Front Cover
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Course information
 The participants
 The instructors
 Guest trainers' lesson plans
 Students' lesson plans

Title: Technical lesson plans on gender, gender analysis, community participation and natural resource management
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00054805/00001
 Material Information
Title: Technical lesson plans on gender, gender analysis, community participation and natural resource management
Alternate Title: Gender analysis training, a training of trainers course, AEE6935
Physical Description: 136 leaves : ill. (mostly col.) ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Staal, Lisette
Bastidas, Elena P
Russo, Sandra L., 1948-
Managing Ecosystems and Resources with Gender Emphasis (Program)
Publisher: Managing Ecosystems and Resources with Gender Emphasis, Tropical Conservation and Development, University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1995
Subject: Sex role -- Study and teaching   ( lcsh )
Women in agriculture -- Study and teaching   ( lcsh )
Natural resources -- Management -- Citizen participation   ( lcsh )
Women in conservation of natural resources   ( lcsh )
Women in development -- Environmental aspects   ( lcsh )
Conservation of natural resources   ( lcsh )
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references (p. 119).
Statement of Responsibility: instructors, Sandra L. Russo, Lisette Staal; compiled by Elena Bastidas
General Note: "This is a collection of lesson plans that resulted from the Gender Analysis Training Course delivered at the University of Florida in Fall 1995. The course aimed to impart training skills as well as technical content related to gender, gender analysis, natural resource management and community participation"--Introduction, p. 1
General Note: "Fall 1995"
Funding: Electronic resources created as part of a prototype UF Institutional Repository and Faculty Papers project by the University of Florida.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00054805
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida
Resource Identifier: aleph - 002879578
oclc - 52882668
notis - APB0825

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Title Page
        Title Page 1
        Title Page 2
    Table of Contents
        Table of Contents
        Page 1
    Course information
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
    The participants
        Page 6
    The instructors
        Page 7
    Guest trainers' lesson plans
        Page 7a
        Page 8
        Defining gender roles
            Page 9
            Page 10
            Page 11
        Rationale for WID through GAD
            Page 12
            Page 13
            Page 14
            Page 15
            Page 16
            Page 17
            Page 18
            Page 19
            Page 20
            Page 21
            Page 22
            Page 23
            Page 24
        People and nature
            Page 25
            Page 26
            Page 27
            Page 28
            Page 29
            Page 30
        Gender and agroforestry
            Page 31
            Page 32
            Page 33
            Page 34
        A systems approach : ecosystem and the farm unit as a system
            Page 35
            Page 36
            Page 37
            Page 38
            Page 39
        Toward a better dialogue: considerations for interviews and meetings
            Page 40
            Page 41
            Page 42
            Page 43
            Page 44
            Page 45
            Page 46
            Page 47
            Page 48
        Gender analysis tools: activities analysis and seasonal calendar
            Page 49
            Page 50
            Page 51
        Stakeholder analysis
            Page 52
            Page 53
            Page 54
        Project evaluation
            Page 55
            Page 56
            Page 57
            Page 58
            Page 59
            Page 60
            Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
    Students' lesson plans
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Application of concepts and tools: gender analysis of a case study
            Page 66
            Page 67
            Page 68
            Page 69
            Page 70
            Page 71
            Page 72
            Page 73
        Who does what? gender roles
            Page 74
            Page 75
            Page 76
            Page 77
            Page 78
            Page 79
            Page 80
            Page 81
        Simulating a city commission meeting for community participation
            Page 82
            Page 83
            Page 84
            Page 85
            Page 86
            Page 87
            Page 88
            Page 89
        Participatory rural appraisal
            Page 90
            Page 91
            Page 92
            Page 93
            Page 94
            Page 95
            Page 96
            Page 97
            Page 98
            Page 99
            Page 100
            Page 101
        Generating ideas
            Page 102
            Page 103
            Page 104
            Page 105
            Page 106
            Page 107
            Page 108
            Page 109
            Page 110
            Page 111
        A game for considering resource use options
            Page 112
            Page 113
            Page 114
            Page 115
            Page 116
            Page 117
            Page 118
            Page 119
        Using resource analysis to determine access and control
            Page 120
            Page 121
            Page 122
            Page 123
            Page 124
            Page 125
            Page 126
            Page 127
            Page 128
            Page 129
        Objectifying the function of gender analysis with farming systems in the Brazilian northwest amazon
            Page 130
            Page 131
            Page 132
            Page 133
            Page 134
            Page 135
            Page 136
Full Text

Gender Analysis Tra*ling
A Training of Trainers Course
AEE 6935

Technical.Lesson Plans on:
Gender, Gender Analysis,
Community Participation
Natural Resource Management


Managing Ecosystems and Resources with Gender Emphasis
Tropical Conservation and Development
University of Florida
Fall 1995

),. o?2.
,_-. 0o,37

Gender Analysis Training
A Training of Trainers Course
AEE 6935

Technical .Lesson Plans on:
Gender, Gender Analysis,
Community Participation
Natural Resource Management


Managing Ecosystems and Resources with Gender Emphasis
Tropical Conservation and Development
University of Florida
Fall 1995

Gender Analysis Training
A Training of Trainers Course
AEE 6935

Technical Lesson Plans on:
Gender, Gender Analysis,
Community Participation
Natural Resource Management

Sandra L. Russo
Assistant Director, International Stds. and Programs
Lisette Staal
Training and Program Coordinator, MERGE, TCD

Contributions by:

Guest Trainers
Elena Bastidas
Shari Bush
Jon Dain
Cristina Espinosa
Karen Kainer
Marianne Schmink
Anne Todd Bockarie

Abib Araujo
Francisco Cartaxo
Dorota Haman
Annie Hermansen
Palma Ingles
Mike Kenney
Katie Lynch
Vicky Michener
Nancy Myers
Amanda Perdomo
Noemi Porro
Janet Puhalla
Eduardo Romero
Amanda Stronza
Kevin Veach
Heisel Villalobos

M.S. Student, Food and Resource Econ. Department
Ph.D. Student, Anthropology Department
Regional Coordinator, MERGE, TCD
Ph.D. Student, Anthropology Department
Ph.D. Candidate, Forestry Department
Director, MERGE Co-Director, TCD
Ph.D. Candidate, Forestry Department

M.S. Student, Agricultural Educ. and Comm. Department
M.S. Student, Latin American Studies Department
Assoc. Professor, Agricultural Engineering Department
M.S. Student, Forestry Department
M.S. Student, Anthropology Department
M.S. Student, Latin American Studies Department
M.S. Student, Anthropology Department
M.S. Student, Anthropology Department
M.S. Student, Agricultural Educ. and Comm. Department
Ph.D. Student, Inst. and Curriculum Department
M.S. Student, Latin American Studies Department
M.S. Student, Agricultural Educ. and Comm. Department
M.S. Student, Latin American Studies Department
M.S. Student, Anthropology Department
M.S. Student, Latin American Studies Department
M.S. Student, Agricultural Educ. and Comm. Department

Compiled by:

Elena Bastidas
Training Assistant, MERGE, TCD

Managing Ecosystems and Resources with Gender Emphasis
Tropical Conservation and Development
University of Florida
Fall 1995



Table of Contents

Introduction ........... ........ .................. .... ............ 1

Course Information ................... ................... ............. 2

The Participants ......................................................... 6

The Instructors ................................................... 7

PART I Guest Trainers' Lesson Plans ................................... .... 8

Defining Gender Roles ....... ...................................... 9
Rationale for WID Through GAD .................................... 12
-People and Nature .............................................. 25
Gender and Agroforestry .... .............. ......................... 31
A Systems Approach: Ecosystem and the Farm Unit as a System ............. 35
Toward a Better Dialogue: Considerations for Interviews and Meetings ........ 40
Gender Analysis Tools: Activities Analysis and Seasonal Calendar ............. 49
Stakeholder Analysis ..................... ........................ 52
Project Evaluation ................ .............................. 55
Bibliography ........................... ...... ................ 62

PART II Students' Lesson Plans .......................................... 64

Application of Concepts and Tools: Gender Analysis of a Case Study .......... 66
Who Does What? Gender Roles ...................................... 74
Simulating a City Commission Meeting for Community Participation. .......... 82
Participatory Rural Appraisal ......................................... 90
Generating Ideas ................................................ 102
A Game for Considering Resource Use Options .......................... 112
Using Resource Analysis to Determine Access and Control ................ 120
Objectifying the Function of Gender Analysis
with Farming Systems in the Brazilian Northwest Amazon ............ 130


This is a collection of lesson plans that resulted from the Gender Analysis Training Course
delivered at the University of Florida in Fall 1995. The course aimed to impart training
skills as well as technical content related to gender, gender analysis, natural resource
management and community participation. This course was developed as part of MERGE
(Managing the Ecosystems and Resources with Gender Emphasis) and WIAD (Women
in Agricultural Development) programs on the University of Florida Campus.

MERGE addresses the need to strengthen the understanding of gender issues and
community participation in natural resource management on the part of both academic
researchers and local technicians responsible for the implementation of natural resource
management projects. An interdisciplinary group of faculty and graduate students are
involved in developing techniques for. incorporating gender concerns into research,
teaching and training activities. MERGE works with partner organizations to carry out
training and networking on gender and natural resource management in specific sites
in Brazil, Ecuador and Peru. This collaboration has included several field training
activities. Experienced trainers from several of these and other training programs
delivered specific lessons at the University of Florida course. This cross-training and
collaborative exchange of experiences and information serves to strengthen all partners'

This document is presented in two parts. Part I includes lesson plans presented by guest
trainers delivered as part of the technical content of the course. Part II includes lesson
plans developed by students during the course as part of their practical training. The
students, working in pairs, created a scenario and developed a 3-day training plan. Each
lesson plan which appears here is one session within their 3-day plan. Their lessons are
supplemented by the student generated scenario descriptions and a macro plan
highlighting the session delivered in class. The plans include a variety of teaching
methods and participatory teaching techniques. Some lesson plans include handouts
and overheads which were used.

We trust that this collection of lesson plans will be useful to the students as they continue
to develop as trainers. Their contributions documented here will certainly be useful to
others in the field. It is our intention that these materials be used freely with appropriate
citation. To facilitate photocopying the document is printed one-sided.

Gender Analysis Training

AEE 6935, Fall 1995
Monday, 7-9 periods (1:55-4:55 p.m.)
142 Leigh Hall

Lisette Staal
Center for Latin American Studies
Tropical Conservation and Development Program
Managing the Environment and Resources with Gender Emphasis (MERGE)
Office: 351 Grinter Hall, phone: 392-6548, fax: 392-0085, E-mail:
Office Hours: Tuesday 10:30 12:00, Thursday 2:00 3:00

Dr. Sandra Russo
International Studies and Programs, Assistant Director
Office: 308 Tigert Hall, phone: 392-6783, fax: 392-8379, E-mail:
Office Hours: Monday 11:00 12:00, Wednesday 1:00 2:15

Elena Bastidas
Training Assistant, MERGE, TCD
319 Grinter Hall, 392-6548, fax: 392-0085, E-mail: diegol@gnv.ifas.ufl.edu
Office Hours: Wednesday 9:30 11:30

This course has been developed as part of MERGE (Managing the Environment and
Resources with a Gender Emphasis) and WIAD (Women in Agricultural Development)
programs on the University of Florida Campus. MERGE has convened an
interdisciplinary group of faculty and graduate students who are involved in
developing techniques for incorporating gender concerns into research, teaching and
training activities. The program is housed in Tropical Conservation and Development
(TCD) in the Center for Latin American Studies. MERGE was developed to address the
need to strengthen the understanding of gender issues and community participation
in natural resource management on the part of both academic researchers and local
technicians responsible for the implementation of natural resource management

Course Objectives

The general objectives of the course are to:

(1) develop training skills which can be applied in gender analysis training;

(2) explore the concepts of gender and community participation and their
application to conservation and development projects;

(3) explore the relationship between ecosystems, community, households
and gender in order to improve conservation and development projects;

(4) discover fundamentals of adult learners and experiential learning; and

(5) experience and apply participatory training techniques.

Specific Objectives

By the end of the course the participants should be able to:

(1) apply knowledge of the training process and adult learners to gender
analysis training;

(2) explain the concepts of gender, community participation, and
stakeholders and how they apply to development and conservation;

(3) identify participatory tools for collection and analysis of data
disaggregated by gender;

(4) design and write a training plan which includes the specifications
outlined in class;

(5) choose appropriate training techniques based on situational factors; and

(6) develop and deliver a lesson using participatory techniques and focusing
on gender, community participation and natural resource management.

August 28:

September 4:

Concepts and Issues
September 11:

September 18:

September 25:

October 2:

Skill Development
October 9:

October 16:

October 23:

October 30:

AEE 6935, section 3831
Fall, 1995

Introduction to the Course
Technical: Gender

Labor Day Holiday, no classes

Training: The adult learner and the training process

Technical: People and Nature
Student facilitated discussion: Population and Conservation
Training: Needs Assessment

Technical: Gender and Gender Analysis
Student facilitated discussion: Why gender analysis?
Training: Training Objectives

Technical: Ecosystems, Farming Systems and Communities
Student facilitated discussion: Considerations for working with
Training: The training design

Technical: Tools for collection, organization and analysis of information
Student facilitated discussion: Defining information needs and
Training: Choosing appropriate methods and materials

Technical: Tools for collection, organization and analysis of
Student facilitated discussion: Multiple-users
Training: Choosing appropriate methods and materials

Technical: Tools for collection, organization and analysis of
Student facilitated discussion: Stakeholder Analysis
Training: Choosing appropriate methods and materials

Technical: Analysis of projects
Student facilitated discussion: Micro and macro issues
Training: Evaluation and Feedback

Practice and Application

November 6:

November 13:

November 20:

November 27:

December 4:

Practical Training Experience

Practical Training Experience

Practical Training Experience

Practice training review and discussion

Action plans, follow-up, evaluation


Back row from left to right: Nancy Myers, Eduardo Romero, Palma Ingles, Francisco Cartaxo,
Kevin Veach, Heisel Villalobos, Mike Kenney, Sandra Russo (instructor), Lisette Staal
(instructor), Abib Araujo. Front row from left to right: Elena Bastidas(assistant trainer), Janet
Puhalla, Amanda Stronza, Katie Lynch, Vicky Michener, Dorota Haman, Amanda Perdomo.

