and Country 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 -1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 '61-'65 '66-'70 '71-'75


Africa
Egypt
Madagascar
Malawi
Mauritania
Mozambique
Niger
Nigeria
Senegal
South Africa
Tanzania
Uganda
Upper Volta
Zimbabwe
Totals

N & C America
Haiti
Puerto Rico
USA
Totals


2 2 3 5 4 4 6 4 4 4 5F 4 3 3 3F
25 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6F 6F 6F 6F 6F 6F
9F 8 8 9F 11F 11F 10F 11F 11F 12F 12F 12F 12F 12F 12F
20F 20F 30F 30 32F 32F 34F 30F 30F 30F 32F 32F 33F 33F 33F
5F 5F 10F 4F 10F Not reported Not reported Not reported
427 475 506 519 468 652 739 744 Not reported 56F Not reported
1350F 1473 2638 2531 2843 3028 3914 3366 4027 3816 4000F 4000F 3800F 4500F 4500F
48 49 51 51 54 86 99 71 56 75F 80F 86 53 59 59F
26F 17F 19F 19F 19F 13F 19F 7F 13F 7F 8F 16F 16F 16F 16F
60F 68F 39F 63 75F 50F 80 60F 54F 30F 35F 35F 35F 35F
68 84F 83F 100F 103F 91 107F 92F 75F 90F 90F 90F 20F 20F 20F
145 455 486 207 210F 210F 210F 230F 240F 240F 240F 240F 350F 300F 350F
1 1 1 1 IF IF IF IF 1F 1F IF IF 1F IF
2150 2175 3393 2997 3246 3557 4456 3898 4523 4335 4503 4522 4328 4985 5030


3 4 4
6 6 6F
9 11F 12F
26 31F 33F
6F Not reported
Not reported
2120 3630 4160F
51 77 67F
20 12F 14F
48 64F 34F
151 91F 48F
301 226F 296F
1 1F 1F
2736 4154 4674


Not reported Not reported 47F 47F 47F not rep. Incomplete
1 1 1 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 1
54 52 51 36 41 35 38 35F 33F 30F 33F 33F 33F 33F 33F 46 34F 33F
55 53 51 36 42 35 38 35 33 30 33 33 80 80 80 47 34 61


Developed Countries 94 91 76 79 66 75 63 63 52 52 64 66 66 67 89 64 63
Developing Countries 2198 3418 3025 3269 3584 4482 3931 4552 4369 4531 4544 4397 5053 5104 2801 4183 4726

Source: F.A.O. Production Yearbooks F = F.A.O. estimate








Table 6. DRY COWPEAS: YIELD PER HECTARE BY CONTINENT AND COUNTRY 1961-1975 (in Kilogram/Hectare)

Continent 5-Year Averages
and Country 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 '61-65 '66-'70 '71-'75


Africa
Egypt
Madagascar
Malawi
Mauritania
Mozambique
Niger
Nigeria
Senegal
South Africa
Tanzania
Uganda
Upper Volta
Zimbabwe
Means

N & C America
Haiti
Puerto Rico
USA
Means


1610 1665 1604 1508 1622 1582 1700 1904
720 500 500 542 517 583 600 567
450F 448 560 562 561 591 550 571
450 317 333 328 344 441 313
940 470 910F 470F 970F Not reported
120 150 160 170 160 160 160 100
345 232 243 236 190 137 188
250 269 275 333 259 209 306 317
1140 608 611 625 492 538 632 571
300 298 299 280 318 322 276
290F 298 303 300 301 257 570 696
280 210 200 285 286 286 286 287
314 2fi8 197 210 220 n00 250


1666 1428 1190 1428 1700 3060 3103
641 617 633 633 633 633 650
591 609 609 609 609 603 615
333 333 313 281 242 242 242
Not reported
170 Not reported
216 228 200 276 197 184 189
270 333 375 125 283 390 390
538 571 600 813 613 788 500
159 139 310 293 286 286 286
742 667 722 667 450 450 450
292 271 250 250 257 233 214
.n0n nn nn 0 0nn 00n 00nn 10


1589 1656 2096
545 602 636
518 582 607
364 355 272

Incomplete data
192 208
277 286 299
581 570 663
295 250 294
571 625
233 283 240
oa2Q 07A In


460 317 236 257 248 207 169 215 233 244 221 284 210 197 199 264 215 221


Not reported Not reported 766 781 787 Incomplete data
550 642 704 805 809 807 805 750 700 750 750 750 750 750 750 674
660 545 655 591 583 644 577 600 606 600 606 606 606 606 606 607 618 606
640 547 655 594 585 645 578 601 607 601 607 612 702 711 715 622 618 689


Developed Countries 634 698 673 634 685 651 669 651 635 634 705 660 703 635 664 656 666
Developing Countries 315 237 260 250 209 170 219 235 247 223 284 217 203 207 272 216 226

Source: F.A.O. Production Yearbooks F = F.A.O. estimate








Table 7. DRY COWPEAS: TOTAL PRODUCTION BY CONTINENT AND COUNTRY, 1961-1975 (in 1000 metric tons)

Continent 5-Year Averages
and Country 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 '61-'65 '66-'70 '71-'75


Africa
Egypt
Madagascar
Malawi
Mauritania
Mozambique
Niger
Nigeria
Senegal
South Africa
Tanzania
Uganda
Upper Volta
Zimbabwe
Totals

N & C America
Haiti
Puerto Rico
USA
Totals


3 6 7 7 6 10 8 7 6 5 6 5 9 9F
3 3 3 3 4 4 3 4 4F 4F 4F 4F 4F 4F
4F 4 5 5F 6F 7F 6F 6F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F
5F 9F 10 10 11 11 15 9* 10 10 10F 9F 8F 8F 8F
2 2F 5F 2F 5F Not reported Not reported
53 73 80F 86 76 103 117 74 160 Not reported Not reported
803 508 611 616 646 576 538 634 871 870 800F 1103* 750F 830F 850F
12 13 14 17 14 18 30 23 15 25* 30F 11 15 23 23F
15 10 12 13 9 7* 12* 4* 7* 4* 5* 13 10 13 8
18F 20 12 18 24 16 22 10 8 9F 10 10F 10F 10F
20F 25F 25F 30F 31F 23 61 64 56 60F 65F 60F 9F 9F 9F
41 96 97 59 60F 60F 60F 66F 70F 65F 60F 60F 90F 70F 75F

690 802 771 804 735 752 840 1056 1059 995 1283 908 983 1003


5 7 7
3 4 4F
5 7F 7F
10 11 9F

21 97
698 867
14 22 20F
12 7 10
14 16 10F
27 52 30F
70 64F 71F

722 888 1034


Not reported Not reported 36F 36F 36F Not reported

35 28 33 21 24 23 22 21F 20F 18F 20F 20F 20F 20F 20F 28 21F 20F
35 29 34 22 24 23 22 21 20 18 20 20 56 56 57 29 21 422


Developed Countries 70 60 64 51 50 45 49 42 41 33 33 45 44 47 59 59 42 42
Developing Countries 686 692 812 787 818 749 764 860 1071 1079 1009 1289 952 1028 759 759 905 1067

Source: F.A.O. Production Yearbooks F = F.A.O. estimate


_











4500

4000

3500

3000

2500

2000

1500

600

500

400

300

200

100

0
1


1965


1970


1975


YEARS
Figure 4. Dry Cowpeas: Harvested Area in Major African Countries, 1961-75 (in 1000 Hectares).


650

600

550

500 -

450

400

350

300

250 -

200 -

150 -

100

50 -

0
1960


1965


1970


1975


YEARS

Figure 5. Dry Cowpeas: Yield/Ha in Major African Countries, 1961-75.


Nigeri;


Senegal .o.-*"**..


1980


Not Reported


f^ Not Reported





i**. Senegal
,* .
:.*



S \ Upper Volta
Nigeria


1980


I


I......-
t











4500

4000

3500

3000

2500

2000

1500

600

500

400

300

200

100

0
1


1965


1970


1975


YEARS
Figure 4. Dry Cowpeas: Harvested Area in Major African Countries, 1961-75 (in 1000 Hectares).


650

600

550

500 -

450

400

350

300

250 -

200 -

150 -

100

50 -

0
1960


1965


1970


1975


YEARS

Figure 5. Dry Cowpeas: Yield/Ha in Major African Countries, 1961-75.


Nigeri;


Senegal .o.-*"**..


1980


Not Reported


f^ Not Reported





i**. Senegal
,* .
:.*



S \ Upper Volta
Nigeria


1980


I


I......-
t


















900 -



800
C,
0 Nigeria
I-"
_ 700
n-
LU

S 6600
2
O :

-r 200 -

150 -
150 Niger

100 -\
o- ." .. -- -.. '*....- Upper Volta


00 -. ... ... Senegal
1960 1965 1970 1975 1980


YEARS

Figure 6. Dry Cowpeas: Total Production in Major African Countries, 1961-75.




















Country Constraints

and National Programs


East Africa

Burundi
Beans play a very important role in feeding the
population of Burundi. They are a staple food and a
principal source of protein. Some 120,000 tons of beans
are produced in three seasons per year on about 24,000
hectares. Cowpeas are seldom grown.
A. Major Constraints
1. Soils: problems of acidity, too high clay con-
tent and poor drainage, and infertility
characterize the soils in three major farming
regions, respectively.
2. Low temperatures on the high plateau (1,800
meters and above): bean production on the
plateau falls to less than 500 kilograms/
hectare.
3. Variable rainfall: both in amount and in tim-
ing of onset of the rain seasons.
4. Diseases and insect pests.
Diseases
Bean common mosaic: not serious.
Halo blight.
Rhizoctonia.
Rust: serious only at higher altitudes.
Angular leafspot.
Ashy stem blight, caused by Ramularia
phaseoli.
Anthracnose: most serious.
Insect pests
Bean fly: considerable damage in certain
regions.
Aphids: cause great damage in dry seasons.
Lealfhoppers: damage not generally severe.
5. Varieties/socio-cultural preference: black-
seeded beans are higher-yielding but farmers
grow light-colored types with inferior yields
because of consumer preference.


B. Present Program Activities
1. Collection and evaluation of local "land-
races."
2. Introduction and testing of foreign varieties,
with final trials conducted in two distinct
agro-ecological zones with a limited number of
previously screened and selected varieties.
3. Seed distribution, a very recent activity not yet
reaching more than about 25 percent of
farmers.
C. Future Plans
1. Continuation of current activities, started in
1978 and expected to continue until 1983.
D. Assessment
For a small country, beans are exceedingly abundant
and universally grown and consumed. Governmental
resources have not permitted a major program in
beans. It is particularly crucial to Burundi that chan-
nels of regional and international cooperation be open-
ed and made to service the needs which the country
itself can scarcely afford to address.


Ethiopia
Legumes constitute important sources of protein for
the people of Ethiopia. During the extended fasting
periods, the Christian population in the country abs-
tains from animal sources of protein and, hence,
depends heavily on legumes. Horse beans, field peas,
lentils and chick peas are known to be important tradi-
tional components of the diet. Recently, the diet has
also included limited amounts of navy beans, lima
beans and soybeans.
The cowpea is grown primarily in the arid and semi-
arid zones. With its broad spectrum of agro-ecologic




















Country Constraints

and National Programs


East Africa

Burundi
Beans play a very important role in feeding the
population of Burundi. They are a staple food and a
principal source of protein. Some 120,000 tons of beans
are produced in three seasons per year on about 24,000
hectares. Cowpeas are seldom grown.
A. Major Constraints
1. Soils: problems of acidity, too high clay con-
tent and poor drainage, and infertility
characterize the soils in three major farming
regions, respectively.
2. Low temperatures on the high plateau (1,800
meters and above): bean production on the
plateau falls to less than 500 kilograms/
hectare.
3. Variable rainfall: both in amount and in tim-
ing of onset of the rain seasons.
4. Diseases and insect pests.
Diseases
Bean common mosaic: not serious.
Halo blight.
Rhizoctonia.
Rust: serious only at higher altitudes.
Angular leafspot.
Ashy stem blight, caused by Ramularia
phaseoli.
Anthracnose: most serious.
Insect pests
Bean fly: considerable damage in certain
regions.
Aphids: cause great damage in dry seasons.
Lealfhoppers: damage not generally severe.
5. Varieties/socio-cultural preference: black-
seeded beans are higher-yielding but farmers
grow light-colored types with inferior yields
because of consumer preference.


B. Present Program Activities
1. Collection and evaluation of local "land-
races."
2. Introduction and testing of foreign varieties,
with final trials conducted in two distinct
agro-ecological zones with a limited number of
previously screened and selected varieties.
3. Seed distribution, a very recent activity not yet
reaching more than about 25 percent of
farmers.
C. Future Plans
1. Continuation of current activities, started in
1978 and expected to continue until 1983.
D. Assessment
For a small country, beans are exceedingly abundant
and universally grown and consumed. Governmental
resources have not permitted a major program in
beans. It is particularly crucial to Burundi that chan-
nels of regional and international cooperation be open-
ed and made to service the needs which the country
itself can scarcely afford to address.


Ethiopia
Legumes constitute important sources of protein for
the people of Ethiopia. During the extended fasting
periods, the Christian population in the country abs-
tains from animal sources of protein and, hence,
depends heavily on legumes. Horse beans, field peas,
lentils and chick peas are known to be important tradi-
tional components of the diet. Recently, the diet has
also included limited amounts of navy beans, lima
beans and soybeans.
The cowpea is grown primarily in the arid and semi-
arid zones. With its broad spectrum of agro-ecologic




















Country Constraints

and National Programs


East Africa

Burundi
Beans play a very important role in feeding the
population of Burundi. They are a staple food and a
principal source of protein. Some 120,000 tons of beans
are produced in three seasons per year on about 24,000
hectares. Cowpeas are seldom grown.
A. Major Constraints
1. Soils: problems of acidity, too high clay con-
tent and poor drainage, and infertility
characterize the soils in three major farming
regions, respectively.
2. Low temperatures on the high plateau (1,800
meters and above): bean production on the
plateau falls to less than 500 kilograms/
hectare.
3. Variable rainfall: both in amount and in tim-
ing of onset of the rain seasons.
4. Diseases and insect pests.
Diseases
Bean common mosaic: not serious.
Halo blight.
Rhizoctonia.
Rust: serious only at higher altitudes.
Angular leafspot.
Ashy stem blight, caused by Ramularia
phaseoli.
Anthracnose: most serious.
Insect pests
Bean fly: considerable damage in certain
regions.
Aphids: cause great damage in dry seasons.
Lealfhoppers: damage not generally severe.
5. Varieties/socio-cultural preference: black-
seeded beans are higher-yielding but farmers
grow light-colored types with inferior yields
because of consumer preference.


B. Present Program Activities
1. Collection and evaluation of local "land-
races."
2. Introduction and testing of foreign varieties,
with final trials conducted in two distinct
agro-ecological zones with a limited number of
previously screened and selected varieties.
3. Seed distribution, a very recent activity not yet
reaching more than about 25 percent of
farmers.
C. Future Plans
1. Continuation of current activities, started in
1978 and expected to continue until 1983.
D. Assessment
For a small country, beans are exceedingly abundant
and universally grown and consumed. Governmental
resources have not permitted a major program in
beans. It is particularly crucial to Burundi that chan-
nels of regional and international cooperation be open-
ed and made to service the needs which the country
itself can scarcely afford to address.


Ethiopia
Legumes constitute important sources of protein for
the people of Ethiopia. During the extended fasting
periods, the Christian population in the country abs-
tains from animal sources of protein and, hence,
depends heavily on legumes. Horse beans, field peas,
lentils and chick peas are known to be important tradi-
tional components of the diet. Recently, the diet has
also included limited amounts of navy beans, lima
beans and soybeans.
The cowpea is grown primarily in the arid and semi-
arid zones. With its broad spectrum of agro-ecologic




















Country Constraints

and National Programs


East Africa

Burundi
Beans play a very important role in feeding the
population of Burundi. They are a staple food and a
principal source of protein. Some 120,000 tons of beans
are produced in three seasons per year on about 24,000
hectares. Cowpeas are seldom grown.
A. Major Constraints
1. Soils: problems of acidity, too high clay con-
tent and poor drainage, and infertility
characterize the soils in three major farming
regions, respectively.
2. Low temperatures on the high plateau (1,800
meters and above): bean production on the
plateau falls to less than 500 kilograms/
hectare.
3. Variable rainfall: both in amount and in tim-
ing of onset of the rain seasons.
4. Diseases and insect pests.
Diseases
Bean common mosaic: not serious.
Halo blight.
Rhizoctonia.
Rust: serious only at higher altitudes.
Angular leafspot.
Ashy stem blight, caused by Ramularia
phaseoli.
Anthracnose: most serious.
Insect pests
Bean fly: considerable damage in certain
regions.
Aphids: cause great damage in dry seasons.
Lealfhoppers: damage not generally severe.
5. Varieties/socio-cultural preference: black-
seeded beans are higher-yielding but farmers
grow light-colored types with inferior yields
because of consumer preference.


B. Present Program Activities
1. Collection and evaluation of local "land-
races."
2. Introduction and testing of foreign varieties,
with final trials conducted in two distinct
agro-ecological zones with a limited number of
previously screened and selected varieties.
3. Seed distribution, a very recent activity not yet
reaching more than about 25 percent of
farmers.
C. Future Plans
1. Continuation of current activities, started in
1978 and expected to continue until 1983.
D. Assessment
For a small country, beans are exceedingly abundant
and universally grown and consumed. Governmental
resources have not permitted a major program in
beans. It is particularly crucial to Burundi that chan-
nels of regional and international cooperation be open-
ed and made to service the needs which the country
itself can scarcely afford to address.


Ethiopia
Legumes constitute important sources of protein for
the people of Ethiopia. During the extended fasting
periods, the Christian population in the country abs-
tains from animal sources of protein and, hence,
depends heavily on legumes. Horse beans, field peas,
lentils and chick peas are known to be important tradi-
tional components of the diet. Recently, the diet has
also included limited amounts of navy beans, lima
beans and soybeans.
The cowpea is grown primarily in the arid and semi-
arid zones. With its broad spectrum of agro-ecologic









regions (11 major zones have been defined), Ethiopia
has a great potential as a producer of legumes for
domestic consumption and export. Pulses comprise an
important component of the country's export
commodities.
Common beans cover a considerable acreage in
Ethiopia, being grown both as food and a cash crop for
export. They are found mostly in highland areas rang-
ing from 1,700 to 2,000 meters. These include the
Chercher highlands of Hararghae province, the lower
regions of Shoa and Arsi provinces and, to a lesser ex-
tent, in the southwest of the country.
In the Chercher region, beans are grown as the
major legume in association with maize and/or
sorghum. Because of the short maturity types, it is
often possible to obtain two harvests of beans, while
obtaining one harvest of maize and sorghum, during
the long growing period from April to December.
Cowpeas are grown in the drier regions of the coun-
try, usually with other crops such as maize and/or
sorghum. Cowpeas are used for food in the country
and not exported in any quantity. Many food products
are made from cowpea flour.
A. Major Production Constraints
Ethiopia shares most of the production and
utilization problems common to East Africa. In
particular, however, regional constraints have
been identified as follows:
1. Drought in the Eastern region, a problem of all
pulses.
2. Low soil temperatures at planting time, in the
Central Highlands.
3. Fungal attacks on germinating seeds in the Cen-
tral Highlands and more humid Western
Region: this is a problem associated with seeds
produced under conditions of high temperatures
and high humidity.

B. Institutions with Research Programs or Potential
for Research Collaboration
1. Eastern Highlands: Alemaya College of Agri-
culture.
2. Central Highlands: Debre-Zeit Experiment Sta-
tion at Bishofter.
3. Western Region: Jimma Agricultural Technical
Institute.
In addition, the Junior Agricultural College in
Awassa, the National Ministry of Agriculture, and
the Institute of Agricultural Research have a poten-
tial for research collaboration.

C. Major Program Objectives
1. Identify and distribute drought and disease
resistant varieties of beans and cowpeas through
regional trials of genetic materials selected out of


or from among locally grown "land-races," and
from introduced varieties.
2. Conduct intercropping studies with beans,
maize and sorghum.
3. Popularize legumes for domestic consumption
and for export.
D. Future Plans and Assessment
1. Continued testing for reliably high yielding,
region-wide adaptability.
2. Place special selection emphasis upon drought
resistance, and secondly upon disease resistance
in locally acceptable types.
3. In the hot humid regions, seed quality, both for
consumption and for use in planting, should be
made a research and extension objective.
4. Studies and field trials should be focused on
three agro-ecologic regions:
a) The coarse-textured and sandy loam soils of
the Eastern area.
b) The blackland clay soils of the Central
highlands.
c) The reddish brown oxisols of the West.
There are favorable climatic and soil conditions in
Ethiopia to support a productive pulse agriculture.
Furthermore, there exists in the country, even at this
time, sufficient technical capability to provide guidance
to improved production practices.
Personnel at the institutions named above are capable
of extending excellent research collaboration in beans
and related pulses.
Traditionally, however, pulses in Ethiopia have been
grown in small plots with a minimum of technology. Im-
provement of the crops, through varietal selection and
production practices, will require a monumental effort
on the part of extension organizations to reach the small
farmers. A return to political normalcy and a national re-
direction of the country's resources toward internal
domestic problems, including agricultural development,
are prerequisites to achieving the goals of pulse
improvement.

Kenya

Beans Phaseolus vulgaris
Beans are the most important pulse crop in Kenya and
second to maize in importance for human food. Beans
are grown extensively in the Eastern, Central and
Western provinces, and in 1974-1975 were reported to
have occupied some 763,500 hectares.
A. Major Production Constraints
1. The principal biological factors limiting produc-
tion of beans in Kenya are disease and insects.
Among the diseases rated important and








moderately important are the following:
Anthracnose.
Rust.
Angular leafspot.
Ashy stem blight.
Fusarium root rot.
Southern blight.
Rhizoctonia root rot.
Powdery mildew.
Halo blight.
Common bacterial blight.
Bacterial brown spot.
Bean common mosaic.
This is an impressive list; it includes nearly
all of the major bean diseases found any place
in the world. One reason is the great climatic
diversity that exists from the eastern and coastal
regions to the upland and mountainous regions
of the Western provinces. A second reason is the
widespread use of farmer-grown seeds, many of
which carry seed-borne disease organisms.
Thirdly, an exceptionally thorough survey of
bean disease problems has been carried out in
Kenya. Finally, not every disease occurs in all
areas nor in all seasons.
Major insect pests include:
Bean fly.
Aphids.
Bollworm.
Bean beetle.
Several species of minor importance are also
known to affect beans, such as blue and green
leaf-eating beetles, blister beetles, thrips and the
spotted borer.
2. Environmental constraints
a) Drought: an almost ubiquitous hazard
throughout East Africa due to insufficient or
irregular rainfall.
b) Depletion of soil fertility and unavailability
of appropriate fertilizers.
c) Inefficient nitrogen fixation: reasons for this
are unknown but dry soil conditions are
thought to be a contributing factor.
3. Agronomic factors
a) Beans are generally grown with maize as a
subsistence crop on small areas. Essentially
no agronomic information is available to or
used by the small farmer, and scarcely any
modern farming technology is used.
B. Recent and Current Activities
1. A research team of scientists, supported and sent
to Kenya by the Netherlands government, has
been engaged in disease resistance work at the
Ministry of Agriculture Horticultural Field Sta-


tion at Thika. This project has classified
numerous seed types as components of Kenya
bean land-races and has undertaken screening
and breeding work, particularly on anthracnose
and .mosaic.
2. At the Faculty of Agriculture of the University of
Nairobi at Kabete, a multi-disciplinary team of
scientists has outlined researchable problem
areas in beans and cowpeas and has initiated
some work with very limited resources. Among
the active projects are the following:
Project 1: "The effect of added nitrogen,
phosphorous, molybdenum and inoculation
upon symbiotic nitrogen fixation of beans,
Phaseolus vulgaris, in Kenya."
a) Determining need for inoculation of beans
using local and imported inoculants.
b) Investigation of mineral nutrients, such as
nitrogen, phosphorous, molybdenum, etc.,
and their possible effect on limiting nitrogen
fixation.
c) Study the effect of agronomic factors such as
plant population, time of planting and
weeding upon nitrogen fixation.
d) Exploration of local materials which might
serve as carriers for inoculants.

Project 2: "Nutrient and water-use efficiency in
legumes."
a) Study dry matter accumulation in legumes
at various regimes of applied moisture and
fertilizer relating to grain yield.
b) Measure nutrient content of vegetation and
grain in relation to grain yield.
c) Measure available nutrients in soil at various
growth stages in relation to grain yields.

Project 3: "The physiological genetics of drought
adaptation in beans, Phaseolus vulgaris."
a) A series of field experiments involving four
contrasting genotypes planted at different
dates to expose them to different water
regimes are to be established and certain
physiological measurements made,
including:
Leaf water potential.
Stomatal diffusive resistance.
Light interception.
Profiles of soil water content.
Flower bud, flower and immature pod
counts.
Date of physiological maturity.
Seed yield and components.

Project 4: "Improvement of local food beans,
Phaseolus vulgaris, by breeding for disease









resistance, adaptability and yield."
a) Develop disease resistance in local bean
cultivars.
b) Develop local bean cultivars adapted to dif-
ferent ecological areas.
c) Develop beans with higher yield potential,
higher protein quality and better cooking
quality.
Project 5: "Pest management of legume plants
with special emphasis upon soybean, Glycine
max, in Kenya.
a) Survey and collect insect pests of grain
legumes.
b) Study phenology of legume varieties and the
pest complex interactions.
c) Assess pest status of insect species associated
with particular legumes.
d) Study ecological factors and cultural prac-
tices in relation to overall pest reduction.
e) Select the most pest resistant varieties with
acceptable market quality.
Project 6: "Studies on inactivating trypsin in-
hibitors in Kenyan dry beans, Phaseolus sp., by
some selected processing conditions."
a) Study steeping and/or blanching as a means
of inactivating trypsin inhibitory factors in
raw beans.
Project 7: "Studies on the amino-acid composi-
tion of popular varieties of Kenyan dry beans
and the effects of processing on availability of
lysine and methionine."
a) Obtain values for total amino-acid content
in three bean varieties and changes in
availability of lysine and methionine with
processing.
Project 8: "Dehydrated green leafy vegetables
(legume leaves) as Vitamin A supplements to the
local diet."
a) Screen local green leafy vegetables (GLV)
for beta-carotene content and to develop
simple rural-scale processing techniques for
the preservation of GLV and Vitamin A.
b) Evaluate nutrient retention in dry leaf prod-
ucts under varying storage conditions.

