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Beans--cowpeas

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Title:
Beans--cowpeas
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Adams, M. W.
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East Lansing, Michigan
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Michigan State University
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Farming ( LCSH )
Agriculture ( LCSH )
Farm life ( LCSH )

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Electronic resources created as part of a prototype UF Institutional Repository and Faculty Papers project by the University of Florida.

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Full Text
BEANS COWPEAS
Production Constraints
and
National Programs
Bean/Cowpea collaborative research support programs Michigan State University




BEANS COWPEAS Production Constraints
and
National Programs
Compiled by M. W. Adams, professor Department of Crop and Soil Sciences Michigan State University Completed in partial fulfillment of the planning grant made by USAID-BIFAD to MSU March 1984




Table of Contents
Page
PREFA CE .................................. ii U ganda ................................. 26
Z am bia ................................... 27
INTRODUCTION ........................... iii Central and W est Africa .................... 28
Cam eroon .............................. 28
BEAN/COWPEA PRODUCTION Niger ................................... 37
STATISTICS- An Assessment ................. I Nigeria ................................. 38
B eans .................................... 1 Senegal ................................. 39
A frica .................................. 1 U pper V olta ............................. 40
North and Central America ............... 2 Latin America ............................. 41
South Am erica ........................... 2 General Overview ........................ 41
T able 1 ................................. 3 A rgentina ............................... 42
T able 2 ................................. 4 B razil .................................. 42
T able 3 ................................. 5 C hile ................................... 45
T able 4 ................................. 6 C olom bia ............................... 45
Figure 1 ................................ 7 C osta R ica .............................. 46
Figure 2 ................................ 8 Dom inican Republic ...................... 47
Figure 3 ................................ 9 E cuador ................................ 49
C ow peas .................................. 11 G uatem ala .............................. 51
A frica .................................. 11 H aiti ................................... 51
W estern Hem isphere ..................... 11 Honduras ............................... 52
T able 5 ................................. 12 M exico ................................. 53
T able 6 ................................. 13 Peru ................................... 56
T able 7 ................................. 14 V enezuela ............................... 57
Figure 4 ................................ 15 The Caribbean, Central America and Panama:
Figure 5 ................................ 15 Selected Countries ......................... 59
F igure 6 ................................ 16 B elize .................................. 59
El Salvador ............................. 60
G uyana ................................. 60
COUNTRY CONSTRAINTS AND Jamaica ................................ 60
NATIONAL PROGRAMS ..................... 17 Nicaragua ............................... 60
E ast A frica ................................ 17 Panam a ................................ 60
Burundi ................................ 17 International Centers ....................... 61
E thiopia ................................ 17 C IA T .................................. 61
K enya .................................. 18 H T A ................................... 61
Malawi ................................. 22 INTERPRETATIVE SUMMARY ............... 63
Rw anda ................................ 23
Tanzania ............................... 24 SOURCE DOCUMENTS ..................... 65
i




Preface
Information presented in this report has been drawn gathered by personal contacts and/or country visits. A from sources in 26 countries in Africa, Latin America, particularly helpful source of information for some and the Caribbean. Most of the information has been Caribbean countries was found in a series of recently taken from official documents from Ministries of Agri- released Food and Agriculture Organization (of the culture, university program directors or project leaders United Nations) publications. and their representatives. Principal emphasis has been This document was put together as fulfillment, in placed upon production and utilization constraints, and part, of obligations set forth in the Title XII B/C CRSP bean and cowpea research and utilization programs in Planning Grant from the Board of International Food each country. This report is not intended as a research and Agricultural Development (BIFAD) and the U.S. monograph in beans and cowpeas. Agency for International Development (USAID), to
Views concerning constraints are the judgements of Michigan State University. A principal function of this those most closely connected with research activities in report is to serve as a benchmark statement against beans and cowpeas in the respective countries. Upon which to review and measure the effects of research their perceptions are based the objectives of national and utilization activities during the 1980's. programs, and in particular, the special projects of the Many individuals and their institutions, through Title XII Bean/Cowpea Collaborative Research Support papers, documents and personal contact, contributed to Program (B/C CRSP). and made this report possible. To each of them, I exGenerally, the source documents upon which this press my personal thanks and appreciation.
report has been based were prepared prior to and in- The supportive collegial relationships established dependent of the inception of the Bean/Cowpea CRSP, with Dr. Donald H. Wallace, of Cornell University, Dr. representing viewpoints and program strategies Patricia Barnes-McConnell, of Michigan State Univerprevailing at the beginning of the decade of the 1980's. sity, Dr. John Yohe, of USAID, and with Director Exceptions include: data compiled by the four con- Donald Isleib and the staff in the management office of straints study teams sent from the United States to the B/C CRSP are gratefully acknowledged. I am selected countries in Africa, Latin America, Central especially appreciative of the encouragement and loyal America and the Caribbean during the early stages of support given by my department chairman. Dr. D. D. CRSP planning; information drawn from regional Harpstead, throughout the period of the CRSP planning grain legume workers conferences; and information project and during the preparation of this report.
M.W. Adams
1983
ii




Introduction
Food legumes, as validated in section I of this report, resistance to diseases, agronomic practices testing, or of are produced world-wide, and form an essential and conducting variety or herbicide trials. The narrowness substantial dietary component of peoples worldwide, of such country programs is a reflection of insufficient The dry bean, Phaseolus vulgaris, and cowpea, Vigna finances, alternative priorities, and/or too few or insufunguiculata, are two of the most commonly grown food ficiently trained professional personnel available. grain legumes, particularly in the countries of Africa Viewing these problems and programs from a
and Latin America. They are staples in the diets of both temperate climatic zone perspective, one must be the urban and rural poor. Their roles in production, in reminded that agriculture on small farms in the tropical multiple and associated cropping, in soil improvement zones is confronted with a very broad spectrum of proband in human nutrition are universally acknowledged. lems. It simply is not to be expected, given the resources All but the very poorest or smallest of countries, in of the developing nations, that any single country workrecognition of the unique characteristics of these crops, ing on its own can support comprehensive national or attempt to carry out programs of research addressing regional programs. the urgent problems besetting the growing and/or use of In the following sections of this report, country-bythese grain legumes in commercial and small-farm country summaries are presented of principal conagriculture. straints to production and utilization of beans/cowpeas,
However, no single country of Africa or Latin of present program objectives and activities, and of
America has found it possible to support a comprehen- perceived need by the various national program leaders, sive research or development program for these crops. to the extent that reliable information has been availIn many instances the programs are uni-dimensional, able. Sources of data and information are given in an consisting primarily of such activities as selection for Appendix.




Bean/Cowpea
Production Statistics
An Assessment
Beans (Tables 1-4, Figures 1-3)
Africa 1980 is unexplained. That the change is real, however,
Since a majority of the beans in Africa are grown in is extremely unlikely.
small fields, usually in a subsistence type farming system Average yields over the 20-year period, 1961-1980, with no systematic platting of land area per farm, the for African bean producing countries appears to have production statistics are not likely to be very precise. A risen from 480 to over 600 kilograms/hectare. That this similar imprecision exists for per hectare yields and total is a real increase, however, is questionable since the tonnage per country. Very few growers weigh their change essentially occurred with the 1974 reporting year harvested beans and any estimate is likely to be in terms and has been maintained at that level ever since. of a volume measure. A large portion of beans produced If gradually increasing availability of yield promoting on the subsistence farms never enters markets where technology (fertilizers, pesticides, improved varieties) production estimates might be possible. Therefore, it were to have a positive impact on country yield averseems prudent to treat the statistics presented in the ages, one should expect to see an increase in the figures tables only as approximations. The reader should keep for the years 1961 to 1980. Perhaps some of the country this qualification in mind when examining the tables yield increases noted can be attributed to technologic inand drawing inferences from them, puts; Madagascar and Cameroon may be examples. But
Data on bean production are reported for twenty- Malawi shows very little real increase, yet there has four countries in Africa. Seven countries, Uganda, been a significant increase in the availability and use of Tanzania, Burundi, Rwanda, Zaire, Cameroon and fertilizer for maize in Malawi in the past two decades.
Angola, report large areas in production. These ranged Since 50 percent or more of bean production occurs in from nearly 120,000 hectares annually for Angola, to association with maize one would expect some benefits more than 350,000 hectares for Uganda. Two of the to have accrued to the beans. smallest countries, Burundi and Rwanda, are among Although the annual fluctuations are extreme for
the largest producers. Since 1961 about one-half of the South Africa, that country has experienced a 100 percountries have shown an increase in area devoted to cent average yield/hectare increase in the 1976-1980 five beans, and one-half have shown no trend or a slight year period as compared to the 1961-1965 period. The decrease. The effects of civil war on hectarage reported trend is consistent throughout the 20-yeai term. Given can be seen in the figures for Ethiopia, Uganda, and the availability of technological inputs and promotional Zimbabwe. Reasons for other large fluctuations are less efforts in South Africa (and subject to the level of easy to understand. reliability of the data) the yield improvement in South
Annual variations in per hectare yields are expected Africa may reflect a technological impact.
because of the effects of favorable or unfavorable In the future, if one were to evaluate the impact of weather, the determining element usually being mois- a research and extension program upon productivity, by ture. In a country where beans are mostly irrigated, less reference to country-wide base-line yields (as has been fluctuation is expected. Egypt is an example. Most beans proposed by one international center), one should be in the Sudan are also irrigated but yield efficiency aware of the lack of precision in the current yield appears to fluctuate unreasonably. The abrupt rise in estimates for many under-developed nations. There is a average yield in Lesotho from about 399 kilograms/hec- need to establish "early-on" a sound base and valid tare for 1961-1977 to 1,154 in each of 1978, 1979 and methodology for arriving at reliable yield estimates.




North and Central America provements and extension programs occur, average per
hectare yields have changed little in the past 20 years.
In this group of countries, Mexico dominates in area One possible explanation is that improvement efforts consigned to bean production and in total beans pro- have emphasized such factors as disease resistance, duced. Average yields for Mexico reflect the fact that earlier maturity and quality which have only minor about 90 percent of the country's crop is grown under effects, if any, on yield per se. a climate of limited rainfall. The 1980 hectarage figures
for both Mexico and the United States depart significantly from the preceding long-term trend. This South America reflects a decline in production in Mexico starting in
1976 which led to anticipated shortages in 1979 and un- Brazil is by far the largest producer of beans in the precedented efforts both in Mexico and the United world, with harvested area increasing from 2,936,000
States in 1980 (and 1981) to replenish the supply of hectares annually for the period 1961-1965 to 4,347,999 beans in that country. Note that total production in in 1976-1980. As noted for many other countries during Mexico rose in 1980, not due to an average yield in- this time, there has not been any significant increase in crease but wholly from an increase in hectarage grown. per hectare yields. In fact, the trend has been downThere are some other interesting trends to be noted in ward from 650 kilograms/hectare to just over 500 Central America. Costa Rica, in recent years, has kilograms/hectare in 1979.
become an importer of beans whereas some 20 years ago For South America, bean hectarage has increased in it was self-sufficient. Labor costs and a rising popula- six countries, decreased in one and held steady in three. tion, coupled with a centrally controlled farm price for In no single country of South America, with the possible beans, are chiefly responsible. However, per hectare exception of Colombia (Bolivia shows an increase in the yields in Costa Rica have actually appeared to rise, last five years, but the figures are suspect), was there a
Bean hectarages in Guatemala, El Salvador, the significant yield/hectare increase. As observed previousDominican Republic, Haiti and Nicaragua appear to ly, there is no discernible impact on average yield effihave increased since 1961. However, there has been no ciency in most countries attributable to the growing corresponding increase in most of the countries in per technological base. Whether effects due to improved hectare yields, with the possible exceptions of the technology have been masked in expansion of hectarages Dominican Republic and Costa Rica. to less favorable soils and climatic conditions and to the
The personal experience of some observers would sug- less skilled grower, or whether the technology has had gest that the bean area reported for Puerto Rico is its impact in reduced risk of growing beans and other unrealistically high. It is interesting that in both Canada non-yield conveniences, cannot be determined in the and the United States, where numerous major bean im- present statistics.
2




Table 1. DRY BEANS: HARVESTED AREA BY CONTINENT AND COUNTRY, 1961-1980 (in 1000 Hectares)
Continent
and Country 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980
Africa
Algeria 1 1 2F 2 2 2 1 4 5 7 5F 5F 6 5 4 2 4F 2 2 2F
Angola 65F 65F 67F 68F 119" 119* 119" 119" 120F 120F 120F 120F 120F 120F 120F 120F 120F 120F 120F l1OF
Benin 126 96 98 63 89 56 91 70F 78 79 76 72 60F 42 36 44 67 76 80 75F
Burundi 155 169 172 181 188 206 207 207 247 291 300F 322 534 240F 245F 252F 259F 255F 255F 258F
Cameroon 58 61 77 53 31 31 63 70 75 70F 73F 73F lIOF 103F 123F 125F 130F 145F 152F 154F
Chad No data No data No data 10OF 10OF 10OF 10OF 97F 97F 97F
Egypt 1 1 2 6 5 5 4 5 5 5 6 6 7* 7F 7* 7* 7F 6 5 7F
Ethiopia 86 88 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 98F 132 74 47 45 46F 20 17* 15*
Kenya No data No data No data No data No data
Lesotho 5 5F 5F 8F 8F 8F 9F 9 12 16 17F 1OF llF 12F 30F 30F 30F 13F 13F 13F
Madagascar 34 60 62 63 63 62 62 62 64 64 68F 72F 64 67 65F 71F 70F 50 59 53
Malawi 12F 13F 12 13 13F 13F 13F 13F 13F 13F 13F 15F 15F 15F 12F 12F 12F 95F 96F 95F
Morocco 5 5 7 6 6 8 9 9F 8F 8F 8F 8F 8F 9F 4 2 9 IOF 1OF 1OF
Reunion --- 1 1 1 --- IF ... ... ... ... ...- IF IF IF IF IF IF
Rwanda 130 120 120F 108F 127F 154F 155F 156 162 160 160 155 160 187 191 203 203F 215 216F 216F
Somalia 4 2 2 3F 3F 3F 3F 3F 3F 3F 3F 13 13F 13F 13F 13F 13F 13F 13F 13F
South Africa 87F 10OF 82F 80F 76F 81F 80F 77F 76F 74F 75F 78F 70 72 70 68* 69* 77 71" 63*
Sudan 4 4 6 7 7 7 6 4 5 5F 4F 13F 3 3 5 4 4F 2 3 3F
Swaziland 2 2F 2 2 2F 2 2 2F 2 2F 2 2 2 2F 2F 2F 2F 2F 2F 2F
Tanzania 190 202F 210F 231F 177F 234F 204F 220 207 262 260 280F 280F 260F 268 294 300F 30OF 298F 300F
Togo 40F 43 50 54 57 56 61 44 39 97 97 50F 74 68 61 62F 65F 60F 60F 63F
Uganda 292 140F 140F 150F 150F 163 219F 270 250F 260F 270F 270F 300F 469 407 537 550F 357F 360F 360F
Zaire No data No data No data No data 164 165F 166F
Zimbabwe 42F 45F 50F 64F 61F 50F 50F 50F 50F 50F 50F 50F 50F 50F 50F 50F 50F 50F No data
Totals 1339 1225 1255 1252 1274 1352 1450 1486 1509 1681 1703 1713 2020 1919 1861 2044 2111 2127 2149 2130
N & C America
Belize ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...- 2 2 2 2F 2F 2F 2 2F
Canada 27 27 29 34 38 48 35 37 36 33 46 54 54 69 66 67 70 60 34 38
Costa Rica 52* 44 44 47 58 43 37 43 25 24 18 12 27 36 36 36 35F 17 25* 21"
Cuba 40* 40* 40F 40F 35F 35F 35F 35F 35F 35F 35F 35F 35F 35F 35F 35F 35F 35F 35F 35F
Dominican Rep. 16F 30F 30F 36F 36F 44F 34 28 28F 33F 33F 31* 21* 44F 42* 45* 47* 53 46 49*
El Salvador 21 37 31 24 27 30 32 34 33 36 39 40 45 51 56 53 55* 52 55 55F
Guatemala 51 64 75 92 88 78 81 101 85 96F 1OOF 1OOF 101" 101* 93 138 126" 135* 95* 116
Haiti 26F 38F 39F 40F 40F 40F 41F 40F 40F 41F 41F 41F 41F 41F 41F 42F 42F 88 90 90
Honduras 89 71 77 87 63 72 79 85 73 73* 75* 60* 80* 90* 80* 90* 91* 78* 84* 69*
Mexico 1555 1674 1711 2091 2117 2240 1894 1874 1733 1747 1781 1576 1870 1329 1753 1316 1506 1580 1054 1936
Nicaragua 46 48 48 55 59 63 66 67 66 64F 64F 61 64 90 56 68 82 67 67F 65F
Panama 19 26 25 20 15 22 21 18 17 17 18 12 10 12 16 17 16 15 12 15"
Puerto Rico 6 6 5 4 4 4 4 4F 4F 4F 4F 4F 4F 4F 4F 4F 4F 4F 4F 4F
USA 581 582 564 570 610 610 501 576 594 570 533 567 553 624 593 607 511 589 560 743
Totals 2529 2685 2718 3140 3188 3328 2860 2941 2768 2774 2786 2594 2907 2529 2873 2520 2620 2773 2163 3239
South America
Argentina 31 23 28 30 37 28 29 38 57 41 61 62 79 108 137 147 167 136 231 205
Bolivia 3F 6F 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9* 3F 3F 3F 3F 3 3F 3F
Brazil 2580 2716 2982 3131 3273 3325 3651 3663 3633 3485 3743 3560F 3815 4293 4143 4047 4564 4617 4203 4306
Chile 94 75 71 64 58 65 68 53 44 57 70 79 68 74 68 82 57 112 110 111
Colombia 75F 87 75 76 76 64 69 115 102 88 97 97 94 111 121 101 112 111 112 118
Ecuador 40 44 45 57 55 82 79 60F 70F 82 67 62 66 66 63 68 68F 39 44 52F
Paraguay 22 22 25 32 32 32 30 27 54 50 46 47 43 55F 67 70F 72F 81 79 82
Peruy 45 47 45 46 54 75 85 66 81 77 72 65F 62* 56* 75F 75F 75F 73F 73F 72F
Uruguay 6 6F 6F 6F 5F 3 4F 4F 4F 4F 4F 4F 4F 4F 4F 4F 4F 5F 5F 5F
Venezuela 90 68 81 87 88 91 93 101 104 91 96 83 67 81 89 89 108* 70 65 73*
Totals 2986 3094 3367 3537 3687 3773 4117 4136 4158 3984 4265 4069 4307 4851 4770 4686 5270 5246 4926 5026
Source: F.A.O. Production Yearbooks F = F.A.O. estimate = Unofficial country estimate




Table 2. DRY BEANS: YIELD PER HECTARE BY CONTINENT AND COUNTRY, 1961-1980 (in Kilograms/Hectare)
Continent
and Country 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980
Africa
Algeria 800 833 765 740 615 615 507 399 353 227 400 404 359 755 969 860 818 664 341 667
Angola 80OF 866 895 926 504 538 532 532 529 625 583 583 600 600 583 583 600 542 458 378
Benin 290 285 227 255 211 254 315 257 321 320 406 331 347 325 296 346 377 519 464 467
Burundi 644 785 632 750 752 597 583 608 584 833 726 459 604 604 596 589 635 667 671
Cameroon 420F 379 1222 502 620 572 411 421 440 429 479 479 500 534 593 608 615 621 625 636
Chad No data No data No data 420 440 447 454 412 412 412
Egypt 1370 2381 1429 1701 1732 1515 1587 1732 1948 1831 2040 2063 2273 2164 2264 2515 2458 1974 2026 1970
Ethiopia 700 700 700 710 720 730 742 755 772 789 771 776 680 690 760 649 696 670 1506 899
Kenya No data No data No data No data
Lesotho 270 280 320 200 200 200 222 255 257 226 235 240 245 250 292 290 317 1154 1154 1154
Madagascar 780 717 839 799 798 813 756 797 875 883 799 853 834 880 842 841 871 902 937 1037
Malawi 590F 569 563 548 538 523 538 538 538 542 538 467 452 528 494 500 500 653 625 653
Morocco 940 577 659 751 684 413 532 556 533 600 625 642 646 667 767 800 655 700 710 706
Reunion 1231 1231 1231 1750 1500 1750 1750 1750 1750 1667 1500 1500 1639 1639 1613
Rwanda 769 803 647 689 850 850 744 900 900 900 850 831 615 801 805 808 811 813 815
Somalia 250 93 136 283 667 333 500 500 500 500 500 327 346 346 346 346 346 341 343 343
South Africa 1060F 492 565 518 506 557 585 752 660 667 684 767 643 1153 829 889 742 1235 915 1217
Sudan 1480 1271 1077 1466 1480 1653 1185 931 1177 1170 930 1231 1587 1190 807 768 750 1429 1600 1600
Swaziland 430 500 276 270 333 278 262 227 392 370 358 542 409 476 524 545 545 545 682 682
Tanzania 421 423 436 487 500 499 479 531 490 500 577 571 500 500 497 509 500 500 500
Togo 230 299 286 222 272 282 282 591 231 474 515 320 446 193 259 258 278 250 267 275
Uganda 370 650 650 653 653 669 712 630 464 650 667 667 567 419 480 480 480 484 500 500
Zaire No data No data No data 549 564 564
Zimbabwe 800 460 414 320 339 450 560 480 480 480 500 500 500 500 512 524 536 500 No data
Means 480 465 520 465 480 482 455 444 406 434 463 516 450 563 596 571 570 604 600 605
N & C America
Belize No data No data 529 607 561 576 600 664 671 676
Canada 1360 1463 1457 1663 1556 1671 1122 1199 1458 1523 1769 1620 1457 1391 1379 1358 1567 1278 1812 1821
Costa Rica 370* 365 364 364 388 391 395 397 399 402 409 837 413 391 456 516 429 522 480 619
Cuba 840* 850 750 675 714 657 629 629 657 629 657 657 671 671 671 671 671 714 729 743
Dominican Rep. 121OF 690 700 701 711 714 718 795 1000 758 848 955 958 997 719 836 687 721 772 878 El Salvador 940 622 580 643 785 653 684 712 799 827 875 688 834 656 710 658 727 829 844 855
Guatemala 640 650 650 650 650 650 650 651 651 650 651 653 721 767 692 565 532 596 895 688
Haiti 650 1005 1026 1005 1015 1028 1024 900 988 976 1024 1049 1049 1073 1098 1108 1102 519 579 500
Honduras 430 629 647 664 683 700 718 735 752 753 733 583 600 611 536 534 549 569 454 548
Mexico 470 392 296 426 406 452 475 469 465 529 465 514 539 674 586 562 495 600 570 584
Nicaragua 700 747 842 814 833 835 838 839 837 836 844 710 736 569 785 785 785 834 776 769
Panama 270 265 285 246 277 312 334 329 304 291 184 276 303 289 252 253 212 272 277 310
Puerto Rico 380 380 380 534 520 577 577 575 600 575 600 600 600 600 600 600 600 600 600 600
USA 1540 1405 1615 1389 1230 1490 1389 1372 1443 1384 1356 1448 1343 1479 1333 1330 1446 1459 1659 1593
Means 740 661 700 648 614 690 676 689 728 746 698 772 736 896 774 790 740 805 899 844
South America
Argentina 1060 1069 1150 961 1023 1052 951 597 563 956 973 932 926 1068 791 1160 1080 978 1016 1146
Bolivia 71OF 360 363 367 365 365 385 379 379 379 400 400 400 804 810 833 833 800 800 800
Brazil 680 630 651 623 700 646 698 661 606 635 668 659 584 521 548 455 510 475 517 459
Chile 970 990 906 1001 1008 1063 1312 1219 1062 1146 1032 1043 962 1013 1089 862 1155 1003 1057 761
Colombia 590F 547 584 553 526 547 551 478 488 489 598 608 617 703 745 669 645 674 664 697
Ecuador 530 477 508 441 576 452 482 469 500 568 449 419 482 423 417 471 471 480 523 558
Paraguay 750 800 760 749 600 700 600 650 641 651 554 683 788 771 783 786 778 794 731 793
Peruy 950 966 940 967 897 876 902 768 793 812 808 738 695 724 853 853 867 772 772 764
Uruguay 640 667 667 626 800 658 500 500 500 500 500 500 512 500 512 568 568 578 578 553
Venezuela 490 519 472 419 423 442 446 365 332 361 369 355 377 408 416 461 602 486 588 630
Means 680 640 657 628 697 650 700 653 -UO2 637 667 661 596 547 572 501 553 513 564 512
Source: F.A.0. Production Yearbooks F = F.A.0. estimate = Unofficial country estimate




