• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Title Page
 Preface
 Table of Contents
 Frontispiece
 Introduction
 The global plan of the bean/cowpea...
 Progress report
 Summary and Financial report






Group Title: Global plan and progress report : the Bean/Bowpea Collaborative Research Support Program (CRSP)
Title: Global plan and progress report
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE PAGE TEXT
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00054814/00001
 Material Information
Title: Global plan and progress report
Physical Description: v, 57 p. : ;
Language: English
Creator: Bean/Cowpea Collaborative Research Support Program
Publisher: Bean/Cowpea CRSP
Place of Publication: East Lansing Mich
Publication Date: [1986?]
 Subjects
Subject: Cowpea -- Research   ( lcsh )
Beans -- Research   ( lcsh )
Genre: non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: the Bean/Cowpea Collaborative Research Support Program (CRSP).
Funding: Electronic resources created as part of a prototype UF Institutional Repository and Faculty Papers project by the University of Florida.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00054814
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 001155027
oclc - 21508807
notis - AFQ5102

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Title Page
        Page i
        Page ii
    Preface
        Page iii
        Page iv
    Table of Contents
        Page v
    Frontispiece
        Frontispiece
    Introduction
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
    The global plan of the bean/cowpea CRSP
        Page 9
        Introduction
            Page 9
            Program goal
                Page 9
            Program purpose
                Page 9
        Global plan
            Page 9
            Commodity elements
                Page 10
            Constraint elements
                Page 10
            Service elements
                Page 10
            Geographic element
                Page 11
            Project elements
                Page 12
            Structural elements
                Page 13
                Page 14
            Articles of the global plan
                Page 15
                Page 16
            Conclusion
                Page 17
        Profile of global plan
            Page 18
        Global research plan
            Page 19
        Log frame of the bean/ cowpea CRSP
            Page 20
            Page 21
            Page 22
            Page 23
            Page 24
            Page 25
            Page 26
    Progress report
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Report by contraint area
            Page 27
            Limitations due to diseases
                Page 29
                Page 30
            Limitations due to insects
                Page 27
            Plant response limitations
                Page 31
                Page 32
            Limitations of physical enviroment
                Page 33
                Page 34
                Page 35
                Page 36
            Production-consumption economics, farming systems and socio-cultural factors
                Page 37
                Page 38
                Page 39
                Page 40
            Storage, food preparation, nutrition and health
                Page 41
                Page 42
            Education, training and research capability
                Page 43
            Graph
                Page 44
        Significant accomplishments
            Page 45
            Page 46
            Page 47
            Page 48
            Page 49
            Page 50
            Page 51
            Page 52
            Page 53
            Page 54
    Summary and Financial report
        Page 55
        Summary
            Page 55
        Financial report
            Page 56
            Page 57
            Page 58
Full Text




























Global Plan o:a Preogress Report
THE BEAN/COWPEA
COLLABORATIVE RESEARCH SUPPORT PROGRAM
(CRSP)


































Global Plan and Progress Report
THE BEAN/COWPEA
COLLABORATIVE RESEARCH SUPPORT PROGRAM
(CRSP)


Funded by AID Grant No. DAN-1310-G-SS-6008-00



































































Illustrations: Christine Altese, Lansing, MI







PREFACE

The Bean/Cowpea Collaborative Research Support Program
(CRSP) is a research and training partnership involving US Land-
Grant universities, Host Country (HC) agricultural institutions in
Africa and Latin America and the US Agency for International
Development. HC and US scientists participating in the CRSP
have made long-term investments in the relationships which are
the foundation of the program. The investments are both profes-
sional and personal as, over the last five-plus years, these
scientists have annually visited one another's laboratories, field
sites and homes. By virtue of this interaction, they have
exchanged understandings about their respective cultural and
agricultural contexts.

In thoughtful discussions among these professionals, various
points of view have been shared in attempts to identify research
strategies which will contribute to human well-being throughout
the world. From the array of national, cultural, ethnic, gender,
class and disciplinary perspectives, their interactions have opened
up new horizons for the development and application of evolving
science and technology. The researchers, most of whom were
wrestling with global issues independently long before coming
together in the CRSP, have found the collaboration stimulating and
have experienced new power in the expanded peer relationships.
The international traffic of scholars conferring across participating
countries highlights the mutual benefits of the relationships.

What has evolved from the investments? What are the features
which unite the participants, strengthen the network and contribute
to the success?

It is too trite to say the world is small. But it is indeed a fact
that problems in even the smallest, most remote countries of the
world can radiate their impact around the globe; e.g., official and
unofficial acts of aggression, domestic influences on the inter-
national terms of trade, and the inevitable leveler of all forms of
agriculture--the weather. No country can avoid being affected by
the expanded use of chemicals and worldwide pollution or the
social and political effects of so many severely stressed national
economies. All of these issues demonstrate that the US too lacks
immunity from the unemployment, poverty, hunger, drought,
infestation and disease problems suffered by many other nations.
In reality, the US is also a developing country which will benefit
from a sharing of knowledge and resources. It too will benefit
from the strengthening of national institutions around the world
with which it can collaborate.







There are, in every society, people in whom critical aspects of
their culture's knowledge have been invested. Some of these
people are scientists and scholars. Others are lay people,
frequently without formal education, who have received traditional
wisdoms honed from generations of trial and error. Some of these
men and women have a vision that, in an appropriate context, this
knowledge can contribute to solving the pressing social and environ-
mental problems of their time. As the world gets smaller, such per-
sons search for ways to seek out one another as the task is clearly
beyond the capacity of a few. World hunger and malnutrition are
the focus of CRSP people who have coalesced around the two
commodities beans and cowpeas. In so doing, they have built a
network which pools their respective knowledge and resources for
increasing the availability of these important protein-rich foods.
This document describes the extent of their efforts.

The introduction presents basic information on the CRSP. It is
followed by the updated CRSP Global Plan on which the program is
based. The third section discusses briefly the status of each of the
major constraints to the availability of beans and cowpeas and pre-
sents what the CRSP has accomplished thus far toward the allevia-
tion of those constraints. A list of individual achievements is
included at the end of that section. Finally, a summary statement
and brief financial report conclude the document.

The impact from this first 5.6 years is just beginning. It is
likely that the network established here will far outlive the CRSP
because CRSP people, who may differ in so many outwardly
appearing ways, have acknowledged a basic vulnerability. This
year, for example, record rains destroyed over 50 percent of the
bean crop in Michigan, the leading dry bean producing state in the
US. Sophisticated production technology was of little use. It is
clear that none of us is without risks or, likewise, without resources.
In the long run, we are united by both an understanding of our
ultimate dependence on nature and a collective appreciation of our
need for one another in meeting its challenge.

Pat Barnes-McConnell
Director








TABLE OF CONTENTS


PREFACE


INTRODUCTION .


THE GLOBAL PLAN OF THE BEAN/COWPEA CRSP


Introduction .
Program Goal .
Program Purpose .
Global Plan ....
Commodity Elements .
Constraint Elements .
Service Elements .
Geographic Element.....
Project Elements .
Structural Elements.....
Articles of the Global Plan
Conclusion .
Profile of Global Plan .
Global Research Plan .
Log Frame of the Bean/Cowpea CRSP


S .iii

. 1

. 9
. 9
. 9
. 9

10
. 10
. 10



. 15
15
17
18
19
S. 20


PROGRESS REPORT .
Report by Constraint Area .
Limitations Due to Insects . .
Limitations Due to Diseases .
Plant Response Limitations . .
Limitations of the Physical Environment
Production-Consumption Economics, Farming
Systems and Socio-Cultural Factors .
Storage, Food Preparation, Nutrition and Health
Education, Training and Research Capability .
Graph .
Significant Accomplishments .


SUMMARY AND FINANCIAL REPORT
Summary . .
Financial Report .


. 27
.27
. 27
29
31
.33

.37
.41
.43
. 44
.45


.55
.55
.56


I ( I


f 1


I I I I







INTRODUCTION

Following a two-year planning period, the Bean/Cowpea CRSP
was implemented in October 1980 with funds from the US Agency
for International Development (AID) as authorized by the Board for
International Food and Agricultural Development (BIFAD) under
Title XII of the Foreign Assistance Act designated "Famine Preven-
tion and Freedom from Hunger." The original Bean/Cowpea CRSP
grant was in effect for five years and seven months, after which a
new extension grant was awarded to continue the work. This
document is a report of progress during that original time period.

Organized to bring together the resources of Host Country
(HC) and US research institutions, the CRSP was concerned with
addressing critical problems inhibiting bean and cowpea production
and consumption, especially in those areas of the world where
these foods are important in human diets. It was understood that
the achievements would also be useful for US bean and cowpea
growers. The international scientific community that evolved has
enjoyed a strengthened bean/cowpea research and training capacity
as a result of these efforts.

During the original grant, the CRSP worked with eight
countries in Africa (Botswana,* Cameroon,* Kenya, Malawi,*
Nigeria,* Senegal,* Tanzania* and Uganda) and six countries in
Latin America (Brazil,* Dominican Republic,* Ecuador, Guatemala,*
Honduras* and Mexico*). These efforts, encompassing joint
research as well as training of students from the US and developing
countries, evolved from a comprehensive global plan which was
developed during the planning years. The Global Plan (presented in
its entirety in the following section), periodically updated and
modified as appropriate, is the framework which has guided the
evolution of the CRSP in line with international bean and cowpea
research needs and resources.

Similar to the movement of several decades ago which estab-
lished the network of International Agricultural Research Centers
(IARCs), the CRSP context was introduced into an evolving inter-
national agricultural research and development system as a new
and needed component. According to extensive external reviews,
it is a cost-effective model, a model that can perform a critical
international role outside of the mandates and capabilities of other
international agricultural research organizations. Critical among
the model's characteristics are:


*Countries with ongoing Bean/Cowpea CRSP projects







1. The tremendous size of the resource base represented by the
array of participating US universities, whose resources include
the professional expertise, the related ongoing teaching and
research programs, the extensive research facilities and the
administrative support structure of the US Land-Grant system;

2. The diversity of professional disciplines available to contribute
to the problem-solving efforts;

3. The working partnerships of committed colleagues profession-
ally rewarded for collaborating across national boundaries with
other participating scientists.

Thus, the CRSP complements and supplements IARCs and
other public and private research organizations by broadening and
deepening the overall research support base and the linkages which
reinforce the international agricultural research system. Perform-
ing in a highly acceptable, interactive mode for agricultural
development, the CRSP brings the diverse, largely untapped
resources of US centers of excellence into collaborative interna-
tional research and training activities. Through these efforts, the
CRSP is extending the worldwide network of institutions and
individuals cooperating in important bean- and cowpea-related
research. More broadly over time, it helps fashion and strengthen
enduring linkages throughout the international agricultural
research and development system.

The following example highlights the importance of the contri-
butions made by the CRSP in the establishment of linkages among
national programs, international research organizations and the US
agricultural research system including USDA and private research
institutes. The head of the bean program at CIAT has recently
spoken of the mutually enhancing features of the Bean/Cowpea
CRSP and CIAT. Three of his points regarding the CRSP role are
especially illustrative:

1. CRSP basic research is making important contributions to the
ability of CIAT to advance its program. The viral work of the
Washington State University/Tanzania project, the BNF work
of the University of Wisconsin/Brazil project, the work on
biological control of insects of the Boyce Thompson Institute/
Brazil project and the heat and drought work of the University
of California-Riverside/Senegal project are all examples of
CRSP research whose output is being incorporated into
international center research.

2. CRSP contributions to national programs strengthen CIAT's
research effectiveness especially where the national programs







were weak in terms of numbers of professional staff,
infrastructure and operational research capacity. For
example, in the Dominican Republic where the CRSP has
trained researchers, added critical infrastructure and provided
support for ongoing research activity, more CIAT materials
are being tested, the work is superior and the materials
coming out of that research are enriched by the inclusion of
other lines developed through CRSP research as well as those
from CIAT. Programs strengthened in this way are more
receptive to participation with CIAT research and the
participants are more professionally confident. The materials
generated are much improved and transferable to other CIAT
efforts. Thus, CRSP-strengthened national programs have
become a reinforcing and increasingly dynamic link in the flow
of professional interactions and subsequent research achieve-
ments of the total agricultural research system. This is in
contrast to situations which often existed before the CRSP,
when many national programs were beleaguered and work had
begun to bog down.