Project 9: "Economics of production and
marketing of food beans in Kenya."
a) Assess the structure and performance of the
bean distribution system in Kenya.
A one-year project on the "Economics of Pro-
duction and Marketing of Food Beans in Kenya"
was outlined in 1977, but no report has thus far
been issued.


C. Achievements
The achievements of the agronomy work, apart
from published results in journals, are announced in
"Guidelines" for bean production. Those of the
breeding work are: the release of varieties; the pro-
duction of breeders' seed; the successful breeding for
resistance to anthracnose, bean common mosaic,
angular leafspot and halo blight; and the investiga-
tions in miscellaneous subjects related to bean im-
provement through breeding and selection. Those of
the pathology work are: the description of the disease
situation in the country, the successful control of
diseases by chemical means, the identification of
disease resistances and the support of the breeding
program in respect to disease screening.

D. Future Plans
During the coming years the bean improvement
program will concentrate on:
1. Agronomy
a) Competition problems in mixed cropping.
b) Optimal bean-maize ratios for different
ecological zones.
c) Optimal relative planting times.
d) Weed control.
e) Definition of parameters for fertilizer
recommendations.
f) Relation of nodulation-fertilizer require-
ment.
g) Long-term rotation-fertilizer trials.
2. Breeding-selection
a) The production of improved varieties.
b) Breeding for disease resistance.
c) Production of breeders' seed.
d) Improvement of crop mixtures.
3. Crop protection
a) Screening for disease and pest resistance.
b) Monitoring disease and pest situations.
c) Chemical control of pests and diseases.
d) Identification of disease strains and races.
e) Support of the breeding program in respect
to screening for disease resistance.
4. Evaluation of different cropping systems.

E. Assessment
The disease resistance work by the Netherlands
team at Thika is of high quality and may be expected
to lead to varieties of the principal seed classes
possessing multiple foliage disease resistance. Kenya
has a national seed organization with the capability
of seed multiplication and distribution to handle seed
of improved bean varieties. The only flaw in the
Netherlands program is the length of time the pro-
gram will be supported. At this time an extension to
1983 has been authorized.









The University of Nairobi group, at Kabete, is also
very competent but two problems are paramount: 1)
research time must compete with teaching respon-
sibilities of the principal investigators; and 2)
facilities at Kabete are very limited for conducting
research.
The work proposed and provisionally undertaken
by the Kabete group, along with the full-time
Netherlands Program at Thika, clearly addresses
major problems. These problems are not only impor-
tant in Kenya but are relevant to other East African
countries as well. An exchange of germplasm, par-
ticularly from the Thika program, and from the
disease resistance work at Kabete would help other
programs very much.
Cowpeas Vigna unguiculata
Cowpeas are second to common beans in importance
as a grain legume in Kenya. They are grown on some
170,000 hectares annually and are used primarily as a
dry grain and as a green vegetable (the fresh leaves).
Average yields of grain under subsistence farming are
low. In the Eastern (drier) Province the average yield is
estimated at 135 kilograms/hectare.
In the Grain Legume Program conducted at the Uni-
versity of Nairobi, several problem areas have been iden-
tified and research initiated in those areas.
A. Breeding
Major Objectives: development of high yielding, ear-
ly maturing, drought tolerant, and disease and pest
resistant cultivars. Particular objectives are:
1. Identify from germplasm sources and testing
programs cultivars that are high yielding and
widely adapted to soils and climates of Kenya.
2. Identify and isolate lines resistant to the com-
mon pests and diseases.
3. Select dual-purpose types which may be used
both as a green leafy vegetable and as dry grain.
4. Determine the extent of genotype by environ-
mental interaction.
5. Study and evaluate suitable breeding techniques
including the use of male-sterile lines.
6. Develop cultivars with particular suitability for
mixed cropping.
B. Diseases
Objectives (selection for resistance to major diseases):
1. Septoria leaf spot, Septoria vignae.
2. Yellow mottle virus.
3. Cowpea rust, Uromyces phaseoli var. vignae.
4. Target leaf spot, Corynespora cassiicola.
5. Bacterial pustule, Xanthomonas sp.
6. Cercospora leaf spot, Cercospora sp.
These are the diseases thought to be most severe as
judged by inspection of variety and germplasm


trials. These diseases were not equally severe at all
locations surveyed. The yellow mottle virus was
most severe at the Katumani.site, while Cercospora
leaf spot, cowpea mosaic and bacterial pustule were
most severe at Mt. Wapa, with genetic resistance be-
ing noted in some lines. One local land-race was
found highly resistant to cowpea rust, yellow mottle
virus and target leaf spot. Another line was highly
resistant to all diseases except target spot.
C. Insect pests
Objectives:
1. Assess damage due to various insect pests.
2. Identify most serious pests at each test location.
3. Clarify land-races and varieties being evaluated
agronomically for reaction to the major insects
present.
4. Study the effects of insecticides on insects and on
cowpea yields.
A total of 33 species of insects have been recorded
on cowpeas at the Mt. Wapa location and 38 species
at Katumani. It is stated by Kenyan entomologists
that the insects of greatest economic importance in
Kenya are nearly the same as those found as major
pests in Uganda and Nigeria.
A short list of the major pests include the following:
1. Oatheca bennigseni: important during pre-
flowering stage.
2. Aphis craccivora: important during pre-
flowering stage.
3. Empoasca sp.: important during pre-flowering
stage.
4. Maruca testulalis: important during reproduc-
tive stage.
5. Heliothis armigera: important during reproduc-
tive stage.
6. Taeniothrips: important during reproductive
stage.
7. Acanthomyia horrida: important during
reproductive stage.
At Katumani, cutworm, Agrotis ipsilon, was
found to reduce stands from 15-20 percent. At least
one variety showed high resistance to sucking and
pod boring insects.

D. Rhizobiology
Constraints:
1. Dry soil conditions and low soil phosphorus limit
nodulation in cowpeas.
Objectives:
1. Isolation and testing of effective nodulating
strains of Rhizobia from local sources in several
locations.
2. Experimentation with additions of fertilizer
phosphorus.









E. Agronomic Trials
Objectives:
1. Assessment of yield potential of various in-
troduced and local varieties in strategic sites in
Kenya.
2. Determine factors of culture and adaptation to
the Kenyan environments.
3. Provide test nurseries to observe insect and
disease problems and to obtain some experience
in the use of insecticides as a control measure.
F. Management and Results of Trials (Summary)
Ten entries of cowpeas, seven from the Interna-
tional Institute of Tropical Agriculture in Nigeria
(IITA) and three local strains, were grown at each
of the five selected sites in eastern and central Kenya.
All steps appropriate to good experimental pro-
cedures were followed.
Insect problems, drought at planting and increas-
ed rainfall in the latter part of the season were the
main problems encountered which could not be
completely overcome by management.
Elevation and temperature difference among the
experimental sites accounted for the different
behavior of some entries. In the lower warmer and
wetter sites of Mt. Wapa and of Kampi-ya-Mawe
the IITA entries, adapted to the higher tempera-
tures of Nigeria, out-performed local entries. At
Katumani, a cooler site, local entries produced
highest yields followed closely by certain IITA
selections. Excessive rainfall near the end of the
growing season kept some entries vegetative for a
long time. One IITA and one local entry continued
to produce flowers up to the end of the season.
Certain IITA entries were outstanding where the
temperature and humidity conditions favored rapid
growth. Semi-creeping types from IITA and local
races produced excessive leafy growth and low grain
yields. Yields at Mt. Wapa ranged from 255 kilo-
grams/hectare for an IITA entry to around 500-700
for three local checks, to near 1,500 and up to 1,900
kilograms/hectare for two entries from IITA.
Clearly, from these results, one can expect that
with informed choice of varieties and growing sites,
accompanied by good management practices, ex-
cellent yields of cowpea grain are possible in Kenya.
Also, cooperation with IITA would be beneficial to
the Kenya cowpea improvement program.


Malawi
The common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris, is the most im-
portant grain legume in Malawi used directly as food.
Probably only groundnuts exceed the bean in total pro-
duction. However, groundnuts are sold as a cash crop,
whereas beans are grown primarily for food and only the


surplus finds its way into local markets. Production
figures (see Table I) for a country like Malawi, with most
of the beans grown in small fields at intermittent times
during the year with an associated crop such as maize in
some periods and in mono-culture at other times, cannot
be very reliable. Most of the beans are found at elevations
ranging from 1,000 to 2,000 meters above sea level, in
well-drained soils, with annual rainfall of 800-1,500
millimeters.

A. Major Constraints
1. Lack of suitable varieties: a very large number
of "land-races" have been collected from
throughout the country, but as yet no particular
sub-group of races or varieties has emerged as
superior and of general acceptability to farmers
and consumers alike.
2. Production technology: a diversity of production
practices is found in the country, depending on
zone and the various uses to which beans are
put. The technology used is not sufficient to cope
with the problems of diseases, insects and soil
fertility which are generally encountered. Near-
ly all bean soils are acid and infertile. Nitrogen
and phosphorus are deficient in most soils and
appropriate fertilizers are generally unavailable
in the country.
3. Diseases and pests: (these are generally present
and consist primarily of the following)
Diseases
Anthracnose, caused by the fungus Colleto-
trichum lindemuthianum.
Halo-blight, caused by the bacterium
Pseudomonas phaseolicola.
Angular leaf spot, caused by the fungus Phase-
oisariopsis griseola.
Web blight, caused by the fungus Sclerotium
rolfsii.
Rust, caused by the fungus Uromyces appendi-
culatus.
Insect pests
Bean beetles, Oatheca spp.
Bean fly, Melanogromyza phaseoli, Ophiomyia
phaseoli.
Bean aphid, Aphis fabae.
American bollworm, Heliothis armigera.
Bean weevil, Acanthoscelides obtectus.
4. Unavailability of high quality seed: a seed in-
dustry as such does not exist, although there is a
national seed organization organized to produce
seeds of recommended varieties. Bean seed pro-
duced by the small farmers is usually found to
carry disease, though the physical appearance
(size, shape, color) may be quite good.
5. Consumer preferences: preferences are frequent-
ly ambivalent. For example, the large speckled








"sugar" bean is preferred for taste and ease of
cooking, but the small red "katolika" bean is
chosen for yielding ability under unfavorable
conditions. Such ambivalence extends across
many different seed types and makes the task of
defining a few dominant "standard" types, upon
which to place improvement and seed program
emphasis, very difficult.
6. Lack of research and extension workers: bean
research in Malawi is conducted by personnel of
Bunda College, who have primary teaching
responsibilities. There is a plant pathologist
assigned to the bean program who is presently
on a study leave. Extension personnel have some
training in bean produciton problems, but field
experience is minimal.
B. Present Program Objectives
1. To produce high yielding varieties with stable
and durable resistance to diseases and pests, and
acceptable to both growers and consumers.
2. To develop production technology for beans.
C. Present Program Activities
1. Collection of bean germplasm.
2. Preliminary evaluation of germplasm.
3. Agronomic trials.
a) Time of planting.
b) Plant population or spacing.
c) Fertilizer trials.
d) Seed inoculation trials.
4. Production systems research
a) Plucking green leaves.
b) Support for climbing beans.
c) Crop rotation.
d) Inter-cropping.
5. Plant pathology
a) Chemical control.
b) Screening the germplasm pool for resistance
to disease.
c) Experiments on production of disease-free
seed.
6. Bean physiology
a) Growth analysis.
b) Source-sink relationships.
c) Morphological and physiological yield
determinants.
7. Production of disease resistant varieties through
breeding: the work in variety development at
this stage consists of land-race evaluations and
growing the Centro Internacional de Agri-
cultura Tropical (CIAT) International Bean
Yield and Adaptation Nursery.
D. Future Plans
1. Germplasm: cataloging and evaluation.


2. Breeding: for high yield and disease resistance.
3. Agronomy: continued experimentation in mixed
and relay cropping.
4. Plant Nutrition: nitrogen fixation.
5. Irrigation: water-use, screening for response to
excess water, screening for drought resistance.
6. Stress Studies: screening for resistance to high
temperature stress.
7. Crop Protection.
8. Economics of bean production.
E. Assessment
Research leadership and competency in Malawi,
as invested in those of the Bunda College staff
presently working with beans, augurs well for the
future. Having major teaching responsibilities, these
individuals can devote only part of their time to
research. A critical issue will be the maintenance of
experienced personnel in the program until Mala-
wians can be trained and returned to Bunda College
as faculty, with research assignments in the bean
program.
At this time, a large number of land-races of beans
from all over Malawi has been collected and
preliminary sorting, classification and evaluation
begun. Excellent work on the agronomy of inter-
cropping has been done and preliminary studies
begun on identifying the major disease and insect
pests.



Rwanda
Beans are an important dietary component in
Rwanda, but the level of production is low. The rainfall
varies from 850-1,300 millimeters and the range in
temperature is from 15 to 21 C. Altitude ranges from
1,300 to 2,300 meters. There are two distinct growing
seasons: September to December, and February to
May. Mono-culture prevails with some association with
maize, sweet potatoes and bananas practiced. Research
on beans is extremely limited.
A. Major Production Constraints
1. Diseases:
Anthracnose.
Mosaic.
Common blight.
Angular leaf spot.
2. Insect pests.
B. Major Program Objectives
1. Higher yields of quality beans based upon
disease and pest resistant varieties introduced or
identified within local "land-races."
2. Greater cooperation with international
organizations in an effort to improve legumes on
a regional and ecological zone basis.









C. Future Plans
1. Improve soil fertility practices.
2. Collecting and evaluating local "land races."
3. Testing introduced varieties.
4. Select and breed for environmental stress and
superior disease tolerant varieties.
5. Distribution of preferred varieties.
D. Assessment
As in Burundi, there is a large reservoir of germ-
plasm in Rwanda. Some portion of this reservoir has
been recently added to the world collection main-
tained at CIAT, at Cali, Colombia. The prevalent
land-races must be more fully evaluated, along with
introduced varieties.
Agro-ecologic zones should be delineated for
future agronomic trials. An in-depth assessment
should be made of the diseases and insect pests to
determine those of economic importance and to
provide a basis of designing future experimentation.
Rwanda hopes to participate in any regional col-
laborative bean research, such as suggested at the
East African Legume Worker's Conference, held in
Malawi in 1980.


Tanzania
Beans are an important food crop in Tanzania. They
are the chief legume crop, usually grown in small fields
with maize by small farmers. The environment presents
many hazards to high stable yields, with diseases and
unreliability of rainfall being of paramount importance.
Tanzania grows both beans and cowpeas, with beans
being more important. Some 600 hectares of soybeans
are being grown experimentally. Bean research is con-
ducted both by the Ministry of Agriculture and by the
agriculture faculty of the University of Dar es Salaam at
Morogoro. Cowpea work is in the hands of IITA and
SAID.
A. Major Constraints
1. Irregularity of rain-fed production: this is a
common constraint throughout East Africa.
2. Low yielding varieties: this is believed by Tan-
zanians to be chiefly due to insects and diseases.
3. Lack of effective nodulation: a part of this
problem is the dry soil condition often attten-
ding a portion of each growing season.
4. Farmers reluctant to accept risks inherent in
adopting new technology.
5. Insufficient returns over costs are not reliable
enough to warrant use of costly production
inputs.
6. Methods of preserving or processing are inade-
quate to retain cookability and nutritive value
of beans in storage. This is considered impor-
tant because the irregularity of rain-fed produc-


tion creates both temporary surpluses and
shortages.
7. Varieties: varietal mixtures are more prevalent
than pure types and they lend themselves to
varied uses. However, yields are low because
seed is locally-grown and often of inferior
quality carrying seed borne diseases or pests.
Farmers are reluctant to use new improved
varieties because the cost of necessary
technological inputs and unreliability of rain-
fall expose them to financial loss.
8. Diseases and insect pests:
Insect pests
Insect pests exist in Tanzania which are capable of
attacking every part of the growing plant, from roots to
pods and seeds, and of grain in storage.
A list of the economically important insects, as
reported by Dr. A. K. Karel, entomologist of the Facul-
ty of Agriculture at Morogoro, Tanzania, is given. It
should be noted that, while each species is capable of
causing damage, not every species is present in epidemic
proportions in all places or all seasons.
Leaf eating beetle: Oatheca bennigseni.
Bean Fly: Ophiomyia phaseoli.
Bean aphid: Aphis fabae.
Pollen beetle: Coryna apicornis.
Blister beetles, flower beetles: Mylabris spp.
Flower thrips: Taenithrips spp.
Pod sucking bugs: Acanthomiya spp.
Harvester termites: Hodotermes mossambicus.
Spotted pod borer: Maruca testulalis.
American bollworm (larvae): Heliothis armigera.
Pests of stored beans
Bean bruchid: Acanthoscelides obtectus (say.), the most
serious pest of stored beans.
Cowpea bruchid: Callosobruchus chinensis (Linn.).
Diseases
One of the major factors limiting production of beans
in Tanzania is diseases. They account for more crop
losses than are caused by insects.
Bean rust, caused by Uromyces phaseoli.
Halo blight, caused by Pseudomonas phaseolicola.
Anthracnose, caused by Colletotrichum linde-
muthianum.
Augular leaf spot, caused by Phaseoisariopsis griseola.
Mosaic.
Mildew, caused by Erisyphe sp.
9. Socio-economic constraints
a) Reluctance to use costly inputs, considered
necessary for high yields, because of unreli-
ability of rainfall.
b) Labor is not usually a problem, except in
some local regions.
c) Marketing problems: only the surplus
enters urban markets, and since surpluses









are irregular no standard system of
distribution or marketing has developed.
d) Biases and/or lack of knowledge concerning
water soakability, cooking characteristics
and consumer acceptance of "strange"
varieties that show up in the market place.
10. Lack of a full-time bean research and extension
staff needed to provide information and
guidance to farmers on varieties, pest and
disease control measures, fertility, water con-
servation and other cultural practices.
B. Present Program Objectives (Ministry of Agri-
culture program initiated in 1971)
1. Identify reasons for the low yields obtained in
the Southern Highlands.
2. Select a high yielding cultivar resistant to the
major diseases in the Southern Highlands and
readily acceptable as food for the poor.
3. Work out recommendations which could im-
prove production.
4. Develop a seed multiplication program for the
improved cultivars to ensure the production of
disease-free seed.
C. Present Program Activities (Ministry of Agriculture
program)
1. Bean variety trials carried out under village
trial programs in farmers' fields in two main
growing regions.
2. Bean plant density trials carried out only with
one standard variety: 266,667 plants/hectare
appears optimum for this variety.
3. Fertilizer response trials involving nitrogen and
phosphorus, in three regions. Significant yield
responses have been shown in all regions.
4. Time of planting trials to see whether in regions
with two rainy periods two bean crops would
be possible. Preliminary results indicate that
two crops, one to start with the first rains in
November thru December, and the second dur-
ing March thru April, are feasible.
5. Bean/maize inter-cropping, one year's results.
6. Bean Breeding Research
a) Multiple-location new line trials. The per-
formance of entry P311-A-L and YC-Z
have been consistently better at all loca-
tions. However, P 311-A-L is a black bean
and, as such, does not appeal to consumers.
It is being used in a hybridization program
to impart its superior performance to other
more preferred seed types. This is a typical
finding among bean workers. It is not clear
at this time whether, or to what extent, the
advantages of the black bean can be trans-
ferred to a non-black type.


D. Activities of faculty in the Crop Science Depart-
ment of the University of Dar es Salaam at
Morogoro
Since 1975, there has been a national program
entitled "IITA/USAID Tanzania Grain Legume
Research Project." It is charged with conducting
research on variety development and evaluation,
and disease and insect control. This project has been
headquartered at the Ministry of Agriculture station
at Llonga in east-central Tanzania. It has dealt
primarily with cowpea improvement, though some
work with green gram and soybeans is also
conducted.
Some of the results of this program are the
following:
1. Diseases of grain legumes (distribution and
relative importance).
2. Breeding of cowpeas for multiple disease
resistance and high yields.
3. Identification of strains of cowpea yellow
mosaic virus, sources of resistance and genetics
of host reaction.
4. Reaction of elite cultivars of cowpea to
prevalent diseases.
5. Pathogenic variability, host resistance and in-
heritance of reaction to bacterial pustule in
cowpeas.
6. Host resistance to important diseases of green
gram.
7. Cowpeas and green gram cultivar yield and
adaptation trials
a) Assembling and evaluation of germplasm
for yield, growth habits and response to
inter-cropping.
b) Studies on plant structure and physiology
to identify traits promoting higher yields.
c) Studies of the insect complex are being
conducted.
d) Studies on the importance and virulence of
races of Colletotrichum lindemuthianum
isolated from Southern Highlands.
e) Studies on responses to inoculation by
Rhizobium and on distribution of nitrogen
in the plant.
E. Future Plans Beans
Breeding Strategy
1. Collection, evaluation and maintenance of ad-
ditional germplasm lines from CIAT, and
elsewhere.
2. Identification of sources of resistance to
anthracnose, rust, angular leaf spot, halo
blight, common bacterial blight and common
mosaic.
3. Hybridization among related parents possessing









desirable characters with respect to disease and
insect resistance, yield and seed quality.
4. Evaluation of segregating generations and
selection of desirable progenies.
5. Evaluation of selected progenies in preliminary
and advanced trials at several locations.
6. Seed multiplication and release of best varieties
in different regions.
Agronomy: objectives and strategy, concentration
on critical management factors and development of
recommendations for practical bean production.
1. Determination of optimal plant densities for
different types in mono- and associated culture.
2. Determination of best planting dates for the
different areas.
3. Determination of the most effective and eco-
nomical herbicide.
4. Determination of most effective and eco-
nomical fertilizer practice.
5. Evaluation of fungicides for practical and
economical disease control.
Entomology: objectives and strategy
1. Studies on the bean insect complex in
Tanzania.
2. Insect control by insecticides.
3. Selection of insect resistant varieties.

F. Assessment
For many years commercial bean production in
Tanzania was geared to produce for the European
market. Only in the last three to four years has
attention been directed toward the needs of the sub-
sistence farmer.
Government supported research has produced in-
formation on planting time, spacing, fertilization
and cultural practices. From these experiments
there have emerged some tentative ideas on ways to
avoid and manage the pests, diseases, weeds and
other problems, although much work lies ahead
before fully adequate control over these factors is
achieved.
Early work in variety selection has resulted in the
release of two bean cultivars which are now com-
monly grown by commercial farms for the export
canning market. In 1979, two improved cultivars
were released for growers producing beans for
home consumption.
The Ministry of Agriculture has recently placed a
plant breeder and an agronomist, both with M.S.
degrees, in the national bean program. They have
identified the principal problems needing attention
but there will be insufficient human or material
resources (for example, transportation) to deal ef-
fectively with the major problems in research. The
lack of extension information to the small farmer of


improved seeds and production practices will be a
severe bottleneck.
Resources at Morogoro include knowledgeable
well trained scientists in several needed disciplines
but, as in Bunda College, Malawi, teaching con-
sumes the major share of their time. The faculty
presently trains young students and obtains valu-
able research inforamtion by means of special
studies involving them.
Critical constraints at Morogoro for carrying on
a sustained research program in beans and cowpeas
are as follows:
1. Unavailability of ordinary laboratory equip-
ment and supplies for various routine measure-
ments and special items for more basic studies.
2. Technical personnel to assist faculty are not
available, primarily because of funds.
3. Transportation to outlying stations and farmer
sites is extremely limited and comprises a
serious obstacle to conducting research.


Uganda
Beans are the principal legume crop in Uganda,
though groundnuts are a close runner-up. The edible
legumes are of crucial importance nutritionally since the
main carbohydrate crops are sweet potatoes, plantains,
cassava and millets, all of which are very low in protein.
This situation is brought out dramatically in the follow-
ing table:

Calories and basic nutrients in beans and
other foods commonly consumed in Uganda.


Food
Kidney beans
Maize
Cassava flour
Sweet potato
Matoke
Finger millet


Calories/
100g
341
360
338
121
135
329


Protein
%
22.1
9.3
1.5
1.6
1.2
7.4


Carbohy-
drate %
61.4
73.5
81.5
28.5
32.1
77.1


A. Major Constraints
1. Lack of suitable varieties: most farmers now
grow "land-races." Improved varieties have
had limited use due to problems of seed multi-
plication and distribution.
2. Cultural agronomic practices: lack of research
information on which to formulate efficient fer-
tilizer recommendations and the great vari-
ability of soil conditions and diversity of
varieties which further impede making such
recommendations. Failure to plant beans at the
most favorable time. Because of soil and
varietal diversity optimum plant populations
vary specifically, making it unfeasible to do ex-
periments for each situation that might be en-








countered. Untimely weeding often results in
severe weed competition and reduced yields.
3. Diseases and Pests:
Diseases
Anthracnose, caused by Colletotrichum linde-
muthianum.
Rust, caused by Uromyces appendiculatus.
Angular leaf spot, caused by Isariopsis griseola.
Bacterial blights, caused by Xanthomonas
phaseoli and Pseudomonas phaseolicola.
Insect Pests
Bean aphids: Aphis fabae.
Bean fly: Melanogromyza sp.
Pod borers: Maruca sp and Heliothis armigera.
Storage bruchids: Brucidae.
B. Present Program Activities
1. French bean breeding, consisting of:
a) Germplasm collections from within the
country and from 17 foreign countries,
with about 700 cultivars in the collection.
b) Selection for disease resistance within
existing cultivars or "land-races."
c) Hybridization and selection for yield and
disease resistance.
2. Haricot bean breeding: a strategy based on
hybridization and induced mutation to improve
yield and protein content of Mexico 142 type.
3. Bean pathology: research consists of:
a) Monitoring disease incidence and severity
on a set of 220 cultivars grown periodically
in various regions of the country.
b) Fungicidal spray trials.
c) Epidemiology and control studies of
angular leaf spot.
4. Seed production: with assistance of the British
Government, a seed multiplication scheme has
been established. Due to various problems the
system has not supplied more than about one-
fifth of the seed required annually.
C. Program Achievements and A Brief Assessment
1. Two improved high yielding and moderately
disease resistant cultivars have been developed
in the French bean selection program and
several promising lines are in various stages of
development.
2. Pathogenic variability in the causal organisms
of anthracnose, angular leafspot and rust is now
reasonably well understood. This should aid the
development of efficient screening procedures.
3. Suitable procedures have been identified for the
use of fungicides and insecticides.
Uganda has a small corps of competent and
well-trained bean scientists and a tradition of


institutional support of bean research, including
studies at Makerere University. Political instability
and social unrest in the country, with attendant
low national productivity, have seriously eroded
the traditional institutional supports. There
appears to have been acceptance by subsequent
workers of the 1960 identification of diseases as the
chief production problem and of seed multiplica-
tion and distribution as a continuing barrier.
With respect to bean production and utilization
in Uganda, several areas of need exist such as soil
and fertility management, economic feasibility of
technological inputs, pricing policies, storage, insect
control, and cultural systems. As noted for other
countries, the needs are greater than the resources
available within the country for dealing with them.
A regional program addressing area wide common
problems would be helpful in Uganda, as in other
East African countries. Student-trainees have
received training in cowpea production at I.I.T.A.
in Nigeria.