Table 3. DRY BEANS: TOTAL PRODUCTION BY CONTINENT AND COUNTRY, 1961-1980 (in 1000 metric tons)
Continent
and Country 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980
Africa
Algeria 1 1 1F 2 1 1 1 2 2 2 2F 2F 2 4 3 2 4F 1 1 2F
Angola 52 58* 60* 63* 60* 64* 64* 64* 64* 75 70 70F 72F 72F 70F 70F 72F 65F 55F 42
Benin 36 27 22 16 19 14 29 18F 25 25 31 24 21 14 11 15 25 39 37 35F
Burundi 109 135 114 141 155 123 121 150F 170F 250F 234 245 145F 148F 150F 153F 162F 170F 173F
Cameroon 24F 23 94 26 19 18 26 29 33 30F 35F 35F 55F 55F 73F 76F 80F 90F 95* 98F
Chad No data No data 42F 44F 45F 45F 4OF 40F 40F
Egypt 1 2 3 10 8 7 6 8 9 10 12 13 15* 15F 16" 17" 18F 12 11 13F
Ethiopia 60 62 62 63 65 66 68 70 72 75 74F 76F 90 51 35 29 32F 13 25F 13"
Kenya No data available No data No data No data
Lesotho 1 IF 2F 2F 2F 2F 2F 2 3 4 4F 2 3F 3F 9 9 1OF 15F 15F 15F
Madagascar 27 43 52 50 50 50 47 49 56 57 55 61 54 59 55 60 61 45 56 55
Malawi 7F 7F 7 7 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7 7 7F 7 8 6 6F 6F 62F 60F 62F
Morocco 5 3 5 5 4 3 5 5F 4* 5F 5F 5F 5F 6F 3 IF 6F 7F 7F 7F
Reunion 15F 1 1 1 1 IF 1 1 1 1 1 1 IF IF 1 1 IF
Rwanda 92 96 70 87 131 132 116 146 144 144 131 133 115 153 163 164F 174 175F 176F
Somalia 1 1 2 IF 2F 2F 2F 2F 2F 4 5F 5F 5F 5F 5F 5F 5F 5F
South Africa 50 49 46 41 38 45 47 58 50 49 51 56 45 83 58 60 51" 95 65 77
Sudan 6 5 6 11 10 11 7 4 6 6F 4 16 4 3 4* 3* 3F 3 4 4F
Swaziland 1 IF --- IF 1 1 --- 1 IF 1 1 1 IF IF iF IF IF 2* 2F
Tanzania 85F 89 101 86 117 102 105 110 129F 130F 162 160F 130F 134 146 153F 15OF 149F 150F
Togo 9F 13 14 12 16 16 17 26 9 46 50F 16F 33 13 15F 16F 18F 15* 16F 17*
Uganda 107F 91F 91F 98F 98F 109F 156 170F 116F 169F 180F 180F 170F 196 195 258 264F 173F 180F 180F
Zaire No data No data No data 90 93F 94F
Zimbabwe 21F 21F 21F 21F 23F 23F 24F 24F 24F 25F 25F 25F 25F 26F 26F 27F 25F 23F 23F
Totals 588 698 811 717 740 844 867 885 896 1032 1137 1126 1145 912 1020 1267 1307 1284 1289 1288
N & C America
Belize -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 1 1 1 1 F I F 1 2 1 F
Canada 36 39 42 56 60 80 39 44 53 51 79 88 79 97 90 91 110 77 62 70
Costa Rica 19" 16 16 17 23 17 15 17 10 10 7 10 11 14 16 19 15" 9 12 13"
Cuba 34* 34* 30* 27* 25* 23* 22* 22* 23* 22F 23F 23F 24F 24F 24F 24F 24F 25F 26F 26F
Dominican Rep. 19 20 21 25 25 31 25 22 28 25* 28* 30* 20* 44* 30 38 32* 38 36 43
El Salvador 20 23 18 16 21 19 22 24 26 30 35 27 37 34 40 40 40 43 47 47F
Guatemala 33 41 49 60 57 51 53 66 56 63 65 65 73 78 65 78 67 81* 85* 80
Haiti 17F 38F 40F 40F 41F 41 42 36 40 40 42 43F 43F 44F 45 46F 46F 46 52 45F
Honduras 38 45 50 58 43 50 57 63 55 55* 55* 35* 48* 55* 43 48 50* 44* 38* 38*
Mexico 723 656 677 892 860 1013 899 878 806 925 828 809 1009 896 1027 740 745 949 601 1130
Nicaragua 32 36 40 45 49 53 55 56 55 53 54F 43 47 51 44 53 64 55 52F 50F
Panama 5 7 7 5 4 7 7 6 5 5 3 3 3 3 4 4 3 4 3 5
Puerto Rico 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2F 2F 2F 2F 2F 2F 2F 2F 2F 2F 2F 2F 2F
USA 896 818 911 792 751 909 696 791 858 789 722 822 743 923 791 807 739 859 929 1184
Totals 1874 1775 1903 2034 1959 2297 1934 2026 2017 2070 1944 2002 2140 2265 2222 1991 1938 2232 1945 2734
South America
Argentina 33 24 33 29 38 30 27 23 32 40 59 58 73 115 109 171 180 133 235 235
Bolivia 2F 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4* 2F 2 3F 3F 2 2F 2F
Brazil 1745 1710 1942 1951 2290 2148 2548 2420 2200 2211 2500 2347* 2229 2238 2271 1842 2327 2194 2174 1975
Chile 91 74 64 64 59 69 90 65 47 66 72 83 65 75 74 70 112 112 116 84
Colombia 44 48 44 42 40 35 38 55 50 43 58 59 58 78 90 68 72 75 75 82
Ecuador 21 21 23 25 31 37 38 28 35F 46 30 26 32 28 26 32 32F 19 23 29*
Paraguay 17 18 19 24 19 23 18 17 35 32 26 32 34 42F 52 55F 56F 65 58 65
Peru 43 45 42 45 48 65 76 51 65 63 58 48* 43* 41* 64F 64F 65F 56F 56F 55F
Uruguay 4 4 4 4 4 2 2 2 2 2 2F 2F 2F 2F 2F 3F 3F 3F 3F 3F
Venezuela 44 35 38 37 37 40 42 37 34 33 35 30 25 33 37 41* 65* 34 39 46*
Totals 2044 1982 2212 2223 2571 2452 2883 2701 2502 2539 2844 2688 2565 2654 2728 2348 2915 2692 2780 2576
Source: F.A.O. Production Yearbooks F = F.A.O. estimate = Unofficial country estimate




Table 4. DRY BEANS: FIVE-YEAR AVERAGES BY CONTINENT AND COUNTRY, 1961-1980.
Harvested Area by Cont. & Co. Total Production by Cont. & Co.
Continent (in Hectares) Yield per Hectare by Cont. & Co. (in 1000 megatons)
and Country '612'65 '662'70 '712'75 '762'80 '61-265 '662'70 '712'75 '76-280 '612'65 '662'70 '712'75 '762'80
Africa
Algeria 2 4 5 2.4 740 400 577 670 1 2 3F 2F
Angola 77 119 120F 118F 767 555 592 512 59 66 71F 61F
Benin 94 75F 57 68 256 293 351 435 24 22 20 30
Burundi 173 232 328 256F 694 621 622 632 120 144 204F 162F
Cameroon 56 62F 96F 141F 435 435 532 621 42 27 51F 88F
Chad Incomplete data 98 367 Incomplete data 427 39 Incomplete data 42F
Egypt 3 5 7 6SF1 1695 1723 2161 2189 5 8 14* 14F
Ethiopia 88 93 89 28F 706 753 730 884 62 70 65F 22F
Kenya No data No data No data
Lesotho 6 11F 16F 20F 245 230 253 814 2 3F 4F 13F
Madagascar 56 63 67 61 803 825 850 918 49 52 57 55
Malawi 13 13F 14F 62 561 536 496 586 7 7F 7 39F
Morocco 6 8F 7F 8 718 527 669 714 4 4F 5F SF
Reunion 1 1 nd 1300 1- 1 iF 1iF
Rwanda 121 157F 171 210F 714 854 799 810 87 134 135 170F
Somalia 3 3F 11F 13F 250 467 373 344 2 2F 4F SF
South Africa 85 76F 73 70F 439 658 808 1000 38 50 59 70
Sudan 6 SF 6 3F 1432 1223 1149 1229 8 7F 6 3F
Swaziland 2 2F 2F 2F 336 306 462 600 1 11F 1F iF
Tanzania 202 22SF 270F 298F 432 502 530 501 87 113F 143F 15OF
Togo 49 59 70 62F 285 389 357 266 13 23 2SF 16F
Uganda 174 232F 343 432F 595 621 536 489 120 144 184F 211
Zaire No data No data Incomplete data
Zimbabwe 52 5OF 501F 382 480 500 -21 24F 2SF 24
Totals 1269 1503 1803 2112 Means 586 444 441 590 Totals- 719 904 1068 1287
N & C America
Belize 1 -- Incomplete data 2F inc. 636 1- 1 iF
Canada 31 38 58 55 1510 1395 1500 1567 46 53 87 82
Costa Rica 47 35 26 27 370 400 501 513 17 14 12 14
Cuba 39 3SF 3SF 3SF 767 628 686 840 30 22F 24F 2SF
Dominican Rep. 32 33F 34* 48* 644 789 882 779 21 26* 30* 37
El Salvador 29 33 46 54 633 727 761 751 18 24 35 43
Guatemala 76 8SF 99* 122* 649 650 697 655 50 58 69 78
Haiti 39 O0F 41F 70 1013 1000 1049 762 39 40 43 47F
Honduras 73 76 77* 82* 648 737 610 539 48 S6* 47* 44*
Mexico 1829 1898 1662 1478 416 476 550 562 761 904 914 837
Nicaragua 52 6SF 67 78 802 831 716 790 42 54 48 55
Panama 21 19 14 15 268 314 354 265 6 6 3 4
Puerto Rico S 4F 4F 4F 429 581 600 600 2 2F 2F 2F
USA 581 570 574 602 1433 1419 1394 1497 833 809 800 904
Totals 2856 2934 2737 2583 Means 670 705 772 816 Totals 1914 2068 2115 2168
South America
Argentina 30 39 89 177 1049 769 933 1076 31 30 83 191
Bolivia 8 9 7F7 3F 371 377 563 853 3 3 3 2F
Brazil 2936 35S1 3911 4347 656 649 592 483 1927 2306 2317 2102
Chile 69 57 72 94 973 117S 1028 968 67 67 74 98
Colombia 79 88 104 111 SS0 S00 663 670 44 44 69 74
Ecuador 49 74 65 54 S07 S00 431 S01 25 37F 28 27
Paraguay 27 39 S2 77 724 641 712 776 19 2S 37 60F
Peru 47 77 66F 72F 943 831 773 806 4S 64 51* 59F
Uruguay 6 4F 4F 4.5F 676 532 505 569 4 2 2F 3F
Venezuela 83 96 83 81 463 38S 386 SS3 38 37 32 45*
Totals 3334 4034 4452 5030 .Means 661 648 606 529 Totals 2204 2615 2696 2662
Source: F.A.O. Production Yearbooks F = F.AQ. estimate =Unofficial country estimate inc. IIncomplete data




4000 SOUTH AMERICA
3800 3600
W, 3400 Brazil
< 3200
I
u 3000
z 2800
D 2600
0
I- 1000 N.A.
800' AFRICA Niger
600 1970 Uganda
400 Uad
* Tanzania **ww MW =Now..
200
0 I
1960 1965 1970 1975 1980
YEARS
SOUTH AMERICA (cont't)
400
(Chile, little change) Argentina
200 Colombia a- -bso
1960 1965 1970 1975 1980
YEARS
Figure 1. Dry Beans: Harvested Area by Continents' Major Countries, 1961-80.
7




Th.
ha.
1800 Mexico
1400
1200
NORTH & CENTRAL AMERICA 1000
SU.S.A.
600 . ..... '.****"'* p ******...,,g,,. -*.... / *- ./ .
400
200 r
I I I
60 65 70 75 80
Figure 1 (continued). Dry Beans: Harvested Area by Continents' Major Countries, 1961-80.
, ** *,Brazil
o o ..--650D ***
* ',. iBurundi/
600 : ." "N *
550 '.'Uganda *. /
50 *- *
< 450 / **
... &Tanzania '.
'" 400 .
I
S 350
S 300 SOUTH AMERICA& AFRICA
O
-J
- 250
200
150 N.A. N.A.
100
50
0
o I I I
1960 1965 1970 1975 1980
YEARS
Figure 2. Dry Beans: Yield/Ha by Continents' Major Countries, 1961-80.
8




1500 \NORTH &CENTRAL AMERICA /
1450
1400
1350 -<\/ \'" U.S.A.
cc 1300 U
I
1250 cn 650 cc 600
0
_z 550
500 Mexico
450
400
350
Of
1960 1965 1970 1975 1980
YEARS
Figure 2 (continued). Dry Beans: Yield/Ha By Continents' Major Countries, 1961-80.
I
SOUTH AMERICA
I
200
150- Argentina /,
z 100 Chile .....*
0
50 .. "Colombia
I- 0
w
m 300
z AFRICA Uganda
u 250 ".
0 Burundi"
M 200 .
150. .(.........
100
1Tanzania 50 Niger
0 I I I
1960 1965 1970 1975 1980
YEARS
Figure 3. Dry Beans: Total Production By Continents' Major Countries, 1961-80.
9




/
NORTH & CENTRAL AMERICA /
0!
I I
Z/
900 Mexico
\//
800
S A.A.
S 700 1
Mexico
600
1960 1965 1970 1975 1980
SOUTH AMERICA (con't)
2300
Brazil
2200
Cn
Z
0
_ 2100 I
o 2000
z
0
oO
- 1900
1800
0T
1960 1965 1970 1975 1980
YEARS
Figure 3. (continued). Dry Beans: Total Produciton By Continents' Major Countries, 1961-80.
10




Cowpeas (Tables 5-7, Figures 4-6)
Africa An official Brazilian publication (Feijao, published in
Brazilia in 1981 by Departamento Tecnico Cientifico of
Nigeria is the largest producer of cowpeas in the Epea Baiei ePsus goeura
world, and the area devoted to the crop has shown an EMBRA saes de aeragroduio
upward trend since 1961 (Table 5). Niger and Upper EMBRAPA) states that on the average, production of Volta are also relatively large producing countries, as auction of "feijao." Essentially all of the cowpea procompared with other African states. Some countries ap- duction of Brazil is in the north and north eastern states, pear reasonably stable in area harvested (Upper Volta), and the publication referred to above reports that this while others (Uganda, South Africa) show a decline ar e p u cd i29.3etousad to o f cow s in the during the last two decades. A change as consistent and 1 9 e a productionamounted to 1.96
marked as Nigeria reflects a force or forces greater than million tons during the same period. simple diffusion. If the growth in hectarage were pri- In the United States cowpeas are grown in the south marily diffusion of particularly attractive yielding and southeast, and in the far west (California). Land varieties or of seed types, other adjacent states should be planted to cowpeas has declined slightly since the early expected to show a similar increase. In fact, in Nigeria, 1960's, with per hectare yields remaining at about 600 per hectare grain yields have either not changed or have kilograms. This is considerably below average United slightly decreased. More likely, the increased hectarage States bean yields, but only in California are cowpeas in Nigeria reflects government policy in the form of grown under igtion. economic incentives, opening up of new lands, indirect For "developed" countries, the 666 kilograms/hectare effects of a rapidly expanding population, etc., which avrageyeld suthries tha of "elog "sctanhavenotbee th cas elewhre.average yield is three times that of "developing" counhave not been the case elsewhere, tries. Quality of land, uncontrollable climatic hazards
The influence of irrigation on yields is apparent from and pests, and the degree to which technological inputs the figures for Egypt, which show a very pronounced are employed in production account for the difference. jump in average yield/hectare for 1974-1975. In many It is thus not likely, even with much greater use of countries, average yields are low because cowpeas are pesticides, fertilizers, and improved varieties, that relegated to the hotter and drier sections of the country, average country yields can be brought into the same sections where other legumes are less well suited than rage aosnthe eel ope counts. cowpeas. Tanzania is a good example. Even so, cowpea By virtue of the greater adaptation of cowpeas to yields are competitive with yields of dry beans in these marginal soil and climatic conditions, it may be countries. destined to face producion hazards not generally confronted by other grain legumes. There are, of course,
environmental circumstances in the tropics (the lowland
Western Hemisphere humid sites, for example) where cowpeas suffer cornBrazil is the largest producer of cowpeas in the parative disadvantages.
Americas but, unfortunately for comparative purposes, Cowpeas are grown in most Caribbean basin counthe production statistics for cowpeas are merged with tries, including Panama and Guyana, but production those on common dry beans under the name "feijao." statistics are not reported frequently enough to suggest any trends.
11




Table 5. DRY COWPEAS: HARVESTED AREA BY CONTINENT AND COUNTRY, 1961-1975 (in 1000 Hectares)
Continent 1 5-Year Averages
and Country 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 -1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 '61-'65 '66-'70 '71-'75
Africa
Egypt 2 2 3 5 4 4 6 4 4 4 5F 4 3 3 3F 3 4 4
Madagascar 25 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6F 6F 6F 6F 6F 6F 6 6 6F
Malawi 9F 8 8 9F 11F 11F 1OF 11F 11F 12F 12F 12F 12F 12F 12F 9 11F 12F
Mauritania 20F 20F 30F 30 32F 32F 34F 30F 30F 30F 32F 32F 33F 33F 33F 26 31F 33F
Mozambique 5F 5F lOF 4F 1OF Not reported Not reported Not reported 6F Not reported
Niger 427 475 506 519 468 652 739 744 Not reported 56F Not reported Not reported
Nigeria 1350F 1473 2638 2531 2843 3028 3914 3366 4027 3816 4000F 4000F 3800F 450OF 450OF 2120 3630 4160F
Senegal 48 49 51 51 54 86 99 71 56 75F 80F 86 53 59 59F 51 77 67F
South Africa 26F 17F 19F 19F 19F 13F 19F 7F 13F 7F 8F 16F 16F 16F 16F 20 12F 14F
Tanzania 60F 68F 39F 63 75F 50F 80 60F 54F 30F 35F 35F 35F 35F 48 64F 34F
Uganda 68 84F 83F 100F 103F 91 107F 92F 75F 90F 90F 90F 20F 20F 20F 151 91F 48F
Upper Volta 145 455 486 207 21OF 210F 210F 230F 240F 240F 240F 240F 350F 30OF 350F 301 226F 296F
Zimbabwe 1 1 1 1 IF IF IF IF IF iF IF IF IF IF 1 iF iF
Totals 2150 2175 3393 2997 3246 3557 4456 3898 4523 4335 4503 4522 4328 4985 5030 2736 4154 4674
N & C America
Haiti Not reported Not reported 47F 47F 47F not rep. Incomplete
Puerto Rico 1 1 1 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 1
USA 54 52 51 36 41 35 38 35F 33F 30F 33F 33F 33F 33F 33F 46 34F 33F
Totals 55 53 51 36 42 35 38 35 33 30 33 33 80 80 80 47 34 61
Developed Countries 94 91 76 79 66 75 63 63 52 52 64 66 66 67 89 64 63
Developing Countries 2198 3418 3025 3269 3584 4482 3931 4552 4369 4531 4544 4397 5053 5104 2801 4183 4726
Source: F.A.O. Production Yearbooks F = F.A.Q. estimate




Table 6. DRY COWPEAS: YIELD PER HECTARE BY CONTINENT AND COUNTRY 1961-1975 (in Kilogram /Hectare)
Continent 5-Year Averages
and Country 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 '61-65 '662'70 '712'75
Africa
Egypt 1610 1665 1604 1508 1622 1582 1700 1904 1666 1428 1190 1428 1700 3060 3103 1589 1656 2096
Madagascar 720 500 500 542 517 583 600 567 641 617 633 633 633 633 650 545 602 636
Malawi 450F 448 560 562 561 591 550 571 591 609 609 609 609 603 615 518 582 607
Mauritania 450 317 333 328 344 441 313 333 333 313 281 242 242 242 364 355 272
Mozambique 940 470 910F 470F 970F Not reported Not reported
Niger 120 150 160 170 160 160 160 100 170 Not reported Incomplete data
Nigeria 345 232 243 236 190 137 188 216 228 200 276 197 184 189 192 208
Senegal 250 269 275 333 259 209 306 317 270 333 375 125 283 390 390 277 286 299
South Africa 1140 608 611 625 492 538 632 571 538 571 600 813 613 788 500 581 570 663
Tanzania 300 298 299 280 318 322 276 159 139 310 293 286 286 286 295 250 294
Uganda 290F 298 303 300 301 257 570 696 742 667 722 667 450 450 450 571 625
Upper Volta 280 210 200 285 286 286 286 287 292 271 250 250 257 233 214 233 283 240
Zimbabwe 314 268 197 210 220 300 250 300 300 300 300 300 300 310 289 274 302
Means 460 317 236 257 248 207 169 215 233 244 221 284 210 197 199 264 215 221
N & C America
Haiti Not reported Not reported 766 781 787 Incomplete data
Puerto Rico 550 642 704 805 809 807 805 750 700 750 750 750 750 750 750 674
USA 660 545 655 591 583 644 577 600 606 600 606 606 606 606 606 607 618 606
Means 640 547 655 594 585 645 578 601 607 601 607 612 702 711 715 622 618 689
Developed Countries 634 698 673 634 685 651 669 651 635 634 705 660 703 635 664 656 666
Developing Countries 315 237 260 250 209 170 219 235 247 223 284 217 203 207 272 216 226
Source: F.A.O. Production Yearbooks F = F.A.O. estimate




Table 7. DRY COWPEAS: TOTAL PRODUCTION BY CONTINENT AND COUNTRY, 1961-1975 (in 1000 metric tons)
Continent 5-Year Averages
and Country 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 '61-'65 '66-'70 '71-'75
Africa
Egypt 3 6 7 7 6 10 8 7 6 5 6 5 9 9F 5 7 7
Madagascar 3 3 3 3 4 4 3 4 4F 4F 4F 4F 4F 4F 3 4 4F
Malawi 4F 4 5 5F 6F 7F 6F 6F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 7F 5 7F 7F
Mauritania 5F 9F 10 10 11 11 15 9* 10 10 10F 9F 8F 8F 8F 10 11 9F
Mozambique 2 2F 5F 2F 5F Not reported Not reported
Niger 53 73 80F 86 76 103 117 74 160 Not reported Not reported 21 97
Nigeria 803 508 611 616 646 576 538 634 871 870 800F 1103* 750F 830F 850F 698 867
Senegal 12 13 14 17 14 18 30 23 15 25* 30F 11 15 23 23F 14 22 20F
South Africa 15 10 12 13 9 7* 12" 4 7* 4* 5* 13 10 13 8 12 7 10
Tanzania 18F 20 12 18 24 16 22 10 8 9F 10 10F 1OF 1OF 14 16 10F
Uganda 20F 25F 25F 30F 31F 23 61 64 56 60F 65F 60F 9F 9F 9F 27 52 30F
Upper Volta 41 96 97 59 60F 60F 60F 66F 70F 65F 60F 60F 90F 70F 75F 70 64F 71F
Zimbabwe -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -Totals 690 802 771 804 735 752 840 1056 1059 995 1283 908 983 1003 722 888 1034
N & C America
Haiti Not reported Not reported 36F 36F 36F Not reported
P u e r t o R ic o - - - - - - - -.... ... .
USA 35 28 33 21 24 23 22 21F 20F 18F 20F 20F 20F 20F 20F 28 21F 20F
Totals 35 29 34 22 24 23 22 21 20 18 20 20 56 56 57 29 21 422
Developed Countries 70 60 64 51 50 45 49 42 41 33 33 45 44 47 59 59 42 42
Developing Countries 686 692 812 787 818 749 764 860 1071 1079 1009 1289 952 1028 759 759 905 1067
Source: F.A.O. Production Yearbooks F = F.A.O. estimate




