Front Cover
 Title Page
 Farming Systems Research Paper...
 Research papers

Group Title: Farming systems research & extension : implementation and monitoring
Title: Farming systems research & extension
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00054806/00001
 Material Information
Title: Farming systems research & extension implementations and monitoring : abstracts
Series Title: Farming systems research paper series
Physical Description: 77 leaves in various foliations : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Flora, Cornelia Butler, 1943-
Publisher: Kansas State University
Place of Publication: Manhattan Kan
Publication Date: [1984]
Subject: Agricultural systems -- Research -- Abstracts   ( lcsh )
Agricultural extension work -- Research -- Abstracts   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
abstract or summary   ( marcgt )
conference publication   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Statement of Responsibility: edited by Cornelia Butler Flora.
General Note: Abstracts of papers presented at unnamed KSU symposium.
General Note: "October, 1984."
Funding: Electronic resources created as part of a prototype UF Institutional Repository and Faculty Papers project by the University of Florida.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00054806
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 001824356
oclc - 11852990
notis - AJP8385

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
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    Title Page
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    Farming Systems Research Paper Series
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    Research papers
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Full Text





/L. Ig~

Farming Systems Research & Extension:
Implementation and Monitoring


Edited by
Paper No. 8

Cornelia Butler Flora
October, 1984

Symposium Planning Committee
Cornelia Butler Flora, Chair
Jim Jorns, Co-Chair

Wayne Geyer
Carole Harbers
Vernon Larson

Wayne Rohrer
Meredith Smith
L. V. Withee


Kansas State University's Farming Systems Research (FSR) Paper Series
is supported by the U.S. Agency for International Development Title XII
Strengthening Grant. The goal of the Strengthening Grant is to increase
the University's capacity for, and focus its commitment to, implementing
Title XII agricultural and nutritional development assistance programs in
less-developed countries. This series is maintained by the FSR Program
Associates-a multidisciplinary team of professors who are focusing their
activities around applied research on farming from a systems perspective.
The purpose of the FSR Paper Series is to provide an avenue for dis-
seminating information on FSR to those interested. Publications to be in-
cluded fall into the following categories: updated bibliographies from
KSU's FSR data base; proceedings from KSU's annual Farming Systems Symposium;
selected papers presented in KSU's FSR Seminar Series; selected papers pre-
pared by KSU's Program Associates.

Copies of these papers may be obtained by writing: Distribution Center,
Umberger Hall, Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas 66506. There will
be a charge for selected papers and multiple copies to help defray cost of
Vernon C. Larson


Kansas State University is committed to a policy of non-discrimination on
the basis of race, sex, national origin, handicap, or other non-merit reasons,
in admissions, educational programs or activities, and employment, all as re-
quired by applicable laws and regulations. Inquiries may be addressed to:
Director, Affirmative Action Office, 214 Anderson Hall, Kansas State University,
Manhattan, KS 66506 (913-532-6220), or Regional Director, Office of Civil Rights,
Department of Education, 1150 Grand Avenue, Kansas City, MO 64106 (816-376-2356).


George Abalu
Institute for Agricultural Research
Ahmadu Bello University
Zaria, Nigeria

Institutionalizing Farming Systems Research:
The case of Farming Systems Research in Nigeria

The evolution of development thinking and experiences with past
research strategies would suggest that future agricultural and rural
development efforts in developing countries should focus more on the
dynamics of small scale farm operations with a more holistic and
inter-disciplinary understanding. In this regard, Farming Systems
Research (FSR) with its distinguishing features from traditional
research strategies is being increasingly regarded as a strategy with
considerable promise. Experiences from Nigeria with FSR at both the
research centre and national levels are used to illustrate the
feasibility of organizing and managing FSR programmes in third world

These experiences suggest that the entire FSR process, including
the analysis of farming systems, technology development and testing, and
the verification of research results can be successfully carried out by
inter-disciplinary teams of social and biological scientists. FSR is,
however, more costly than conventional research. Nigerian experiences
would nonetheless suggest that the potential benefits of FSR could be
great enough to justify the cost, hence the chances of converting a
research dream into reality are very good.

K. Agori-Iwe. E. C. Nwagbo. U. Cheezev
Institute for Agricultural Research
Ahmadu Bello University
P.M.B. 033
Zaria, Nigeria

Simulating the Technology Adoption Process:
A Case of Groundnut Farmers in Northern Nigeria

Improved and promising technology packages are designed by
interdisciplinary research teams of the Institute for Agricultural
Research Samaru from time to time. A typical team involves bio-physical
as well as socio-economic scientists. On farm test of these packages
are carried out in selected areas in Northern Nigeria. There are
several improved as well as promising items within a typical package.
These packages have initially been tried in experimental field plots
before being recommended for on-farm test; often times the on-farm test
comprises two groups of trials one acting as a control and the other
testing the recommended technology. Because of the various combinations
and permutations of farm plans possible, it is often impracticable to
carry out on-farm test of all the possible plans. Rather a plan
adjudged superior to the rest based on limited indices is tested.

Computer simulation is particularly amenable to complex situations
requiring expensive and time consuming experimentation. In this paper
we describe a package of improved and promising technology recommended
for farmers in Northern Nigeria who adopt a groundnut based crop

A computer simulation model of the technology adoption process
incorporating a total farming systems approach is built to trace the
results from a typical farm which follows the recommendation. Actual
data from on-farm testing of the same technology is used to validate the
model. Highlights of the study indicate the identification of tight
constraints, such as, for example, a clearer picture of why farmers do
not adopt certain improved and promising technology.

M. Ashraf. P. Balogun
International Institute of Tropical Agriculture
Ibadan, Nigeria

A Case Study of On-Farm Adaptive Research at Bida
Agricultural Development Project (ADP)

Bida ADP, jointly funded by the Nigerian government and the World
Bank and with a 5 year lifespan from June 1980, has the objectives of
increasing agricultural production by 25% and raising farm incomes. It
covers 17,000 sq. km. of guinea savannah in the sub-humid zone of
Nigeria. In 1980, Bida ADP ih collaboration with the Agro-economic unit
of the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA) initiated
an on-farm adaptive research (OFAR) program to test and evaluate
technologies for possible recommendation to the Project Extension Unit.

A diagnostic survey was carried out by a multi-disciplinary team
from IITA to delineate recommendation target groups and then quickly set
up an on-farm experimental program. Subsequent formal surveys have
verified and refined these target groups, validating the time and cost
effectiveness of this approach. Farmers were grouped by their cropping
systems, of which there are four: (a) rice-sorghum based, (b)
yam-sorghum based, (c) cassava-sorghum based, and (d) cereals based.
Type of cropping system was largely governed by agro-ecological factors
(land type, rainfall), biological factors (weeds, pests and diseases)
and socio-economic factors.

The cropping systems and fluctuations in labor demand were then
analysed to identify opportunities to introduce improvements into the
local farming system. The results suggested that although productivity
could be raised by introducing better crop varieties and pest management
for rainy season crops, major potential for improvement in the
rice-sorghum system lay in the dry season between November and April,
when the opportunity cost of labor is low and conflicts of resource
allocation within the farming system are minimal.

Investigation into major cash expenditure on food revealed that
farmers spent a considerable amount purchasing cowpeas. There had been
a rapid decline in the area planted to the local cowpeas due to the very
high crop failure risks posed by insects. Introduction of short season
cowpea (60-75 days) varieties which require minimum pest management
offered the possibility of alleviating this food deficit and improving
productivity of the system.

Exploratory experimentation at two sites under farmer management on
lowland fields after rice revealed that short season varieties of
cowpeas could successfully be grown on residual moisture: moisture which
seeped from the uplands into the lowland swamps after the rains
finished. The success of these cowpeas sparked such interest in the
Extension Service and among farmers in the area, that in the following
dry season a program involving over 250 farmers in 41 villages was
pursued. Spraying against insects was unfamiliar to farmers, so the

M.Ashraf. P. Balogun-Page 2

project provided a spraying service to the farmers at a cost. Although
not all plots succeeded, the.farmers have become enthusiastic enough to
want to re-introduce cowpeas into the main as well as dry season.

Realizing that it is impossible for the project to spray the cowpea
in the future, as the area grown expands, farmers are now being
encouraged to buy their own spraying equipment. Other than insects, the
major constraints to the introduction of the crop are moisture status
and the conflict between the nomadic herdsmen, who graze their cattle in
the lowlands during the dry season and the settled farmers who want to
plant crops.

With cash costs of N83/ha for seed and 2 sprayings, the net return
to the 65 mandays of family labor (opportunity cost of the labor is very
low) amounted to N937 or N14.40/manday (N = U. S. $1.40). Thus the
benefit/cost ratio of this new enterprise was 12.3.

This intervention into the rice-sorghum system of cowpea as a major
dry season crop has also affected the main season cropping pattern,
since many of the farmers now wish to re-introduce the crop in the main
season as an upland crop. Farmers in other systems, such as the rough
cereals system, which has the lowest income, are now also showing
interest in cowpeas as a component of their cropping system in the main

The potential gains from this intervention for West African
Countries could be large. There are over 23.5 million hectares of land
classified as river valleys suitable for rice growing in West Africa.
Much of the land can be planted with cowpeas after rice, thus increasing
land productivity, improving the rural food security situation, and
adding another protein source to the diet.

The program has generated valuable feed-back information on areas
in need of further research, especially if this intervention is to have
wider applicability in the West African region, such as, the optimum
planting date and appropriate tillage methods in the different types of
lowland and the need for better hand tools. For example, the efficiency
of reaping labor for rice can be improved by 30% by replacing the local
sickle type with a serrated sickle. This intervention would alleviate
the labor constraint at harvesting and would allow farmers to plant
cowpeas earlier in the dry season and avoid problems of moisture stress.
Through this process, Bida ADP has identified another simple
intervention for the improvement of the local farming system.

The experience of Bida ADP in OFAR has shown that it is possible to
quickly identify areas for improvement in the local farming system and
successfully exploit them, if the necessary technology exists. OFAR is
still in progress on other potential areas for intervention into the
rice-sorghum and also into the other cropping systems. Experiments with
new disease resistance cassava varieties for introduction into the
cassava based system show promise but the research is comparatively
slower due to the long life-cycle of cassava. The maximum potential
benefit of this OFAR approach to a project, can only be fully realized
if it is initiated at the pre-project stage and the research results are
available for selection of priorities within the project mix.

Dove Baker
Washington, D.C. 20523

Institutionalization of Farming Systems Reasearch and Extension
in Botswana: Current Programs, and Advantages of Improved
Research-Extension Linkages

The Government of Botswana has recognized that two important issues
need to be resolved in order to promote agricultural development.
a) Extension, planning and research are all vitally important in
agricultural development and, therefore, linkages between agricultural
extension, planning and research departments need to be strong and
b) It is important that agricultural policies and technologies be
developed that are attractive to farmers if the extension service is to
have any hope of being effective in promoting agricultural change.

The Ministry of Agriculture in Botswana has consequently decided in
the last few years to pursue a farming systems approach to research and
extension. There are already a number of programs in Botswana, which,
although not always called farming systems projects, have many
characteristics of the farming systems approach. The oldest of these
are IFPP in the Southern District and EFSAIP concentrated around
Gaborone. More recent projects include NADP centered in Gumare and the
Agricultural Technology Improvement Project (ATIP) mandated to do FSR in
the Central and Francistown Agricultural Regions.

Each project has followed a somewhat different approach to farming
systems research, in terms of both issues addressed and research
methodology. Also, each project has developed its own approach toward
establishing institutional linkages with experiment station research and
the extension service. By comparing and contrasting the approaches
followed by the four projects, several insights into the problems and
alternatives facing the Ministry of Agriculture as it decides how to
institutionalize the farming systems approach can be highlighted.

The authors) are from the Agricultural Technology Improvement
Project and, therefore the paper begins with a review of the approaches
(there is more than one ATIP field team) being taken toward FSR and
extension linkages by ATIP. The paper then compares and contrasts the
approaches being taken by ATIP with those of other farming systems
programs in Botswana. The last part of the paper steps back from
particular institutional alternatives found in Botswana to address two
general questions: (a) how can the farming systems approach and results
of FSR field teams help extension agents and (b) what can extension
agents do to help FSR field teams. These general questions must be
considered if the full benefits of the farming systems approach are to
be realized by extension as well as research, regardless of which
institutional approach is adopted in a given country.

Samm Bbuvemusoke. Thomas A. Banta
Institute for Agricultural Research (IAR)
Faculty of Agriculture
Ahmadu Bello University
Zaria, Nigeria

This study set out to make an evaluation of the socio-economic and
technological appropriateness of an improved Sorghum production
technology package disseminated in Giwa District of Kaduna State.

Gross margin analysis showed that the technology per s. was
profitable. However, when the farmer's resource base, particularly
capital, labour and management, his allocation of resources between
competing enterprises, and his minimum subsistence requirements were
incorporated into a linear programming model, the results showed that
farmers were more rational in sticking to their indigenous technology,
rather than adopting the improved practices. The relative
unprofitability of the improved technology is further confirmed by the
fact that the total farm gross margins of the farmers that grew improved
Sorghum was lower than those who grew only indigenous Sorghum

Not surprisingly, there were very low adoption levels associated
with the improved package's recommendations. Partly, this was because
the improved package was so specific in its requirement of cultural
practices. For example, while indigenous Sorghum varieties required
little or no fertilizer for a dependable yield, the improved SK5912
variety could end up in total crop failure if no fertilizer was applied.
Also, the tall stalks of the indigenous varieties had other uses for the
peasant farmers which the short-stalked hybrid varieties could not
provide: these included roofing and fencing. It is implicit that
resource requirements for growing the improved variety are greater than
for growing the indigenous varieties, while at the same time there are
less by-products from the former than from the latter.

It is contended then that the improved Sorghum production
technology was not developed with poor farmers, such as those in the
study area, in mind.

Robert J. Bevins. Melvin Blase Nvangavezi Macala
Department of Agricultural Economics Botswana Ministry of Agric.
University of Missouri-Columbia Gaborone, Botswana
Columbia, Missouri

Row Versus Broadcasting Cropping Systems in Botswana

This paper focuses on the farm level cereal grain under dry,
average, and high rainfall conditions. Broadcasting and row planting
are considered under both cattle and tractor power options. An LP model
is utilized.