Zambia
The most common legumes in Zambia are ground nut
(Arachis hypogaea), groundbeans (Voandzeia subter-
ranea), cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata) and edible beans
(Phaseolus spp). The popularity of beans among the
population is attested to by their ubiquitous presence in
markets and by the very high prices they command.
A. Major Constraints
1. Varieties: before 1966, only "land-races" or
non-adapted varieties introduced from else-
where were grown. Since 1966, a more syste-
matic evaluation of germplasm has made possi-
ble the identification of a few varieties having
more desirable properties, though none is com-
pletely satisfactory. In fact, due to a diversity of
conditions and tastes, the country will not be
well-served unless several varieties are
available.
2. Pests and Diseases:
Diseases
Anthracnose, caused by Colletotrichum linde-
muthianum.
Angular leafspot, caused by Phaseoisariopsis
griseola.
Rust, caused by Uromyces appendiculatus.
Scab, caused by Elsinoe phaseoli.
Halo and common blights, caused by
Pseudomonas phaseolicola and Xanthomonas
phaseoli, respectively.
Insect pests
Bean fly: Ophiomyia phaseoli.
Leaf beetles: Mylabris spp.









3. Socio-economic
a) Non-availability of seed, believed to be due
to the disproportionately high price for edi-
ble beans in the food market as compared
to the generally low price for seed beans.
B. Present Program Objectives and Activities
1. Development of varieties with low disease
susceptibility.
2. Development of varieties with acceptable con-
sumer quality.
3. Development of varieties with higher yielding
capacity:
a) Small to medium-sized white seed varieties
for dry-bean consumption.
b) Medium-sized speckled sugar bean for dry-
bean consumption.
4. Agronomic practices.
5. Disease control through alternative methods.
C. Future Plans
1. Breeding for multiple resistance to the impor-
tant diseases and pests.
2. Selection of varieties adapted to the low rainfall
belt.
3. Inoculation studies with local strains of
Rhizobium.
4. Mixed cropping studies.
5. Investigation of suitable equipment for planting
and harvesting on small scale farms.
6. Intensify extension efforts to promote pro-
duction.
D. Achievements and Assessment
Varieties suitable for production in the high rain-
fall, Northern Province, zone have been introduced
or, in one case, bred in Zambia. Sufficient agro-
nomic experimentation has been done so that plot
yields up to 1,100 kilograms/hectare can be reliably
obtained. This work has provided useful agronomic
practice recommendations for the farmers. Bean
seed production has been standardized under the
auspices of the national seed service.
At present, lack of scientific personnel in the bean
program has brought bean research in Zambia to
a virtual standstill. Program objectives are rela-
tively modest and probably within the capability of
the program, once the scientific staff is assembled.
Zambia could clearly benefit from regional research
cooperation since some of the problems encountered
in Zambia are region-wide.


Central and West Africa

Cameroon
Cowpeas are grown mostly in the more northerly
region of the country, a drier region than the south and
west where the industrial crops such as rubber, palm
oil, coffee, tea and cocoa are highly favored.
A. Major Constraints to Cowpea Production and
Consumption
1. Traditional cropping system not adapted to
changing socio-economic conditions.
2. Lack of coordination of resources for produc-
tion at the small farm level.
3. Field and storage insects:
Seed weevil.
Flower thrips.
Pod borer.
Green stinkbug.
Grasshoppers.

B. Research and Development Needs and Problems
1. Varieties introduced from IITA and Senegal
have been poorly adapted in Cameroon and are
out yielded by local cultivars.
2. Cameroon needs a cowpea agronomist-breeder
to improve the local varieties for insect
resistance and adaptation to mono-culture
conditions.
3. Development on more favorable soils of im-
proved production practices and creation of
such areas as production centers where use of
insecticides, metal storage bins and drying
facilities would be possible.
4. Such centers would require development of
agri-businesses, expanded market services and
credit institutions.
5. To promote coordination of resources at the
small farm level, a full-time coordinator would
be required to develop a network of extension,
seed multiplication and distribution centers,
and demonstration plots in farmer's fields.
6. A critical shortage of trained personnel exists to
staff the research projects that need to be
undertaken. Only one Institute of Agriculture
and Forestry Research (IRAF) staff member
devotes full-time to cowpeas.
7. Although the cowpea is the "bean-of-choice"
and commands a premium price in the
markets, the crop has lost favor among many
local farmers because of the extreme suscep-
tibility of the stored seed to infestation by
weevils.
In contrast, seed of the common bean is
(Continued on page 37)









3. Socio-economic
a) Non-availability of seed, believed to be due
to the disproportionately high price for edi-
ble beans in the food market as compared
to the generally low price for seed beans.
B. Present Program Objectives and Activities
1. Development of varieties with low disease
susceptibility.
2. Development of varieties with acceptable con-
sumer quality.
3. Development of varieties with higher yielding
capacity:
a) Small to medium-sized white seed varieties
for dry-bean consumption.
b) Medium-sized speckled sugar bean for dry-
bean consumption.
4. Agronomic practices.
5. Disease control through alternative methods.
C. Future Plans
1. Breeding for multiple resistance to the impor-
tant diseases and pests.
2. Selection of varieties adapted to the low rainfall
belt.
3. Inoculation studies with local strains of
Rhizobium.
4. Mixed cropping studies.
5. Investigation of suitable equipment for planting
and harvesting on small scale farms.
6. Intensify extension efforts to promote pro-
duction.
D. Achievements and Assessment
Varieties suitable for production in the high rain-
fall, Northern Province, zone have been introduced
or, in one case, bred in Zambia. Sufficient agro-
nomic experimentation has been done so that plot
yields up to 1,100 kilograms/hectare can be reliably
obtained. This work has provided useful agronomic
practice recommendations for the farmers. Bean
seed production has been standardized under the
auspices of the national seed service.
At present, lack of scientific personnel in the bean
program has brought bean research in Zambia to
a virtual standstill. Program objectives are rela-
tively modest and probably within the capability of
the program, once the scientific staff is assembled.
Zambia could clearly benefit from regional research
cooperation since some of the problems encountered
in Zambia are region-wide.


Central and West Africa

Cameroon
Cowpeas are grown mostly in the more northerly
region of the country, a drier region than the south and
west where the industrial crops such as rubber, palm
oil, coffee, tea and cocoa are highly favored.
A. Major Constraints to Cowpea Production and
Consumption
1. Traditional cropping system not adapted to
changing socio-economic conditions.
2. Lack of coordination of resources for produc-
tion at the small farm level.
3. Field and storage insects:
Seed weevil.
Flower thrips.
Pod borer.
Green stinkbug.
Grasshoppers.

B. Research and Development Needs and Problems
1. Varieties introduced from IITA and Senegal
have been poorly adapted in Cameroon and are
out yielded by local cultivars.
2. Cameroon needs a cowpea agronomist-breeder
to improve the local varieties for insect
resistance and adaptation to mono-culture
conditions.
3. Development on more favorable soils of im-
proved production practices and creation of
such areas as production centers where use of
insecticides, metal storage bins and drying
facilities would be possible.
4. Such centers would require development of
agri-businesses, expanded market services and
credit institutions.
5. To promote coordination of resources at the
small farm level, a full-time coordinator would
be required to develop a network of extension,
seed multiplication and distribution centers,
and demonstration plots in farmer's fields.
6. A critical shortage of trained personnel exists to
staff the research projects that need to be
undertaken. Only one Institute of Agriculture
and Forestry Research (IRAF) staff member
devotes full-time to cowpeas.
7. Although the cowpea is the "bean-of-choice"
and commands a premium price in the
markets, the crop has lost favor among many
local farmers because of the extreme suscep-
tibility of the stored seed to infestation by
weevils.
In contrast, seed of the common bean is
(Continued on page 37)
































































Gathering the harvest.


The following photographs show some of the
constraints, variability and people involved with
subsistence agriculture in Africa and much of Latin
America. They convey in ways words can only
suggest the reality of production and utilization


problems encountered by the small producer.
Special thanks are extended to Patricia Barnes-
McConnell, Richard Chalfant and Earl Watt for
allowing the reproduction of their photographs in this
publication.


'"!:*
















I I


. Pt.


'II


'a w


I *
-r Vi

',iIIi


I.'


Relay cropping-one form of multiple use.


Some cowpea plants must withstand very
unfavorable habitats.


In the hill country of East Africa or in parts of Latin America, climb- I
ing beans require support to achieve a worthwhile yield.

Beans, Cassava, and Coco Yams-a common
crop association in tropical countries.


ILL


- L













































It is possible to have a productive crop in a developing country, as shown by this field in a mountainous region of a Latin
American country.


vaw *** *


Natural nodulation of beans in an African soil.


a muesarw cropping places parucusar aemanas upon son
fertility.












































Flailing the mature plants to recover the seed.


Improved nutrition is important for the entire family, but critically so for the
children.


In the pot and over the fire-the traditional
means of cooking beans in East Africa.


On the small farm the green pods may be con-
Ssumed as a fresh vegetable, or the beans shelled
out and boiled before being eaten, or, in many
instances, the boiled beans are saved to be
heated and consumed another day.


Young girls shell cowpeas at a sidewalk market-place in northeast Brazil.


Drought, in its several manifestations, is a major production constraint in both
beans and cowpeas.


:;. '~Y
L.~
.s


;r.


















PIN~

.. P i v
^ ^ *- ^ ^ f^t' : jA


)Vl :


A productive field of cowpeas.


Golden bean mosaic, due to a white-
fly transmitted virus-one of the most
serious diseases of beans in Central
America.


Common bacterial blight-a universal disease of beans.






























Thrips in cowpeas, beans, and other
legume flowers, cause damage as
pollen feeders.


Animal power assisting man power in a cowpea field.


Damage from the bean fly-a serious pest in East Africa.


Cowpea Curculio damage.


I .




























Cowpeas in the market.


Below, genetic variability in an East Africa bean
land race.








usually uninfested with weevils and suffers little
or no damage. The bean, being adapted to the
cooler climates of northwest Cameroon, now
occupies a significant portion of land previously
planted in cowpeas.
C. Assessment
The present level of research on cowpeas in
Cameroon is minimal, with only one IRAF staff
member assigned full-time to cowpeas. However,
the needs are great. The director of IRAF has stated
that his most urgent priority would be for post-
graduate training of technical personnel.


Niger
Cowpeas are a cash crop in Niger, grown throughout
the cultivated areas on some 840,000 hectares by more
than 70 percent of the small farmers, either inter-
cropped with sorghum or millet, or in pure stand.
Nearly 46 percent of the total cultivated land is oc-
cupied by cowpeas. Total production in 1976 was about
211,000 metric tons. Nearly 50,000 tons were exported,
primarily to Nigeria.
Average per hectare yields approach two metric tons
when grown in mono-culture. When grown in mixed
culture average yields are seldom over 300 kilo-
grams/hectare.

A. Major Constraints
1. Insect pests in the field and in storage cause
severe losses.
2. Plant density used by farmers is too low for top
yields.
3. Cowpea diseases are of minor importance.

B. Needs and Objectives in Research
1. Breeding for resistance against insect damage,
both in the field and in storage, and cultural
practices to control insect damage.
2. Breeding varieties for higher yield and more ap-
propriate maturity for Niger.
3. Development of drought resistance, through
breeding and agronomic management.
4. In variety development, greater attention
should be given to factors of seed size, seed color
and more acceptable taste to consumers.
5. Research personnel at all levels and in all
disciplines.
6. A germplasm collector and manager of cowpea
genetic resources.
7. Some research equipment, such as ovens for
drying, scales, chambers, etc.
8. Research on product development (e.g. cookies
made with cowpea flour).


Perhaps a more integrated or balanced picture of
the problems and needs will be made evident from
the following brief excerpt from one of the
Bean/Cowpea CRSP source documents (Report of
Bean/Cowpea Constraints Study Tour to West
Africa, May-June, 1979, by C. J. deMooy, R. L.
Fery, and E. K. Tapsoba). ". .. improved varieties
introduced from Senegal with growing periods from
70 to 120 days were outyielded by a locally-
produced variety TN 8863. This local variety is well
adapted to 350-600 millimeters rainfall and matures
in 70 days with experimental yields of up to 3,000
kilograms/hectare under mono-culture. However,
its small seed size, blackeyes and relatively long
cooking time make it unacceptable to the consumer.
Other varieties have been produced for rainfall
zones up to 800 millimeters (of rainfall) but here
there were problems with photoperiod sensitivity. A
total of 300 to 400 lines have been introduced from
IITA. Many of these have considerable insect resist-
ance, are high-yielding and adapted to drought, but
have disadvantages with respect to seed color and
taste, and sensitivity to photoperiod."
C. Recent and Current Activities
TARNA maintains a small germplasm collection
of some 130 cultivars, collected from various sites in
Niger and from other Sahelian countries, including
Senegal. In 1976 IITA contributed 10 F2 popula-
tions which were grown at TARNA and in which
plant selections were made. Subsequently, addi-
tional germplasm was brought to TARNA and fur-
ther selections made. A small number of crosses
were made to TN 8863 in an attempt to improve its
seed quality.
The principal objectives for the northern cowpea
growing region are to incorporate drought and in-
sect resistance or tolerance into acceptable seed
types. International Development Research Center
of Canada (IDRC) has funded a cowpea breeding
program at TARNA, in cooperation with IITA, to
produce acceptable and adapted varieties for the
Northern, Central and Southern zones of the coun-
try. Trials are expected to be conducted in coopera-
tion with the Institut National de Recherches
Agromiques du Niger (INRAN) and USAID
agronomists for adaptability to inter-cropping.
D. Institutions and Agencies Involved in Cowpea
Work in Niger
There is an unusually large number of organiza-
tions in Niger conducting work in which cowpeas
are a part. Among these are the following:
1. USAID, Niamey.
2. INRAN, Niamey.
3. TARNA, a research station of INRAN, located
at Maradi, Niger.








4. Ministry of Rural Development, Government
of Niger, Niamey.
5. Nigerian Cereal Project.
6. Practical Institute of Rural Development,
IPDR, Kolo, Niger.
7. Centre Regional de Formation et d'Application
en Agrometerologie et Hydrologie Operation-
able pour les Pays due Sahel, AGRHYMET,
Niamey.
8. IDRC.
E. Assessment
Constraints have been well identified and there is
a general agreement upon the major priorities. As in
Upper Volta, major emphasis in research to im-
prove cowpeas would have to be placed upon con-
trol of insects in field and storage, with drought
resistance a second major problem. There emerged
more strongly than in either Upper Volta or Kenya
the part that seed color, size and taste might play in
consumer acceptance. All programs of development
in Niger must in the final analysis depend upon
trained national personnel, trained in a variety of
disciplines. It would seem that every research and
development program operating in the country
should include a personnel training component.

Nigeria
Cowpeas are widely grown in Nigeria, the largest
producing and consuming nation in Africa. Yet yields
are low, averaging only about 330 kilograms/hectare.
Cowpeas are used in a variety of ways as a food staple.
Insufficient quantities are grown in the country to meet
demand, requiring importation from neighboring
Niger. Cowpeas are grown mostly in mixed culture, but
the government owned National Grains Producers Co.
promotes the growing of cowpeas in mono-culture on a
large commercial scale. An improved variety
developed for western Nigeria has proved very popular
and is widely grown.
A. Major Constraints
1. To a greater extent than is necessary or
desirable, farmers continue to use traditional
varieties which are:
Photo-sensitive.
Low-yielding.
Indeterminate plant types not suitable for
mono-culture.
2. Insect infestations in field and in storage. Major
pests are:
Thrips, Megalurothryis sjostedt.
Pod borers, Maruca testulalis.
Pod-sucking insects; 4 genera are involved:
Acanthomyia, Riptortus, Anoplecnemis and
Negarrus.


Seed weevils.
3. Diseases: (not considered to be of major impor-
tance in West Africa)
Cowpea scab, Spaceloma sp.
Brown blotch, Colletotrichum capsici.
Septoria leaf spot, Septoria vignae.
Bacterial blight, Xanthomonas vignicola.
Cowpea yellow mosaic virus.
4. Agronomic short-comings:
Soil nutrient deficiencies (not considered
major).
Aluminum toxicity (not country-wide).
Excessive length of growth cycle.
Drought.
B. National Needs in Cowpea Improvement
1. A cowpea plant breeder with training in plant
physiology.
2. A cowpea breeder to concentrate on the iden-
tification of genetic factors for insect resistance
and their incorporation into otherwise accept-
able varieties.
3. Continued training of personnel in cowpea
production technology.
C. Present Programs in Cowpea Improvement
1. Programs at IITA
a) IITA maintains cooperative programs with
Nigeria, Tanzania, Upper Volta and Niger
in Africa, and Brazil in South America. In
Nigeria, IITA conducts research in cowpea
breeding, entomology, physiology and
pathology, and maintains a germplasm
resources center.
b) With support from the World Bank, IITA
is involved in development programs on the
use of maize and cowpeas in inter-
cropping.
c) Studies on water stress in cowpeas, in
cooperation with AGRHYMET at Niamey
and Cornell University. Cornell University
will study mechanisms of adaptability of
cowpeas to drought, and IITA will apply
the research findings in field trials.
d) A study of the distribution and frequency of
occurrence of Rhizobial strains in arid soils,
under a United Nations Development Pro-
gram grant.
2. Constraints needing attention but not yet under-
taken by IITA include the following:
a) Inheritance studies on insect and disease
resistance.
b) Inheritance studies on physiological
characteristics.
c) Mechanisms of specific insect and disease
resistance.









d) Seed quality such as factors determining
cooking time and effect of storage duration
on cooking time.
e) Possibility of the aflotoxin problem occur-
ring and the attendant conditions.
f) Site-specific problems involving inter-
cropping systems in cooperation with
national research organizations.
g) Fertility trials and Al-toxicity studies, the
severity of which may be expected to vary
environmentally.
h) Agricultural economics studies such as:
1) Production studies in various climatic
zones.
2) Pricing policy determining incentives
for cowpea production.
3) Magnitude of movement of cowpeas
across international boundaries.
4) Economics of alternative production
systems.
i) Storage methods and prevention of insect
damage during storage.
3. Program of the National Cereals Research In-
stitute (NCRI) at Moor Plantation, Ibadan.
a) NCRI maintains a close working relation-
ship with IITA, testing promising lines
from IITA breeding populations in five
national experiment sub-stations.
4. Program of the Institute of Agricultural
Research and Training (IART), an arm of the
University of Ife, at Ibadan.
a) The IART conducts testing similar to
NCRI, but in different regions of the
country.
5. University of Ibadan.
a) One laboratory at this university is engaged
in cyto-genetic research with cowpeas.
b) The Division of Agriculture, Food and
Nutrition Sciences of the University of Ife,
with a grant from IDRC will carry out
work to test the feasibility of introducing
decorticated cowpea flour to housewives
and small-scale cowpea food merchants.
6. Nigerian Stored Products Research Institute, at
Ibadan.
a) This Institute conducts research on storage
pests and problems of cowpeas.
7. Ahmadu Bello University, at Zaria in northern
Nigeria, closely associated with the Institute of
Agricultural Research and Training at Samaru.
a) Research directed at problems of inter-
cropping.
b) Research directed at development of
cowpeas in mono-culture.


D. Comments and Assessment
Not only is the country of Nigeria Africa's
greatest producer and consumer of cowpeas but the
volume of research on cowpeas conducted in
Nigeria far exceeds that of any other place. In fact,
it appears from the information presented in this
survey that there may be some overlap in the tasks
carried out by some institutions.
It is commendable that the Government of
Nigeria, through its several research institutions, is
continuing to support and encourage a spectrum of
research and development on cowpeas, particularly
in view of the presence in Nigeria of the program of
IITA and its strong array of activities with cowpeas.
Research on this crop is directed both at cowpeas
in mixed culture, the pattern most common in the
country, and also toward adapting cowpeas for
commercial mono-culture, a system more common
for crops of the temperate zones and in the most in-
tensely developed agricultural regions. Though the
cultural practices and plant types suited to the two
systems are quite different there should be some
elements of common concern between developers of
these two farming systems. Control of insects
through resistant varieties, the possible exploitation
of common sources of insect and disease resistance,
and of quality components would seem to be areas
of fruitful collaboration.
Inasmuch as the production aspects are being so
strongly addressed, it allows for forward planning
toward problems of utilization, an area that is ap-
parently in need of greater research.


Senegal
Senegal consists of four major climatic zones.
Cowpeas are an important crop in two of them, the
northern arid zone which receives less than 300 milli-
meters rainfall annually and the Pena Basin which
receives 600-700 millimeter of rainfall. In the northern
zone cowpeas are grown along with sorghum and
millet, while in the Pena Basin cowpeas and groundnuts
are grown.
Cowpea production in Senegal in 1978 was approx-
imately 20,000 metric tons produced on some 74,000
hectares.
A. Major Constraints
1. Insects cited as a major problem during bloom,
pod-filling and storage.
2. Drought, inducing restricted growth, and
abscission of flowers and pods before filling.
3. Economic constraints, labor problems, trans-
portation and marketing are not well under-
stood in relation to cowpeas but may impinge
upon production.









4. High cost of insecticides necessary to obtain
reasonable yields.
B. Research and Development Needs
1. An agronomist-physiologist, an entomologist
and a farming systems specialist to work as a
team on production and storage problems.
2. Two economists, one on production economics
and one on marketing.
3. A nutrition specialist to research various forms
in which cowpeas can be used.
4. A food technologist to work on methods of can-
ning and of protein extraction.
C. Research Programs, Present and Future
1. The "Institut de Technologie Alimentaire"
(ITA) works in the areas of product preserva-
tion, consumption, digestibility and food tech-
nology.
Development of large metal drums for
cowpea storage has ceased due to lack of de-
mand but research continues with large clay
pots. Research is being done on use of cowpea
flour to enrich cereal products. Protein extrac-
tion is another area of study, though it is not
clear what particular use is to be made of the
extract.
2. Scientists of the Institut Senegalais de la
Recherche Agricole (ISRA) are planning a col-
laborative research program on drought with
scientists of University of California (Riverside),
Cornell University, Boyce Thompson Institute
and IITA. This project would comprise work in
several areas:
a) Climatic analysis of the cowpea producing
area of all of West Africa.
b) Hydrologic balance studies and computer
simulation programming to predict daily
water losses and gains.
c) Analysis of characteristic plant responses to
drought with phenological, morphological,
and physiological traits being studied.
d) Screening tests for evaluating varietal
responses.
e) Improvement of crop and soil management
practices to maximize water-use efficiency.
f) Advanced degree training of Senegalese
students.
D. Assessment
Because Senegal shares in its arid zones some of
the production factors of the Sahel, and because of
a long tradition of study and investigation of these
factors by the Senegalese in collaboration with
French scientists, Senegal occupies a unique posi-
tion in regard to agricultural development schemes.


The picture for American collaboration appears
favorable, particularly in the area of drought
studies and, perhaps to some extent, with the insect
problems. At least the country has appropriate
research institutions in place. The major problems
are recognized and there is concern to address them
through collaborative research.



Upper Volta
Cowpeas are important in inter-cropping systems
with sorghum and millet, and as a mono-crop immedi-
ately following land clearing. There is some export of
cowpeas to neighboring countries such as Togo, Benin
and Nigeria.
A. Major Constraints
1. Problems with varieties and agronomic prac-
tices: local varieties have late maturity for grain
and all crops suffer from the periodic droughts.
2. Insect damage in the field (especially in mono-
culture): this would be a serious deterrent to
adapting cowpeas as a cash grain in mono-
culture.
3. Insect damage in stored grain: losses up to 80
percent are not uncommon.
4. Diseases: they are not thought to be a serious
production constraint. However, the economic
impact of bacterial blight and of viruses need to
be assessed.
The major insect pests:
Flower thrips, Taenothrips sjostedti.
Pod borers, Maruca testulalis.
Pod sucking bugs, Anoplocnemis curvipes,
Acanthomyia horrida and Riptortus dentipes.
Seed weevils, Callosobruchus macalatus.
B. Needs
1. Properly trained research personnel for all
aspects of cowpea production, especially in
plant breeding and entomology.
2. Research support in variety development and in
management of the insect problems in field and
storage.
3. A marketing strategy that encourages farmers
to produce more cowpeas than needed for fam-
ily consumption.
4. Development of cooperation between re-
searchers and small farmers. This could be
effected by greater dependence upon and use of
on-farm experimentation, as well as by an ex-
tension staff.
5. Seed multiplication farms and a system of
distribution for higher quality seed of adapted
varieties.