4500 4000
3500
3000 LU
U 2500 F
U 2000
1500
< 600"
0
S 500
F- .400
400 / I
300
' Upper Volta 200 -- ....4--"
100 Senegal . ...I.......
0 I I I
1960 1965 1970 1975 1980
YEARS
Figure 4. Dry Cowpeas: Harvested Area in Major African Countries, 1961-75 (in 1000 Hectares).
650
600
550 -Not Reported
uw 500 < 450
w /
..400 Senegal
< 350
* .....'#-.*.. ..
250 Upper Volta
200 Nigeria150
100 Niger (variation)
50 0
1960 1965 1970 1975 1980
YEARS
Figure 5. Dry Cowpeas: Yield/Ha in Major African Countries, 1961-75.
15




900
800
2
0 Nigeria
S 700 cc
I
LU
o 600
2
)
0
-: 200
150
150 -Niger
100
--- --%*.... Upper Volta
500 -. .. N ] Senegal
1960 1965 1970 1975 1980
YEARS
Figure 6. Dry Cowpeas: Total Production in Major African Countries, 1961-75.
16




Country Constraints
and National Programs
East Africa
Burundi
Beans play a very important role in feeding the B. Present Program Activities
population of Burundi. They are a staple food and a 1. Collection and evaluation of local "landprincipal source of protein. Some 120,000 tons of beans races." are produced in three seasons per year on about 24,000 2. Introduction and testing of foreign varieties, hectares. Cowpeas are seldom grown. with final trials conducted in two distinct
A. Major Constraints agro-ecological zones with a limited number of
1. Soils: problems of acidity, too high clay con- previously screened and selected varieties.
tent and poor drainage, and infertility 3. Seed distribution, a very recent activity not yet
characterize the soils in three major farming reaching more than about 25 percent of
regions, respectively, farmers.
2. Low temperatures on the high plateau (1,800 C. Future Plans
meters and above): bean production on the 1. Continuation of current activities, started in
plateau falls to less than 500 kilograms/ 1978 and expected to continue until 1983.
hectare. D. Assessment
3. Variable rainfall: both in amount and in tim- For a small country, beans are exceedingly abundant
ing of onset of the rain seasons, and universally grown and consumed. Governmental
4. Diseases and insect pests. resources have not permitted a major program in
Diseases beans. It is particularly crucial to Burundi that chanBean common mosaic: not serious. nels of regional and international cooperation be openHalo blight. ed and made to service the needs which the country
Rhizoctonia. itself can scarcely afford to address.
Rust: serious only at higher altitudes.
Angular leafspot.
Ashy stem blight, caused by Ramularia Ethiopia
phaseoli. Legumes constitute important sources of protein for
Anthracnose: most serious, the people of Ethiopia. During the extended fasting
Insect pests periods, the Christian population in the country absBean fly: considerable damage in certain tains from animal sources of protein and, hence,
regions. depends heavily on legumes. Horse beans, field peas,
Aphids: cause great damage in dry seasons, lentils and chick peas are known to be important tradiLealfhoppers: damage not generally severe. tional components of the diet. Recently, the diet has
5. Varieties/socio-cultural preference: black- also included limited amounts of navy beans, lima
seeded beans are higher-yielding but farmers beans and soybeans.
grow light-colored types with inferior yields The cowpea is grown primarily in the arid and semibecause of consumer preference. arid zones. With its broad spectrum of agro-ecologic
17




regions (11 major zones have been defined), Ethiopia or from among locally grown "land-races," and
has a great potential as a producer of legumes for from introduced varieties.
domestic consumption and export. Pulses comprise an 2. Conduct intercropping studies with beans,
important component of the country's export maize and sorghum.
commodities. 3. Popularize legumes for domestic consumption
Common beans cover a considerable acreage in and for export.
Ethiopia, being grown both as food and a cash crop for export. They are found mostly in highland areas rang- D. Future Plans and Assessment ing from 1,700 to 2,000 meters. These include the 1. Continued testing for reliably high yielding,
Chercher highlands of Hararghae province, the lower region-wide adaptability.
regions of Shoa and Arsi provinces and, to a lesser ex- 2. Place special selection emphasis upon drought tent, in the southwest of the country. resistance, and secondly upon disease resistance
In the Chercher region, beans are grown as the in locally acceptable types.
major legume in association with maize and/or3.Ithhohuireonsdqalybhfr sorghum. Because of the short maturity types, it is 3. nsuthe o humd frgos usee qupatit, bhothd for
often possible to obtain two harvests of beans, while com ptioneserc and oreusin lan ctivsoedb
obtaining one harvest of maize and sorghum, during maStdes arsa nd exld tnsonl objefctive o
the long growing period from April to December. 4 tde n il rassol efcsdo
Cowpeas are grown in the drier regions of the coun- three agro-ecologic regions:
try, usually with other crops such as maize and/or a) The coarse-textured and sandy loam soils of
sorghum. Cowpeas are used for food in the country the Eastern area.
and not exported in any quantity. Many food products b) The blackland clay soils of the Central
are made from cowpea flour, highlands.
A. Mjor rodctio Costrantsc) The reddish brown oxisols of the West.
Ethiopia shares most of the production and There are favorable climatic and soil conditions in
utilization problems common to East Africa. In Ethiopia to support a productive pulse agriculture.
particular, however, regional constraints have Furthermore, there exists in the country, even at this been identified as follows: time, sufficient technical capability to provide guidance
1. Dougt i th Easernregona prble ofall to improved production practices.
1.Drugh nthsatrnrgos.rbemo l Personnel at the institutions named above are capable
pulses.of extending excellent research collaboration in beans
2. Low soil temperatures at planting time, in the and related pulses.
Central Highlands. Traditionally, however, pulses in Ethiopia have been
3. Fungal attacks on germinating seeds in the Cen- grown in small plots with a minimum of technology. Imtral Highlands and more humid Western provement of the crops, through varietal selection and
Region: this is a problem associated with seeds production practices, will require a monumental effort produced under conditions of high temperatures on the part of extension organizations to reach the small and high humidity. farmers. A return to political normalcy and a national redirection of the country's resources toward internal B. Institutions with Research Programs or Potential domestic problems, including agricultural development,
for Research Collaboration are prerequisites to achieving the goals of pulse
1. Eastern Highlands: Alemaya College of Agri- improvement.
culture.
2. Central Highlands: Debre-Zeit Experiment Sta- Kenya
tion at Bishofter.
3. Western Region: Jimma Agricultural Technical Beans Phaseolus vulgaris
Instiute.Beans are the most important pulse crop in Kenya and In addition, the junior Agricultural College in second to maize in importance for human food. Beans
Awassa, the National Ministry of Agriculture, and argow exnsvlinteEtrCnrlad
the Institute of Agricultural Research have a poten- Western provinces, and in 1974-1975 were reported to
tial for research collaboration. have occupied some 763,500 hectares.
C. Major Program Objectives A. Major Production Constraints
1. Identify and distribute drought and disease 1. The principal biological factors limiting producresistant varieties of beans and cowpeas through tion of beans in Kenya are disease and insects.
regional trials of genetic materials selected out of Among the diseases rated important and
18




moderately important are the following: tion at Thika. This project has classified
Anthracnose. numerous seed types as components of Kenya
Rust. bean land-races and has undertaken screening
Angular leafspot. and breeding work, particularly on anthracnose
Ashy stem blight, and .mosaic.
Fusarium root rot. 2. At the Faculty of Agriculture of the University of
Southern blight. Nairobi at Kabete, a multi-disciplinary team of
Rhizoctonia root rot. scientists has outlined researchable problem
Powdery mildew. areas in beans and cowpeas and has initiated
Halo blight, some work with very limited resources. Among
Common bacterial blight, the active projects are the following:
Bacterial brown spot. Project 1: "The effect of added nitrogen,
Bean common mosaic. phosphorous, molybdenum and inoculation
This is an impressive list; it includes nearly upon symbiotic nitrogen fixation of beans,
all of the major bean diseases found any place Phaseolus vulgaris, in Kenya."
in the world. One reason is the great climatic a) Determining need for inoculation of beans
diversity that exists from the eastern and coastal using local and imported inoculants.
regions to the upland and mountainous regions b) Investigation of mineral nutrients, such as
of the Western provinces. A second reason is the nitrogen, phosphorous, molybdenum, etc.,
widespread use of farmer-grown seeds, many of and their possible effect on limiting nitrogen
which carry seed-borne disease organisms. N fixation.
Thirdly, an exceptionally thorough survey of c) Study the effect of agronomic factors such as
bean disease problems has been carried out in plant population, time of planting and
Kenya. Finally, not every disease occurs in A weeding upon nitrogen fixation.
areas nor in all seasons.
d) Exploration of local materials which might
Major insect pests include: serve as carrriers for inoculants.
Bean fly.
Aphids. Project 2: "Nutrient and water-use efficiency in
Bollworm. legumes."
Bean beetle. a) Study dry matter accumulation in legumes
Several species of minor importance are also at various regimes of applied moisture and
known to affect beans, such as blue and green fertilizer relating to grain yield.
leaf-eating beetles, blister beetles, thrips and the b) Measure nutrient content of vegetation and
spotted borer. grain in relation to grain yield.
2. Environmental constraints c) Measure available nutrients in soil at various
a) Drought: an almost ubiquitous hazard growth stages in relation to grain yields.
throughout East Africa due to insufficient or Project 3: "The physiological genetics of drought
irregular rainfall. adaptation in beans, Phaseolus vulgaris."
b) Depletion of soil fertility and unavailability a) A series of field experiments involving four
of appropriate fertilizers. contrasting genotypes planted at different
c) Inefficient nitrogen fixation: reasons for this dates to expose them to different water
are unknown but dry soil conditions are regimes are to be established and certain
thought to be a contributing factor. physiological measurements made,
3. Agronomic factors including:
a) Beans are generally grown with maize as a Leaf water potential.
subsistence crop on small areas. Essentially Stomatal diffusive resistance.
no agronomic information is available to or Light interception.
used by the small farmer, and scarcely any Profiles of soil water content.
modern farming technology is used. Flower bud, flower and immature pod
B. Recent and Current Activities counts.
Date of physiological maturity.
1. A research team of scientists, supported and sent Seed yield and components.
to Kenya by the Netherlands government, has
been engaged in disease resistance work at the Project 4: "Improvement of local food beans,
Ministry of Agriculture Horticultural Field Sta- Phaseolus vulgaris, by breeding for disease
19




resistance, adaptability and yield." C. Achievements
a) Develop disease resistance in local bean The achievements of the agronomy work, apart
cultivars. from published results in journals, are announced in
b) Develop local bean cultivars adapted to dif- "Guidelines" for bean production. Those of the
ferent ecological areas. breeding work are: the release of varieties; the proc) Develop beans with higher yield potential, duction of breeders' seed; the successful breeding for
higher protein quality and better cooking resistance to anthracnose, bean common mosaic, quality, angular leafspot and halo blight; and the investigaProjct : "Pst anagmen of egue plntstions in miscellaneous subjects related to bean imProj ec a 5:"estmanagemeont sofylegume lans provement through breeding and selection. Those of with sia emhasi. pnsyen cn the pathology work are: the description of the disease
maxin Knya.situation in the country, the successful control of a) Survey and collect insect pests of grain diseases by chemical means, the identification of
legumes. disease resistances and the support of the breeding
b) Study phenology of legume varieties and the program in respect to disease screening.
pest complex interactions.
c) Assess pest status of insect species associated D Future Plans
with particular legumes. During the coming years the bean improvement
d) Study ecological factors and cultural prac- program will concentrate on:
tices in relation to overall pest reduction. 1. Agronomy
e) Select the most pest resistant varieties with a) Competition problems in mixed cropping.
acceptable market quality. b) Optimal bean-maize ratios for different
Project 6: "Studies on inactivating trypsin in- ecological zones.
hibitors in Kenyan dry beans, Phaseolus sp., by c) Optimal relative planting times.
some selected processing conditions." d) Weed control.
a) Sudystepin an/or lanhin asa manse) Definition of parameters for fertilizer
a) Study ting and/or blnhingor asactmean recommendations.
ofw inatiang rpi.ihbtrfcosi f) Relation of nodulation-fertilizer requireraw bans.ment. Project 7: "Studies on the amino-acid composi- g) Long-term rotation-fertilizer trials.
tion of popular varieties of Kenyan dry beans 2. Breeding-selection and the effects of processing on availability of a) The production of improved varieties.
lysine and methionine." b) Breeding for disease resistance.
a) Obtain values for total amino-acid content c) Production of breeders' seed.
in three bean varieties and changes in d) Improvement of crop mixtures.
availability of lysine and methionine with 3. Crop protection
processing. a) Screening for disease and pest resistance.
Project 8: "Dehydrated green leafy vegetables b) Monitoring disease and pest situations.
(legume leaves) as Vitamin A supplements to the c) Chemical control of pests and diseases.
local diet." d) Identification of disease strains and races.
a) Screen local green leafy vegetables (CLV) e) Support of the breeding program in respect
for beta-carotene content and to develop to screening for disease resistance.
simple rural-scale processing techniques for 4. Evaluation of different cropping systems.
the preservation of GLV and Vitamin A.
b) Evaluate nutrient retention in dry leaf prod- E. Assessment
ucts under varying storage conditions. The disease resistance work by the Netherlands
team at Thika is of high quality and may be expected
Project 9: "Economics of production and to lead to varieties of the principal seed classes
marketing of food beans in Kenya." possessing multiple foliage disease resistance. Kenya
a) Assess the structure and performance of the has a national seed organization with the capability
bean distribution system in Kenya. of seed multiplication and distribution to handle seed
A one-year project on the "Economics of Pro- of improved bean varieties. The only flaw in the duction and Marketing of Food Beans in Kenya" Netherlands program is the length of time the prowas outlined in 1977, but no report has thus far gram will be supported. At this time an extension to been issued. 1983 has been authorized.
20




The University of Nairobi group, at Kabete, is also trials. These diseases were not equally severe at all
very competent but two problems are paramount: 1) locations surveyed. The yellow mottle virus was
research time must compete with teaching respon- most severe at the Katumani site, while Cercospora
sibilities of the principal investigators; and 2) leaf spot, cowpea mosaic and bacterial pustule were
facilities at Kabete are very limited for conducting most severe at Mt. Wapa, with genetic resistance beresearch. ing noted in some lines. One local land-race was
The work proposed and provisionally undertaken found highly resistant to cowpea rust, yellow mottle
by the Kabete group, along with the full-time virus and target leaf spot. Another line was highly
Netherlands Program at Thika, clearly addresses resistant to all diseases except target spot.
major problems. These problems are not only impor- C. Insect pests
tant in Kenya but are relevant to other East African
countries as well. An exchange of germplasm, par- Objectives:
ticularly from the Thika program, and from the 1. Assess damage due to various insect pests.
disease resistance work at Kabete would help other 2. Identify most serious pests at each test location.
programs very much. 3. Clarify land-races and varieties being evaluated
Cowpeas Vigna unguiculata agronomically for reaction to the major insects
present.
Cowpeas are second to common beans in importance 4. Study the effects of insecticides on insects and on
as a grain legume in Kenya. They are grown on some cowpea yields.
170,000 hectares annually and are used primarily as a A total of 33 species of insects have been recorded
dry grain and as a green vegetable (the fresh leaves), on cowpeas at the Mt. Wapa location and 38 species
Average yields of grain under subsistence farming are at Katumani. It is stated by Kenyan entomologists
low. In the Eastern (drier) Province the average yield is that the insects of greatest economic importance in estimated at 135 kilograms/hectare. Kenya are nearly the same as those found as major
In the Grain Legume Program conducted at the Uni- pests in Uganda and Nigeria.
versity of Nairobi, several problem areas have been iden- pests in Uad andlNgeria
tifid ad rseach nititedin hos aras.A short list of the major pests include the following: tified and research initiated in those areas.
1. Oatheca bennigseni: important during preA. Breeding flowering stage.
Major Objectives: development of high yielding, ear- 2. Aphis craccivora: important during prely maturing, drought tolerant, and disease and pest flowering stage.
resistant cultivars. Particular objectives are: 3. Empoasca sp.: important during pre-flowering
1. Identify from germplasm sources and testing stage.
programs cultivars that are high yielding and 4. Maruca testulalis: important during reproducwidely adapted to soils and climates of Kenya. tive stage.
2. Identify and isolate lines resistant to the com- 5. Heliothis armigera: important during reproductive stage.
mon pests and diseases. 6. Taeniothrips: important during reproductive
3. Select dual-purpose types which may be used stage.
both as a green leafy vegetable and as dry grain. 7. Acanthomya horrid: important during
4. Determine the extent of genotype by environ- reproductive stage.
mental interaction. At Katumani, cutworm, Agrotis ipsilon, was
5. Study and evaluate suitable breeding techniques found to reduce stands from 15-20 percent. At least
including the use of male-sterile lines, one variety showed high resistance to sucking and
6. Develop cultivars with particular suitability for pod boring insects.
mixed cropping.
B. Diseases D. Rhizobiology
Objectives (selection for resistance to major diseases): Constraints:
1. Septoria leaf spot, Septoria vignae. 1. Dry soil conditions and low soil phosphorus limit
2. Yellow mottle virus. nodulation in cowpeas.
3. Cowpea rust, Uromyces phaseoli var. vignae. Objectives:
4. Target leaf spot, Corynespora cassiicola. 1. Isolation and testing of effective nodulating
5. Bacterial pustule, Xanthomonas sp. strains of Rhizobia from local sources in several
6. Cercospora leaf spot, Cercospora sp. locations.
These are the diseases thought to be most severe as 2. Experimentation with additions of fertilizer
judged by inspection of variety and germplasm phosphorus.
21




E. Agronomic Trials surplus finds its way into local markets. Production
Objectives: figures (see Table I) for a country like Malawi, with most
1. Assessment of yield potential of various in- of the beans grown in small fields at intermittent times
produced and local varieties in strategic sites in during the year with an associated crop such as maize in Kea nd some periods and in mono-culture at other times, cannot
Kenya. be very reliable. Most of the beans are found at elevations
2. Determine factors of culture and adaptation to ranging from 1,000 to 2,000 meters above sea level, in
the Kenyan environments, well-drained soils, with annual rainfall of 800-1,500
3. Provide test nurseries to observe insect and millimeters.
disease problems and to obtain some experience
in the use of insecticides as a control measure. A. Major Constraints
F. Management and Results of Trials (Summary) 1. Lack of suitable varieties: a very large number
of "land-races" have been collected from
Ten entries of cowpeas, seven from the Interna- throughout the country, but as yet no particular
tonal Institute of Tropical Agriculture in Nigeria sub-group of races or varieties has emerged as
(IITA) and three local strains, were grown at each superior and of general acceptability to farmers
of the five selected sites in eastern and central Kenya. and consumers alike.
All steps appropriate to good experimental pro- 2. Production technology: a diversity of production
cedures were followed.
cedues wre olloed.practices is found in the country, depending on Insect problems, drought at planting and increas- pate if the outryhdepending on
ed rainfall in the latter part of the season were the put. The technology used is not sufficient to cope
main problems encountered which could not be with the problems of diseases, insects and soil
completely overcome by management. fertility which are generally encountered. NearElevation and temperature difference among the ly all bean soils are acid and infertile. Nitrogen
experimental sites accounted for the different and phosphorus are deficient in most soils and
behavior of some entries. In the lower warmer and appropriate fertilizers are generally unavailable
wetter sites of Mt. Wapa and of Kampi-ya-Mawe in the country.
the IITA entries, adapted to the higher temperatures of Nigeria, out-performed local entries. At 3. Diseases and pests: (these are generally present
Katumani, a cooler site, local entries produced and consist primarily of the following)
highest yields followed closely by certain IITA Diseases
selections. Excessive rainfall near the end of the Anthracnose, caused by the fungus Colletogrowing season kept some entries vegetative for a trichum lindemuthianum.
long time. One IITA and one local entry continued Halo-blight, caused by the bacterium
to produce flowers up to the end of the season. Pseudomonas phaseolicola.
Certain IITA entries were outstanding where the Angular leaf spot, caused by the fungus Phasetemperature and humidity conditions favored rapid oisariopsis griseola.
growth. Semi-creeping types from IITA and local Web blight, caused by the fungus Sclerotium
races produced excessive leafy growth and low grain rolfrii.
yields. Yields at Mt. Wapa ranged from 255 kilo- Rust, caused by the fungus Uromyces appendigrams/hectare for an IITA entry to around 500-700 culatus.
for three local checks, to near 1,500 and up to 1,900 Insect pests
kilograms/hectare for two entries from IITA. Bean beetles, Oatheca spp.
Clearly, from these results, one can expect that Bean fly, Melanogromyza phaseoli, Ophiomyia
with informed choice of varieties and growing sites, phaseoli.
accompanied by good management practices, ex- Bean aphid, Aphis Jabae.
cellent yields of cowpea grain are possible in Kenya. American bollworm, Heliothis armigera.
Also, cooperation with IITA would be beneficial to Bean weevil, Acanthoscelides obtectus.
the Kenya cowpea improvement program. 4. Unavailability of high quality seed: a seed industry as such does not exist, although there is a
national seed organization organized to produce
Malawi seeds of recommended varieties. Bean seed proThe common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris, is the most im- duced by the small farmers is usually found to
portant grain legume in Malawi used directly as food. carry disease, though the physical appearance
Probably only groundnuts exceed the bean in total pro- (size, shape, color) may be quite good.
duction. However, groundnuts are sold as a cash crop, 5. Consumer preferences: preferences are frequentwhereas beans are grown primarily for food and only the ly ambivalent. For example, the large speckled
22




"sugar" bean is preferred for taste and ease of 2. Breeding: for high yield and disease resistance.
cooking, but the small red "katolika" bean is 3. Agronomy: continued experimentation in mixed
chosen for yielding ability under unfavorable and relay cropping.
conditions. Such ambivalence extends across 4. Plant Nutrition: nitrogen fixation.
many different seed types and makes the task of 5. Irrightion: water-use, screening for response to
defining a few dominant "standard" types, upon excess water, screening for drought resistance.
which to place improvement and seed program 6. Stress Studies: screening for resistance to high
emphasis, very difficult, temperature stress.
6. Lack of research and extension workers: bean 7. Crop Protection.
research in Malawi is conducted by personnel of 8. Economics of bean production.
Bunda College, who have primary teaching E. Assessment
responsibilities. There is a plant pathologist Research leadership and competency in Malawi,
assigned to the bean program who is presently as invested in those of the Bunda College staff
on a study leave. Extension personnel have some asnty in withe Burs wllegersthe
training in bean produciton problems, but field presently working with beans, augurs well for the
experience is minimal, future. Having major teaching responsibilities, these
individuals can devote only part of their time to
B. Present Program Objectives research. A critical issue will be the maintenance of
1. To produce high yielding varieties with stable experienced personnel in the program until Malaand durable resistance to diseases and pests, and wians can be trained and returned to Bunda College acceptable to both growers and consumers, as faculty, with research assignments in the bean
2. To develop production technology for beans, program.
Atthis time, a large number of land-races of beans
C. Present Program Activities from all over Malawi has been collected and
1. Collection of bean germplasm. preliminary sorting, classification and evaluaton
2. Preliminary evaluation of germplasm. begun. Excellent work on the agronomy of inter3. Agronomic trials. cropping has been done and preliminary studies
a) Time of planting. begun on identifying the major disease and insect
b) Plant population or spacing. pests.
c) Fertilizer trials.
d) Seed inoculation trials.
4. Production systems research Rwanda
a) Plucking green leaves. Beans are an important dietary component in
b) Support for climbing beans. Rwanda, but the level of production is low. The rainfall
c) Crop rotation. varies from 850-1,300 millimeters and the range in
d) Inter-cropping. temperature is from 15 to 21'C. Altitude ranges from
5. Plant pathology 1,300 to 2,300 meters. There are two distinct growing
a) Chemical control. seasons: September to December, and February to
b) Screening the germplasm pool for resistance May. Mono-culture prevails with some association with
to disease. maize, sweet potatoes and bananas practiced. Research
c) Experiments on production of disease-free on beans is extremely limited.
seed. A. Major Production Constraints
6. Bean physiology 1. Diseases:
a) Growth analysis. Anthracnose.
b) Source-sink relationships. Mosaic.
c) Morphological and physiological yield Common blight.
determinants. Angular leaf spot.
7. Production of disease resistant varieties through 2. Insect pests.
breeding: the work in variety development at this stage consists of land-race evaluations and
growing the Centro Internacional de Agri- 1. Higher yields of quality beans based upon
cultura Tropical (CIAT) International Bean disease and pest resistant varieties introduced or
Yield and Adaptation Nursery. identified within local "land-races."
D. Future Plans 2. Greater cooperation with international
organizations in an effort to improve legumes on
1. Germplasm: cataloging and evaluation, a regional and ecological zone basis.
23