University of Florida
Gender Training Class
Fall, 1995


Sandril RKUsMo

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h.-i.lle Sat1,,

El.cnoi llslilds


Guest Trainers'
Lesson Plans


Guest Trainers'
Lesson Plans

Rationale for WID Through GAD
Sandra Russo

Defining Gender Roles
Sandra Russo

People and Nature
Karen Kainer

Gender and Agroforestry
Anne Todd Bockarie

A Systems Approach: Ecosystems and The Farm Unit as a System
Elena Bastidas

Toward a Better Dialogue: Considerations for Interviews and Meetings
Jon Dain

Gender Analysis Tools: Activities Analysis and Seasonal Calendars
Elena Bastidas and Cristina Espinosa

Stakeholder Analysis
Marianne Schmink

Project Evaluation
Shari A. Bush

Defining Gender Roles

Sandra Russo


Defining Gender Roles

Trainer: Sandra Russo


1. To be able to distinguish between biologically determined roles of male and
female and culturally determined roles of men and women;
2. To discuss childhood activities that were considered "male" and "female" vs. the
learning, through acculturation and socialization, of boys and girls roles;
3. To recognize that gender roles may differ by place and time.


Flipcharts, markers, and tapes

Time: 10 minutes

Steps and Activities:

1. Ask the men in the room to raise their hands. When their hands are lowered, ask the
women in the room to do the same. Complement the group on their identification
powers. Explain that you will need their help for this session and ask if they are willing
to help. 1 minute.

2. Ask the men to think about their childhood and to give an example of an activity that, for
them, was a "boy's activity". As each example is mentioned, write it on the flipchart under
the heading "Boys". When there are 5-6 examples, thank the men and ask the women to
list what were for them "girl's activities". Once again, write the examples under the
heading "Girls". 6 minutes.

3. Ask the women if, as girls, they participated in any of the activities listed under "boy's
activities". Ask the men if, as boys, they participated in any of the activities listed under
"girl's activities". Point to one of the "girl" activities that men did not participate in and
ask them if there was any physical impediment to their participation. Do the same with
the women by pointing to a "boy's" activity. Ask the rhetorical question, "If there was no
physical impediment, why did you not participate? Obviously it was not for biological
reasons." 2 minutes.

- 4. Conclude the session by pointing out that as we have seen, we begin to learn and define
which activities are male and which are female even as children. 1 minute.


Although the session is short, it is very effective in forcing people to consider why they do what
they do. It is particularly effective when followed by a gender roles exercise like "A Day in the
Life" and a definition session that distinguishes between biologically determined sex and gender.
It is best used to stimulate reflection as opposed to creating debate (about gender roles, sexuality,

Could also be done by passing out pieces of paper and having participants draw a picture of an
activity from their childhood that represented being a boy or girl.

Origin of Session:

Jon Dain created this lesson for a course in Puerto Maldonado, Peru based on an idea originally
conceived by Denise Garrafiel ofPESACRE, Rio Branco, Acre-Brazil. He first saw this session
in a slightly different form at the PESACRE (Agroforestry Research and Extension Group of
Acre) PESA methodology course in November of 1994 (Rio Branco, Acre-Brazil). The
PESACRE social/gender specialist Denise Garrafiel introduced the concept of gender by
distributing pieces of paper and having the participants draw pictures of a childhood activity that,
for them, represented being a boy or a girl. The pictures were then presented to the group and
briefly discussed. It was a very effective session, probably because it is so personal.

Rationale for WlDTlh gh GAD

Sadra Russo

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Rationale for WID Through GAD

Trainer: Sandra Russo

1. Be able to trace the history of women in development efforts from the mid-1950s
to present.
2. Be able to distinguish between practical gender needs and strategic gender needs

Overhead projector, slide projector, transparencies

Time: 40-45 minutes

Steps and Activities:

1. Lecturette on approaches to women in development in the decades from 1950-present.
Reference: Linda Moffett. 1992. The "Gender and Development" Approach as an
Alternative to "Women and Development" Approaches. IN Warren, Sarah T. (ed.)
Gender and Environment: Lessons from Social Forestry and Natural Resource
Management. Aga Khan Foundation, Toronto, Canada.

2. Lecturette on practical and strategic gender needs. Reference: Caroline O.N. Moser.
1989. Gender Planning in the Third World: Meeting Practical and Strategic Gender
Needs. World Development, 17(11):1799-1825.

3. Show slides or photos of women engaged in various activities and ask the participants to
determine if these are practical or strategic gender needs. Point out that so-called
practical needs for food, water, shelter, etc. are also family and peoples needs. Also, ask
participants to discuss, from their experiences, the kinds of WID and GAD approaches
they have seen.

4. Close with a review of WID vs. GAD and a very brief introduction to Gender Analysis.
Mention that many of the technical sessions later will deal specifically with GA and that
there are considerable readings for those who wish more detail.

Origin of Session: Developed by Sandra Russo.

Gender Analysis

Gender analysis is not a specific
Rather, it is a way of looking at the
world, a lens that brings into
focus the roles, resources and
responsibilities of women and men
within the system under analysis.
Aruna Rao
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iu> O WnE YBp( 8upplemernal Overhead # 15
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-- r- *** iii ,u Cusu wulucI I
Issues Welfare Equity

Origins Earliest approach: Original WID approach:
residual model of failure of modernization
social welfare under development policy
colonial administration influence of Boserup
modernization/ and First World Feminists
accelerated growth on Percy Amendment of
economic development UN Decade for Women

Period most popular 1950-70; but still 1975-85: attempts to
widely used adopt it during the
Women's Decade
Purpose To bring women into To gain equity for women
development as better in the development
mothers: this is seen as process: women seen as
their most important active participants in
role in development development

Needs of women met To meet PGN in To meet SGN in terms of
and roles recognized reproductive role, triple role directly
relating particularly to through state top-down
food aid, malnutrition intervention, giving
and family planning political and economic
autonomy by reducing
inequality with men
Comment Women seen as passive In identifying subordinate
beneficiaries of position of women in
development with focus terms of relationship to
on their reproductive men, challenging,
role; non-challenging, criticized as Western
therefore widely feminism, considered
popular especially with threatening and not
government and popular with government
traditional NGOs

PON = Practical gender need
SGN = Strategic gender need

1IUC e't.1 ~(LUInnIucu
Anti-poverty Efficiency Empowerment

Second WID approach: Third and now Most recent approach:
- toned down equity predominant WID arose out of failure of
because of criticism approach: equity approach
- linked to deterioration in the -Third World women's
redistribution with world economy feminist writing and
growth and basic needs policies of economic grassroots organization
stabilization and
adjustment rely on
women's economic
contribution to

1970s onward: still P9st-1980s: now most 1975 onward: accelerated
limited popularity popular approach during 1980s, still limited

To ensure poor women To ensure development To empower women
increase their is more efficient and through greater self-
productivity: women's more effective: reliance: women's
poverty seen as a women's economic subordination seen not
problem of participation seen as only as problem of men
underdevelopment, not associated with equity but also of colonial and
of subordination neo-colonial oppression

To meet PGN in To meet PGN in context To reach SGN in terms of
productive role, to earn of declining social triple role indirectly
an income, particularly services by relying on through bottom-up
in small-scale all three roles of women mobilization around PGN
income-generating and elasticity of as a means to confront
projects women's time oppression

Poor women isolated as Women seen entirely in Potentially challenging
separate category with terms of delivery with emphasis on Third
Tendency only to capacity and ability to World and women's
recognize productive extend working day; self-reliance; largely
role; reluctance of most popular approach unsupported by
government to give both with governments governments and
limited aid to women and multilateral agencies agencies; avoidance of
means popularity still at Western feminism
small-scale NGO level criticism means slow,
significant growth
of under-financed
voluntary organizations

Moser, C. 1993. Gender Planning and Developmant:
Theory, Practice and Training. pp.56-57 Routledge.
New York, NY.

56 Rationale for gender planning in the Third World

Table 4.1 Different policy approaches to Third World women
Isssues Welfare Equity 16

Earliest approach:
- residual model of
social welfare under
colonial administration
- modernization/
accelerated growth
economic development

Original WID approach:
- failure of modernization
development policy
- influence of Boserup
and First World Feminists
on Percy Amendment of
UN Decade for Women

Period most popular


Needs of women met
and roles recognized


1950-70; but still
widely used

To bring women into
development as better
mothers: this is seen as
their most important
role in development

To meet PGN in
reproductive role,
relating particularly to
food aid, malnutrition
and family planning

Women seen as passive
beneficiaries of
development with focus
on their reproductive
role; non-challenging,
therefore widely
popular especially with
government and
traditional NGOs

1975-85: attempts to
adopt it during the
Women's Decade

To gain equity for women
in the development
process: women seen as
active participants in

To meet SGN in terms of
triple role directly
through state top-down
intervention, giving
political and economic
autonomy by reducing
inequality with men

In identifying subordinate
position of women in
terms of relationship to
men, challenging,
criticized as Western
feminism, considered
threatening and not
popular with government

PGN = Practical gender need
SGN = Strategic gender need

NlMoser C. 1993. (Gndcr Planning and I)cvceloprnnt:
llicor, I'lac-ice and 'Ilraining. pp 56-57 Routlldge.
\c, Yo4,. NY


Tabel 4.1 (Continued)



Empowerment 17

Second WID approach:
- toned down equity
because of criticism
- linked to
redistribution with
growth and basic needs

1970s onward: still
limited popularity

To ensure poor women
increase their
productivity: women's
poverty seen as a
problem of
underdevelopment, not
of subordination

To meet PGN in
productive role, to earn
an income, particularly
in small-scale

Poor women isolated as
separate category with
, tendency only to
recognize productive
role; reluctance of
government to give
limited aid to women
means popularity still at
small-scale NGO level

Third and now
predominant WID
- deterioration in the
world economy
- policies of economic
stabilization and
adjustment rely on
women's economic
contribution to

Post-1980s: now most
popular approach

To ensure development
is more efficient and
more effective:
women's economic
participation seen as
associated with equity

To meet PGN in context
of declining social
services by relying on
all three roles of women
and elasticity of
women's time

Women seen entirely in
terms of delivery
capacity and ability to
extend working day;
most popular approach
both with governments
and multilateral agencies

Most recent approach:
- arose out of failure of
equity approach
- Third World women's
feminist writing and
grassroots organization

1975 onward: accelerated
during 1980s, still limited

To empower women
through greater self-
reliance: women's
subordination seen not
only as problem of men
but also of colonial and
neo-colonial oppression

To reach SGN in terms of
triple role indirectly
through bottom-up
mobilization around PGN
as a means to confront

Potentially challenging
with emphasis on Third
World and women's
self-reliance; largely
unsupported by
governments and
agencies; avoidance of
Western feminism
criticism means slow,
significant growth
of under-financed
voluntary organizations

M\nscr. C. 1993. lenderr I'lanning and I)ev\lopnient.
llc(lO'T. 'ictic inid 'riirliing,. pp. 6-57 Roillodgc.
Nex York. \'Y

Gender and


Is about both what men and women do
+ Looks at the impact of development on both men
and women, and their impact on development
+* eeks to see that both men and women
participate and benefit equally from development
+ Recognizes that women may be involved in
development, but may not necessarily benefit
+ 9eeks to understand the root causes of gender
inequality and addresses itself to these causes
+ Emphasizes gender relationships and focuses on
the reduction of disparities
+ Emphasizes equality of benefit and control
+ Recognizes the need to look at equity of impact
+ Not concerned with women per se, but with
social construction of gender and assignment of
specific rights, roles, responsibilities and
expectations to women and men
Addresses the inter-relationship between gender
roles, access to and control of resources and
USAID Office of Women in Deveopment
The G4EYs Proj ec Handout # 5


* Women in Development
*highlighted the importance of women's contributions
*:.focused only on women
*:tended toward women-only projects or components
+ Gender and Development
*.:evolved from WID to include both women and men
<> in reality, women and men together support families and, in the
growing number of female-headed households, It is women who do so
*:*focuses on the needs of each member of the household
*:*tends toward projects in which women and men both
U9AID toe of Women hi Daok -
he OEWM "ad Oupplemental Overhead # 14

Practical Gender Needs 20

Practical gender needs are the needs women
identify in their socially accepted roles in society.
Practical gender needs do not challenge the gender
divisions of labor or women's subordinate position
in society, although rising out of them. Practical
gender needs are a response to immediate
perceived necessity, identified within a specific
context. They are practical in nature and often
are concerned with inadequacies in living
conditions such as water provision, health care,
and employment. Practical needs are often
considered "short term".

Adapted by Sandra Russo from: Moser, C. 1989.
enderr Planning in Ihe Third World: Meeting
Practiul and Strategic needs. World Dcvelopmint
17i ) 1. 1799-1825.

Practical Gender Needs 21

i~ %s .V''*

Practical gender needs may include:

Provision of clean water, food, fuel,
housing, health benefits

Easing the burden of roles and
responsibilities assigned to women by

Recognition by both women and planners
that these are "women's needs"

Meeting PGN may benefit some but not all
women and involves women as beneficiaries and

Adapted by Sandra Russo from: Moser, C. 1989.
Gender Planning in The Third World: Meeting
Pracical and Strategic needs. World )evelopient
17(j]), 1799-1825.