C. Programs and Possibilities
Various institutions and agencies have targeted
Upper Volta for a greater investment of research
and development funds.
1. IITA, at Ibadan, Nigeria, has a cooperative
project funded by IDRC that in 1979 was
limited to variety trials and support of one
trainee in cowpea breeding.
2. An entomologist under the Semi-arid African
Food Grain Research and Development
(SAFGRAD) program is expected to start
research on the insect storage problems.
3. IITA, cooperatively with SAFGRAD, expects
to establish a five-person team, including a
plant breeder, agronomist and entomologist, to
work on breeding and insect control through
farming systems.
In this program, greater emphasis should be
placed upon drought resistance, seed storage
problems, plant nutrition, seed quality,
physical and cooking quality, nitrogen fixation
and on farming systems.
4. SAFGRAD intends to conduct a socio-economic
survey of farming systems, including those in-
volving cowpeas.
A system of inter-cropping with cowpeas
planted at low population levels to discourage
the spread of insect pests is thought to be the
only economical means of practical insect con-
trol for small farmers in drier northern Upper
Volta. This belief has to be put to extensive
testing since there are some pests which may
have an even more damaging effect on widely
spaced plants.
5. Food & Agricultural Organization, FAO, has a
cowpeas-in-rotation experiment in progress at
the Farako-Ba research station in the 100-1,200
millimeter rainfall region. Straw production for
animal feed is an additional consideration to
grain yield in the development and choice of
cowpea varieties.



Latin America

General Overview
Latin America leads the world in bean production
with some 4 million metric tons/year. Two countries,
Brazil and Mexico, account for about 75 percent of
total world production. Yet bean production in this
region has not kept pace with population growth. With
few exceptions, per hectare yields have not increased in
recent decades. On the other hand, population growth
has been nearly three percent per year.


If economic incentives are established, certain coun-
tries could divert land from other uses to beans and en-
courage the use of fertilizer and insecticides to
dramatically increase their overall production. Most of
this increase, however, would occur on larger farms.
Small farm production, under 20 hectares, would not
change appreciably in most countries. On small farms
beans are grown primarily as a subsistence crop and, to
a large extent, in mixed plantings with maize and/or
other crops. The cost of technological inputs and the
uncertainty of weather beneficial to such inputs make it
appear too risky to the small farmer. Furthermore, in
some large bean producing countries, beans have in-
creasingly been displaced from the more fertile level
lands by cash crops such as soybeans and sorghum,
which tend to respond with more stable yields and to
offer better economic returns.
A further complicating factor is that local consumer
preferences demand the production of many different
varieties, seed size, and seed color combinations,
whereas in rice or soybeans, one or a small number of
superior varieties can be produced over a wide geo-
graphic area. In beans this is rarely the case. Each coun-
try may have to grow numerous seed and plant types.
Finally, beans are subject to a greater assortment of
production constraints than almost any other major
food crop in Latin America. These constraints vary
somewhat from region to region and will be noted
specifically in the country by country evaluations which
follow.
These constraints, as region or areawide problems,
include the following (other problems occur in par-
ticular situations and can be locally quite severe, but are
not considered as universal as those listed below):
A. Diseases:
Common bean mosaic virus.
Anthracnose.
Rust.
Angular leaf spot.
Common bacterial blight.
B. Insect Pests:
Leafhopper.
Bean weevil.
Mexican bean beetle.
Storage insects.
C. Drought.
D. Nutrient deficiency:
1. Phosphorus.
2. Nitrogen.
E. Seed Quality.
Due to these constraints and the wide spread practice
of associated cropping, average yields range from
400-600 kilograms/hectare. Research has shown that
where plant diseases, insects and soil nutritional defi-
ciencies were controlled and varietal improvements








C. Programs and Possibilities
Various institutions and agencies have targeted
Upper Volta for a greater investment of research
and development funds.
1. IITA, at Ibadan, Nigeria, has a cooperative
project funded by IDRC that in 1979 was
limited to variety trials and support of one
trainee in cowpea breeding.
2. An entomologist under the Semi-arid African
Food Grain Research and Development
(SAFGRAD) program is expected to start
research on the insect storage problems.
3. IITA, cooperatively with SAFGRAD, expects
to establish a five-person team, including a
plant breeder, agronomist and entomologist, to
work on breeding and insect control through
farming systems.
In this program, greater emphasis should be
placed upon drought resistance, seed storage
problems, plant nutrition, seed quality,
physical and cooking quality, nitrogen fixation
and on farming systems.
4. SAFGRAD intends to conduct a socio-economic
survey of farming systems, including those in-
volving cowpeas.
A system of inter-cropping with cowpeas
planted at low population levels to discourage
the spread of insect pests is thought to be the
only economical means of practical insect con-
trol for small farmers in drier northern Upper
Volta. This belief has to be put to extensive
testing since there are some pests which may
have an even more damaging effect on widely
spaced plants.
5. Food & Agricultural Organization, FAO, has a
cowpeas-in-rotation experiment in progress at
the Farako-Ba research station in the 100-1,200
millimeter rainfall region. Straw production for
animal feed is an additional consideration to
grain yield in the development and choice of
cowpea varieties.



Latin America

General Overview
Latin America leads the world in bean production
with some 4 million metric tons/year. Two countries,
Brazil and Mexico, account for about 75 percent of
total world production. Yet bean production in this
region has not kept pace with population growth. With
few exceptions, per hectare yields have not increased in
recent decades. On the other hand, population growth
has been nearly three percent per year.


If economic incentives are established, certain coun-
tries could divert land from other uses to beans and en-
courage the use of fertilizer and insecticides to
dramatically increase their overall production. Most of
this increase, however, would occur on larger farms.
Small farm production, under 20 hectares, would not
change appreciably in most countries. On small farms
beans are grown primarily as a subsistence crop and, to
a large extent, in mixed plantings with maize and/or
other crops. The cost of technological inputs and the
uncertainty of weather beneficial to such inputs make it
appear too risky to the small farmer. Furthermore, in
some large bean producing countries, beans have in-
creasingly been displaced from the more fertile level
lands by cash crops such as soybeans and sorghum,
which tend to respond with more stable yields and to
offer better economic returns.
A further complicating factor is that local consumer
preferences demand the production of many different
varieties, seed size, and seed color combinations,
whereas in rice or soybeans, one or a small number of
superior varieties can be produced over a wide geo-
graphic area. In beans this is rarely the case. Each coun-
try may have to grow numerous seed and plant types.
Finally, beans are subject to a greater assortment of
production constraints than almost any other major
food crop in Latin America. These constraints vary
somewhat from region to region and will be noted
specifically in the country by country evaluations which
follow.
These constraints, as region or areawide problems,
include the following (other problems occur in par-
ticular situations and can be locally quite severe, but are
not considered as universal as those listed below):
A. Diseases:
Common bean mosaic virus.
Anthracnose.
Rust.
Angular leaf spot.
Common bacterial blight.
B. Insect Pests:
Leafhopper.
Bean weevil.
Mexican bean beetle.
Storage insects.
C. Drought.
D. Nutrient deficiency:
1. Phosphorus.
2. Nitrogen.
E. Seed Quality.
Due to these constraints and the wide spread practice
of associated cropping, average yields range from
400-600 kilograms/hectare. Research has shown that
where plant diseases, insects and soil nutritional defi-
ciencies were controlled and varietal improvements









were achieved through breeding and testing it is possible
to increase yields up to the 4,000 kilograms/hectare
range. Of course, production must take place in a
favorable climatic environment.
Many countries are now engaged in the formulation
and execution of national food plans and policies in line
with the recommendations made by the World Food
conference of 1974, and the Latin American FAO/ECA
Conference on food, in 1976.
There follows a country by country assessment of
major production/utilization constraints, program
objectives and potential capabilities or future plans for
improvement in bean production and/or utilization in
Latin America.

Argentina
Argentina is an important producer and exporter of
beans. They produced 232,000 tons in 1979 and ex-
ported 176,400 tons. Only 36,900 tons were consumed
within the country. The north provinces of Salta,
Santiago del Estero, Tucuman, Cordoba and Jujuy are
the major producing regions. Per hectare yields have
ranged from 720 to 1,130 kilograms in the period of
1975-1981, but yields have not shown an increasing
tendency. The production increases from 1975 to 1980
have come as a result of increased area consigned to
beans.
Most of the production of small and average-sized
producers, 40-50 percent of the total, is marketed
through local grower cooperatives. The rest is handled
by large export brokers in Buenos Aires. Between 35 and
40 percent is destined for the European Common
Market countries. The E.E.C. and certain Arabic
nations purchase primarily the "Alubia" type, a
medium-sized white bean comprising 85 percent of total
production. The tropical black and colored types go to
markets in other Latin American countries, principally
Venezuela, Cuba and Brazil.
A. Major Production Constraints
1. White beans
a) Common bacterial blight.
b) Bean common mosaic virus.
c) Angular leaf spot.
2. Black beans
a) Anthracnose.
B. Present Activities
The National Institute of Agricultural Tech-
nology, INTA, conducts research in beans and other
grains at several INTA experimental stations in
Salta, Metan, Consulta, Balcarce and Famailla.
The research under the theme of variety improve-
ment, includes the following activities:
1. Selection among and within populations of the
Alubia type for resistance to diseases.


2. Experimentation on fertilization and manage-
ment of the crop. Mass selection in populations
of Alubia has resulted in a variety with greater
production potential, denoted "Cerrillos IN-
TA," which carries improved tolerance to
disease.
3. The INTA station, Obispo Colombres, is
breeding for greater yields.
4. The Extension Agency in Salta conducts evalua-
tions of varieties provided by CIAT, as a com-
ponent of CIAT's international testing and
adaptation program.
5. Work in plant diseases is minimal in relation to
the importance accorded diseases as production
constraints.
C. Assessment
Argentina has been able, when marketing cir-
cumstances warrant, to increase the area devoted to
beans. Yields on the per hectare basis have been
higher than in any other Latin American country
except Chile. This situation prevails because of the
favorable climate and soils in the areas where beans
are grown and the more frequent use of fertilizers,
machinery and pesticides than in most Latin
American countries. As a matter of fact, diseases
and insects are not of serious importance in most
producing regions.
INTA maintains only a relatively minor amount
of work on beans and has not organized an ag-
gressive national bean program. Considering the
small size of the industry, 153,700 hectares/annum,
averaged from 1971 to 1980; average annual ton-
nage of 147,000 over that decade, and the average
high yields, 958 kilograms/hectare, there is not
much incentive to do so.


Brazil

Beans
Brazil is the world's leading bean producing country,
accounting for 54 percent of beans produced in Latin
American and 37 percent in the world. Although it
holds first place among nations in bean production, in
recent years production has declined and currently
Brazil imports beans from other countries.
In land area planted, beans rank fourth among
agricultural crops in Brazil. They rank ninth in produc-
tion (total tonnage) and sixth in monetary value.
Beans are considered a staple in Brazil. They con-
tribute 17.7 percent of the total protein in the area of
Rio de Janeiro, 31 percent in the Northeast (this figure
includes a substantial amount attributable to cowpeas)
and 24 percent in the nation as a whole. In a normal
year, 79 percent of bean (feijao) production in Brazil is









were achieved through breeding and testing it is possible
to increase yields up to the 4,000 kilograms/hectare
range. Of course, production must take place in a
favorable climatic environment.
Many countries are now engaged in the formulation
and execution of national food plans and policies in line
with the recommendations made by the World Food
conference of 1974, and the Latin American FAO/ECA
Conference on food, in 1976.
There follows a country by country assessment of
major production/utilization constraints, program
objectives and potential capabilities or future plans for
improvement in bean production and/or utilization in
Latin America.

Argentina
Argentina is an important producer and exporter of
beans. They produced 232,000 tons in 1979 and ex-
ported 176,400 tons. Only 36,900 tons were consumed
within the country. The north provinces of Salta,
Santiago del Estero, Tucuman, Cordoba and Jujuy are
the major producing regions. Per hectare yields have
ranged from 720 to 1,130 kilograms in the period of
1975-1981, but yields have not shown an increasing
tendency. The production increases from 1975 to 1980
have come as a result of increased area consigned to
beans.
Most of the production of small and average-sized
producers, 40-50 percent of the total, is marketed
through local grower cooperatives. The rest is handled
by large export brokers in Buenos Aires. Between 35 and
40 percent is destined for the European Common
Market countries. The E.E.C. and certain Arabic
nations purchase primarily the "Alubia" type, a
medium-sized white bean comprising 85 percent of total
production. The tropical black and colored types go to
markets in other Latin American countries, principally
Venezuela, Cuba and Brazil.
A. Major Production Constraints
1. White beans
a) Common bacterial blight.
b) Bean common mosaic virus.
c) Angular leaf spot.
2. Black beans
a) Anthracnose.
B. Present Activities
The National Institute of Agricultural Tech-
nology, INTA, conducts research in beans and other
grains at several INTA experimental stations in
Salta, Metan, Consulta, Balcarce and Famailla.
The research under the theme of variety improve-
ment, includes the following activities:
1. Selection among and within populations of the
Alubia type for resistance to diseases.


2. Experimentation on fertilization and manage-
ment of the crop. Mass selection in populations
of Alubia has resulted in a variety with greater
production potential, denoted "Cerrillos IN-
TA," which carries improved tolerance to
disease.
3. The INTA station, Obispo Colombres, is
breeding for greater yields.
4. The Extension Agency in Salta conducts evalua-
tions of varieties provided by CIAT, as a com-
ponent of CIAT's international testing and
adaptation program.
5. Work in plant diseases is minimal in relation to
the importance accorded diseases as production
constraints.
C. Assessment
Argentina has been able, when marketing cir-
cumstances warrant, to increase the area devoted to
beans. Yields on the per hectare basis have been
higher than in any other Latin American country
except Chile. This situation prevails because of the
favorable climate and soils in the areas where beans
are grown and the more frequent use of fertilizers,
machinery and pesticides than in most Latin
American countries. As a matter of fact, diseases
and insects are not of serious importance in most
producing regions.
INTA maintains only a relatively minor amount
of work on beans and has not organized an ag-
gressive national bean program. Considering the
small size of the industry, 153,700 hectares/annum,
averaged from 1971 to 1980; average annual ton-
nage of 147,000 over that decade, and the average
high yields, 958 kilograms/hectare, there is not
much incentive to do so.


Brazil

Beans
Brazil is the world's leading bean producing country,
accounting for 54 percent of beans produced in Latin
American and 37 percent in the world. Although it
holds first place among nations in bean production, in
recent years production has declined and currently
Brazil imports beans from other countries.
In land area planted, beans rank fourth among
agricultural crops in Brazil. They rank ninth in produc-
tion (total tonnage) and sixth in monetary value.
Beans are considered a staple in Brazil. They con-
tribute 17.7 percent of the total protein in the area of
Rio de Janeiro, 31 percent in the Northeast (this figure
includes a substantial amount attributable to cowpeas)
and 24 percent in the nation as a whole. In a normal
year, 79 percent of bean (feijao) production in Brazil is








attributable to the species Phaseolus vulgaris and 21 per-
cent to the cowpea Vigna unguiculata.
Nevertheless, consumption per capitum has been
decreasing. The reason is believed to be that in 1972
wheat consumption began to receive government sub-
sidy. Bean consumption has decreased 5.5 percent per
year since then, while consumption of wheat has in-
creased 7.4 percent per year.
Seventy percent of the bean production in Brazil
occurs on farms of less than five hectares. Beans are not
usually considered a cash or commercial crop but
primarily as a subsistence crop. However, excess pro-
duction on small and larger farms finds its way to local
and large urban markets.
Production of beans in Brazil is subject to high risk
and uncertainty because of their vulnerability to
drought, high temperatures and insect pests. Produc-
tion, therefore, has not kept pace with population ex-
pansion. Yield per hectare averaged 600-700 kilograms
until 1971, after which a decline of 100-200 kilograms/
hectare occurred so that in 1981 productivity ranged
between 400-500 kilogram/hectare. Along with this
decline was the dramatic rise of soybean production and
exports. Immense hectarages of prime agricultural land
in the state of Parana became soybean "ranches," with
beans relegated to more marginal soils receiving less
care and fewer inputs.
A. Major Production Constraints
Due to the diversity of conditions under which
beans are grown in Brazil, no given set of con-
straints applies throughout the country. Even
though a problem, a disease for example, occurs in
all regions, it may not be of equal importance
everywhere. The following list of constraints is
abstracted from "National Program of Research in
Beans," where beans include both common beans
and cowpeas. It was published in 1981 by
EMBRAPA through the Department of Informa-
tion and Documentation.
1. Diseases
a) Generally highly limiting.
1) Anthracnose.
2) Rust.
3) Common bacterial blight.
b) Sometimes highly limiting.
1) Angular leaf spot.
c) Usually of secondary importance.
1) Common mosaic.
2) Macrophomina stem and root rot.
d) Locally severe.
1) Golden mosaic.
2. Insect Pests.
a) Leafhopper: varying from severe to minor
in importance, depending on the region.
b) Diabrotica: varying from severe to minor


in importance, depending on the region.
c) Other insects are mentioned as occurring in
certain regions, Broca-do-colo, Acaro,
Lagarta-das-vagens (Etiella sp), Percevejo;
but always as "not serious enough to re-
quire immediate attentionn"
3. Other Problems
a) Major limitation
1) Seed quality.
2) Varieties.
3) Storage losses.
4) Biological nitrogen fixation.
5) Fertility (Phosphorus, pH, Al and/or
Mn toxicity).
6) Lack of irrigation.
7) Socio-economic aspects.
8) Drought.
b) Not of major importance
1) Weed control.
c) Can be improved in many areas
1) Cultural processes.
B. Current Program Activities
The national program in beans is located at the
Rice and Bean Research Center in Goiania, Brazil.
A large staff of young scientists has been assembled
in teams to address the prioritized constraints listed
in A. (above). The research group includes person-
nel in each of the following disciplines: climatology;
soils; botany; plant genetics; plant protection;
pathology and entomology; agronomy; seeds; agri-
cultural engineering; economics of production and
rural administration; and economics of resource
usage.
C. Assessment
The constraints noted for Brazil are extensive, as
might be expected for a large and environmentally
variable country. The list is also large because of the
thorough evaluations made over a period of several
years by experienced assessors. The current team
assembled at Goiania includes a corps of young
scientists and technicians under dynamic leader-
ship. Newly constructed laboratories and adequate
land facilities are also available to them.
In strengthening the center at Goiania, the need
should not be overlooked for competent scientists
with unique capabilities located at various regional
centers where some of the problems are more acute
and may be more efficiently addressed.
Brazil possesses state research centers, univer-
sities/colleges and research institutes where some
very capable scientists are, or have been at an
earlier time, engaged in particular aspects of
legume work. Linkages between the National
Center and some of the regional centers could
further strengthen the total effort.









Continued attention to higher education and
training of members of the Goiania team and of
those at the regional centers would be worthwhile.


Cowpeas
Although cowpeas are grown in several Latin
American countries, the greatest hectarage and produc-
tion are in the northeastern region of Brazil. Brazil is the
second largest producer of cowpeas in the world. It pro-
duces some 500,000 tons of dry grain each year and
another 100,000 tons of green shell peas per year. As
much as 30 percent of the protein and 15 percent of the
calories consumed per person per year in the Northeast
are derived from cowpeas. Among the grain legumes,
the cowpea ranks at the top in ability to produce at least
a partial seed crop in the presence of high temperatures
and low soil moisture. The cowpea manifests a great
diversity of plant forms and seed types, and has multiple
uses as food.
IITA has major global responsibility for conducting
cowpea research and for entering into cooperative out-
reach programs with national programs. One such pro-
gram is located in northeast Brazil, in cooperation with
EMBRAPA/Centro National de Pesquisa, Arroz-Feijao,
(CNPAF).

A. Major Production Constraints
1. Water stress: northeast Brazil is highly subject
to periodic drought, both in distribution and
amount. The probability of periods of drought
up to 50 or more days during the growing
season is 80 to 100 percent. Yields under
drought conditions amount to about 30 percent
of those produced in absence of drought.
2. Low nutrient status of Brazilian soils and low
water holding capacity: this combination
results in weak shallow root systems that
further render the plant drought susceptible.
3. Diseases and insect pests
a) Viruses: Cowpea Severe Mosaic Virus
(CSMV) and Blackeyed Cowpea Mosaic
Virus (BECMV).
b) Fungi: Cowpea Smut, Entyloma vignae
and Scab Sphaceloma spp. and root rots.
c) Storage weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus.
d) Cowpea curculio, Chalcodermis sp.
4. Land-use efficiency: integrated technological
systems that include recommended varieties,
fertility adjustments, pest control and water
conservation practices need to be researched.
Such studies are not a part of the national pro-
gram but are carried out by state agencies.
5. There is a lack of knowledge in the areas of
marketing and commerce.


B. Present Program Activities
1. Short term goals: seed quality, large brown or
white, colored, erect and prostrate plant types;
and resistance to CSMV, BECMV, scab, and
smut are receiving first priority.
2. Longer term goals
a) Economics: data are being obtained on
production, area in cowpeas, productivity,
consumption, market procedures, etc.
b) Agronomy: crop management studies and
experiments on feasibility of increasing pro-
duction through drought resistance
breeding are being conducted.
c) Entomology: varietal resistance and
cultural practices are the basic strategy for
control of insect damage since the small
farmers consider high technology inputs
impractical and financially risky.
d) Pathology: the principal control strategy is
through resistance breeding. Host range
studies have been conducted and screening
methodology developed.
e) Breeding: methodologies for various
screening tests to apply to segregating
populations have been developed. Field
trials of variety and line entries have been
sent out to state stations in northeast Brazil.
Germplasm is being collected from Brazil
and IITA, including 177 lines collected
along the Amazon River near Manaus.
An extensive crossing program has been
undertaken and the most advanced lines
(F5 generation) are ready for yield trials.
The better lines will be tested by extension
personnel in farmers' fields.
Regional yield and adaptation trials are
being established and results from some of
them are being analyzed. Promising lines
are being identified, some yielding from 30
to 60 percent above the mean of check
varieties.
C. Work Plan
1. Development of methodology: refinements in
the methods for screening against the four
major constraint problems are needed to im-
prove precision of selection.
2. Breeding: continuation of screening, selection
and regional yield and adaptation trials in-
cluding testing in farmers' fields.
3. Cultural practices: studies on plant spacing,
density and fertilizer interactions.
D. Assessment
This collaborative program appears to have ade-
quate team strength in the various areas being








studied and the national and regional cooperation is
excellent. Given the over-riding importance of
drought stress and low fertility, it would appear
that, if the program were to receive further
resources they could be allocated to these areas.
Research in the areas of phosphorus and nitrogen
fixation would be very significant in the develop-
ment of low-input requiring varieties also.


Chile
Chile ranks as a substantial producer of dry beans,
with an average of 11,000 hectares, yielding 940 kilo-
gram/hectare, being grown for the 1978-1980 period.
Except for 1980 when the growing season was unusually
cold, average yields have exceeded 1,000 kilograms/hec-
tare almost every year since 1964.
The climate is usually quite dry, with moderate
temperatures, and very high quality beans are produc-
ed. Most of the beans are grown under irrigation in pure
stands in the central valley regions north and south of
Santiago. Chile is a net exporter of beans.
A. Major Constraints
1. Diseases: common bean mosaic and yellow
bean mosaic.
2. Insects: red spider and aphids. They are minor
in most years.
3. Weeds: a serious problem in most bean fields.
B. Current Program Activities
Institute Nacional Investigaciones Agricola,
INIA, maintains a national bean improvement pro-
gram headquartered at La Platina, with a substa-
tion also at Chillan.
The program objectives consist primarily of
developing mosaic resistant varieties in the several
seed classes grown in Chile. A second objective has
been to incorporate the preferred seed type into the
bush plant form for easier management agronom-
ically.
The program cooperates with CIAT and other
national, non-Chilean, programs in seed increase
activities. Some genetic breeding and physiological
research is conducted by non-program personnel in
the Catholic University and University of Concep-
cion. The Impressa Nacional de Semillas, with ex-
cellent physical facilities, produces and sells high
quality seed of improved varieties.
C. Assessment
The program has been quite successful in produc-
ing virus resistant lines to upgrade and replace other
susceptible varieties. Because of the dry climate,
foliage diseases are not a serious factor in bean pro-
duction. However, bean root rot is prevalent in
some fields and the program should eventually give


consideration to this as a potential problem. Much
more work should be done on chemical and cultural
weed control since weeds are a major farm prob-
lem. The present bean research group is heavily
oriented toward pathology as a discipline. A
broadening to include fertility and agronomic spe-
cialists would be a strengthening move to the na-
tional program.


Colombia
Colombia is a major producer and consumer of grain
legumes. Some 97-98 percent of the food legume hec-
tarage is planted to common beans, two-thirds of which
is in association, and about one-third in mono-culture.
In 1979, 112,000 hectares were harvested with an
average yield of 664 kilograms/hectare. A small hec-
tarage is planted to cowpeas, adzuki and mung beans.
The common bean is produced principally in the
department of Antioquia, followed by the departments
of Narino, Santander, Huila and the valleys of Cauca
and Tolima. Systems of production vary with the
region.
In Antioquia, Huila and Narino most of the beans are
the vining type and are grown with maize. In Valle de
Cauca bush varieties predominate and are grown in
mono-culture. Use of fertilizer and pesticides is fairly
common, particularly with commercial producers.

A. Major Production Constraints
1. Diseases: common bean mosaic, anthracnose,
bacterial blight, rust and angular leafspot.
2. Insects: leafhopper, Empoasca sp., is the prin-
cipal pest.
3. Infertility of soils: both phosphorus and
nitrogen can be limiting factors, singly and
together.
4. Cropping system: with maize, bean yields are
competitively decreased by as much as 40-50
percent in comparison with mono-culture.
B. Present and Past Program Activities
Agricultural research and extension activities for
legume crops in Colombia are conducted by the
Program on Grain legumes and Annual Oil Crops
of Institute Colombiano Agropecuario, ICA, and
by CIAT at Cali-Palmira.
The ICA program has had an impressive record
in the breeding and release of bean varieties, many
of which have been widely accepted. From 1957
through 1979, 17 improved cultivars were released
by ICA. The work at ICA-Palmira has been
oriented toward the developing of large-seeded,
disease resistant, bush cultivars for national con-
sumption and varieties of tropical black beans and
small-seeded whites for export. Selection for disease








studied and the national and regional cooperation is
excellent. Given the over-riding importance of
drought stress and low fertility, it would appear
that, if the program were to receive further
resources they could be allocated to these areas.
Research in the areas of phosphorus and nitrogen
fixation would be very significant in the develop-
ment of low-input requiring varieties also.