C. Future Plans tion creates both temporary surpluses and
1. Improve soil fertility practices. shortages.
2. Collecting and evaluating local "land races." 7. Varieties: varietal mixtures are more prevalent
3. Testing introduced varieties, than pure types and they lend themselves to
4. Select and breed for environmental stress and varied uses. However, yields are low because
superior disease tolerant varieties, seed is locally-grown and often of inferior
5. Distribution of preferred varieties, quality carrying seed borne diseases or pests.
D. Assessment Farmers are reluctant to use new improved
.Assssmnt varieties because the cost of necessary
As in Burundi, there is a large reservoir of germ- technological inputs and unreliability of rainplasm in Rwanda. Some portion of this reservoir has fall expose them to financial loss.
been recently added to the world collection maintained at CIAT, at Cali, Colombia. The prevalent 8. Diseases and insect pests:
land-races must be more fully evaluated, along with Insect pests
introduced varieties. Insect pests exist in Tanzania which are capable of
Agro-ecologic zones should be delineated for attacking every part of the growing plant, from roots to
future agronomic trials. An in-depth assessment pods and seeds, and of grain in storage.
should be made of the diseases and insect pests to A list of the economically important insects, as determine those of economic importance and to reported by Dr. A. K. Karel, entomologist of the Faculprovide a basis of designing future experimentation. ty of Agriculture at Morogoro, Tanzania, is given. It
Rwanda hopes to participate in any regional col- should be noted that, while each species is capable of
laborative bean research, such as suggested at the causing damage, not every species is present in epidemic
East African Legume Worker's Conference, held in proportions in all places or all seasons.
Malawi in 1980. Leaf eating beetle: Oatheca bennigseni.
Bean Fly: Ophiomyia phaseoli.
Bean aphid: Aphis fabae.
Tanzania Pollen beetle: Coryna apicornis.
Beans are an important food crop in Tanzania. They Blister beetles, flower beetles: Mylabris spp. are the chief legume crop, usually grown in small fields Flower thrips: Taenithrips spp. with maize by small farmers. The environment presents Pod sucking bugs: Acanthomiya spp. many hazards to high stable yields, with diseases and Harvester termites: Hodotermes mossambicus. unreliability of rainfall being of paramount importance. Spotted pod borer: Maruca testulalis.
Tanzania grows both beans and cowpeas, with beans American bollworm (larvae): Heliothis armigera. being more important. Some 600 hectares of soybeans Pests of stored beans
are being grown experimentally. Bean research is con- Bean bruchid: Acanthoscelides obtectus (say.), the most ducted both by the Ministry of Agriculture and by the serious pest of stored beans. agriculture faculty of the University of Dar es Salaam at Cowpea bruchid: Callosobruchus chinensis (Linn.). Morogoro. Cowpea work is in the hands of IITA and Diseases
USAID.
One of the major factors limiting production of beans A. Major Constraints in Tanzania is diseases. They account for more crop
1. Irregularity of rain-fed production: this is a losses than are caused by insects.
common constraint throughout East Africa. Bean rust, caused by Uromyces phaseoli.
2. Low yielding varieties: this is believed by Tan- Halo blight, caused by Pseudomonas phaseolicola.
zanians to be chiefly due to insects and diseases. Anthracnose, caused by Colletotrichum linde3. Lack of effective nodulation: a part of this muthianum.
problem is the dry soil condition often attten- Augular leaf spot, caused by Phaseoisariopsis griseola.
ding a portion of each growing season. Mosaic.
4. Farmers reluctant to accept risks inherent in Mildew, caused by Erisyphe sp.
adopting new technology. 9. Socio-economic constraints
5. Insufficient returns over costs are not reliable a) Reluctance to use costly inputs, considered
enough to warrant use of costly production necessary for high yields, because of unreliinputs, ability of rainfall.
6. Methods of preserving or processing are inade- b) Labor is not usually a problem, except in
quate to retain cookability and nutritive value some local regions.
of beans in storage. This is considered impor- c) Marketing problems: only the surplus
tant because the irregularity of rain-fed produc- enters urban markets, and since surpluses
24




are irregular no standard system of D. Activities of faculty in the Crop Science Departdistribution or marketing has developed. ment of the University of Dar es Salaam at
d) Biases and/or lack of knowledge concerning Morogoro
water soakability, cooking characteristics Since 1975, there has been a national program
and consumer acceptance of "strange" entitled "IITA/USAID Tanzania Grain Legume
varieties that show up in the market place. Research Project." It is charged with conducting
10. Lack of a full-time bean research and extension research on variety development and evaluation,
staff needed to provide information and and disease and insect control. This project has been
guidance to farmers on varieties, pest and headquartered at the Ministry of Agriculture station
disease control measures, fertility, water con- at Llonga in east-central Tanzania. It has dealt servation and other cultural practices. primarily with cowpea improvement, though some
B. Present Program Objectives (Ministry of Agri- work with green gram and soybeans is also
culture program initiated in 1971) conducted.
Some of the results of this program are the
1. Identify reasons for the low yields obtained in folong:
the Southern Highlands. following:
2. Select a high yielding cultivar resistant to the 1. Diseases of grain legumes (distribution and
major diseases in the Southern Highlands and
readily acceptable as food for the poor. 2. Breeding of cowpeas for multiple disease
3. Work out recommendations which could im- resistance and high yields.
prove production. 3. Identification of strains of cowpea yellow
4. Develop a seed multiplication program for the mosaic virus, sources of resistance and genetics
improved cultivars to ensure the production of of host reaction.
disease-free seed. 4. Reaction of elite cultivars of cowpea to
C. Present Program Activities (Ministry of Agriculture prevalent diseases.
program) 5. Pathogenic variability, host resistance and inheritance of reaction to bacterial pustule in
1. Bean variety trials carried out under village cowpeas.
trial programs in farmers' fields in two main 6. Host resistance to important diseases of green
growing regions. gram.
2. Bean plant density trials carried out only with 7. Cowpeas and green gram cultivar yield and
one standard variety: 266,667 plants/hectare adaptation trials
appears optimum for this variety. a) Assembling and evaluation of germplasm
3. Fertilizer response trials involving nitrogen and for yield, growth habits and response to
phosphorus, in three regions. Significant yield inter-cropping.
responses have been shown in all regions. b) Studies on plant structure and physiology
4. Time of planting trials to see whether in regions to identify traits promoting higher yields.
with two rainy periods two bean crops would c) Studies of the insect complex are being
be possible. Preliminary results indicate that conducted.
two crops, one to start with the first rains in d) Studies on the importance and virulence of
November thru December, and the second dur- races of Colletotrichum lindemuthianum
ing March thru April, are feasible. isolated from Southern Highlands.
5. Bean/maize inter-cropping, one year's results. e) Studies on responses to inoculation by
6. Bean Breeding Research Rhizobium and on distribution of nitrogen
a) Multiple-location new line trials. The per- in the plant.
formance of entry P311-A-L and YC-Z E. Future Plans Beans
have been consistently better at all locations. However, P 311-A-L is a black bean Breeding Strategy
and, as such, does not appeal to consumers. 1. Collection, evaluation and maintenance of adIt is being used in a hybridization program ditional germplasm lines from CIAT, and
to impart its superior performance to other elsewhere.
more preferred seed types. This is a typical 2. Identification of sources of resistance to finding among bean workers. It is not clear anthracnose, rust, angular leaf spot, halo
at this time whether, or to what extent, the blight, common bacterial blight and common
advantages of the black bean can be trans- mosaic.
ferred to a non-black type. 3. Hybridization among related parents possessing
25




desirable characters with respect to disease and improved seeds and production practices will be a
insect resistance, yield and seed quality, severe bottleneck.
4. Evaluation of segregating generations and Resources at Morogoro include knowledgeable
selection of desirable progenies, well trained scientists in several needed disciplines
5. Evaluation of selected progenies in preliminary but, as in Bunda College, Malawi, teaching conand advanced trials at several locations. sumes the major share of their time. The faculty
6. Seed multiplication and release of best varieties presently trains young students and obtains valuin dffeent egins.able research inforamtion by means of special studies involving them.
Agronomy: objectives and strategy, concentration Critical constraints at Morogoro for carrying on
on critical management factors and development of a sustained research program in beans and cowpeas
recommendations for practical bean production. are as follows:
1. Determination of optimal plant densities for 1. Unavailability of ordinary laboratory equipdifferent types in mono- and associated culture. ment and supplies for various routine measure2. Determination of best planting dates for the ments and special items for more basic studies.
different areas. 2. Technical personnel to assist faculty are not
3. Determination of the most effective and eco- available, primarily because of funds.
nomical herbicide. 3. Transportation to outlying stations and farmer
4. Determination of most effective and eco- sites is extremely limited and comprises a
nomical fertilizer practice. serious obstacle to conducting research.
5. Evaluation of fungicides for practical and
economical disease control. Uganda
Entomology: objectives and strategy Beans are the principal legume crop in Uganda,
1. Studies on the bean insect complex in though groundnuts are a close runner-up. The edible
2. necacntrlb iscicds legumes are of crucial importance nutritionally since the
3. Isectionto of insectitncideties main carbohydrate crops are sweet potatoes, plantains,
3. Slecion f isec resstat vaietes.cassava and millets, all of which are very low in protein. F. Assessment This situation is brought out dramatically in the followFor many years commercial bean production in ing table:
Tanzania was geared to produce for the European Calories and basic nutrients in beans and
market. Only in the last three to four years has other foods commonly consumed in Uganda.
attention been directed toward the needs of the subsistence farmer. Calories/ Protein Fat CarbohyGovernment supported research has produced in- Food 100g %% drate %
formation on planting time, spacing, fertilization Kidney beans 341 22.1 1.7 61.4
Maize 360 9.3 4.0 73.5
and cultural practices. From these experiments Casava flour 338 1.5 0.6 81.5
there have emerged some tentative ideas on ways to Sweet potato 121 1.6 0.2 28.5
avoid and manage the pests, diseases, weeds and Matoke 135 1.2 0.3 32.1
other problems, although much work lies ahead Finger millet 329 7.4 1.3 77.1
before fully adequate control over these factors is A. Major Constraints
achieved.
Early work in variety selection has resulted in the 1. Lack of suitable varieties: most farmers now
release of two bean cultivars which are now com- grow "land-races." Improved varieties have
monly grown by commercial farms for the export had limited use due to problems of seed multicanning market. In 1979, two improved cultivars plication and distribution.
were released for growers producing beans for 2. Cultural agronomic practices: lack of research
home consumption. information on which to formulate efficient ferThe Ministry of Agriculture has recently placed a tilizer recommendations and the great vaniplant breeder and an agronomist, both with M.S. ability of soil conditions and diversity of
degrees, in the national bean program. They have varieties which further impede making such
identified the principal problems needing attention recommendations. Failure to plant beans at the
but there will be insufficient human or material most favorable time. Because of soil and
resources (for example, transportation) to deal ef- varietal diversity optimum plant populations
fectively with the major problems in research. The vary specifically, making it unfeasible to do exlack of extension information to the small farmer of periments for each situation that might be en26




countered. Untimely weeding often results in institutional support of bean research, including
severe weed competition and reduced yields. studies at Makerere University. Political instability
3. Diseases and Pests: and social unrest in the country, with attendant
Diseases low national productivity, have seriously eroded
c seaes the traditional institutional supports. There
Anthracnose, caused by Colletotrichum linde- appears to have been acceptance by subsequent
muthianum. workers of the 1960 identification of diseases as the
Rust, caused by Uromyces appendiclatu.. chief production problem and of seed multiplicaAngular leaf spot, caused by Isariopsis griseola. tion and distribution as a continuing barrier.
Bacterial blights, caused by Xanthomonas
phaseoli and Pseudomonas phaseolicola. With respect to bean production and utilization
Insect Pests in Uganda, several areas of need exist such as soil
i ise Pes and fertility management, economic feasibility of
Bean aphids: Aphis fabae. technological inputs, pricing policies, storage, insect
Bean fly: Melanogromyza sp. control, and cultural systems. As noted for other
Pod borers: Maruca sp and Heliothis armigera. countries, the needs are greater than the resources
Storage bruchids: Brucidae. available within the country for dealing with them.
B. Present Program Activities A regional program addressing area wide common
1. French bean breeding, consisting of: problems would be helpful in Uganda, as in other
East African countries. Student-trainees have
a) Germplasm collections from within the received training in cowpea production at I.I.T.A.
country and from 17 foreign countries, in Nigeria.
with about 700 cultivars in the collection.
b) Selection for disease resistance within
existing cultivars or "land-races." Zambia
c) Hybridization and selection for yield and The most common legumes in Zambia are ground nut
disease resistance. (Arachis hypogaea), groundbeans (Voandzeia subter2. Haricot bean breeding: a strategy based on ranea), cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata) and edible beans
hybridization and induced mutation to improve (Phaseolus spp). The popularity of beans among the yield and protein content of Mexico 142 type. population is attested to by their ubiquitous presence in
3. Bean pathology: research consists of: markets and by the very high prices they command.
a) Monitoring disease incidence and severity A. Major Constraints
on a set of 220 cultivars grown periodically 1. Varieties: before 1966, only "land-races" or
in various regions of the country. 1. Varieties: before 1966, only "land-races" or
b) Fungicidal spray trials. non-adapted varieties introduced from elsec) Epidemiology and control studies of where were grown. Since 1966, a more systeangular leaf spot. matic evaluation of germplasm has made possi4. Seed production: with assistance of the British ble the identification of a few varieties having
Government, a seed multiplication scheme has more desirable properties, though none is combeen established. Due to various problems the pletely satisfactory. In fact, due to a diversity of
system has not supplied more than about one- conditions and tastes, the country will not be
system has not supplied more than about onefifth of the seed required annually. well-served unless several varieties are
available.
C. Program Achievements and A Brief Assessment 2. Pests and Diseases:
1. Two improved high yielding and moderately Diseases
disease resistant cultivars have been developed Anthracnose, caused by Colletotrichum lindein the French bean selection program and muthianum.
several promising lines are in various stages of Angular leafspot, caused by Phaseoisariopsis
development. griseola.
2. Pathogenic variability in the causal organisms Rust, caused by Uromyces appendiculatus.
of anthracnose, angular leafspot and rust is now Scab, caused by Elsinoe phaseoli.
reasonably well understood. This should aid the Halo and common blights, caused by
development of efficient screening procedures. Pseudomonas phaseolicola and Xanthomonas
3. Suitable procedures have been identified for the phaseoli, respectively.
use of fungicides and insecticides. Insect pests
Uganda has a small corps of competent and Bean fly: Ophiomyia phaseoli.
well-trained bean scientists and a tradition of Leaf beetles: Mylabris spp.
27




3. Socio-economic Central and W est Africa
a) Non-availability of seed, believed to be due
to the disproportionately high price for edi- Cameroon
ble beans in the food market as compared
to the generally low price for seed beans. Cowpeas are grown mostly in the more northerly
B. Peset Prgra Objcties ad Ativiiesregion of the country, a drier region than the south and B. Peset Prgra Objcties ad Ativiieswest where the industrial crops such as rubber, palm
1. Development of varieties with low disease oil, coffee, tea and cocoa are highly favored.
susceptibility. A. Major Constraints to Cowpea Production and
2. Development of varieties with acceptable con- Consumption
sumer quality. 1. Traditional cropping system not adapted to
3. Development of varieties with higher yielding changing socio-economic conditions.
capaity:2. Lack of coordination of resources for produca) Small to medium-sized white seed varieties tion at the small farm level.
for dry-bean consumption. 3. Field and storage insects:
b) Medium-sized speckled sugar bean for dry- Seed weevil.
bean consumption. Flower thrips.
4. Agronomic practices. Pod borer.
5. Disease control through alternative methods. Green stinkbug.
C. Future Plans Grasshoppers.
1. Breeding for multiple resistance to the impor- B. Research and Development Needs and Problems
tant diseases and pests. 1. Varieties introduced from TITA and Senegal
2. Selection of varieties adapted to the low rainfall have been poorly adapted in Cameroon and are
belt. out yielded by local cultivars.
3. Inoculation studies with local strains of 2. Cameroon needs a cowpea agronomist-breeder
Rhizobium. to improve the local varieties for insect
4. Mixed cropping studies. resistance and adaptation to mono-culture
5. Investigation of suitable equipment for planting conditions.
and harvesting on small scale farms. 3. Development on more favorable soils of im6. Intensify extension efforts to promote pro- proved production practices and creation of
duction. such areas as production centers where use of
D. Achievements and Assessment insecticides, metal storage bins and drying
facilities would be possible.
Varieties suitable for production in the high rain- 4. Such centers would require development of
fall, Northern Province, zone have been introduced agri-businesses, expanded market services and
or, in one case, bred in Zambia. Sufficient agro- credit institutions.
nomic experimentation has been done so that plot 5. To promote coordination of resources at the
yields up to 1,100 kilograms/hectare can be reliably small farm level, a full-time coordinator would obtained. This work has provided useful agronomic be required to develop a network of extension,
practice recommendations for the farmers. Bean seed multiplication and distribution centers,
seed production has been standardized under the and demonstration plots in farmer's fields.
auspices of the national seed service. 6. A critical shortage of trained personnel exists to
At present, lack of scientific personnel in the bean staff the research projects that need to be
program has brought bean reasearch in Zambia to undertaken. Only one Institute of Agriculture
a virtual standstill. Program objectives are rela- and Forestry Research (IRAF) staff member
tively modest and probably within the capability of devotes full-time to cowpeas.
the program, once the scientific staff is assembled.
Zambia could clearly benefit from regional research 7. Although the cowpea is the "bean-of-choice"
cooperation since some of the problems encountered and commands a premium price in the
in Zambia are region-wide. markets, the crop has lost favor among many
local farmers because of the extreme susceptibility of the stored seed to infestation by
weevils.
In contrast, seed of the common bean is
(Continued on page 37)
28




Gathering the harvest.
The following photographs show some of the problems encountered by the small producer.
constraints, variability and people involved with Special thanks are extended to Patricia Barnessubsistence agriculture in Africa and much of Latin McConnell, Richard Chalfant and Earl Watt for America. They convey in ways words can only allowing the reproduction of their photogaphs in this
suggest the reality of production and utilization publication.
29




) i, t
*f
AS 4
!
Y~$ %kiJ 4
I J
Relay cropping-one form of multiple use.
Some cowpea plants must withstand very unfavorable habitats.
In the hill country of East Africa or in parts of Latin America, climbing beans require support to achieve a worthwhile yield.
Beans, Cassava, and Coco Yams-a common crop association in tropical countries. 30




It is possible to have a productive crop in a developing country, as shown by this field in a mountainous region of a Latin American country.
Natural nodulation of beans in an African soil.
Associated cropping places particular demands upon soil fertility.
31




lilt")
Flailing the mature plants to recover the seed.
Improved nutrition is important for the entire family, but critically so for the children.
EVAPOTRANSPIRATION
CHARACTERIZATION OF DROUGH1
-In the pot and over the fire-the traditional On the small farm the green pods may be conSHORT RAINY SEASON IRREGULAR RAINFALL means of cooking beans in East Africa. sumed as a fresh vegetable, or the beans shelled
out and boiled before being eaten, or, in many instances, the boiled beans are saved to be heated and consumed another day.
Young girls shell cowpeas at a sidewalk market-place in northeast Brazil.
Drought, in its several manifestations, is a major production constraint in both beans and cowpeas.
32 33




4-4P
A productive field of cowpeas.
Golden bean mosaic, due to a whitefly transmitted virus-one of the most serious diseases of beans in Central America.
Common bacterial blight-a universal disease of beans.
34




co cl
VA
Art
dM%
TF,
bt go co
cc cc




SI
Cowpeas in the market. Below, genetic variability in an East Africa bean
ln r




usually uninfested with weevils and suffers little Perhaps a more integrated or balanced picture of or no damage. The bean, being adapted to the the problems and needs will be made evident from cooler climates of northwest Cameroon, now the following brief excerpt from one of the
occupies a significant portion of land previously Bean/Cowpea CRSP source documents (Report of planted in cowpeas. Bean/Cowpea Constraints Study Tour to West
C. Assessment Africa, May-June, 1979, by C. J. deMooy, R. L.
Fery, and E. K. Tapsoba). "... improved varieties
The present level of research on cowpeas in introduced from Senegal with growing periods from
Cameroon is minimal, with only one IRAF staff 70 to 120 days were outyielded by a locallymember assigned full-time to cowpeas. However, produced variety TN 8863. This local variety is well
the needs are great. The director of IRAF has stated adapted to 350-600 millimeters rainfall and matures that his most urgent priority would be for post- in 70 days with experimental yields of up to 3,000 graduate training of technical personnel. kilograms/hectare under mono-culture. However,
its small seed size, blackeyes and relatively long
cooking time make it unacceptable to the consumer.
Niger Other varieties have been produced for rainfall
Cowpeas are a cash crop in Niger, grown throughout zones up to 800 millimeters (of rainfall) but here the cultivated areas on some 840,000 hectares by more there were problems with photoperiod sensitivity. A than 70 percent of the small farmers, either inter- total of 300 to 400 lines have been introduced from cropped with sorghum or millet, or in pure stand. IITA. Many of these have considerable insect resistNearly 46 percent of the total cultivated land is oc- ance, are high-yielding and adapted to drought, but cupied by cowpeas. Total production in 1976 was about have disadvantages with respect to seed color and 211,000 metric tons. Nearly 50,000 tons were exported, taste, and sensitivity to photoperiod." primarily to Nigeria. C. Recent and Current Activities
Average per hectare yields approach two metric tons TARNA maintains a small germplasm collection when grown in mono-culture. When grown in mixed of some 130 cultivars, collected from various sites in
culture average yields are seldom over 300 kilo- Niger and from other Sahelian countries, including
grams/hectare. Senegal. In 1976 IITA contributed 10 F2 populaA. Major Constraints tions which were grown at TARNA and in which
plant selections were made. Subsequently, addi1. Insect pests in the field and in storage cause tional germplasm was brought to TARNA and fursevere losses. ther selections made. A small number of crosses
2. Plant density used by farmers is too low for top were made to TN 8863 in an attempt to improve its
yields, seed quality.
3. Cowpea diseases are of minor importance. The principal objectives for the northern cowpea
growing region are to incorporate drought and inB. Needs and Objectives in Research sect resistance or tolerance into acceptable seed
1. Breeding for resistance against insect damage, types. International Development Research Center
both in the field and in storage, and cultural of Canada (IDRC) has funded a cowpea breeding practices to control insect damage. program at TARNA, in cooperation with IITA, to
2. Breeding varieties for higher yield and more ap- produce acceptable and adapted varieties for the
propriate maturity for Niger. Northern, Central and Southern zones of the coun3. Development of drought resistance, through try. Trials are expected to be conducted in coopera3. revelopent od rougc raneenth h tion with the Institut National de Recherches
breedingAgromiques du Niger (INRAN) and USAID
4. In variety development, greater attention agronomists for adaptability to inter-cropping.
should be given to factors of seed size, seed color
and more acceptable taste to consumers. D. Institutions and Agencies Involved in Cowpea
5. Research personnel at all levels and in all Work in Niger
disciplines. There is an unusually large number of organiza6. A germplasm collector and manager of cowpea tions in Niger conducting work in which cowpeas
genetic resources. are a part. Among these are the following:
7. Some research equipment, such as ovens for 1. USAID, Niamey.
drying, scales, chambers, etc. 2. INRAN, Niamey.
8. Research on product development (e.g. cookies 3. TARNA, a research station of INRAN, located
made with cowpea flour), at Maradi, Niger.
37