3. CRSP training for HC students not only adds to the critical
mass of professionals in national programs, those students also
(a) work with specialists at the universities on stubborn
research problems which are a bottleneck in agricultural
development and (b) themselves move easily among the
national programs, CRSP institutions and the IARCs, strength-
ening these linkages in the process of their training. Thus, not
only' are they well-trained, but they are also doing research
highly relevant to the national programs and the IARCs where
research progress had been blocked. In addition, they
reinforce the inter-program linkages which will be mutually
beneficial to all parties. The CIAT bean program leader cited
the MSU/ Malawi project in regard to this point. As CIAT
moves more substantively into Africa, they see as one of their
biggest challenges the vast genetic heterogeneity of bean
mixtures common throughout certain regions of that conti-
nent. Because Western research has traditionally been based
on pure lines, he feels the products of the MSU/Malawi
project's research (genetic, agronomic and socio-cultural) will
be an absolute must--the baseline data and understanding of
the system are all requisites for CIAT's work being initiated in
that region. Students from Malawi continue to be trained in
many different but related disciplines for future work with the
national bean program.

Reinforcing this position, the CRSP External Evaluation Panel
reports there is good evidence that:







1. The CRSP is a mechanism which supports better equity within
research teams engaged in development activity. The model
develops a pattern of interaction which is not hierarchical but
collegial in nature, providing an important avenue for the
active participation of HC professionals in the development
process.

2. The CRSP provides one vehicle for the contribution of science
and technology to development as a necessary but insufficient
partner along with such factors as government-pricing policy
and extension. As such, the CRSP is an important component
of the US bilateral assistance program contributing to the
total AID effort to alleviate world hunger.

3. The CRSP has shown itself to be a rapid method of generating
technology fitting the specific needs of Host Countries. It is
an effective way to transfer and build greater capacity to
solve problems and generate new knowledge.

4. The actual research, involving the collaboration of scientists
cross-nationally, and the training of new professionals
effectively support the institution-building components of this
CRSP. Both within the African and Latin American regions
and across regional lines, professional networks are evolving
which strengthen the institutional capacities of participating
organizations.

5. The CRSP training resources effectively utilize a variety of
training modes (degree/non-degree, formal/informal,
domestic/ international) directly geared and linked to the
needs of the countries. Further, HC students have the
opportunity to study in the US with US professors who are
working on behalf of the students' own countries and
frequently are working intermittently in these countries.

6. The CRSP has attracted a remarkable number of US and HC
scientists. In the US it has strengthened the interest and
capability of US institutions to understand and participate in
development.

7. The CRSP supports attention to the role of women in agricul-
ture and the involvement of women in its projects. It has
improved the attitude of male professionals toward working
with professional women. Attention is being paid to efforts to
advance women throughout the system.

8. The CRSP, in evolving a problem-solving network, has
developed a community of US and HC scientists for scientific







and technological development which should prove itself
productive over the long term.

In addition, there are specific contributions to US agriculture
from this model which were noted by the EEP.

1. Bean/Cowpea CRSP projects/activities are concentrated
largely on producing superior bean and cowpea cultivars and
supporting production technologies (e.g., enhanced N-fixation).
Predictably, these cultivars and technologies will contribute
directly and indirectly to the development of superior
cultivars and production technologies for the United States.

2. An important related activity of most CRSP projects is the
collecting, describing, cataloguing and conserving of bean and
cowpea germplasm. These irreplaceable genetic resources will
become available over time to the United States and to other
bean- and cowpea-growing nations and, therefore, will
increase the range and diversity of genetic stocks available for
improvement programs.

3. New resources and procedures for the control of pests and
diseases in bean and cowpea production are emerging, i.e.,
insect pathogens, antiserum procedures to assess virus strains
in plant material. These new technologies will not only
support legume improvement programs in the US and other
legume-producing countries, but they will also expedite the
ability of nations to utilize one another's plant material in
adaptation trials and improvement programs across national
boundaries.

4. The Bean/Cowpea CRSP has a limited, but highly important,
focus on improving the human nutritional characteristics of
beans and cowpeas through breeding, processing and food
science programs. This focus can be expected to have a
salutory impact on bean/cowpea production research, as well
as home and commercial processing which ultimately will
contribute to United States industrial interests.

Thus, as an organized and comprehensive set of research
projects, the CRSP has become an important part of the agri-
cultural system. Clarification of its mandate and presentation of
its subsequent accomplishments are given in the sections which
follow.




























The Global Plan of the
Bean/Cowpea CRSP







THE GLOBAL PLAN OF THE BEAN/COWPEA CRSP

INTRODUCTION


PROGRAM GOAL

The Bean/Cowpea CRSP makes available to the international
agricultural research and development system a new avenue to the
US agricultural research network. In so doing, this CRSP is
expected to make important contributions to the resolution of
difficult and persistent problems associated with bean and cowpea
production and utilization in areas of the world where they are
important commodities.

The original grant document, operational for the first 5.6
years, puts forward the following goal of the Bean/Cowpea CRSP:

The goal of this program is to make a significant contri-
bution to improving the living conditions of small-farm
producers in LDCs and increasing availability of low-cost
nutritious foodstuffs in the marketplace for the rural and
urban poor in LDCs.

PROGRAM PURPOSE

The original grant document further identifies the following
purpose of the CRSP:

The purpose of this program is to organize and mobilize
financial and human resources necessary for mounting a
major multi-institutional US-LDC collaborative effort of
research and training in bean- and cowpea-related areas.


THE GLOBAL PLAN

The CRSP is to stimulate and support commodity-related
collaborative research among AID, the US Land-Grant university
community (with limited contributions from the US Department of
Agriculture), private institutes, Host Country institutions and
identified International Agricultural Research Centers. These
aggressive collaborative efforts are to focus on the identified
persistent constraints to bean and cowpea production and utiliza-
tion. Thus, this CRSP Global Plan to increase bean and cowpea
availability presents an organized set of research efforts. They are
designed to address the specific constraints in representative
agro-ecological areas of the world where beans and cowpeas are







THE GLOBAL PLAN OF THE BEAN/COWPEA CRSP

INTRODUCTION


PROGRAM GOAL

The Bean/Cowpea CRSP makes available to the international
agricultural research and development system a new avenue to the
US agricultural research network. In so doing, this CRSP is
expected to make important contributions to the resolution of
difficult and persistent problems associated with bean and cowpea
production and utilization in areas of the world where they are
important commodities.

The original grant document, operational for the first 5.6
years, puts forward the following goal of the Bean/Cowpea CRSP:

The goal of this program is to make a significant contri-
bution to improving the living conditions of small-farm
producers in LDCs and increasing availability of low-cost
nutritious foodstuffs in the marketplace for the rural and
urban poor in LDCs.

PROGRAM PURPOSE

The original grant document further identifies the following
purpose of the CRSP:

The purpose of this program is to organize and mobilize
financial and human resources necessary for mounting a
major multi-institutional US-LDC collaborative effort of
research and training in bean- and cowpea-related areas.


THE GLOBAL PLAN

The CRSP is to stimulate and support commodity-related
collaborative research among AID, the US Land-Grant university
community (with limited contributions from the US Department of
Agriculture), private institutes, Host Country institutions and
identified International Agricultural Research Centers. These
aggressive collaborative efforts are to focus on the identified
persistent constraints to bean and cowpea production and utiliza-
tion. Thus, this CRSP Global Plan to increase bean and cowpea
availability presents an organized set of research efforts. They are
designed to address the specific constraints in representative
agro-ecological areas of the world where beans and cowpeas are







THE GLOBAL PLAN OF THE BEAN/COWPEA CRSP

INTRODUCTION


PROGRAM GOAL

The Bean/Cowpea CRSP makes available to the international
agricultural research and development system a new avenue to the
US agricultural research network. In so doing, this CRSP is
expected to make important contributions to the resolution of
difficult and persistent problems associated with bean and cowpea
production and utilization in areas of the world where they are
important commodities.

The original grant document, operational for the first 5.6
years, puts forward the following goal of the Bean/Cowpea CRSP:

The goal of this program is to make a significant contri-
bution to improving the living conditions of small-farm
producers in LDCs and increasing availability of low-cost
nutritious foodstuffs in the marketplace for the rural and
urban poor in LDCs.

PROGRAM PURPOSE

The original grant document further identifies the following
purpose of the CRSP:

The purpose of this program is to organize and mobilize
financial and human resources necessary for mounting a
major multi-institutional US-LDC collaborative effort of
research and training in bean- and cowpea-related areas.


THE GLOBAL PLAN

The CRSP is to stimulate and support commodity-related
collaborative research among AID, the US Land-Grant university
community (with limited contributions from the US Department of
Agriculture), private institutes, Host Country institutions and
identified International Agricultural Research Centers. These
aggressive collaborative efforts are to focus on the identified
persistent constraints to bean and cowpea production and utiliza-
tion. Thus, this CRSP Global Plan to increase bean and cowpea
availability presents an organized set of research efforts. They are
designed to address the specific constraints in representative
agro-ecological areas of the world where beans and cowpeas are







THE GLOBAL PLAN OF THE BEAN/COWPEA CRSP

INTRODUCTION


PROGRAM GOAL

The Bean/Cowpea CRSP makes available to the international
agricultural research and development system a new avenue to the
US agricultural research network. In so doing, this CRSP is
expected to make important contributions to the resolution of
difficult and persistent problems associated with bean and cowpea
production and utilization in areas of the world where they are
important commodities.

The original grant document, operational for the first 5.6
years, puts forward the following goal of the Bean/Cowpea CRSP:

The goal of this program is to make a significant contri-
bution to improving the living conditions of small-farm
producers in LDCs and increasing availability of low-cost
nutritious foodstuffs in the marketplace for the rural and
urban poor in LDCs.

PROGRAM PURPOSE

The original grant document further identifies the following
purpose of the CRSP:

The purpose of this program is to organize and mobilize
financial and human resources necessary for mounting a
major multi-institutional US-LDC collaborative effort of
research and training in bean- and cowpea-related areas.


THE GLOBAL PLAN

The CRSP is to stimulate and support commodity-related
collaborative research among AID, the US Land-Grant university
community (with limited contributions from the US Department of
Agriculture), private institutes, Host Country institutions and
identified International Agricultural Research Centers. These
aggressive collaborative efforts are to focus on the identified
persistent constraints to bean and cowpea production and utiliza-
tion. Thus, this CRSP Global Plan to increase bean and cowpea
availability presents an organized set of research efforts. They are
designed to address the specific constraints in representative
agro-ecological areas of the world where beans and cowpeas are







THE GLOBAL PLAN OF THE BEAN/COWPEA CRSP

INTRODUCTION


PROGRAM GOAL

The Bean/Cowpea CRSP makes available to the international
agricultural research and development system a new avenue to the
US agricultural research network. In so doing, this CRSP is
expected to make important contributions to the resolution of
difficult and persistent problems associated with bean and cowpea
production and utilization in areas of the world where they are
important commodities.

The original grant document, operational for the first 5.6
years, puts forward the following goal of the Bean/Cowpea CRSP:

The goal of this program is to make a significant contri-
bution to improving the living conditions of small-farm
producers in LDCs and increasing availability of low-cost
nutritious foodstuffs in the marketplace for the rural and
urban poor in LDCs.

PROGRAM PURPOSE

The original grant document further identifies the following
purpose of the CRSP:

The purpose of this program is to organize and mobilize
financial and human resources necessary for mounting a
major multi-institutional US-LDC collaborative effort of
research and training in bean- and cowpea-related areas.


THE GLOBAL PLAN

The CRSP is to stimulate and support commodity-related
collaborative research among AID, the US Land-Grant university
community (with limited contributions from the US Department of
Agriculture), private institutes, Host Country institutions and
identified International Agricultural Research Centers. These
aggressive collaborative efforts are to focus on the identified
persistent constraints to bean and cowpea production and utiliza-
tion. Thus, this CRSP Global Plan to increase bean and cowpea
availability presents an organized set of research efforts. They are
designed to address the specific constraints in representative
agro-ecological areas of the world where beans and cowpeas are







grown. The elements of the plan include the bean and cowpea
constraints, the groups to be served, the countries chosen for
collaboration, the participating US institutions and the guidelines
and policies which provide direction for the program. The network
of scientists established by this CRSP will make accessible, to
interested programs in the US and HCs, expertise for problem-
solving throughout the developing world.

COMMODITY ELEMENTS

It was determined that Phaseolus vulgaris and Vigna unguiculata
would be the focus of this program. Although there are other
legumes to which research could make an important contribution,
these two were considered the most critical ones worldwide and the
ones for which research expertise was most available in the US.

CONSTRAINT ELEMENTS

Through visits to Host Countries, communications with official
HC representatives and review of appropriate literature, the major
constraints to bean and cowpea availability were identified. This
information was documented in the resulting state-of-the-art
publication (Adams, M. W. 1984. Beans--Cowpeas: Production
Constraints and National Programs. East Lansing, MI: MSU,
Bean/Cowpea CRSP Management Office) and became the basis for
the development of projects in representative regions.