Chile
Chile ranks as a substantial producer of dry beans,
with an average of 11,000 hectares, yielding 940 kilo-
gram/hectare, being grown for the 1978-1980 period.
Except for 1980 when the growing season was unusually
cold, average yields have exceeded 1,000 kilograms/hec-
tare almost every year since 1964.
The climate is usually quite dry, with moderate
temperatures, and very high quality beans are produc-
ed. Most of the beans are grown under irrigation in pure
stands in the central valley regions north and south of
Santiago. Chile is a net exporter of beans.
A. Major Constraints
1. Diseases: common bean mosaic and yellow
bean mosaic.
2. Insects: red spider and aphids. They are minor
in most years.
3. Weeds: a serious problem in most bean fields.
B. Current Program Activities
Institute Nacional Investigaciones Agricola,
INIA, maintains a national bean improvement pro-
gram headquartered at La Platina, with a substa-
tion also at Chillan.
The program objectives consist primarily of
developing mosaic resistant varieties in the several
seed classes grown in Chile. A second objective has
been to incorporate the preferred seed type into the
bush plant form for easier management agronom-
ically.
The program cooperates with CIAT and other
national, non-Chilean, programs in seed increase
activities. Some genetic breeding and physiological
research is conducted by non-program personnel in
the Catholic University and University of Concep-
cion. The Impressa Nacional de Semillas, with ex-
cellent physical facilities, produces and sells high
quality seed of improved varieties.
C. Assessment
The program has been quite successful in produc-
ing virus resistant lines to upgrade and replace other
susceptible varieties. Because of the dry climate,
foliage diseases are not a serious factor in bean pro-
duction. However, bean root rot is prevalent in
some fields and the program should eventually give


consideration to this as a potential problem. Much
more work should be done on chemical and cultural
weed control since weeds are a major farm prob-
lem. The present bean research group is heavily
oriented toward pathology as a discipline. A
broadening to include fertility and agronomic spe-
cialists would be a strengthening move to the na-
tional program.


Colombia
Colombia is a major producer and consumer of grain
legumes. Some 97-98 percent of the food legume hec-
tarage is planted to common beans, two-thirds of which
is in association, and about one-third in mono-culture.
In 1979, 112,000 hectares were harvested with an
average yield of 664 kilograms/hectare. A small hec-
tarage is planted to cowpeas, adzuki and mung beans.
The common bean is produced principally in the
department of Antioquia, followed by the departments
of Narino, Santander, Huila and the valleys of Cauca
and Tolima. Systems of production vary with the
region.
In Antioquia, Huila and Narino most of the beans are
the vining type and are grown with maize. In Valle de
Cauca bush varieties predominate and are grown in
mono-culture. Use of fertilizer and pesticides is fairly
common, particularly with commercial producers.

A. Major Production Constraints
1. Diseases: common bean mosaic, anthracnose,
bacterial blight, rust and angular leafspot.
2. Insects: leafhopper, Empoasca sp., is the prin-
cipal pest.
3. Infertility of soils: both phosphorus and
nitrogen can be limiting factors, singly and
together.
4. Cropping system: with maize, bean yields are
competitively decreased by as much as 40-50
percent in comparison with mono-culture.
B. Present and Past Program Activities
Agricultural research and extension activities for
legume crops in Colombia are conducted by the
Program on Grain legumes and Annual Oil Crops
of Institute Colombiano Agropecuario, ICA, and
by CIAT at Cali-Palmira.
The ICA program has had an impressive record
in the breeding and release of bean varieties, many
of which have been widely accepted. From 1957
through 1979, 17 improved cultivars were released
by ICA. The work at ICA-Palmira has been
oriented toward the developing of large-seeded,
disease resistant, bush cultivars for national con-
sumption and varieties of tropical black beans and
small-seeded whites for export. Selection for disease









resistance has emphasized resistance to common
bacterial blight, bean rust, cercospora leaf spot,
angular leafspot and nematodes.
In the higher elevations, Tibaitata, Obonuco,
and La Selva, the climate is cooler and bean
anthracnose and earlier maturity become principal
limiting factors, and therefore major breeding
objectives.
The present program, though much reduced
from previous years, still aims toward better and
more comprehensive levels of yield, disease resist-
ance, and acceptability to consumer and commer-
cial markets. In addition, for climbing beans, the
following cultural objectives are sought:
1. Optimal plant densities for mixed associations.
2. Yield of both beans and maize in different
planting patterns.
3. The compatability of different bean varieties
with different varieties of maize in mixed
plantings.
4. The best times of planting of both species for
associated culture.
For the cowpea, work has been conducted at
ICA-Palmira, ICA-Nataima, ICA-Turipana and
ICA-Motilonia. Work has focused on germplasm
evaluation and selection of varieties for erect
growth, resistance to diseases and commercially
acceptable grain types. Seven selections have been
named and released by the ICA program.

C. Program Resources
In addition to the several stations where legume
work is conducted, the human resources are as
follows (as of January 1982) for the entire legume
program:


Discipline
Breeding and Agronomy
Plant Pathology
Entomology
Physiology
Microbiology
Production
*Indicates less than half time


Ing-Agronomo
6
2*
2*
2*


Master of
Science
2
2*
2*
I*


D. Assessment
ICA for several years maintained an active and
productive legume program. The Rockefeller Foun-
dation at one period provided cooperation in the
matter of equipment and training. More recently
funds for the program have diminished and present-
ly are insufficient to maintain an adequate
program.
The fact that a well organized, well supported
and very active bean program exists at CIAT has
apparently been perceived by ICA as meeting some
of the bean research needs of Colombia.


Costa Rica
Since Costa Rica possesses relatively low lying coastal
areas on the Pacific, ranging to hills, mountains and
valleys through the middle of the country, with hot
humid coastal areas on the east, the diversity in agricul-
tural potential is great. Day lengths and temperatures
are relatively invariable. However, December and
January are cooler than the other months.
Soils range from coarse textured outwash coastal
plains, to rich volcanic mountainous soils to interior hil-
ly and valley soils of variable texture, fertility, depth
and state of erosion. Most agricultural systems are struc-
tured to keep some vegetation on the land at all times.
The typical bean production in the hills is under a
system known locally as "Topado," in which the beans
are scattered in standing tall grass growing among the
coffee trees. Then the grass is cut and left on the ground
to provide cover for the beans. The beans grow through
the grassy swath which tends to control weeds and con-
serve moisture. Ultimately, the cut grass releases its
nutrients by leaching back to the soil, where it is absorb-
ed by the beans. This is a low input and a low risk
system, but it is also a low yield system.
Beans do relatively better on the rich volcanic soils of
the higher elevations. At lower elevations temperature
and humidity are higher and insects and diseases are
more intense, reducing yields.
In the past, Costa Rica has usually been self-sufficient
in beans but rising population with no increase in hec-
tarage and only a slight increase in average yields per
hectare has resulted in the need for bean imports in re-
cent years.
The availability of high quality seed of preferred
varieties is a problem, as is the availability of other
inputs such as pesticides and fertilizers. Furthermore,
labor costs in Costa Rica are high and the small farming
systems under which beans are grown precludes wide
use of machinery.
A. Major Production Constraints
1. Lack of varieties of dry beans adapted to new
land areas now being developed for agricultural
purposes.
2. Lack of programs of extension to disseminate
improved technology.
3. Limited availability of seed stocks of good
quality, agro-chemicals, machinery and other
supplies.
4. Lack of a suitable technology for bean produc-
tion, alternative to the "Topado" system, par-
ticularly in new land areas and zones that are
at present marginally productive.

B. Present and Past Program Activities
1. A National Bean Program, under auspices of








the Ministry of Agriculture, exists "on paper"
but other than having a designated Director the
program is without resources to carry out its
functions.
2. In the past, a genetic and breeding program
was conducted at the regional center for agri-
cultural research and teaching of IICA, the
Tropical Agronomic Center for Research and
Teaching, located at Turrialba. This program
conducts radiation genetic studies, produces
some useful mutants, maintains a germplasm
collection, mapped ecological zones for bean
production and through numerous students
produced several theses on fertility, water,
multiple cropping and yield component pro-
blems in beans. Later, the emphasis was placed
upon farming systems and this effort paved the
way for the systems work and economic studies
now conducted by CATIE.
3. Research and teaching in bean seed quality
have been conducted for several seasons in the
University of Costa Rica in San Jose.
4. Some studies involving the frequency and use of
beans in the family diet are being conducted in
the Food Technology Department of the Uni-
versity. Particular emphasis is being placed
upon use by children.
5. Variety testing is conducted by the University
at Alajuela in the Central Valley. Several
promising lines have been selected.
6. CIAT maintains a Central American represen-
tative at IICA, in San Jose, whose job is to pro-
mote and service cooperative programs in
Central America and Caribbean countries
where CIAT has linkages.
C. Assessment
Without a strong supportive national legume
program the prospects for significant improve-
ment of bean production in Costa Rica will depend,
to a very grat extent, upon (1) an expansion of the
activities of regional and international research
organizations, or (2) upon the use of transferred
technology from some other Central American or
Caribbean country.
There are competent scientists at the University
of Costa Rica and Ministry of Agriculture who
could provide the leadership needed to launch a
food legume program in Costa Rica, provided a
national commitment with funding was made.


Dominican Republic
Beans are a staple component of the people's diets in
the Dominican Republic. However, of the total dry
bean production by the entire Latin American region


during the period 1964-1966, the Dominican Republic's
share amounted to only 0.70 percent. Again in
1976-1978, the production share for the Dominican
Republic was limited to a mere 1.0 percent. Yields
range from 600-800 kilograms/hectare.
Staff workers of the Secretaria de Estado de Agri-
cultura, in recognition of the role of edible legumes in
the national diet and in expression of the obligation and
desire felt by them to undertake problem-solving
research involving the bean as a crop and a food,
prepared in June 1980, a "National Program of
Research in Edible Legumes." The following informa-
tion is drawn from that document.

A. Major Constraints which pertain directly to the
Department de Investigacion Agropecuaria.
1. The seed stocks of improved varieties reaching
the small farmers do not fulfill the requisites of
quality and varietal purity which make increas-
ed productivity possible.
2. Currently available varieties do not offer suffi-
cient resistance or tolerance to insects and
diseases.
3. Inadequate use of water resources: lack of valid
information concerning levels of water avail-
able for farming use, frequency and systems of
irrigating.
4. Some 90 percent of land area devoted to bean
production never receives any fertilizer applica-
tion. In the remaining 10 percent, the growers
do not rely upon valid appropriate technical
criteria for meeting the needs of the crop for
nutrients at the optimum level of returns.
5. The control of noxious weeds generally is defi-
cient on account of the high cost and low effec-
tiveness of conventional methods of eradi-
cation.
6. Low seedling densities are common, aggra-
vated by a loss or wastage of seeds owing to
deficiencies in seeding equipment and low
levels of vigor and germination of the seed.

B. Constraints which do not pertain directly to the
Department de Investigacion Agropecuaria.
1. Inadequate soil preparation due to equipment
limitations.
2. Inadequate reserves of water for irrigation due
to infrastructural limitations.
3. Usage of irrigation water by antiquated
methods often improperly timed, because the
requirements for water nor the frequency of ap-
plication in the principal production zones
have not been established. At the present time,
there exist no effective coordinated programs
between the water managers, the agricultural
advisors and the growers for assuring the









availability of this resource at the critical
periods of crop need.
4. Water is supplied to the growers at a certain
time, without considering the needs of the
grower or the moisture condition of the soil.
Many times irrigation is unnecessary.
5. Fields, rows and planting beds are very long, in
many instances, requiring the farmer to
prepare rather pronounced slopes in order to
promote the flow of water. The consequence is
that the water flows, but does not remain on
the land to soak into the soil to nourish the
crop.
6. The Extension Service has not been able to suf-
ficiently train the growers in matters of soil fer-
tility, control of insects and diseases, selection
and management of equipment, use of water
for irrigation and other practices beneficial to
production.
7. Some zones of production are not adapted to
farming principally by reason of temperature,
rainfall, topography, and type of soil.
C. Activities programmed for the period 1980-1982.
Production systems
1. Title: Diagnosis of regional production systems,
with emphasis on edible legumes.
Objectives: Identification, characterization and
general analysis of the various systems which
include legumes.
2. Title: Fertilization with Nitrogen, Phosphorus,
Potassium (NPK) in systems of maize and
beans.
Objective: To determine economically op-
timum levels of NPK in this association.
3. Title: Comparison of methods of seeding beans
under irrigation.
Objective: To determine the behavior of
varieties of beans under different seeding
methods.
4. Title: Agro-socio-economic evaluation of the
bean and other crops associated with sugar
cane.
Objectives: 1) To study the agronomic perfor-
mance, without changing those
activities which pertain to sugar
cane.
2) To determine the degree of
utilization of physical labor and
its distribution during the year.
Genetic management activities
1. Title: Purification of seeds of bean varieties.
Objectives: 1) To maintain the phyto-
sanitation and genetic purity of
basic material.


2) To produce basic seeed stocks in
adequate quantity for satisfying
the demand of the national
bean seed program.
2. Title: International Bean Nursery for resistance
to temperatures higher than 26 C.
Objective: To obtain varieties of beans able to
respond to conditions of high temperatures
greater than 26 C without productivity being
non-remunerative to the grower.
3. Title: Bean Nursery for resistance to drought.
Objective: To obtain varieties capable of
responding to conditions of drought.
4. Title: Testing varieties of black beans for yield.
Objective: To determine the yielding capacity
of black beans under two ecological conditions
unfavorable for the growing of red beans.
5. Title: Management of progenies of beans for
multiple resistance to insects and diseases.
Objective: Breeding of varieties of beans for
multiple resistance to insects and diseases.
6. Title: Performance testing of four lines of red
beans.
Objective: To determine the productive capac-
ity of promising materials in comparison with
locally established varieties.
D. Management of Environmental Forces
Brief Summary of past activities in this area
Experiments conducted during the 1973-1977
period dealt mostly with the yield responses of par-
ticular varieties in locations to various levels of ap-
plication of the major and micro-nutrients to beans.
An economic assessment of the practice was also
conducted.
The results demonstrate which varieties respond
to fertilization and the economic returns of par-
ticular combinations. In general, responses were
shown for nitrogen and phosphorus but not to
potassium.
Objectives and projected activities in this area
1. To conduct fertility studies in beans (and
pigeon peas) in additional agricultural zones,
such as San Juan de la Maguana, San Jose' de
Ocoa, Barahona, Higuay (San Rafael del
Yuma) Constanza, Cayetano Germosen,
Quinigua, Santiago Rodriguez and Boca de
Mao.
2. To determine irrigation frequencies for the
bean crop in the flat zones (zonas llanas).
3. To determine the millimeters of water required
for the bean crop in flat areas.
4. To determine the effect of physical
characteristics of soil on bean production, prin-
cipally in relation to texture and structure.









5. To determine the optimal economic levels of
fertilization with macro- and micro-nutrients in
the low-lying zones as well as in the zones of in-
termediate altitude which are in reality more
devoted to the growing of beans, and pigeon
peas.

E. Management of the Biotic Environment
Previous work in this area
The major diseases of beans in the producing
areas of the country are rust, basal stem rot,
angular leaf spot, mildew, bacterial blight, com-
mon bean and golden mosaics, and nematodes.
For control of rust on beans several chemical
products have been evaluated with best results be-
ing obtained from Ozycarboxin and *"Fetin
acetato." (*Mention in the text of trade names of
certain products does not constitute approval or
recommendation by USAID or the Bean/Cowpea
CRSP to the exclusion of other products that may
also be suitable.)
Similar studies on control of basal stem rot, caus-
ed by Rhizoctonia solani, have indicated that PCNB
and BAS 329F give best results. Presently, control of
golden mosaic seems best accomplished through
control of the insect vector of the virus. The insec-
ticide Monocrotophos has given the best results.
The work on bacterial blights, Pseudomonas and
Xanthomonas spp., has been limited to observations
of their presence. Only preliminary observations
have been made on nematodes sufficient to indicate
the presence of the Meloidogyne spp.
The principal insects affecting beans in the coun-
try are the following:


English name
White fly
Leafhopper
Chrysomelid
Cutworm
Caterpillar


Spanish name
Mosca blanca
Saltahojas
Crisomelido rejo
Gusano cortador
Gusano medidor
Gusano terciopelo


Pod borers Taladrodores de
la vaina
Hiedevivo


Scientific name
Bemisia tabaci-Guen
Empoasca fabae-Harris
Ceratoma reficoris-Oliver
Agrotis subterranea-Fabr.
Trichoplusia ni-Hub.
Anticarsia gemmatalis-
Hub.
Maruca testulalis-Geyer
and Heliotis spp.
Nezara viridula-L.


Control has been most effective with the insec-
ticides Monocrotophos, Endosulfan and Carbaryl.
1. Economy of production
a. Previous activity: in reference to economic
studies, it has been shown in the area of
Cibao that the returns for red beans under
irrigation amount to $31.57 (per tarea)
and, without irrigation, to $23.97 (per
tarea).
2. Current or proposed activities
a. Title: A study of the present situation in
growing beans.


Objective: To become acquainted with the
critical areas concerning the economic and
agronomic aspects which involve the pro-
duction and distribution of the crop, with
a view of developing recommendations of
benefit to producer and consumer.
2. Title: Studies of returns from beans.
Objective: To determine cost-benefit ratios
of growing beans in dryland and irrigated
regions.
F. Assessment
The Department of Agricultural Research in the
Secretariat of Agriculture of the Dominican
Republic has prepared the "Programa Nacional In-
vestigacion en Leguminosas Comestibles" from
which the foregoing information was taken. Some
30 separate research undertakings are noted in the
activities scheduled for 1980-82, for the most part,
focused upon practical production related prob-
lems. Research locations and personnel are named
in the project outlines. The level of previous ex-
perience and scientific training of the young
research leaders selected for many of the projects is
low but there is strong supportive leadership at ad-
ministrative levels and a clear recognition of the
desirability of advanced specialized training for the
young researchers, some of whom are already in
training or marked for post-graduate training op-
portunities. With continued support in the
Secretaria, the Dominican National Bean Program
should have substantial progress toward its goals in
the near future.
Unfortunately, as recent political events make
clear, it is difficult to maintain a consistent high
level of program investment to hold research teams
together and to actually pursue the programmed
research goals over a sufficient period of time. Few
countries or national programs, even International
Centers, are immune from these perturbations.

Ecuador
Among grains utilized for human food, the bean
holds a singular place in Ecuador. It is the most widely
accepted and most often grown in the country. It is
acclaimed for its contribution to nutritional needs,
especially for those of meager resources who cannot
afford animal protein. It has been calculated that the
cost of bean protein is approximately one-fifth that of an
equal amount of animal protein.
Generally beans are grown in the Sierras at elevations
of 1,500 to 2,800 meters in the inter-Andean valleys.
The Ministry of Agriculture and Livestock of Ecuador
estimated for 1962 the area of land harvested for beans
was 44,020 hectares, increasing to 86,344 hectares in
1968, and a decrease to 62,553 hectares by 1975.









Average yields were 450 kilograms/hectare. As in other
Andean regions beans are grown in association with
maize which tends to keep bean yields low.
A. Major Production Constraints
1. Use of traditional varieties whose agronomic
characteristics are not very acceptable.
2. Lack of high quality seed.
3. Inadequate cultural practices, especially in the
maize/bean associations.
4. Disregard for the need to fertilize and to follow
a proper time schedule for seeding. Among
other factors are:
a) Inadequate technical assistance.
b) Better coordination between institutions in-
volved with credit and commercialization.
c) Failure to convince the grower and con-
sumer of the nutritional value of beans.
5. Insect pests
a) Leafhoppers, Empoasca sp., are most
troublesome.
b) Soil borne white grubs.
c) Chrisomelids.
6. Diseases (most important):
a) Rust, caused by Uromyces phaseoli.
b) Angular leafspot, caused by Isariopsis
griseola.
c) Anthracnose, caused by Colletotrichum
lindemuthianum.
d) Mildew, caused by Erisiphe polygone.
e) Root rots, caused by Rhizoctonia and
Fusarium spp.
f) Common mosaic.
B. Present Program Activities
Research and development in beans and other
legumes is conducted by El Instituto Nacional de
Investigaciones Agropecuarias, INIAP.
Activities of INIAP are conducted at three levels:
(1) the Experiment Station, responsible for
generating new technology; (2) an intermediate
stage of testing and confirming the technology and
at the same time carrying out the function of tech-
nological transfer; and (3) the level of the small
farmer at which the technology developed by the
Experiment Station(s) is adapted to the agroclimatic
conditions and the production systems of the
producer.
For carrying out the various functions of INIAP
Ecuador maintains seven regional experimental sta-
tions. Four of these, Santa Catalina, Pichilingue,
Boliche and Centro Experimental del Austro, in-
clude work on the grain legumes. INIAP has
developed or introduced eight varieties of soya, one
of the common bean, one cowpea and four varieties
of groundnuts.


Current general objectives include:
1. Obtaining high yield varieties for associated
and mono-culture.
2. Developing practical means of cultivation.
3. Training personnel.
The bean program for the zona Sierra includes:
1. Evaluation of the germplasm collection, now
consisting of 1,200 entries, for reaction to
diseases, yield potential and plant and seed
characteristics.
2. Evaluation conducted on the bush types for
their fitness in mono-culture and on the climb-
ing beans for associated culture. From 300 en-
tries of bush beans evaluated for growth cycle,
disease reaction and grain types a set of 16 en-
tries has been selected for regional trials.
3. In trials with climbing beans grown with maize
at two locations, varieties have been identified
which are earlier but have vegetative growth
adequate for relatively efficient grain produc-
tion with some resistance to anthracnose and
with acceptable seed quality.
4. The bean breeding program also collaborates in
the production of seed of climbing types re-
quired by the testing program.
On the coast at the Boliche Station, the objectives
are:
1. Increase production by obtaining higher
yielding varieties and developing practices
suitable for rotations of rice, sorghum and
beans.
In both the Sierra and Coastal zone research,
germplasm from CIAT and periodic visits of
CIAT specialists have been very supportive of
the objectives. From these materials and tests,
a variety for commercial production with the
name "INIAP Bayito" has been released.
In similar testing of cowpea germplasm a
variety, "INIAP Caupi," has been released. Un-
fortunately, with both of these varieties, there
is no program of seed multiplication.
C. Future Plans
The future objective of the program is to work for
"greater availability of beans for consumption
through zone-related evaluations of germplasm, in-
creased yields through improved cultivars, and
analyses of socio-economic factors and marketing
for small farming systems."
Specific research items include:
1. The impact of elevation-temperature/photo-
period on plant response.
2. Germplasm collection, evaluation and ex-
change coordinate with CIAT, with attention
to adaptation.








3. Development of adapted varieties resistant to
fungal diseases.
4. Phosphorus efficiency, and nodulation and
nitrogen fixation.
5. Analysis of the role of women and children in
bean production, with attention to their needs.
6. Assessment of factors affecting consumer
acceptance of new varieties.
7. Analysis of economic constraints to increased
production.
8. Analysis of constraints to consumption.
D. Assessment
The national program of Ecuador places par-
ticular emphasis upon socio-cultural and economic
aspects of grain legume production and consump-
tion. Such program emphasis will require coopera-
tion between agronomists, social scientists and
economists. This is not often practiced in developed
countries and novel in under-developed countries,
with Guatemala as an exception. It is hoped that
the necessary trained personnel can be assembled
and financial and administrative support marshall-
ed for forming such a group in Ecuador. It is
further hoped that such dimensions will not become
dependent upon external agencies for personnel and
financial support, for these objectives are uniquely
in-country issues and likely to require a long period
of time to reach. It is also important that produc-
tive linkages with varietal development and
production-oriented agencies (CIAT, IITA, IICA)
be maintained and not eroded by loss of personnel
or resources to other program objectives.


Guatemala
Guatemala, along with the northern part of Mexico,
is considered the primary center of diversity of the
common bean and traditional site of earliest domestica-
tion. Today it is the largest producer of beans in Central
America. Beans are produced throughout the country,
both in association with maize or sorghum and in mono-
culture. A total of some 242,000 hectares with average
yields of 330 kilograms/hectare were grown in
1970-1978.
Growing conditions range from alluvial valley soils to
coarse boulder-strewn hillsides to undulating upland
and volcanic soils; situated at elevations from 50 to
1,800 meters, with rainfall varying from 500 to 2,500
millimeters. Most fields are small, ranging from 0.5 to
7 hectares in size with some of the valley fields being
irrigated from local streams.
The tropical black bean is grown almost exclusively.
It is estimated that about 60 percent of the varieties
grown are local unimproved "land-races," 30 percent
consist of so-called "improved" varieties introduced or


selected and multiplied local varieties and about 10 per-
cent can be traced to specifically bred varieties from In-
stituto Ciencias y Tecnologia Agricolas, ICTA. Seed of
ICTA recommended varieties and other technological
materials can be purchased through produciton credits
made available through the Agricultural Development
Bank.
A. Major Production Constraints
1. Inadequate irrigation.
2. Diseases (see listing given for the "Caribbean,
Central America and Panama").
3. Insect pests (see listing given for the "Carib-
bean, Central America and Panama").
4. Insufficient supply of high quality seed of
recommended varieties.
B. Current Activities
A national bean program exists within ICTA.
The program includes work in plant pathology,
entomology, breeding, agronomy and evaluation
economics. Through cooperation with CIAT,
black-seeded varieties with some tolerance to
golden mosaic have been produced. The current
major objectives of the program are to produce high
yielding black-seeded disease and insect resistant
varieties, to determine the factors relating to adap-
tation and to make seed available of the golden
mosaic resistant varieties.
C. Assessment
In ICTA, and through close cooperation with the
Bean Program of CIAT, Guatemala currently has
the most active bean program among Central
American countries. ICTA has encouraged advanc-
ed training for its young scientists, provided the
necessary financial and material resources, and
stimulated and challenged the bean group through
enlightened and optimistic leadership. There is a
high level of dedication shown by the group and, if
the trained personnel can be preserved as a team,
steady progress toward their goals should be
possible.