4. Ministry of Rural Development, Government Seed weevils.
of Niger, Niamey. 3. Diseases: (not considered to be of major impor5. Nigerian Cereal Project. tance in West Africa)
6. Practical Institute of Rural Development, Cowpea scab, Spaceloma sp.
IPDR, Kolo, Niger. Brown blotch, Colletotrichum capsici.
7. Centre Regional de Formation et d'Application Septoria leaf spot, Septoria vignae.
en Agrometerologie et Hydrologie Operation- Bacterial blight, Xanthomonas vignicola.
able pour les Pays due Sahel, AGRHYMET, Cowpea yellow mosaic virus.
Niamey. 4. Agronomic short-comings:
8. IDRC. Soil nutrient deficiencies (not considered
E. Assessment major).
Constraints have been well identified and there is Aluminum toxicity (not country-wide).
a general agreement upon the major priorities. As in Excessive length of growth cycle.
Upper Volta, major emphasis in research to im- Drought.
prove cowpeas would have to be placed upon con- B. National Needs in Cowpea Improvement
trol of insects in field and storage, with drought 1. A cowpea plant breeder with training in plant
resistance a second major problem. There emerged physiology.
more strongly than in either Upper Volta or Kenya 2. A cowpea breeder to concentrate on the identhe part that seed color, size and taste might play in tification of genetic factors for insect resistance consumer acceptance. All programs of development and their incorporation into otherwise acceptin Niger must in the final analysis depend upon able varieties.
trained national personnel, trained in a variety of 3. Continued training of personnel in cowpea
disciplines. It would seem that every research and production technology.
development program operating in the country
should include a personnel training component. C. Present Programs in Cowpea Improvement
1. Programs at IITA
Nigeria a) IITA maintains cooperative programs with
Nigeria, Tanzania, Upper Volta and Niger
Cowpeas are widely grown in Nigeria, the largest in Africa, and Brazil in South America. In
producing and consuming nation in Africa. Yet yields Nigeria, IITA conducts research in cowpea
are low, averaging only about 330 kilograms/hectare. breeding, entomology, physiology and
Cowpeas are used in a variety of ways as a food staple. pathology, and maintains a germplasm
Insufficient quantities are grown in the country to meet resources center.
demand, requiring importation from neighboring b) With support from the World Bank, IITA
Niger. Cowpeas are grown mostly in mixed culture, but is involved in development programs on the
the government owned National Grains Producers Co. use of maize and cowpeas in interpromotes the growing of cowpeas in mono-culture on a cropping.
large commercial scale. An improved variety c) Studies on water stress in owpeas, in
developed for western Nigeria has proved very popular copStion watr in coweat in
and i widly gown.cooperation with AGRHYMET at Niamey and is widely grown. and Cornell University. Cornell University
A. Major Constraints will study mechanisms of adaptability of
1. To a greater extent than is necessary or cowpeas to drought, and IITA will apply
desirable, farmers continue to use traditional the research findings in field trials.
varieties which are: d) A study of the distribution and frequency of
Photo-sensitive. occurrence of Rhizobial strains in arid soils,
Low-yielding. under a United Nations Development ProIndeterminate plant types not suitable for gram grant.
mono-culture. 2. Constraints needing attention but not yet under2. Insect infestations in field and in storage. Major taken by IITA include the following:
pests are: a) Inheritance studies on insect and disease
Thrips, Megalurothryis sjostedt. resistance.
Pod borers, Maruca testulalis. b) Inheritance studies on physiological
Pod-sucking insects; 4 genera are involved: characteristics.
Acanthomyia, Riptortus, Anoplecnemis and c) Mechanisms of specific insect and disease
Negarrus. resistance.
38




d) Seed quality such as factors determining D. Comments and Assessment
cooking time and effect of storage duration Not only is the country of Nigeria Africa's on cooking time. greatest producer and consumer of cowpeas but the
e) Possibility of the aflotoxin problem occur- volume of research on cowpeas conducted in
ring and the attendant conditions. Nigeria far exceeds that of any other place. In fact,
f) Site-specific problems involving inter- it appears from the information presented in this
cropping systems in cooperation with survey that there may be some overlap in the tasks
national research organizations. carried out by some institutions.
g) Fertility trials and Al-toxicity studies, the It is commendable that the Government of
severity of which may be expected to vary Nigeria, through its several research institutions, is environmentally. continuing to support and encourage a spectrum of
h) Agricultural economics studies such as: research and development on cowpeas, particularly
1) Production studies in various climatic in view of the presence in Nigeria of the program of
zones. IITA and its strong array of activities with cowpeas.
2) Pricing policy determining incentives Research on this crop is directed both at cowpeas
for cowpea production. in mixed culture, the pattern most common in the
3) Magnitude of movement of cowpeas country, and also toward adapting cowpeas for
across international boundaries, commercial mono-culture, a system more common
4) Economics of alternative production for crops of the temperate zones and in the most insystems. tensely developed agricultural regions. Though the
i) Storage methods and prevention of insect cultural practices and plant types suited to the two
damage during storage. systems are quite different there should be some
3 elements of common concern between developers of
3. Program of the National Cereals Research In- the s o farm in syse ms Contr o of
stitte NCR) atMoo Plntatonlbaan.these two farming systems. Control of insects
stiut NCRI) antains Mo o e lant ration through resistant varieties, the possible exploitation a) NCRI maintains a close working relation- of common sources of insect and disease resistance,
ship with IITA, testing promising lines and of quality components would seem to be areas
from IITA breeding populations in five of fruitful collaboration.
national experiment sub-stations. Inasmuch as the production aspects are being so
4. Program of the Institute of Agricultural strongly addressed, it allows for forward planning
Research and Training (IART), an arm of the toward problems of utilization, an area that is apUniversity of Ife, at Ibadan. parently in need of greater research.
a) The IART conducts testing similar to
NCRI, but in different regions of the
country. Senegal
5. University of Ibadan. Senegal consists of four major climatic zones.
a) One laboratory at this university is engaged Cowpeas are an important crop in two of them, the
in cyto-genetic research with cowpeas. northern arid zone which receives less than 300 millib) The Division of Agriculture, Food and meters rainfall annually and the Pena Basin which
Nutrition Sciences of the University of Ife, receives 600-700 millimeter of rainfall. In the northern with a grant from IDRC will carry out zone cowpeas are grown along with sorghum and work to test the feasibility of introducing millet, while in the Pena Basin cowpeas and groundnuts
decorticated cowpea flour to housewives are grown.
and small-scale cowpea food merchants. Cowpea production in Senegal in 1978 was approximately 20,000 metric tons produced on some 74,000
6. Nigerian Stored Products Research Institute, at hetes
Ibadan. hectares.
a) This Institute conducts research on storage A. Major Constraints
pests and problems of cowpeas. 1. Insects cited as a major problem during bloom,
7. Ahmadu Bello University, at Zaria in northern pod-filling and storage.
Nigeria, closely associated with the Institute of 2. Drought, inducing restricted growth, and
Agricultural Research and Training at Samaru. abscission of flowers and pods before filling.
a) Research directed at problems of inter- 3. Economic constraints, labor problems, transcropping. portation and marketing are not well underb) Research directed at development of stood in relation to cowpeas but may impinge
cowpeas in mono-culture, upon production.
39




4. High cost of insecticides necessary to obtain The picture for American collaboration appears
reasonable yields. favorable, particularly in the area of drought
studies and, perhaps to some extent, with the insect
problems. At least the country has appropriate
1. An agronomist-physiologist, an entomologist research institutions in place. The major problems
and a farming systems specialist to work as a are recognized and there is concern to address them
team on production and storage problems. through collaborative research.
2. Two economists, one on production economics
and one on marketing.
3. A nutrition specialist to research various forms Upper Volta
in which cowpeas can be used.
4. A food technologist to work on methods of can- Cowpeas are important in inter-cropping systems
ning and of protein extraction, with sorghum and millet, and as a mono-crop immediately following land clearing. There is some export of cowpeas to neighboring countries such as Togo, Benin
1. The "Institut de Technologie Alimentaire" and Nigeria.
(ITA) works in the areas of product preservation, consumption, digestibility and food tech- A. Major Constraints
nology. 1. Problems with varieties and agronomic pracDevelopment of large metal drums for tices: local varieties have late maturity for grain
cowpea storage has ceased due to lack of de- and all crops suffer from the periodic droughts.
mand but research continues with large clay 2. Insect damage in the field (especially in monopots. Research is being done on use of cowpea culture): this would be a serious deterrent to
flour to enrich cereal products. Protein extrac- adapting cowpeas as a cash grain in monotion is another area of study, though it is not culture.
clear what particular use is to be made of the 3. Insect damage in stored grain: losses up to 80
extract. percent are not uncommon.
2. Scientists of the Institut Senegalais de la 4. Diseases: they are not thought to be a serious
Recherche Agricole (ISRA) are planning a col- production constraint. However, the economic
laborative research program on drought with impact of bacterial blight and of viruses need to
scientists of University of California (Riverside), be assessed.
Cornell University, Boyce Thompson Institute The major insect pests:
and IITA. This project would comprise work in Flower thrips, Taenothrips sjostedti.
several areas: Pod borers, Maruca testulalis.
a) Climatic analysis of the cowpea producing Pod sucking bugs, Anoplocnemis curvipes,
area of all of West Africa. Acanthomyia horrida and Riptortus dentipes.
b) Hydrologic balance studies and computer Seed weevils, Callosobruchus macalatus.
simulation programming to predict daily B. Needs
water losses and gains. 1. Properly trained research personnel for all
c) Analysis of characteristic plant responses to aspects of cowpea production, especially in
drought with phenological, morphological, plant breeding and entomology.
and physiological traits being studied.
2. Research support in variety development and in
d) Screening tests for evaluating varietal management of the insect problems in field and
responses. storage.
e) Improvement of crop and soil management 3. A marketing strategy that encourages farmers
practices to maximize water-use efficiency. to produce more cowpeas than needed for fainf) Advanced degree training of Senegalese ily consumption.
students. 4. Development of cooperation between reD. Assessment searchers and small farmers. This could be
Because Senegal shares in its arid zones some of effected by greater dependence upon and use of
the production factors of the Sahel, and because of on-farm experimentation, as well as by an exa long tradition of study and investigation of these tension staff.
factors by the Senegalese in collaboration with 5. Seed multiplication farms and a system of
French scientists, Senegal occupies a unique posi- distribution for higher quality seed of adapted
tion in regard to agricultural development schemes, varieties.
40




C. Programs and Possibilities If economic incentives are established, certain counVarious institutions and agencies have targeted tries could divert land from other uses to beans and enUpper Volta for a greater investment of research courage the use of fertilizer and insecticides to and development funds, dramatically increase their overall production. Most of
1. ITAat bada, Ngera, as acooeraive this increase, however, would occur on larger farms.
pro. c funTA, b Ctat ibaan Nigria hawcoeativ Small farm production, under 20 hectares, would not
limited to variety trials and support of one change appreciably in most countries. On small farms trainee in cowpea breeding. beans are grown primarily as a subsistence crop and, to
2. A enomoogis uner he emi-ridAfrcan a large extent, in mixed plantings with maize and/or
2. oAn et m Gr i stunerch e Sn elpem-rd A icnt other crops. The cost of technological inputs and the
SFdGrain presarc and Dxeeopmenrt uncertainty of weather beneficial to such inputs make it
rsaFrAD) prora ihnets exepredmostar appear too risky to the small farmer. Furthermore, in reserch n te inectstorge roblms.some large bean producing countries, beans have in3. IITA, cooperatively with SAFGRAD, expects creasingly been displaced from the more fertile level
to establish a five-person team, including a lands by cash crops such as soybeans and sorghum, plant breeder, agronomist and entomologist, to which tend to respond with more stable yields and to
work on breeding and insect control through offer better economic returns.
farming systems. A further complicating factor is that local consumer
In this program, greater emphasis should be preferences demand the production of many different
placed upon drought resistance, seed storage varieties, seed size, and seed color combinations, problems, plant nutrition, seed quality, whereas in rice or soybeans, one or a small number of physical and cooking quality, nitrogen fixation superior varieties can be produced over a wide geoand on farming systems. graphic area. In beans this is rarely the case. Each coun4. SAFGRAD intends to conduct a socio-economic try may have to grow numerous seed and plant types.
survey of farming systems, including those in- Finally, beans are subject to a greater assortment of volving cowpeas. production constraints than almost any other major
A system of inter-cropping with cowpeas food crop in Latin America. These constraints vary
planted at low population levels to discourage somewhat from region to region and will be noted the spread of insect pests is thought to be the specifically in the country by country evaluations which
only economical means of practical insect con- follow.
trol for small farmers in drier northern Upper These constraints, as region or areawide problems, Volta. This belief has to be put to extensive include the following (other problems occur in partesting since there are some pests which may ticular situations and can be locally quite severe, but are
have an even more damaging effect on widely not considered as universal as those listed below):
spaced plants. A. Diseases:
5. Food & Agricultural Organization, FAO, has a Common bean mosaic virus.
cowpeas-in-rotation experiment in progress at Anthracnose.
the Farako-Ba research station in the 100-1,200 Rust.
millimeter rainfall region. Straw production for Angular leaf spot.
animal feed is an additional consideration to Common bacterial blight.
grain yield in the development and choice of B. Insect Pests:
cowpea varieties.Lefopr
Bean weevil.
Mexican bean beetle.
Latin America Storage insects.
C. Drought.
General Overview D. Nutrient deficiency:
Latin America leads the world in bean production 2. Nitproge. with some 4 million metric tons/year. Two countries, 2 irgn Brazil and Mexico, account for about 75 percent of E. Seed Quality. total world production. Yet bean production in this Due to these constraints and the wide spread practice region has not kept pace with population growth. With of associated cropping, average yields range from few exceptions, per hectare yields have not increased in 400-600 kilograms/hectare. Research has shown that recent decades. On the other hand, population growth where plant diseases, insects and soil nutritional defihas been nearly three percent per year. ciencies were controlled and varietal improvements
41




were achieved through breeding and testing it is possible 2. Experimentation on fertilization and manageto increase yields up to the 4,000 kilograms/hectare ment of the crop. Mass selection in populations
range. Of course, production must take place in a of Alubia has resulted in a variety with greater
favorable climatic environment, production potential, denoted "Gerrillos INMany countries are now engaged in the formulation TA," which carries improved tolerance to
and execution of national food plans and policies in line disease. with the recommendations made by the World Food 3. The INTA station, Obispo Colombres, is
conference of 1974, and the Latin American FAO/ECA breeding for greater yields.
Conference on food, in 1976. 4. The Extension Agency in Salta conducts evaluaThere follows a country by country assessment of tions of varieties provided by CIAT, as a commajor production/utilization constraints, program pnn fCA' nentoa etn n
objectives and potential capabilities or future plans for aptatent oga'mnenainltetn.n improvement in bean production and/or utilization in adaptain progrdisa. smnianreaint
Lati Ameica.the importance accorded diseases as production constraints.
Argentina C. Assessment
Argentina is an important producer and exporter of Argentina has been able, when marketing cirbeans. They produced 232,000 tons in 1979 and ex- cumstances warrant, to increase the area devoted to
ported 176,400 tons. Only 36,900 tons were consumed beans. Yields on the per hectare basis have been within the country. The north provinces of Salta, higher than in any other Latin American country
Santiago del Estero, Tucuman, Cordoba and Jujuy are except Chile. This situation prevails because of the the major producing regions. Per hectare yields have favorable climate and soils in the areas where beans ranged from 720 to 1,130 kilograms in the period of are grown and the more frequent use of fertilizers, 1975-1981, but yields have not shown an increasing machinery and pesticides than in most Latin tendency. The production increases from 1975 to 1980 American countries. As a matter of fact, diseases have come as a result of increased area consigned to and insects are not of serious importance in most beans. producing regions.
Most of the production of small and average-sized INTA maintains only a relatively minor amount
producers, 40-50 percent of the total, is marketed of work on beans and has not organized an agthrough local grower cooperatives. The rest is handled gressive national bean program. Considering the by large export brokers in Buenos Aires. Between 35 and small size of the industry, 153,700 hectares/annum, 40 percent is destined for the European Common averaged from 1971 to 1980; average annual tonMarket countries. The E.E.C. and certain Arabic nage of 147,000 over that decade, and the average
nations purchase primarily the "Alubia" type, a high yields, 958 kilograms/hectare, there is not
medium-sized white bean comprising 85 percent of total much incentive to do so. production. The tropical black and colored types go to
markets in other Latin American countries, principally
Venezuela, Cuba and Brazil. Brazil
A. Major Production Constraints
1. White beans Beans
a) Common bacterial blight. Brazil is the world's leading bean producing country,
b) Bean common mosaic virus, accounting for 54 percent of beans produced in Latin
c) Angular leaf spot. American and 37 percent in the world. Although it
2. Black beans holds first place among nations in bean production, in
a) Anthracnose. recent years production has declined and currently
B. Present Activities Brazil imports beans from other countries.
The atinal nsttuteof gricltual Tch- In land area planted, beans rank fourth among Thegy INaonIsut eea of Agriultuald teh agricultural crops in Brazil. They rank ninth in producgnsagy ra INTA nutreerhimnta beains iohe tion (total tonnage) and sixth in monetary value.
grainsa t sea l ta N A lxprmen stainsi Beans are considered a staple in Brazil. They conSaelta, eaetannConsuhtathealcarceaandt Fai airo ae tribute 17.7 percent of the total protein in the area of
The eserch nde thethee ofvarety mprve- Rio de Janeiro, 31 percent in the Northeast (this figure
ment, includes the following activities: includes a substantial amount attributable to cowpeas)
1. Selection among and within populations of the and 24 percent in the nation as a whole. In a normal
Alubia type for resistance to diseases. year, 79 percent of bean (feijao) production in Brazil is
42




attributable to the species Phaseolus vulgaris and 21 per- in importance, depending on the region.
cent to the cowpea Vigna unguiculata. c) Other insects are mentioned as occurring in
Nevertheless, consumption per capitum has been certain regions, Broca-do-colo, Acaro,
decreasing. The reason is believed to be that in 1972 Lagarta-das-vagens (Etiella sp), Percevejo;
wheat consumption began to receive government sub- but always as "not serious enough to residy. Bean consumption has decreased 5.5 percent per quire immediate atttention."
year since then, while consumption of wheat has in- 3. Other Problems
creased 7.4 percent per year. a) Major limitation
Seventy percent of the bean production in Brazil 1) Seed quality.
occurs on farms of less than five hectares. Beans are not 2) Varieties.
usually considered a cash or commercial crop but 3) Storage losses.
primarily as a subsistence crop. However, excess pro- 4) Biological nitrogen fixation.
duction on small and larger farms finds its way to local 5) Fertility (Phosphorus, pH, Al and/or
and large urban markets. 5) ticity).
Production of beans in Brazil is subject to high risk 6) Lack of irrigation.
and uncertainty because of their vulnerability to 6) Laco ation .
drought, high temperatures and insect pests. Produc- 7) Socio-economic aspects.
tion, therefore, has not kept pace with population ex- 8) Drought.
pansion. Yield per hectare averaged 600-700 kilograms b) Not of major importance
until 1971, after which a decline of 100-200 kilograms/ 1) Weed control.
hectare occurred so that in 1981 productivity ranged c) Can be improved in many areas
between 400-500 kilogram/hectare. Along with this 1) Cultural processes.
decline was the dramatic rise of soybean production and B. Current Program Activities exports. Immense hectarages of prime agricultural land The national program in beans is located at the
in the state of Parana became soybean "ranches," with Rice and Bean Research Center in Goiania, Brazil.
beans relegated to more marginal soils receiving less A large staff of young scientists has been assembled
care and fewer inputs. in teams to address the prioritized constraints listed
A. Major Production Constraints in A. (above). The research group includes personDue to the diversity of conditions under which nel in each of the following disciplines: climatology;
beans are grown in Brazil, no given set of con- soils; botany; plant genetics; plant protection;
straints applies throughout the country. Even pathology and entomology; agronomy; seeds; agrithough a problem, a disease for example, occurs in cultural engineering; economics of production and
all regions, it may not be of equal importance rural administration; and economics of resource
everywhere. The following list of constraints is usage.
abstracted from "National Program of Research in C. Assessment
Beans," where beans include both common beans The constraints noted for Brazil are extensive, as
and cowpeas. It was published in 1981 by might be expected for a large and environmentally
EMBRAPA through the Department of Informa- variable country. The list is also large because of the
tion and Documentation. thorough evaluations made over a period of several
1. Diseases years by experienced assessors. The current team
a) Generally highly limiting, assembled at Goiania includes a corps of young
1) Anthracnose. scientists and technicians under dynamic leader2) Rust. ship. Newly constructed laboratories and adequate
3) Common bacterial blight, land facilities are also available to them.
b) Sometimes highly limiting. In strengthening the center at Goiania, the need
1) Angular leaf spot. should not be overlooked for competent scientists
c) Usually of secondary importance. with unique capabilities located at various regional
1) Common mosaic. centers where some of the problems are more acute
2) Macrophomina stem and root rot. and may be more efficiently addressed.
Brazil possesses state research centers, univerd) Locally severe. sities/colleges and research institutes where some
1) Golden mosaic.
very capable scientists are, or have been at an
2. Insect Pests. earlier time, engaged in particular aspects of
a) Leafhopper: varying from severe to minor legume work. Linkages between the National
in importance, depending on the region. Center and some of the regional centers could
b) Diabrotica: varying from severe to minor further strengthen the total effort.
43