.... Z:'"' ,'vq' :" ,,?: ' .

Strategic Gender Needs 22

Strategic gender needs are the needs women
identify because of their subordinate position to
men in their society. Strategic gender needs vary
according to particular contexts. They relate to
gender divisions of labor, power and control and
may include such issues as legal rights, domestic
violence, equal wages and women's control over
their bodies. Meeting strategic gender needs helps
women to achieve greater equality. It also changes
existing roles and therefore challenges women's
subordinate position. Strategic needs are often
considered "long term".

Adapted by Sandra Russo from: Moser, C. 1989.
Gender Planning in The Third World: Meeting
Practical and Strategic needs. World Development
17(11), 1799-1825.

Ilill ~1-1-~
-~~-n..h :;. ....- ..r..-
.. ...,.,.;"""' *
': 1

Strategic Gender Needs 23

Strategic gender needs may include:

Abolition of the sexual division of labor

Alleviation of the burden of domestic
labor and childcare

Removal of institutionalized forms of
discrimination such as rights to own land
or property or access to credit

Establishment of political equality

Freedom of choice over childbearing

Adoption of adequate measures against
male violence and control over women.

Meeting SGN challenges the system, improves the
position of all women, and involves women as
active agents.

Adapted by Sandra Russo from: Moser, C. 1989.
Gender Planning in The Third World: Meeting
Practical and Strategic needs. World Development
17(11), 1799-1825.

Table 3.1 Women's triple role and practical and strategic gender needs
Women's role recognized Gender need met
Type of intervention R P CM PGN SGN

1 Employment policy
a) Skill training
Cooking angel cakes X X?
Dressmaking X X
Masonry/carpentry X X X(a)
b) Access to credit
Allocated to household X X
Allocated to women X X X(b)

2 Human settlement policy
a) Zoning legislation
Separates residence
and work X
Does not separate
residence and work X X X
b) House ownership
In man's name X X
In woman's name X X X X(c)

3 Basic services
a) Location of nursery
Located in community X X X X
Mother's workplace X X X
Father's workplace X X X X(d)
b) Transport services
Only peak hours bus
service X X?
Adequate off-peak
service X X X X
c) Timing of rural
extension meetings
In the morning X X
In the afternoon/
evening X X X X

R = Reproductive P = Productive CM = Community managing
PGN = Practical gender need SGN = Strategic gender need
(a) Changing the gender division of labour
(b) Control over financial services
(c) Overcoming discrimination against women owning land, by law or tradition
(d) Alleviation of the burden of domestic labour
Moscr, C. 199 '(endc I'ianning in 'tllc hindi
World: M..nmg h-actical ;id Strategic n teds. World
Development 17( 11), 1 .99-1825.

People and Nature

Karen Kainer

People and Nature

Trainer: Karen Kainer

Rationale: This session focuses on the relationships between people, the community and the
nature in which they live. It also explores other factors that affect these relationship which
include: politics, ethnicity, geology, population, cultural, economic and legal factors. Recognizes
the influence that the mention factors have to fulfill our project goals, and more importantly, we
must examine all the factors. If not, we will suffer widespread extinction of species, including

After this session participants will be able to :

1. Frame the people and nature debate by reviewing the order given to biological and social
2. Discuss the types of relationships that exist between people and nature.
3. Understand that these relationships'are dynamic and vary with scale.

Time: 1.hour

This session is an interactive lecturette using visuals to discuss and develop the ideas and
issues. The trainer displays parts of the "whole picture" one element at a time guiding a
discussion around the issues.

1. Post the objectives for the session and quickly go over them. Explain that we will try to
organize our thoughts (the cards that are in a mess in front of us) so that we may have a
clear understanding between people and nature.
This session deals with NATURE (show card) and PEOPLE (show card) and the
relationships between the two (indicate arrows). "In the biological and social sciences,
we try to put an order and organization to the tremendous complexity to better
understand the biological and social systems. We will perform a small analysis to break
down the two boxes and look at some of their components. This are not the only
components nor the only way to break them down, but it will present some order for

2. Display card on wall: NATURE. "In the biological sciences, the ecosystem is the term
we use for the highest level of organization in nature."

3. Display card on wall: ECOSYSTEM. Ask for definitions of"Ecosystem" Make sure
the definitions that come out include biotic and abiotic components of a specific area.
(Place it below NATURE). List examples of types of ecosystems (grassland, forest,
chaco, paramo, etc.) You can/should ask for examples of a local ecosystem with which
the participants are familiar. "The ecosystems, at their base, are composed of communities
of organisms. "

4. Display card on wall: COMMUNITY (Place it below ECOSYSTEM). Ask for
definitions of community. Make sure is understood that communities are living
components ( not abiotic such as rocks, water) of the ecosystem. Describe the types of
flora and fauna that occupy certain ecosystems. The communities of organisms are
composed of various species."

5. Display card on wall: SPECIES (Place it below COMMUNITY) Ask for definitions of
species. Make sure it is understood that a species is limited to those organisms that
interbreed in nature. Ask for an example of a species and note that scientific names
commonly used are species names(i.e. Homo sapiens). Finally, the last level of
biological organization occurs at the genes."

6. Display card on wall: GENES (Place it below SPECIES). "Biodiversity conservation
must occur at all the levels of biological organization. "

7. Display card on wall: CONSERVATION OF BIODIVERSITY "Each species has a
right to exist. We recognize that the people (the other box) is very important in terms of
its impact on various level of biodiversity. For example:
genes -- high grading of forests
intensive harvesting of flora and fauna, depletes genetic material

species -- logging

community -- fire
tree plantations
small-scale agriculture
invasion of exotic species

ecosystem -- haciendas
large-scale agriculture
drainage canals

Using this perspective, the model appears like this:


Display the cards: People -- NATURE 4--People

This is the likely perspective of a conservation biologist; focuses on the impacts or pressures
people impose on nature. "

8. Display the card: PEOPLE (Place the card parallel to nature on the wall). "The other
box can be broken down to demonstrate also to the levels of social organization. People
as a species. How are they different from other species? Answer: intentions, reasoning,
conscious of the past, form mental constructs, destroy or conserve.

9. Display the card: SOCIETY (Place the card parallel to ecosystem) "Within the society,
people form communities. "

10. Display the card: COMMUNITIES (Place the card below landscape). "Communities
are comprised of families. "

11. Display the card: FAMILIES (Place the card below communities). "Families are
comprised of individuals who differ by age and gender. "

12. Display the card: INDIVIDUALS (Place the card below families). "Discussions of
social organization include conservation alsd, but in terms of conserving natural

"We talk about: soil conservation
sustainable use of forests
watershed protection

This is an anthropocentric view, which implies that nature (the other box) exists for human use.
It is a perspective of the Judeo-Christian tradition. Adam and Eve, for example, were driven
from the earth, an ugly place in which they had to reproduce and conquer. This is the derivation
of the theory that perceives Earth as the center of the universe and all the planets and stars
revolve around her.

The perspectives looks like this:

Display the cards Nature --- PEOPLE <-Nature

The people are in the center of the universe, and nature serves them. In this model, nature has
impacts on people; thus, the people have a right to alter and manipulate nature. Thus, we have
touched in the first objective to review biological and social order.

14. Point to the cards: NATURE PEOPLE. Remove the arrows (4-) card
and say that we should further explore this relationship. The relationship between nature
and people vary with time and scale.
a) Put up a card demonstrating "conflict". Ask for examples of conflict between people
and nature. Be prepared to have local examples ready to discuss with participants, (i.e.
Bivens Arm and development of apartments in 13 th. Street).
Place the conflict card with one representing "harmony". Again, ask for local examples
of harmony and have some of your own already thought out (i.e. squirrels on campus).
c) Replace the harmony card with one of indifference. Ask for examples. Allow
discussion so that the differences between conflict, harmony and indifference are
discussed fully. Other participants need to be guided through this section, being reminded
of scale factors and time factor. (i.e., buffalo and humans, were once in harmony, but as
time has passed (and scale increased), this harmony changed to conflict).

15. Let's experiment and explore another model.
We need take people and nature out of rigid boxes/categories. People and nature do not
exist in isolation of each other. The relations between people and nature vary. Have
drawings of examples of people and specific natural components. Prepare them to use
on a felt board so that you may move them around during this next part.

Sometimes people are "above" nature (move cards to depict this, and ask for examples)
examples include channeling water, pasture in the paramo and sometimes we place
nature "above people( move cards to depict this, and ask for examples). -- examples
include parks, limits on burning the paramo.
Many times this is not a conscious decision. It happens without realizing the
advantages and disadvantages. We need to reconcile the differences.

For all of these reasons, we propose another model for reflection, one that focuses on the
interconnections between nature and people, that takes both out of their closed boxes, and
recognizes the idea that each one depends on the other for its existence and survival, and
that neither would exist in isolation of the other.

We have signals that this vision is influencing current strategies for conservation and

valuing indigenous knowledge
in-situ conservation of genetic materials
the creation and support of extractive reserves

Also, we know that it isn't so simple to focus only on people and the community and the nature
in which they live. Other factors that affect the relationship include: politics, ethnicity, geology,
population, cultural, economic and legal factors. Place these in a circle around the specific
drawings of people and nature. The temptation is to trow the cards on the ground because it is
so complex and the decision about how to act and what priorities to set are difficult. But, it is
important to try to understand better the inter-related factors. By doing so, we can fulfill our
project goals. More importantly, we must examine all the factors. If not, we will suffer
widespread extinction of species, including ourselves.

Origins of Session:

This session was first developed by Karen Kainer for a course in for TNC Conservationist week
in Quito, Ecuador. It was refined and used again in subsequent MERGE courses in La Mica,
Ecuador, and Tambopata, Peru.

Gender and Agroforestry

Anne Todd Bockarie


Gender and Agroforestry

Trainer: Anne Todd Bockarie

Rationale: Gender roles are implicit in our institutions, attitudes and individual behavior in both
personal and professional spheres. The purpose of gender analysis is to make these implicit roles
explicit to open a dialogue of their impact on research and extension organizational structure,
examine barriers to participation and predict potential outcomes of project interventions.
Examples from the field of agroforestry are used to illustrate these concepts.

Learning Objectives:

The goal of the session is for participants to have discussed the following concepts and
be able to:

1. Define the purpose of gender analysis and how gender may be used as a variable in: a) a
research context, b) extension programming, and c) project implementation.
2. Discuss how gender myths transform and change over time, both historically and through
an individual's lifespan, and give examples of how these roles are embedded in the
decision-making process.

Overhead projector and overheads of gender research
Slide projector and slides of gender roles
Flipchart, tape and markers:
1) Learning objectives and session schedule
2) Four Myths from Fortmann and Rocheleau article
3) Roles of women in forestry (note this should be expanded to include both men
and women)
4) Common Contraints found in forestry organizations

Total Time: 1 hour


Step-by-Step Instructions:



5 min

10 min

10 min

15 min

Lecturette: Gender in research
& policy


Guided Imagery
Close your eyes and go
on a journey to West Africa
Imagine what the people
are doing. Now in silence
view the slides.

Large group discussion
List what the men, women
and children were doing in
the slides compared to your
prediction. What were the
differences in the two images?

Lecturette: Gender Myths/Roles
We carry our hidden cultural
norms with us into the field.
Give examples from forestry.

1) Are realities always the opposite
of these myths?
2) Do these myths differ in urban vs.
rural settings?
3) How do these myths change with
age, class, ethnicity? Can you give
examples from your own work?
4) What were these like 25 years ago?
How will they be 10 years from now?

Overheads: Jamaica,
Burkina, PRA


1) Learning objectives &

15-20 slides of
gender roles in Sierra
Leone. Show men, women
and children's work.

Chalk board
Make columns of what
participants saw
men, women, children
doing compared to
what they imagined.

2) Fortmann & Rocheleau
listing four myths
3) Roles of women in

14 min


Discuss examples:
1) Qualitative data: PRA in Burkina Faso
and who gets interviewed or makes participatory

diagnostic tools influences results.

2) Quantitative data: Jamaica on how
data was disaggregated by gender, age,
farm size for credit applications and
obtaining farm loans.

Extension Targetting
Areas to consider and modify
to increase participation in
extension activities.

Review learning objectives

4) Common constraints

4 min

2 min



A Systems Approach:
The Farm Unit as a System

Elena Bastidas


A Systems Approach : Ecosystem and the Farm Unit as a System

Trainer: Elena Bastidas

Rationale: The central idea of a systems approach is that one must understand a system
before one can influence it in a predictable manner. This approach can be used when working
with rural producers in conservation or development looking at the ecosystem and the farm unit.
Ecosystems are composed of various biological components that interact with each other and
their surrounding physical environment Therefore any changes that occur naturally or
innovations that are induced into the system have an impact (positive and/or negative) on the
other components of the system. It is also helpful to conceptualize the farm unit as a system and
not simply a series of independent components. The system concept facilitates analysis of the in
numerous interactions between household members, the agricultural components, and the natural
resource components that make up the farm unit. Finally it underscores the unique role of each
household member and how they, as individuals, interact with the system.

Learning Objectives:

By the end of the session participants will be able to:

1) Recognize the impacts on an ecosystem when a component is damaged or destroyed.
2) Conceptualize the farm unit (composed of household members, a natural resource
component, an agricultural component, and the external infrastructure) as a system.
3) Explain how the knowledge, responsibilities, and priorities of each household member
varies tremendously.
4) Recognize that the system is very complex and only the sum of the household members
can understand it completely.
5) Use a systems approach to analyze the negative and/or positive impact of a particular
change in a farm system.