The results are discouraging in that a switch to row planting seems
to have limited impact except in years of favorable rainfall. But these
results are obtained only when row planting is complemented by adequate
credit and an increased supply of labor. Harvesting labor becomes

In short, row planting is shown to be an improvement over
broadcasting but the net income remains low.

John S. Caldwell, Mary Hill Rolas. Angela Neilan
Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University
Blacksburg, VA 24061

Applying the Farming Systems Team Approach
in the Extension Structure and Program Cycle

Farming Systems is a methodology which has developed over the last
decade primarily outside the United States. Only recently has Farming
Systems begun to be tested within the United States. This paper
examines a pilot project which applied the Farming Systems team approach
within the Cooperative Extension system in Southwest Virginia during

The project utilized the multi-disciplinary team approach at 2
levels within the extension structure: the campus-based specialist
level, and the field-based para-professional technician level. At both
levels, the project linked agriculture and home economics. At the
specialist level, team involvement began with problem identification in
the development stage of the Extension program cycle, corresponding to
the diagnostic stage in Farming Systems. Traditionally, however,
specialists are usually called in by extension field staff only after
field staff have identified a problem needing an educational program.
This corresponds to the design stage of Farming Systems.

At the technical level, a female home management para-professional
with responsibilities in-both agriculture (horticultural production and
marketing) and home economics (nutrition, food preparation and
preservation, home products, and financial management) worked with male,
predominantly livestock agriculture technicians. The team worked to
implement introduction of broccoli for market sale and nutritional
benefit in the implementation stage, corresponding to the transition
between design and testing in Farming Systems.

Agent-level extension field staff saw the project as a return to
the older generalist approach of the 1950's Farm and Home Development
Program, had difficulty determining appropriate lines of supervision for
the agriculture-home economics para-professional team, and questioned
the cost-benefit ratio of more than one technician working with the same
families. Decreased specialist-technician alienation was a positive
effect of the approach.

S. Chamala. K. J. Keith
University of Queensland

Development of Extension Programs Within the
Context of FSR&D- Conservation Cropping Case
in Queensland

Current literature on FSR&D has emphasised the research process in
detail. Extension is implied or assumed to be comparatively easier once
the relevant technology is developed. Studies on the adoption and
diffusion process suggest that extension of technology is not simple
when a complex set of inter-related innovations are involved. Complex
farming system changes call for a well planned extension program based
on complexities of existing farming systems and extension organization
constraints and potentials. This is important for both developed or
developing countries.

This paper reports the methodology used in developing extension
programs for promoting conservation cropping in Queensland, Australia.
This case represents an example of a complex farming systems change in a
developed country.

The development of extension programs in this case uses most of the
criteria of FSRD (Shaner et al, 1982) namely; it is farmer-based,
problem solving, comprehensive, interdisciplinary, complimentary,
dynamic and responsible for society's shorter term production and IMng
term stability. A model is described in which research, development,
extension are recognized as parallel activities to be planned from a
common problem identification (situational analysis) process, rather
than having extension tagged onto the end of the chain of research
methodology. This approach enables the extension personnel to identify
the homogenous groups of farmers who are at various stages of using the
existing technology as well as enabling directions for research and
development to be identified.

An extension research project carried out jointly by the university
and the government agency responsible for agricultural extension is
described. The project included surveys of farmers and extension staff.
This process helped to identify socio-economic factors and details of
cropping practices to be considered in extension planning, as well as
staff constraints and training needs. Armed with this data appropriate
communication strategies are planned for each of these target audiences
as well as planning appropriate training for staff. This methodology-
further improved the cohesiveness of the extension and research efforts

Principles of this methodology could be applied elsewhere.

S. Chamala. K. J. Keith
University of Queensland

Development of Extension Programs Within the
Context of FSR&D Conservation Cropping Case
in Queensland

Current literature on FSR&D has emphasised the research process in
detail. Extension is implied or assumed to be comparatively easier once
the relevant technology is developed. Studies on the adoption and
diffusion process suggest that extension of technology is not simple
when a complex set of inter-related innovations are involved. Complex
farming system changes call for a well planned extension program based
on complexities of existing farming systems and extension organization
constraints and potentials. This is important for both developed or
developing countries.

This paper reports the methodology used in developing extension
programs for promoting conservation cropping in Queensland, Australia.
This case represents an example of a complex farming systems change in a
developed country.

The development of extension programs in this case uses most of the
criteria of FSRD (Shaner et al, 1982) namely; it is farmer-based,
problem solving, comprehensive, interdisciplinary, complimentary,
dynamic and responsible for society's shorter term production and lon1
term stability. A model is described in which research, development,
extension are recognized as parallel activities to be planned from a
common problem identification (situational analysis) process, rather
than having extension tagged onto the end of the chain of research
methodology. This approach enables the extension personnel to identify
the homogenous groups of farmers who are at various stages of using the
existing technology as well as enabling directions for research and
development to be identified.

An extension research project carried out jointly by the university
and the government agency responsible for agricultural extension is
described. The project included surveys of farmers and extension staff.
This process helped to identify socio-economic factors and details of
cropping practices to be considered in extension planning, as well as
staff constraints and training needs. Armed with this data appropriate
communication strategies are planned for each of these target audiences
as well as planning appropriate training for staff. This methodology
further improved the cohesiveness of the extension and research efforts

Principles of this methodology could be applied elsewhere.

James A Chapman
Agricultural Economist
Chemonics International Consulting Division
Washington, D.C.

Incorporating Socioeconomic Environmental Variables
in Farming Systems Research and Development

Recent trends in the development of new agricultural technologies
for small farmers have focused almost exclusively on the issues of
understanding and changing small-scale farming systems within a
presumably static social, economic and political environment. Such an
approach is typical of most farming systems research methodologies
presented so far. While some FSR practitioners have mentioned the
importance of socioeconomic environmental variables, none have offered
practical framework for incorporating them into a more holistic FSR

The difficulties involved in identifying and developing new
technologies appropriated to small farm systems are well known. Taking
the socioeconomic environment as given, it seems possible that progress
can be made in obtaining at least marginal improvements in agricultural
productivity. However, by limiting the scope of research/extension
activities to the farm-level, opportunities may be missed for obtaining
even greater magnitudes of change by first (or simultaneously) changing
some of the environmental variables which influence the incentives
farmers have to adopt or adapt new technology.

The purpose of this paper is to suggest an analytical framework
which broadens the scope of farming systems research, emphasizing the
endogenous nature of technological change to small farm development,
which is in turn influenced by forms of social articulation by which
public policies define the socioeconomic environment. Besides
identifying on-farm variables, the framework defines certain social and
economic relationships occurring within the small farm sector and
between the small farm sector and other social sectors. The specific
nature of the relationships plays an important role in determining the
nature and magnitude of small farm family income-generating
opportunities, which in turn strongly influence possibilities for
significant technological change and improved welfare.

Terd Charoenwatana
Coordinator, Farming Systems Research Project
Faculty of Agriculture
Khon Kaen University
Khon Kaen, Thailand

The Rainfed Farming Systems Research in Northeast Thailand:
A Ten-Year Experience

Northeast Thailand is the poorest region in the country. More than
80 percent of the population is engaged in agriculture--mostly
small-scale farmers on rainfed land. The major constraints to crop
production in the Northeast are low soil fertility and organic matter
combined with the low water holding capacity and erratic rainfall.
Given these poor natural resources endowments, the farmers have
developed cropping systems under rainfed conditions that are mainly
monocropping of rice, kenaf and cassava.

The Faculty of Agriculture, Khon Kaen University, started its
research project in 1975 by using the cropping systems approach to
examine how available resources can be better used to increase farm
income. After several years of testing both in the university
experimental farm and farmers' fields with farmer participation, the
project was able to identify several promising cropping patterns. There
was a varying degree of farmer adoption of these new cropping patterns,
however, which apparently depended upon social factors. The project
then enhanced its activities in the social studies. The concept of
human ecology and system analysis were introduced to promote interaction
and integration between natural and social scientists. Several
workshops on human ecology and agroecosystem analysis were held during
the past four years.

Recognizing that the rainfed farmers derive a significant
percentage of their income from livestock and fishing, the project also
expanded its scope by integrating animal science into what was
previously cropping systems research. The farming systems research
approach is used to develop farming system practices fitted to the
unique socio-economic and cultural conditions of rainfed area in the

Being university based, the project aims to develop methodology and
to generate technology and information in farming systems which will be
used by the implementing agencies. Lessons learned from several years
of experience of conducting farming systems research will also be

Alex C. Cunard
FSR/E Tanzania Project
Dares Salaam (ID)
Department of State
Washington, D.C. 20523

environment in the Development of Farming Systems in Moshi and
Arumeru Districts, Tanzania

In the Moshi and Arumeru District of Tanzania the two mountains,
Kilimanjaro and Meru dominate the environment and have played a major
role in influencing the development of the farming systems of the
peoples who have settled on their flanks and in their vicinity. The
crowded communities that live on the rich soil of the slopes of the
mountains have developed intensive systems of agriculture in which
intercropped food and cash crops are integrated with the rearing of
livestock for milk production. Soil fertility in the "kihambas"
(traditional fields) is maintained with the use of manure from the stall
fed cattle.

On the plains in the vicinity of the mountain younger generations,
mainly deriving from the families settled on the slopes have established
villages and fields in which cereal/legume combinations are grown for
food, either as sole or intercrops. Animal traction is used and the
farming is extensive. The linkages between the two systems, existing
side by side are examined, and the similarities and differences compared
and contrasted.

The problems and constraints confronting the farming systems are
identified and proposals as to which directions on-station and on-farm
research should take are made.

The major area of the Kilosa District in the Ilonga Zone is
comprised of the Mkata Plain, a fertile peneplain drained and sometimes
flooded by the Mkata and Wami rivers originating from the Kiborian and
Rubeho mountains to the west. There are sizeable tracts of "Mbuga" or
black cotton soils in which the crop is grown. The annual rainfall
amounts to around 800 mm. and is bimodal in nature, occurring between
November and December (Vuli) and between March and May (masika). The
occurrence is also unreliable and this causes short periods of drought
at any stage of the crop cycle.

During the short rains which last only about a month and a half
farmers plant local varieties of maize, which they expect to harvest at
the beginning of February, which is a drought month and a period of food
shortage. Sorghum is also planted as an insurance crop, since, if the
rains fail it will give some harvest. In the second rainy season maize
is planted again and intercropped with cowpeas, green gram and/or

Alex C. Cunard Page 2

Government 'policy requires the farmer to plant an acre of cotton.
Generally the crop brings negative returns and occasionally floods
destroy it. Successful cash crops are interplanted bananas and
sugar-cane and swamp rice which are grown in low-lying areas where the
moisture reserve is high throughout the year.

The rainfall pattern is analyzed and an alternative cropping system
is proposed integrating possible solutions to most of the constraints
such as suitable crops to sow in the short and long rainy seasons.
Proposals are also put forward to direct breeding research to
incorporate farmer desirable characteristics in so-called "improved
maize varieties", which take into account water relations in the
environment in which the crop is grown.

The Dodoma District falls within the semi-arid zone of central
Tanzania which is reminiscent of the northern Savannah or southern
Sahel. Annual rainfall rarely exceeds 600 mm. and falls mainly between
December and May with a slight lull in February. The favorite food crop
grown is Pearl Millet (Pennisetum Typhoides) which is planted around
each homestead which in turn is sited on poor infertile sand, fertilized
with manure from the cattle "bomas". Other crops are interplanted
cowpeas and sole groundnut.

On the more fertile soils with a higher moisture reserve sorghum
and grapes are grown, the grapes being fertilized by the use of manure.
Livestock are an integral component of the farming system although no
animal traction whatever is utilized, efforts by the Extension Division
to introduce it having ended in failure because of the socio-cultural

The system is analyzed and the major constraints are identified.
Suggestions are made for development or for further on-farm and
on-station research. The study and analysis of local varieties of
sorghum are recommended in order to identify farmer preferred
characteristics which could be incorporated into improved varieties
developed in breeding programs. Proposals are also made to overcome the
constraint to the introduction of animal traction.

Robert Deuson. Richard Foote. Eman El-Gamassv
International Programs in Agriculture
Purdue University
West Lafayette, Indiana

A Case Study on Evaluating New Technology in Farmers'
Fields, With Emphasis on Plant Drills for Wheat in
Charbiya Governorate, Egypt, 1982-83

As a part of the 1982-83 Egyptian Major Cereals Improvement Project
(EMCIP) Production demonstration programs for wheat, farmers were asked
to consolidate their plots in two 25-feddan fields, one each in Sefta
and El Santa districts in Charbiya Governorate, Egypt, for which seed
was planted by a plant drill. The two districts were hypothesized to be
two different recommendation domains.

Ten farmers were randomly selected from (a) those in each of these
fields, (b) those from nearby areas who did not consolidate their fields
and did not take part in the demonstration plots in each district for
which seed was broadcast, making a total of 60 farmers in all. For each
of these farmers, data needed to compute yield and gross returns,
variable costs and net return were collected by a cost-route survey.
Analysis of variance was applied based on a 2BY3 factorial design for 2
districts and 3 levels of technology.

In all cases, important interaction terms were found, indicating
the need to study the 2-way tables of means based on least significant
differences (LSD). Important differences in economic response between
the two districts were identified. The economic analysis made use of
dominance and marginal analysis, as developed by economists at CIMMYT in
Mexico. The findings appear to be domain specific which tends to
conform our hypothesis that the two districts represent two different
recommendation domains.

M. Diomande
08 BP 1295 Abidjan 08,
Ivory Coast

The O.F.R.I.C. Approach to Site Selection

The OFRIC project (On Farm Research in Ivory Coast) is composed of
three teams: one in the north, one in the center and one in the south.
Selecting research sites for these teams in the three zones involved
four steps:

-Making an exhaustive listing of all possible sites in each zone.

- Selecting five of these sites on the basis of personal reasons by
raising hands.