The constraints identified are as follow:
1. Limitations due to insects
2. Limitations due to diseases
3. Plant response limitations
4. Limitations of the physical environment
5. Production-consumption economics, farming systems,
socio-cultural factors
6. Storage, food preparation, nutrition and health
7. Education, training and research capability

SERVICE ELEMENTS

Emphasis is placed on servicing the needs of small-scale
farmers, especially women who have the major responsibility for
family food production and processing. Contributions from the
social sciences as well as the biological sciences are important in
reaching this population. US growers will also benefit.







grown. The elements of the plan include the bean and cowpea
constraints, the groups to be served, the countries chosen for
collaboration, the participating US institutions and the guidelines
and policies which provide direction for the program. The network
of scientists established by this CRSP will make accessible, to
interested programs in the US and HCs, expertise for problem-
solving throughout the developing world.

COMMODITY ELEMENTS

It was determined that Phaseolus vulgaris and Vigna unguiculata
would be the focus of this program. Although there are other
legumes to which research could make an important contribution,
these two were considered the most critical ones worldwide and the
ones for which research expertise was most available in the US.

CONSTRAINT ELEMENTS

Through visits to Host Countries, communications with official
HC representatives and review of appropriate literature, the major
constraints to bean and cowpea availability were identified. This
information was documented in the resulting state-of-the-art
publication (Adams, M. W. 1984. Beans--Cowpeas: Production
Constraints and National Programs. East Lansing, MI: MSU,
Bean/Cowpea CRSP Management Office) and became the basis for
the development of projects in representative regions.

The constraints identified are as follow:
1. Limitations due to insects
2. Limitations due to diseases
3. Plant response limitations
4. Limitations of the physical environment
5. Production-consumption economics, farming systems,
socio-cultural factors
6. Storage, food preparation, nutrition and health
7. Education, training and research capability

SERVICE ELEMENTS

Emphasis is placed on servicing the needs of small-scale
farmers, especially women who have the major responsibility for
family food production and processing. Contributions from the
social sciences as well as the biological sciences are important in
reaching this population. US growers will also benefit.







grown. The elements of the plan include the bean and cowpea
constraints, the groups to be served, the countries chosen for
collaboration, the participating US institutions and the guidelines
and policies which provide direction for the program. The network
of scientists established by this CRSP will make accessible, to
interested programs in the US and HCs, expertise for problem-
solving throughout the developing world.

COMMODITY ELEMENTS

It was determined that Phaseolus vulgaris and Vigna unguiculata
would be the focus of this program. Although there are other
legumes to which research could make an important contribution,
these two were considered the most critical ones worldwide and the
ones for which research expertise was most available in the US.

CONSTRAINT ELEMENTS

Through visits to Host Countries, communications with official
HC representatives and review of appropriate literature, the major
constraints to bean and cowpea availability were identified. This
information was documented in the resulting state-of-the-art
publication (Adams, M. W. 1984. Beans--Cowpeas: Production
Constraints and National Programs. East Lansing, MI: MSU,
Bean/Cowpea CRSP Management Office) and became the basis for
the development of projects in representative regions.

The constraints identified are as follow:
1. Limitations due to insects
2. Limitations due to diseases
3. Plant response limitations
4. Limitations of the physical environment
5. Production-consumption economics, farming systems,
socio-cultural factors
6. Storage, food preparation, nutrition and health
7. Education, training and research capability

SERVICE ELEMENTS

Emphasis is placed on servicing the needs of small-scale
farmers, especially women who have the major responsibility for
family food production and processing. Contributions from the
social sciences as well as the biological sciences are important in
reaching this population. US growers will also benefit.








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GEOGRAPHIC ELEMENT

Because sensitivity to daylength, temperature and rainfall
patterns are important in the adaptation of beans and cowpeas,
countries providing a range of agro-ecological conditions were
chosen for the research. The Host Countries currently
participating in this CRSP are:


AFRICA


Botswana
Cameroon
Malawi


LATIN AMERICA


Nigeria
Senegal
Tanzania


Brazil
Dominican Republic
Guatemala


Honduras
Mexico


Collaborating with these nations are the following US
institutions:

Boyce Thompson Institute, Ithaca, New York
Colorado State University,* Fort Collins, Colorado
Cornell University,* Ithaca, New York
Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas
Michigan State University,* East Lansing, Michigan
University of California,* Riverside, California
University of Georgia,* Athens, Georgia
University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois
University of Minnesota, St. Paul, Minnesota
University of Nebraska,* Lincoln, Nebraska
University of Puerto Rico,* Mayagdiez, Puerto Rico
University of Wisconsin,* Madison, Wisconsin
Washington State University,* Pullman, Washington


*Lead Institutions


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PROJECT ELEMENTS


The projects are organized to provide research on the con-
straints in the countries representative of where these constraints
are important and at locations where resources necessary for the
collaboration exist. Each project is organized under the manage-
ment of a US lead institution with a US Principal Investigator (PI)
to lead the conduct of the joint research in the constraint area in
collaboration with a Host Country PI. The current projects of the
CRSP are as follow:*


Title of Project


Development of Integrated
Cowpea Production Systems
in Semiarid Botswana

Insect Pathogens in Cowpea
Pest Management Systems
for Developing Nations

Identification of Superior
Bean-Rhizobia Combinations
for Utilization in Cropping
Systems Suitable to Small
Farms in Brazil

Pest Management Strategies
for Optimizing Cowpea
Yields in Cameroon

Biology, Epidemiology,
Genetics and Breeding for
Resistance to Bacterial and
Rust Pathogens of Beans
(Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

Agronomic, Sociological
and Genetic Aspects of Bean
Yield and Adaptation

Improvement of Bean Produc-
tion in Honduras through
Breeding for Multiple
Disease Resistance


Host Country US PI/HC PI

Botswana Jack deMooy/
David Gollifer


Brazil



Brazil


Cameroon



Dominican
Republic




Guatemala



Honduras


Don Roberts/
Bonifacio Magalhaes


Fred Bliss/
Ricardo Araujo


Richard Chalfant/
Zachee Boli


Dermot Coyne/
Freddy Saladin




Don Wallace/
Porfirio Masaya


Jim Beaver/
Silvio Zuluaga


*Title as approved for extension







Improved Biological
Utilization and Accept-
ability of Dry Beans

Genetic, Agronomic and
Socio-Cultural Analysis of
Diversity among Bean Land-
races in Malawi

Improving Resistance to
Environmental Stress in Beans
through Genetic Selection for
Carbohydrate Partitioning, Wate
Use Efficiency and Efficiency of
Biological Nitrogen Fixation

Appropriate Technology for
Cowpea Preservation and
Processing and a Study of Its
Socio-Economic Impact on
Rural Populations in Nigeria

A Program to Develop
Improved Cowpea Cultivars,
Management Methods and
Storage Practices for
Semiarid Zones

Breeding Beans (Phaseolus
vulgaris L.) for Disease,
Insect and Stress Resistance
and Determination of Socio-
Economic Impact on Small-
holder Farm Families


INCAP



Malawi


Barry Swanson/
Ricardo Bressani


Wayne Adams/
Wilson Msuku


Mexico Wayne Adams/
Rogelio Lepiz

r



Nigeria Kay McWatters/
Dickson Nnanyelugo


Senegal


Tony Hall/
M'baye Ndoye


Tanzania Matt Silbernagel/
James Teri


STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS

To insure productive collaboration within the CRSP, projects
are to be organized:

1. To be individual but structurally integrated in order to make
the maximum research contribution to increasing the
availability of beans and cowpeas;

2. To emphasize within projects multidisciplinary research
integrating production and non-production issues;

3. To focus on research in traditional settings;






4. To build strong and collegial professional relationships among
the HC and US researchers in each project;

5. To establish an international network of bean and cowpea
researchers which will enhance communication linkages;

6. To facilitate the dissemination of appropriate technologies
throughout the world;

7. To make financial resources available for both HC and US
research activity;

8. To contribute to the strengthening of HC institutions through
the enhancement of facilities and equipment needed to support
that research;

9. To contribute to the strengthening of HC institutions through
a significant level of graduate and undergraduate study,
short-term courses, conferences and workshops;

10. To strengthen the role of women in agricultural research,
production, marketing, processing and food preparation
because of their primary role in the production of beans and
cowpeas in many developing countries;

11. To be alert to mechanisms for information dissemination; and

12. To provide an opportunity for private sector participation in
research activity and in the dissemination of project results.


I


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ARTICLES OF THE GLOBAL PLAN


Through the collaborative project activity, HC as well as US
professionals are to be strengthened in their ability to address the
constraints by forming productive professional relationships with
one another. As first enunciated by the founders of this CRSP, the
specific contributions appropriate from these US/HC teams are
clear.

1. We must address, collaboratively with HC scientists, the
problems of insect and disease control. We may, in the short
term, have to rely upon judicious use of non-persistent pesti-
cides and upon novel means of applying them (for example,
pyrethrums and ultra-low volume spraying); but for the longer
term, we must rely on an integrated pest management system
which includes breeding pest resistant cultivars, protective
farming practices and biological, rather than expensive and
toxic, chemical control systems.

2. We must support the evolution of more productive and more
stable production systems. The evolving systems must main-
tain their adaptation to the variety of conditions on small
farms, utilizing breeding for higher yields and through
improved mixed cropping management.

3. We must address the problem of inefficient nitrogen fixation and
phosphorous utilization. In order to escape the tyranny of the
spiralling costs of these plant nutrients, we can investigate the
development of more efficient cultivars as well as nitrogen-
fixing bacteria and the evolution of more appropriate farming
techniques.

4. We must work to overcome problems of drought through
breeding more drought resistant cultivars and the development
of farming systems that are efficient and conserving in their
use of water.

5. We must work toward better nutritive value and digestibility
of the food constituents of beans and cowpeas through
breeding and by supportive methods of food technology.

6. We must promote the creation or operation of seed multiplica-
tion programs in order to reach the small-scale farmers with
seeds of improved cultivars that are not only genetically
superior but that are of sound physical quality and free of
seed-borne diseases. The issues of seed availability and credit
to women for seed purchases must also be addressed.







7. We must work to overcome or minimize the problems of hard
seeds and long cooking time in beans and cowpeas, through
both breeding and the use of simple storage or processing
tactics in order to reduce cooking time and fuel requirements.

8. We must help evolve methods of storage and food preparation
that conserve the full value of the dry grains without insect
depredation and that permit retention of full nutritive capabil-
ity of these grains (or other plant parts, as applicable) when
made ready for consumption. There must be no marked altera-
tion in the grains that detracts from their acceptance as food.

9. We must be cognizant of the interacting and sometimes contra-
dictory results of various agronomic interventions. We must,
therefore, carry out production/consumption-oriented research
with socio-economic analyses to assess the acceptability and
agro-economic feasibility of proposed interventions. Market-
ing studies should determine whether improvements, in terms
of greater real gain to the farmer, can be made in the system.

10. We must give substantive consideration to major components
of the farming system and especially the human components.
We must become sensitive to and knowledgeable about the
unique and multiple roles played by women and men in develop-
ing countries as they affect production and consumption of
beans and cowpeas.

11. We must attempt to maintain an acceptable ecology by
encouraging all collaborators to look specifically at the
relationship of their research to the agronomic, social and
cultural context of the small-farm family. Researchers will
have to assess the potential of their research for increasing or
lessening the frequently overwhelming burden of daily living
for such families, an assessment which will suggest the level
of acceptance that can be anticipated.

12. We must address a serious problem of research personnel
availability by supporting the training of indigenous profes-
sional and technical personnel. Trainees at all levels,
including post-graduate students, will need to be supported in
order to help build a supply of skilled individuals, both men and
women, who can conduct useful and needed research and
extension work with beans and cowpeas.

13. We must facilitate the development of collaborative relation-
ships, not only between US and HC scientists, but cross-
nationally among HC scientists themselves and among US
scientists as well.







































- *. .


CONCLUSION

While the constraints identified in this Global Plan are
important country-specific issues, they exist worldwide wherever
beans and cowpeas are grown and utilized. By distributing research
attention to these constraints across the agro-ecological zones
represented by the CRSP countries, principles are elucidated which
have application throughout the legume-producing world. Research
collaboration, therefore, can be of great benefit to many countries.
In particular, CRSP research collaboration has demonstrated that
there is as much specifically for the US to learn and gain from the
traditional settings as there is for modern research to contribute in
return. Through these partnerships the CRSP supports regional
contributions which strengthen the total international agricultural
research community. This Global Plan guides the evolution of the
CRSP and provides the basis for its research and training activities.