Materials: Flipchart 1 (Objectives)
Flipchart 2 (System definition and important components)
Flipchart 3 (Ecosystem definition)
Flipchart 3 (Blank to construct Ecosystem)
Flipchart 4 (partial design of schematic farm model)
Cards with drawing of ecosystem components
large ball of string
Household with members inside
Time: 1 hour

Time Activity

5 min Introduction

Have a Flipchart with the objectives taped in the front of the classroom. Introduce the session
and go over the objectives. Leave objectives up to refer to them during the presentation.

5 min Define a system and important components

Have a flipchart prepared with the definition of a system. A system is a group of interacting
components, operating together for a common purpose, capable of reacting as a whole to external
stimuli: it is unaffected directly by its own outputs and has a specified boundary based on the
inclusion of all significant feedbacks". Important points: 1) many different things can be regarded
as systems (bicycle, a car, a cow, etc.), but we can't say that anything can be a system. It is
important to consider the properties of the systems to identify a system from a non-system and
those properties can be summarized in the phrase "behavior as a whole in response to stimuli to
any part." Thus a collection of unrelated items does not constitute a system. Give the example
of a bag of marbles : if a marble is added or subtracted, a bag of marbles remain and may be
completely unaffected by the change.

20 min. The Ecosystem

2 min. Define Ecosystem. Ask one of the participants to give you the definition of ecosystem
(the concept was already discussed in people and nature session). Have the Flipchart with the
definition to have a visual reference and emphasize the following: 1) It is composed of plants and
animals (biological community) plus the physical environment ( i.e., soil, water, air) that
surrounds them, and 2) the ecosystem has a defined boundary. Relate this concept to systems

10 min Construct the ecosystem. Have a prepared set of cards representing different
components of an ecosystem. Before the beginning of the session have one card in each of the
participants' seats. Instruct the participants to take the card assign to them and stand in a circle.
Have each participant state what they are (have the name of the component written in the back
of each drawing.) Select one ecosystem component and begin an ecosystem story that tells of
how that component is connected to a second one. Physically connect the two with a string,
unraveling the ball of string from the first to the second component. Continue with the story
explaining how the second component is connected with a third. Make clear that the way they
should be holding the string is letting the string go around one of the fingers so they can feel the
tension when connecting the different components. Continue in this manner until the entire
ecosystem is interconnected, each person should be connected at least once with the string. By
the end there should be an entire web of strings connecting the participants. Explain that we have
connected just a small fraction of the components that actually interact in the ecosystem. The
system is very fine tuned and has evolved over millions of years.

Time Activity

5 min Ecosystem damage. Select one component and demonstrate what happens if it is damage
or destroyed. Instruct the person with the card to let go of their stringss. Then ask what
happens to the other components of the system. What did they feel? Did some parts of the
ecosystem felt the damage more than others?. Choose other component of the system and do it

3 min Implications. State that it is the realization of these intricate interlinkages that has led
conservationists to adopt a systems approach Ask the group what major component of the
ecosystem has been left out? Humans. Discuss the fact that human being are the single
biological component that have the greatest impact on almost all ecosystems. Mention that the
next activity in this session will focus on human element. Ask participants to take their cards and
tape them to the blank ecosystems Flipchart before going back to their seats.

25 min The Farm Unit as a System

Using the systems approach we can look at the farm unit as a system. To give a general
background to all the participants will focus on a case study from the readings (Central America
Highlands system). Mention some of the characteristics of the system so participants remember
the readings.
5 min Construct the farm model Place a pre-prepared farming system model on the wall. The
model should have the following categories: 1) Household members, 2) Crops, 3) Domestic
animals, 4) External infrastructure and 5) Natural Resources. After the model is presented ask
participants to brainstorm a list of the most common components under each category. Point out
that the components under natural resources could include the entire list of components that
where just used in the ecosystems activity.

5 min Connect the components. Solicit the connections between components of the system
based on the Guatemalan case study. Begin with one common crop and ask what the household
members do with that crop. Pick one color marker and draw lines that connect the crop with the
other components in other categories. Continue in the exercise with at least 2 other interaction
series, using a different color marker each time. The model should be covered with a web of
interconnecting lines, reminiscent of the ecosystem. Point this out to the participants, and tell
them that we have just observed that the farm unit is truly a system, which was one of our

5 min Household members. Return to the household, and tell the participants that we have
placed the household members in the center of the model because it is here that all decisions about
the farm unit are made. We want to emphasize that although the household is considered one
component and often acts a s a unit, (physically open the household to reveal the actual
members) it is composed of various members that have very different types of knowledge,
responsibilities, and priorities. This is another of our objectives.

Time Activity

Solicit more information about the roles of the various members of the household. The case study
does not dissagregate by gender in great detail but they could draw from their own experience
and background. Go over the components that have been previously discussed and linked and
ask the participants who does what regarding those activities. Use symbols to represent who
does what activities. Point out that once we gender dissagregate the model gets even more
complex, pointing out the objective that the system is very complex and only the sum of the
household members can understand it completely.

10 min Changes in the system. Solicit from the group how an introduced technology might
cause changes throughout the system (i.e., introduction of a new corn variety). This is time for
the participants to use all the concepts learned and use the systems approach to analyze the
negative and/or positive impact of a particular change (introduction of a technology) in a farm

5 min Closure

To bring the session to closure point out that' the ecosystem or natural resources sustain the farm
(bring the household from schematic model to the ecosystems flipchart) but farms do not exist
in isolation, usually they are part of communities. Draw with a marker small houses simulating
a Community. We can use the same systems approach to talk about and analyze how
communities function.

Origin of Session:

This session was adapted by Elena Bastidas from two sessions "Ecosystems" and "The Farm Unit
as a System" presented by Karen Kainer and by Jon Dain in previous MERGE workshops in Peru
and Ecuador.

Toward a Better Dialogue:
Considerations for Interviews and Meetings

Jonathan Dain

Toward a Better Dialogue: Considerations for Interviews and Meetings

Trainer: Jonathan Dain

Rationale: At the heart of all participatory tools for collecting and exchanging information lies
the need for establishing an open dialogue between two or more people. Interview guides
normally provide help in questionnaire design but do not generally address many of the social and
logistical factors that affect information collection. These same social and logistical factors also
affect information exchange at forums like community meetings. By considering how social and
logistical factors affect information collection and exchange we can better understand how to
create an atmosphere where open dialogue is possible and thus where participatory tools can be
effectively used.


To analyze the effect of gender and class on an interview
To discuss common errors committed while interviewing
To discuss and analyze the impact of logistics on community participation

Time: 60 Minutes

Number of Participants: 17

1. Flip chart, markers and tape
2. Hand out #1 "An extension visit"
3. Handout #2 "Common errors committed while interviewing"
4. Handout #3 Logistical considerations when organizing a meeting"
5. Role play explanation sheet.
6. Props: baseball hats, sunglasses, camera, bottle of water, etc.


1) 2 min. "OPENER"

To break the ice with the participants a short opener should be used. Ask a simple but discussion
provoking question related to the topic at hand. Ex.: "What topics have been covered class up
until today?"

2) 3 min. INTRODUCTION TO TOOLS (Lecturette)

Explain that up until this point in the course we have been discussing concepts related to gender
and natural resource management. Today's session marks the first in a series that will help us
begin to consider how to apply these concepts in research and project settings. We will examine
"tools" for information collection, organization, analysis and exchange and work to develop the
knowledge and skills to apply them in the field. Ask the participants"What is a research tool?"
Make the comparison between tools for collecting information and tools for building a table. We
need the right tools to build specific things (Hammer, saw, plane, plane...etc) just as we need the
right tools to collect or transmit specific information.

On the wall, place a poster with a list of tools on it. Explain that these are the tools that will be
introduced and discussed over the next few weeks and that all were chosen for their utility in
collecting organizing and analyzing N.R.M. data disaggregated by gender. Ask the group what
these tools have in common. The answers to look for are that they are participatory in nature and
that they all begin with an interview.

Explain to the group that knowing how to interview is a skill fundamental to using any of the
participatory tools and that today's session 'is designed to help prepare us for using these tools.

3) 1 min. OBJECTIVES

Place the session title page on the wall, followed by a sheet with the session objectives. Pass out
copies of the three handouts and request that participants look only at the top one.

4) 15 min. "AN EXTENSION VISIT" (skit)

Briefly introduce the session by explaining that the group should carefully observe the skit and
look for gender, class and power relationships. Select two volunteers, give both a script and give
one a baseball cap and sunglasses. Read off the introductory paragraph and have the two
volunteers read off the dialogue. (see attached "An Extension Visit")

Review the dialogue phrase by phrase so that the participants can evaluate how roles changed in
that short span of conversation between the extensionist and the farmer. Their answers should
be recorded on a Flipchart with the following matrix:



The matrix can be completed by noting things like the extensionist ignoring the woman (despite
her obvious association with the corn crop) and talking to Pedro about children's health issues
in the gender quadrant (Man Man). In the "class" quadrant can be listed things like sunglasses
and the motor boat and the relationships of "Professor -- Student", "Benefactor -- Beneficiary",
and "Doctor -- Patient". These relationships should be discussed in terms of how they were
established in such a short dialogue. Summarize by noting that an interview is a dialogue and is
both art and science with MANY variables to consider including gender and class.

5) 20 min Common Interview Errors (role play)

Explain that now that we have looked at some gender and class variables, we are going to
observe and discuss other things to consider when carrying out an interview. Five volunteers
should have been chosen previous to this point and given 15 minutes (and some props) to read
over the role play instructions and prepare. (see attachment -interview role play and common

Introduce the five actors and explain that they will be presenting a role play of an interview that
should be carefully observed.

The role play is presented.

Process the role play by asking the group what kinds of errors they were able to identify. Record
their answers on a blackboard or Flipchart and discuss, including asking for personal examples
for these or other errors. Conclude by pointing out the myraid of factors that can affect the
establishment of an open dialogue and thus the completion of a credible interview. These factors
should be kept in mind when using the research tools that will be presented in later sessions.

6) 10 min LOGISTICAL CONSIDERATIONS (worksheet and discussion)

Present the final activity. It is designed to help the participants recognize the impact of logistical
considerations on community participation in meetings. Such meetings are often used as settings
for information collection as well as exchange so the establishment of an open dialogue is again
important. Ask the group to turn to the final handout entitled "Logistical considerations when
organizing a meeting". Have a larger version of the hand out drawn on a newsprint sheet and
post it. Run through the examples with the participants, recording their answers.


1. A meeting to present project objectives
is held in the Catholic Church
2. Saturday is the day marked for communal
work in the tree nursery.

3. A demonstration of a new agricultural
technology is held in a field located one
hours walk from the community
4. A video is presented to the community at 11:00 am
and followed by a discussion that goes until 1:00
5. Presentation of a project on traditional medicine
using medicinal plants is held in the local health
6. A meeting to present a project is held in an
indigenous community where only the young men
speak Spanish. The project representative speaks only

To conclude the activity, place a final poster on the wall with the
following type of summary:


1. Invitations/communication (clear, not too early, not too late)
2. Place: School, church, communal house or community center
3. Distance: Near, far, for whom?
4. Day: Saturday or Sunday (religion?), markets, beliefs
5. Time: Day, night, eating time
6. Language: Accessible, national, native


Review the objectives pointing out that we looked at gender and class issues in an interview,
common errors in interviewing in general and finally the implications of logistics in general on
community participation in meetings and thus the atmosphere for dialogue. Conclude by asking
the group to remember that research tools are not useful if you do not have the skills and
knowledge to apply them and if the moment at which they are used is not appropriate for
establishing an open dialogue. Ask for questions and check off "The Interview" on the previously
posted tools list.

Origin of the Session:

Many of the ideas for this session, particularly the "An extension visit" and Logistical
considerations" exercises were originally developed by Jorge Recharte, Professor of anthropology
at FLACSO (Facultad Latinoamericano de Ciencias Sociales) in Quito, Ecuador. The "Common
errors during interviewing session" was developed through work with NGOs in the Brazilian


A project extensionist arrives at a community on the Malinowski river in his project's new
motorboat. It is very hot out so he puts on his favorite cap, the one that says "Shell" on the front,
along with his ray-ban sunglasses to protect against the glare. He climbs to shore form the boat
and approaches Don Pedro's house. Don Pedro, a colonist farmer, has been recommended as
someone who might have interest in working with the project. He is sitting in front of the house
sharpening his machete. His wife Maria is seated a few yards away stripping corn cobs of their
dried, yellow grains.

EXTENSIONIST: Sefior Pedro Balarezo?

PEDRO: (Taking off his hat) Yes? Good morning, What can I do for you?

EXTENSIONIST: Hello, I work with the "Tropical Permaculture and Gender in Sustainable
Development" project. You were recommended to me as a progressive thinking farmer and thus
someone who might be interested in participating in our project.

PEDRO: Well...sir...um, thank yolA for coming to visit me. My family was the first to
arrive in this area. Actually we are planting corn right now, I also have cassava and plantains
planted. I used to hunt and fish, but not any more.

EXTENSIONIST: Actually, our project is going to address the problems of this area via an
alternative proposal, permaculture. I would like to see your corn field to see what kinds of pests
are attacking and what kind of solutions we can offer.

PEDRO: Well, actually we don't have much in the way of problems with our corn...

EXTENSIONIST: (interrupting...) But I have heard that there is a problem with fungus
attacking the ears when there is a lot of rain. Actually I've just come from a neighboring
community where I saw that this was an important problem. But you're right, the problems with
plantains are worse and also the price for plantains has really dropped, right?

PEDRO: Yes sir, the price has dropped.

EXTENSIONIST: I'd like to see your crops now because I have a lot to do and I have to get
back to town by this afternoon. Oh, have I told you that our project might be able to provide
funds for latrine construction? That's another way we could help you because I see that there
are sanitation problems in this community. Your kids obviously have parasite problems which
are easy to prevent.

PEDRO: Yes sir, Thank you.