Haiti
Haiti occupies the western portion of the island of
Hispaniola. Topographically it is mountainous, with
coastal plains, interior uplands, plateaus and valley
agriculture. Haiti suffers from lack of sufficient seasonal
rainfall for high yields and the soils, except on the coast
and interior valleys, are generally eroded and of low
nutrient status. The main crops are sugarcane, coffee,
rice, maize and beans. The level of income is low and
technology in farming is minimal.
Nearly 100,000 hectares are planted annually to food
legumes, principally dry beans, pigeon peas and








3. Development of adapted varieties resistant to
fungal diseases.
4. Phosphorus efficiency, and nodulation and
nitrogen fixation.
5. Analysis of the role of women and children in
bean production, with attention to their needs.
6. Assessment of factors affecting consumer
acceptance of new varieties.
7. Analysis of economic constraints to increased
production.
8. Analysis of constraints to consumption.
D. Assessment
The national program of Ecuador places par-
ticular emphasis upon socio-cultural and economic
aspects of grain legume production and consump-
tion. Such program emphasis will require coopera-
tion between agronomists, social scientists and
economists. This is not often practiced in developed
countries and novel in under-developed countries,
with Guatemala as an exception. It is hoped that
the necessary trained personnel can be assembled
and financial and administrative support marshall-
ed for forming such a group in Ecuador. It is
further hoped that such dimensions will not become
dependent upon external agencies for personnel and
financial support, for these objectives are uniquely
in-country issues and likely to require a long period
of time to reach. It is also important that produc-
tive linkages with varietal development and
production-oriented agencies (CIAT, IITA, IICA)
be maintained and not eroded by loss of personnel
or resources to other program objectives.


Guatemala
Guatemala, along with the northern part of Mexico,
is considered the primary center of diversity of the
common bean and traditional site of earliest domestica-
tion. Today it is the largest producer of beans in Central
America. Beans are produced throughout the country,
both in association with maize or sorghum and in mono-
culture. A total of some 242,000 hectares with average
yields of 330 kilograms/hectare were grown in
1970-1978.
Growing conditions range from alluvial valley soils to
coarse boulder-strewn hillsides to undulating upland
and volcanic soils; situated at elevations from 50 to
1,800 meters, with rainfall varying from 500 to 2,500
millimeters. Most fields are small, ranging from 0.5 to
7 hectares in size with some of the valley fields being
irrigated from local streams.
The tropical black bean is grown almost exclusively.
It is estimated that about 60 percent of the varieties
grown are local unimproved "land-races," 30 percent
consist of so-called "improved" varieties introduced or


selected and multiplied local varieties and about 10 per-
cent can be traced to specifically bred varieties from In-
stituto Ciencias y Tecnologia Agricolas, ICTA. Seed of
ICTA recommended varieties and other technological
materials can be purchased through produciton credits
made available through the Agricultural Development
Bank.
A. Major Production Constraints
1. Inadequate irrigation.
2. Diseases (see listing given for the "Caribbean,
Central America and Panama").
3. Insect pests (see listing given for the "Carib-
bean, Central America and Panama").
4. Insufficient supply of high quality seed of
recommended varieties.
B. Current Activities
A national bean program exists within ICTA.
The program includes work in plant pathology,
entomology, breeding, agronomy and evaluation
economics. Through cooperation with CIAT,
black-seeded varieties with some tolerance to
golden mosaic have been produced. The current
major objectives of the program are to produce high
yielding black-seeded disease and insect resistant
varieties, to determine the factors relating to adap-
tation and to make seed available of the golden
mosaic resistant varieties.
C. Assessment
In ICTA, and through close cooperation with the
Bean Program of CIAT, Guatemala currently has
the most active bean program among Central
American countries. ICTA has encouraged advanc-
ed training for its young scientists, provided the
necessary financial and material resources, and
stimulated and challenged the bean group through
enlightened and optimistic leadership. There is a
high level of dedication shown by the group and, if
the trained personnel can be preserved as a team,
steady progress toward their goals should be
possible.

Haiti
Haiti occupies the western portion of the island of
Hispaniola. Topographically it is mountainous, with
coastal plains, interior uplands, plateaus and valley
agriculture. Haiti suffers from lack of sufficient seasonal
rainfall for high yields and the soils, except on the coast
and interior valleys, are generally eroded and of low
nutrient status. The main crops are sugarcane, coffee,
rice, maize and beans. The level of income is low and
technology in farming is minimal.
Nearly 100,000 hectares are planted annually to food
legumes, principally dry beans, pigeon peas and









groundnuts. Dry beans account for 85 percent of the
total area in legumes. Cowpeas are grown as a minor
crop. Most grain legumes are grown in association with
other crops (maize) on farms of five hectares or less.
Dry beans are grown at elevations of 400 to 1,000
meters. Some 40,000-42,000 tons of beans are produced
annually out of a total legume crop of about 50,000
tons. It is reported that 20 percent of the legume crop
is lost by post-harvest circumstances. Yields of beans
range from 400-700 kilograms/hectare. Local varieties
are grown and there has been almost no seed improve-
ment or selection practiced.

A. Major Production Constraints
1. Lack of improved varieties.
2. Low level of production inputs used.
3. Hand methods of cultivation.
4. Shortage of and unwillingness of farmers to use
production credit.
5. Failure of extension services to effectively reach
small farmers with demonstration programs
convincing them of the value of improved
technological changes.

B. Present Program Activities
1. Small plot testing of beans and some ex-
periments on mixed cropping is done at Damien
by Ministry of Agriculture personnel. Improved
yields have been obtained in these experimental
trials.
2. Seed of superior varieties is available from
CIAT but local adaptation testing has not been
extensive, even though in one test at Port au
Prince in 1977 the local red-seeded Compo-1
variety yielded 37 percent less than the best en-
tries in the test.
3. Basic production factors are being studied at
Plateau de Sallagnae (elevation 900 meters) in
a program funded primarily by the Govern-
ment of France. Disease resistance selection is
one aspect of this work.
4. The Faculty of Agronomy in the University also
carries out some field experimentation with
legumes.

C. Program Needs
1. There is a lack of a well defined production
plan.
2. A research program should be organized to
systematically:
a) Evaluate performance of CIAT materials
and lines introduced from other Caribbean
and Central American programs.
b) Design and promulgate technological
packages appropriate to small farm
agriculture.


c) Study basis of and control practices for
reducing post-harvest losses.
D. Assessment
Some 20-25 professionally trained individuals are
available in the Ministry for assignment to research
and extension programs. However, many of them
are required to perform administrative functions in
the Ministry and/or teach part-time in the Univer-
sity. This leaves few to carry out the actual research
needs. A familiar and chronic problem in Haiti is
lack of funds.
Various international agencies assist Haiti in
agricultural development projects but Haiti itself
has been unable to match these agencies with in-
digenous scientists in such a way as to receive max-
imum benefit from their cooperation. At least one
agency program officer has indicated the agency
would be willing to expand its support and opera-
tions in Haiti if the Ministry of Agriculture were to
develop an appropriate program and assign a small
corps of scientists to that effort. To date, this has not
occurred.
The organizational and financial problems
depicted for a legume program are only sympto-
matic of the more pervasive political and economic
conditions in the country. There will be only piece-
meal progress made in legume production efficiency
until a renaissance occurs nationally at the political
and economic level.

Honduras
Beans as a source of protein are indispensable for the
Honduran population. They are produced generally
throughout the country at elevations ranging from 400
to 900 meters and in areas with annual rainfall varying
from 700 to 1,400 millimeters.
Of the total dry bean production (3,379,000 tons) for
Latin America in 1964-1966 and (3,651,000 tons)
1976-1978, the portion accounted for by Honduras
amounted to 1.5 percent for the first period and 1.3 per-
cent for the second. But the apparent per capital con-
sumption increased from 14.3 kilograms per year in the
1963-1965 period to 14.8 kilograms in the 1975-1977
period. The mean bean yield of 676 kilograms/hectare
declined to 533 kilograms/hectare in the 1976-1978
period. It is estimated that 70 percent of total produc-
tion comes from farms of three hectares or less, and only
10 percent from farms larger than 25 hectares. Hon-
duras usually produces more beans than are consumed
locally, the balance being exported to nearby countries
of Central America.
A. Major Production Constraints
1. Diseases and pests.
The disease complex includes rust, bacterial
blights, root rots and mosaic.









2. Lack of irrigation.
3. Lack of high yielding varieties under conditions
of deficient rainfall and soil fertility.
4. Lack of high quality seed of acceptable
varieties.
B. Major Program Objectives
1. Increase and stabilize bean production through
the development of disease resistance.
2. Provide basic seed stock of improved Honduran
bean cultivars for multiplication and
distribution.
C. Major Program Activities
Systematic efforts to isolate, identify and control
diseases are not adequate. Some limited interaction
among national collaborators exists and improve-
ment through the Escuela Agricola Panamericana is
feasible. The National Program maintains a linkage
with CIAT.
D. Future Plans
1. Assemble a research staff and support personnel
capable of studying the effect diseases have on
bean production.
2. Introduce available sources of resistance to
diseases.
3. Undertake breeding work with the aim of
establishing superior varieties in respect to
disease resistance.
4. Provide clean seed stock of preferred cultivars.
E. Assessment
It is believed that increasing the efficiency of
Honduran bean production is feasible. It is propos-
ed to achieve this through the study of farming
systems, evaluating available and introduced multi-
ple disease resistant germplasm, and initiating
transfer of multiple disease resistance to bean
cultivars. For the proposed work to materialize the
required manpower needed would be an economist-
sociologist, pathologists, agronomists and breeders.
A corps of host country researchers would partici-
pate in planning the project, in coordination and
supervision of research activities, and in conducting
field research activities. The organization and
execution of the program would include training
activities and interaction of researchers with
farmers.


Mexico
Beans are second only to maize, both in the area
under production in the country and in amount con-
sumed per person per year (19.5 kilograms). In the years
1970 to 1975, the area planted to beans averaged
1,762,000 hectares annually, with annual production of


960,000 metric tons and a yield of 545 kilo-
grams/hectare.
The low average yield can be attributed primarily to
scarce and uncertain rainfall, unimproved varieties (on-
ly 13 percent of the acreage in 1980 was planted to im-
proved varieties) and traditional cultivaton practices.
Approximately 84 percent of the bean crop is planted
in the Spring-Summer period, of which 90 percent is
dependent upon natural rainfall. A portion of this
hectarage will be grown in association with maize on
small (5-15 hectare) farms. Average yields in 1980 were
387 kilograms/hectare for spring planted beans and 933
kilograms/hectare for beans planted for the winter
period. (Beans in the latter period are grown in areas
receiving greater natural rainfall at lower growing
temperatures, with 39 percent receiving supplemental
irrigation.)
With respect to the country as a whole, 88 percent of
bean production is dependent upon rainfall and 12 per-
cent upon irrigation. Under rainfed conditions yields in
1980 averaged 373 kilograms/hectare and under irriga-
tion, 1,215 kilograms/hectare.
A. Major Production Constraints (for the country as a
whole)
1. Deficiency and unreliability of rainfall, upon
which most production depends.
2. The fact that most beans are presently grown in
association with maize.
3. Low plant populations.
4. Only occasional use of agro-chemicals.
5. Little use of improved varieties.
6. Diseases and insect pests.
Certain of these problems are more prevalent
in particular ecological zones (see below) or sec-
tions of zones. For example, rust, golden
mosaic, common mosaic and root rot occur
throughout the Zona Calida con Invierno Seco
but in the north of Sinaloa and Culiacan white
mold can also occur. Furthermore, the diseases
are not equally severe on all varieties, except
golden mosaic, but attack certain varieties
perferentially. For example, white mold is
more prevalent on the prostrate types.
B. Present Program Resources and Objectives
Mexico, through INIA, maintains a National
Bean Program. Personnel in 1979 assigned full time
to the program include 11 individuals with Master
of Science degrees, 18 with a baccalaureate degree
and some 30 part-time workers. These are placed in
11 different regional research centers representing
five distinct agro-ecological zones. The five zones
are described as follows:
1. Calida con Invierno Seco (hot, with dry
winter).
2. Calida Humeda (hot, humid).









3. Templada Humeda (temperate, humid).
4. Templada Semiarida (temperate, semiarid)
5. Calida Arida (hot, dry).
Program objectives, therefore, tend to be
somewhat different for each zone and for the
major seed class grown in the zone.
Zona Calida con Invierno Seco:
Plant breeding objectives:
1. To obtain varieties in the seed classes Canario,
Azufrado, Negro and Flor de Mayo possessing
rust, common mosaic, golden mosaic and root
rot resistance.
2. To combine more erect architecture with the
various disease resistance types, improving yield
and making possible harvesting and threshing
by machinery.
3. Improve the range of adaptability of varieties.
4. Obtain varieties with tolerance to drought,
early maturity and with high yield potential.
Improvement of production practices:
1. Determine the optimum seeding time for new
varieties, particularly in the irrigated areas.
2. Determine the optimum plant population
numbers and levels of fertilization for the
newer varieties, in areas where a response to
these factors can be expected.
3. Refinement of practices now employed for
plant protection, through combinations of im-
proved agro-chemicals and better timing.
4. Refinement of stage or timing and manner of
application of irrigation water.
5. Study of moisture conservation practices.
6. Adaptation of machinery for direct harvest of
beans.
Personnel needs in this zone:
The nature of the problems is such that an inter-
disciplinary team is required, consisting of a plant
geneticist-breeder, a plant pathologist, entomologist
and an agronomist skilled in water management. In
particular, a breeder is needed with physiological
insight for the task of selecting genotypes adapted to
mechanical harvesting and a breeder pathologist to
work on resistance to root rot.
Zona Calida Humeda:
Plant breeding objectives:
1. To obtain varieties of bush black beans, ap-
propriate for seeding alone or in relay. These
varieties would have to have resistance to rust
and viruses and be of high yield potential.
2. Obtain black bean varieties having resistance to
rust and better yield than the local materials,
either bush or semi-vines, for associated
plantings.


3. Develop varieties of maize appropriate as an
associated crop for beans.
4. Obtain bean varieties with a greater range of
adaptation and greater yield stability.
5. Search for genetic resistance or tolerance to in-
sects such as leaf feeders (Diabrotica) and
leafhoppers.
Improvement of production practices:
1. Study and better understand the existing
systems of production in the various production
regions.
2. Identify limiting factors to greater production.
3. Study the effects of modern technology on pres-
ent systems, with the view of improving
production.
4. Study other systems as alternatives for improv-
ing production.
5. Refine the practices used in plant protection,
principally against insects.
6. Control weeds in different cropping systems,
combining mechanical methods and/or
chemical methods.
7. Practices for protection against the strong
winds.
Personnel needs:
In view of the problems stated, inter-disciplinary
groups of scientists would be required. They should
include a breeder, pathologist, entomologist and
weed control agronomist in each regional team.

Zona Templada Humeda:
Plant improvement objectives for maize-bean asso-
ciations:
1. Selection of better adapted genotypes in each
of the zones where maize-bean associations are
important, taking into account growth habits,
earliness, resistance to diseases, local accep-
tance and yield.
2. Identification of parental stocks to initiate
crossing programs.
3. Selection of maize varieties which have high
yields and offer little competition to the bean.
Production practices improvement objectives:
1. Better understanding of production systems,
including phenology of beans and maize. This
must be done in each of the production areas.
2. Determination of optimum population levels
and rates of fertilization. These experiments
must be conducted with the best adapted
materials.
3. Refinement of crop protection practices.
4. Study genotypic combinations of both species
and topological arrangement in search of









greater efficiency of the maize-bean system.
Although specific objectives vary slightly from
region to region, in this zone resistance to diseases
(mosaic, rust, anthracnose, bacterial blights),
adaptation and high yield potential are among the
principal goals.
Personnel needs include:
A full-time plant breeder, plant pathologist and
an agronomist are needed. On a part-time basis,
an entomologist, a weed-control specialist and the
collaboration of a specialist in irrigation are
needed.
Zona Templada Semiarida:
Plant breeding objectives:
1. Obtain varieties with resistance to drought. In
addition, they should possess resistance to an-
thracnose and root rot, while having wide
adaptation capabilities and be commercially
acceptable.
2. Obtain varieties with resistance to attacks by
the Mexican bean beetle.
3. Obtain varieties of the Flor de Mayo type with
resistance to discoloration of the grain; these
are for plantings under irrigation.
4. Obtain varieties with resistance to seed shat-
tering to facilitate mechanical harvest.
5. Evaluate other species for their resistance to
drought; these can be used directly in produc-
tion or serve as a source of genes for breeding.
Improvement in production practices:
1. Study practices affecting water uptake.
2. Study practices for conservation of moisture.
3. Study methods of planting and plant density,
to make the most efficient use of the available
water.
4. Refinement of practices of fertilization, weed
and insect control.
5. Reach a better understanding of the produc-
tion system itself, especially in relation to
phenological development of the plant,
climatic conditions and the critical periods of
cultivation with respect to deficiency of water
and attack by diseases and insects.
Personnel needs:
In Zacatecas the following investigators are
needed: a breeder, an irrigation specialist, a plant
pathologist, a physiologist, and a production
agronomist. In Sierra de Chihuahua a breeder, an
entomologist, a moisture conservation specialist,
and an agronomist are needed.
Zona Calida Arida:
Genetic improvement:
1. Obtain varieties of pinto and bayo type beans


with tolerance to chlorosis, rust resistance,
erect growth habits and with high yield
potential.
2. Obtain varieties with resistance to lodging and
preferably erect for mechanical harvest.
3. Obtain varieties tolerant of high temperatures.
4. Evaluate other classes with tolerance to
chlorosis for use in grain production or as
sources of genes in the crossing programs.
Improvement of production practices:
1. Studies on the utilization of water and on
means of reducing the accumulation of salts
where this is a problem.
2. Methods of planting and irrigating as means of
reducing chlorosis due to salt.
3. Refinement of practices concerning planting
densities, rates of fertilization and control of
noxious weeds and insects.
4. Studies on water requirement of plants during
phenological development.
5. Studies on the effect of minor elements for the
correction of chlorosis.
Personnel needs:
An inter-disciplinary team is required consisting
of specialists on a full time basis in the following
areas: plant breeding, physiology and water
management. On a part-time basis an agronomist,
a pathologist and an entomologist are needed. A
germplasm evaluator and a production practices
specialist would suffice in some areas.

C. Summary and Assessment
As a major producer and user of beans, Mexico
faces major production problems brought about by
the generally inhospitable physical environment
and the prevalence of diseases and insects. The
country is characterized by great diversity in
altitudes, rainfall patterns, water availability and
temperatures, which accounts for the need to
classify the constraints by ecological zones. Person-
nel of INIA have outlined the major problems of
each zone quite explicitly and have formulated
specific objectives in varietal development and in
production agronomy. Needs for trained specialists
in many disciplines have been stated for the various
zones. At present, the available scientists fall con-
siderably short of the number recommended.
Though some of the objectives, drought, high
temperatures and salt tolerance, ke particularly
acute in Mexico, they are not unique. More in com-
mon with other Latin American and African bean
growing regions are the problems of insects and
diseases. By far the single most over-riding prob-
lem in Mexico is the low uncertain rainfall and its
attendant stresses. It would seem worthwhile to









allocate a significant portion of its research
resources to both basic and applied research into
that array of problems.


Peru
Several edible grain legumes are grown in Peru.
Among them are the common bean Phaseolus vulgaris;
the cowpea, Vigna unguiculata; lima bean Phaseolus
lunatus; faba bean, Vicia faba; garden pea, Pisum
sativum; garbanzo or chick pea, Cicer arietinum;
gandul or pigeon pea, Cajanus cajan; lentil, Lens
culinaris; groundnut or mani, Arachis hypogaea; and
soya, Glycine max. The common bean, pea, and faba
bean are the most important.
The bean is grown in three distinct ecological zones
of the country, the coast, the mountains and the Selva-
lower elevation mixed forest/farming region of the
eastern slope foothills of the Andes.
On the coast, beans are grown in irrigated outwash
plains and stream valleys usually in mono-culture. In
1976, there were about 22,000 hectares of beans grown
on the coast, with an average yield of 1,076 kilograms/
hectare.
On the mountain slopes and upland valleys beans are
grown with maize and the fields are sometimes irri-
gated. Other technological inputs are minimal. Some
29,000 hectares were grown in this zone in 1976, with
yields of about 590 kilograms/hectare.
In the Selva, 11,470 hectares were produced, in
1976, with estimated yields of about 800 kilograms/
hectare. Peru is self-sufficient in grain legumes, and
sometimes has a small surplus for export.
A. Major Production Constraints
The Coastal Zone:
1. Common bean mosaic, rust, mildew.
2. Saline soils.
3. Low light intensity and cool temperatures dur-
ing nine months of the year, which delays
flowering and promotes excess vegetative
development in the indeterminate types.
4. Expansion of urbanization onto good agri-
cultural soils and replacement of bean and cot-
ton crops with vegetables for the expanding
local markets.
The Mountainous Zone:
1. Diseases: including rust, anthracnose, and root
rot.
2. Low temperatures which prolong maturity.
3. Low soil fertility.
4. Low yielding capacity of traditional varieties.
The Selva:
1. Infertile soils.
2. Insects and diseases.


3. Poorly adapted varieties.
B. Program Activities, Past and Current
Although a National Bean Program exists in the
organizational structure of agricultural research in
Peru, it is not adequately staffed and the work that
can be carried out is not extensive.
1. Breeding: ten varieites in three commercial
seed classes representing two levels of seed size
have been produced since 1961, utilizing mass-
selection and hybridization techniques. These
represent improvements in adaptation,
uniformity and, in some cases, disease
resistance.
2. Production: some work has been done and is
continuing on soil fertility, fertilizer responses
and nitrogen fixation. This work benefits by
collaboration with CIAT and MIRCEN
(Brazil).
There is a project at Estacion Experimental
Vista Florida dealing with the feasibility of
producing beans on the soil moisture remain-
ing following the rice crop, and one on produc-
ing seed free of seed-borne diseases such as
common mosaic (the most prevalent disease of
coastal beans).
Basic seed production of several improved
varieties is carried out at the Estaciones Ex-
perimentales de la Corta.
3. Germplasm: collaborative work with CIAT on
receiving and evaluating germplasm that may
have value for the improvement program.
4. Zonal research stations participate in variety
trials, and various agronomic and agro-
chemical experiments.
5. Cost analyses of bean production (by percent of
total costs the following estimates have been
made): machinery, 16.0 percent; manual
labor, 8.6 percent; seed, 13.9 percent; fer-
tilizer, 11.3 percent; pesticides, 16.6 percent;
interest on loans, 9.9 percent; and
miscellaneous items, 23.7 percent.
C. Plans
Research
1. Obtain through breeding and/or introduction
varieties of high yield with resistance to com-
mon mosaic, rust, tolerance to other pathogens
and seed colors acceptable to commerce.
2. Search for sources of genetic resistance to
diseases and insects prevalent in the produc-
tion zones.
3. Improve control methods for insects, diseases
and weeds in order to establish integrated
systems of pest control in the various produc-
tion zones.









4. Develop more efficient cultural practices, with
emphasis upon seeding rates, rotations and
multiple cropping.
5. Determine methods and levels of efficient and
economical fertilization.
6. Increase production of basic seed stocks as re-
quired by the production agencies.
7. Develop an efficient method for transfer of
technological findings to the growers.
Production
1. Increase the area under cultivation in the
Coastal, Mountainous and Selva zones.
2. Augment the national annual production of
beans.
3. Establish incentives for production of basic
and registered seed of improved varieties,
establish prices to stimulate and assure their
distribution among the growers.
4. Monitor production costs.
5. Establish pilot centers in the three major zones
for promoting bean production.

D. Assessment
During the late 1960's, with the help of North
Carolina State University at La Molina, Peru
developed the goals of a bean program for the
main zones of the country. The program's major
emphasis was upon developing disease resistance in
the major seed types and replacing the extremely
viny procumbent plant types in some seed classes
with less vining more erect plant types. In addi-
tion, it was desired to adapt some small white
beans to Peruvian coastal conditions.
That program met with some success. However,
after the termination of the North Carolina con-
tract, the program could not be maintained at the
former level of support and re-organization of the
agricultural research arm of the Ministry of
Agriculture led to further undermining of the
legume research efforts.
Due to travel conditions between zones, pro-
gram integration is difficult. In fact, each zone,
Coastal, Mountainous and Selva, represents
distinct problems and requires distinctly different
materials and goals.
More trained bean scientists, technicians,
logistic support and a realistic re-assessment of
problems to be dealt with in each zone are re-
quired. Further, a national policy to encourage
retention of young scientists in the country, or their
return after receiving training elsewhere, to
responsible positions in the program would mean a
great deal to grain legume improvement in Peru.
The system of zonal research stations in various
parts of the country is intact and could be very sup-


portive to a national program if the program itself
had the needed personnel and administrative
encouragement.


Venezuela
The common bean, known as caraota in Venezuela,
is a food staple in much of the country. It is consumed
at essentially all economic and social levels of the
population.
Almost exclusively the bean of choice for production
and consumption is the small black bean, represented
by such varieties as Jamapa, Cubagua, Margarita,
Coche and Tacarigua. The area devoted to beans has
fluctuated somewhat from year to year but since 1969
has shown a marked decline. In 1969, 83,449 hectares
were grown with an average yield of 301
kilograms/hectare. By 1973, hectarage had dropped to
42,892 and average yield estimated at 343
kilograms/hectare. By 1978, the production area was
52,519, with estimated average yield of 437 kilograms/
hectare. Venezuela is a net importer of black beans,
usually importing, though the figures are variable, 50
to 55 percent of the annual consumption.
Beans in Venezuela are produced under a variety of
conditions, ranging in the lower elevations from small
valley fields of less than one hectare with irrigation and
mixed cropping, to irrigated mono-cultural fields of
2-10 hectares, to large commercial rain-fed mono-
cultural fields of 20 to 50 hectares. In the mountains
the fields are located both on level and often very steep
sites, with and without irrigation and other inputs.
A. Major Production Constraints
1. Diseases:
Root rot complex due to Pythium sp., Rhizoc-
tonia sp. and Fusarium sp.
Anthracnose.
Rust.
Angular leaf spot.
Common bacterial blight.
Common bean mosaic.
Golden mosaic.
Ashy stem blight due to Macrophomina
phaseoli and, in the Senare region (upland
hill country with cool temperatures, high
humidity and sprinkler irrigation).
Floury leaf spot caused by Ramularia
phaseolina.
2. Insects:
"Cortador grande," large cutworm, Agrotis
repleta.
"Cortador pequeno," small cutworm, Feltia
suberranea.
"Cogollero," Spodoptera frugiperda.
"Gusano pirero," Prodenia latisphacia.