__







PROFILE OF GLOBAL PLAN
BEAN/COWPEA CRSP

1986


Primary research attention: P
Secondary research attention: S


BEANS COWPEAS


BRZ DR GUAT HON INCP MAL MEX TNZ BOT BRZ CAM NIG SEN
UWI UNL COR UPR WSU MSU MSU WSU CSU BTI UGA UGA UCR


1. Limitations due to insects P P P S


2. Limitations due to disease P P P S P S S


3. Plant response limitations P S S P P P
(genetics and breeding)

4. Limitations of the physical P P S P P
environment


5. Production-consumption P P P
economics, farming systems


6. Nutrition, food preparation, P S S P P
health and storage


7. Education, training and P P P P P P P P P P P P P
research capability








BEAN/COWPEA CRSP

GLOBAL RESEARCH PLAN

1986


NIGERIA

Cowpea processing and
preservation


CAMEROON

Cowpea pest management
strategies for small-scale
farmers

SENEGAL

Cowpea varietal improvement
for production and utiliza-
tion in semiarid zones


BRAZIL

1. N-use efficiency in bean
production and multiple
resistance screening;
2. Cowpea insect pathogens


TANZANIA


uisease/insect resistant beans;
socio-economic impact on small-
scale farming


MALAWI

Genetic, agronomic and
socio-cultural analysis
of bean landraces


Collaboration and interaction
with CRSP cowpea programs I


Collaboration and interaction)
with CRSP bean programs


BOTSWANA

Cowpea farming systems
research and variety
evaluation in semiarid areas



DOMINICAN REPUBLIC

Introgression of disease-
resistant germplasm into
adapted bean cultivars


GUATEMALA


Agronomic, sociological and
genetic aspects of bean
yield and adaptation


MEXICO
Bean plant responses to
stress and N-flxation


HONDURAS

lDsease resistant
cultivars for increased
bean production


INCAP

Cooking time and protein
digestibility of beans


2085C:skb:062486







BEAN/COWPEA CRSP


Program Goal


Make a significant contribution to
the improvement of living conditions
of small-farm producers in developing
countries and increase the availabil-
ity of low cost, nutritious food in
the marketplace for the rural and
urban poor.


Purpose


Organize and mobilize financial and
human resources necessary for mount-
ing a major multi-institutional US/HC
collaborative effort in research and
training.

Provide the knowledge base necessary
to achieve significant advances in
alleviating the principal constraints
to improved production, marketing and
utilization of beans and cowpeas in
HCs.

Improve the capabilities of HC insti-
tutions to generate, adopt and apply
improved knowledge to local condi-
tions.


Objectively Verifiable Indicators

Development of important research
results addressing identified
constraints.

Stronger national research program
addressing identified constraints.

CRSP products accepted by farmers,
extension agents, HC private initia-
tives in ways which will advance goal.

Increased participation of women.


Objectively Verifiable Indicators


US/HC administrations' support of
projects.

HC and US teams functioning with good
working relationships established.

Research teams operating with effective
level of equipment, supplies and tech-
nical support.

Effective communications among all par-
ticipants especially among those work-
ing on the same constraints across
projects.

Mechanism established for the identi-
fication and support of US and HC male
and female CRSP students.

Useful secondary data identified.

Improved research infrastructure with
laboratory and field research in
process.








LOG FRAME


Assumptions


Annual reports and positive TC/EEP
reviews.

Increased overall size of national
program research team with greater
multidisciplinary competence and
HC investment in the project.

Adaptation of findings by external
agents: farmers, IARCs, extension
agents, commercial interests.

Increased male and especially
female CRSP graduates in the
professional pipeline.


Verifiers


Smooth management with good
communication with MO.

US/HC quarterly and annual reports.

Formal commitment of participants.

Consistent pattern of student
training established.

Documentation of secondary data.

Primary data analyses available in
reports and publications.

HC contributions to CRSP documented
in each year's budget analysis.


Food and nutrition problems in the
developing nations can be solved in
part through research.

Collaboration between US and HC can be
of mutual benefit.

Achievement from this program can
reach the rural and urban poor.

Achievements of this program can con-
tribute to development in ways which
do not increase the marginalization of
women and their families.


Assumptions

HC will maintain interest in the
commodity and in CRSP participation.

Coups and other forms of political or
social disturbances will not be of a
magnitude at project sites as to
severely and insurmountably affect
progress.

Necessary basic equipment, facilities
and supplies will be available or ac-
quirable within reasonable time frame.

There is a sufficiently large pool of
students from which to draw for
advanced training at least at the
secondary school graduate level.


Verifiers








BEAN/COWPEA CRSP


Outputs


Stronger, better quality yields pos-
sible under identified constraints.

Greater understanding by US and HC
collaborators of the socio-cultural
and the agricultural environment.

Products of research packaged
appropriately for consumer use.

Information dissemination for a
variety of audiences.

Production and utilization research
findings useful for the wider
research community.

Many male and female graduates of
training programs.


Objectively Verifiable Indicators

Yield increase under an array of
stressful conditions to which developed
cultivars are resistant or tolerant.

Multidisciplinary research generated.

Informational materials available.

Interest of wider international and
national research and development
community in products.

Better health among those making use
of project outputs.

Male and especially female graduates
returning to HC research institutions.

Increased body of knowledge of
constraints to greater bean and cowpea
production.


Inputs

Necessary long-term/short-term
personnel from HC/US institutions
who can communicate with each other.

Financial contributions from AID and
US and HC institutions.

Management support from MO, US and
HC institution administrations.

Equipment such as vehicles, lab,
field and office equipment.

Facilities and supplies for HC/US
teams.

Information and support from external
groups.


Objectively Verifiable Indicators

Annual allocation from AID.

CRSP funds flowing on a regular basis
to US and HC research teams.

Annual plan of work and budget docu-
ment with US/HC contributions.

Active backstopping by administrators
of US institutions with effective
levels of communication.

Frequent and regular communication
among AID, MO, US and HC.

Participation in CRSP research and
training activity by external groups
(i.e., AID-sponsored FSR teams, IARCs,
USAID Missions).







LOG FRAME (CON'T)


Assumptions


Yield data from local and national
census and scientific reports of
research findings.

Reports of projects incorporate
and integrate socio-cultural with
agricultural information.

Materials acknowledged as received
by many groups and increased con-
sumer demand.

Requests from professional community
for information and research
products increased. Articles
published and seminars presented.

Site visits.

CRSP graduates identified in HC
research positions.


There exists in the HC at least a
skeletal infrastructure for informa-
tion dissemination.

There are HC and US women sufficiently
interested in advanced education and
professional employment to work their
way through the system when it is
opened to them.


Increased numbers of male and female
students continually in short-term
and long-term training.

Publications, presentations.


Verifiers


Assumptions


Increase in communications initiated
by participants with one another.

Review of annual documents by
TC and BOD.

AID letter of credit authorizing
funds.

Regular reimbursement requests with
quarterly reports.

Letters, phone calls and other
expressions of interest and
problem-solving support from
US administrators.

AID approvals to purchase indicated
equipment received.

Site visits.

Meetings and other forms of com-
munication with external groups.


AID will generate necessary approvals
in timely fashion.

AID will have funds available for
use by the CRSP.

All parties making input will continue
to feel the mutual benefits worth the
investments.


Verifiers




























Progress Report







PROGRESS REPORT

As presented in the Global Plan, seven constraint areas
severely restrict the ability of nations to make available needed
amounts of beans and cowpeas. At the end of the original grant
period, US and HC project leaders from the CRSP came together
to assess (1) their progress in each of these constraint areas,
(2) current research activities and (3) selected achievements to
date. A comprehensive listing of the significant research and
training accomplishments is included at the end of this section.


REPORT BY CONSTRAINT AREA

I. LIMITATIONS DUE TO INSECTS

Insect pests cause major losses of beans and cowpeas through-
out the world and are often responsible for crop losses ranging
from 30 to 100 percent. The plants are vulnerable to pest attack
from the seedling stage to harvest as well as in storage. Tradition-
ally, beans and cowpeas have been high-risk crops with low yields
at the small-scale farm level. To reduce insect damage, there is a
need to develop integrated pest management strategies utilizing
insect resistant cultivars and inexpensive, as well as safe, pest
control methods which can be adopted by small-scale farmers.

The major insect pests of beans and cowpeas are leaf hoppers,
leaf beetles, cowpea curculio, bean fly, aphids, thrips, legume pod
borers, pod-sucking bugs and bruchid storage beetles.

The US and developing country entomologists in the CRSP are
collaborating on the following activities:

1. Evaluating germplasm for insect resistance.

2. Developing integrated pest management systems to control
various insects.

3. Collecting and identifying insect pathogens to control insect
pests.

4. Breeding insect-resistant cultivars for small-scale farmers.

5. Identifying storage techniques to control storage insects.







The CRSP projects with a major commitment to insect-related
activities include:

1. "Insect Pathogens in Cowpea Pest Management Systems for
Developing Nations"

Boyce Thompson Institute/Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa
Agropecuaria [EMBRAPA](Brazil)

2. "Pest Management Strategies for Optimizing Cowpea Yields in
Cameroon"

University of Georgia/Institut de Recherche Agronomique
[IRA](Cameroon)

SELECTED ACHIEVEMENTS:

1. Approximately 200 strains of insect pathogenic fungi have
been collected and identified for biological insect control.
These pathogenic fungi are being tested for the control of
several major cowpea insects.

2. Three bean cultivars were identified with resistance to the
bean fly, Ophiomyia phaseoli. These lines are being incorpor-
ated into the breeding programs in Tanzania and CIAT.

3. In the Cameroon, the CRSP worked with the national program
to identify a high-yielding cultivar, TVX 3236. Seed demand
for TVX 3236 has gone from five tons in 1984 to forty-seven
tons in 1986. With the pest management systems introduced
by the CRSP, farmers can expect average yields of 600-1,200
kilograms per hectare compared with 300 kilograms without
the improved system.

4. Four cowpea cultivars were identified that exhibited an
antibiosis resistance to the cowpea aphid. It was also shown
that aphid-resistant lines from IITA were not resistant to the
Georgia population of the cowpea aphid, demonstrating that
breeding strategies need to consider biotype differences in
their programs.







PROGRESS REPORT

As presented in the Global Plan, seven constraint areas
severely restrict the ability of nations to make available needed
amounts of beans and cowpeas. At the end of the original grant
period, US and HC project leaders from the CRSP came together
to assess (1) their progress in each of these constraint areas,
(2) current research activities and (3) selected achievements to
date. A comprehensive listing of the significant research and
training accomplishments is included at the end of this section.


REPORT BY CONSTRAINT AREA

I. LIMITATIONS DUE TO INSECTS

Insect pests cause major losses of beans and cowpeas through-
out the world and are often responsible for crop losses ranging
from 30 to 100 percent. The plants are vulnerable to pest attack
from the seedling stage to harvest as well as in storage. Tradition-
ally, beans and cowpeas have been high-risk crops with low yields
at the small-scale farm level. To reduce insect damage, there is a
need to develop integrated pest management strategies utilizing
insect resistant cultivars and inexpensive, as well as safe, pest
control methods which can be adopted by small-scale farmers.

The major insect pests of beans and cowpeas are leaf hoppers,
leaf beetles, cowpea curculio, bean fly, aphids, thrips, legume pod
borers, pod-sucking bugs and bruchid storage beetles.

The US and developing country entomologists in the CRSP are
collaborating on the following activities:

1. Evaluating germplasm for insect resistance.

2. Developing integrated pest management systems to control
various insects.

3. Collecting and identifying insect pathogens to control insect
pests.

4. Breeding insect-resistant cultivars for small-scale farmers.

5. Identifying storage techniques to control storage insects.







II. LIMITATIONS DUE TO DISEASES


Diseases are among the production constraints most often
cited as problems by national bean and cowpea research programs
and regional and international research centers. Major bean
diseases include rust, common bacterial blight, anthracnose, bean
common mosaic virus, bean golden mosaic virus, angular leaf spot,
web blight and ashy stem blight. Important cowpea diseases
include bacterial blight, ashy stem blight and several viruses.
Disease control in beans and cowpeas is very important in
stabilizing and/or increasing yields. Many of the diseases such as
bean golden mosaic virus, anthracnose and rust are capable of
causing significant losses. Diseases not only cause direct damage
to the leaves and grain but this damage, which occurs in both field
and storage, also affects nutritional quality. Management
practices are important in the control of these diseases. However,
disease control strategies used by small-scale farmers are
influenced heavily by economic and technical constraints.
Additionally, strategies to control the disease vector, e.g., the use
of pesticides, are often undesirable for environmental reasons.

Due to the dynamic nature of pathogens, many of the diseases
need to be continually monitored. Research on the pathogens
confined to temperate regions is often of only limited use in a
tropical context where they are usually the most active.

Research collaboration between the US and developing country
institutions has been an especially successful model in addressing
these constraints. The CRSP projects concerned with disease
constraints are working in the following areas:

1. Epidemiology of pathogens.

2. Variability of pathogens.

3. Reliable techniques for the selective isolation and
identification of tropical pathogens.

4. Integrated disease control methods for small-scale farmers.

5. Disease resistant cultivars for small-scale farmers.

6. Methods for identifying multiple disease resistance.

7. Strategies for deployment of research findings for small farms.

The CRSP projects with a major commitment to addressing
disease constraints include:







1. "Biology, Epidemiology, Genetics and Breeding for Resistance
to Bacterial and Rust Pathogens of Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris
L.)"