EXTENSIONIST: No problem, we're here to serve you. So, let's go see your fields!

SINTERVIEW ROLE PLAY (for volunteer actors only)

Thanks for agreeing to help!! I would like you to prepare and present a role play. The idea is
that a team of interviewers is carrying out an interview with a family of farmers in a poor rural
area in Latin America. Using the attached sheet of interview errors, design a 3-5 minute skit that
includes about 10 of the errors (it can be 5, it can be 15, whatever you can comfortably squeeze
in). After the role play, the rest of the class will discuss your skit and attempt to identify the
errors so that we can discuss them. The role play does not need to be anything fancy, just have
some fun.

(hand out for actors and for class)

1. Not making introductions
2. Not explaining the reason for the interview
3. Using complicated, technical language
4. Interrupting persons being interviewed
5. Interrupting fellow interviewers
6. Disagreeing with answers of the persons being interviewed or answering for
them (answering the question of a fellow interviewer)
7. Ignoring women and children
8. 'Asking leading questions
9. Not thanking persons being interviewed
10. Arriving at lunchtime
11. Not asking the persons if it is an appropriate moment for an interview
12. Asking for fruit, eggs or other items to take with you
13. Criticize aspects of the life of those being interviewed
14. Using inappropriate body language
15. Looking at a watch, acting impatient or becoming angry
16. Helping the persons interviewed with answers
17. Taking pictures without asking permission
18. Drinking bottled water during interview (depends on location)
19. Giving advice on technical matters
20. Interviewers talking about non-related subject with each other in front of those being


1. Invitations/communication (clear, not too early, not too late)
2. Place: School, church, communal house or community center
3. Distance: Near, far, for whom?
4. Day: Saturday or Sunday (religion?), markets, beliefs
5. Time: Day, night, eating time
6. Language: Accessible, national, native

~-. ~A


Gender Analysis Tools:
Activities Analysis and Seasonal Calendars

Elena Bastidas and Cristina Espinosa

Gender Analysis Tools: Activities Analysis and Seasonal Calendar

Trainers: Elena Bastidas and Cristina Espinosa

Rationale: This session is an introduction to the Gender Analysis Framework and focuses
specifically on two Gender Analysis Tools: Activities Analysis, also called Activity Profile and
Seasonal Calendars. It highlights the importance of Gender Analysis, and of the Activity Profile
and Seasonal Calendars as analytical tools for research, planning and community development.

Training Objectives:
By the end of this session participants will be:
1. exposed to a broad range of Gender Analysis Tools.
2. able to analyze an activity analysis and a seasonal calendar constructed in class.
3. able to discuss the uses and limitations of activities analysis and seasonal calendars.

Materials and equipment:
overhead projector,
flip charts with the Gender Analysis Framework
flip charts with tools: Activities Analysis and Seasonal Calendars.
masking tape
flip chart markers

Time allocation: 1 hour


Time Activity

3 min Introduction
Have a Flipchart with the objectives in front of the classroom. Introduce the session and go over
the objectives. Leave objectives up, refer to them during the session.

12 min What questions to ask?
2 min. Have 3 different landscape posters taped in each corer of the classroom. Each landscape
poster will represent a different place in a remote country. Divide participants into 4 groups.
Each group will be assigned to one of the 3 landscape posters. Ask the following question to the
groups: Imagine you are part of a consultant team that has been hired to work in the area
represented by the landscape in front of you. What questions would you like to ask to know
something more about that specific place?
5 min. Give 5 min to each group to complete the activity. Using a Flipchart, one of the members
of the group will record the questions generated by the group.

Time Activity

3 min. Each group will report back on the list of questions they generate. From the questions
each group have generated point that in order for all these questions to be useful we need to
organize them. Go over some of the questions underlying questions corresponding to who is
doing what, when, where, etc. Make the point that Gender Analysis help us organize all these
questions so that these can be analyze.
2 min. Show a Flipchart with the gender Analysis Framework. Showing the questions and the
Gender Analysis tools related to the questions. Next underline the 2 tools we are going to focus
on today: Activity Analysis and Seasonal Calendars.

10 min Definition/Description of the Tools.
For Activities Analysis give definition, describe how the tool is used, show various examples of
the tool, U.F. Students Activity Profile, A Small farm Family of Guatemala and A Gainesville
Recycling Family. (Use overhead, interactive lecture, handouts and flip-charts). See handouts
For Seasonal Calendars just give definition and introduce the tool in a general form to allowed
the students to discover more about the tool trough the following activity.

20 min Construction of Seasonal Calendars in small groups
Divide the class into 3 groups, each group will work in the construction of a seasonal calendar
using one of the Activity Profiles presented previously. Give 15 minutes to the groups to finish
the task. Provide material for reporting back, (flip-chart, markers, tape). The trainers will serve
as facilitator in the groups to help them accomplish the activity. Each group will post the
calendars when finish.

13 min Analysis of the tools
A member of each group will start with reporting back, and the analysis of the tool. Ask the
other members of the group to comment on how useful is the tool, how they felt constructing the
tool, the pros and cons of the Seasonal Calendars. Give 5 minutes to each group.

2 min Closure
Summarize the activities in this session and go back to the objectives relating each activity with
the corresponding objective.

Origin of the Session:

This session was adapted from previous sessions presented by Elena Bastidas and Cristina

Stakeholder Analysis


Marianne Schmink




II -

Stakeholder Analysis

Trainer: Marianne Schmink

Rationale: Effective resource management for conservation requires negotiation among
multiple, often conflicting, groups differentiated by their relations to the resources in question by
gender, wealth, ethnicity, race, social origins, and other variables. The concept of"stakeholder"
helps to identify the groups and individuals and their distinct "stakes" or interests in specific
resources or habitats, their relationships to one another, and relative power. "Stakeholder
analysis" refers to different ways of systematically analyzing these relationships. The
understanding of multiple, sometimes conflicting uses and user groups is a useful way to focus
attention on gender and other social variables.

Learning Objectives:

By the end of the session the participants will be able to:

1. Define the concept of stakeholder.
2. Apply the stakeholder analysis.
3. Discuss different ways of doing stakeholder analysis.

Flip chart, markers and tape
Cut paper circles of different colors and sizes
Background information on Pwani case
Examples of stakeholder analysis

Time: 60 minutes

Number of Participants: 14

Steps and Activities:
5 MIN Introduction. Introduce the topic of stakeholder analysis and state the objectives of the

5 MIN What is a Stakeholder? Ask the group to define the term "stakeholder" and the concept
of"stake" (or "interest"). After ideas have been contributed by the group and briefly discussed,
post the definition on a piece of flip chart paper: "A stakeholder is an individual or group who
has the power to affect, or is in a position to be affected by, the situation in question." Contrast
to other definitions (such as in reading by Honadle and Cooper) that do not focus on both power
to influence as well as impact.

10 MIN Introduction to Pwani case. Provide an overview of the Pwani case, with slides
(presented by Sandra Russo).

10 MIN Define stakeholders in relation to Pwani. Ask the participants to list all the
stakeholders that they can think of in relation to the Pwani case. Make sure to ask (if no one else
does) whether or not animals and other "natural resources" are stakeholders, without trying to
reach a consensus. Lead the group to define the 8-10 most important stakeholders.

20 MIN Stakeholder analysis

1) Assign two or three participants to represent each stakeholder. Ask them to rank their
stakeholder's power, on a scale of 1 to 3 (with 3 the highest). Distribute to each group of two,
a cut paper circle of a size that corresponds to their ranking.

2) Ask each stakeholder, in turn, to place their circle on a page to graphically represent
the relations among stakeholders. Circles may touch and overlap.

3) Lead an open discussion of the resulting graphic representation. Ask questions like:
What does this graph show you? How ard these power relations likely to change in five or ten
years? What steps could be taken to "empower" the less powerful stakeholders?

5 MIN Kinds of stakeholder analysis Solicit ideas about different forms of stakeholder analysis
that could be used, including the matrix format presented in the Honable and Cooper reading,
qualitative and participatory approaches, and ways to quantify "power" and "stakes." Explain
option of small group exercises and show slides from Quito session.

5 MIN Conclusions Ask participants to reflect on how/why stakeholder analysis might be used
and why it is important to introduce gender. Make sure to focus on the importance of
recognizing potential for conflict, and how gender may be related to other variables.

Origin of the Session:

Marianne Schmink adapted this shorter version for a MERGE training-of-trainers course at the
University of Florida, from a session developed by Jon Dain for use at the conference sponsored
by the Nature Conservancy in Quito in 1995. His version, in turn, was adapted from a session
presented by Suely Anderson in Manaus, Brazil, based on sessions she had seen presented by
WWF and MSI.

Project Evaluation

Trainer: Shari A. Bush


This session will focus on project evaluation through the use of a written case study, slide
presentation, and group exercises.


By the end of this session, the students will have:

1. familiarized themselves with some of the ways in which a case study can be used in
2. learned at least one method for evaluating a project,
3. learned some of the issues that should be considered when evaluating a project, and
4. evaluated a project based on a real-life case study.

Session Steps

Time Activity

5 min. Introduction

15 min. Slide presentation of the Centro Maya project in Guatemala.

5 min. Instructions for small group exercises.

20 min. Small group exercises.
Students were divided into groups of four or five people and asked as a group to
fill out the chart (see handout) based on their evaluation of the project described
in the case study.

15 min. Class discussion.
The facilitator filled in a master chart on the board based on the information
provided by the students. Each point, as well as project evaluations in general,
were discussed as a group.


by Shari A. Bush


The Peten is an area of lowland tropical forest, low mountain ranges and open cattle
range. Covering roughly one-third of the total national territory of Guatemala, the Pet6n is one
of Central America's last frontiers. Since the decline of the Mayan Empire, the Pet6n has been
a sparsely settled region. Until just a few decades ago, about the only product that came out of
the Pet6n was chicle, the raw material for chewing gum. There were no roads running into the
area from the rest of Guatemala, and so the forests remained unspoiled.

Today the face of the Pet6n has changed. Thousands of people from the crowded and
overworked lands of the south have moved to the Pet6n, placing tremendous pressure on the
fragile ecosystem. In the last twenty-five years, the population has soared from 65,000 to
350,000. Some of the forest remains untouched, but wide swaths run across the landscape
wherever a road has been build and the land cleared for farming. Current deforestation rates are
estimated at about 40,000 ha/year. Illegal forestry activities, drug trafficking, guerrilla activity,
deforestation caused by cattle ranching and subsistence agriculture and a chronic isolation from
primary government services are major problems confronting the Pet6n.

Tourism is the major economic activity of the region, with a focus on eco-tourism and
adventure tourism. There are 73 major archeological sites in the Pet6n, with Tikal being the most
famous and highly developed. The Peten already produces a large surplus of corn, and various
hardwoods and non-timber forest products are exported. Petroleum deposits are now being
tapped. For the local people, most income comes primarily from agriculture, livestock, and labor;
and secondarily from the extraction of timber and non-timber forest products, and tourism. The
predominant agricultural crops are corn, beans, rice, tubers and fruit trees. The major non-timber
forest products are xate (floral greens market), chicle, allspice and the hunting of wild animals.

Guatemala is one of 12 Latin American countries that have joined the worldwide effort
to preserve the remaining tropical forests by creating protected areas called biosphere reserves.
The Maya Biosphere Reserve (MBR) in the Peten was created in 1990. It is the largest tropical
forest reserve in Central America and the second largest in the Americas. The MBR is comprised
of 1.5 million hectares divided evenly into core zones (strict conservation area supposedly without
human habitation) and multiple-use zones (sparsely settled areas where only ecologically
sustainable land-use systems are permitted). The reserve is surrounded by a relatively populated
15 km wide strip called the buffer zone.


The community of Bethel lies on the banks of the Usumacinta River in the Western Peten,
the area of highest biodiversity in the entire region. Bethel, like most of the communities in this
area, is organized as a cooperative. Under this system, the members share resources in a
communal form. Due in part to the cooperative organization of the communities along the river,
a large part of the forest in this area is still conserved.

Bethel was formed as a cooperative in 1975 by ladino (non-indigenous) immigrants from
the southern coast of Guatemala. Currently, the community is comprised of 56 families,
representing a population of about 300. Of its total of 4,149 hectares, most of Bethel is located
within the buffer zone of the MBR. About 10% falls within the core zone. None of the land is
in the multiple-use zone. Over two-thirds of Bethel is still forested. The forests are used as
hunting grounds and for the extraction of construction materials, fuelwood, and some minor
forest products. Bethel is accessible by a fairly adequate road and by river.

Most of the households have multiple sources of income, but over half the households still
have incomes under US$850 a year. Cattle ranching followed by agriculture, principally slash and
burn agriculture with a focus on corn, are the primary economic activities. In particular, chile
peppers have traditionally been an important income-generating activity. Labor, particularly in
river transport and the logging industry, offers an important source of income. Most commercial
agricultural activity is channeled to Mexico, but the devaluation of the Mexican peso has affected

Some 18 percent of adult males and 32 percent of adult females are illiterate. About 7
percent of household are headed by women. The population can satisfy caloric needs, but basic
health needs are not consistently satisfied, and access to health services is minimal. Intestinal
parasites and other diseases such as malaria and dengue fever are common.

Bethel lies along the tourist route to some well known Mayan ruins in Mexico. Because
of its strategic location, as well as an ancient Mayan cenote (sacrificial well) nearby, Bethel, with
the support of some NGO's, is currently developing low-impact tourism. A small 25 person
informal tourist lodge, which will be owned and administered by the community, is nearing


El Proyecto Centro Maya is an agricultural and environmental research and extension
NGO that is working with communities in and around the Maya Biosphere Reserve. Centro
Maya's goal is to improve the standard of living of existing and future populations of the Peten,
while maintaining or enhancing the integrity of the region's biodiversity and natural resource base.
To reach this goal, Centro Maya is working to develop land use systems that are both

economically viable in the short-run and ecologically sustainable in the long-run. Centro Maya
believes that in order to promote development, you cannot look at production components in
isolation. An integrated and participatory approach by a multidisciplinary team is called for.
Centro Maya perceives its role as one of facilitator in the development process.