- Choosing two of these five sites on the basis of ten defined criteria
using selection forms.
.agro ecological factors,
.the Research matter,
.high probability of significant results,
.low coverage of the region by research activities,
.local language spoken by at least one team member,
.logistic support (presence of Development societies),
.all-season accessibility,
.socio-ethnic homogeneity,
.failure of a past regional project,
.political priorities.

-Finally conducting a preliminary site selection survey before the
exploratory surveys. This survey is carried out on all the selected
sites to get down to three.

Following this procedure, the OFRIC project has selected its three
research sites:

1. Touba in Northern Ivory Coast.
2. M'Bahiakro/Daoukro in Central Ivory Coast.
3. Divo in Southern Ivory Coast.

This paper describes these four steps in some detail and comments are
made as to the shortcomings and the strengths of the approach.

Glen Easter. Donald Hlone
Cropping Systems and Research
P. 0. Box 4
Malkerns Research Station
Malkerns, Swaziland

Constraints and Opportunities to Extension Training
in Swaziland

This paper is an analytical look at the empirical experiences of
the Training Specialists,'Swaziland Cropping Systems Research and
Extension Training Project*, during the project's first two years
(1982-1984). The authors discuss the state of the Extension Service at
the initiation of the Project and their approaches to organise training
to alleviate the deficiencies using existing facilities and financial
supports. This time period coincided with the conclusion of Phase II of
the Swaziland Rural Development Areas Program and the evaluations of the
effectiveness of Extension during Phase II and the subsequent
recommendations for Phase III are discussed. Shortcomings in
incentives, effectiveness of preservice and in-service training, and the
absenses of follow-up and training materials are identified. Importance
of and satisfaction with Extension by the Swazi Nation Land Farmer and
his family are cited. The relationship between the available preservice
training and the attempts to revitalize the in-service training are
discussed as they apply to the ability of the new graduates to meet
performance expectations in the field.

Implementation of a structural reorganization of Extension,
reemphasis of Subject-Matter Specialists role in training and materials,
adaptation of the Training & Visit Method of Extension, and the
organization of an annual training calendar are given as advances.i The
lack of a sound link between extension and research is noted with the
activities being pursued by the Farming (Cropping) Systems Research
Approach to create that link discussed. Lastly the author comments on
the conflicts between establishing a sound, realistic, affordable' base
to build training on and the immediate need to produce the results of
workshops, seminars, field days, and other training events.

*A cooperative project between the Swaziland Ministry of Agriculture and
Cooperatives, Pennsylvania State University, Tennessee State University,
and the United States Agency for International Development.

German Escobar
7170 Turrialba
Costa Rica

Economic Analysis Within the Farming Systems Research and
Technology Development Methodology, An Empirical Application
in Central America

The implementation of farming systems research and technology
development (FSR/TD) applied to small farmers calls for
multidisciplinary teams to cover not only the bio-physical topics, but
the socioeconomic and communication aspects of the farming systems.
This paper examines the role of the economic analysis in a FSR/TD
project in the North Atlantic area of Oosta Rica, according to a
methodological framework developed by CATIE for its mandate area.

The functions of economic analysis are twofold: assessing the
farmer's own economic rationale for allocating production factors within
his own production constraints, and evaluating the development of
technological alternatives to ensure they provide farmers with higher
production and/or productivity levels than their own production
technology while informing about regional and farm limitations.
However, a simplified applied economic analysis should be pursued if
national research teams are expected to undertake such analyses.

Following the former approach, economic information is provided for
the methodological phases of a) area selection, b) a hierarchical
characterization of area, farm and cropping systems conditions and
limitations, c) the alternative technology design, d) the on-farm
experimental trials, e) the validation of the alternative technology by
farmers, and f) the dynamic farm analysis which includes farmers
monitoring to evaluate the adoption of technology. Emphasis is given to
the contribution of analyzing a major area and farm level constraints,
and the evaluation of the technological alternative in view of that
limitation. The use of economic information to help select promising
production technologies is also stressed in the paper, as well as a
simple farm planning analysis to evaluate a technological alternative
for maize production within the context of the farm system.

Timothy R. Frankenberger
University of Kentucky
Lexington, Kentucky

Inclusion of Food Consumption Concerns in
Farming Systems Projects

A significant shortcoming of past FSR efforts has been the lack of
emphasis on consumption concerns in the design and testing of new
agricultural technology. For instance, in the Farming Systems Research
and Development Guidelines developed by Shanner et al., 1982, no mention
of nutrition/consumption concerns is made in the table of contents or
appendices. Two critical reasons can be cited for why such concerns are
important. First, consumption considerations help identify
technological alternatives that are compatible with consumption
preferences of farm families, thereby ensuring their likely acceptance
(Tripp 1982). Second, such consumption concerns may help to ensure that
technological change contributes to improving the welfare of the rural
poor. Numerous instances can be cited of past agricultural development
projects which did not bring about such welfare improvements (Fleuret
and Fleuret 1980; Reutlinger 1976; Martin 1982; Jones 1980, etc.).

This paper will address the shortcoming and make suggestions for
ways in which consumption concerns can be better integrated into farming
systems methodology. These suggestions are derived from a synthesis of
the works of Tripp 1982, Wheelen 1982, DeWalt 1983, Smith 1983, and
others, as well as my own attempts to incorporate consumption concerns
into my farming systems fieldwork. The paper will not attempt to
outline a methodology for conducting separate, full-blown nutritional
studies, but rather will focus on how consumption concerns might be
better integrated into production-oriented farming systems research
procedures. Special emphasis will be given to the linkages between
agricultural production and consumption. Aspects of production which
are closely linked to consumption include: 1) seasonality of production
(seasonality of food availability, malnutrition, energy expenditure,
incidence of disease, terms of trade for poor, etc.); 2) minor crops and
crop mix; 3) the role of women in production and division of labor; 4)
income (regularity, kind and recipients); 5) food and other commodity
prices and their seasonality, and 6) cash crops.

Timothy R, Frankenberger page 2

Taking these linkages into account, this paper will outline how
consumption considerations can be incorporated into each stage of the
FSR research process. For instance, inclusion of such concerns in
target area selection might ensure that nutritionally vulnerable groups
are taken into consideration by the project, to maximize nutritional
benefits and minimize adverse impacts. Suggestions will also be made as
to the types of consumption data that would be feasible and desirable to
collect during reconnaissance or sondeo surveys and formal diagnostic or
verification surveys. How these data could be used with other
production data to delineate recommendation domains will also be
discussed. Similarly, the discussion will deal with what types of
consumption data would be useful to collect during the on-farm research
stage. Finally, the paper will address what types of consumption
criteria might be useful for evaluating project impact and what types of
minimal data requirements might be necessary for successful product

Louise Fresco
Brouwersgracht 865, 1C15 GK

Louise Fresco
Brouwersgracht 865, 1C15 GK
Amsterdam, The Netherlands
Agricultural University
Waganingen, Netherlands

Approaches to the Study of Farming and Cropping Systems

Although the systematic study of farming systems started early this
century, the FSR approach was first institutionalized in 1968 with the
creation of the Unites Experimentales in Senegal. The objective of the
Unites Experimentales was to develop recommendations leading to an
intensification of agriculture production and test these under realistic

Along with other programs with a FSR perspective, the Unites
Experimentales were instrumental in formulating the key concepts of the
Francophone FSR approach. Central to this approach is
"Recherche-Developpement" which involves defining itineraries to
realizing the agricultural potential of a region through linking
research, extension and development. Such itineraries comprise two
complementary sets of innovations: (1) those that introduce improvements
without altering the structure of the traditional farming systems, and
(2) those that aim at a radical transformation of the entire farming

Although generalizations are dangerous, there are without doubt a
number of major differences between this approach and FSR as developed
primarily by USA institutions and the International Agricultural
Research Centers. Francophone FSR appears as a large-scale effort
directed at the long term development of a region, closely linked with
extension and input delivery, whereas FSR mostly focuses on adapting
research results to the needs of small farmers within the existing
institutional constraints.

A comparison of these different approaches yields recommendations
for FSR programs in West Africa, and raises issues relevant to the role
of FSR in general. In many cases the Francophone approach may be
complementary to the one used in FSR projects.

Steven Franzel
Agricultural Economist
Development Alternatives, Inc.
Washington, D.C.

Comparing the Results of an Informal Survey with Those of a
Formal Survey: A Case Study of Farming Systems
Research/Extension (FSR/E) in Middle Kirinyaga, Kenya

One of the most salient issues in FSR/E concerns the roles of
informal and formal surveys in the diagnostic stage. Informal surveys
are surveys in which researchers interview farmers without using
questionnaires, allowing interviewers and interviewees to pursue topics
of interest freely and in depth. These surveys generally do not involve
random selection of farmers and generally are completed over a short
period of time -- one week to two months. Formal surveys, on the other
hand, are surveys of randomly chosen farmers who are interviewed by
trained interviewers using a questionnaire. Formal surveys generally
extend over a longer period of time -- six months to several years.

Most FSR/E projects rely heavily on formal surveys for diagnosing
farming systems, using informal surveys primarily to help design the
formal survey. However, in recent years, certain researchers have begun
to attach greater importance to the informal survey. Hildebrand (1980)
claims that well-managed informal surveys can generate the information
necessary for identifying principal farmer problems, and planning
experimentation to solve these problems. Collinson (1982) calls the
informal survey the pivotal stage of the diagnostic survey but favors
conducting a short, very focused single-visit, formal survey following
the informal survey in order to verify the results of the informal

This paper reports on an FSR/E exercise carried out in Kirinyaga
District, Kenya, 1981. The exercise consisted of an informal survey
followed by a single-visit formal survey; both of these surveys were
used for developing a program of experiments to address farmer problems.
Both surveys were carried out in the same area, during the same growing
season, and by the same team of researchers. We evaluate the utility of
the formal survey by comparing the information and resulting
experimental program to those derived from the preceding informal
survey. If the formal survey does not make an important contribution to
understanding farmer circumstances and formulating an appropriate
experimental program, one can argue that it is superfluous.

Steven Franzel Page 2

Our analysis examined the variation in findings between the
informal survey and formal survey. We assume that parameters estimated
in the formal survey are more accurate, since in the formal survey,
questions are standardized and the questionnaire was administered to a
randomly selected group of farmers. Findings in the informal survey are
rated for closeness relative to those of the formal survey on a three
point scale -- very close, moderately close, and not close. Our
analysis shows that about 60% of the parameters we estimated in the
informal survey were very close to those of the formal survey, and about
96% were very or moderately close. Sources of variation in parameter
estimates between the two surveys are also analyzed, in the hopes of
contributing to greater accuracy in future exercises.

Furthermore, there were relatively few refinements made in our
research priorities and experimental program as a result of new
information from the formal survey. Therefore, our findings support the
hypothesis that the informal survey is an effective and sufficient
method for planning experimental programs for farmers. They also
suggest that a formal survey may be replaced by either (1) a slightly
longer and more carefully managed informal survey than would otherwise
be mounted or (2) additional informal surveys. However, it is important
to emphasize the danger in over-generalizing from our conclusions. For
example, a frequent-visit formal survey may have elicited different data
than those obtained in our single-visit formal survey. Moreover, it is
likely that different survey methods are appropriate for different sets
of circumstances.


1. Collinson, M.P., 1982. "Farming Systems Research in Eastern
Africa: The Experience of CIMMYT and Some National Agricultural Research
Services, 1976-81, Michigan State University International Development
Paper No. 3.

2. Hildebrand, P.E., 1981. "Motivating Small Farmers, Scientists,
and Technicians to Accept Change", Agricultural Administration, 8,

Patricia Garrett
Department of Rural Sociology
Cornell University
Ithaca, NY 14850

Agricultural Research and Development:
Viable Objectives for Smallholder Programs

This paper applies sociological theories of stratification to the
design of farming systems research programs. Its purpose is to
interrelate strata characteristics with viable objectives for
agricultural programs, thereby providing a guide to planning.

After a brief discussion of a farming systems approach, the paper
explains the distinctions among three strata of smallholders. These
distinctions are then applied to the definition of viable objectives for
work with each group. These ideas are summarized in a table.

The conclusion addresses implications of the analysis for planning.
To appreciate that technologies with certain socioeconomic
characteristics are likely to benefit specific groups has a correlary:
these same technologies may threaten others. Precisely because benefits
for one group may constitute liabilities for another, the impact of
technologies must be evaluated in a global context.

Agricultural research and development activities, therefore, should
pass through two phases. The first is to match general policy
objectives with social strata and the second is to anticipate the
consequences of technology for different landed and landless strata.
Each step is necessary if a coherent agricultural policy with known
consequences for smallholders is to be developed and implemented.

Albert R. Haman
Emeritus Professor in Agricultural Economics
University of Missouri-Columbia
Columbia, Missouri

Balanced Farming in Missouri
A Farming Systems Approach in Assisting Farm Families

Balanced Farmings, as practiced in Missouri over a period of
several decades, is a unique program from the standpoint of its
orientation, its historical evolvement, its influence on extension and
research methodology, and its impact upon the productivity and welfare
of individual farm families and the communities in which they live.

Balanced Farming is farm-family and farming-systems oriented. It
is centered upon the unique net of resources, goals, problems, and needs
of the individual farm family. It is based upon a long-range plan for
the whole farm and family unit to serve as a guide or blueprint for the
year-by-year application of the new technologies and investments
essential for a well-balanced system of farming and family living.

A key feature of the Balanced Farming approach is a complete
analysis of the overall farm and home plan before any changes are
made--before any new technologies are actually applied. It begins with
an analysis of the present system for comparison with acceptable
alternatives ones before a plan is chosen for long-run development.
Each long-run plan is evaluated from the standpoint of the capital and
labor requirements, the profit potential, the economic cash-flow
feasibility, the debt-repayment capacity, the cash available for family
living, and the actual layout of fields, lanes, lots, water management,
kitchens, etc. for maximum efficiency in use of labor and equipment.

The approach differs from most early-day extension work in Missouri
in which new technologies--as discovered and proven through
research--were introduced and tested on various farms as individual
practices. These often involved a fertilizer trial on one farm, a
variety yield tried on another, and perhaps a livestock feeding trial on
another, without any attempt to evaluate the economic impact on the
entire farming system. These research/extension efforts are now
considered the on-farm technology approach rather than the farming
systems approach. Results are measured by the performance of the crop
or livestock enterprise to which applied and continue to serve a very
useful on-going need. In contrast, the results of the farming systems
approach are measured by records of performance of the entire farm
family unit, year-by-year, in comparison with the plan initially
evaluated and implemented over time.