.University of Nebraska-Lincoln/Secretaria de Estado de
Agriculture [SEA](Dominican Republic)

2. "Improvement of Bean Production in Honduras through
Breeding for Multiple Disease Resistance"

University of Puerto Rico/Escuela Agricola Panamericana
[EAP](Honduras)

3. "Breeding Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) for Disease, Insect and
Stress Resistance and Determination of Socio-Economic
Impact on Smallholder Farm Families"

Washington State University/Sokoine University of Agriculture
[SUA](Tanzania)

SELECTED ACHIEVEMENTS:

1. The bean common mosaic virus antisera and serodetection
protocols developed at Washington State University are being
used to insure farmers of disease-free seed as well as to con-
trol the spread of bean common mosaic virus to new regions,
including the US. This methodology is rapid and inexpensive.

2. The University of Nebraska/Dominican Republic project deter-
mined the inheritance of resistance to common blight and
rust. Researchers found that the reaction of the leaves and
pods to common blight was inherited quantitatively and that
different genes controlled the resistance reaction in different
plant parts.

3. The University of Wisconsin, working with Empresa Brasileira
de Pesquisa Agropecu6ria [EMBRAPA] in Brazil, has developed
inoculation techniques for the sequential inoculation under
field conditions with four major bean diseases (rust, common
blight, angular leaf spot and anthracnose). Injuring bean plants
via a sandblast immediately before inoculation with the
common blight pathogen greatly improved infection levels.

4. The University of Puerto Rico, in cooperation with researchers
in the Dominican Republic and Honduras, has developed bean
cultivars with multiple disease resistance. Through their
efforts, germplasm with disease resistance has also been
identified and released for plant breeders throughout the world.







PROGRESS REPORT

As presented in the Global Plan, seven constraint areas
severely restrict the ability of nations to make available needed
amounts of beans and cowpeas. At the end of the original grant
period, US and HC project leaders from the CRSP came together
to assess (1) their progress in each of these constraint areas,
(2) current research activities and (3) selected achievements to
date. A comprehensive listing of the significant research and
training accomplishments is included at the end of this section.


REPORT BY CONSTRAINT AREA

I. LIMITATIONS DUE TO INSECTS

Insect pests cause major losses of beans and cowpeas through-
out the world and are often responsible for crop losses ranging
from 30 to 100 percent. The plants are vulnerable to pest attack
from the seedling stage to harvest as well as in storage. Tradition-
ally, beans and cowpeas have been high-risk crops with low yields
at the small-scale farm level. To reduce insect damage, there is a
need to develop integrated pest management strategies utilizing
insect resistant cultivars and inexpensive, as well as safe, pest
control methods which can be adopted by small-scale farmers.

The major insect pests of beans and cowpeas are leaf hoppers,
leaf beetles, cowpea curculio, bean fly, aphids, thrips, legume pod
borers, pod-sucking bugs and bruchid storage beetles.

The US and developing country entomologists in the CRSP are
collaborating on the following activities:

1. Evaluating germplasm for insect resistance.

2. Developing integrated pest management systems to control
various insects.

3. Collecting and identifying insect pathogens to control insect
pests.

4. Breeding insect-resistant cultivars for small-scale farmers.

5. Identifying storage techniques to control storage insects.







III. PLANT RESPONSE LIMITATIONS


The responses of beans and cowpeas to various environmental
and soil constraints are important factors in their development.
The CRSP has identified two areas which significantly influence
the growth and development of these crops. These are nitrogen
and population structure in landraces.

1. Nitrogen is a major nutrient constraint in bean and cowpea
production throughout the world. For most farmers, nitrogen
fertilizer is limited in supply and is expensive. Economic
return of nitrogen fertilizer is very uncertain where other
important production constraints exist. Inoculation with
nitrogen-fixing bacteria, rhizobium, has been utilized as a low-
cost nitrogen substitute but commonly fails to meet the plant's
requirement for nitrogen; thus, yields suffer. The reasons for
this failure are complex but include competition from native
soil rhizobium, poor quality inoculants, non-responsive host
cultivars and disease constraints.

2. Landraces represent repositories of genetic diversity. They
are the source from which particular traits are chosen and
incorporated into improved cultivars. It is not clear, however,
whether breeders should attempt "pure line" breeding or aim
for improved landraces per se. In developing country situations
where certified seed of beans and cowpeas is rarely available,
new cultivars can become physically mixed and, over time,
mutations and outcrossings can accumulate great variability.
Landraces also change over time. Such genetic drift must be
evaluated if sound breeding strategies are to be developed.

CRSP researchers are conducting the following types of
research efforts:

1. Developing cultivars with increased biological nitrogen-
fixation capacity.

2. Identifying superior strains of nitrogen-fixing bacteria.

3. Studying the nature of genetic shifts in landraces and relating
these findings to breeding strategies as well as to socio-cultural
considerations.

The CRSP projects with a major commitment to addressing
plant response limitations include:







1. "Identification of Superior Bean-Rhizobia Combinations for Utili-
zation in Cropping Systems Suitable to Small Farms in Brazil"

University of Wisconsin/Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuaria
[EMBRAPA](Brazil)

2. "Improving Resistance to Environmental Stress in Beans through
Genetic Selection for Carbohydrate Partitioning, Water-Use
Efficiency and Efficiency of Biological Nitrogen Fixation"

Michigan State University/Instituto Nacional de
Investigaciones Agrrcolas [INIA](Mexico)

3. "Genetic, Agronomic and Socio-Cultural Analysis of Diversity
among Bean Landraces in Malawi"

Michigan State University/Bunda College of Agriculture (Malawi)

SELECTED ACHIEVEMENTS:

1. Improved strains of bean rhizobium have been identified that have
increased bean yields from 500 kg/ha to 1,600 kg/ha following
inoculation. The combination of superior cultivars with improved
strains of rhizobium will enable low-resource farmers to maximize
their nitrogen fertilization at very little expense.

2. Cultivars of black beans have been identified that fix up to 60
kilograms of nitrogen per hectare under field conditions. Results
show that there are heritable differences in the ability to fix
increased amounts of nitrogen among common bean genotypes.

3. Extensive germplasm of beans and cowpeas has been collected
and evaluated for use in the breeding programs. Germplasm
with disease and insect resistance, good cooking quality, high
yield and various stress tolerances have been identified.







IV. LIMITATIONS OF THE PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT

Many aspects of the physical environment influence the
growth and development of beans and cowpeas. Four important
aspects of the physical environment known to influence cowpea and
bean productivity are: (1) environmental control of germination,
flowering and maturity; (2) soil and water relations; (3) heat; and
(4) solar radiation through its effects on yield potential. Critical
tasks face CRSP scientists addressing these issues. The first task
is to identify those aspects of the physical environment that most
substantially influence small-scale cowpea and bean productivity in
developing countries. A second task is to characterize the nature
of the limitations imposed by the physical environment in different
climatic zones so that solutions can be developed which are
appropriate to the different production regions and farmer
resources.

Environmental influences on germination, flowering and
maturity are important factors in the productivity potential of
beans and cowpeas. Their growth cycles are strongly influenced by
the impact of photoperiod and temperature on date of flowering,
two factors which contribute to zonal variations.

Drought is recognized as one of the major constraints limiting
productivity of cowpeas in developing countries where they are
mainly grown as a rainfed crop in semiarid zones and where limited
rainfall results in substantial water deficits virtually every year.
Common beans are extremely sensitive to drought. Developing
cultivars with improved adaptation to drought is extremely














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complex initially because it is essential to understand the charac-
teristics of the environment (climatic cycles, soil profiles, etc.)
that determine the timing and impact of droughts and their vari-
ability. Regional differences are important. For example, rainfall
tends to be more variable in drier environments. Characterization
of the target environment then permits the rational design of
improved drought tolerant cultivars and management practices.
Drought can also have major influences on cowpeas and beans
through effects on the incidences of plant diseases.

Heat is another significant constraint. High temperatures
accentuate drought because of higher evaporative demands,
increased water use and more extreme plant-water deficits. It has
also been proposed that heat is a factor in flower and pod
abortions, thereby lowering plant yields.

While yields have increased significantly for many crops, the
yields of beans and cowpeas have remained static. Bean and
cowpea cultivars usually exhibit non-uniform light distribution in
their canopies, which may detract from yield. In addition, for
cowpeas, very few well-adapted, determinate cultivars have been
developed. Research is needed to design ideotypes for beans and
cowpeas for increased yield potential.

CRSP projects are addressing the following research areas:

1. Determining how climatic variables affect adaptation, growth
and yield of beans and identifying the genes responsible.

2. Identifying the plant mechanisms and developing techniques of
screening for characteristics that confer drought adaptation
and heat resistance.

3. Identifying sources of drought tolerance and heat resistance.

4. Incorporating heat and drought tolerance into germplasm for
breeding programs in the US, Africa and Latin America.

5. Designing bean and cowpea ideotypes to increase yields.

The CRSP projects with a major commitment to addressing
physical environment constraints include:

1. "Developing Improved Cowpea Cultivars, Management
Methods and Storage Practices for Semiarid Zones"

University of California-Riverside/Institut Senegalais de
Recherches Agricoles [ISRA](Senegal)







2. "Agronomic, Sociological and Genetic Aspects of Bean Yield
and Adaptation"

Cornell University/Instituto de Ciencias y Tecnologra Agrfiola
[ICTA](Guatemala)

SELECTED ACHIEVEMENTS:

1. In spite of the drought in 1985, Senegal increased cowpea
production fivefold by utilizing research findings of the
CRSP. Seven hundred tons of California Blackeye No. 5 seed
were shipped from California to Senegal in June 1985. With
the introduction of this cultivar, cowpea production increased
in Senegal from 16,000 tons in 1984 to 80,000 tons in 1985.
During this serious food shortage period in Senegal, over one
million people were fed with this cultivar. Early-maturing
cowpea cultivars such as this one are important in the food
balance equation for subsistence and low-input farmers in the
Sahelian region.

2. International testing has proven effective in unraveling the
photoperiod reactions in beans. Tropical locations in
Guatemala have proven very useful in assaying the control
over days to flower and maturity of beans by photoperiod and
temperature.

3. Bean research has indicated that yield potential is positively
correlated with the duration from germination to maturity,
whereas for cowpeas, research indicates that yield potential is
determined by the duration from first flowering to maturity.

4. Climbing bean ideotypes have been developed for use in corn
intercropping systems.

5. Several short-cycle cowpea lines were developed which
produce two to four times as much grain as local Sahelian
cowpeas in extremely dry years.

6. Cowpea lines were identified which have substantial heat
tolerance at flowering (Prima, TVU 4552 and PI 204647),
extensive root systems (Grant and Bambey 21) and early
flowering over a broad range of photoperiods and temperatures
(UCD 7694, UCR 193, Rawal 4-1 and IT 82E-18).







V. PRODUCTION-CONSUMPTION ECONOMICS, FARMING
SYSTEMS AND SOCIO-CULTURAL FACTORS

The major goal of the Bean/Cowpea CRSP is to contribute to
the alleviation of hunger and malnutrition through research on the
production and utilization of beans and cowpeas. To achieve this
goal, both biological and socio-economic factors are considered in
the generation of new agricultural technologies for small-scale
farmers.

Several of the CRSP projects have an active interface between
agricultural scientists and social scientists. Research agendas for
these projects have been planned with the participation of the
social scientists concerned with macro- and micro-level constraints
of the farm family and production systems. Both baseline data and
ongoing research (which monitors need, changes and the impact of
policies) contribute to project success.

This constraint group is addressing the following issues:
1. Technology development and adoption.
2. Land tenure and land pressure.
3. Labor constraints.
4. Capital, pricing policies and foreign exchange.
5. Crop management practices.

The CRSP projects with a major commitment to production/
consumption economics, farming systems and socio-cultural factors
include:

1. "Agronomic and Sociological Aspects of Bean Yield"

Cornell University/Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones
Agropecuarias [INIAP](Ecuador)

2. "Development of Integrated Cowpea Production Systems in
Semiarid Botswana"

Colorado State University/Botswana Ministry of Agriculture
(Botswana)

3. "Breeding Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) for Disease, Insect and
Stress Resistance and Determination of Socio-Economic
Impact on Smallholder Farm Families"

Washington State University/Sokoine University of Agriculture
[SUA](Tanzania)







4. "Genetic, Agronomic and Socio-Cultural Analysis of Diversity
among Bean Landraces in Malawi"

Michigan State University/Bunda College of Agriculture
(Malalwi)

SELECTED ACHIEVEMENTS:

1. Relevant information has been gathered on food preferences,
legume cooking characteristics and nutrition-related factors in
the areas where the projects are located. Farm labor utiliza-
tion and allocation practices have also received study. This
information permits improved varieties to be developed that
are compatible with local resources.