Centro Maya involves the community at all levels of the decision-making process. In each
community where Centro Maya works, local committees are formed by select community
members who express an interest and leadership qualities. These committees are actively involved
in all phases of the project cycle needs assessment, project design, implementation, monitoring
and evaluation. Of course no member of the community is deliberately excluded from the
committees, but Centro Maya uses these committees, comprised almost solely of adult males,
essentially as a focal group and advisory board. Sustainability and replicability occur through
farmer to farmer contact. Centro Maya recognizes, however, that they need to work more with
all members of the family and household, meaning that they need to expand their work to
integrate women and children more into development activities.

Recently, Centro Maya has undertaken a number of efforts to include the gender
dimension in their work. The entire staff of Centro Maya received an intensive two-day gender
analysis training workshop, and three female extensionists were hired, with two more on the way,
to work with the women and children in the communities. Two of the extensionists, along with
their male colleagues, are now living and working in Bethel.

Over the past few years, Centro Maya's work in Bethel has focused on: 1. the
diversification of crops and the introduction of legume cover crops to improve crop yields
(particularly corn); 2. livestock management and pasture rotation systems; and 3. sustainable
forest management and extraction for both timber and non-timber forest products.

In Bethel, women are only sporadically involved in working the agricultural fields and
cattle pastures, so Centro Maya has concentrated on working with the men. Again with their
forest management and extraction activities, Centro Maya is focussing their work on men,
partially just out of habit, but also because it can be physically challenging work. The women will
extract non-timber forest products and some fuelwood from the forest, but most forest activities,
including the majority of fuelwood collection, is performed by the men.

Women's normal daily activities tend to focus around the home itself and they only
occasionally venture into the agricultural fields, cattle pastures or even the forest. Therefore,
Centro Maya is now working with the women, through the formation of women's groups, in
activities that are quite separate from the men's. The main activity is training in the construction
and use of fuel-saving stoves to replace the more open-flame methods employed now. These
stoves not only require less fuelwood for cooking, but the smoke is channeled to the outside of
the home. These stoves help decrease deforestation for fuelwood, save time in both cooking and
fuelwood collection, cook more evenly, and decrease the incidence of pulmonary and eye
problems caused by constant exposure to smoke.


Centro Maya is also working with the women on the improvement of home gardens,
which are often undervalued by development planners. With a focus on organic gardening,
Centro Maya is experimenting with the women on the introduction and improvement of native
and some exotic plants, principally chaya, macal, amaranth, onions, tomatoes and lettuce. In
addition, the women are receiving training in canning/preserving and bread making.


Due to the dedication and skill of its staff, Centro Maya has been able to achieve
remarkable results from its work in Bethel and other communities. To ensure continued success
and the sustainability of development efforts, Centro Maya recognizes the need to integrate
women and children more into the development process. As presented in this case study, Centro
Maya has already taken the initial steps to ensure that this happens, but much more still needs to
be done.








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Experience. In: Technology and Rural Women Conceptual and Empirical Issues. Edited
by Ahmed. London. (Session: Gender and Agroforestry.)

Bunch, Roland. 1982. Paternalism, enthusiasm and participation. In: Two ears of corn.
World Neighbors. pp: 18-36 (Session: A systems approach: Ecosystems and The farm
unit as a system.)

Bush, S. 1995. Micro and Macro Dynamics. (Not published). (Session: Project Evaluation)

Bush, S. 1995. The Bethel Cooperative and Proyecto Maya: A Case Study from the Peten,
Guatemala. (Not published). (Session: Project Evaluation)

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Honadle, G. and Cooper L. 1989. Beyond Coordination and Control: An Interorganizational
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Clark University, November 1992. (Session: Stakeholder Analysis)

Moffat, L. 1992. The Gender and Development approach as an alternative to Women In
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Canada.pp. 8-15(Session: Rationale for WID through GAD.)

Moser, C. 1989. Gender Planning in the Third World: Meeting Practical and Strategic Gender
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Rhoades, R. 1982. The Art of the Informal Agricultural Survey. Training Document. CIP. Lima
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Lesson Plans


Lesson Plans

Application of Concepts and Tools: Gender Analysis of a Case Study
Dorota Haman and Vicky Michener

Who Does What? Gender Roles
Annie Hermansen and Heisel Villalobos

Simulating a City Commission Meeting for Community Participation
Nancy'Myers and Amanda Perdomo

Participatory Rural Appraisal
Noemi Porro and Kevin Veach

Generating Ideas
Francisco Cartaxo and Mike Kenney

Using Resource Analysis to Determine Access and Control
Janet Puhalla and Amanda Stronza

A Game for Considering Resource Use Options
Katie Lynch and Palma Ingles

Objectifying the Function of Gender Analysis with Farming Systems in the
Brazilian Northwest Amazon
Abib Araujo and Eduardo Romero


Application of Concepts and Tools:
Gender Analysis of a Case Study


Dorota Haman and Vicky Michener

m I

Rural Development International

Gender and Participation in Irrigation Projects
November 5-7, 1995
Somewhere, West Africa

8:)0 Introduction., Ice-breaker, ...: Tools for Increasing Participation Application of concepts and tools
Expectations, bjiecties jand : and for Gender Analysis to IRFP
MIlethods lecture-discussion, demonstration, and exercises small group decision-making, planning

10:30 Needs Assessment (problems with continued present to large group
IRFP and potential reasons for
guided discussion and brainstorning

2:30 Participation and Gender Theory Application of Concepts and Tools large groupevaluation and discussion of the
lecture-discussion and exercises gender analysis of a case-study in small groups sma roup

3:15 Practice of Concepts (re-examine small groups apply a tool to the case study '^SiNimWiry and Questions,
IRFP) Evaluati 6n and Closing
guided discussion "
Sunnmary ad Q stio S Quesiiuid ryad Qestions : .. :.' : ,

Application of Concepts and Tools: Gender Analysis of a Case Study

Trainer: Dorota Haman Vicky Michener

Rationale: This session occurs during the Experience portion of the learning cycle. The
participants have already learned theoretically about the gender analysis tools. Now they will
have an opportunity to work on a case study in a small-group problem solving situation to analyze
another irrigation project and decide for themselves how and if the tools they have learned about
would be useful in correcting the project. This session is important because by working on study
questions in their groups, participants will undergo affective learning in which the realize the
importance of gender issues in the success of a project and feel the need for an equity approach,
as well.

Learning Objectives:

1. Recognize the need for a gender approach in the case study.
2. Evaluate the usefulness of various gender analysis tools to the case study.

Time: 45 Minutes

Materials Required:
slide projector
chalk and board
butcher paper and markers


Time Activity

2 min. Activity 1: Climate Setting
review 3-day plan
overall objectives of the training
where the current session fits in

2 min. Activity 2: Goal Clarification
go over posted objectives

5 min. Activity 3: Introduction to the experience
slide presentation and brief description of the case
hand out case study to those who don't have it

14 min. Activity 4: Small group exercise
explain the exercise (2 min.) Participants break into small groups of no more than
five. They have read the case study in advance, but can take a minute to quietly
reread it.
Then, as a group they write answers to the following questions: 1) How do you
explain the Mandinka women's behavior? 2) What are the implications of this
project from an efficiency point of view? an equity point of view? 3) What gender
analysis tools would allow you to better understand the situation? How? Why?
and What do you learn from the tool?
group sessions for 12 min.

20 min. Activity 5: Processing
large group discussion of the study questions lead by the trainers, go over each
question asking each group in turn how they answered it and then seeing if the
other groups have anything to add. Next move into a generalizing stage by asking
what the lessons to be learned from the this case study are and what suggestions
the participants can give to avoid these problems in the future or the correct the

2 min. Activity 6: Closing
review objectives
remind them they will do the same thing with their own project the next day
move them into the next session in which the same small groups will choose a
specific gender analysis tool and analyze the case study in depth with that tool.


Informal monitoring is the evaluation method for this session. Observe the participants
interaction in their groups to see if the affective learning appears to be taking place. Judging from
the group answers to the study questions, evaluate whether the participants have understood the
importance of the gender approach and the uses and shortcomings of each tool.


Rural Development International

Gender and Participation in Irrigation Projects
November 5-7, 1995
Somewhere, West Africa
Trainers: Dorota Haman and Vicky Michener

Scenario: An African field office of the NGO, Rural Development International, requested that
the organization's main office in Gainesville, Florida, USA, provide a training for its extension
agents. The field office's project, IRFP (Irrigated Rice Fields Project), has been experiencing
some difficulties: some plots are left uncultivated; the rice yield is so low that the project cannot
pay for itself. The NGO's Field Office Administrator (FOA) suspects that women are
withholding their labor and that men are discouraged as a result. To address the problem, the
FOA wants to have her extension agents trained in participatory methods and gender analysis.
The overall goal of the training is to improve project planning and implementation through an
understanding of participatory methods and gender analysis. The participants will be able to
identify the problems in the IRFP and produce workable action plans for improving participation
in the IRFP.

Audience: The training participants are African extension agents, working for the NGO. They
do the technical outreach work but are fairly autonomous in planning their own actions. They
participate in the planning and design of projects although the FOA does the actual grant writing.
The extension agents' all have high school-equivalent diplomas plus technical training in
agriculture. They are mostly men, although some women community development agents have
recently been transferred into the agriculture sector from the health sector. The agents have 1 to
10 years of experience leading community meetings and teaching technical skills to rural people.
This is their first formal introduction to gender issues, although they are aware of the social
aspects of development, in general.

Additional Background Information: The extension agents have been given a one-page case
study to read for one of the training sessions. This session lasts 45 minutes and will take place
on Monday, November 6, 1995. By this time, the participants have already learned some basic
GAD theory (progression of approaches, women's triple role) and they have been introduced to
a wide variety of gender analysis tools: activities analysis, farming systems calendar, resource
analysis, benefits and incentives analysis, and inclusion analysis.


Rural Development International

Application of Concepts and Tools: Gender Analysis of a Case Study


In The Gambia, Mandinka women cultivate rice, the subsistence crop. Before the introduction
of peanuts as a cash crop, men grew millet and sorghum for local consumption. Now, however,
men grow peanuts for export and women grow the household staple, rice. Among the Mandinka,
there is an important distinction between two types of farmed plots: 1) "domestic" plots in which
women provide the majority of the labor. The yield is assumed to be for household consumption,
but men have ultimate control over the output and 2) "individual" plots are given to household
members by the (male) head of the household in compensation for their labor in the "domestic"
plots. Male and female farmers can dispose of the produce from their individual plots as they
desire. Men grow peanuts in the highlands in their individual plots. Women grow rice in the
swampland fields, which they usually sell to buy clothes for children or to buy food supplements
for family meals. The individual plot is the only access to cash income for most women.


The Gambia is highly dependent on rice imports to feed the population. In order to reduce
imports, The Gambia implemented the Jahaly Pacharr project in 1984. The project's goal was
to expand domestic rice production and ensure marketable rice surpluses, without interfering with
rainy-season peanut cultivation. It was a large-scale pump and tidal irrigation scheme which
incorporated most of the swamp rice land in the country, affecting 2000 households in 70 villages.
Regardless of previous ownership and use, swampland was appropriated and redistributed to
households as "domestic" plots, by project managers. The cultivation calendar, seed varieties,
and inputs were dictated and households were required to double crop (farm in both wet and dry
seasons) in order to meet productivity requirements and repay their loans. The project demanded
an intensification of family labor and it was expected that women would provide the bulk of this
labor. Even with machines for soil preparation and irrigation, rice production in the Jahaly
Pacharr plots required 60% more labor per unit of land than traditional swamp cultivation.

THE RESULTS At first, rice yields quadrupled under this project, and the surplus was sold
for profit; household income doubled in some cases. However, by 1987 the project was
producing only half of the anticipated rice yield and by 1990, a third of the production families


were in default on their loans, due to chronic labor constraints. Meanwhile, women were
engaging in collective bargaining. They asked for official acknowledgment of their individual
crop rights. They tried to convince project mangers to designate the remaining project land as
"individual," but failed. They then tried to negotiate their rights within their villages and
households. Women demanded remuneration, from their husbands, for their labor in the
profitable irrigated plots. Some women were successful in receiving compensation, but most
were not. Where women did not receive any compensation, they withdrew their labor,
boycotting the project. As a result, (male) farmers were unable to adhere to the cropping
schedule, experienced difficulty repaying loans and project yields fell.


Blumberg, Rae Lesser
1991 Income Under Female Versus Male Control: Hypotheses from a Theory of Gender
Stratification and Data from the Third World. In Gender, Family, and Economy: The
Triple Overlap. Pp. 97-127. Sage.

Bunch, Roland
1982 Paternalism, Enthusiasm and Participation. In Two Ears of Corn Pp. 18-36., World

Carney, Judith
1991 Disciplining Women? Rice, Mechanization, and the Evolution of Mandinka Gender
Relations in Senegambia. Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society. Vol. 16, no.
41. Pp. 651-681.

1991 Indigenous Soil and Water Management in Senegambian Rice Farming Systems.
Agriculture and Human Values. Vol. 8, nos. 1 &2. Pp. 37-48.

1988 Struggles over Crop Rights and Labour Within Contract Farming Households in a
Gambian Irrigated Rice Project. Journal of Peasant Studies. Vol. 15, no. 3. Pp. 334-349.

Eitington, Julius E.
1989 Using Participative Methods to Evaluate Training. In The Winning Trainer J. E.
Ettington, ed. Pp. 311-319. Houston: Gulf Publishing Co.