Albert R. Hagan page 2

Balanced Farming was initiated as a state-wide extension program,
with associated research, in 1941 but it evolved by phases or stages
through several decades, starting before 1910 and continuing through
various modifications to the present time. The most productive period
was from 1945 to 1965--the Balance Farming Association phase--in which
farm families paid membership fees in their own associations to help
finance the services of a special extension worker (a Balance Farming
Agent) who helped them plan, evaluate and implement new systems of
farming and family living over a period of years. At the peak period,
75 such Balanced Farming agents served several thousand farm families
throughout the state each year. After termination of Associations by
administrative decree, the farming systems work was continued through
more diversified programs such as research panels for special types of
farming, special programs for beginning farm families and the Small-Farm
Program to be discussed later by Dr. Enloe and Dr. Swartz.

Farm families were assisted in planning and implementing long-range
Balanced Farming plans through special schools, workshops,
demonstrations, and farm and home visits by extension workers and
researchers. Pilot studies (case studies with individual farm families
and community groups) with on-going records of performance provided a
sound basis for extending and expanding the program over time. Some
have been continued for more than 30 years without interruption.

Success of the Balanced Farming program in Missouri hinged upon a
few key factors: strong administrative support; integrated
inter-disciplinary efforts in extension and research; an adequate,
well-trained field staff; providing markets and facilities for
implementing plans; an on-going informational and promotional program;
and a systematic, step-by-step procedure for planning and evaluating a
proposed Balanced Farming system before starting to implement it. A
planning procedure developed in Missouri through several decades
includes 10 steps and associated worksheets as follows: (1) Inventory
resources: (2) Specify goals; (3) Identify problems; (4) Analyze
alternative plans; (5) Choose'a plan to develop; (6) Implement the plan;
(7) Assume and allocate responsibilities; (8) Evaluate progress; (9)
Establish controls; and (10) Adjust as conditions change.

In summary, these 10 steps will be illustrated with pictures and
records from a small Missouri farm for a period of 20 years--a period in
which farm productivity, farm and home improvements, farm income, and
family living improved dramatically.

H. H. Hagerman
Professor of Biology
Lyman Briggs School
Michigan State University
East Lansing, Michigan

The Sorjan Cropping System as a Method of
Growing a Dryland and a Wetland Crop Simultaneously

The sorjan cropping system is a series of constructed raised beds
and lowered sinks that are traditional in some areas of Indonesia. The
sorjan method provides space for one or more dryland crops and a wetland
crop simultaneously.

The sorjan method is especially applicable in constantly wet or
intermittently flooded conditions. A sorjan may be constructed using
manual labor, animal help or mechanized equipment. Construction is
ordinarily labor intensive and may be an initial constraint, but the
possibility of raising high valued crops during peak demand periods can
offset the construction costs quickly.

Some of the advantages of the sorjan system are:
1. Nutritional*- the farmer can enrich his diet by raising
foods that he may not otherwise afford.

2. Income some crops may be grown during "off season"
bringing a higher market value.

3. Soil Conditioning (a) better drainage of the beds
during the wet season and (b) loose bed soil allows
roots to grow deep toward residual moisture.

At the International Rice Research Institute, several cropping
patterns were tried on the raised beds along with rice and fish
(Tilapia) in the sinks. The most profitable pattern was
tomato-onion-bush beans in consecutive order with the onion crop as the
most profitable single one. The planting of one successful high valued
crop was enough to offset the cost of sorjan construction.

Sarr Hamidou
C.N.R.A.D.A. Kaedi
B.P. 22 R. I. Mauritania

Research and Development Programs Orientation
in Mauritania

The study of horticultural crops represents a very diversified
discipline. Several species are studied at the three following levels:
1. The station level
2. The on farm with feedback element level
3. The implementation level

1. The Station:
The different requirements for experimental station trials
(equipment, location, etc.) are discussed. The discrepancy between
these requirements and the center (C.N.R.A.D.A.)'s lack of resources and
infrastructure is pointed out. A number of problems related to
potatoes, onions and tomatoes are noted and some recommendations have
been made. Mixed crops systems and irrigated crops systems have been
suggested as potential solutions to the difficulties faced in Mauritania
with respect to horticultural crops.

2. The On Farm Level:
At this level it is suggested that the results obtained from
research are to be transmitted to the farmer. The two contacts
considered are the individual producers and cooperatives. It is pointed
out that the part of the program regarding research at the station level
is completed and that the results are to be tried on farms.

3. The ImDlementation Level (real milieu)
To increase horticultural productivity two ways are considered
-improve productivity of existing crops
-expand the area under cultivation
Four major elements are discussed which are a) intensification of
production b)expansion of cultivated areas c) commercialization of
products d) provision of seeds

The report deals with Research, Development, and Liaison. These
three phases of the agricultural development process are currently going
on in Mauritania. Three elements are to be emphasized.
1. The Liaison Research Development
2. Input-output aspects of development
3. Provision of seeds and commercialization of products
The Liaison Research-Development may be sponsored by the C.N.R.A.D.A.
(The National Center of Agronomic Research and Agricultural
Development). Some developmental sectors may need special programs.
The Horticultural branch of the Center is ready to answer any questions,
can establish detailed projects regarding the Liaison
Research-Development and fully participates in the elaboration of
development projects.

Robert D. Hart
Winrock International
Morrilton, Arkansas 72110

A Microcomputer Spreadsheet Farm System Model as an
Analytical Framework for On-Farm Experimentation and
Linkage Between Research and Extension

Microcomputer spreadsheet software programs can be used to develop
farm-level budgets that tract the flow of capital, land, labor, energy,
etc. through a farm system. These farm models, representing various
types of target farms in various agroecological zones, can be used both
as an analytical framework for the design and analysis of on-farm
experiments and as dynamic information packages that can link research
and extension. The potential utility of microcomputer spreadsheet farm
models in the design and analysis of on-farm experiments is illustrated
using examples from a farming systems project in Western Kenya.

Two farm models were developed that tract the flow of feed from
various feed resources to cattle, sheep, and goat herds. Feed from
different cropping systems, fallow, fence-row, and off-farm areas are
quantified in dry matter, crude protein, and digestible energy units.
The model allows the user to change the allocation of land to the
various enterprises, the quantity and quality of crop and feed
production, the structure of the livestock herds, and the energy demand
from the livestock. The model has been used primarily as a tool for
team members to do ex ante evaluation of potential technology to be
included in on-farm experiments, but as better data becomes available,
it should be possible to also use the model in the evaluation of on-farm
experiments. The potential utility of the farm models to link research
and extension is discussed in relation to a farming systems research and
development project in the Eastern Caribbean. This project is
developing Technological Improvement Files (TIFs) that will be initiated
by research, transferred to extension, and then continuously updated by
research. It is probable that the farm models will be an important
subfile of the TIF's.

G.C. Hawtin. M.C. Saxena. T. Nordblom B. Bhardwal
ICARDA, P. 0. Box 5466 ICARDA, P.O.Box 2416
Aleppo, Syria Cairo, Egypt

M. M. Hussein A. M. Nassib
Hudeiba Research Station Field Crops Research Inst
Ed Damer, Sudan ARC. Giza, Egypt

The Nile Valley Project: A Model for Cooperation Between
International and National Programs in Research and Extension

Although oriented towards a single crop (faba beans) the
ICARDA/IFAD Nile Valley Project began with extensive literature searches
and farm-level surveys in a broad attempt to diagnose technical and
socio-economic constraints to production within the context of the
prevalent farming systems. In the five years of the Project it has
progressively embraced experimental, on-farm testing and extension
activities in several target areas in Egypt and northern Sudan. The
Project involves the part-time input of over 30 national scientists
working in multi-disciplinary teams and about 10 ICARDA scientists based
in Aleppo, Syria, are also closely associated. An important feature of
the Project has been the direct involvement of extension workers and
farmers themselves in the on-farm research.

The Nile Valley Project has been cited by several development
assistance organizations and governments as a successful model of
collaboration between an international research center and national
research programs. Not only has the Project been effective at the farm
level but has also strengthened the research capability and capacity of
the national programs. A unique strategy has been adopted for the
management and operation of the Project. Unlike most other
national/international projects, leadership and coordination at the
national level, and the execution of research and extension activities
have, as much as possible, been the responsibility of Egyptian and
Sudanese nationals. The model represents a highly cost effective
approach to research and development.

This paper focuses on the organization and administration of the
Nile Valley Project, its implementation and monitoring. Details of the
many successful research results have been described elsewhere and are
only highlighted here.

J.B.Henson. J. Noel. M. Ingle
International Program Development Office
Washington State University
Pullman, Washington

Farming Systems Project Implementation Start-up and
Replanning: Experience from the Eastern Caribbean and Sudan

Many regional and national agricultural institutions are giving
increased emphasis to projects and programs that are systems-oriented,
and that involve on-farm research from the farmer's perspective and with
the farmer's involvement. In the last 5 years substantial attention has
been given to policy and design issues of such Farming Systems Research
and Development (FSD/D) efforts. However, relatively little emphasis
has been given to the implementation requirements of FSR/D efforts.

This paper will address this "implementation gap" by examining the
implementation experience with two FSR/D projects: (1) the recently
initiated CARDI FSR/D project in the Eastern Caribbean and (2) the 4
year FSR/D project in the Western Sudan. Specifically, the
implementation start-up of the CARDI project will be compared with
implementation replanning activities in the Western Sudan. Two key
issues will be considered: (1) What difficulties and positive outcomes
were associated with the implementation approaches? and (2) What
conclusions can be drawn for the use of similar implementation
approaches in other FSR/D projects? The paper will close with an
assessment of potential implications for various actors involved in the
design-implementation of FSR/D efforts.

R. E. Hudgens
Farming Systems Agronomist and
Adaptive Research Planning Team
Provincial Coordinator
P. 0. Box 80908, Kabwe, Zambia

Subregional Issues in the Implementation of Farming Systems
Research and Extension Methodology A Case Study in Zambia

Much has been written and discussed concerning the
institutionalization of Farming Systems Research and Extension (FSR/E)
at the national level in developing countries with the division of
agricultural research efforts into commodity and on-farm adaptive
research units. Less attention has been directed toward practical
issues of FSR/E at the subregional level.

The USAID financed FSR/E project in the Central Province of Zambia,
which is in its third year of operation within the Adaptive Research
Planning Team (ARPT) structure of the Ministry of Agriculture and Water
Development (MAWD), has established successful linkages between farming
systems and commodity research teams within the Research Branch and
between farming systems researchers and extension workers at the field
level. However, in the process of applying FSR/E theory to the real
world conditions of the Central Province of Zambia several procedural
issues have arisen.

One such issue concerns the different criteria used by the Research
and Extension Branches of MAWD in zoning recommendation domains. The
Extension Branch is organized and financed according to microregional
political boundaries. In the Central Province of Zambia the structure
for technology transfer is divided into five units (districts). On the
other hand, the Maize Research Team partitions the same region into only
three recommendation domains on the basis of agroclimatic factors, while
ARPT diagnostic studies have identified six distinct farming systems
among the traditional and small scale commercial producers. Given the
inflexibility of political and agroecological divisions, it becomes the
duty of FSR/E to incorporate biological, socioeconomic, and political
considerations into a workable and compatible system for generating and
transferring new production technologies.

R. E. Hudgens Page 2

This paper discusses steps taken to instill a farming systems
perspective into the Extension Branch and to increase the capacity of
extension workers to tailor recommendations according to the
socioeconomic and agroclimatic resources of farmers in their areas. A
comparison is made of FSR/E zoning using the rapid rural appraisal
method with subsequent findings of formal surveys in three ARPT
recommendation domains. A comparative analysis of the costs and
benefits of different in-service extension training activities is also

Other issues addressed in the paper include techniques to involve
farmers and enhance farmer understanding of on-farm research, mechanisms
to encourage cooperation between FSR/E and other regional development
projects, and agronomic methodology in on-farm research, particularly in
reference to the control of non-experimental variables and treatment
comparison on the basis of yields per unit labor invested. Although
this paper deals with problems encountered in the implementation of
FSR/E methodology at a subregional level In a specific country, the
lessons learned are applicable on a much wider basis throughout the
Third World.

Ronald Jaubert. Mahmoud Oglah
Farming Systems Program, ICARDA
P. 0. Box 5466
Aleppo, Syria

The Semi-Arid Areas of Syria: Farming Systems in Decline

The paper presents a case study focusing on the semi-arid
cultivated areas of Syria. These areas raise some challenging problems
for the country's agricultural future. Previous studies by the FSP have
shown that the study areas have a low productivity, a substantial
out-flow of labor and have not contributed, in the last 15 or 20 years,
to the increase in agricultural production at the national level.

A complementary diagnostic study, using a historical approach,
showed that the study areas are undergoing rapid agro-ecological
degradation. For example, barley yields have fallen by 50% or more in
the last 20 years. Several factors underly the on-going degradation

Agriculture throughout the study areas has become a "mining" activity.
In most cases no inputs are made to the intensively cropped areas and
uncultivated lands are subjected to heavy and uncontrolled grazing. The
fall in productivity results from the failure to maintain renewable

The adoption by farmers of short term "mining" practices is related to
several factors such as land tenure, population pressures, and market
forces. Furthermore, agriculture is becoming a secondary source of
income for many rural families. Finally, the study areas do not have
high priority in national development policies.

The current situation raises several methodological and
implementation issues:

The study area requires a strategy combining technical changes
and socio-economic measures.

The problem does not affect a specific group of farmers but an
area as a whole.

There are apparent incompatibilities between farmers' short term
strategies and the national community's interest.