2. Investigators in Cameroon and Malawi report the critical
importance of yield stability. This criterion seemed to underlie
the bean mixtures or cowpea mixtures traditionally planted in
several of the countries studied. Individual landraces within
the mixture performed differently in response to varying
ecological conditions. In developing improved cultivars, the
need for increased research on mixtures, including research on
producer handling and on the maintenance of hybrid genetic
structure, was emphasized because many farmers indicated
they would continue to grow mixtures even if given improved
new cultivars.

3. In Tanzania, it was documented that females provide 50
percent of the labor for major cash crops. They provide a
much higher percentage of the labor for the considered minor,
but critical, food crops where they are responsible for
weeding, harvesting, threshing and processing. In this and
other countries where CRSP projects are located, innovations
in food production technology that conflict with women's roles
as contributors to the major crop may produce serious
production cycle/labor conflicts or may not be adopted at all.

A case drawn from Malawi further illustrates this point. Here,
when a new maize cultivar was developed and introduced, it
has unforeseen consequences. The new maize was a longer
season cultivar which conflicted with labor requirements
during the major bean production season. Adoption of this new
high-yielding maize resulted in a delayed harvest of beans,
increased insect damage in the field and overall reduced bean
yields.






4. The importance of dialogue with farmers was highlighted by
findings from Ecuador. National program efforts to develop a
pole bean that would grow well with an early-maturing maize
cultivar were discontinued when it was learned through CRSP
research that farmers in the region monocropped the new
maize variety and followed it with a relay crop of beans or
peas. The relative importance of other crop-use factors for
the Ecuador breeding programs was also determined.

5. The study of farmers' practices led to changes in recommended
plant-spacing patterns and other plant-management practices.
For example, in Ecuador, farmers were using plant-spacing
distances far greater than those recommended by scientists.
Research, however, demonstrated that manual weed control as
practiced by the farmers required the spacing distances
actually being used by them, a finding which also had impact
on other recommended plant-management practices. These
findings reinforced that new crop varieties and agronomic
practices compatible with existing farming systems and
cropping calendars stand a better chance of acceptance and
success than those that are alien.

6. Careful research into farming systems allows key production
and utilization constraints to be identified and addressed. In
Botswana, for example, collaborative research revealed that
many farming households were headed by women who lacked
access to adequate draft power to prepare their fields. This
information was used to develop agricultural technology (i.e.,
minimum till ridger/planter) that relies for traction power on
a smaller number of animals which are more easily handled by
women (i.e., donkeys). Multiples of these implements are
being provided to the extension service for evaluation in the
field.

7. Solid collaborative relationships evolving among social and
agricultural scientists at US and HC institutions are among the
most important achievements of the CRSP. This is especially
apparent from the benefits to research and training efforts
derived from attention to the women-in-development (WID)
perspective throughout the CRSP. Recognition of the complex
interactions between biological and socio-economic factors in
agricultural development is crucial if there is any hope that
problems of hunger and malnutrition can ultimately be solved.
The partnerships, established among the CRSP scientists from
many disciplines, provide a strong foundation for the research
efforts of the future.







VI. STORAGE, FOOD PREPARATION, NUTRITION AND HEALTH

Beans and cowpeas are important protein foods in many
tropical and sub-tropical areas. The nutritional quality of these
legumes can be improved through breeding, biotechnology and
other methods. Both beans and cowpeas are susceptible to develop-
ment of the "hard-to-cook" phenomenon which requires more time
and fuel for preparation as well as reduces seed germination and
viability. Large quantities of legumes are lost to insects through
poor storage facilities/technologies.

Beans and cowpeas are considered "a poor man's food," an
image which constrains consumption. There is indication that
above a certain level, as personal incomes increase, consumption of
beans and cowpeas may in fact decrease. Improvement of the
image of beans and cowpeas, as primary contributors to good
health and nutrition rather than an associate of poor income or
intestinal distress, is necessary to enhance consumer acceptability.

The research objectives within this constraint area include:

1. Determining the process whereby cowpeas and beans develop
the hard-to-cook phenomenon during storage.

2. Investigating the effects of natural anti-nutritional constitu-
ents of cowpeas and beans on nutritional quality.

3. Developing standard methods to assay cooking and nutritional
quality, both for consumer acceptability and breeding
programs.

4. Developing policy guidelines to foster efficient utilization of
cowpeas through the promotion of consumption, rural
industries and the associated linkage to rural/urban markets
and to farming activities in rural areas.

5. Designing a village-scale process to produce a convenient,
stable, functional, nutritious cowpea product.

The CRSP projects with a major commitment to storage, food
preparation, nutrition and health-related activities include:

1. "Improved Biological Utilization and Acceptability of Dry
Beans"

Washington State University/Instituto de Nutricion de
Centroamerica y Panama [INCAP](Guatemala)















































2.' A small village mill was constructed in Ogbodu-Aba, Nigeria,





caused by the interactions of phytate, proteins and minerals.
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2. "Appropriate Technology for Cowpea Preservation and
Processing and a Study of Its Socio-Economic Impact on Rural
Populations in Nigeria"

University of Georgia/University of Nigeria-Nsukka (Nigeria)

3. "Medical Aspects of Feeding Cowpeas to Children"

Michigan State University/Universities of Jos and Ibadan
(Nigeria)

SELECTED ACHIEVEMENTS:

1. Surveys were conducted in several countries consuming large
quantities of beans and cowpeas to establish patterns of con-
sumption, methods of preparation, medical and health problems
associated with their consumption.

2.. A small village mill was constructed in Ogbodu-Aba, Nigeria,
to process cowpea meal using technologies developed in the
project. This mill is the property of the Village Development
Union.

3. Studies indicate that the hard-to-cook phenomenon in beans is
caused by the interactions of phytate, proteins and minerals.
The quantitative relationship among phytate, calcium and
magnesium is predictive of cooking time.

4. Two processing treatments have been developed that minimize
bean hardening.







VII. EDUCATION, TRAINING AND RESEARCH CAPABILITY

Another major objective of the Bean/Cowpea CRSP is to
develop a cadre of research personnel needed to promote bean and
cowpea production and utilization throughout the world. Degree
training was provided in various disciplines including breeding, food
technology, entomology, plant pathology, agricultural economics,
extension, horticulture, sociology, statistics and agronomy. There
were 90 students (54 males and 36 females) who completed degree
programs in the first 5.6 years. Of these, 56 were from Host
Countries and other developing countries, while 34 were from the
US. These "problem solvers" will provide leadership in bean and
cowpea research programs for the next decades.

The CRSP also provided significant non-degree training
opportunities for 758 researchers (543 males and 215 females). Of
these, 684 were from Host Countries and other developing
countries. Examples of these training courses include biological
nitrogen fixation, food technology, computers, farming systems,
remote sensing, bean quality, nematology, data analysis, bean rust,
plant resistance to insects, and nutrition. The training varied from
several days to several months. Each course fulfilled a specific
training need which was identified to help support a research
effort. Training was provided at US universities, International
Agricultural Research Centers and Host Country research
institutions.

These training activities have had a dramatic impact upon the
bean and cowpea research programs throughout the world. They
have strengthened the institutions in thirty-one countries, including
the US.

Workshops were conducted by the CRSP to strengthen the
research capabilities of the participants. The Biological Nitrogen
Fixation Workshop in Madison, Wisconsin reviewed the latest
developments in this fast-moving research area. The MSTAT
Workshop at Michigan State University showed how microcomputers
could be used to design, manage and analyze agricultural research.
The Dry Bean Quality and Women and Food Concerns Workshop at
Washington State University reviewed the importance of bean
quality and highlighted current methodologies in food technology.
The Socio-Agronomic Workshop at Michigan State University
highlighted the importance of the integration of social concerns
with agronomic technologies. The Tepary Bean Workshop in
Mexicali, Mexico helped to focus the potential of the tepary bean
as a source of genetic material for bean improvement programs.







The Workshop on Drought and Temperature Tolerance in Beans
and Cowpeas in Durango, Mexico provided a forum for researchers
concerned with drought to clarify drought issues and progress and
to discuss future research needs in this area. Finally, the World
Cowpea Research Conference, co-sponsored by the CRSP and IITA,
brought cowpea researchers from all over the world to discuss
research programs and devise strategies for solving problems.




BEAN/COWPEA CRSP

M.S. AND PH.D. DEGREES COMPLETED, MAY 6, 1986
Gender Distribution



HC Females C Males
22% Oil 21%

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Other Females 0-11 4" 4
7W 4 4 =-_P 444


-J,,k-.::i 4A: Other Males
*i 15%


US Females
13%


US Males
24%







SIGNIFICANT ACCOMPLISHMENTS


VIRTUALLY EVERY US BEAN PROGRAM, WHETHER
PUBLIC OR PRIVATE, IS BEING HELPED DIRECTLY OR
INDIRECTLY THROUGH RESEARCH EFFORTS OF ONE OR
MORE OF THE CRSP-RELATED PROJECTS. These benefits are
in the form of basic and applied information and new germplasm
resources from around the world which will lead to improved US
cultivars, better production practices and nutritional quality.
Basic research in bean plant physiology and genetics is unlocking
important doors leading to increased yield potential. CRSP
activities have made available to researchers new sources of
disease and insect resistance which have been incorporated into
their breeding programs. Extensive efforts in germplasm
collection and preservation have contributed valuable germplasm
to the world collection. These efforts will help buffer the serious
consequences of past genetic erosion of bean and cowpea
germplasm. The Bean/Cowpea CRSP has had significant impact on
the domestic bean/cowpea research programs as well as helping
many developing country programs.

IN SPITE OF THE DROUGHT IN 1985, SENEGAL
INCREASED COWPEA PRODUCTION FIVEFOLD BY UTILIZING
RESEARCH FINDINGS OF THE BEAN/COWPEA CRSP.
Researchers at the University of California-Riverside have been
working with the national cowpea researchers in Senegal
developing strategies and technologies to deal with the serious
drought prevalent throughout the Sahel region. In early 1985 the
CRSP project worked with the USAID Mission and European
Economic Community delegation to solve a serious shortage of
peanut and cowpea seed in Senegal. CRSP research had identified
a cultivar which performed well in Senegal. Seven hundred tons of
California Blackeye No. 5 seed were shipped from California to
Senegal, arriving in June 1985. This seed provided approximately
100,000 farmers with seed to plant. With the introduction of this
cultivar, cowpea production increased in Senegal from 16,000 tons
in 1984 to 80,000 tons in 1985. During this serious food shortage
period in Senegal, over one million people were fed with this new
cultivar. Early-maturing cowpea cultivars such as this one are
important in the food balance equation for subsistence and
low-input farmers in the Sahelian region.

SEVERAL CRSP PROJECTS HAVE MADE SCIENTIFIC
DISCOVERIES WHICH HAVE GLOBAL SIGNIFICANCE. THE
BEAN COMMON MOSAIC VIRUS ANTISERA AND SERODETEC-
TION PROTOCOLS DEVELOPED BY RESEARCHERS AT
WASHINGTON STATE UNIVERSITY ARE BEING USED TO







INSURE FARMERS OF DISEASE-FREE SEED AS WELL AS
PREVENT THE SPREAD OF BEAN COMMON MOSAIC VIRUS TO
NEW REGIONS. This methodology is rapid, inexpensive and does
not require sophisticated training equipment or facilities. This
knowledge will greatly facilitate the correct choice of parents for
breeding programs and will improve the efficiency of screening
segregating populations while developing new cultivars with virus
resistance. This procedure is being used by USDA and International
Agricultural Research Center personnel.

The CRSP workers at the University of Wisconsin and Michigan
State University have been collaborating with the national program
in Brazil to improve the nitrogen-fixation capability of beans. It
was found that there are heritable differences in ability to fix
increased amounts of nitrogen between common bean genotypes.
CULTIVARS OF BLACK BEANS HAVE BEEN IDENTIFIED THAT
FIX UP TO 60 KILOGRAMS OF NITROGEN PER HECTARE
UNDER FIELD CONDITIONS. In addition to selecting superior
bean cultivars, this project has also identified improved strains of
the nitrogen-fixing bacteria, rhizobium. In a trial in Cerrado using
selected strains of rhizobium, yields were increased from 500 kg/ha
to 1600 kg/ha following inoculation. The combination of superior
cultivars with improved strains of rhizobium will enable low-
resource and subsistence farmers to maximize their nitrogen
fertilization at very little expense. Methodologies developed in
this project can also be used in other legume systems, both in the
US and developing countries.