"Enrrollador de la hoja," a leaf eater, Urbanus
proteus.
"Coquitos perforador de hojas," leaf eater,
Diabrotica and Ceratoma sp.
"Perforador de vainos," pod borer, Maruca
testulalis.
"Falso medidor," leaf eater, Physometra sp.
"Saltahojas o lorito verde," leafhoppers, Em-
poasca sp.
"Chinche verde," Nezara viridula
"Acaro rojo," lead mite, Tetranychus
desertorum.
"Perforador del tallo," stem borer,
Stephanoderes sp.
"Minador de la hoja," leafminer, Lyriomiza
menuda.
"Gusano de la hoja," leaf eater, Anticarsia
genmatalis.
"Gorgojo del grano," stored grain weevil,
Callosobruchus marulatus.
"Chinche sub terranea," soil-borne beetle,
Cyrtonemus sp.
"Coralillo," sugar-cane small borer,
Elasmopalpus lignosellus.
3. Weeds:
Seventeen species of weeds, including a per-
sistent grass with the local name "paja
perluda," Setaria sp. and nutgrass, Carex sp,
with local name "corocillo."
In particular regions, special constraints have been
noted, as follows:
Manuare
1. Failure of seasonal rainfall is the main factor
limiting yield.
Villa de Cura
1. Poor cultural practices, poor seedbed prepara-
tion and low plant densities.
2. Inadequate and ineffective nodulation.
Senare
1. In some cases, ineffective application of
herbicides.
Tumero Parja
1. Poor management, such as new bean plantings
made adjacent to older plantings already
heavily rusted, little use of herbicides and no
hand weed control.
Lest it be concluded because only problems and defi-
ciencies are generally listed that the entire bean grow-
ing enterprise is fraught with adversities of climate,
soils, biological factors and mismanagement, it should
be noted that many excellent fields of beans under
competent management can be found in Venezuela. In
the Senare region, a "little Switzerland" comprised of
tillable, round-topped hills, with excellent soils,


moderate temperatures and man-made ponds to pro-
vide irrigation water, under the influence of a local
entrepreneur-farmer, there has developed a highly pro-
ductive and high technological bean-potato farming
systems. Bean yields are over 1500 kilograms/hectare,
which is over three times the national average.
B. Present Program Activities
1. Ministry of Agriculture, CENIAP: a limited
program consisting of variety testing and
development, agronomic studies on seedling
vigor, stand establishment, and population
densities. There has been some work underway
in areas of weed control, disease and insect
control, irrigation, and mechanization.
2. Central University of Venezuela at Maracay:
research studies on the legume viruses are be-
ing conducted; a thorough survey of bean
viruses, levels of severity, distribution, vectors
and sources of resistance has been in progress
for several years.
3. Foundation for Agricultural Science, Fusagri,
at Cagua: workers in entomology and plant
pathology conduct bean variety trials for
resistance and susceptibility indexing, and con-
duct trials of promising agro-chemicals for
chemical control purposes.
C. Future Plans and Needs
1. Agronomic practices
a) Better and more consistent stands.
b) More effective weed control systems.
c) Studies of cropping sequences.
d) Use of higher quality seeds.
e) Greater use of machines for planting,
cultivation and harvesting.
f) More widespread use of fertilizer and
inoculaties.
2. Disease and Insect Control
a) Continue chemical control experiments
with new materials and continue to ex-
pand breeding resistance.
b) Emphasize cropping sequences, cultural
practices and use of disease-free seed.
3. Water use studies in both valley and upland
sites.
4. Demonstration-Extension
As the work of Milor Romanoff has
demonstrated in Senare, practical on farm
demonstrations of proven technology have the
capability of effecting a revolutionary transi-
tion from the primitive subsistence-type pro-
ducton system to highly productive operations
in a decade of time. The present corps of young
college educated field men and extensionists
need leadership and experience, and time on








the job to be able to effect similar changes
elsewhere.
5. Trained research and extension personnel.
6. Continuation of the favorable credit policies of
the National Agricultural Development Bank.
D. Assessment
Venezuela has the soils and climate favorable to
a condition of self-sufficiency in beans. The coun-
try has not in the past put the necessary financial,
institutional and personnel resources to bear upon
the major constraint areas. Through international
cooperation, Venezuela could avail itself of tech-
nological advancements made in other programs.
Agro-chemical advancements are readily available
to farmers through the commercial agro-chemical
representatives that travel throughout the country.
A greater emphasis upon training at all levels, from
on-farm demonstrators to research project leaders,
would be advisable.
The fact that some 17 species or kinds of insects
and a similar number of weedy plants have been
identified as pests in Venezuela must be tempered
with the statements that:
1. Not all species are equally severe; some cause
only minor damage.
2. They do not occur in all regions, or fields, nor
every year.





The Caribbean, Central

America and Panama:

Selected Countries

The Plant Production and Protection Division of the
F.A.O. Regional Office for Latin America in Santiago,
Chile, has recently (March 1982) published its "Pro-
gress Report on the Status of the Food legume
Cooperative Production Program for the Caribbean,
Central America, and Panama." This report covers
background information on a number of countries in
the region, gives information on major constraints to
production of the food legumes (beans, cowpeas,
pigeon peas, groundnuts, soya), on various country
programs and needs, and lists institutions and agencies
involved in food legume activities.
Countries studied as representative cases for this
region include Barbados, Costa Rica, Dominican
Republic, Guyana, Haiti and Jamaica.
Of the grain legumes grown to an appreciable extent
in the region, the common bean is by far the most im-
portant. It accounts for 77 percent of the total produc-


tion, followed by peanuts, pigeon peas and cowpeas.
There is great interest in growing the soybean but the
problems of seed quality and plant adaptation to
tropical environments have not yet been solved and the
hectarage is small.
For the food legumes, the level of applied technology
varies from place to place, but is generally insufficient
for high sustained production. There is use of fertilizers
and insecticides and, in some areas, of irrigation. The
major problems in production relate to diseases and
pests of which the following are most frequently cited:

Diseases Beans Cowpeas


Anthracnose
Root rot, Fusarium
Mildew
Angular leaf spot
Halo, blight, Pseudomonas sp.
Pythium butler
Sclerotium rolfsii
Bean rust
Common bacterial blight
Common bean mosaic
Cowpea mosaic virus
Golden mosaic virus
Insect Pests
Army worms
Leafhopper
Diabrotica balteata
Ceratoma ruficornis
Apion spp.
Bruchids, several genera
Aphids


Beans Cowpeas


The following country descriptions are abstracted
from the FAO Progress Report. Certain countries,
where supplementary and/or first hand information
was available, are discussed individually under the
Latin American rubric.

Belize
Belize, a small country, had 2,170 hectares devoted
to beans in 1976; 1800 tons were produced with the
reasonably high per hectare yield of 829 kilograms.
Beans are grown under favorable soil and moisture
conditions, though, at the low elevations, under 350
meter elevation, temperatures and humdiity can be ex-
cessive. This promotes rank growth and prevalence of
diseases. Small farm production predominates in
Belize, with 60 percent of the crop grown in pure stand
and 40 percent in association with maize. The level of
mechanization is higher than in other Central
American countries, as is the use of fertilizers and
pesticides. Belize suffers from the diseases and insects
of the region as well as from the lack of specially
adapted varieties. Most of the production area is








the job to be able to effect similar changes
elsewhere.
5. Trained research and extension personnel.
6. Continuation of the favorable credit policies of
the National Agricultural Development Bank.
D. Assessment
Venezuela has the soils and climate favorable to
a condition of self-sufficiency in beans. The coun-
try has not in the past put the necessary financial,
institutional and personnel resources to bear upon
the major constraint areas. Through international
cooperation, Venezuela could avail itself of tech-
nological advancements made in other programs.
Agro-chemical advancements are readily available
to farmers through the commercial agro-chemical
representatives that travel throughout the country.
A greater emphasis upon training at all levels, from
on-farm demonstrators to research project leaders,
would be advisable.
The fact that some 17 species or kinds of insects
and a similar number of weedy plants have been
identified as pests in Venezuela must be tempered
with the statements that:
1. Not all species are equally severe; some cause
only minor damage.
2. They do not occur in all regions, or fields, nor
every year.





The Caribbean, Central

America and Panama:

Selected Countries

The Plant Production and Protection Division of the
F.A.O. Regional Office for Latin America in Santiago,
Chile, has recently (March 1982) published its "Pro-
gress Report on the Status of the Food legume
Cooperative Production Program for the Caribbean,
Central America, and Panama." This report covers
background information on a number of countries in
the region, gives information on major constraints to
production of the food legumes (beans, cowpeas,
pigeon peas, groundnuts, soya), on various country
programs and needs, and lists institutions and agencies
involved in food legume activities.
Countries studied as representative cases for this
region include Barbados, Costa Rica, Dominican
Republic, Guyana, Haiti and Jamaica.
Of the grain legumes grown to an appreciable extent
in the region, the common bean is by far the most im-
portant. It accounts for 77 percent of the total produc-


tion, followed by peanuts, pigeon peas and cowpeas.
There is great interest in growing the soybean but the
problems of seed quality and plant adaptation to
tropical environments have not yet been solved and the
hectarage is small.
For the food legumes, the level of applied technology
varies from place to place, but is generally insufficient
for high sustained production. There is use of fertilizers
and insecticides and, in some areas, of irrigation. The
major problems in production relate to diseases and
pests of which the following are most frequently cited:

Diseases Beans Cowpeas


Anthracnose
Root rot, Fusarium
Mildew
Angular leaf spot
Halo, blight, Pseudomonas sp.
Pythium butler
Sclerotium rolfsii
Bean rust
Common bacterial blight
Common bean mosaic
Cowpea mosaic virus
Golden mosaic virus
Insect Pests
Army worms
Leafhopper
Diabrotica balteata
Ceratoma ruficornis
Apion spp.
Bruchids, several genera
Aphids


Beans Cowpeas


The following country descriptions are abstracted
from the FAO Progress Report. Certain countries,
where supplementary and/or first hand information
was available, are discussed individually under the
Latin American rubric.

Belize
Belize, a small country, had 2,170 hectares devoted
to beans in 1976; 1800 tons were produced with the
reasonably high per hectare yield of 829 kilograms.
Beans are grown under favorable soil and moisture
conditions, though, at the low elevations, under 350
meter elevation, temperatures and humdiity can be ex-
cessive. This promotes rank growth and prevalence of
diseases. Small farm production predominates in
Belize, with 60 percent of the crop grown in pure stand
and 40 percent in association with maize. The level of
mechanization is higher than in other Central
American countries, as is the use of fertilizers and
pesticides. Belize suffers from the diseases and insects
of the region as well as from the lack of specially
adapted varieties. Most of the production area is









planted to seed imported from the United States or El
Salvador. Bean research in Belize consists of varietal
evaluation and agronomic experimentation.

El Salvador
Beans are grown in the West and East-Central zones
at elevations of 900-1,200 meters having a mean
annual rainfall of 1,500 millimeters. In 1976, El
Salvador produced 38,473 metric tons of beans on
57,000 hectares, at an average yield of 675
kilograms/hectare. Approximately 80 percent of the
hectarage is found on small farms of two hectares or
less. Only 20 percent of the bean area is mono-cropped,
another 30 percent is planted in association with mazie
or sugarcane, and 50 percent of the bean hectarage is
planted in rotational systems with maize.
El Salvador has had an active bean research pro-
gram for many years and has had linkages with the
U.S. Department of Agriculture, and more recently,
CIAT and Mayaguez Institute of Tropical Agriculture,
MITA. In consequence of this fact, the varieties grown
are either superior introduced ones or locally improved
strains with both red and black beans grown.
Diseases and insect pests, lack of fertilizers, agro-
chemicals and inadequate storage facilities constitute
the chief problems.
Cowpeas are also grown in El Salvador, primarily in
the coastal zone and in Morazon. Approximately 5,555
hectares were grown in 1976, yielding at a rate of 900
kilograms/hectare. Most cowpeas are grown on small
farms, inter-cropped with maize or sorghum. Use of
fertilizer on cowpeas is minimal.
The black-seeded local type is soon to be replaced by
improved, and more preferred, red-seeded varieties
developed and released by CENTA. On farm con-
sumption accounts for 80 percent of the production,
the rest are sold to a government marketing agency.
Pests, diseases and insufficient storage are the main
problems.


Guyana
Guyana produces a very small hectarage of dry
beans and a somewhat larger amount of cowpeas
(1,300 hectares in two regions, the coastal zone with
1,600 millimeters of rainfall, and the inland inter-
mediate savannas lying at elevations of 30 meters and
receiving 2,000 millimeters of rainfall). Per hectare
yields of cowpeas are about 600 kilograms. Most
cowpeas are grown in pure stands. Only a minor
amount is grown with root crops or sequentially with
maize.
The government of Guyana hopes to increase the
hectarage in cowpeas to 4,000 by the early 1980's. Cur-
rently, the main variety is California V and seed is
usually imported from the United States. The govern-


ment encourages cowpea production by a guaranteed
minimum price to growers and production loans are
available for seed, fertilizer and pesticides.
High costs, scarcity of labor and costs of the agro-
chemicals constitute limiting factors in produciton,
along with pests and diseases.


Jamaica
Although the absolute hectarage in beans is small,
3,132, the dry bean is more widely grown than any
other grain legume in Jamaica. With an average yield
of 736 kilograms/hectare, some 2,300 metric tons were
produced in 1976. Typically, 90-95 percent of the
beans are produced on farms of 10 hectares or less.
Nearly 80 percent are grown in pure stands and the re-
mainder in relay or mixed cropping with maize, white
potatoes, yams, sweet potatoes, sugarcane, citrus and
tobacco.
Production constraints include diseases and insects,
lack of high yielding varieties and lack of irrigation in
the drier areas. There is a small national program that
carries out variety and pesticide testing.


Nicaragua
As in other Central American countries, dry beans
are grown throughout Nicaragua from 50 meters to
1,500 meters elevation with varying amounts of
seasonal rainfall. Nicaragua ranks second, after
Guatemala, in total production per year with 49,200
metric tons in 1977 with a high average yield of 810
kilograms/hectare.
Nearly all bean production is on small farms of less
than five hectares. About 50 percent of production is in
association with a diversity of economic species, such as
citrus, coffee, cassava, sorghum, rice and various
vegetables, 10 percent is grown in a multiple cropping
sequence system and 40 percent in mono-culture.
The principal limiting factors are lack of superior
varieties, shortage of disease free seed, insufficient
irrigation, the array of field diseases, and field and
storage insects listed above. There is a National
Research Program in agriculture, with linkage to the
CIAT Bean Program, to address some of the
constraints.

Panama
Beans grown in Panama, about 2,200 hectares in
1976, occur mainly in the Chirigui province at eleva-
tions of 700-800 meters with annual rainfall of 2,500
millimeters. The average yield in 1976 was 545
kilograms/hectare and this figure reflects the yield ob-
tained in pure stand. Obviously, production con-
straints are severe even though fertilizers and pesticides









planted to seed imported from the United States or El
Salvador. Bean research in Belize consists of varietal
evaluation and agronomic experimentation.

El Salvador
Beans are grown in the West and East-Central zones
at elevations of 900-1,200 meters having a mean
annual rainfall of 1,500 millimeters. In 1976, El
Salvador produced 38,473 metric tons of beans on
57,000 hectares, at an average yield of 675
kilograms/hectare. Approximately 80 percent of the
hectarage is found on small farms of two hectares or
less. Only 20 percent of the bean area is mono-cropped,
another 30 percent is planted in association with mazie
or sugarcane, and 50 percent of the bean hectarage is
planted in rotational systems with maize.
El Salvador has had an active bean research pro-
gram for many years and has had linkages with the
U.S. Department of Agriculture, and more recently,
CIAT and Mayaguez Institute of Tropical Agriculture,
MITA. In consequence of this fact, the varieties grown
are either superior introduced ones or locally improved
strains with both red and black beans grown.
Diseases and insect pests, lack of fertilizers, agro-
chemicals and inadequate storage facilities constitute
the chief problems.
Cowpeas are also grown in El Salvador, primarily in
the coastal zone and in Morazon. Approximately 5,555
hectares were grown in 1976, yielding at a rate of 900
kilograms/hectare. Most cowpeas are grown on small
farms, inter-cropped with maize or sorghum. Use of
fertilizer on cowpeas is minimal.
The black-seeded local type is soon to be replaced by
improved, and more preferred, red-seeded varieties
developed and released by CENTA. On farm con-
sumption accounts for 80 percent of the production,
the rest are sold to a government marketing agency.
Pests, diseases and insufficient storage are the main
problems.


Guyana
Guyana produces a very small hectarage of dry
beans and a somewhat larger amount of cowpeas
(1,300 hectares in two regions, the coastal zone with
1,600 millimeters of rainfall, and the inland inter-
mediate savannas lying at elevations of 30 meters and
receiving 2,000 millimeters of rainfall). Per hectare
yields of cowpeas are about 600 kilograms. Most
cowpeas are grown in pure stands. Only a minor
amount is grown with root crops or sequentially with
maize.
The government of Guyana hopes to increase the
hectarage in cowpeas to 4,000 by the early 1980's. Cur-
rently, the main variety is California V and seed is
usually imported from the United States. The govern-


ment encourages cowpea production by a guaranteed
minimum price to growers and production loans are
available for seed, fertilizer and pesticides.
High costs, scarcity of labor and costs of the agro-
chemicals constitute limiting factors in produciton,
along with pests and diseases.


Jamaica
Although the absolute hectarage in beans is small,
3,132, the dry bean is more widely grown than any
other grain legume in Jamaica. With an average yield
of 736 kilograms/hectare, some 2,300 metric tons were
produced in 1976. Typically, 90-95 percent of the
beans are produced on farms of 10 hectares or less.
Nearly 80 percent are grown in pure stands and the re-
mainder in relay or mixed cropping with maize, white
potatoes, yams, sweet potatoes, sugarcane, citrus and
tobacco.
Production constraints include diseases and insects,
lack of high yielding varieties and lack of irrigation in
the drier areas. There is a small national program that
carries out variety and pesticide testing.


Nicaragua
As in other Central American countries, dry beans
are grown throughout Nicaragua from 50 meters to
1,500 meters elevation with varying amounts of
seasonal rainfall. Nicaragua ranks second, after
Guatemala, in total production per year with 49,200
metric tons in 1977 with a high average yield of 810
kilograms/hectare.
Nearly all bean production is on small farms of less
than five hectares. About 50 percent of production is in
association with a diversity of economic species, such as
citrus, coffee, cassava, sorghum, rice and various
vegetables, 10 percent is grown in a multiple cropping
sequence system and 40 percent in mono-culture.
The principal limiting factors are lack of superior
varieties, shortage of disease free seed, insufficient
irrigation, the array of field diseases, and field and
storage insects listed above. There is a National
Research Program in agriculture, with linkage to the
CIAT Bean Program, to address some of the
constraints.

Panama
Beans grown in Panama, about 2,200 hectares in
1976, occur mainly in the Chirigui province at eleva-
tions of 700-800 meters with annual rainfall of 2,500
millimeters. The average yield in 1976 was 545
kilograms/hectare and this figure reflects the yield ob-
tained in pure stand. Obviously, production con-
straints are severe even though fertilizers and pesticides









planted to seed imported from the United States or El
Salvador. Bean research in Belize consists of varietal
evaluation and agronomic experimentation.

El Salvador
Beans are grown in the West and East-Central zones
at elevations of 900-1,200 meters having a mean
annual rainfall of 1,500 millimeters. In 1976, El
Salvador produced 38,473 metric tons of beans on
57,000 hectares, at an average yield of 675
kilograms/hectare. Approximately 80 percent of the
hectarage is found on small farms of two hectares or
less. Only 20 percent of the bean area is mono-cropped,
another 30 percent is planted in association with mazie
or sugarcane, and 50 percent of the bean hectarage is
planted in rotational systems with maize.
El Salvador has had an active bean research pro-
gram for many years and has had linkages with the
U.S. Department of Agriculture, and more recently,
CIAT and Mayaguez Institute of Tropical Agriculture,
MITA. In consequence of this fact, the varieties grown
are either superior introduced ones or locally improved
strains with both red and black beans grown.
Diseases and insect pests, lack of fertilizers, agro-
chemicals and inadequate storage facilities constitute
the chief problems.
Cowpeas are also grown in El Salvador, primarily in
the coastal zone and in Morazon. Approximately 5,555
hectares were grown in 1976, yielding at a rate of 900
kilograms/hectare. Most cowpeas are grown on small
farms, inter-cropped with maize or sorghum. Use of
fertilizer on cowpeas is minimal.
The black-seeded local type is soon to be replaced by
improved, and more preferred, red-seeded varieties
developed and released by CENTA. On farm con-
sumption accounts for 80 percent of the production,
the rest are sold to a government marketing agency.
Pests, diseases and insufficient storage are the main
problems.


Guyana
Guyana produces a very small hectarage of dry
beans and a somewhat larger amount of cowpeas
(1,300 hectares in two regions, the coastal zone with
1,600 millimeters of rainfall, and the inland inter-
mediate savannas lying at elevations of 30 meters and
receiving 2,000 millimeters of rainfall). Per hectare
yields of cowpeas are about 600 kilograms. Most
cowpeas are grown in pure stands. Only a minor
amount is grown with root crops or sequentially with
maize.
The government of Guyana hopes to increase the
hectarage in cowpeas to 4,000 by the early 1980's. Cur-
rently, the main variety is California V and seed is
usually imported from the United States. The govern-


ment encourages cowpea production by a guaranteed
minimum price to growers and production loans are
available for seed, fertilizer and pesticides.
High costs, scarcity of labor and costs of the agro-
chemicals constitute limiting factors in produciton,
along with pests and diseases.


Jamaica
Although the absolute hectarage in beans is small,
3,132, the dry bean is more widely grown than any
other grain legume in Jamaica. With an average yield
of 736 kilograms/hectare, some 2,300 metric tons were
produced in 1976. Typically, 90-95 percent of the
beans are produced on farms of 10 hectares or less.
Nearly 80 percent are grown in pure stands and the re-
mainder in relay or mixed cropping with maize, white
potatoes, yams, sweet potatoes, sugarcane, citrus and
tobacco.
Production constraints include diseases and insects,
lack of high yielding varieties and lack of irrigation in
the drier areas. There is a small national program that
carries out variety and pesticide testing.


Nicaragua
As in other Central American countries, dry beans
are grown throughout Nicaragua from 50 meters to
1,500 meters elevation with varying amounts of
seasonal rainfall. Nicaragua ranks second, after
Guatemala, in total production per year with 49,200
metric tons in 1977 with a high average yield of 810
kilograms/hectare.
Nearly all bean production is on small farms of less
than five hectares. About 50 percent of production is in
association with a diversity of economic species, such as
citrus, coffee, cassava, sorghum, rice and various
vegetables, 10 percent is grown in a multiple cropping
sequence system and 40 percent in mono-culture.
The principal limiting factors are lack of superior
varieties, shortage of disease free seed, insufficient
irrigation, the array of field diseases, and field and
storage insects listed above. There is a National
Research Program in agriculture, with linkage to the
CIAT Bean Program, to address some of the
constraints.

Panama
Beans grown in Panama, about 2,200 hectares in
1976, occur mainly in the Chirigui province at eleva-
tions of 700-800 meters with annual rainfall of 2,500
millimeters. The average yield in 1976 was 545
kilograms/hectare and this figure reflects the yield ob-
tained in pure stand. Obviously, production con-
straints are severe even though fertilizers and pesticides









planted to seed imported from the United States or El
Salvador. Bean research in Belize consists of varietal
evaluation and agronomic experimentation.

El Salvador
Beans are grown in the West and East-Central zones
at elevations of 900-1,200 meters having a mean
annual rainfall of 1,500 millimeters. In 1976, El
Salvador produced 38,473 metric tons of beans on
57,000 hectares, at an average yield of 675
kilograms/hectare. Approximately 80 percent of the
hectarage is found on small farms of two hectares or
less. Only 20 percent of the bean area is mono-cropped,
another 30 percent is planted in association with mazie
or sugarcane, and 50 percent of the bean hectarage is
planted in rotational systems with maize.
El Salvador has had an active bean research pro-
gram for many years and has had linkages with the
U.S. Department of Agriculture, and more recently,
CIAT and Mayaguez Institute of Tropical Agriculture,
MITA. In consequence of this fact, the varieties grown
are either superior introduced ones or locally improved
strains with both red and black beans grown.
Diseases and insect pests, lack of fertilizers, agro-
chemicals and inadequate storage facilities constitute
the chief problems.
Cowpeas are also grown in El Salvador, primarily in
the coastal zone and in Morazon. Approximately 5,555
hectares were grown in 1976, yielding at a rate of 900
kilograms/hectare. Most cowpeas are grown on small
farms, inter-cropped with maize or sorghum. Use of
fertilizer on cowpeas is minimal.
The black-seeded local type is soon to be replaced by
improved, and more preferred, red-seeded varieties
developed and released by CENTA. On farm con-
sumption accounts for 80 percent of the production,
the rest are sold to a government marketing agency.
Pests, diseases and insufficient storage are the main
problems.


Guyana
Guyana produces a very small hectarage of dry
beans and a somewhat larger amount of cowpeas
(1,300 hectares in two regions, the coastal zone with
1,600 millimeters of rainfall, and the inland inter-
mediate savannas lying at elevations of 30 meters and
receiving 2,000 millimeters of rainfall). Per hectare
yields of cowpeas are about 600 kilograms. Most
cowpeas are grown in pure stands. Only a minor
amount is grown with root crops or sequentially with
maize.
The government of Guyana hopes to increase the
hectarage in cowpeas to 4,000 by the early 1980's. Cur-
rently, the main variety is California V and seed is
usually imported from the United States. The govern-


ment encourages cowpea production by a guaranteed
minimum price to growers and production loans are
available for seed, fertilizer and pesticides.
High costs, scarcity of labor and costs of the agro-
chemicals constitute limiting factors in produciton,
along with pests and diseases.