Continued attention to higher education and B. Present Program Activities
training of members of the Goiania team and of 1. Short term goals: seed quality, large brown or
those at the regional centers would be worthwhile. white, colored, erect and prostrate plant types;
and resistance to CSMV, BECMV, scab, and
smut are receiving first priority.
Cowpeas 2. Longer term goals
Although cowpeas are grown in several Latin a) Economics: data are being obtained on
American countries, the greatest hectarage and produc- production, area in cowpeas, productivity,
tion are in the northeastern region of Brazil. Brazil is the consumption, market procedures, etc.
second largest producer of cowpeas in the world. It pro- b) Agronomy: crop management studies and
duces some 500,000 tons of dry grain each year and experiments on feasibility of increasing proanother 100,000 tons of green shell peas per year. As duction through drought resistance
much as 30 percent of the protein and 15 percent of the breeding are being conducted.
calories consumed per person per year in the Northeast c) Entomology: varietal resistance and
are derived from cowpeas. Among the grain legumes, cultural practices are the basic strategy for
the cowpea ranks at the top in ability to produce at least control of insect damage since the small
a partial seed crop in the presence of high temperatures farmers consider high technology inputs
and low soil moisture. The cowpea manifests a great impractical and financially risky.
diversity of plant forms and seed types, and has multiple uses as food. d) Pathology: the principal control strategy is
IITA has major global responsibility for conducting through resistance breeding. Host range
cowpea research and for entering into cooperative out- studies have been conducted and screening
reach programs with national programs. One such pro- methodology developed.
gram is located in northeast Brazil, in cooperation with e) Breeding: methodologies for various
EMBRAPA/Centro National de Pesquisa, Arroz-Feijao, screening tests to apply to segregating
(CNPAF). populations have been developed. Field
trials of variety and line entries have been
sent out to state stations in northeast Brazil.
A. Major Production Constraints Germplasm is being collected from Brazil
1. Water stress: northeast Brazil is highly subject and IITA, including 177 lines collected
to periodic drought, both in distribution and along the Amazon River near Manaus.
amount. The probability of periods of drought An extensive crossing program has been
up to 50 or more days during the growing undertaken and the most advanced lines
season is 80 to 100 percent. Yields under (F5 generation) are ready for yield trials.
drought conditions amount to about 30 percent The better lines will be tested by extension
of those produced in absence of drought. personnel in farmers' fields.
2. Low nutrient status of Brazilian soils and low Regional yield and adaptation trials are
water holding capacity: this combination being established and results from some of
results in weak shallow root systems that them are being analyzed. Promising lines
further render the plant drought susceptible. are being identified, some yielding from 30
3. Diseases and insect pests to 60 percent above the mean of check
a) Viruses: Cowpea Severe Mosaic Virus varieties.
(CSMV) and Blackeyed Cowpea Mosaic C. Work Plan
Virus (BECMV). 1. Development of methodology: refinements in
b) Fungi: Cowpea Smut, Entyloma vignae the methods for screening against the four
and Scab Sphaceloma spp. and root rots. major constraint problems are needed to imc) Storage weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus. prove precision of selection.
d) Cowpea curculio, Chalcodermis sp.prvpecsoofeltin
2. Breeding: continuation of screening, selection
4. Land-use efficiency: integrated technological and regional yield and adaptation trials insystems that include recommended varieties, eluding testing in farmers' fields.
fertility adjustments, pest control and water 3. Cultural practices: studies on plant spacing,
conservation practices need to be researched. density and fertilizer interactions.
Such studies are not a part of the national program but are carried out by state agencies. D. Assessment
5. There is a lack of knowledge in the areas of This collaborative program appears to have ademarketing and commerce. quate team strength in the various areas being
44




studied and the national and regional cooperation is consideration to this as a potential problem. Much excellent. Given the over-riding importance of more work should be done on chemical and cultural
drought stress and low fertility, it would appear weed control since weeds are a major farm probthat, if the program were to receive further lem. The present bean research group is heavily
resources they could be allocated to these areas, oriented toward pathology as a discipline. A
Research in the areas of phosphorus and nitrogen broadening to include fertility and agronomic spefixation would be very significant in the develop- cialists would be a strengthening move to the nament of low-input requiring varieties also. tional program.
Chile Colombia
Chile ranks as a substantial producer of dry beans, Colombia is a major producer and consumer of grain
with an average of 11,000 hectares, yielding 940 kilo- legumes. Some 97-98 percent of the food legume hecgram/hectare, being grown for the 1978-1980 period. tarage is planted to common beans, two-thirds of which
Except for 1980 when the growing season was unusually is in association, and about one-third in mono-culture. cold, average yields have exceeded 1,000 kilograms/hec- In 1979, 112,000 hectares were harvested with an tare almost every year since 1964. average yield of 664 kilograms/hectare. A small hecThe climate is usually quite dry, with moderate tarage is planted to cowpeas, adzuki and mung beans.
temperatures, and very high quality beans are produc- The common bean is produced principally in the
ed. Most of the beans are grown under irrigation in pure department of Antioquia, followed by the departments stands in the central valley regions north and south of of Narino, Santander, Huila and the valleys of Cauca Santiago. Chile is a net exporter of beans, and Tolima. Systems of production vary with the
A. Major Constraints region.
In Antioquia, Huila and Narino most of the beans are
1. Diseases: common bean mosaic and yellow the vining type and are grown with maize. In Valle de
Cauca bush varieties predominate and are grown in
2. Insects: red spider and aphids. They are minor mono-culture. Use of fertilizer and pesticides is fairly
in most years. common, particularly with commercial producers.
3. Weeds: a serious problem in most bean fields.
B. Current Program Activities A. Major Production Constraints
Institute Nacional Investigaciones Agricola, 1. Diseases: common bean mosaic, anthracnose,
INIA, maintains a national bean improvement pro- bacterial blight, rust and angular leafspot.
gram headquartered at La Platina, with a substa- 2. Insects: leafhopper, Empoasca sp., is the printion also at Chillan. cipal pest.
The program objectives consist primarily of 3. Infertility of soils: both phosphorus and
developing mosaic resistant varieties in the several nitrogen can be limiting factors, singly and
seed classes grown in Chile. A second objective has together.
been to incorporate the preferred seed type into the 4. Cropping system: with maize, bean yields are bush plant form for easier management agronom- competitively decreased by as much as 40-50
ically. percent in comparison with mono-culture.
The program cooperates with CIAT and other
national, non-Chilean, programs in seed increase
activities. Some genetic breeding and physiological Agricultural research and extension activities for
research is conducted by non-program personnel in legume crops in Colombia are conducted by the
the Catholic University and University of Concep- Program on Grain legumes and Annual Oil Crops
cion. The Impressa Nacional de Semillas, with ex- of Instituto Colombiano Agropecuario, ICA, and
cellent physical facilities, produces and sells high by CIAT at Cali-Palmira.
quality seed of improved varieties. The ICA program has had an impressive record
in the breeding and release of bean varieties, many
C. Assessment of which have been widely accepted. From 1957
The program has been quite successful in produc- through 1979, 17 improved cultivars were released
ing virus resistant lines to upgrade and replace other by ICA. The work at ICA-Palmira has been susceptible varieties. Because of the dry climate, oriented toward the developing of large-seeded,
foliage diseases are not a serious factor in bean pro- disease resistant, bush cultivars for national conduction. However, bean root rot is prevalent in sumption and varieties of tropical black beans and
some fields and the program should eventually give small-seeded whites for export. Selection for disease
45




resistance has emphasized resistance to common Costa Rica
bacterial blight, bean rust, cercospora leaf spot, Since Costa Rica possesses relatively low lying coastal
angular leafspot and nematodes.
In the higher elevations, Tibaitata, Obonuco, areas on the Pacific, ranging to hills, mountains and
and La Selva, the climate is cooler and bean valleys through the middle of the country, with hot
anthracnose and earlier maturity become principal humid coastal areas on the east, the diversity in agricullimiting factors, and therefore major breeding tural potential is great. Day lengths and temperatures
objectives, are relatively invariable. However, December and
The present program, though much reduced January are cooler than the other months.
from previous years, still aims toward better and Soils range from coarse textured outwash coastal more comprehensive levels of yield, disease resist- plains, to rich volcanic mountainous soils to interior hilance, and acceptability to consumer and commer- ly and valley soils of variable texture, fertility, depth cial markets. In addition, for climbing beans, the and state of erosion. Most agricultural systems are strucfollowing cultural objectives are sought: tured to keep some vegetation on the land at all times.
1. Optimal plant densities for mixed associations. The typical bean production in the hills is under a 2. Yield of both beans and maize in different system known locally as "Topado," in which the beans
planting patterns, are scattered in standing tall grass growing among the
3. The compatability of different bean varieties coffee trees. Then the grass is cut and left on the ground
with different varieties of maize in mixed to provide cover for the beans. The beans grow through
plantings. the grassy swath which tends to control weeds and conserve moisture. Ultimately, the cut grass releases its
4 hsociat ctie opanutrients by leaching back to the soil, where it is absorbassociated culture. ed by the beans. This is a low input and a low risk
For the cowpea, work has been conducted at system, but it is also a low yield system.
ICA-Palmira, ICA-Nataima, ICA-Turipana and Beans do relatively better on the rich volcanic soils of
ICA-Motilonia. Work has focused on germplasm the higher elevations. At lower elevations temperature
evaluation and selection of varieties for erect and humidity are higher and insects and diseases are
growth, resistance to diseases and commercially more intense, reducing yields.
acceptable grain types. Seven selections have been In the past, Costa Rica has usually been self-sufficient named and released by the ICA program. in beans but rising population with no increase in hecC. Program Resources tarage and only a slight increase in average yields per
hectare has resulted in the need for bean imports in reIn addition to the several stations where legume cent years.
work is conducted, the human resources are as The availability of high quality seed of preferred
follows (as of January 1982) for the entire legume varieties is a problem, as is the availability of other program: inputs such as pesticides and fertilizers. Furthermore,
Master of labor costs in Costa Rica are high and the small farming
Discipline Ing-Agronomo Science systems under which beans are grown precludes wide
Breeding and Agronomy 6 2 use of machinery.
Plant Pathology 2* 2*
Entomology 2* 2*
Physiology 2* V A. Major Production Constraints
Microbiology -- 1 1. Lack of varieties of dry beans adapted to new
Production 1" -- land areas now being developed for agricultural
*Indicates less than half time
purposes.
D. Assessment 2. Lack of programs of extension to disseminate
ICA for several years maintained an active and improved technology.
productive legume program. The Rockefeller Foun- 3. Limited availability of seed stocks of good
dation at one period provided cooperation in the quality, agro-chemicals, machinery and other
matter of equipment and training. More recently supplies.
funds for the program have diminished and present- 4. Lack of a suitable technology for bean producly are insufficient to maintain an adequate tion, alternative to the "Topado" system, parprogram. ticularly in new land areas and zones that are
The fact that a well organized, well supported at present marginally productive.
and very active bean program exists at CIAT has
apparently been perceived by ICA as meeting some B. Present and Past Program Activities
of the bean research needs of Colombia. 1. A National Bean Program, under auspices of
46




the Ministry of Agriculture, exists "on paper" during the period 1964-1966, the Dominican Republic's but other than having a designated Director the share amounted to only 0.70 percent. Again in program is without resources to carry out its 1976-1978, the production share for the Dominican functions. Republic was limited to a mere 1.0 percent. Yields
2. In the past, a genetic and breeding program range from 600-800 kilograms/hectare.
was conducted at the regional center for agri- Staff workers of the Secretaria de Estado de Agricultural research and teaching of IICA, the cultura, in recognition of the role of edible legumes in
Tropical Agronomic Center for Research and the national diet and in expression of the obligation and
Teaching, located at Turrialba. This program desire felt by them to undertake problem-solving conducts radiation genetic studies, produces research involving the bean as a crop and a food, some useful mutants, maintains a germplasm prepared in June 1980, a "National Program of
collection, mapped ecological zones for bean Research in Edible Legumes." The following informaproduction and through numerous students tion is drawn from that document.
produced several theses on fertility, water, A. Major Constraints which pertain directly to the
multiple cropping and yield component problems in beans. Later, the emphasis was placed Departmento de Investigacion Agropecuaria.
upon farming systems and this effort paved the 1. The seed stocks of improved varieties reaching
way for the systems work and economic studies the small farmers do not fulfill the requisites of
now conducted by CATIE. quality and varietal purity which make increas3. Research and teaching in bean seed quality ed productivity possible.
have been conducted for several seasons in the 2. Currently available varieties do not offer suffiUniversity of Costa Rica in San Jose. cient resistance or tolerance to insects and
4. Some studies involving the frequency and use of diseases.
beans in the family diet are being conducted in 3. Inadequate use of water resources: lack of valid the Food Technology Department of the Uni- information concerning levels of water availversity. Particular emphasis is being placed able for farming use, frequency and systems of
upon use by children, irrigating.
5. Variety testing is conducted by the University 4. Some 90 percent of land area devoted to bean
at Alajuela in the Central Valley. Several production never receives any fertilizer applicapromising lines have been selected. tion. In the remaining 10 percent, the growers
6. CIAT maintains a Central American represen- do not rely upon valid appropriate technical
tative at IICA, in San Jose, whose job is to pro- criteria for meeting the needs of the crop for
mote and service cooperative programs in nutrients at the optimum level of returns.
Central America and Caribbean countries 5. The control of noxious weeds generally is defiwhere CIAT has linkages, cient on account of the high cost and low effecC. Assessment tiveness of conventional methods of eradication.
Without a strong supportive national legume 6. Low seedling densities are common, aggraprogram the propspects for significant improve- vated by a loss or wastage of seeds owing to
ment of bean production in Costa Rica will depend, deficiencies in seeding equipment and low
to a very grat extent, upon (1) an expansion of the levels of vigor and germination of the seed.
activities of regional and international research
organizatons, or (2) upon the use of transferred B. Constraints which do not pertain directly to the
technology from some other Central American or Departmento de Investigacion Agropecuaria.
Caribbean country. 1. Inadequate soil preparation due to equipment
There are competent scientists at the University limitations.
of Costa Rica and Ministry of Agriculture who 2. Inadequate reserves of water for irrigation due
could provide the leadership needed to launch a to infrastructure limitations.
food legume program in Costa Rica, provided a 3. Usage of irrigation water by antiquated
national commitment with funding was made. methods often improperly timed, because the
requirements for water nor the frequency of apDominican Republic plication in the principal production zones
have not been established. At the present time,
Beans are a staple component of the people's diets in there exist no effective coordinated programs
the Dominican Republic. However, of the total dry between the water managers, the agricultural
bean production by the entire Latin American region advisors and the growers for assuring the
47




availability of this resource at the critical 2) To produce basic seeed stocks in
periods of crop need. adequate quantity for satisfying
4. Water is supplied to the growers at a certain the demand of the national
time, without considering the needs of the bean seed program.
grower or the moisture condition of the soil. 2. Title: International Bean Nursery for resistance
Many times irrigation is unnecessary. to temperatures higher than 260C.
5. Fields, rows and planting beds are very long, in Objective: To obtain varieties of beans able to
many instances, requiring the farmer to respond to conditions of high temperatures
prepare rather pronounced slopes in order to greater than 26 0C without productivity being
promote the flow of water. The consequence is non-remunerative to the grower.
that the water flows, but does not remain on 3. Title: Bean Nursery for resistance to drought.
the land to soak into the soil to nourish the Objective: To obtain varieties capable of
crop. responding to conditions of drought.
6. The Extension Service has not been able to suf- 4. Title: Testing varieties of black beans for yield.
ficiently train the growers in matters of soil fer- Objective: To determine the yielding capacity tility, control of insects and diseases, selection of black beans under two ecological conditions
and management of equipment, use of waterunaoblfrthgowgofedens
for irrigation and other practices beneficial to unfileavoa en th roing ofe beansfo
production. 5. tile Mesangeet of proeniseas for
7. Some zones of production are not adapted to mlil eitnet net n iess
farming principally by reason of temperature, Objective: Breeding of varieties of beans for
rainfall, topography, and type of soil. multiple resistance to insects and diseases.
C. Ativtie prgramed or he erio 190-182.6. Title: Performance testing of four lines of red
C. Ativtie prgramed or he erio 190-182.beans.
Production systems Objective: To determine the productive capac1. Title: Diagnosis of regional production systems, ity of promising materials in comparison with
with emphasis on edible legumes. locally established varieties.
Objectives: Identification, characterization and D. Management of Environmental Forces
general analysis of the various systems which Brief Summary of past activities in this area
include legumes. Experiments conducted during the 1973-1977
2. Title: Fertilization with Nitrogen, Phosphorus, period dealt mostly with the yield responses of parPotassium (NPK) in systems of maize and ticular varieties in locations to various levels of apbeans. plication of the major and micro-nutrients to beans.
Objective: To determine economically op- An economic assessment of the practice was also
timum levels of NPK in this association. conducted.
3. Title: Comparison of methods of seeding beans The results demonstrate which varieties respond
under irrigation. to fertilization and the economic returns of parObjective: To determine the behavior of ticular combinations. In general, responses were
varieties of beans under different seeding shown for nitrogen and phosphorus but not to
methods. potassium.
4. Title: Agro-socio-economic evaluation of the Objectives and projected activities in this area
bean and other crops associated with sugar 1. To conduct fertility studies in beans (and
cane. pigeon peas) in additional agricultural zones,
Objectives: 1) To study the agronomic perfor- such as San Juan de la Maguana, San Jose' de
mance, without changing those Ocoa, Barahona, Higuay (San Rafael del
activities which pertain to sugar Yuma) Constanza, Cayetano Germosen,
cane. Quinigua, Santiago Rodriguez and Boca de
2) To determine the degree of Mao.
utilization of physical labor and 2. To determine irrigation frequencies for the its distribution during the year. bean crop in the flat zones (zonas llanas).
Genetic management activities 3. To determine the millimeters of water required
1. Title: Purification of seeds of bean varieties, for the bean crop in flat areas.
Objectives: 1) To maintain the phyto- 4. To determine the effect of physical
sanitation and genetic purity of characteristics of soil on bean production, prinbasic material. cipally in relation to texture and structure.
48




5. To determine the optimal economic levels of Objective: To become acquainted with the
fertilization with macro- and micro-nutrients in critical areas concerning the economic and
the low-lying zones as well as in the zones of in- agronomic aspects which involve the protermediate altitude which are in, reality more duction and distribution of the crop, with
devoted to the growing of beans, and pigeon a view of developing recommendations of
peas. benefit to producer and consumer.
2. Title: Studies of returns from beans.
E. Management of the Biotic Environment Objective: To determine cost-benefit ratios
Previous work in this area of growing beans in dryland and irrigated
The major diseases of beans in the producing regions.
areas of the country are rust, basal stem rot, F. Assessment
angular leaf spot, mildew, bacterial blight, common bean and golden mosaics, and nematodes. The Department of Agricultural Research in the
For control of rust on beans several chemical Secretariat of Agriculture of the Dominican
products have been evaluated with best results be- Republic has prepared the "Programa Nacional Ining obtained from Ozycarboxin and *"Fetin vestigacion en Leguminosas Comestibles" from
acetato." (*Mention in the text of trade names of which the foregoing information was taken. Some
certain products does not constitute approval or 30 separate research undertakings are noted in the
recommendation by USAID or the Bean/Cowpea activities scheduled for 1980-82, for the most part,
CRSP to the exclusion of other products that may focused upon practical production related probalso be suitable.) lems. Research locations and personnel are named
Similar studies on control of basal stem rot, caus- in the project outlines. The level of previous exed by Rhizoctonia solani, have indicated that PCNB perience and scientific training of the young
and BAS 329F give best results. Presently, control of research leaders selected for many of the projects is golden mosaic seems best accomplished through low but there is strong supportive leadership at adcontrol of the insect vector of the virus. The insec- ministrative levels and a clear recognition of the ticide Monocrotophos has given the best results. desirability of advanced specialized training for the
The work on bacterial blights, Pseudomonas and young researchers, some of whom are already in
Xanthomonas spp., has been limited to observations training or marked for post-graduate training opof their presence. Only preliminary observations portunities. With continued support in the
have been made on nematodes sufficient to indicate Secretaria, the Dominican National Bean Program
the presence of the Meloidogyne spp. should have substantial progress toward its goals in
The principal insects affecting beans in the coun- the near future.
try are the following: Unfortunately, as recent political events make
English name Spanish name Scientific name clear, it is difficult to maintain a consistent high
White fly Mosca blanca Bemisia tabaci-Guen level of program investment to hold research teams
Leafhopper Saltahojas Empoasca fabae-Harris together and to actually pursue the programmed
Chrysomelid Crisomelido rejo Ceratoma reficornis-Oliver research goals over a sufficient period of time. Few Cutworm Gusano cortador Agrotis subterranea-Fabr. countries or national programs, even International
Caterpillar Gusano medidor Trichoplusia ni-Hub.
Gusano terciopelo Anticarsia gemmatalis- Centers, are immune from these perturbations.
Hub.
Pod borers Taladrodores de Maruca testulalis-Geyer
la vaina and Heliotis spp. Ecuador
Hiedevivo Nezara viridula-L.
Among grains utilized for human food, the bean
Control has been most effective with the insec- holds a singular place in Ecuador. It is the most widely
ticides Monocrotophos, Endosulfan and Carbaryl. accepted and most often grown in the country. It is
1. Economy of production acclaimed for its contribution to nutritional needs,
a. Previous activity: in reference to economic especially for those of meager resources who cannot
stues aity ibeensn r ene the reon c afford animal protein. It has been calculated that the studies, it has been shown in the area of cost of bean protein is approximately one-fifth that of an
Cibao that the returns for red beans under eqaamutoan alpti.
irrigation amount to $31.57 (per tarea) equal amount of animal protein.
andwithoutirrigation amount t 7 (per Generally beans are grown in the Sierras at elevations and, without irrigation, to $23.97 (per of 1,500 to 2,800 meters in the inter-Andean valleys.
areaa. The Ministry of Agriculture and Livestock of Ecuador
2. Current or proposed activities estimated for 1962 the area of land harvested for beans
a. Title: A study of the present situation in was 44,020 hectares, increasing to 86,344 hectares in
growing beans. 1968, and a decrease to 62,553 hectares by 1975.
49




Average yields were 450 kilograms/hectare. As in other Current general objectives include: Andean regions beans are grown in association with 1. Obtaining high yield varieties for associated
maize which tends to keep bean yields low. and mono-culture.
A. Major Production Constraints 2. Developing practical means of cultivation.
3. Training personnel.
1. Use of traditional varieties whose agronomic Teibean proafe za
characteristics are not very acceptable. The bean program for the zona Sierra includes:
2. Lack of high quality seed. 1. Evaluation of the germplasm collection, now
3. Inadequate cultural practices, especially in the consisting of 1,200 entries, for reaction to
maize/bean associations. diseases, yield potential and plant and seed
maiz/bea assciatonscharacteristics. 4. Disregard for the need to fertilize and to follow 2 Ealaticor
a prpertim scedue fo sedin. Aong2. Evaluation conducted on the bush types for a proper time schedule for seeding. Among their fitness in mono-culture and on the climba) Inadeqtos aec l aing beans for associated culture. From 300 ena) Inadequate technical assistance, tries of bush beans evaluated for growth cycle,
b) Better coordination between institutions in- disease reaction and grain types a set of 16 envolved with credit and commercialization, tries has been selected for regional trials.
c) Failure to convince the grower and con- 3. In trials with climbing beans grown with maize
sumer of the nutritional value of beans. at two locations, varieties have been identified
5. Insect pests which are earlier but have vegetative growth
a) Leafhoppers, Empoasca sp., are most adequate for relatively efficient grain productroublesome. tion with some resistance to anthracnose and
b) Soil borne white grubs. with acceptable seed quality.
c) Chrisomelids. 4. The bean breeding program also collaborates in
6. Diseases (most important): the production of seed of climbing types rea) Rust, caused by Uromyces phaseoli. quired by the testing program.
b) Angular leafspot, caused by Isariopsis On the coast at the Boliche Station, the objectives
griseola. are:
c) Anthracnose, caused by Colletotrichum 1. Increase production by obtaining higher
lindemuthianum. yielding varieties and developing practices
d) Mildew, caused by Erisiphe polygone. suitable for rotations of rice, sorghum and
e) Root rots, caused by Rhizoctonia and beans.
Fusarium spp. In both the Sierra and Coastal zone research,
f) Common mosaic. germplasm from CIAT and periodic visits of
B. Present Program Activities CIAT specialists have been very supportive of
Research and development in beans and other the objectives. From these materials and tests,
legumes is conducted by El Instituto Nacional de a variety for commercial production with the
Investigaciones Agropecuarias, INIAP. name "INIAP Bayito" has been released.
Activities of INIAP are conducted at three levels: In similar testing of cowpea germplasm a
(1) the Experiment Station, responsible for variety, "INIAP Caupi," has been released. Ungenerating new technology; (2) an intermediate fortunately, with both of these varieties, there
stage of testing and confirming the technology and is no program of seed multiplication.
at the same time carrying out the function of tech- C. Future Plans
nological transfer; and (3) the level of the small The future objective of the program is to work for farmer at which the technology developed by the "greater availability of beans for consumption
Experiment Station(s) is adapted to the agroclimatic through zone-related evaluations of germplasm, inconditions and the production systems of the creased yields through improved cultivars, and
producer. analyses of socio-economic factors and marketing
For carrying out the various functions of INIAP for small farming systems."
Ecuador maintains seven regional experimental sta- Specific research items include:
tions. Four of these, Santa Catalina, Pichilingue,
Boliche and Centro Experimental del Austro, in- 1. The impact of elevation-temperature/photoclude work on the grain legumes. INIAP has period on plant response.
developed or introduced eight varieties of soya, one 2. Germplasm collection, evaluation and exof the common bean, one cowpea and four varieties change coordinate with CIAT, with attention
of groundnuts. to adaptation.
50