RESEARCH AT THE INSTITUTE DE NUTRICION DE
CENTROAMERICA y PANAMA (INCAP) AND WASHINGTON
STATE UNIVERSITY LINKS BEAN PRODUCTION-ORIENTED
RESEARCH WITH SCIENTIFIC IMPROVEMENTS IN CONSERVA-
TION, ACCEPTABILITY, COOKING QUALITY AND NUTRITION.
The research programs address factors responsible for bean quality,
nutritional quality, processing and food product development. Con-
siderable effort has been focused on the hard-to-cook phenomenon
which renders beans unduly firm after cooking, lowers the nutritive
value and requires more fuel for cooking. INCAP research shows
that two processing treatments can minimize or control bean
hardening. Genetic and environmental factors have been identified
which cause the hard-to-cook problem. By incorporating germ-
plasm into cultivars which require less cooking time, firewood/fuel
requirements in many areas can be greatly reduced. This factor
alone will have significant impact on subsistence economies as well
as reduce environmental degradation due to firewood collection.

WORK AT KANSAS STATE UNIVERSITY INDICATES THAT
HARD-TO-COOK BEANS ARE PROBABLY NOT DUE TO







UNGELATINIZED STARCH OR FAILURE OF THE RAW BEAN
PROTEIN TO DENATURE. Water migration does not limit cook-
ing time of beans. Studies at Washington State University showed
that the interactions of phytate, proteins and minerals relate to
the hard-to-cook phenomenon. Quantitative relationships among
phytate, calcium and magnesium are predictive of cooking time.

WOMEN IN DEVELOPMENT (WID) HAS PLAYED AN
IMPORTANT ROLE IN THE PROGRAM ACHIEVEMENTS OF THE
CRSP. Principal investigators in the agricultural sciences have
been provided with ready access to information on the social and
economic parameters of agricultural production and utilization in
the Host Countries through the publication of a series of Women in
Agriculture Resource Guides. This information has assisted in the
development of research agendas that are socially as well as agro-
nomically sound. For example, recognizing that lack of access to
draft power represents an important constraint to timely planting
for many of the one-third of rural households headed by women in
Botswana, CRSP researchers are designing implements that reduce
draft power requirements. In Cameroon, new and improved cowpea
cultivars are being developed that take into account the
multiplicity of uses of cowpea plants (for human consumption in
the form of leaves, pods and dried cowpeas and for animal fodder)
in the farming systems. In addition to its contributions in the area
of research, WID has achieved significant results in the area of
training, actively recruiting qualified women to participate in the
CRSP's degree training program. Over one-third of those who
received degrees under CRSP auspices during the first five years of
the grant and almost half of those currently enrolled in degree
programs are women.

A major objective of the CRSP is to insure sufficient human
resources to promote bean and cowpea production and utilization
throughout the world. The Bean/Cowpea CRSP has a very impres-
sive training record. THERE ARE 90 RESEARCHERS WHO HAVE
COMPLETED DEGREE TRAINING (54 MALES AND 36 FEMALES)
WHILE 758 HAVE COMPLETED NON-DEGREE TRAINING PRO-
GRAMS (543 MALES AND 215 FEMALES). These "problem solvers"
will be able to provide the dynamic and innovative leadership
necessary to identify and solve the problems which are before us.

THIS CRSP HAS BEEN ABLE TO ESTABLISH A NETWORK
OF BEAN AND COWPEA RESEARCHERS THROUGH CONFER-
ENCES, SUMMER WORKSHOPS AND RESEARCH PROGRAMS.
This network has provided the linkages necessary to address the
important issues and to develop strategies pertaining to bean and
cowpea production and utilization. This network has also accessed
other agricultural programs in the pursuit of scientific understand-







ing as well as applied agriculture. It has also given many scientists
in developing countries the opportunity to work collaboratively
with scientists in the United States, gain exposure to current
techniques and research methodologies and have access to
sophisticated equipment and supplies which would otherwise be
unavailable to them. The CRSP has been very effective in getting
the involvement of basic scientists in international development
activities.

THE DEPLOYMENT OF NEW TECHNOLOGIES AND
METHODOLOGIES BY THIS NETWORK OF RESEARCHERS IS
VERY IMPORTANT. Twenty-three students and researchers com-
pleted an intensive microcomputer workshop which showed how the
researchers could utilize microcomputer technology in their
research programs. The CRSP has provided microcomputers to
many programs which will maximize the efficiency of trained
personnel. Other workshops included (1) Biological Nitrogen Fixa-
tion, (2) Dry Bean Quality and Women and Food Concerns, (3) Socio-
Agronomic, (4) Tepary Bean, (5) Drought and Temperature
Tolerance and (6) Utilization of Grain Legumes and Grain.

THE CRSP HAS MADE SEVERAL CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE
COWPEA BREEDING PROGRAM IN CALIFORNIA WHICH
DEPENDS MAINLY ON A CULTIVAR DEVELOPED MORE THAN
40 YEARS AGO. New cultivars are needed because the present
cultivar is sensitive to heat and to a major disease--fusarium wilt.
The CRSP made possible the discovery of heat-tolerant germplasm
which is now being used to develop improved cultivars for
California. Heat-tolerant genes identified by this CRSP research
are just one of the new sources of important germplasm needed for
the development of improved new cultivars.

FROM 1500 BEAN LINES SCREENED ANNUALLY IN
MEXICO, A NUMBER HAVE BEEN IDENTIFIED WITH DROUGHT
TOLERANCE. Pinto Nacional I was identified to have drought
resistance and was recommended to farmers. Several drought
tolerant lines were identified which were included as germplasm in
crossing programs; these included N81017, Ags77, Ags41,
Zacatecas 89-79 and Durango 5.

THE CRSP HAS FACILITATED MULTIDISCIPLINARY
RESEARCH BY FOCUSING ATTENTION ON THE NEEDS OF
SMALL-SCALE PRODUCERS OF BEANS AND COWPEAS. The
CRSP has stimulated many bean and cowpea research programs
throughout the world. "Practical lessons" and "scientific princi-
ples" learned from these expanded programs have been utilized in
the United States as well as developing countries.







IN CAMEROON THE CRSP HELPED TO IDENTIFY A HIGH
YIELDING CULTIVAR, TVX 3236, FOR WHICH SEED DEMAND
HAS GONE FROM FIVE TONS IN 1984 TO FORTY-SEVEN TONS
IN 1986. With improved cultivars and pest management introduced
by the CRSP project, farmers can expect average yields of
600-1200 kilograms per hectare compared to 300 kilograms before
the CRSP project.

APPROXIMATELY 200 STRAINS OF INSECT PATHOGENIC
FUNGI ARE NOW AVAILABLE TO THE SCIENTIFIC COMMUN-
ITY FOR BIOLOGICAL INSECT CONTROL RESEARCH. Boyce
Thompson Institute has conducted research on the biological con-
trol of cowpea and bean pests with insect pathogens. Since there
was virtually no information on the diseases of insect pests of these
crops before the CRSP, an initial objective was to survey fields for
diseased pests. Cultures of disease agents were obtained, identi-
fied, and placed in liquid nitrogen storage. These pathogenic fungi
are being tested for the control of several major cowpea pests.

AT BOYCE THOMPSON INSTITUTE FOUR OUT OF TWO
HUNDRED COWPEA LINES FROM GEORGIA SHOWED AN
ANTIBIOSIS RESISTANCE TO THE COWPEA APHID. It was also
shown that aphid-resistant lines from IITA were not resistant to
the Georgia population of the cowpea aphid. These findings show
that breeding strategies need to consider biotype differences in
their programs.

THE COLLABORATION OF CORNELL UNIVERSITY CRSP
WORKERS WITH CIAT, ECUADOR AND GUATEMALA HAS
IDENTIFIED VALUABLE GERMPLASM FOR THE NEW YORK
BREEDING PROGRAM. Crosses are being made between New
York bean cultivars and those identified as being later to flower
with a mechanism other than sensitivity to long daylength and high
temperature. This later maturity caused by non-photoperiod
sensitivity should facilitate higher yields of beans in the long
summer days of New York.

THE CORNELL CRSP PROJECT INVOLVEMENT IN
INTERNATIONAL TESTING HAS PROVEN VERY EFFECTIVE IN
UNRAVELING THE PHOTOPERIOD REACTIONS IN BEANS.
Tropical locations in Guatemala have proven more effective in
assaying the control over days to flower and maturity of beans by
daylength and for high temperature than is the climate of New
York State. This enhanced our ability to select for different
maturities that are needed to maximize cultivar adaptation and
bean yields for many different locations, including the temperate
climate of New York State, the lowland tropics, moderate
elevation tropics and the highland tropics.







CORNELL'S CRSP RESEARCH IN GUATEMALA HAS
FOUND THAT ABILITY OF CLIMBING BEAN CULTIVARS TO
COMPETE WITH THE ASSOCIATED CORN CROP IS CONDI-
TIONED PRIMARILY BY THE CULTIVAR'S MATURITY AND THE
POSITION ON THE STEM OF FLOWERS AND PODS. That is,
early vs. late maturity plus vertical distribution of the pods along
the stem constitute the primary genetic variability needed by plant
breeders in climbing beans. This information is being utilized by
Guatemala's Institute of Science and Technology of Agriculture in
their program to breed climbing bean cultivars for the native
Indian farmers of the highlands.

PRELIMINARY CRSP RESEARCH IN GUATEMALA HAS
SHOWN THAT CHILDREN EATING SIGNIFICANT QUANTITIES
OF BEAN BROTH REPORTED FEWER INCIDENCES OF DIAR-
RHEA AND WERE TALLER AND HEAVIER THAN CHILDREN
EATING LITTLE BEAN BROTH. The diets of children not fed
bean foods contained significantly less protein and energy than
diets containing bean foods. Research on digestibility of protein,
water uptake, protein quality and quantity and antinutritional
factors in beans will lead to the development of improved cultivars
which can improve the diets of urban and rural populations.

THREE BEAN CULTIVARS WERE IDENTIFIED WITH RESIS-
TANCE TO THE BEAN FLY, OPHIIOkYIA PHASEOLI.. These lines
are being incorporated into the crossing programs in Tanzania and
CIAT.

STUDIES AT BOYCE THOMPSON INSTITUTE INDICATED A
WIDE RANGE OF VEGETABLE AND MINERAL OILS PROVIDED
SHORT-TERM PROTECTION OF THE SEED. The bruchid storage
beetle causes serious post-harvest losses. Efficacy of oils was
greatly improved when containers were closed, indicating the
potential for the use of sealed containers as a control strategy,
replacing the costly and dangerous insecticides.

THE COLORADO STATE UNIVERSITY/BOTSWANA
PROJECT HELPED TO DEVELOP AND TEST TWO NEW FIELD
CULTIVATION IMPLEMENTS. The ridgeshaper/planter is suitable
for soils with eight or more centimeters of friable surface soil and
no compaction. It can be pulled by two donkeys in coarse-textured
soils. It can be fabricated locally at very low cost. The cultivator/
planter is capable of preparing a seedbed on plowed or unplowed
land and planting at the same time. It is readily adaptable to strip
tillage if desired. Draft requirements are two oxen or four donkeys.







RESULTS FROM EXPERIMENTS CONDUCTED AT THE
UNIVERSITY OF GEORGIA DESIGNED TO ENUMERATE ASPER-
(ILLUS FLAVUS IN COWPEAS AND IN COWPEA FLOUR REVEAL
THAT A. FLAVUS AND A. PARASITICUS MEDIUM IS MOST
SUITABLE. This medium is recommended for use by
microbiologists interested in monitoring cowpeas for the presence
of potentially aflatoxigenic strains of these molds.

A PROCESS WAS PERFECTED AND IS AVAILABLE FOR
IMMEDIATE APPLICATION FOR LOOSENING COWPEA SEED-
COAT SO THAT THE GRAINS ARE EASILY AND EFFICIENTLY
DEHULLED IN THE DRY FORM. The process involves wetting
and dry-tempering.

IN GENETIC STUDIES AT MICHIGAN STATE UNIVERSITY IT
WAS SHOWN THAT DOMINANCE IS GREATER THAN ADDITIVE
VARIANCE FOR IMPORTANT CULINARY AND NUTRITIONAL
TRAITS OF DRY EDIBLE BEANS. Studies have also shown that
selection in early generations is possible for trait improvement.
Protein and procyanidin were shown to be inherited quantitatively.

THE UNIVERSITY OF NEBRASKA/DOMINICAN REPUBLIC
PROJECT OBTAINED INFORMATION ON THE INHERITANCE
OF RESISTANCE TO COMMON BLIGHT AND RUST. They found
that the reaction of leaves and pods to common blight were
inherited quantitatively and that different genes controlled
resistance reaction in different plant parts. A simply inherited
hypersensitive reaction was detected in some sources of common
blight resistance. Bacteriophage typing studies substantiated the
wide variation among strains of common blight in the Dominican
Republic and the distribution of strains was random.