Technical changes will likely have to be based on low-input

Ronald Jaubert. Mahmoud Onlah Page 2

A sub-area in which ICARDA is currently testing several technical
innovations was selected in order to refine our diagnosis and to
evaluate the potential for arresting degradation. Out of 20 villages,
studied in a preliminary survey, a group of 4 was selected as subjects
of intensive farming systems research. This research focuses on the
management of the resource base. The study, initiated in 1983, includes
several disciplines: livestock, agronomy, range management, soils and
economics. The research is based on the monitoring of 15 farms and
on-farm trials. The study indicates several areas where improvements in
management practices can be made, but these are often closely
interdependent. This is the case, for example, for changes in feed
practices, range management and forage production, which raises problems
with regard to the design and implementation of future on-farm trials.

Sam H. Johnson. John B. Claar
Department of Agricultural Economics
305 Mumford Hall
1301 West Gregory Drive
Urbana, IL 61801

Farming Systems Research: Necessary But Not
Sufficient for Agricultural Development

For almost all of the less developed countries (LDC's) increased
agricultural production is both economically and politically important.
This is particularly true for Africa where high population growth rates
and stagnant agricultural production has resulted in net declines in per
capital food output. Crucial to the improvement of agriculture is a
production research and extension system. Yet, primarily due to
historical factors both research and extension are among the weakest
organizations in most LDC's. Dissatisfaction with the ability of these
traditional research organizations to solve problems of limited resource
farmers has led to the development of more holistic research
methodologies. Such approaches, popularly known as farming systems
research (FSR), have grown to focus on strengthened linkages between
farmers and researchers and to emphasize research under actual farm
conditions. However, in spite of the fact that research and extension
are simply different parts of a single continuum, extension has yet to
receive the same focus, and revitalization, that has occurred in
countries that have implemented successful FSR programs.

The purpose of this paper is to identify and emphasize the
interconnection between research and extension and to detail the
opportunities that are being created for extension by FSR approaches to
research. It is urgent the authors point out for extension to modify
its historical mission, organization, staffing and training approach in
order to exploit opportunities offered by a farming systems perspective.
In particular, as effective FSR programs result in shifts of feedback
mechanisms along the research-extension continuum, it is necessary for
extension to co-evolve and change as research changes. Changes in
traditional research programs in LDC's are necessary if agricultural
production is to increase, but these changes in isolation are not
sufficient; it is also necessary that the two bureaucracies change in
unison in a co-evolutionary process in order for research and extension
to take advantage of the potential for dynamic agricultural development
provided by FSR. Examples from Zambia are used to illustrate this
process and to show how, in one country, top administrators are using
FSR/E to bring about an effective co-evolutionary change in both
research and extension.

Sam H. Johnson. III. John B. Claar
Department of Agricultural Economics
University of Illinois
305 Mumford Hall
1301 West Gregory
Champaign-Urbana, Illinois

FSR/E: Shifting the Intersection of
Research and Extension

The main objective of this paper is to identify the changes that
extension must make in order to take advantage of the opportunities that
are created by adoption of farming systems approaches to research. In
particular, the paper focuses on the point of intersection between
research and extension and the necessity to shift this point as a
farming systems perspective is adopted. As research adopts FSR and
consequently changes its methodological approaches, extension must
co-evolve and change also. If this does not happen it is unlikely that
a change in research such as a shift to FSR or a change in extension
such as adoption of the Train and Visit (T&V) System will be
particularly successful in its long-term impact on agricultural

It is urgent for extension to modify its historical mission,
organization, staffing and training approach in order to exploit
opportunities created by FSR. As effective FSR progress result in
shifts in feedback mechanism along the research-extension continuum it
is necessary for research and extension to make the necessary
bureaucratic changes required to facilitate these feedback shifts. In
the paper these points are illustrated and then examples from Zambia are
selected to emphasize various aspects of the process.

Berl Koch
Francistown, Botswana

Farming Systems Approach to
Animal Husbandry Problems in Botswana

The Agricultural Technology Improvement Project (ATIP) Francistown
team includes two economists, two agronomists and two animal scientists.
At least two other farming systems projects in Botswana, the Integrated
Farming Pilot Project (IFPP) in the Southern Region and the Evaluation
of Farming Systems and Agricultural Implements Project (EFSAIP) in the
Gaborone area have animal husbandry components. However, the ATIP team
is proceeding under a somewhat different format than either IFPP of

Experiment station research (Department of Agricultural Research -
DAR) has produced and published a large "body of knowledge" in Botswana
concerning the feeding, care, health and use of farm animals. The
Department of Agricultural Field Services (DAFS) has developed and is
recommending various programs and practices based on that research. By
following recommended programs the farmer should be able to increase his
cash income and improve his way of life. However, many of those
recommended programs and practices have been very poorly accepted by the
farmers with small herds and flocks.

One of the practices recommended by DAFS (supplemental mineral
feeding) was chosen by animal husbandry team members for further study.
Supplemental mineral feeding should be economically and socially
acceptable to every farmer producing animals. It requires a very small
monetary outlay. It does not require a large change in management or
husbandry. It has been recommended to farmers for several years.
Government'is subsidizing cost of both bonemeal and salt to encourage
the practice of feeding mineral-mix. Yet less than 10% of the farmers
in Central Region and less than 5% of the farmers in Francistown Region
feed bonemeal and salt to their animals according to recent government

Berl Koch page 2

Early on, ATIP team members decided that, where possible, animal
studies would utilize the same farmers as economic and agronomic
studies. All team members were involved in the selection of villages
and farmers. The team was mandated to work in Tutume district. Three
villages, Matobo, Marapong and Mathangwane, in that district, were
selected for the ATIP project and ten farmers were selected in each
village to participate in the Multiple Visit Survey (M.V.S.). Farmers
were selected to represent a wide range of resource endowments and
agricultural practices. Most of the farmers own animals and/or poultry.
The selection procedure will be described in the paper.

A mixture of 25% salt and 75% dicalcium phosphate (bonemeal is
seldom available in Tutume district) was prepared and packaged in small
quantities (500 grams or less). This is supplied to M.V.S. farmers who
agree to follow feeding directions and monitor results. A livestock
practices survey has been prepared and presented to those same farmers.
It is being summarized and results will be reported in the paper.

Monitoring results is a problem. Most farmers have only a few
animals and very poor holding or handling facilities. Also, they expect
instantaneous and spectacular visible changes in their animals whenever
they follow a recommended husbandry practice. Technicians are
attempting to record reproductive rates, survival rates of young
animals, dry-season survival of mature animals and visual condition of
animals. Preliminary results will be reported in the paper.

On most small farms efficient utilization of draft power'appears to
be reduced by poorly-fitted ox yokes and donkey harnesses. Plows are
often poorly maintained. A plow-condition survey has been completed on
the MVS farms. Results are being summarized and will be reported in the

M. A. LePladieur
34032 Montpellier Cedex

The Cameroun Project

1. On Cameroun
The two time periods of the IRAT-GERDAT program

Research Objectives
analyse peasants production systems in Central South Cameroun
model the forms of their economic decision
integrate the conclusions in order to propose a new development
project for the region.

Organization of the Program
The 5 different stages of the research are:
a. The analysis of peasants' production systems in Cameroun has
been achieved over the period 1975-1978. On the basis of earlier works
survey networks have been set up for the analysis of peasants' behavior
in its agronomic, economic and sociological aspects.
b. The elaboration of a first cognitive model (1978): The surveys
undertaken between 1975-1978 allowed the elaboration of hypotheses
regarding the systemic functioning of the peasants' agro-economic
c. The elaboration of a second cognitive and simulation model
(1981): At this stage, the previous model is being simplified in order
to increase the number of trials on different productive units.
Important elements have been kept whereas minor details have been
d. The results of these works have then become the basis for the
elaboration of a new development project.
e. .The writing and synthesis of these acquisitions are currently
underway and must be published by the end of 1984.

Several Publications
Two 'data banks' on peasants in the Central South Cameroun.
Two pedagogical cases: one on survey methodology, the other
on modeling
A development project.

2. On Methodology: System Approach and Elaboration of Models

The research program has three objectives:
Reinforce a multidisciplinary approach
Modernize multidisciplinary survey methodologies
-Select the model types most adapted to a multidisciplinary
approach focusing on regions in developing countries.

M. A. LePladieur page 2

The MultidisciDlinarv System Approach
The specialists associated with this approach were all tropical
with experience in geography, pedology, agronomy, animal sciences,

The New Methodologies of MultidisciDlinarv Surveys
The new methodologies must take into consideration the following
Voluntary multidisciplinary diagnostic
Limited logistics
Lack of files except the topographical map
Partial treatments of obtained data.

Ben W. Lindsav
Somalia Extension Project
Utah State University
UMC 49
Logan, UT 84322

A Farming Systems Approach to Extension in Somalia

One of our greatest successes in Somalia has been to create an
objectivity of the Field Extension Agents in keeping farm records for
decision making purposes. Until dependable records are kept, Farming
Systems and Farm Management as a whole are very limited. Keeping
records for practical purposes had never before been taught to the
Extension Workers of this East African country. One of the challenging
tasks was to convince college trained Field Extension Agents that
records were not being kept for some-government official, but for their
own use while working with the farmers.

One of the great needs in Third World Countries is reliable farm
data and research of what is really happening and what could happen with
agriculture in these countries. Agriculture research is a must unless
data can be accumulated from areas of like circumstances and transferred
to local conditions. Often the old traditional seed or method of
planting is more secure than introduced new ideas without any

Extension Workers, well prepared scholastically, are ineffective
without back up data from agriculture research to support new ideas.
Most of the farms were small, producing mainly their necessary food.
They felt they could not afford to gamble on the thinking of people they
hardly knew. Some practices could be" introduced without taking a gamble
and with a minimum of cost. Some of these practices were:

A. Seed germination for quality seed.
B. Number of good seeds per hill.
C. Row planting.
D. Storage.

We tried to establish a system of gathering basic data such as: the
size of a field, what a quintal of grain is worth to the producer, etc.
Measuring tapes or survey equipment had seldom been used. Scales or
weighing equipment were unheard of for farming purposes, so how could
Field Agents determine what an improved seed or cultural method would
accomplish when they didn't have measuring tools to establish a known
size or quantity?

Ben W. Lindsay page 2

We started a system of gathering market prices of the five most
important grain crops. The agricultural leaders, Extension Workers and
more progressive farmers were excited to see how the prices fluctuate
from one village to another and from one season to another.

To get better input-output data a concentrated effort was extended
to selected farms in the Mareeri Village along the Shebelli River. We
found the following ideas to be very helpful with the FSR&D program we
were initiating:

A. Select representative type farms of the area.
B. Prepare a history of how and when practices had been
performed on that farm for the past seasons.
C. Decide on what comparisons would be made and what would be
learned if the demonstration went according to plan.
D. Fill out a questionairre for each farmer so data collected
in the future can be more readily analyzed and compared.
E. Involve recognized research personnel so Extension and
Research are moving together in making recommendations
to the farmers.
F. Involve the Village Chief and his council so what is
learned will be readily accepted by community leaders.

Mahlon Lona. Mike Roth
Purdue University
Lafayette, Indiana

Crop Production Risk Perceptions and Risk Management

Crop production risk is a major factor in the lives of all farmers.
But some farmers have a greater variety of risk management tools at
their disposal than do others. In the United States crop failure can
create a great financial burden, but this is reduced by crop insurance
and other risk-spreading mechanisms available to farmers. In
Burkine-Fasso (Upper Volta) however, crop failure can be
life-threatening. To make matters worse, few risk spreading mechanisms
are available to farmers. Principal among these are the extended family
and the maintenance of sheep and goats to sell during bad years.

Research conducted in Burkine-Fasso by the
designed to describe the farmer's risk environment
methods of dealing with risk. This report explains
of that research. It focuses on the farmer's risk
effects on his cropping patterns and the use of
risk-spreading mechanism.

Purdue FSR team was
and to analyze his
the initial findings
perceptions, their
small livestock as a

Stephen P. Malvestuto Gregory M. Sullivan
Dept of Fisheries and Department of Agricultural
Allied Aquacultural Economics and Rural Sociology
Auburn University Auburn University
Auburn, AL 368949-4201 Auburn, AL 368949-4201

A Farming Systems Approach to Management
of the Niger River System

Resource management of river systems has been difficult to obtain,
yet these are important biological systems which are critical to the
economies of many developing countries. River systems experience
problems similar to the "tradegy of the commons" with unlimited access
to the resource with resultant overexploitation. For example in Niger,
traditional fishing management plans have not dealt adequately with the
complex problem of optimizing a multiple use resource. Thus, a farming
systems approach is being used to collect information on an artisinal
fishery for the design and implementation of extension-management
programs that will effectively impact on the river fishery for this

The field study in Niger includes both a traditional method of data
collection by conducting a river catch assessment survey combined with a
farming systems approach for collection of socioeconomic data for a
holistic analysis in designing management plans. A conceptual model has
been developed that allows the researchers to identify and measure key
variables of the river system.

Collaboration between the Government's Extension Office of Lands
and Water and three donor agencies: FAO, Peace Corps/Action and USAID,
comprise a multi-donor effort in this project. Field research is being
conducted by Peace Corps volunteers with their Nigerienne counterparts.
Problems encountered with collecting information will be discussed
especially with regard to the extreme hydrological phases of the river.

A companion effort is being undertaken to collect information on
socioeconomic factors that influence fishing effort on the resource and
utilization of the fish harvested. Empirical data is being collected
from three sources: fish landings, households and the markets.
Evaluation of these methods of data collection will be useful on how to
achieve a holistic approach to management of a riverine system.

Peace Corps volunteers with their counterparts are being used as
extension agents to introduce appropriate technologies and management
plans for the resource. A careful appraisal of any proposed changes is
being done knowing that fisher households are extremely dependent on
fish for both food and cash, especially during the long dry periods when
food becomes critical. An immediate problem are the enormous fish
losses which occur during processing, storage and distribution of the
fish. Extension efforts are being made to correct these problems
insuring that recommendations are compatible with available resources
and existing customs.

Harold J. McArthur. Jr.
University of Hawaii
Honolulu, Hawaii

Application of the FSR&D Approach to Domestic Agriculture:
Some Lessons and Questions From Hawaii

The College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources became
interested in the farming systems approach to agricultural development
four years ago. Although FSR&D emerged largely as a result of
experience in the developing nations of Asia and Latin America, our
initial interest was in its possible local application.