Feldstein, Hilary Sims, and Susan V. Poats
1989 Working Together: Gender Analysis in Agriculture. Kumarian Press.

Kolb, David, and Linda Lewis
1986 Facilitating Experiential Learning: Observations and Reflections. In Experiential and
Simulation Techniques for Teaching Adults L. H. Lewis, ed. Pp. 99-105. New Directions
for Continuing Education, 30. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Moser, Caroline
1993 Training Strategies for Gender Planning. In Gender Planning and Development, Theory
Practice and Training Pp. 173-189. London and New York: Routeledge.

US office of Personnel Management
date? Assessing changes in job behavior due to training: A guide to the "Participant Action Plan
Approach" United States: Productivity Research and Evaluation Division, United States
Office of Personnel Management.

Who Does What?: Gender Roles


Annie Hermansen and Heisel Villalobos



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Training Plan:



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-Conceptual Framework






TOOL # 1
PAudience Participation
,Advantages &


Continue with tool #1






Annie Hermansen
Helsil Villalobos


i-Why incorporate
-Formation of groups


Continue with group

12:00 12:00- 12:30-
1:15 1:15 1:45




|Gender roles in Forestry activity
hon e nurseri

i Women tripe role
> Resources access & Control
> Myths and Realities
>-Gender in development
i-Case study








Group Discussion
& Evaluation of
Gender Analysis tools






(15 min/group)






Who Does What? Gender Roles

Trainers: Annie Hermansen and Heisil Villalobos

Rationale: In order to have a successful forestry project, the designers and extensionists must
know what the role is of each member of the rural family in relation to the project. To target
different members of the family and ensure their involvement it must be identified who does what
in forestry related activities. It must also be recognized that there are conflicting activities that
may affect family members' participation in the project. And finally, with this knowledge in mind,
it is important to understand and analyze the implication of these factors to future project success.

Learning Objectives:

1. Identify gender roles within a rural family, focusing on tree nursery activities as a specific
2. Recognize that there are other daily activities that may affect participation in the family
tree nursery and other project activities.
3. Discuss how these competing activities and the division of labor may affect success of the

Materials Required:
Information sheets to each participant in the skit (4 workshop participants) about their role and
activities that we would like them to perform (to be distributed one week prior to the session)

Flipchart 1 (objectives)
Flipchart 2 (blank to be filled in with disaggregated gender activities and conflicting activities)
Flipchart 3 (conclusions)
Overhead projector
Tape Eraser Transparencies
Pencil Pointer Paper clips
Chalk Markers i.d. tags
Props for the skit:
watering can bag for seeds name tags cut outs
sticks small shovel sombreros fruit

Time: 45 Minutes

Prior to Present Session:
Previous to the present lesson the participants received a morning session on "What is gender?".
This topic served as an introduction to the workshop and included a general definition as well as
historic and conceptual framework of gender. The topics covered in the previous lesson were:
--Definition of Gender.
--Historical evolution of Gender in Development (WID, GAD)
--Biological/Cultural roles of women and men
--Practical and strategic gender needs


Time: Activity:

5 min Introduction

On overhead projector show where in the workshop calendar we are at the present moment and
in this way introduce the theme of the afternoon, "Gender and Forestry". Have a Flipchart with
the objectives for the session taped in front of the class and explain the objectives. Explain how
we collected information for the skit that will follow. (Heisel)

10 min Gender role Activity

The idea of the skit is to show who does what in a family tree nursery and demonstrate daily
activities that may affect the ability of each family member to carry out nursery responsibilities.
The skit will involve 4 people a mother, father, young daughter and a son. Beforehand we will
have given to each participant in the skit a description of what they are to do and will have held
a practice session during the lunch break, 15 minutes prior to recommencing the workshop

25 min. Gender roles Analysis

5 min Gender role disaggregation. Have participants list what activities they saw each family
member perform with respect to the tree nursery. Write each response on a chart.

5 min. Daily activities. Ask participants what were the other activities that each family member
did, besides working in the nursery. On the chart, write the responses in the column next to
nursery activity. Ask the participants what other conflicts that they have observed or experienced
in tree nursery production.
(Heisel makes questions, Annie fills in chart)

15 min. Group analysis. Have a group discussion based on a list of already formed questions
about how these conflicts and division of activities may affect success of the project. (Annie
directs discussion, Heisel fills in flipchart)

5 min. Closure

To bring this session to a close we will review the objectives for the session and discuss how we
illustrated the objectives through the use of the skit and group discussion. (Heisel)

Since this session is only a part of a more in-depth three hour session, we will not at this point
provide a written evaluation form. Our method to evaluate this session will be to observe the
participation of the participants. Also from their responses to our questions about who did what
in the skit and identifying also conflicting activities to involvement in the nursery we will be able
to measure how successful we were in meeting our objectives: A good indicator also will be their
ability to draw from their own experiences and provide us with further conflicts to performing
project activities and if they can include an analysis of implications on project success.


What Will Follow:

After a 10 minute break, participants will break into small groups and synthesize information
presented in prior session, making a list of how they can utilize this information in their own
work. We will also frequently refer to the skit when discussing the following topics: women's
triple role; myths associated with women's participation in forestry/agroforestry activities and
women access and control of resources. These topics will be complemented with a discussion on
how these factors affect women's participation and the importance of incorporating gender issues
into forestry/agroforestry projects.

Gender Role Activity (Skit)

The Making of a Tree Nursery

Scenario: The scene is set in a small rural community in Paraguay. The skit revolves around the
activities associated with a small family tree nursery. This is one of the activities promoted by the
"Mirenem" project, sponsored by the GTZ and the Ministry of Agriculture. The time span is over
the course of one day, involving the initiation of the nursery, plus other activities which may at
times interfere with completion of nursery activities.

Family members:
Mother Dona Lucia
Father Don Alonzo
Daughter Carmen
Son Mario
Baby Anita

Nursery Activities: Who does it?
Cutting wood for fence. Father/Son
Making fence Everyone
Make seed beds Son/Mother/Daughter
Plant seeds Mother/Daughter
1) getting water from the well Mother/Daughter
2) watering seedlings Mother/Daughter
Keep chickens out Daughter


In the small village of Costa Piru live the Diaz family Don Alonzo, Dona Lucia, Carmen, Mario,
and the newest addition to the family, Anita. The women in the family have interest in planting
native trees that have medicinal value, fruit and can be used as firewood. The men are interest
in fast growing trees that can be used for posts and construction. To meet this interest the family
has decided to start a small family tree nursery. Don Alonzo and Mario have recently participated
in a training workshop, sponsored by the GTZ, in which they learned nursery techniques.

Skit Narration

At the crack of dawn Dona Lucia opens her sleep-laden eyes and pulls herself out of bed. On the
way to the kitchen she wakes up Carmen, who also gets herself out of bed and follows her mother
into the kitchen. There are many things to be done before the men wake up start the fire, feed
the chickens and pigs, prepare the mate and breakfast. When this is all completed Dona Lucia
goes out to round up the two cows and their newborns. While Dona Lucia milks the cows,
Carmen wakes up her father and brother and serves them mate and breakfast. Mario will not
make it to school today. He must help his father collect wood for the tree nursery fence. They
hitch up the team of oxen to the cart and head on out to the forest. While Don Alonzo and Mario
are getting the fence materials Dona Lucia and Carmen clean the house, wash the clothes, and
begin the lunch preparations. Anita keeps them busy also.

A few hours later.....

Don Alonzo and Mario arrive back at the homestead with the load of wood. They all begin
working on the fence, but soon Dona Lucia hears Anita's cries and leaves the work to go attend
to her. Dona Lucia yells to Carmen "The food is burning" and Carmen also leaves the fence
preparations. So father and son quickly finish the fence, hurried along by the tantalizing smells
wafting out from the kitchen.

Carmen yells, "Lunch is ready!!", serves the food to her brother and father and quickly hurries
offto school, grabbing a bite to eat as she rushes out the door. After a quick siesta, Don Alonzo
grabs his hoe and heads to the corn fields. Dona Lucia and Mario begin the seed beds. Halfway
through the work Dona Lucia remembers that there is a community meeting that she must attend
to and leaves Mario in charge of finishing the seed beds. Carmen, upon return from school, helps
him. As the last shovel full of dirt is put in place Mario perks up he hears the evening soccer
game starting up and quickly excuses himself to join the activity. Don Alonzo also hears the
activity from the field and soon joins the game.

Carmen begins the planting of the seeds and is happy to see her mother, back recently from the
meeting, coming to join her. Together they plant all the seeds. As the sun begins to set, Carmen
begins dinner preparations. Dona Lucia draws water from the well and waters the newly planted
seeds. The tree nursery is complete at last!

Soon the men return and the little family sits down together to enjoy the peace that the night
brings. But then...... (chicken clucks with delight!).. an all too familiar sound breaks the silence
and Carmen rushes to the tree nursery to chase the chicken out. She looks at the seed bed in
despair all the work that they have done that day is in disarray! But not to worry...Tomorrow
is another day.

Conflicting Activities
Taking care of younger children
Household chores
Taking care of livestock (chickens, pigs)
Washing and mending clothes.
Attends community and school meetings.
Goes to market
Gets water from the well
Milks the cow
Works in the fields preparation of fields (plowing), hoeing, planting and harvesting of crops.
Fixes fences and other general fixing activities(leaks in roof, etc.)
Looks for and cuts firewood/construction material.
Makes and sells wood furniture.
Plays volleyball every evening after the days chores are done.
Goes to school mornings.
Works in the fields.
Runs errands, often asked to go to nearby town to buy items.
Herds cows takes them out to pasture and brings them back.
Helps father collect firewood and make furniture.
Participates in local youth group.
Plays volleyball every evening after days chores are done.

Goes to school afternoons.
Helps mother with cooking, taking care of younger children, milking cows, taking care of
livestock, washing and mending clothes, cleaning the house, and goes to market.

3 erd. Objective:

Questions for the group analysis
Have a group discussion about how these conflicts and division of activities may affect success
of the project.

Who has more activities involved with this tree nursery?
Who has more activities to perform in general?
Now think about some of the problems that have been occurring in the nurseries you've all been
working with in the year since the initiation of this project activity. Why could seedlings be
drying out, not be out planted, cows and chickens getting in and destroying all the work.
Thinking back to the skit and looking at this chart, what connection can be made to problems
that have been occurring and this division of who is doing what?

Could men being the only ones involved in the training and planning of these nurseries have an
affect on their success? What does the chart show us? Are women significantly involved in the
project? What are the implications if women are not involved in training activities and extension?
(Women are taking primary care of the nurseries)

Now think back to when Dona Lucia had to leave to go to a community meeting. If we have
decided that we want women to be a part of the planning and extension, should we know what
other activities are going on in the community so that we can plan meetings when women will be
able to attend?

Simulating a City Commission Meeting
for Community Participation

Nancy Myers and Amanda Perdomo

By: Nancy Myers & Amanda P.

Training for Community Participatory Decision-Making

about Local Development Issues

Day One

Day Two

Day Three

9:00 10:30 am
Get to know each other
Participant Expectations
Objectives Given

10:30 10:45 am
Attitude Survey Given

10:45- 11:00 am

11:00 12:00 pm
Development -vs- Nature

9:00 9:45 am
Welcome Back
Review Objectives
Review from Day One

9:45 11:45 am
How your local Govt
Works & How You Can
Work In It
Panal of Local Leaders
Question & Answer

11:45 12:00 pm
Finish Up and Head To

9:00 9:30 am
Welcome Back
Discussion on What we
Experienced on the Field
Trip to Bivens Arm

9:30 10:30 am
Multiple Users
Disaggrregation (Discussion)

10:30 10:45 am

10:45 11:45 am
Stakeholders Analysis

11:45 12:00 pm
Retake Attitude Survey

Lunch Break (picnic Lunch Lunch Break (picnic
lunch @ Thomas Center) lunch @ Thomas Center)
12:00 1:30 pm 12:00 1:00 pm

1:30 2:00 pm 12:00 5:00 pm 1:00 2:00 pm
Wetlands Activity & Small Group Discussion (4)
Discussion Trying to come up with
Field Trip Proposed Agenda for the
2:00 3:30 pm To Bivens Arm Group.
Wetlande Significance
Presentation/Discussion Lunch and 2:00 3:00 pm
Biven's Arm Development Transportation Provided Discussion of Each
Short Lecture, News Paper Groups Solution.
Article Discussion. Nature Walk on Trails
Guided Imagery @ on of the 3:30- 3:15 pm
3:30 3:40 pm Observation Sights Break
S_ Group Discussion on 3:15 4:00 pm
3:40 4:25 pm R What We've seen on Come up With Common
City Commission Role Our Visit Solution as a Group
Play Draft Proposed Agenda
4:00-4:30 pm
4:25 4:45 pm Daily Summary 4:00 4:45 pm
Daily Summary Attitude Survey Discussion.
Will See if There Was a
Change in Attitudes of the

4:45 5:00 Daily Evaluation 4:25 4:30 Daily Evaluation 10 min Program Evaluation
@ Biven's Arm


Simulating a City Commission Meeting for Community Participation

Trainers: Nancy and Amanda Perdomo

One of our training plan objectives is that participants will be able to recognize multiple users and
multiple use issues in reference to the Bivens Arm Proposed Development and doing a role play
with participants acting as the various users is one way to accomplish this major objective, by
playing the role of one of the multiple users of Bivens Arm, participants will understand the
attitudes and views of the characters and will explore their own feelings and reactions about the
Development Project. Another objective for the training plan is that participants will present a
compromised agenda to the City Commission. In order for participants to practice the skill of
presenting an agenda to the City Commission, a role play of a City Commission meeting gives
them a chance to practice the skill of presentation and to become familiar with the way a meeting
is run.