POMPADOUR CHECA, A RED MOTTLED DRY BEAN, WAS
IDENTIFIED AS RESISTANT TO ALL KNOWN STRAINS OF RUST
IN THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC AND NEBRASKA. The rust
reaction was determined by two major genes with resistance being
expressed in the presence of a major gene exhibiting epistasis.

THE UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN, WORKING WITH
EMBRAPA IN BRAZIL, HAS DEVELOPED INOCULATION TECH-
NIQUES FOR THE SEQUENTIAL INOCULATION OF FOUR
MAJOR BEAN DISEASES (RUST, COMMON BLIGHT, ANGULAR
LEAF SPOT AND ANTHRACNOSE). This will expedite the
development of multiple disease resistant bean cultivars which will
help stabilize bean yields.

THE UNIVERSITY OF PUERTO RICO, IN COOPERATION
WITH RESEARCHERS IN THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC AND







HONDURAS, HAVE DEVELOPED BEAN CULTIVARS WITH
MULTIPLE DISEASE RESISTANCE. Several cultivars have been
released by this program and are providing farmers with stable
yields. The white-seeded cultivar, Arroyo Loro, has done well in
both the Dominican Republic and Puerto Rico. Germplasm with
disease resistance has also been identified and released for plant
breeders to use in their breeding programs. These lines are
important sources of resistance to rust, bean common mosaic virus,
angular leaf spot, common blight and web blight.

THE UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA-RIVERSIDE PRODUCED
SEVERAL POPULATIONS OF INTERSPECIFIC HYBRIDS
BETWEEN THE COMMON BEAN AND THE TEPARY BEAN.
These progeny were evaluated for drought tolerance in Kenya.

RESEARCHERS AT MICHIGAN STATE UNIVERSITY ARE
STUDYING THE ORIGIN AND MAINTENANCE OF GENETIC
DIVERSITY IN MALAWI BEAN LANDRACES. They are looking at
farmer practices as well as natural events which contribute to
diversity. Farmer surveys, electrophoresis and other techniques
are being utilized to understand diversity.

A SMALL VILLAGE MILL WAS CONSTRUCTED IN OGBODU-
ABA, NIGERIA, TO PROCESS COWPEA MEAL USING SMALL-
SCALE TECHNOLOGIES DEVELOPED IN THE PROJECT. The
mill will be run by the Village Development Union, under the
guidance of its Board of Directors. The management of the mill is
organized to work effectively within the social structure of this
traditional African village.





























Summary and Financial Report







SUMMARY

Over the first five-plus years of its existence, the
Bean/Cowpea CRSP has been able to establish collaborative
research projects with leading US and HC researchers in Africa and
Latin America. The achievements of this teamwork have been
most impressive.

The CRSP has had significant impact on bean and cowpea
availability in many countries. New varieties and production
practices, new food preparation techniques, improved food quality,
new pest control potential and increased nitrogen fixation are some
of the areas where the CRSP has made important contributions.

Virtually every US bean and cowpea program, whether public
or private, is being helped through the many research activities of
this CRSP. A major example is the extensive efforts in germplasm
collection and preservation which have contributed important
germplasm to the world collection available for variety develop-
ment programs.

In addition to the research activities, the CRSP has provided
training opportunities for US and HC researchers. These scientists
will provide important leadership in identifying and solving trouble-
some agricultural problems in the years ahead.

Thus, the CRSP has concentrated on maintaining a well-
integrated research and training program. It has attempted to
strike a balance between the research needs of legume science for
the common good and the more narrow special needs of participat-
ing US and HC research programs. A high level of communication
among the participants and especially across the disciplines
supports this balance. Project leaders are now turning to one
another for assistance in specified areas.

Slowly the real value of the resources represented by an
organization of this size and complexity is making itself under-
stood. The constraints identified are complex and stubborn, and
long-term research is expected to be required if they are to be
adequately addressed. If there is any hope that this process can be
accelerated, it will be through assembling competent, dedicated
persons who are heterogeneous in their professional and cultural
backgrounds. Unencumbered by gender discrimination and national
neglect, this resource is best described as intellectual germplasm.
And indeed, it is the true promise of the Bean/Cowpea CRSP.







SUMMARY

Over the first five-plus years of its existence, the
Bean/Cowpea CRSP has been able to establish collaborative
research projects with leading US and HC researchers in Africa and
Latin America. The achievements of this teamwork have been
most impressive.

The CRSP has had significant impact on bean and cowpea
availability in many countries. New varieties and production
practices, new food preparation techniques, improved food quality,
new pest control potential and increased nitrogen fixation are some
of the areas where the CRSP has made important contributions.

Virtually every US bean and cowpea program, whether public
or private, is being helped through the many research activities of
this CRSP. A major example is the extensive efforts in germplasm
collection and preservation which have contributed important
germplasm to the world collection available for variety develop-
ment programs.

In addition to the research activities, the CRSP has provided
training opportunities for US and HC researchers. These scientists
will provide important leadership in identifying and solving trouble-
some agricultural problems in the years ahead.

Thus, the CRSP has concentrated on maintaining a well-
integrated research and training program. It has attempted to
strike a balance between the research needs of legume science for
the common good and the more narrow special needs of participat-
ing US and HC research programs. A high level of communication
among the participants and especially across the disciplines
supports this balance. Project leaders are now turning to one
another for assistance in specified areas.

Slowly the real value of the resources represented by an
organization of this size and complexity is making itself under-
stood. The constraints identified are complex and stubborn, and
long-term research is expected to be required if they are to be
adequately addressed. If there is any hope that this process can be
accelerated, it will be through assembling competent, dedicated
persons who are heterogeneous in their professional and cultural
backgrounds. Unencumbered by gender discrimination and national
neglect, this resource is best described as intellectual germplasm.
And indeed, it is the true promise of the Bean/Cowpea CRSP.







BEAN/COWPEA COLLABORATIVE RESEARCH SUPPORT PROGRAM
September 1980


HC HC
Direct Indirect
Costs (C) Costs (D)


Total Total
US HC
Costs (E) Costs (F)


Honduras/UPR

INCAP/WSU

Kenya/UCD

Kenya/UCR

Malawi/MSU

Mexico/MSU

Nigeria/UGA

Nigeria/MSU

Senegal/UCR

Tanzania/WSU

Uganda

Total Country
Research Projects


275,276
(92%)
435,501
(77%)
463,174
(77%)
31,485
(58%)
267,722
(74%)
131,274
(74%)
348,742
(84%)
52,340
(65%)
450,352
(75%)
521,050
(69%)
53,641
(75%7


25,734
(8%)
129,740
(23%)
136,759
(23%)
22,876
(42%)
94,209
(26%)
47,045
(26%)
68,303
(16%)
27,959
(35%)
147,343
(25%)
232,230
(31%)
17,842
(25%)


5,669,991 1,684,365
(77%) (23%)


363,347
(98%)
381,019
(84%)
282,351
(98%)
28,685
(100%)
347,779
(100%)
163,646
(99%)
234,082
(100%)
162,523
(93%)
385,026
(86%)
683,142
(99%)
29,241
(100%)
5,932,506
(93%)


7,319
(2%)
73,136
(16%)
4,925
(2%)
-0-
(0%)
-0-
(0%)
244
(1%)
-0-
(0%)
11,850
(7%)
60,880
(14%)
6,626
(1%)
-0-
(0%)
450,485
(7%)


Distribution of Project Costs
Cost Sharing AID/US

Management Office
Total Grant Distribution

Distribution of AID/US Contribution/HC Contribution
Other:MSU Overhead, Balance Remaining, Audit
TOTAL GRANT AID FUNDS
Distribution of AID Indirect/Direct Cost


3UI,UIU J/U,b~r
(45%) (55%)
565,241 454,155
(55%) (45%)
599,933 287,276
(68%) (32%)
54,361 28,685
(65%) (35%)
361,931 347,779
(51%) (49%)
178,319 163,890
(52%) (48%)
417,045 234,082
(64%) (36%)
80,299 174,373
(32%) (68%)
597,695 445,906
(57%) (43%)
753,280 689,768
(52%) (48%)
71,483 29,241
(71%) (29%)
7,354,356 6,382,991
(54%) (46%)

69%


Country


US
Direct
Costs (A)


us
Indirect
Costs (B)


------


Botswana/CSU 178,838 35,526 468,120 97,188 214,364 565,308
(83%) (17%) (83%) (17%) (27%) (73%)
Brazil/BTI 419,037 114,316 331,956 -0- 533,353 331,956
(79%) (21%) (100%) (0%) (62%) (38%)
Brazil/UWI/Bliss 234,778 69,400 96,955 -0- 304,178 96,955
(77%) (23%) (100%) (0%) (76%) (24%)
Brazil/UWI/Maxwell 247,699 69,365 75,580 -0- 317,064 75,580
(78%) (22%) (100%) (0%) (81%) (19%)
Cameroon/UGA 201,907 24,888 536,664 151,132 226,795 687,796
(89%) (11%) (78%) 22%) (25%) (75%)
Dom. Rep./UNL 334,700 115,501 494,907 9,050 450,201 503,957
(74%) (26%) (98%) (2%) (47%) (53%)
Dom. Rep./UPR 401,640 30,892 404,259 5,801 432,532 410,060
(93%) (7%) (99%) (1%) (51%) (49%)
Ecuador/COR 360,345 134,515 179,719 9,829 494,860 189,548
(73%) (27%) (95%) (5%) (72%) (28%)
Guatemala/COR 260,490 139,922 283,505 12,505 400,412 296,010
(65%) (35%) (96%) (4%) (58%) (42%)


"-







FINAL FINANCIAL REPORT OF GRANT AID/DSAN-XII-G-0261
through May 6, 1986


Total US &
HC Indirect
Costs (G)
132,714
(17%)
114,316
(13%)
69,400
(17%)
69,365
(18%)
176,020
(19%)
124,551
(13%)
36,693
(4%)
144,344
(21%)
152,427
(22%)
33,053
(5%)
202,876
(20%)
141,684
(16%)
22,876
(28%)
94,209
(13%)
47,289
(14%)


US
Direct
Costs (H)
178,838
(23%)
419,037
(49%)
234,778
(67%)
247,699
(63%)
201,907
(22%)
334,700
(35%)
401,640
(48%)
360,345
(53%)
260,490
(37%)
275,276
(41%)
435,501
(43%)
463,174
(52%)
31,485
(38%)
267,722
(38%)
131,274
(38%)


HC
Direct
Costs (I)
468,120
(60%)
331,956
(38%)
96,955
(16%)
75,580
(19%)
536,664
(59%)
494,907
(52%)
404,259
(48%)
179,719
(26%)
283,505
(41%)
363,347
(54%)
381,019
(37%)
282,351
(32%)
28,685
(34%)
347,779
(49%)
163,646
(48%)


us
Contrib.
(M)
116,350
282,245
45,091
121,835

439,148
218,995

185,581
173,640
195,893

123,717
271,553

169,828
24,936
52,880
70,571


68,303 348,742 234,082 228,991 316,031 545,022 1,196,149
(10%) (54%) (36%)
39,809 52,340 162,523 69,968 127,150 197,118 451,790
(16%) (21%) (63%)
208,223 450,352 385,026 375,993 193,802 569,795 1,613,396
(20%) (43%) (37%)
238,856 521,050 683,142 210,473 161,667 372,140 1,815,188
(17%) (36%) (47%)
17,842 53,641 29,241 21,971 -0- 21,971 122,695
(18%) (53%) (29%)
2,134,850 5,669,991 5,932,506 3,399,659 2,463,231 5,862,890 19,600,237
(16%) (42%) (43%)
49% 51%
31%
753,656 1,957,612 2,711,268
(28%) (72%)
2,888,506 7,627,603 5,932,506 5,862,890 22,311,505
(13%) (35%) (26%) (26%)
16,448,615/74% 3,399,659/15% 2,463,231/11%
251 385
16,700,000
17.5% 82.5%


HC
Contrib.
(N)
119,340

232,618
16,174
20,605

215,475
69,674

100,254

48,016
120,244
122,661
138,674

281,887
-0-
93,807
85,152


Total
Contrib.
(0)
235,690
514,863
61,265
142,440

654,623
288,669

285,835
221,656
316,137
246,378
410,227

451,715
24,936
146,687
155,723


Total
Cost
1,015,362
1,380,172
462,398
535,084

1,569,214

1,242,827
1,128,427
906,064

1,012,559
918,054

1,429,623

1,338,924
107,982
856,397
497,932




















































THE BEAN/COWPEA
COLLABORATIVE RESEARCH SUPPORT PROGRAM
(CRSP)

For further information contact:
Bean/Cowpea CRSP
200 Center for International Programs
Michigan State University
East Lansing, Michigan 48824-1035, USA

Telephone: (517) 355-4693
Telex: 263359 CRSP UR




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