Because of a range of similarities between the basic operating
conditions and constraints of small farmers in Hawaii and those in many
parts of rural Asia, we felt the FSR&D approach might have relevance to
domestic agriculture. The majority of Hawaii's small farmers, like
those in many parts of the tropics, farm marginal lands not suitable for
plantation use. Many of them rent the land they cultivate. They are
dependent on costly imported equipment and agricultural inputs. Most
have little control over market conditions and find themselves in
competition with foreign and Mainland producers.

As part of our plan to assess the applicability of FSR&D in Hawaii,
a group of faculty from 11 disciplines and extension conducted intensive
sondeos, or rapid reconnaissance surveys, in two local farming

Key findings that will be discussed in terms of their implications
for the use of FSR&D in Hawaii include the following:
1. Farmer Participation
This exercise generated a rich body of farmer-based
knowledge that demonstrated the non-applicability of most of
the recommendations made by agricultural researchers.

2. Recommendation Domains
The most important finding was the lack of truly homogeneous
farming communities. This raises fundamental questions
about the local application of FSR&D.

Harold J. McArthur. Jr. Page 2

Most problems identified by farmers were not agricultural in
nature. The real need is for work in the area of farming
systems infrastructure and policy (FSIP), rather than on
improving local agricultural systems.

4. Interdisciplinary Coordination
It is difficult to maintain the desired level of
interdisciplinary interaction over a long period of time.
While individual faculty members were working and living in
the field they functioned well as a team. Weekly meetings
on campus, however, were not sufficient to sustain the same
level of interdisciplinary synergy.

5. Institutionalization
The major dilemma faced was that senior decision makers
wanted to see demonstrated results, that could be measured
in terms of increased production and income generation
potential, before committing themselves to major policy and
organizational changes necessary for the
institutionalization of FSR&D within the land grant and
state agricultural research and delivery system.

Although this discussion is focused on the domestic application of
farming systems, increasing evidence suggests that projects in
developing countries are encountering similar constraints.

Della E. McMillan
Center for African Studies
University of Florida
Gainesville, FL 32611

The Role of Longitudinal Case Studies in Evaluation Research

A comparison of a followup study with baseline research on a land
settlement scheme reinforces the need to integrate longitudinal studies
focusing on smaller data sets within national research programs. The
project, the Volta Valley Authority (Amenagement des Vallees des Volta
or AVV) is the Upper Volta government agency in charge of the settlement
and development of Upper Volta's land in the Onchocerciasis Control
Program (OCP). The agency has attempted a capital intensive program of
planned settlement and agricultural extension in the disease control

The research on which the case is based was conducted in two
periods: (1) a two-year baseline studythat looked at the economic and
social consequences of the AVV for a single group of settlers from the
same home village; and (2) a three month followup of the same group of
settlers. The analysis focuses on global changes and changes in the
intrahousehold organization of the settlers' crop and animal production,
marketing and income. The methodological problems of incorporating this
type of information into traditional evaluation research are addressed
through a comparison of the village studies with: (1) the results of the
AVV Statistical Service's farm monitoring program (1979 sample=313
households); and (2) the project records that the extension workers keep
on each family.

David C. Mevers
Rural Development Institute
Cuttington University College
P. 0. Box 277
Monrovia, Liberia

The Farmer Involvement Program: A Multidisciplinary Approach
to the Teaching of Agriculture at the Rural Development Institute
Bong County, Liberia

The Rural Development Institute (RDI) in Bong County, Liberia
offers a two-year Associate Degree in General Agriculture. Graduates
serve as mid-level managers in national extension programs, teach
vocational agriculture in high schools or work in the private
agricultural sector.

The Farmer Involvement Program (F.I.P), a Near East
Foundation/USAID funded program added a new component of agricultural
training to the Rural Development Institute. The implementation of the
F. I. P. called for an integration of the various disciplines offered at
the RDI: animal science, plant science, soil science and agricultural

The objectives of the F.I.P. are to provide on-farm practical
agricultural training to RDI students and also to improve the welfare of
local farmers by demonstrating first hand, improved methods of crop and
animal production.

Farmers identified as participants in the Program were typically
educated or semi-education with some formal training in agriculture.
Most were familiar with the use of agricultural chemicals and acquainted
with modern methods of agricultural production. Capital is the limiting
factor for this class of farmers.

A multidisciplinary team consisting of Instructors and Technical
Assistants coordinated and integrated the student practical exercises to
be conducted on-farm. The on-farm practical provided a more realistic
agricultural experience for the RDI student as opposed to the somewhat
artificial setting that many of the on-campus practical tended to have.

Students experienced complete cycles of crop and animal production
on-farm and became familiar with the constraints the farmer faced in
completing the cycle. The farmer's participation in the Program
increased his cash income and generated agricultural interest within his

R. A. Morris
International Rice Research Institute
P. 0. Box 933
Manila, Philippines

A Decade of On-Farm Research in Lowland
Rice-based Farming Systems: Some Lessons

When implemented with linkages to conventional agricultural
research programs, on-farm cropping systems research complements
experiment station research. Technologies tested in on-farm cropping
systems research projects are those perceived as having a potential to
increase the productivity of a farming system, but which fit within
physical, biotic, and socioeconomic limits.

In tropical Asia, rice is central to most farming systems because
it is well adapted. Moreover, governments and households place high
priority on rice production. Although rice cultivation remains central
to farming systems, greater frequency of harvests of rice and other
crops is regarded as an important strategy to increase food production
because land for agricultural expansion is limited while population is
increasing. Increased cropping intensity is also regarded as a means to
increase rural incomes by increasing opportunities for gainful

Among rural households, those farming rainfed fields commonly have
low incomes and are most exposed to weather and market fluctuations.
Experience with on-farm research methods and modern agricultural
technology in rainfed rice farming systems has yielded lessons. The
technical aspects of opportunities and constraints to increased harvest
frequency under lowland rainfed conditions are discussed.
Methodological and organizational matters are also discussed. Among
these are relationships with research station-oriented scientists who
are responsible for generating appropriate new technology, with
extension and development agent officials and with community leadership.
Because of their importance to interpretations and conclusions, the
nature of research arrangements with farmers is discussed.

Angela Neilan. John S. Caldwell. Mary Hill Rojas. Miew Lena Mark-Teo
Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University
Blacksburg, VA

Net Nutritional Benefit:
A Method of Marginal Analysis
of the Nutritional Impact of Agricultural Interventions

Most Farming Systems projects, and most agricultural extension
programs, usually share a common implicit assumption: increase farm
production and income and the household, including nutrition, will take
care of itself. Home economists, however, recognize that increased farm
income does not always lead to improved family nutrition and challenge
this assumption.

There are two ways to consider nutrition in Farming Systems. The
first way is to determine nutritional inadequacies in the diagnostic
stage and let these guide the design of an intervention. This is
nutrition-guided intervention. The other way is to choose an
intervention on the basis of its potential for increasing farm income,
but consider nutritional impact as an additional evaluative measure.

In either case, food consumption surveys have traditionally been
used, but these are usually too expensive, time-consuming, and complex
for most Farming Systems projects. Food consumption surveys are
analogous to whole-farm cash flow records and economic analysis, whereas
Farming Systems projects more frequently employ enterprise records and
marginal analysis only for the intervention being tested. This paper
proposes an analogous marginal analysis of nutritional benefit. The
analysis only requires determination of which foods are displaced and
which foods are added as a result of the agricultural intervention being
tested. An example is given from Southwest Virginia in which broccoli
was substituted for another "green" in the diet, green beans. The
percentage of change between the old and new diets are calculated for
key nutrients in terms of Recommended Daily Allowances for an at-risk
target group, women with off-farm employment.

Henry B. Obeng
Visiting Scientist
Department of Agronomy
Iowa State University
Ames, Iowa 50011

A Case Study of a Successful Soil Management,
Research and Extension Project in Ghana

1. Sufficient research data exists to substantially increase agricultural
production in Ghana.
2. Improved practices recommended by agricultural scientists are not widely
implemented because of ineffective extension services.
3. Research data do not, therefore get to the small-scale farmers who need
them most because of (i) the absence of strategically located research fields
(farms) and (ii) the inability of the extension services to attract adequate
professional and technical personnel and make necessary transport available
for them to reach as many small-scale farmers as possible.

1. Establish research and extension farms within each of the five
agro-ecological zones of the country [high rain (very humid) forest;
semi-deciduous rain (humid) forest; forest-savannah transitional; coastal
(short grass) savannah and interior (subhumid wooded) savannah zones (Figure
2. Conduct field trials on new crops with export possibilities.
3. Extend research data directly to small-scale farmers via "open days" and
simplified handouts.

1. A 36-hectare farm site representative of the soils of the zone was
2. A detailed soil survey of the farm-site was conducted and relief and
drainage, soil, vegetation and land-use, and soil-crop suitability maps were
compiled, each at a scale of 1:6,650.
3. The farm-site was cleared of vegetation prior to the cultivation of crops
using chainsaws and cutlasses instead of bulldozers in order to avoid loss of
the organic topsoil and exposure of the soils to erosion.
4. Crops were then planted in accordance with soil suitability and
recommended cultural practices.
5. The soil-crop relationship is as shown in Figure 2.

1. Timing The first in the series was organized in 1978, three years after
the start of the farm and then every year thereafter.
2. Strategy In order to attract as many farmers as possible to attend the
"Open Days" effective contacts were made with influencial personalities in the
society who accepted invitations to play key roles as follows:
i) The Asantehene the well-respected, powerful and very
popular Traditional Head of the Ashantis as chairman and to
deliver the closing remarks.

Henry B. Obeng page 2

i) The Regional Commissioner the Political Head of the
Ashanti Region to deliver a welcome address in order to
convince the farmers that the program had the blessings of
the government.
iii)The Regional Chief farmer who had some days earlier
toured the farm to deliver a speech to the farmers about
the advantages in adopting the improved practices on their
iv) The contacts with the aforementioned three influencial
personalities were so effective that farmers within the
Ashanti Region attended the "Open Days" in great numbers.

1.. In response to a unanimous request from the farmers, "Special
Project Soil Surveys" were organized free of charge for small-scale
farmers to offer direct advice on:
i) the suitability of the soils of their respective farms
for climatically adapted crops and
ii) the institution of improved practices in order to
substantially increase crop yields.
2. The project was so successful that the Asantehene together with a
considerable number of both Paramount and Divisional "Chiefs" under him,
also requested assistance in establishing modern farms for their various
"stools" and for themselves.

R. K. Palis
Cropping Systems Agronomist
IRRI/Burma Research Project
ARI Yezin
Pyinmana, Burma

Rice-Based Farming Systems Research With Focus
on South Asia Condition

The conduct of on-farm rice-based cropping pattern trials under
farmer-cooperators management, utilizing their individual resources, is
considered the most effective and practical way of developing and
disseminating farming systems technology to farmers who become
researchers partners in this exercise. The cropping sequences are
patterned upon the arrival and departure of monsoon with rice as the
monsoon crop. The trials are usually superimposed with the test of few
outstanding varieties of other crops and component technology to
cropping patterns, pre-tested at experimental stations. Outstanding
cropping patterns verified under these trials are further screened in
multilocation testing and, later, at pilot production program before
finally included in the production program.

These pattern trials are backed up by experiment-station researches
like intensive cropping variety trials of crops sown before or after
monsoon rice, crop establishment studies for cropping systems, the use
of animal as power source as well as supplier of meat and milk, and
development of simple farm implements appropriate in rice-based farming
systems. Results of these studies will be discussed in relation to
overall rice-based farming systems program with focus in South Asia

S. Partohardjono
Central Research Institute for Food Crops
Jalan Merdeka 99
Bogor, Indonesia

Technological Innovations and Impact of Cropping
Systems Research in Different Sites in Indonesia

The cropping/farming systems research approach which is widely used
in Indonesia is discussed. On farm research was implemented by an
interdisciplinary team in carefully selected target areas. Thorough
descriptions of the target areas were made and the research activities
phased accordingly. Technological innovations were evaluated through
research in the different sites. These technologies were systematically
added to existing cropping patterns and tested. The cropping patterns
tested included the existing and usually two or three introduced
patterns that required increasing levels of inputs. Direct and indirect
impacts of new technology on the overall farming practices are also
discussed in terms of labor and input use, productivity, income and

K. B. Paul Donald Voth
Lincoln University University of Arkansas
Jefferson City, MO 65102 Fayetteville, AK 72701

Designing a FSR/E Project in Rwanda
The Country, Its People, and Problems

As part of a six-member design team, the authors spent 5 weeks in
the small East African country of Rwanda, under a US-AID contract
awarded to a consortium of five universities with University of Arkansas
serving as the lead institution. About the size of the state of
Maryland, this country has a population of 5.5 million, and it is the
most densely populated country in Africa. Rwanda is characterized by a
series of sharply defined hills with steep slopes and marshy plains in
between. It has a year-round moderate temperature and well-distributed
rainfall. It is truly a very beautiful country.

Rwanda is one of the poorest nations in the world. Over 95% of the
population live in rural areas, mainly engaged in subsistence
agriculture. A typical farm family operates a complex farming system on
a mere 1.15 ha of land. Main food crops grown are beans, banana,
sorghum, maize, sweet potato, Irish potato, cassava, peas and colocase.
Coffee is the country's most important export crop. Through a series of
slides, the authors will provide some background information on Rwanda.

The primary objective was to design a five-year development project
for Rwanda to improve its agricultural productivity through a farming
systems approach, with special emphasis on the production of food crops.
The project goals included improving the capability of the Rwandan
Institute of Agricultural Sciences to perform adaptive agricultural
research; improving the ability of the Extension Service of the Rwandan
Ministry of Agriculture to work with farmers and disseminate improved,
appropriate agricultural technology; improving linkages between these
two key agricultural institutions; and improving linkages between the
technical and administrative/political services that affect agricultural
development and social ecology at the local level. Establishment of
national and international networks that support both the project itself
and Farming Systems Research/Extension in general was another major
objective. The authors will highlight their project design experiences
and discuss some of the preimplementation difficulties.

Federico Poev
Agricultural Development Consultants, Inc.
Coral Gables, Florida

Conducting On-farm Research by Extensionists: An Approach
to Effective Transfer of Technology

The lack of effective communication between the research and
extension institutions in developing countries is seldom the most
important limitation for the successful transfer of technology to small
farmers. Attempts to integrate efforts through high level commissions
and institutional agreements commonly fail to achieve the objective.