3. Development of adapted varieties resistant to selected and multiplied local varieties and about 10 perfungal diseases. cent can be traced to specifically bred varieties from In4. Phosphorus efficiency, and nodulation and stituto Ciencias y Tecnologia Agricolas, ICTA. Seed of
nitrogen fixation. ICTA recommended varieties and other technological
5. Analysis of the role of women and children in materials can be purchased through produciton credits
bean production, with atttention to their needs. made available through the Agricultural Development
6. Assessment of factors affecting consumer Bak
acceptance of new varieties. A. Major Production Constraints
7. Analysis of economic constraints to increased 1. Inadequate irrigation.
production. 2. Diseases (see listing given for the "Caribbean,
8. Analysis of constraints to consumption. Central America and Panama").
D. Assessment 3. Insect pests (see listing given for the "CaribThe national program of Ecuador places par- bean, Central America and Panama").
ticular emphasis upon socio-cultural and economic 4. Insufficient supply of high quality seed of
aspects of grain legume production and consump- recommended varieties.
tion. Such program emphasis will require coopera- B. Current Activities
tion between agronomists, social scientists andAnaialbnprgmexsswtn C .
economists. This is not often practiced in developed AT aioaeba program exlds okislts with loCTA
countries and novel in under-developed countries, Tetproogyra dinde wgonmplant pvatoy with Guatemala as an exception. It is hoped that ecnomlogy bredig, aoomyanealation t the necessary trained personnel can be assembled elcnms.e Thrughe cooetione thrac CIt, and financial and administrative support marshall- blc-ded oariete wiasoe benpoue.Tleanceet ed for forming such a group in Ecuador. It is goe oetsaic he been m et produce hecuren
further hoped that such dimensions will not become majorin obecvees fitergame ardnet rueighan dependent upon external agencies for personnel and yaieding, blc-se detr iese andnsc re istantp financial support, for these objectives are uniquely vartiesan to deemie te factosilaftingoldpin-country issues and likely to require a long period tain rtant maiese.vial ftegle
of time to reach. It is also important that produc-moacrstntviee.
tive linkages with varietal development and C. Assessment
production-oriented agencies (CIAT, IITA, IICA) In ICTA, and through close cooperation with the
be maintained and not eroded by loss of personnel Bean Program of CIAT, Guatemala currently has or resources to other program objectives, the most active bean program among Central
American countries. ICTA has encouraged advancGuatemala ed training for its young scientists, provided the
necessary financial and material resources, and
Guatemala, along with the northern part of Mexico, stimulated and challenged the bean group through is considered the primary center of diversity of the enlightened and optimistic leadership. There is a common bean and traditional site of earliest domestica- high level of dedication shown by the group and, if tion. Today it is the largest producer of beans in Central the trained personnel can be preserved as a team, America. Beans are produced throughout the country, steady progress toward their goals should be both in association with maize or sorghum and in mono- possible. culture. A total of some 242,000 hectares with average
yields of 330 kilograms/hectare were grown in Haiti 1970-1978.
Growing conditions range from alluvial valley soils to Haiti occupies the western portion of the island of coarse boulder-strewn hillsides to undulating upland Hispaniola. Topographically it is mountainous, with and volcanic soils;, situated at elevations from 50 to coastal plains, interior uplands, plateaus and valley 1,800 meters, with rainfall varying from 500 to 2,500 agriculture. Haiti suffers from lack of sufficient seasonal millimeters. Most fields are small, ranging from 0.5 to rainfall for high yields and the soils, except on the coast 7 hectares in size with some of the valley fields being and interior valleys, are generally eroded and of low irrigated from local streams, nutrient status. The main crops are sugarcane, coffee,
The tropical black bean is grown almost exclusively. rice, maize and beans. The level of income is low and It is estimated that about 60 percent of the varieties technology in farming is minimal. grown are local unimproved "land-races," 30 percent Nearly 100,000 hectares are planted annually to food consist of so-called "improved" varieties introduced or legumes, principally dry beans, pigeon peas and
51




groundnuts. Dry beans account for 85 percent of the c) Study basis of and control practices for
total area in legumes. Cowpeas are grown as a minor reducing post-harvest losses.
crop. Most grain legumes are grown in association with D. Assessment other crops (maize) on farms of five hectares or less.
Dry beans are grown at elevations of 400 to 1,000 Some 20-25 professionally trained individuals are
meters. Some 40,000-42,000 tons of beans are produced available in the Ministry for assignment to research
annually out of a total legume crop of about 50,000 and extension programs. However, many of them
tons, It is reported that 20 percent of the legume crop are required to perform administrative functions in is lost by post-harvest circumstances. Yields of beans the Ministry and/or teach part-time in the Univerrange from 400-700 kilograms/hectare. Local varieties sity. This leaves few to carry out the actual research are grown and there has been almost no seed improve- needs. A familiar and chronic problem in Haiti is
ment or selection practiced. lack of funds.
Various international agencies assist Haiti in
A. Major Production Constraints agricultural development projects but Haiti itself
1. Lack of improved varieties, has been unable to match these agencies with in2. Low level of production inputs used. digenous scientists in such a way as to receive max3. Hand methods of cultivation. imum benefit from their cooperation. At least one
4. Shortage of and unwillingness of farmers to use agency program officer has indicated the agency
production credit. would be willing to expand its support and opera5. Failure of extension services to effectively reach tions in Haiti if the Ministry of Agriculture were to
small farmers with demonstration programs develop an appropriate program and assign a small
convincing them of the value of improved corps of scientists to that effort. To date, this has not
technological changes. occurred.
The organizational and financial problems
B. Present Program Activities depicted for a legume program are only sympto1. Small plot testing of beans and some ex- matic of the more pervasive political and economic
periments on mixed cropping is done at Damien conditions in the country. There will be only pieceby Ministry of Agriculture personnel. Improved meal progress made in legume production efficiency
yields have been obtained in these experimental until a renaissance occurs nationally at the political
trials, and economic level.
2. Seed of superior varieties is available from
CIAT but local adaptation testing has not been Honduras
extensive, even though in one test at Port au. Beans as a source of protein are indispensible for the Prince in 1977 the local red-seeded Compo-1 Honduran population. They are produced generally variety yielded 37 percent less than the best en- throughout the country at elevations ranging from 400 tries in the test. to 900 meters and in areas with annual rainfall varying
3. Basic production factors are being studied at from 700 to 1,400 millimeters.
Plateau de Sallaguae (elevation 900 meters) in Of the total dry bean production (3,379,000 tons) for a program funded primarily by the Govern- Latin America in 1964-1966 and (3,651,000 tons)
ment of France. Disease resistance selection is 1976-1978, the portion accounted for by Honduras one aspect of this work. amounted to 1.5 percent for the first period and 1.3 per4. The Faculty of Agronomy in the University also cent for the second. But the apparent per capita concarries out some field experimentation with sumption increased from 14.3 kilograms per year in the legumes. 1963-1965 period to 14.8 kilograms in the 1975-1977
period. The mean bean yield of 676 kilograms/hectare C. Program Needs declined to 533 kilograms/hectare in the 1976-1978
1. There is a lack of a well defined production period. It is estimated that 70 percent of total producplan. tion comes from farms of three hectares or less, and only
2. A research program should be organized to 10 percent from farms larger than 25 hectares. Honsystematically: duras usually produces more beans than are consumed
a) Evaluate performance of CIAT materials locally, the balance being exported to nearby countries
and lines introduced from other Caribbean of Central America.
and Central American programs. A. Major Production Constraints
b) Design and promulgate technological 1. Diseases and pests.
packages appropriate to small farm The disease complex includes rust, bacterial
agriculture. blights, root rots and mosaic.
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2. Lack of irrigation. 960,000 metric tons and a yield of 545 kilo3. Lack of high yielding varieties under conditions grams/hectare.
of deficient rainfall and soil fertility. The low average yield can be attributed primarily to
4. Lack of high quality seed of acceptable scarce and uncertain rainfall, unimproved varieties (onvarieties. ly 13 percent of the acreage in 1980 was planted to imB. Major Program Objectives proved varieties) and traditional cultivaton practices.
Approximately 84 percent of the bean crop is planted
1. Increase and stabilize bean production through in the Spring-Summer period, of which 90 percent is
the development of disease resistance, dependent upon natural rainfall. A portion of this
2. Provide basic seed stock of improved Honduran hectarage will be grown in association with maize on
bean cultivars for multiplication and small (5-15 hectare) farms. Average yields in 1980 were
distribution. 387 kilograms/hectare for spring planted beans and 933
C. Major Program Activities kilograms/hectare for beans planted for the winter
period. (Beans in the latter period are grown in areas
Systematic efforts to isolate, identify and control receiving greater natural rainfall at lower growing
diseases are not adequate. Some limited interaction temperatures, with 39 percent receiving supplemental
among national collaborators exists and improve- irrigation.)
ment through the Escuela Agricola Panamericana is With respect to the country as a whole, 88 percent of
feasible. The National Program maintains a linkage bean production is dependent upon rainfall and 12 perwith CIAT. cent upon irrigation. Under rainfed conditions yields in
D. Future Plans 1980 averaged 373 kilograms/hectare and under irriga1. Assemble a research staff and support personnel tion, 1,215 kilograms/hectare.
capable of studying the effect diseases have on A. Major Production Constraints (for the country as a
bean production. whole)
2. Introduce available sources of resistance to 1. Deficiency and unreliability of rainfall, upon
diseases. which most production depends.
3. Undertake breeding work with the aim of 2. The fact that most beans are presently grown in
establishing superior varieties in respect to association with maize.
disease resistance. 3. Low plant populations.
4. Provide clean seed stock of preferred cultivars. 4. Only occasional use of agro-chemicals.
E. Assessment 5. Little use of improved varieties.
6. Diseases and insect pests.
It is believed that increasing the efficiency of
Honduran bean production is feasible. It is propos- Certain of these problems are more prevalent
ed to achieve this through the study of farming in particular ecological zones (see below) or secsystems, evaluating available and introduced multi- tions of zones. For example, rust, golden
ple disease resistant germplasm, and initiating mosaic, common mosaic and root rot occur
transfer of multiple disease resistance to bean throughout the Zona Calida con Invierno Seco
cultivars. For the proposed work to materialize the but in the north of Sinaloa and Culiacan white
required manpower needed would be an economist- mold can also occur. Furthermore, the diseases
sociologist, pathologists, agronomists and breeders, are not equally severe on all varieties, except
A corps of host country researchers would partici- golden mosaic, but attack certain varieties
pate in planning the project, in coordination and perferentially. For example, white mold is
supervision of research activities, and in conducting more prevalent on the prostrate types.
field research activities. The organization and B. Present Program Resources and Objectives
execution of the program would include training Mexico, through INIA, maintains a National
activities and interaction of researchers with Bean Program. Personnel in 1979 assigned full time
farmers. to the program include 11 individuals with Master
of Science degrees, 18 with a baccalaureate degree
Mexico and some 30 part-time workers. These are placed in
11 different regional research centers representing
Beans are second only to maize, both in the area five distinct agro-ecological zones. The five zones
under production in the country and in amount con- are described as follows:
sumed per person per year (19.5 kilograms). In the years 1. Calida con Invierno Seco (hot, with dry 1970 to 1975, the area planted to beans averaged winter).
1,762,000 hectares annually, with annual production of 2. Calida Humeda (hot, humid).
53




3. Templada Humeda (temperate, humid). 3. Develop varieties of maize appropriate as an
4. Templada Semiarida (temperate, semiarid) associated crop for beans.
5. Calida Arida (hot, dry). 4. Obtain bean varieties with a greater range of
Program objectives, therefore, tend to be adaptation and greater yield stability.
somewhat different for each zone and for the 5. Search for genetic resistance or tolerance to inmajor seed class grown in the zone. sects such as leaf feeders (Diabrotica) and
Zona Calida con Invierno Seco: leaffhoppers.
Plant breeding objectives: Improvement of production practices:
1. To obtain varieties in the seed classes Canario, 1. Study and better understand the existing
Azufrado, Negro and Flor de Mayo possessing systems of production in the various production
rust, common mosaic, golden mosaic and root regions.
rot resistance. 2. Identify limiting factors to greater production.
2. To combine more erect architecture with the 3. Study the effects of modern technology on presvarious disease resistance types, improving yield ent systems, with the view of improving
and making possible harvesting and threshing production.
by machinery. 4. Study other systems as alternatives for improv3. Improve the range of adaptability of varieties. ing production.
4. Obtain varieties with tolerance to drought, 5. Refine the practices used in plant protection,
early maturity and with high yield potential. principally against insects.
Improvement of production practices: 6. Control weeds in different cropping systems,
1. Determine the optimum seeding time for new combining mechanical methods and/or
varieties, particularly in the irrigated areas. chemical methods.
2. Determine the optimum plant population 7. Practices for protection against the strong
numbers and levels of fertilization for the winds.
newer varieties, in areas where a response to Personnel needs:
these factors can be expected. In view of the problems stated, inter-disciplinary
3. Refinement of practices now employed for groups of scientists would be required. They should
plant protection, through combinations of im- include a breeder, pathologist, entomologist and
proved agro-chemicals and better timing. weed control agronomist in each regional team.
4. Refinement of stage or timing and manner of
application of irrigation water. Zona Templada Humeda:
5. Study of moisture conservation practices. Plant improvement objectives for maize-bean asso6. Adaptation of machinery for direct harvest of ciations:
beans. 1. Selection of better adapted genotypes in each
Personnel needs in this zone: of the zones where maize-bean associations are
The nature of the problems is such that an inter- important, taking into account growth habits,
disciplinary team is required, consisting of a plant earliness, resistance to diseases, local accepgeneticist-breeder, a plant pathologist, entomologist tance and yield.
and an agronomist skilled in water management. In 2. Identification of parental stocks to initiate
particular, a breeder is needed with physiological crossing programs.
insight for the task of selecting genotypes adapted to 3. Selection of maize varieties which have high mechanical harvesting and a breeder pathologist to yields and offer little competition to the bean.
work on resistance to root rot. Production practices improvement objectives:
Zona Calida Humeda: 1. Better understanding of production systems,
Plant breeding objectives: including phenology of beans and maize. This
1. To obtain varieties of bush black beans, ap- must be done in each of the production areas.
propriate for seeding alone or in relay. These 2. Determination of optimum population levels
varieties would have to have resistance to rust and rates of fertilization. These experiments
and viruses and be of high yield potential, must be conducted with the best adapted
2. Obtain black bean varieties having resistance to materials.
rust and better yield than the local materials, 3. Refinement of crop protection practices.
either bush or semi-vines, for associated 4. Study genotypic combinations of both species
plantings. and topological arrangement in search of
54




greater efficiency of the maize-bean system. with tolerance to chlorosis, rust resistance,
Although specific objectives vary slightly from erect growth habits and with high yield
region to region, in this zone resistance to diseases potential.
(mosaic, rust, anthracnose, bacterial blights), 2. Obtain varieties with resistance to lodging and
adaptation and high yield potential are among the preferably erect for mechanical harvest.
principal goals. 3. Obtain varieties tolerant of high temperatures.
Personnel needs include: 4. Evaluate other classes with tolerance to
A full-time plant breeder, plant pathologist and chlorosis for use in grain production or as
an agronomist are needed. On a part-time basis, sources of genes in the crossing programs.
an entomologist, a weed-control specialist and the Improvement of production practices:
collaboration of a specialist in irrigation are 1. Studies on the utilization of water and on
needed. means of reducing the accumulation of salts
Zona Temnplada Semiarida: where this is a problem.
Plant breeding objectives: 2. Methods of planting and irrigating as means of
1. Obtain varieties with resistance to drought. In reducing chlorosis due to salt.
addition, they should possess resistance to an- 3. Refinement of practices concerning planting thracnose and root rot, while having wide densities, rates of fertilization and control of
adaptation capabilities and be commercially noxious weeds and insects.
acceptable. 4. Studies on water requirement of plants during
2. Obtain varieties with resistance to attacks by phenological development.
the Mexican bean beetle. 5. Studies on the effect of minor elements for the
3. Obtain varieties of the Flor de Mayo type with correction of chlorosis.
resistance to discoloration of the grain; these Personnel needs:
are for plantings under irrigation. An inter-disciplinary team is required consisting
4. Obtain varieties with resistance to seed shat- of specialists on a full time basis in the following
tering to facilitate mechanical harvest, areas: plant breeding, physiology and water
5. Evaluate other species for their resistance to management. On a part-time basis an agronomist,
drought; these can be used directly in produc- a pathologist and an entomologist are needed. A
tion or serve as a source of genes for breeding. germplasm evaluator and a production practices
Improvement in production practices: specialist would suffice in some areas.
1. Study practices affecting water uptake. C. Summary and Assessment
2. Study practices for conservation of moisture. As a major producer and user of beans, Mexico
3. Study methods of planting and plant density, faces major production problems brought about by
to make the most efficient use of the available the generally inhospitable physical environment water. and the prevalence of diseases and insects. The
4. Refinement of practices of fertilization, weed country is characterized by great diversity in
and insect control. altitudes, rainfall patterns, water availability and
5. Reach a better understanding of the produc- temperatures, which accounts for the need to
tion system itself, especially in relation to classify the constraints by ecological zones. Personphenological development of the plant, nel of INIA have outlined the major problems of
climatic conditions and the critical periods of each zone quite explicitly and have formulated cultivation with respect to deficiency of water specific objectives in varietal development and in and attack by diseases and insects, production agronomy. Needs for trained specialists
Personnel needs: in many disciplines have been stated for the various
In Zcatcas he olloinginvetigtorsarezones. At present, the available scientists fall conneeded: a breeder, an irrigation specialist, a plant siderably short of the number recommended.
pathologist, a physiologist, and a production Though some of the objectives, drought, high
agronomist. In Sierra de Chihuahua a breeder, an temperatures and salt tolerance, ke particularly
entomologist, a moisture conservation specialist, acute in Mexico, they are not unique. More in comand an agronomist are needed. mon with other Latin American and African bean
Zona Calida Arida: growing regions are the problems of insects and
diseases. By far the single most over-riding probGenetic improvement: lem in Mexico is the low uncertain rainfall and its
1. Obtain varieties of pinto and bayo type beans attendant stresses. It would seem worthwhile to
55




allocate a significant portion of its research 3. Poorly adapted varieties.
resources to both basic and applied research into B. Program Activities, Past and Current
that array of problems.
Although a National Bean Program exists in the
organizational structure of agricultural research in
Peru Peru, it is not adequately staffed and the work that
can be carried out is not extensive.
Several edible grain legumes are grown in Peru. 1. be nvrie i tesi ee
Among them are the common bean Phaseolus vulgaris; Breeding: ten varieites in three commercial
the owpa, ign ungicuata lia ben Paselusseed classes representing two levels of seed size the cowpea, Vigna unguicuIata; lima bean Phaseolus have been produced since 1961, utilizing masslunatus; faba bean, Vicia faba; garden pea, Pisum selection and hybridization techniques. These
sativum; garbanzo or chick pea, Cicer arietinum;reesn imov ets n adpto,
gandul or pigeon pea, Cajanus cajan; lentil, Lens represent improvements in adaptation,
culinaris; groundnut or mani, Arachis hypogaea; and uniformity and, in some cases, disease
soya, Glycine max. The common bean, pea, and faba resistance.
bean are the most important. 2. Production: some work has been done and is
The bean is grown in three distinct ecological zones continuing on soil fertility, fertilizer responses
of the country, the coast, the mountains and the Selva- and nitrogen fixation. This work benefits by lower elevation mixed forest/farming region of the collaboration with CIAT and MIRCEN
eastern slope foothills of the Andes. (Brazil).
On the coast, beans are grown in irrigated outwash There is a project at Estacion Experimental
plains and stream valleys usually in mono-culture. In Vista Florida dealing with the feasibility of
1976, there were about 22,000 hectares of beans grown producing beans on the soil moisture remainon the coast, with an average yield of 1,076 kilograms/ ing following the rice crop, and one on produchectare. ing seed free of seed-borne diseases such as
On the mountain slopes and upland valleys beans are common mosaic (the most prevalent disease of
grown with maize and the fields are sometimes irri- coastal beans).
gated. Other technological inputs are minimal. Some Basic seed production of several improved
29,000 hectares were grown in this zone in 1976, with varieties is carried out at the Estaciones Exyields of about 590 kilograms/hectare. perimentales de la Corta.
In the Selva, 11,470 hectares were produced, in 3. Germplasm: collaborative work with CIAT on
1976, with estimated yields of about 800 kilograms/ receiving and evaluating germplasm that may
hectare. Peru is self-sufficient in grain legumes, and have value for the improvement program.
sometimes has a small surplus for export. 4. Zonal research stations participate in variety
A. Major Production Constraints trials, and various agronomic and agrochemical experiments.
The Coastal Zone: 5. Cost analyses of bean production (by percent of
1. Common bean mosaic, rust, mildew, total costs the following estimates have been
2. Saline soils. made): machinery, 16.0 percent; manual
3. Low light intensity and cool temperatures dur- labor, 8.6 percent; seed, 13.9 percent; fering nine months of the year, which delays tilizer, 11.3 percent; pesticides, 16.6 percent;
flowering and promotes excess vegetative interest on loans, 9.9 percent; and
development in the indeterminate types. miscellaneous items, 23.7 percent.
4. Expansion of urbanization onto good agri- C. Plans
cultural soils and replacement of bean and cotton crops with vegetables for the expanding Reseah
local markets. 1. Obtain through breeding and/or introduction
varieties of high yield with resistance to comThe Mountainous Zone: mon mosaic, rust, tolerance to other pathogens
1. Diseases: including rust, anthracnose, and root and seed colors acceptable to commerce.
rot. 2. Search for sources of genetic resistance to
2. Low temperatures which prolong maturity, diseases and insects prevalent in the produc3. Low soil fertility. tion zones.
4. Low yielding capacity of traditional varieties. 3. Improve control methods for insects, diseases The Selva: and weeds in order to establish integrated
1. Infertile soils. systems of pest control in the various produc2. Insects and diseases. tion zones.
56




4. Develop more efficient cultural practices, with portive to a national program if the program itself
emphasis upon seeding rates, rotations and had the needed personnel and administrative
multiple cropping. encouragement.
5. Determine methods and levels of efficient and
economical fertilization.
6. Increase production of basic seed stocks as re- Venezuela
quired by the production agencies. The common bean, known as caraota in Venezuela,
7. Develop an efficient method for transfer of is a food staple in much of the country. It is consumed
technological findings to the growers. at essentially all economic and social levels of the
Production population.
1. Increase the area under cultivation in the Almost exclusively the bean of choice for production
1 Crasel, Monthe neande ltvatione. iand consumption is the small black bean, represented CAsgmettl M ntin anuSlva zroduoneby such varieties as Jamapa, Cubagua, Margarita,
2. Augment the national annual production of Coche and Tacarigua. The area devoted to beans has
beans. fluctuated somewhat from year to year but since 1969
3. Establish incentives for production of basic has shown a marked decline. In 1969, 83,449 hectares
and registered seed of improved varieties, were grown with an average yield of 301 establish prices to stimulate and assure their kilograms/hectare. By 1973, hectarage had dropped to distribution among the growers. 42,892 and average yield estimated at 343
4. Monitor production costs. kilograms/hectare. By 1978, the production area was
5. Establish pilot centers in the three major zones 52,519, with estimated average yield of 437 kilograms/
for promoting bean production. hectare. Venezuela is a net importer of black beans,
usually importing, though the figures are variable, 50 D. Assessment to 55 percent of the annual consumption.
During the late 1960's, with the help of North Beans in Venezuela are produced under a variety of
Carolina State University at La Molina, Peru conditions, ranging in the lower elevations from small developed the goals of a bean program for the valley fields of less than one hectare with irrigation and main zones of the country. The program's major mixed cropping, to irrigated mono-cultural fields of emphasis was upon developing disease resistance in 2-10 hectares, to large commercial rain-fed monothe major seed types and replacing the extremely cultural fields of 20 to 50 hectares. In the mountains viny procumbent plant types in some seed classes the fields are located both on level and often very steep
with less vining more erect plant types. In addi- sites, with and without irrigation and other inputs.
tion, it was desired to adapt some small white A. Major Production Constraints
beans to Peruvian coastal conditions.
That program met with some success. However, 1. Diseases:
after the termination of the North Carolina con- Root rot complex due to Pythium sp., Rhizoctract, the program could not be maintained at the tonia sp. and Fusarium sp.
former level of support and re-organization of the Anthracnose.
agricultural research arm of the Ministry of Rust.
Agriculture led to further undermining of the Angular leaf spot.
legume research efforts. Common bacterial blight.
Due to travel conditions between zones, pro- Common bean mosaic.
gram integration is difficult. In fact, each zone, Golden mosaic.
Coastal, Mountainous and Selva, represents Ashy stem blight due to Macrophomina
distinct problems and requires distinctly different phaseoli and, in the Senare region (upland
materials and goals. hill country with cool temperatures, high
More trained bean scientists, technicians, humidity and sprinkler irrigation).
logistic support and a realistic re-assessment of Floury leaf spot caused by Ramularia
problems to be dealt with in each zone are re- phaseolina.
quired. Further, a national policy to encourage 2. Insects:
retention of young scientists in the country, or their "Cortador grande," large cutworm, Agrotis
return after receiving training elsewhere, to repleta.
responsible positions in the program would mean a "Cortador pequeno," small cutworm, Feltia
great deal to grain legume improvement in Peru. suberranea.
The system of zonal research stations in various "Cogollero," Spodoptera frugiperda.
parts of the country is intact and could be very sup- "Gusano pirero," Prodenia latisphacia.
57