Jamaica
Although the absolute hectarage in beans is small,
3,132, the dry bean is more widely grown than any
other grain legume in Jamaica. With an average yield
of 736 kilograms/hectare, some 2,300 metric tons were
produced in 1976. Typically, 90-95 percent of the
beans are produced on farms of 10 hectares or less.
Nearly 80 percent are grown in pure stands and the re-
mainder in relay or mixed cropping with maize, white
potatoes, yams, sweet potatoes, sugarcane, citrus and
tobacco.
Production constraints include diseases and insects,
lack of high yielding varieties and lack of irrigation in
the drier areas. There is a small national program that
carries out variety and pesticide testing.


Nicaragua
As in other Central American countries, dry beans
are grown throughout Nicaragua from 50 meters to
1,500 meters elevation with varying amounts of
seasonal rainfall. Nicaragua ranks second, after
Guatemala, in total production per year with 49,200
metric tons in 1977 with a high average yield of 810
kilograms/hectare.
Nearly all bean production is on small farms of less
than five hectares. About 50 percent of production is in
association with a diversity of economic species, such as
citrus, coffee, cassava, sorghum, rice and various
vegetables, 10 percent is grown in a multiple cropping
sequence system and 40 percent in mono-culture.
The principal limiting factors are lack of superior
varieties, shortage of disease free seed, insufficient
irrigation, the array of field diseases, and field and
storage insects listed above. There is a National
Research Program in agriculture, with linkage to the
CIAT Bean Program, to address some of the
constraints.

Panama
Beans grown in Panama, about 2,200 hectares in
1976, occur mainly in the Chirigui province at eleva-
tions of 700-800 meters with annual rainfall of 2,500
millimeters. The average yield in 1976 was 545
kilograms/hectare and this figure reflects the yield ob-
tained in pure stand. Obviously, production con-
straints are severe even though fertilizers and pesticides









planted to seed imported from the United States or El
Salvador. Bean research in Belize consists of varietal
evaluation and agronomic experimentation.

El Salvador
Beans are grown in the West and East-Central zones
at elevations of 900-1,200 meters having a mean
annual rainfall of 1,500 millimeters. In 1976, El
Salvador produced 38,473 metric tons of beans on
57,000 hectares, at an average yield of 675
kilograms/hectare. Approximately 80 percent of the
hectarage is found on small farms of two hectares or
less. Only 20 percent of the bean area is mono-cropped,
another 30 percent is planted in association with mazie
or sugarcane, and 50 percent of the bean hectarage is
planted in rotational systems with maize.
El Salvador has had an active bean research pro-
gram for many years and has had linkages with the
U.S. Department of Agriculture, and more recently,
CIAT and Mayaguez Institute of Tropical Agriculture,
MITA. In consequence of this fact, the varieties grown
are either superior introduced ones or locally improved
strains with both red and black beans grown.
Diseases and insect pests, lack of fertilizers, agro-
chemicals and inadequate storage facilities constitute
the chief problems.
Cowpeas are also grown in El Salvador, primarily in
the coastal zone and in Morazon. Approximately 5,555
hectares were grown in 1976, yielding at a rate of 900
kilograms/hectare. Most cowpeas are grown on small
farms, inter-cropped with maize or sorghum. Use of
fertilizer on cowpeas is minimal.
The black-seeded local type is soon to be replaced by
improved, and more preferred, red-seeded varieties
developed and released by CENTA. On farm con-
sumption accounts for 80 percent of the production,
the rest are sold to a government marketing agency.
Pests, diseases and insufficient storage are the main
problems.


Guyana
Guyana produces a very small hectarage of dry
beans and a somewhat larger amount of cowpeas
(1,300 hectares in two regions, the coastal zone with
1,600 millimeters of rainfall, and the inland inter-
mediate savannas lying at elevations of 30 meters and
receiving 2,000 millimeters of rainfall). Per hectare
yields of cowpeas are about 600 kilograms. Most
cowpeas are grown in pure stands. Only a minor
amount is grown with root crops or sequentially with
maize.
The government of Guyana hopes to increase the
hectarage in cowpeas to 4,000 by the early 1980's. Cur-
rently, the main variety is California V and seed is
usually imported from the United States. The govern-


ment encourages cowpea production by a guaranteed
minimum price to growers and production loans are
available for seed, fertilizer and pesticides.
High costs, scarcity of labor and costs of the agro-
chemicals constitute limiting factors in produciton,
along with pests and diseases.


Jamaica
Although the absolute hectarage in beans is small,
3,132, the dry bean is more widely grown than any
other grain legume in Jamaica. With an average yield
of 736 kilograms/hectare, some 2,300 metric tons were
produced in 1976. Typically, 90-95 percent of the
beans are produced on farms of 10 hectares or less.
Nearly 80 percent are grown in pure stands and the re-
mainder in relay or mixed cropping with maize, white
potatoes, yams, sweet potatoes, sugarcane, citrus and
tobacco.
Production constraints include diseases and insects,
lack of high yielding varieties and lack of irrigation in
the drier areas. There is a small national program that
carries out variety and pesticide testing.


Nicaragua
As in other Central American countries, dry beans
are grown throughout Nicaragua from 50 meters to
1,500 meters elevation with varying amounts of
seasonal rainfall. Nicaragua ranks second, after
Guatemala, in total production per year with 49,200
metric tons in 1977 with a high average yield of 810
kilograms/hectare.
Nearly all bean production is on small farms of less
than five hectares. About 50 percent of production is in
association with a diversity of economic species, such as
citrus, coffee, cassava, sorghum, rice and various
vegetables, 10 percent is grown in a multiple cropping
sequence system and 40 percent in mono-culture.
The principal limiting factors are lack of superior
varieties, shortage of disease free seed, insufficient
irrigation, the array of field diseases, and field and
storage insects listed above. There is a National
Research Program in agriculture, with linkage to the
CIAT Bean Program, to address some of the
constraints.

Panama
Beans grown in Panama, about 2,200 hectares in
1976, occur mainly in the Chirigui province at eleva-
tions of 700-800 meters with annual rainfall of 2,500
millimeters. The average yield in 1976 was 545
kilograms/hectare and this figure reflects the yield ob-
tained in pure stand. Obviously, production con-
straints are severe even though fertilizers and pesticides








are often used. Principal constraints are lack of suitable
varieties, diseases and poor agronomic practices. There
is a National Food Legume Program and it maintains
cooperation with CIAT.
The cowpea is also grown in Chirigui Code los San-
tos and Veraguas at elevations of 5-200 meters, with
annual rainfall of 1,200-2,000 millimeters. About
16,590 hectares were grown in 1976, yielding at an
average rate of 254 kilograms/hectare. This is about
one-half the bean yield per hectare but cowpeas are
relegated to the drier part of the season which may be
a factor in explaining the lower yields. Lack of produc-
tive stress tolerant varieties, and pests and diseases are
the principal constraints.


International Centers


Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical
(CIAT)
The CIAT bean program was initiated in 1973 with
its primary site of activity in Cali-Palmira, Colombia,
and cooperative linkages with national programs in
most of the countries of the Caribbean, Central and
South America. One hundred fifty-seven sets of its In-
ternational Yield and Adaptation Nurseries were
distributed in 1979 to some 33 countries. Between 1976
and 1979, 515 nurseries were distributed to col-
laborators, 80 percent of whom were in Latin
America.
The principal emphasis of the program is to develop
multiple disease and insect resistant germplasm in the
major preferred grain types. Specifically, the program
is dedicated to developing genetic resistance to com-
mon mosaic, rust, anthracnose, common bacterial
blight, angular leafspot and leafhoppers. In addition,
there are allied programs dealing with research and
selection for efficiency in symbiotic nitrogen fixation,
efficiency of phosphorus uptake and utilization, initial
screening for drought resistance, studies on plant
architecture and yield, tolerance to moderately acid
soils, variability from inter-specific hybridization,
photoperiod-temperature effects on development, and
nutritional and quality factors. It conducts farm trials
to validate newer technologies and cooperates interna-
tionally with outreach projects in Peru and Guatemala,
and will soon enter East Africa.
CIAT supports and participates in the training of
bean workers from numerous bean producing countries
in the Americas and Africa. The world's most complete
bean germplasm bank is maintained at CIAT and the
bean program contributes to its systematic evaluation.
The fundamental strategy of CIAT in dealing with
country constraints is to develop genetically improved
materials in many preferred seed and plant types, to


make these materials freely available to national pro-
grams, to encourage and assist the national programs
in their evaluation, and, if the material proves worth-
while, in their increase and distribution.
The bean program consists of some 12-14 major pro-
fessionals in staff positions and a group numbering
from 25 to 30 visiting scientists, fellows, research
associates and research assistants. They are backed up
by library and computing services, administrative and
secretarial personnel and by logistic support in
laboratories and fields. The CIAT Bean Program now
plays a pivotal role in bean varietal improvement in
Latin America and has extended to all bean programs
outside of Latin America invitations to participate in
conducting uniform testing and in sharing promising
germplasm.


International Institute of Tropical
Agriculture (IITA)
IITA is located at Ibadan, Nigeria and has accepted
global responsibility for research and development in
cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata). Inasmuch as Nigeria is
the probable center of diversity for cowpeas, and the
largest producer and consumer it is particularly fitting
that the international center be located there.
The program is oriented strongly toward finding
solutions to major problems in cowpea production and
utilization. To that end, the program consists of
research in the following subject matter sections.:
A. Breeding:
1. Germplasm collection and evaluation.
2. Population improvement and varietal
development.
3. Yield testing.
4. Genetic studies particularly of economic traits.
B. Agronomy:
1. Yield trials.
2. Spacing and density studies.
3. Fertility studies.
4. Inter-cropping studies.
C. Nutritional and utilization.
D. Entomology:
1. Biology of cowpea insect pests.
2. Screening for host plant resistance.
3. Studies with insecticides.
4. Control of stored grain pests.
E. Pathology:
1. Seed quality and seedling establishment.
2. Virus disease and wet stem rot.
3. Host plant resistance work.
F. Physiology:
1. Growth analysis studies.








are often used. Principal constraints are lack of suitable
varieties, diseases and poor agronomic practices. There
is a National Food Legume Program and it maintains
cooperation with CIAT.
The cowpea is also grown in Chirigui Code los San-
tos and Veraguas at elevations of 5-200 meters, with
annual rainfall of 1,200-2,000 millimeters. About
16,590 hectares were grown in 1976, yielding at an
average rate of 254 kilograms/hectare. This is about
one-half the bean yield per hectare but cowpeas are
relegated to the drier part of the season which may be
a factor in explaining the lower yields. Lack of produc-
tive stress tolerant varieties, and pests and diseases are
the principal constraints.


International Centers


Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical
(CIAT)
The CIAT bean program was initiated in 1973 with
its primary site of activity in Cali-Palmira, Colombia,
and cooperative linkages with national programs in
most of the countries of the Caribbean, Central and
South America. One hundred fifty-seven sets of its In-
ternational Yield and Adaptation Nurseries were
distributed in 1979 to some 33 countries. Between 1976
and 1979, 515 nurseries were distributed to col-
laborators, 80 percent of whom were in Latin
America.
The principal emphasis of the program is to develop
multiple disease and insect resistant germplasm in the
major preferred grain types. Specifically, the program
is dedicated to developing genetic resistance to com-
mon mosaic, rust, anthracnose, common bacterial
blight, angular leafspot and leafhoppers. In addition,
there are allied programs dealing with research and
selection for efficiency in symbiotic nitrogen fixation,
efficiency of phosphorus uptake and utilization, initial
screening for drought resistance, studies on plant
architecture and yield, tolerance to moderately acid
soils, variability from inter-specific hybridization,
photoperiod-temperature effects on development, and
nutritional and quality factors. It conducts farm trials
to validate newer technologies and cooperates interna-
tionally with outreach projects in Peru and Guatemala,
and will soon enter East Africa.
CIAT supports and participates in the training of
bean workers from numerous bean producing countries
in the Americas and Africa. The world's most complete
bean germplasm bank is maintained at CIAT and the
bean program contributes to its systematic evaluation.
The fundamental strategy of CIAT in dealing with
country constraints is to develop genetically improved
materials in many preferred seed and plant types, to


make these materials freely available to national pro-
grams, to encourage and assist the national programs
in their evaluation, and, if the material proves worth-
while, in their increase and distribution.
The bean program consists of some 12-14 major pro-
fessionals in staff positions and a group numbering
from 25 to 30 visiting scientists, fellows, research
associates and research assistants. They are backed up
by library and computing services, administrative and
secretarial personnel and by logistic support in
laboratories and fields. The CIAT Bean Program now
plays a pivotal role in bean varietal improvement in
Latin America and has extended to all bean programs
outside of Latin America invitations to participate in
conducting uniform testing and in sharing promising
germplasm.


International Institute of Tropical
Agriculture (IITA)
IITA is located at Ibadan, Nigeria and has accepted
global responsibility for research and development in
cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata). Inasmuch as Nigeria is
the probable center of diversity for cowpeas, and the
largest producer and consumer it is particularly fitting
that the international center be located there.
The program is oriented strongly toward finding
solutions to major problems in cowpea production and
utilization. To that end, the program consists of
research in the following subject matter sections.:
A. Breeding:
1. Germplasm collection and evaluation.
2. Population improvement and varietal
development.
3. Yield testing.
4. Genetic studies particularly of economic traits.
B. Agronomy:
1. Yield trials.
2. Spacing and density studies.
3. Fertility studies.
4. Inter-cropping studies.
C. Nutritional and utilization.
D. Entomology:
1. Biology of cowpea insect pests.
2. Screening for host plant resistance.
3. Studies with insecticides.
4. Control of stored grain pests.
E. Pathology:
1. Seed quality and seedling establishment.
2. Virus disease and wet stem rot.
3. Host plant resistance work.
F. Physiology:
1. Growth analysis studies.








are often used. Principal constraints are lack of suitable
varieties, diseases and poor agronomic practices. There
is a National Food Legume Program and it maintains
cooperation with CIAT.
The cowpea is also grown in Chirigui Code los San-
tos and Veraguas at elevations of 5-200 meters, with
annual rainfall of 1,200-2,000 millimeters. About
16,590 hectares were grown in 1976, yielding at an
average rate of 254 kilograms/hectare. This is about
one-half the bean yield per hectare but cowpeas are
relegated to the drier part of the season which may be
a factor in explaining the lower yields. Lack of produc-
tive stress tolerant varieties, and pests and diseases are
the principal constraints.


International Centers


Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical
(CIAT)
The CIAT bean program was initiated in 1973 with
its primary site of activity in Cali-Palmira, Colombia,
and cooperative linkages with national programs in
most of the countries of the Caribbean, Central and
South America. One hundred fifty-seven sets of its In-
ternational Yield and Adaptation Nurseries were
distributed in 1979 to some 33 countries. Between 1976
and 1979, 515 nurseries were distributed to col-
laborators, 80 percent of whom were in Latin
America.
The principal emphasis of the program is to develop
multiple disease and insect resistant germplasm in the
major preferred grain types. Specifically, the program
is dedicated to developing genetic resistance to com-
mon mosaic, rust, anthracnose, common bacterial
blight, angular leafspot and leafhoppers. In addition,
there are allied programs dealing with research and
selection for efficiency in symbiotic nitrogen fixation,
efficiency of phosphorus uptake and utilization, initial
screening for drought resistance, studies on plant
architecture and yield, tolerance to moderately acid
soils, variability from inter-specific hybridization,
photoperiod-temperature effects on development, and
nutritional and quality factors. It conducts farm trials
to validate newer technologies and cooperates interna-
tionally with outreach projects in Peru and Guatemala,
and will soon enter East Africa.
CIAT supports and participates in the training of
bean workers from numerous bean producing countries
in the Americas and Africa. The world's most complete
bean germplasm bank is maintained at CIAT and the
bean program contributes to its systematic evaluation.
The fundamental strategy of CIAT in dealing with
country constraints is to develop genetically improved
materials in many preferred seed and plant types, to


make these materials freely available to national pro-
grams, to encourage and assist the national programs
in their evaluation, and, if the material proves worth-
while, in their increase and distribution.
The bean program consists of some 12-14 major pro-
fessionals in staff positions and a group numbering
from 25 to 30 visiting scientists, fellows, research
associates and research assistants. They are backed up
by library and computing services, administrative and
secretarial personnel and by logistic support in
laboratories and fields. The CIAT Bean Program now
plays a pivotal role in bean varietal improvement in
Latin America and has extended to all bean programs
outside of Latin America invitations to participate in
conducting uniform testing and in sharing promising
germplasm.


International Institute of Tropical
Agriculture (IITA)
IITA is located at Ibadan, Nigeria and has accepted
global responsibility for research and development in
cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata). Inasmuch as Nigeria is
the probable center of diversity for cowpeas, and the
largest producer and consumer it is particularly fitting
that the international center be located there.
The program is oriented strongly toward finding
solutions to major problems in cowpea production and
utilization. To that end, the program consists of
research in the following subject matter sections.:
A. Breeding:
1. Germplasm collection and evaluation.
2. Population improvement and varietal
development.
3. Yield testing.
4. Genetic studies particularly of economic traits.
B. Agronomy:
1. Yield trials.
2. Spacing and density studies.
3. Fertility studies.
4. Inter-cropping studies.
C. Nutritional and utilization.
D. Entomology:
1. Biology of cowpea insect pests.
2. Screening for host plant resistance.
3. Studies with insecticides.
4. Control of stored grain pests.
E. Pathology:
1. Seed quality and seedling establishment.
2. Virus disease and wet stem rot.
3. Host plant resistance work.
F. Physiology:
1. Growth analysis studies.









2. Photoperiod.
G. Collaboration: University of Reading, University
of Nottingham, Rothamsted Experiment Station
and Cambridge University in physiological and
breeding projects.
The cowpea breeding program receives the
major emphasis of research conducted by the
Grain Legume Improvement Program at IITA.
The main thrust of the crossing program is to
recombine genes for high seed yield, seed quality,
resistance to diseases and insects, and certain
agronomic traits. Selection has been directed
toward erect and semi-erect plant types, since
these types appear more promising under modern
cultivation systems.
Under "population improvement" an attempt is
being made to utilize genetic male-sterility to en-
force out-crossing and genetic recombination in
various created populations and sub-populations.
Yield trials are conducted at IITA and in col-
laboration with other agencies. Uniform Trials
have been distributed worldwide.
Agronomic studies have been conducted on
plant densities and row widths for erect non-
branching types compared with indeterminant
branching types, and fertilizer responsiveness to N
and P. Lack of response was attributed to the low
nutrient requirement of cowpeas for P and to ex-
cellent nodulation. Total nutrient uptake by
cowpeas is about 60 percent of that of soybeans.
Other work deals with determining optimum
harvesting time for indeterminate cowpeas,
chemical seed treatments for combined disease and
insect control, tillage methods, cowpea maize
inter-cropping and farmers' field trials.
Insect pests are classifiable into the following
four groups:
1. Leaf-feeding beetles: adult Oatheca mutabilis
and Luperodes lineata.


2. Leaf-sucking insects: thrips (Sericothrips oc-
cipitalis and Taenothrips sjostedti) and
leafhoppers (Empoasca sp.)
3. Pod-sucking bugs: Coreid bugs (Riptortus
dentipes, Anoplocnemis curvipes, Acan-
thomyia horrida).
4. Pod-boring insects: Maruca testulalis, Laspey-
resia ptychora, Callosobruchus maculatus.
Insect control strategy relies on both host plant
resistance and use of chemical protectants.
In disease control, both chemical treatments and
host plant resistance approaches have proved
beneficial. The diseases of importance include wet
stem rot (Pythium aphanidermatum), anthracnose,
cercospora leaf spot, bacterial pustule, cowpea rust
and cowpea mosaic. Genetic work on some responses
has elucidated modes of inheritance.
Physiologic studies suggest that lengthening the
flowering and pod-filling period along with selecting
for a greater partitioning ratio would raise yield poten-
tial in cowpeas.
The foregoing abbreviated discussion of cowpea
work at IITA is sufficient to suggest that a broad spec-
trum of problems are being addressed and that infor-
mation and useful materials are being produced.
A small permanent senior staff and a large group of
short term visiting scientists and research assistants pro-
vide competent research capability to this project.
(One might prefer somewhat greater stability of senior
personnel.) A senior staff breeder has been stationed in
Goiania, Brazil, to collaborate with EMBRAPA's pro-
gram in North East Brazil.
The cowpea has proved to be a species of great varia-
bility for economic characteristics. If the research team
at IITA and smaller collaborative groups elsewhere, in
Africa and Latin America, can maintain or increase
current activities, we may expect significant progress in
cowpea production and utilization in the years ahead.























Interpretative Summary

Ecologically and socio-culturally the lands and
peoples from which this report derives represent divers-
ity, in many instances sharply contrasting diversity. It is
not unexpected, therefore, that the array of production
and utilization constraints should include more than 30
separate items. Most frequently cited were diseases and
insect pests. Their effects are readily seen and often
devastating to the crop, whereas the effects of, for ex-
ample, low soil temperature, cited for upland plateaus
in Ethiopia, upon seed germination and stand establish-
ment are less obvious and more inferential.
Next most often cited were such items as inferior
variety performance, problems of drought and/or water
use, lack of high quality seed, its availability or cost,
and problems related to depletion of soil fertility. These
included those associated with nodulation and biolog-
ical nitrogen fixation. Relative inefficiency of current
production practices or systems was also cited in several
cases.
Such areas as consumer preferences, storage losses,
preservation of quality and ease of cooking, while not
perceived as universal problems, nevertheless, were
cited more than once. Also noted were certain problems
in the socio-economic category, such as reluctance of
farmers to take the risks accompanying the adoption of
untried new technology, poor marketing strategies, low
economic returns and the high cost of inputs.
Constraints cited for cowpeas were the same as those
for beans, differing only in the specific diseases, insects
and in those problems judged to be more serious. But
even with these cautions, the overall constraint picture
is very similar for beans and cowpeas.
The constraint categories mentioned thus far are
found almost everywhere, including the developed
countries. Numerous additional problems are cited,
singlely or no more often than twice, which seem to be
unique to a particular country. Salinity in Coastal Peru-
vian soils is an example.
Production related constraints are more frequently
cited than utilization related problems or socio-
economic concerns. This may be a reflection of the pro-


fessional orientation of the majority of the respondents.
The evidence from all documented sources, supported
by personal observations of CRSP planning teams, in-
dicates that problems exist at all levels of production
and utilization and that many of them are universal.
This is the primary rationale for inter-national col-
laboration. In an era of scarce personnel, facilities and
operational resources within individual national pro-
grams, the only rational approach to solutions to the
ubiquitous constraints resides in a free interchange of in-
formation and materials between collaborating national
programs and free access to work conducted at the rele-
vant international centers.
In a rough numerical sense, about half of the items
cited by national program workers as being major con-
straints are presently being worked upon as research
objectives in their programs. In keeping with their
perception of problems of greatest concern, these are the
areas which receive the most attention in current pro-
grams. Although a particular problem may be cited as
receiving attention in a given instance, in hardly a single
case is the full measure of time, personnel, facilities,
materials or funds necessary for expeditious solution be-
ing expended. Professional time diluted by other
assignments, insufficient educational level or numbers
of personnel, inadequate facilities, provincial materials
and the always scarce financial resources characterize
most national programs.
There appears to be an almost universal neglect in
national programs of the fact that women are deeply in-
volved in production and utilization of beans and
cowpeas and might conceivably be influenced by the in-
troduction of new technology into tasks which they now
perform routinely. I refer to such things as the intro-
duction of pesticides which might pose health hazards,
particularly to pregnant or nursing women, and to the
introduction of bean or cowpea varieties, high in dry
seed yields but with leaves or pods unsuitable as green
vegetables. This would require the woman, as the fami-
ly "dietician", to search for alternate green food. They
are also influenced by the introduction of a variety that









cooks slowly, requiring more time and fuel, or that,
following cooking, turns sour too early to be used as left-
overs. The introduction of varieties whose protein is less
digestible to children and of a variety whose pods at
maturity are leathery tough instead of brittle, and
therefore not easily threshed by hand shelling, affects
women.
Several of these issues are not perceived as research-
able questions. This partly accounts for their omission
from current programs. But it is only fair to point out
that most program leaders are aware that new varieties
and practices have to meet certain criteria of accept-
ability. So whether or not working women are mention-
ed explicitly in program objectives, some of.their con-
cerns are no doubt present in the minds of program
personnel.
Women in Africa, Latin America and the Caribbean
are becoming involved at the level of technical training
and peer professional research. The future will probably
see more participation by trained professional women
than in the past.
For several national programs, future areas of activ-
ity have been indicated. The areas include the major
constraints already being addressed, as they should, but
frequently new problem areas are named as well. Areas
no doubt are selected because of their importance but
also, in some cases, because they are perceived as new
dimensions to old problems. Among these are such
things as alternative methods of disease or insect con-
trol, high temperature stress studies, nitrogen-fixation


work, water-use efficiency and transfer of technology.
The taking on of new objectives by some national
programs while retaining most of the former ones, if
done without additional resources, would seem ill-
advised. This would be stretching already taut resources
perhaps to the breaking point. With the almost world-
wide financial crises in the early 1980's, erosion of
resources available to national programs has already
begun. In several instances the B/C CRSP brings some
additional resources to bear, however, they will not be
enough.
Beyond physical facilities and operational budgets,
program leadership and research competencies play
decisive roles in the ultimate success or failure of a pro-
gram. It is essential that there be continuity, commit-
ment and competency of leadership and program per-
sonnel. But individuals, both in leadership positions and
collegial research roles, are subject to "advancements"
and re-assignments within the organization. They are
also attracted to opportunities outside the institution of
immediate employment. Such changes are costly to the
programs affected. They in most cases cannot be
helped. The adverse effects can be minimized only if
continual training and professional internships in every
program, organization and institution build and nur-
ture a corps of young working scientists. It would be
upon such cadres that the opportunity and responsibility
would lie for sustained program achievements. Pro-
grams thus structured would have the greatest
likelihood of contributing to the national good.





















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