Common causes for the lack of integration between research and
extension include the administrative and some times institutional
separation, their difference in personnel and budget magnitudes which
usually favors extension and the higher professional status which
generally favors research.

Under the farming system approach to research this separation tends
to aggravate; it is often times taken as an invasion to the
extensionists realm because of the farmers participation and
misunderstanding of the validation process interpreted as a
demonstration activity.

To overcome these obstacles an active involvement of extension in
the later stages of on-farm research can eliminate or reduce many of the
friction elements with research. By sharing the fatherhood of the
alternatives to recommend, a positive attitude of the extension unit
towards the farming system approach should contribute to a more
effective transfer of technology.

The following aspects need to be considered: extension has to
identify or train a selected number of extensionists that would team up
with a lesser number of research specialists to work in specific regions
in the validation phase of research. A transfer plot design to be
conducted by farmers should be implemented for eventual promotion by the
main force of extensionists. Under their management research then
relinquishes its recommendation decision to a joint research-extension

Federico Poev Page 2

An experience in Paraguary where the extension service is
conducting adaptive research illustrates elements of the suggested

An Aid financed extension project called PTPA (Proyecto de
Transferencia para Pequen "os Agricultores) was conceived through a
farming systems approach that included a team of multidisciplinary
specialists assigned to each of 8 selected regions that was to identify
researchable problems and implement its realization with the farmer's
participation. The concept clashed with the traditional independent
criterion between the research and extension departments increasing the
already tense relationship of those departments. The concept was
eventually implemented after accepting recommendations of an evaluation
systems with participation from research and extension personnel in both
events. Also a farming systems specialist, who participated in the
applied course, remained as a full time consultant in the project. This
interaction allowed for a clear definition of the adaptive research to
be conducted by the extension team of specialists. Research staff
involvement is limited to their participation in the sondeo practice and
in the technical recommendation working sessions of the region's
specialists' team. Non-adaptive research coming from the working
sessions are referred to the corresponding research program.

The modified approach began in February 1984. As of May 1984,
detailed adaptive research work plans, including their budgeting, had
been elaborated for the eight regions after their corresponding
interdisciplinary sondeo. The plan calls for a total of 160 on-farm
trials to be distributed on a pilot area in each region.

The sondeos identified common researchable projects like maize
experimental varieties that resulted in a common design for all regions.
Many more specialized research projects were defined for the needs of
each region, including livestock and household activities.

M. Price, V. Balasubramanian
B. P. 629, Kigali, Rwanda

A Case Study of the Rwanda Farming Systems Research Project

The Bugesera Gisaka-Migongo (BGM) region, situated in the
southeastern part of Rwanda, is characterized by semiarid climate and
poor soils. To improve the food production potential/capability of this
newly developed and inhabited region, the Institute of Agronomic
Sciences of Rwanda (ISAR) and the International Institute of Tropical
Agriculture (IITA), Nigeria started a FSR program in 1983. This program
forms a component of the BGM Phase II Agricultural Development Project
and is financially supported by the International Development
Association (IDA) and the Government of Rwanda.

The FSR program aims to identify the food production constraints of
local farming systems (FS), develop appropriate technologies to overcome
them, and test them under farmers' conditions so as to promote their
successful adoption. For the purpose of implementation, the FSR program
consists of five categories:
1. Surveys
2. Station research
3. On-farm adaptive research
4. Diffusion
5. Training
This paper discusses in detail the methodology adopted by the Rwandan
FSR team for each of the stages, pointing out the problems encountered
during implementation.

The constraints identified through surveys are related to (a) farm
family (b) rural infrastructure and supply of inputs, (c) crop
production and (d) livestock production. The problems related to rural
infrastructure and supply of inputs should be addressed from the
national perspective. Two essential research strategies pursued in the
FSR Project to alleviate the technical constraints are:
1. Development of appropriate crops/varieties with
high yield potential and resistance to drought,
diseases and insects, and adaptable to poor soils; and
2. Development of multipurpose, low-input systems to
increase the production of food, fodder, fuelwood and
construction wood as well as to restore and maintain
soil fertility.
All the multipurpose systems under investigation have been mentioned but
only one system is described in detail as an example. Obviously the
low-input systems under investigation are labor-intensive, but the
trade-off of labor for the expensive purchased/imported inputs is worth
considering in resource-poor countries like Rwanda. These systems are
sustainable for long term with locally available resources, economically
viable, if properly managed, and ecologically stable.

Chandra K. Reddv. Issaka Mahamane, Scott Swinton
Institute National de Recherches Agronomiques du Niger
Purdue University
Lafayette, Indiana 47907

Agronomic Verification of Agricultural Recommendation
Domains in South-Central Niger

Three useful agricultural recommendation domains: a) Compact soils,
b) sand dune soils, c) sandy valley soils, are identified by 1982 survey
of 348 farms in Madarounfa Arrondissement in South-Central Niger. To
verify these recommendation domains, several soils and agronomic
studies have been initiated in 1984. Soils studies include structure,
texture, water infiltration rate, water holding capacity and nutrient
status. Agronomy studies include adaptability of different cropping
systems in the three recommendation domains. Preliminary results of
these studies will be reported.

Dianne Rocheleau
Nairobi, Kenya

Criteria for Re-Appraisal and Re-Design: Within-Household
and Between-Household Aspects of Farming Systems Research and
Extension in Three Kenyan Agroforestry Projects

Three distinct agroforestry -projects in Kenya have adopted a
farming systems approach in combination with community level
interventions. Implementation of these projects has required the
development of feedback mechanisms not inherent in the original research

Farm trials have raised the issue of further involvement of clients
(as individuals and in groups) in the design and planning of research.
Implementation has also forced a clearer definition of client and
participant groups and resulted in development of intra-household and
community level monitoring and evaluation criteria. The inclusion of
women-as-clients in all three projects has provided an opportunity to
explore the kinds of adaptations required in technology and in
research/extension methodology to better serve their interests. In the
particular cases under study women (as compared to men) are more
involved in groups (labor exchange and marketing) and make greater use
of off-farm and boundary lands to meet on-farm needs. Monitoring,
evaluation and re-design criteria have been adjusted to account for
project effects on farm women's domain, including their individual and
communal use of off-farm lands.

The scope of research has also expanded to include alternative
extension approaches to integrate intra-household and community
constraints and opportunities related to farming systems innovations.

Mike Roth
Purdue University
Lafayette, Indiana

A Comparative Analysis of Two Representative Farm
Systems in Upper Volta as it Pertains to Evaluation
of New Technological Innovations

The paper will present a comparative study of two representative
farming systems in Upper Volta. One farming system is representative of
the central Mossi plateau region, an area characterized by higher
population densities, relative land scarcity and poor and declining
levels of soil fertility. The other farming system is representative of
agriculture in the more eastern part of the country, an area in which
population pressures are less extreme, land more abundant and
agricultural productivity higher than that of the Mossi plateau.

A representative farm analysis is developed for each region using
data collected by farming systems projects in Upper Volta. The
methodology will be used to evaluate the impact of donkey and oxen
traction on the farming system as well as the impact of other
technological innovations being identified by in-country research
institutions. In particular, the impact of new technologies such as
fertilizer and/or tied-ridging and/or animal traction will be evaluated.
The intent is to use the methodology to evaluate the likelihood of farmer
adoption of new technology to facilitate the research and extension
efforts. The research is also intended to aid policy makers with
evaluating the impact of agricultural policy; the effect of a fertilizer
subsidy, agricultural price controls, etc. on the farming system.

Nicanor M. Roxas. Edwin C. Price
P. 0. Box 933
Manila, Philippines

On Developing Upland Rice-Based Technologies in
Shifting Cultivation System of Sierra Madre, Philippines

A farming systems research (FSR) project has been initiated to
explore the potential of developing alternative agricultural
technologies in a shifting cultivation-based production system of Sierra
Madre. The target area (watershed) is quite diverse and heterogenous in
terms of the environment and farmers' use of resources over time.

This paper outlines the research approaches undertaken, with
emphasis on:
(i) Developing farming system model based on empirical
data through monitoring activities, i.e. farm-
household record keeping study and
(ii) On-farm research in the design, test and evaluation
of upland rice-based cropping patterns through
cooperative activities between farmers and researchers.

Analytical techniques are proposed to describe and quantify
variables that can explain the interrelationships among the different
components of the farming system. On the other hand, on-farm testing of
technologies is carried out with emphasis on research activities that
can help the highland farmers.

.Partial results of the study reveal that farmers are actively
engaged in kaingin (swidden farming) and in cash-generating activities
from secondary forest-based products. Crop production is diverse and
highly dynamic in relation to the land use and management of the
watershed. Moreover, twenty percent (20%) of their cash income is
derived from the crop production. This is supported by the fact that
low level of inputs, particularly technical inputs, is used, thus the
level of production is very low. Upland rice yield for example, is only
5-15 cavans per hectare. It is grown under poor management with
practically no fertilizer and no pesticides. Crops other than rice are
mostly subsistence crops, the economic value of which is relatively low.
Farmers are spending almost 75% of their cash income in food items, with
60% in rice alone. On the other hand, farmers are preoccupied in
charcoal and firewood activities. They obtain at least 50% of their
cash income from these sources, thus degradation of the forest from
these activities is apparently very significant.

The need to develop crop-based technologies on a farming systems
framework, that will increase farmers' income from crop production and
at the same time reduce the pressure on exploiting the forest is
relevant and timely.

Sergio Ruano. Federico Poev
Agricultural Development Consultants, Inc.
Coral Gables, Florida

Organization of the Sondeo Report

The Sondeo is a multidisciplinary and interinstitutional field
methodology designed as a rapid modified exploratory survey. Its
purpose is to provide information on the problems, constraints and
researchable alternatives in a given region where a generation,
validation and transfer of technologies are sought. Although, the
collected information is qualitative, it should be valid enough to
orient research activities, institutional recommendations and further
regional analysis. Therefore, a good organization and presentation of
the information in the sondeo report will contribute to the best
utilization of that methodology.

Because of the multidisciplinary nature of the sondeo team and the
little time available in a typical sondeo practice, the consolidation of
the information has to be well planned for maximum efficiency.
Individual writing responsibilities need to be assigned early in the
process and discussion sessions well programmed. Each partial
contribution should fit a predetermined pattern in the sondeo report in
order to achieve a balanced product that includes maximum
multidisciplinary perception that will prove useful to its objectives.

It is probable that each sondeo will present unique characteristics
so that the information obtained requires some specific organization.
But even in these cases a general format should help to consolidate the
information in the most meaningful form. The following format is

1. Introduction: General aspects related to the participating
institutions and team members; dates and general location; overall
purpose and justification within an established project, etc.

2. Objectives: Immediate purpose, identifying intended users.

3. Physical Description of the area: Geographic location and map;
political assignations; topography, climate, accessibility, soil type,
rainfall, pattern, altitude, etc.

4. Social and Economic Description: Family and contracted labor
availability farm size, land tenance, household description, health and
education facilities, women role in the household, etc.

Sergio Ruano. Federico Poev page 2

5. Main Farming Systems: Relationships among crops, livestock, use of
labor, soil types, topography, etc.

5.1. Crop description: For each major crop includes varieties, cultural
practices, planting distances, planting and harvest times, pest control,

5.2. Livestock description: For each species, includes races,
management, nutrition, pests, etc.

5.3 Forestry description: For major tree species, includes varieties,
management, cultural practices, uses, etc.

5.4 Pasture Land: For each major pasture species, includes varieties or
types, management, pests, etc.

6. Recommendation domains: Farming systems, geographical boundaries and
socioeconomic characteristics identified for each recommendation domain.

6.n. Each recommendation domain

6n.1.Constraints: Major limitations and problems within the systems and
within the individual components of the systems; priority of

6n.2.Research alternatives: Specific research possibilities on
constraints, defining experimental objectives, and a general variable
and level definition; priorities.

7. Conclusion: Summarizes relevant finding including Recommendation
Domains, major general constraints and research alternatives, etc.

8. Recommendations: Separate sets of recommendations for Farming
Systems Research (FSR) teams, and for outside programs and institutions;
those for FSR team should be very specific, setting priorities.

Michael D. Schulman Patricia Garrett
Dept of Sociology and Anthropology Department of Rural Sociology
Box 8107 Cornell University
North Carolina State University Ithaca, New York 14853
Raleigh, NC 27695

Stratification and Differentiation With Small Holder Strata:
A North Carolina Case Study

Farming systems research generally assumes that all small holders
are similar. It thus tends to ignore how the socioeconomic
characteristics of farming households and enterprises limit the range of
viable farm enterprise alternatives. This paper examines how
socioeconomic characteristics differentiate small holders. Data are
based upon a sample of ninety small holders from the North Carolina
Piedmont, the majority of whom are black and raise flue-cured tobacco.
Factor analysis of variables relating to the characteristics of the farm
enterprise, the farm operator, and the farm household reveals that the
major dimensions of socioeconomic differentiation are scale of the
farming enterprise, off-farm family labor, the demographic
characteristics of the farm operator and household, and land tenure.
The implication of these dimensions for farming systems research and
extension are discussed.

A. Silva
Economist Agrlcola Departamento de Investigacibn

Generation of Technology Appropriate for the
Small Farmer: The Honduran Case

Surveys carried out at Olancho and Comayagua within the Honduran
agricultural technological system, showed that the main production
problems of corn and rice were related to varieties, rate and timing of
fertilization and weeds. Experiments were designed and conducted at the
farm level through different location and time, from which new
technological alternatives were identified. Further screening of this
alternative was done in semi-commercial plots (Prueba del Agricultor)
under direct responsibility of the farmer. An evaluation of the work
done through two years, showed that some adoption was being made by the
farmers that depended upon his resources and goals. It was concluded
that the approach of coordination and integration of activities of
Research and Extensibn (Technical linkage) should evolve to a more
hollistic approach, including the other services provided by the
Secretarla de Recursos Naturales (Agencia de Desarrollo).

Laxman Singh
P. 0. Box 766
Friars Hill
St. John's-Antigua, W. I.