"Enrrollador de la hoja," a leaf eater, Urbanus moderate temperatures and man-made ponds to proproteus. vide irrigation water, under the influence of a local
"Coquitos perforador de hojas," leaf eater, entrepreneur-farmer, there has developed a highly proDiabrotica and Ceratoma sp. ductive and high technological bean-potato farming
"Perforador de vainos," pod borer, Maruca systems. Bean yields are over 1500 kilograms/hectare,
testulalis. which is over three times the national average.
"Falso medidor," leaf eater, Physometra sp. B. Present Program Activities
"Saltahojas o lorito verde," leafhoppers, Empoasca sp. 1. Ministry of Agriculture, CENIAP: a limited
"Chinche verde," Nezara viridula program consisting of variety testing and
"Acaro rojo," lead mite, Tetranychus development, agronomic studies on seedling
desertorum. vigor, stand establishment, and population
"Perforador del tallo," stem borer, densities. There has been some work underway
Stephanoderes sp. in areas of weed control, disease and insect
"Minador de la hoja," leafminer, Lyriomiza control, irrigation, and mechanization.
menuda. 2. Central University of Venezuela at Maracay:
"Gusano de la hoja," leaf eater, Anticarsia research studies on the legume viruses are begenmatalis. ing conducted; a thorough survey of bean
"Gorgojo del grano," stored grain weevil, viruses, levels of severity, distribution, vectors
Callosobruchus marulatus, and sources of resistance has been in progress
"Chinche sub terranea," soil-borne beetle, for several years.
Cyrtonemus sp. 3. Foundation for Agricultural Science, Fusagri,
"Coralillo," sugar-cane small' borer, at Cagua: workers in entomology and plant
Elasmopalpus lignosellus. pathology conduct bean variety trials for
3. Weeds: resistance and susceptibility indexing, and conduct trials of promising agro-chemicals for
Seventeen species of weeds, including a per- duct trials of promising agro-chemicals for
sistent grass with the local name "paja chemical control purposes.
perluda," Setaria sp. and nutgrass, Carex sp, C. Future Plans and Needs with local name "corocillo." 1. Agronomic practices
In particular regions, special constraints have been a) Better and more consistent stands.
noted, as follows: b) More effective weed control systems.
Manuare c) Studies of cropping sequences.
1. Failure of seasonal rainfall is the main factor d) Use of higher quality seeds.
limiting yield. e) Greater use of machines for planting,
Villa de Cura cultivation and harvesting.
Villa de Cura f) More widespread use of fertilizer and
1. Poor cultural practices, poor seedbed prepara- inoculaties.
tion and low plant densities.
2. Disease and Insect Control
2. Inadequate and ineffective nodulation.
Senate a) Continue chemical control experiments
Senate with new materials and continue to ex1. In some cases, ineffective application of pand breeding resistance.
herbicides. b) Emphasize cropping sequences, cultural
Tumero Parja practices and use of disease-free seed.
1. Poor management, such as new bean plantings 3. Water use studies in both valley and upland
made adjacent to older plantings already sites.
heavily rusted, little use of herbicides and no 4. Demonstration-Extension
hand weed control. As the work of Milor Romanoff has
Lest it be concluded because only problems and defi- demonstrated in Senare, practical on farm
ciencies are generally listed that the entire bean grow- demonstrations of proven technology have the ing enterprise is fraught with adversities of climate, capability of effecting a revolutionary transisoils, biological factors and mismanagement, it should tion from the primitive subsistence-type probe noted that many excellent fields of beans under ducton system to highly productive operations
competent management can be found in Venezuela. In in a decade of time. The present corps of young
the Senare region, a "little Switzerland" comprised of college educated field men and extensionists
tillable, round-topped hills, with excellent soils, need leadership and experience, and time on
58




the job to be able to effect similar changes tion, followed by peanuts, pigeon peas and cowpeas.
elsewhere. There is great interest in growing the soybean but the
5. Trained research and extension personnel. problems of seed quality and plant adaptation to 6. Continuation of the favorable credit policies of tropical environments have not yet been solved and the
the National Agricultural Development Bank. hectarage is small.
For the food legumes, the level of applied technology
D. Assessment varies from place to place, but is generally insufficient
Venezuela has the soils and climate favorable to for high sustained production. There is use of fertilizers
a condition of self-sufficiency in beans. The coun- and insecticides and, in some areas, of irrigation. The try has not in the past put the necessary financial, major problems in production relate to diseases and institutional and personnel resources to bear upon pests of which the following are most frequently cited:
the major constraint areas. Through international
cooperation, Venezuela could avail itself of tech- Diseases Beans Cowpeas
nological advancements made in other programs. Anthracnose +
Agro-chemical advancements are readily available Root rot, Fusarium + +
to farmers through the commercial agro-chemical Mildew + +
representatives that travel throughout the country. Angular leaf spot +
A greater emphasis upon training at all levels, from Halo, blight, Pseudomonas sp. + on-farm demonstrators to research project leaders, Pythium butleri + +
would be advisable. Sclerotium rolfsii + +
The fact that some 17 species or kinds of insects Bean rust +
and a similar number of weedy plants have been Common bacterial blight +
identified as pests in Venezuela must be tempered Common bean mosaic +
with the statements that: Cowpea mosaic virus +
1. Not all species are equally severe; some cause Golden mosaic virus +
only minor damage. Insect Pests Beans Cowpeas
2. They do not occur in all regions, or fields, nor Army worms + +
every year. Leafhopper + +
Diabrotica balteata + +
Ceratoma ruficornis + +
Apion spp. + +
Bruchids, several genera + +
The Caribbean, Central Aphids + +
America and Panama: The following country descriptions are abstracted
from the FAQ Progress Report. Certain countries,
Selected Countries where supplementary and/or first hand information
was available, are discussed individually under the
The Plant Production and Protection Division of the Latin American rubric. F.A.O. Regional Office for Latin America in Santiago, Belize Chile, has recently (March 1982) published its "Progress Report on the Status of the Food legume Belize, a small country, had 2,170 hectares devoted
Cooperative Production Program for the Caribbean, to beans in 1976; 1800 tons were produced with the Central America, and Panama." This report covers reasonably high per hectare yield of 829 kilograms. background information on a number of countries in Beans are grown under favorable soil and moisture the region, gives information on major constraints to conditions, though, at the low elevations, under 350 production of the food legumes (beans, cowpeas, meter elevation, temperatures and humdiity can be expigeon peas, groundnuts, soya), on various country cessive. This promotes rank growth and prevalence of programs and needs, and lists institutions and agencies diseases. Small farm production predominates in involved in food legume activities. Belize, with 60 percent of the crop grown in pure stand
Countries studied as representative cases for this and 40 percent in association with maize. The level of region include Barbados, Costa Rica, Dominican mechanization is higher than in other Central
Republic, Guyana, Haiti and Jamaica. American countries, as is the use of fertilizers and
Of the grain legumes grown to an appreciable extent pesticides. Belize suffers from the diseases and insects in the region, the common bean is by far the most im- of the region as well as from the lack of specially portant. It accounts for 77 percent of the total produc- adapted varieties. Most of the production area is
59




planted to seed imported from the United States or El ment encourages cowpea production by a guaranteed Salvador. Bean research in Belize consists of varietal minimum price to growers and production loans are evaluation and agronomic experimentation, available for seed, fertilizer and pesticides.
High costs, scarcity of labor and costs of the agroEl Salvador chemicals constitute limiting factors in produciton,
Beans are grown in the West and East-Central zones along with pests and diseases. at elevations of 900-1,200 meters having a mean
annual rainfall of 1,500 millimeters. In 1976, El Jamaica Salvador produced 38,473 metric tons of beans on
57,000 hectares, at an average yield of 675 Although the absolute hectarage in beans is small,
kilograms/hectare. Approximately 80 percent of the 3,132, the dry bean is more widely grown than any hectarage is found on small farms of two hectares or other grain legume in Jamaica. With an average yield less. Only 20 percent of the bean area is mono-cropped, of 736 kilograms/hectare, some 2,300 metric tons were another 30 percent is planted in association with mazie produced in 1976. Typically, 90-95 percent of the or sugarcane, and 50 percent of the bean hectarage is beans are produced on farms of 10 hectares or less. planted in rotational systems with maize. Nearly 80 percent are grown in pure stands and the reEl Salvador has had an active bean research pro- mainder in relay or mixed cropping with maize, white gram for many years and has had linkages with the potatoes, yams, sweet potatoes, sugarcane, citrus and U.S. Department of Agriculture, and more recently, tobacco. CIAT and Mayaguez Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Production constraints include diseases and insects, MITA. In consequence of this fact, the varieties grown lack of high yielding varieties and lack of irrigation in are either superior introduced ones or locally improved the drier areas. There is a small national program that strains with both red and black beans grown. carries out variety and pesticide testing.
Diseases and insect pests, lack of fertilizers, agrochemicals and inadequate storage facilities constitute
the chief problems. Nicaragua
Cowpeas are also grown in El Salvador, primarily in As in other Central American countries, dry beans the coastal zone and in Morazon. Approximately 5,555 are grown throughout Nicaragua from 50 meters to hectares were grown in 1976, yielding at a rate of 900 1,500 meters elevation with varying amounts of kilograms/hectare. Most cowpeas are grown on small seasonal rainfall. Nicaragua ranks second, after farms, inter-cropped with maize or sorghum. Use of Guatemala, in total production per year with 49,200 fertilizer on cowpeas is minimal, metric tons in 1977 with a high average yield of 810
The black-seeded local type is soon to be replaced by kilograms/hectare.
improved, and more preferred, red-seeded varieties Nearly all bean production is on small farms of less
developed and released by CENTA. On farm con- than five hectares. About 50 percent of production is in
sumption accounts for 80 percent of the production, association with a diversity of economic species, such as the rest are sold to a government marketing agency. citrus, coffee, cassava, sorghum, rice and various Pests, diseases and insufficient storage are the main vegetables, 10 percent is grown in a multiple cropping problems. sequence system and 40 percent in mono-culture.
The principal limiting factors are lack of superior
Guyana varieties, shortage of disease free seed, insufficient
irrigaton, the array of field diseases, and field and
Guyana produces a very small hectarage of dry storage insects listed above. There is a National
beans and a somewhat larger amount of cowpeas Research Program in agriculture, with linkage to the
(1,300 hectares in two regions, the coastal zone with CIAT Bean Program, to address some of the 1,600 millimeters of rainfall, and the inland inter- constraints. mediate savannas lying at elevations of 30 meters and
receiving 2,000 millimeters of rainfall). Per hectare Pnm yields of cowpeas are about 600 kilograms. Most Pnm
cowpeas are grown in pure stands. Only a minor Beans grown in Panama, about 2,200 hectares in
amount is grown with root crops or sequentially with 1976, occur mainly in the Chirigui province at elevamaize. tions of 700-800 meters with annual rainfall of 2,500
The government of Guyana hopes to increase the millimeters. The average yield in 1976 was 545
hectarage in cowpeas to 4,000 by the early 1980's. Cur- kilograms/hectare and this figure reflects the yield obrently, the main variety is California V and seed is tained in pure stand. Obviously, production conusually imported from the United States. The govern- straints are severe even though fertilizers and pesticides
60




are often used. Principal constraints are lack of suitable make these materials freely available to national provarieties, diseases and poor agronomic practices. There grams, to encourage and assist the national programs is a National Food Legume Program and it maintains in their evaluation, and, if the material proves worthcooperation with CIAT. while, in their increase and distribution.
The cowpea is also grown in Chirigui Cocle los San- The bean program consists of some 12-14 major protos and Veraguas at elevations of 5-200 meters, with fessionals in staff positions and a group numbering annual rainfall of 1,200-2,000 millimeters. About from 25 to 30 visiting scientists, fellows, research 16,590 hectares were grown in 1976, yielding at an associates and research assistants. They are backed up average rate of 254 kilograms/hectare. This is about by library and computing services, administrative and one-half the bean yield per hectare but cowpeas are secretarial personnel and by logistic support in relegated to the drier part of the season which may be laboratories and fields. The CIAT Bean Program now a factor in explaining the lower yields. Lack of produc- plays a pivotal role in bean varietal improvement in tive stress tolerant varieties, and pests and diseases are Latin America and has extended to all bean programs the principal constraints, outside of Latin America invitations to participate in
conducting uniform testing and in sharing promising germplasm.
International Centers
International Institute of Tropical
Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical Agriculture (IITA)
(CIAT) IITA is located at Ibadan, Nigeria and has accepted
The CIAT bean program was initiated in 1973 with global responsibility for research and development in its primary site of activity in Cali-Palmira, Colombia, cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata). Inasmuch as Nigeria is and cooperative linkages with national programs in the probable center of diversity for cowpeas, and the most of the countries of the Caribbean, Central and largest producer and consumer it is particularly fitting South America. One hundred fifty-seven sets of its In- that the international center be located there. ternational Yield and Adaptation Nurseries were The program is oriented strongly toward finding
distributed in 1979 to some 33 countries. Between 1976 solutions to major problems in cowpea production and and 1979, 515 nurseries were distributed to col- utilization. To that end, the program consists of laborators, 80 percent of whom were in Latin research in the following subject matter sections.:
America.
The principal emphasis of the program is to develop A. Breeding:
multiple disease and insect resistant germplasm in the 1. Germplasm collection and evaluation. major preferred grain types. Specifically, the program 2. Population improvement and varietal is dedicated to developing genetic resistance to com- development.
mon mosaic, rust, anthracnose, common bacterial 3. Yield testing.
blight, angular leafspot and leafhoppers. In addition, 4. Genetic studies particularly of economic traits. there are allied programs dealing with research and B. Agronomy: selection for efficiency in symbiotic nitrogen fixation, 1. Yield trials. efficiency of phosphorus uptake and utilization, initial 2. Spacing and density studies. screening for drought resistance, studies on plant 3. Fertility studies.
architecture and yield, tolerance to moderately acid 4. Inter-cropping studies. soils, variability from inter-specific hybridization, C. Nutritional and utilization. photoperiod-temperature effects on development, and nutritional and quality factors. It conducts farm trials D. Entomology: to validate newer technologies and cooperates interna- 1. Biology of cowpea insect pests. tionally with outreach projects in Peru and Guatemala, 2. Screening for host plant resistance. and will soon enter East Africa. 3. Studies with insecticides.
CIAT supports and participates in the training of 4. Control of stored grain pests.
bean workers from numerous bean producing countries E. Pathology: in the Americas and Africa. The world's most complete 1. Seed quality and seedling establishment. bean germplasm bank is maintained at CIAT and the 2. Virus disease and wet stem rot.
bean program contributes to its systematic evaluation.
The fundamental strategy of CIAT in dealing with
country constraints is to develop genetically improved F. Physiology: materials in many preferred seed and plant types, to 1. Growth analysis studies.
61




2. Photoperiod. 2. Leaf-sucking insects: thrips (Sericothrips ocG. Collaboration: University of Reading, University cipitalis and Taenothrips sjostedti) and
of Nottingham, Rothamsted Experiment Station leafhoppers (Empoasca sp.)
and Cambridge University in physiological and 3. Pod-sucking bugs: Coreid bugs (Riptortus
breeding projects. dentipes, Anoplocnemis curvipes, AcanThe cowpea breeding program receives the thomyia horrida).
major emphasis of research conducted by the 4. Pod-boring insects: Maruca testulalis, LaspeyGrain Legume Improvement Program at IITA. resia ptychora, Callosobruchus maculatus.
The main thrust of the crossing program is to Insect control strategy relies on both host plant
recombine genes for high seed yield, seed quality, resistance and use of chemical protectants.
resistance to diseases and insects, and certain In disease control, both chemical treatments and
In disease control, both chemical treatments and
agronomic traits. Selection has been directed host plant resistance approaches have proved toward erect and semi-erect plant types, since beneficial. The diseases of importance include wet these types appear more promising under modern stem rot (Pythium aphanidermatum), anthracnose, cultivation systems. cercospora leaf spot, bacterial pustule, cowpea rust
Under "population improvement" an attempt is and cowpea mosaic. Genetic work on some responses
being made to utilize genetic male-sterility to en- has elucidated modes of inheritance.
force out-crossing and genetic recombination in Physiologic studies suggest that lengthening the
various created populations and sub-populations. flowering and pod-filling period along with selecting
Yield trials are conducted at IITA and in colYield trials are conducted at IITA and in col- for a greater partitioning ratio would raise yield potenlaboration with other agencies. Uniform Trials tial in cowpeas.
have been distributed worldwide. The foregoing abbreviated discussion of cowpea
Agronomic studies have been conducted on work at IITA is sufficient to suggest that a broad specplant densities and row widths for erect nonplant densities and row widths for erect non- trum of problems are being addressed and that inforbranching types compared with indeterminant mation and useful materials are being produced.
branching types, and fertilizer responsiveness to N A small permanent senior staff and a large group of
and P. Lack of response was attributed to the low short term visiting scientists and research assistants pronutrient requirement of cowpeas for P and to ex- vide competent research capability to this project.
cellent nodulation. Total nutrient uptake by (One might prefer somewhat greater stability of senior
cowpeas is about 60 percent of that of soybeans. personnel.) A senior staff breeder has been stationed in Other work deals with determining optimum Goiania, Brazil, to collaborate with EMBRAPA's proharvesting time for indeterminate cowpeas, gram in North East Brazil.
chemical seed treatments for combined disease and ga nNrhEs rzl
chemical seed treatments for combined disease and The cowpea has proved to be a species of great variainsect control, tillage methods, cowpea maize bility for economic characteristics. If the research team
inter-cropping and farmers' field trials. at IITA and smaller collaboratives groups elsewhere, in
Insect pests are classifiable into the following Africa and Latin America, can maintain or increase
four groups: current activities, we may expect significant progress in
1. Leaf-feeding beetles: adult Oatheca mutabilis cowpea production and utilization in the years ahead.
and Luperodes lineata.
62




Interpretative Summary
Ecologically and socio-culturally the lands and fessional orientation of the majority of the respondents.
peoples from which this report derives represent divers- The evidence from all documented sources, supported ity, in many instances sharply contrasting diversity. It is by personal observations of CRSP planning teams, innot unexpected, therefore, that the array of production dicates that problems exist at all levels of production and utilization constraints should include more than 30 and utilization and that many of them are universal. separate items. Most frequently cited were diseases and This is the primary rationale for inter-national colinsect pests. Their effects are readily seen and often laboration. In an era of scarce personnel, facilities and devastating to the crop, whereas the effects of, for ex- operational resources within individual national proample, low soil temperature, cited for upland plateaus grams, the only rational approach to solutions to the in Ethiopia, upon seed germination and stand establish- ubiquitous constraints resides in a free interchange of inment are less obvious and more inferential, formation and materials between collaborating national
Next most often cited were such items as inferior programs and free access to work conducted at the relevariety performance, problems of drought and/or water vant international centers. use, lack of high quality seed, its availability or cost, In a rough numerical sense, about half of the items and problems related to depletion of soil fertility. These cited by national program workers as being major conincluded those associated with nodulation and biolog- straints are presently being worked upon as research ical nitrogen fixation. Relative inefficiency of current objectives in their programs. In keeping with their production practices or systems was also cited in several perception of problems of greatest concern, these are the cases. areas which receive the most attention in current proSuch areas as consumer preferences, storage losses, grams. Although a particular problem may be cited as preservation of quality and ease of cooking, while not receiving attention in a given instance, in hardly a single perceived as universal problems, nevertheless, were case is the full measure of time, personnel, facilities, cited more than once. Also noted were certain problems materials or funds necessary for expeditious solution bein the socio-economic category, such as reluctance of ing expended. Professional time diluted by other farmers to take the risks accompanying the adoption of assignments, insufficient educational level or numbers untried new technology, poor marketing strategies, low of personnel, inadequate facilities, provincial materials economic returns and the high cost of inputs, and the always scarce financial resources characterize
Constraints cited for cowpeas were the same as those most national programs.
for beans, differing only in the specific diseases, insects There appears to be an almost universal neglect in and in those problems judged to be more serious. But national programs of the fact that women are deeply ineven with these cautions, the overall constraint picture volved in production and utilization of beans and is very similar for beans and cowpeas. cowpeas and might conceivably be influenced by the inThe constraint categories mentioned thus far are troduction of new technology into tasks which they now found almost everywhere, including the developed perform routinely. I refer to such things as the introcountries. Numerous additional problems are cited, duction of pesticides which might pose health hazards, singlely or no more often than twice, which seem to be particularly to pregnant or nursing women, and to the unique to a particular country. Salinity in Coastal Peru- introduction of bean or cowpea varieties, high in dry vian soils is an example. seed yields but with leaves or pods unsuitable as green
Production related constraints are more frequently vegetables. This would require the woman, as the famicited than utilization related problems or socio- ly "dietician", to search for alternate green food. They economic concerns. This may be a reflection of the pro- are also influenced by the introduction of a variety that
63




i
cooks slowly, requiring more time and fuel, or that, work, water-use efficiency and transfer of technology. following cooking, turns sour too early to be used as left- The taking on of new objectives by some national overs. The introduction of varieties whose protein is less programs while retaining most of the former ones, if digestible to children and of a variety whose pods at done without additional resources, would seem illmaturity are leathery tough instead of brittle, and advised. This would be stretching already taut resources therefore not easily threshed by hand shelling, affects perhaps to the breaking point. With the almost worldwomen. wide financial crises in the early 1980's, erosion of
Several of these issues are not perceived as research- resources available to national programs has already able questions. This partly accounts for their omission begun. In several instances the B/C CRSP brings some from current programs. But it is only fair to point out additional resources to bear, however, they will not be that most program leaders are aware that new varieties enough. and practices have to meet certain criteria of accept- Beyond physical facilities and operational budgets, ability. So whether or not working women are mention- program leadership and research competencies play ed explicitly in program objectives, some of.their con- decisive roles in the ultimate success or failure of a procerns are no doubt present in the minds of program gram. It is essential that there be continuity, commitpersonnel. ment and competency of leadership and program perWomen in Africa, Latin America and the Caribbean sonnel. But individuals, both in leadership positions and
are becoming involved at the level of technical training collegial research roles, are subject to "advancements" and peer professional research. The future will probably and re-assignments within the organization. They are see more participation by trained professional women also attracted to opportunities outside the institution of than in the past. immediate employment. Such changes are costly to the
For several national programs, future areas of activ- programs affected. They in most cases cannot be ity have been indicated. The areas include the major helped. The adverse effects can be minimized only if constraints already being addressed, as they should, but continual training and professional internships in every frequently new problem areas are named as well. Areas program, organization and institution build and nurno doubt are selected because of their importance but ture a corps of young working scientists. It would be also, in some cases, because they are perceived as new upon such cadres that the opportunity and responsibility dimensions to old problems. Among these are such would lie for sustained program achievements. Prothings as alternative methods of disease or insect con- grams thus structured would have the greatest trol, high temperature stress studies, nitrogen-fixation likelihood of contributing to the national good.
64




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