Farming Systems Research/Development and
Agricultural Engineering in the Eastern Caribbean

Field operations for food crops production in the Eastern Caribbean
are generally performed by hand tools (hoe, fork, cutlass) supplemented
by rental service of tractor ploughing by public agencies, as and when
available. Thus, agricultural production systems are restricted to
small plots producing for home use and/or market. Lack of farm power
and more efficient implements put constraint on intensive/extensive land
use and post harvest handling and marketing (headloads, donkeys and/or
public/private autotransport are used for hauling the produce).

Productivity and production can be improved by use of more
efficient farm tools and additional farm power, within the reach of
individual farm families and/or community. The younger generation which
is getting weaned away from farming (average farmer's age is 50 years)
in tourist oriented economy could be partially lured to farming if it is
made somewhat more comfortable. Constraints to production and
productivity in the Eastern Caribbean as mentioned above, let to the
programmes involving introduction, improvisation and testing of farm
machinery for preliminary cultivation, intercultivation, harvesting and
post harvest handling under a variety of production systems. In
addition, component has been added to improvise on-farm water harvesting
and conservation techniques in semi-arid parts of the Eastern Caribbean.
Some aspects of these programmes of Farming Systems Research and
Development Project of the Eastern Caribbean are discussed in this

Chris Smith, Jim Chapman
Chemonics International Consulting
Suite 2000, 2000 M. Street, N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20036

Sustainability as an Objective of Farming Systems
Research and Development

Current FSR&D objectives and methodology focus on the farm family
and farm-level oriented technology development. Results or consequences
of on-farm decisions and activities effect not only each individual
farm, but also have off-farm effects, particularly in the soil and water
regimes of a region or watershed. Thus, FSR&D methodology may result in
activities which may not be in the long-term interests of the society or
region. FSR&D activities which fail to take account of sustainability
as an important objective result in technologies which may be
destructive of the resource base, thereby accelerating the cycle of
poverty and decreasing productivity, especially in upland environments.
It is necessary to develop resource-conserving technologies which not
only meet the needs of the farm family, but also provide the basis for
future production. Agroforestry, soil conservation, and watershed
management techniques are indicative of the types of activities which
may contribute to sustainable farming systems on upland areas. More
research is needed to combine natural resource and farming systems into
a practical, sustainable approach towards upland development.

Anita Spring
Department of Anthropology
University of Florida
Gainesville, Florida 32611

Trials and Errors: Using FSR to Reach Farmers
Who Are Often Neglected

The prevailing training for women agriculturalists in many African
countries is home economics. In Malawi, FSR was used to counteract the
notion that women are "farmer's wives" or occasional farmers rather than
cultivators of field crops in their own right. As a result of a project
on Women in Agricultural Development sponsored by USAID, women
participated in commodity demonstrations and farmer-managed research
trials. FSR was used to 1) document women's contribution to smallholder
agriculture, 2) identify farmer's difficulties with the crop, 3) suggest
solutions, and 4) provide feedback to the extension service.

Helen A. Swartz. George W. Enlow. S. Morris Tallev
Lincoln University Cooperative Extension
Jefferson City, Missouri 65101-3594

The Missouri Small Family Program

A pilot program started in 1971 in selected counties funded by
Missouri Cooperative Extension Service, using education assistants to
work with interested families who needed more income and were not
currently involved in regular Extension programs.

The majority of Missouri farm families live on small farms. The
1974 census of Agriculture reported 115,711 farms in Missouri, and 75
percent of these farms had annual sales of less than $20,000. Records
kept by farm families show that 70 to 80 percent of farm sales were
spent for farm production expenses. Assuming no other income, many of
these families would have a net income of about $4,000 per year.

In early 1976, two program components were added: family resource
management and home gardening. Prior to 1976 the title of the program
was The Missouri Small Farm Program. In 1976, the title was changed to
Small Farm Family Program in order to reflect the emphasis on the total

Supervision of the program at the area level was provided by
Agricultural designees and Home Economists. Training for education
assistants was provided by these designees and other State and area
specialists. Education assistants were employed from the counties they
would serve.

Before the Small Farm Family Program started, needs and interests
of families living on small farms were identified in each county. A
survey was conducted under the leadership of area Extension staff to
determine management practices and needs of families living on small
farms. This information determined the basis for the Small Farm Family
Program. There were some 34 counties in 11 Extension areas where the
program functioned.

Leadership for program development and implementation for family
resource management, home weatherization and maintenance, and home
gardening came from Lincoln University. Leadership development for
agricultural production and management came from the University of

The Missouri Farm Family Program was implemented in 1971 and was
directed by a program leader at the University of Missouri-Columbia, the
1862 Land Grant Institution in the State. In 1983, the leadership role
was shifted to Lincoln University, the 1890 Land Grant Institution
located in Jefferson City.

Helen A. Swartz. George W. Enlow. S. Morris Tallev-page 2

Lincoln University was founded in 1866 and recognized as a Land
Grant Institution in 1890, following the second Morrill Act. Congress
added a "separate but equal" provision authorizing the establishment of
colleges for blacks. In 1891 money was allocated from the state's share
of the Morrill Land Grant Fund.

Lincoln University was excluded from funding provided by the Hatch
Act of 1887 for research and also the third component of the Land Grant
Institutions, the Smith-Lever Act of 1914, authorizing federal
appropriations for the extension service.

Federal funding for the sixteen 1890 Land Grant Institutions and
Tuskegee Institute became a reality in 1967 to support agricultural
research and in 1971 funding was granted for extension program. Lincoln
University Extension programs have a basic mission of education through
application of research-based knowledge to improve quality of life for
small farm families, to strengthen family and community life and develop
leadership capabilities in youth and adults. With its rich minority
heritage, the primary audience is considered statewide minority and
limited resource families.

The objective of the Small Farm Family Programs is to assist
families living on small farms, not currently participating in Extension
programs, to use their available resources to improve their quality of
living. This objective is accomplished through education assistants who
help families improve their economic and social well-being by increasing
their knowledge and skills in agricultural technology, the management of
family resources, and home gardening.

Scott M Swinton Lv Samba
Agricultural Economics Director, Dept. de Recherche
Purdue University en Economie Rurale, Institut
Lafayette, Indiana National de Recherches
Agronomiques du Niger

Defining Agricultural Recommendations Domains
in South-Central Niger

To define useful agricultural recommendations domains, four
criteria are applied to data gathered in a 1982 survey of 348 farms in
Madarounfa (Arrondissement) in South-Central Niger. The criteria
average rainfall, soil fertility, soil texture and proximity of the
water table are first examined using T-tests of data on cropping
systems, livestock ownership and agricultural practices. Soil texture
and proximity of the water table prove most useful in defining the
following recommendations domains:

1. Compact soils
2. Sandy valley soils, and
3. Sandy soils outside the valleys.

Subsequent evaluation of these three domains using socio-economic
variables demonstrates that they also differ significantly in population
density, ethnicity and access to markets.

R. L. Tinslev
Colorado State University
Fort Collins, CO 80523

Mechanization of Small Farm Systems

Mechnization of small farm system usually involves contracted
equipment. This may require evaluating mechanization more on a
community basis than an individual farm, and place individual farmers at
the mercy of the equipment owners. This can produce a high level of
uncertainty as to when equipment will be available. Planning will be
difficult, and timing of operations unknown, compromising the ability to
adopt certain technical advances. In the Philippines, where each farmer
owned one draft animal, most farmers could adopt double cropping rice on
part of their land, but not all. In contrast in Sri Lanka, where
farmers contracted tillage, only a few farmers could adopt the
recommended planting time, but those who did adopt, did so on their
entire holdings.

Important in contracting equipment is the density of the machinery.
This can be a straight economic analysis from the equipment side. The
returns to the crop will determine how much the farmer can afford to
pay. The less the returns the less the farmer can pay, and the more
land the tractor owners must till to recover their cost. The equipment
density will decrease while the time to complete operations increases to
the determent of the crops.

Equipment efficiency in small farm environment, especially for
4-wheel tractors, can be sharply reduced. In Egypt it was estimated
that 50% of the operators time could be consumed in just getting to the
field. Once there, efficiency dropped 25% because of the numerous turns
required in fields of less than 0.5 hectares. The result was less than
2 hectares could be prepared in a day, and opened questions of how the
operator could most efficiently serve the multitude of requests he might
have, and limit the number of operations that could be mechanized.

These are several of the concerns that require a farming systems
approach when evaluating the mechanization of small farm systems.

Michael Yates. Juan Carlos Martinez
Economics Program
CIMMYT, Mexico

On Farm Research Methodologies at Work
Progress Report from Les Cayes, Haiti

In 1980 the Department of Agriculture (DARNDR) of the Government of
Haiti decided to explore the potential contribution of on-farm research
methodologies (as a liaison and needed complement to traditional station
research and extension activities), to increase the technical and
institutional capacities of the country to provide the Haitian farmer
with technological alternatives appropriate to his agroeconomic
circumstances. In this framework an area-specific on-farm research
program was defined to be carried by national staff with CIMMYT's
cooperation. The program started in February 1981 in the Les Cayes area
(south west of Haiti) with maize as a target crop.

The goals of the program were twofold. On one hand to generate
appropriate maize technology for increasing productivity and income of
representative area farmers in the near term. On the other hand it was
intended to be a source of concrete methodological experience which
would contribute to guide the Haitian National Research Program in
establishing an OFR operations at national level. The paper describes
the different stages in the implementation of this program, which led to
a final evaluation of the experience in 1983 by the Government of Haiti.
This process should start early 1985.

Beyond its technical parts, the paper also illustrates the bottom
up CIMMYT strategy, centered in on-farm research, addressed to
strengthening the capacity of national programs to generate and transfer
appropriate technologies for target groups of farmers.

David Youmans. Tom Trail Thope Matobo
Washington State University Ministry of Agriculture
Pullman, Washington Lesotho

Farming Systems Research and Development approach to meeting the
needs of the small farmers in less developed countries is having
successful impact in many areas such as Guatemala, Honduras, and
Lesotho. This approach focuses on aiming the research and development
of new useful technologies specifically at the needs of the farmer. A
major problem in many FSR projects has been the effective involvement of
local farmers in the various stages of FSR, and in the widespread
diffusion of FSR generated technologies in the Extension phase.

The development of Village Agricultural Committees (VAC's) in
Lesotho is an extension model introduced and encouraged by the Director
of Agricultural Research in Lesotho, Winston Nts'ekhe. The purpose was
to foster maximum utilization of the USAID funded FSR Centers by farmers
and bring FSR philosophy and involvement of FSR closer to the farming
community. A secondary purpose was the selection of a method to help
promote the diffusion of proven FSR technologies in the Extension phase.

Background. The history of the Village Agricultural Committees in
Lesotho is congruent to the presence of the Farming Systems Research
effort within the Research Division of the Ministry of Agriculture,
essentially dating from 1978. The success of those committees as both
program support groups and in diffusion of tested technologies has been
notable. In 1982, the VAC model was adopted as a national norm by the
Extension Division of the Lesotho Ministry of Agriculture. The current
status of these committees in the Farming Systems prototype areas of
Molumong, Nyaksosoba and Siloe is the product not only of constant
organizational and maintenance efforts by Research/Extension personnel,
of carefully organized training courses over the period of the last
three years.

Village Agricultural Committees. Village Agricultural Committees
are active in the FSR prototype areas of Molumong, Nyaksosoba and Siloe.
Members are elected by villagers living under the same area Chief in
each prototype area. A committee is composed of a chairman,
vice-chairman, secretary, treasurer and three members. Twenty-two
committees operate in the three prototype area. Elections are held on
an annual basis.

The elections take place under every area chief. The Chief by his
messenger convenes a "Pitso". This is a village meeting. All members
must be involved in farming and have demonstrated leadership ability.

VAC members have specifically designed roles which relate to FSR
researchers and extension personnel. Generally members are responsible
for all activities relating to crop and livestock systems in the village
area. These are activities that relate to decisions made by farmers and
the village chief which relate to farming and production matters. The
VAC's serve an additional link between the FSR researchers and extension
personnel and member of the farming community.

David Youmans. Tom Trail. ThoDe Matobo Page 2

The first major step of the VAC is with FSR researchers in the
problem identification and development of a research base phase of the
FSR and D process. Researchers meet with VAC members to identify key
problems and constraints in the prototype village areas, and to
"legitimize" their presence in the community with other farmers. A
number of other specific roles are apparent in the planning on-farm
research, on-farm research and analysis, and the extension of results

Training of Village Agricultural Committees The Training of VAC
members is an important factor in the success of FSR work. Training has
been carried out in both formal and informal basis. Informal education
occurs through interaction with researchers and extension workers in the
fields and at committee members.

Formal educational activities are held at Farmer Training Centers.
Major topics have included agronomy, horticulture, livestock production,
small farm holder equipment, fertilizer usage, fodder production, and
rotations. Much of the training deals with FSR generated and test
technologies and practices., Members are taught how to teach other

The basic Village Agricultural Committee Education Model or
approach is outlined in Figure 1. Like all attempts to communicate a
complex process, the model is an oversimplification. The major aspects
are somewhat overlapping, and the sequencing illustrates general
emphasis areas over time rather than a strict step-by-step process. In
spite of these shortcomings, the model does serve to emphasize critical
aspects and considerations which were essential to successful VAC member
training in FSR and agricultural education activities.

ImDlications. Village agricultural committees have been utilized
successfully in Lesotho. Committee members serve as an important bridge
or link between the vested village leadership, FSR personnel, and the
farming community. The committee is actively involved with FSR research
and extension personnel from problem identification to the extension of
results. Members also have an important role in training farmers in the

The training of VAC members is an important role in FSR educational
activities. The tri-sensory FSR Education has been effective in
training committee members. Many conditions,' however, are vital to its
implementation. Among those key factors are shared planning, timing,
appropriate location, shared logistics, proper instructional level, team
teaching, on-site rehearsal, bilingual delivery (Sesutu), opportunity
for learners to see, hear, feel, and interact, and receive a recognition
certificate. The approach suggests that Village Agricultural Committees
and the use of the Tri-Sensory Educational Model in their training may
be effective in other countries of adapted to fit socio-cultural

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