Objectives: By the end of this 45 min. session:

1. Participants will be able to understand and assess various issue and views of some
multiple users of the Bivens Arm area.

2. Participants will be able to explore their own feeling and opinions about the Development
Proposal during the role play and during the processing.
3. Participants will learn how the City Commission works and will determine the things they
don't know about it.

Time: 45 minutes total

General role-play requirements and general scenario (one per person)
Four different written scenarios ( one for each group) We will create four different groups of
people who have a stake in Bivens Arm: Multiple Users who are against development, Potential
Users who are for development, City Commissioners who hold power in their hands, University
of Florida students who may or may not be against development, could be unbiased. (These need
to have some facts about the controversy and they need to creative and very well-planned.)
Our script

Flipchart, one page for objectives and one page for brainstorm of views and reasons for and
against development.
markers, name tags and props for actors
Slide tray with slides
Slide projector


Activity 1. 5 min
Welcome back, explain how this micro session fits into the macro plan. Read out
objectives and describe flow of lesson.

Activity 2. 7 min
Slides and description of Bivens Arm Nature Center.

Activity 3. 5 min
Describe general scenario of role play activity (mock City Commission Meeting). Pass
out name tags to each participant.
with color stars on name tags: Developers have gold star, City Commissioners have red
stars, Against Development have green stars and Unbiased have blue stars. Remind
participants of some guidelines for role playing.

Activity 4 7 min
Assign participants to four groups with the proper colored stars, pass out scenarios.
Instruct students to read and discuss their parts and the issues they should cover. Assist
groups in developing strategies for acting their parts. Get room ready for role play.

Activity 5 12 min
Role play is to be started by Chairman of the City Commission and continue until at least
12 minutes or when there is a natural break in comments as close to 12 minutes as

Activity 6. 12 min
Process the activity by asking probing questions so that all participants will share their
feelings about acting their role.
Processing questions:
What are the events that took place?
What were some of the feelings you had as you were acting?
How did you feel about only four of the people being able to vote?
What are some issues why the citizens did not want development?
What are some reasons why development was approved?
What are some questions you have about the way the City Commissions run?

1. Questioning participants about how they felt while they were role playing. Look for
evidence that they had understood the views of the various users of Bivens Arm.
2. Questioning about the reasons both opposing parties had for feeling the way they did and
see the response obtained.
3. Observing the amount of participation in the play.

General Scenario

Today we are at the City Commission and the issue at hand is whether to approve Ordinance No
95292 to rezone certain lands within the city from"RSF-4: ( 8 units/acre single-family
residential district)" and "RMF-5: (12 units/acre single family multiple-family residential
district" to "Planned Development district" to be known as the "Landing"; located in the
vicinity of the east side of SW 13th St, 3700-3800 blocks, including land fronting S331
(Williston Road) in the 1200 block. Re-zoning would allow three 24 units and one 8 unit to
be built in the Phase I on 9.7 acres with more to be built for Phase II. The developers have done
the right things in terms of providing plans in accordance with the Land Development Code of
Gainesville and all concerned parties have been consulted in terms of the Bivens Arm Nature
Center. The concern of some private citizens is that covering so much of the natural land with
buildings, parking lots, bike space and driveways and retention ponds will change the drainage
into Bivens Arm Marsh which is a nature park wetlands area. Different users go to Biven Arm
for nature walks, observations and education. They will present their case in this quasi-hearing.
After the City Commissioner have heard the citizens and listen to defense by the developers and
pro-development people they will vote for passing the ordinance or rejecting it.

Citizens against Re-zoning of this area.
Your group (green stars) is comprised of four citizens who oppose the ordinance for re-zoning.
You will present different reasons why you do not agree with re-zoning. One issue is that building
on so much of the land will influence the hydrology of Bivens Arm Nature Center changing this
from a wetland marsh to a drier habitat. Many of the birds, plant and animals will be different and
the park will not be the same.

President of the Wetlands Club at UF (female)

Your club chose this issue to deal with as they know quite a lot about Bivens Arm, since they
meet out there for picnics and to clean up the area. You will present a map of Bivens Arm and
give some predictions as to what will happen to Bivens Arm if allowed to develop.

Mother of three Elementary School Kids (female)

Two of your three children have each gone out to Bivens Arm with their school in 3rd Grade with
Gainesville Dept of Culture and Nature Operations as they have been contracted to take kids on
field trips there. You were the chaperone on two of the trips and you were impressed at how the
children enjoyed dipnetting and observing the small invertebrates. The docent spent lots of time
with the children explaining that a wetland is like a filter and a nursery for nature. Your children
talked about it for a long time and they would ask you to take them to Bivens Arm for walks or
summer picnics. You would not want you youngest child to miss out on this experience and you
think the development will affect the park.


Science Teacher (female)
You have brought your third grade students to Bivens Arm for five years now and you have built
your curriculum around wetlands with a culminating field trip to Bivens Arm. Your students really
enjoy it and usually end up doing science projects on wetland projects or observations of the
animals and plants at Bivens Arm. You do not want the park to change with the volume of
apartment being built.

Wetland Professor UF

You really believe that too many buildings will affect the hydrology of Bivens Arm Nature
Center, because water that normally runs off and drains into the natural wetland will now be
running on asphalt and cement and carry more pollution into the marsh. Wetland areas serve as
natural filter for runoff from land and because of high nourishment in the shallow waters, serve
as a nursery for young invertebrates that form the basis for the food chain. Increased pollution
and change in drainage will affect animals and plants living there.

General Scenario

Today we are at the City Commission and the issue at hand is whether to approve Ordinance No
95292 to rezone certain lands within the city from"RSF-4: ( 8 units/acre single-family
residential district)" and "RMF-5: (12 units/acre single family multiple-family residential
district" to "Planned Development district" to be known as the "Landing"; located in the
vicinity of the east side of SW 13th St, 3700-3800 blocks, including land fronting S331
(Williston Road) in the 1200 block. Re-zoning would allow three 24 units and one 8 unit to
be built in the Phase I on 9.7 acres with more to be built for Phase II. The developers have done
the right things in terms of providing plans in accordance with the Land Development Code of
Gainesville and all concerned parties have been consulted in terms of the Bivens Arm Nature
Center. The concern of some private citizens is that covering so much of the natural land with
buildings, parking lots, bike space and driveways and retention ponds will change the drainage
into Bivens Arm Marsh which is a nature park wetlands area. Different users go to Biven Arm
for nature walks, observations and education. They will present their case in this quasi-hearing.
After the City Commissioner have heard the citizens and listen to defense by the developers and
pro-development people they will vote for passing the ordinance or rejecting it.

Scenario for Pro development of "The Landing"

The participants in your group (red star) are for re-zoning of the area on SW 13th St at the
3700-3800 block near Bivens Arm. You would like it rezoned from 8-unit and 12-unit single
family and multi-family to a planned development complex.

Banker (male)

You are a banker financing this project, and you want to bring in money into Gainesville and
make some money off the loan and mortgages that people will take out in buying the apartments.
Gainesville needs this development because we need the economy.

Contractors ( males)

One of you is the contractor who needs to keep his employees busy. The developers have
planned two Phases of apartments with 80 units in each. This means work for at least a year and
you want to see the project go through. The developer wrote a plan in February, 1995,
presented it to all parties involved in Gainesville development.

Developer (male)

One of you is the developer who bought the land along with some investors and is being
pressured by them to return a profit. You also feel that students need more apartments to live
with the increasing population of University of Florida. This area would be perfect for students
because it is in a quiet area that is not so far from campus and near Bivens Arm where students
usually like. In your plans you have Your group has applied for a re-zoning so you can proceed
with more plans and this is the second hearing. Today you are presenting your case to the City


Commission for approval, but citizens who are opposing the re-zoning will also be presenting
their case.

City Commission Lawyer (male)

You are hired by the City Commission and you are to make sure that the change in the ordinance
is legal and that the proceedings of this meeting are legal. The commission is recommending the
re-zoning ordinance be passed since everything was done legally correct by the developer and the
plan had been presented to all concerned parties such as Gainesville Nature and Culture
Operations that manages Bivens Arm and all other nature parks in Gainesville, The Saint John's
Water Management District, and the Alachua County Department of Environmental Protection.
Today a group of private citizens would like to present some issues against re-zoning.

Participatory Rural Appraisal


Noemi Porro and Kevin Veach


*site selection
*site visit
*data collection.
*data synthesis
problem identification....







(Role playing of village data Of Needs And
gadtering) Problems

12:00 LOCAL GENDER ROLES (cont.) Resource Management Plan

1:00 -2:30 LOCAL GENDER ROLES PROJECT ANALYSIS Implementing Resource
(cont.) (cont.) Management Plan
Evaluation Of Projects
Dissemination of Findings

(cont) (cont.) TRAINING,


Participatory Rural Appraisal

Trainers: Kevin Veach and Noemi Porro

Rationale: Gender analysis tools can provide important information about what men and women
do with their resources in a community. But how this information is gathered and used will have
an important impact on the success of a project and the empowerment of the community.
Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) can provide a participatory context and process for using
the gender tools. It can provide more accurate information to the NGO staff and empower
villagers to analyze their situation in a systematic way.

Each of the individual gender analysis tools will have gaps with respect to information for
designing a project. Even use of all of the tools together will not necessarily uncover people's
desires and priorities for a project. A PRA process must move from data gathering to prioritizing
people's wants and needs and into a participatory process for project selection and design.

Learning Objectives:

By the end of the session the student will be able to:
1) analyze gender analysis tools for their pros and cons for selecting and designing a
participatory development project.

Materials: flip chart sheets
pre-made: resource, control and benefits matrix; activities calendar; ecological
transect; and timeline
handouts of the pre-made items for the small group exercises
slide projector plus slides

Lessons Preceding and Following This Lesson:

Before the lesson which we present, we will analyze an actual project of the NGO. The objective
will be to examine opportunities and problems with a gendered approach to the project, what has
actually been done to collect data, and design the project in gender sensitive way, and how the
project could be modified to be more gender equitable.

After: The lesson will be followed by analysis of the other steps in the PRA process. Immediately
after the lesson, we will discuss ranking of needs and problems and ranking the importance of
potential projects to solve these problems.

Time: 45 minutes



15 min. Introduction and slides Slide show and lecturette

Provide a flip chart with the objective. Introduce the lesson topic. Show 5 slides to introduce
people to the society and the environment. Review the important points about PRA presented in
the previous lesson. Present the concept of PRA on a flip chart. Stress that PRA is a process and
not just a collection of tools. (Eg. PRA uses multidisciplinary teams to work with villagers to
produce an action or project plan based on villagers' priorities.).
Review the 8 steps of PRA on a flip chart:
1) site selection data needs delimitation;
2) preliminary site visit;
3) data collection (using several different tools);
4) data synthesis and analysis;
5) problem identification and setting of opportunities;
6) ranking of needs/wants and preparation of a village resource management plan;
7) adoption and implementation of the plan;
8) follow up, evaluation and dissemination of findings.
These steps will be presented but not lectured about in detail.

Important points to be raised in the review and noted on a flip chart so participants can refer back
to them during the exercise:
PRA is a flexible process for incorporating participation into data collection, priority setting and
project design. It can provide more accurate information to the NGO by focusing on participation
of all strata of the community. It gives the community a way to systematically analyze its own
situation and needs. A PRA can raise the expectations of the community so the process should
only be used when the NGO is committed to follow through with assistance to a project. It
provides an opportunity for the NGO to confront its own agenda or self interest in doing a
project. An issue to raise is the importance of how you use the gender analysis tools, in order to
encourage participation and avoid what Chambers calls the "anti-poverty bias". In order to
stimulate though for the small group exercise, we will only raise the issue in the general context
by saying, for example "it's important to consider who, where, and how you approach the people
with whom you will use the tools."

20 min. Pros and cons of data collection tools Small and large group discussion
3 min. introduction
9 min. small groups
8 min. large group discussion

Gender analysis and data collection tools have strengths and drawbacks in general and for
encouraging participatory projects. This sub lesson will allow people to analyze 3 sample tools
place them in the context of a PRA process. We will assign people to one of 3 small groups, each
with one of the 3 tools, and people assigned to a group based on their familiarity with the tool.
We will stress that the groups should look for the gaps or problems in using the tools for project
design and how a participatory approach can remedy some of these problems. Each small group
will produce a flip chart with the problems and "remedies" they discussed. After the small-group
discussions, groups will present their conclusions in the large group and we will discuss them.

We expect the groups will come up with gaps similar to the following but we will not lecture on

1) Access and Control of Resources and Benefits Analysis This tool provides the overview of
access and control of resources and benefits. However, it does not cover any changes with respect
to time.

2) Gender disaggregated Seasonal Activities Calendar
This tool permits to identify livelihood tasks and categorizes responsibilities by age, gender, and
intensity of each activity through the seasons. However, it can not account for variations from
year to year.

3) Historical Mapping This tool permits the overview of the history of the group or community,
but it may not provide any explanation of the implications or meaning of the events for the people
or a project.

10 min. Conclusion Guided Discussion

Based on the points raised by the small groups the conclusion will be a large group guided
discussion of using the tools in the PRA context to encourage participatory project creation and
implementation. We will address specifically the issues of working with elites or key informants
vs. ordinary people, separate meetings for women and men, individual vs. group meetings, and
including people farther from the village or those who do not participate in projects. Finally, we
can return to the theme of the "what kind of participation" empowerment vs. just getting a more
efficient project. The main conclusion is that how you use the tools is very important.

To wrap up, we will briefly (2 min.) introduce "where do you go next?" Briefly we will lecture
on the process for soliciting needs and wants from the community and large group priority
setting. We will conclude with a repetition of the need for the NGO to follow through with the
project design, implementation, and evaluation stages. These would be the topics covered in the
next sessions dealing with the PRA process.

I. Background

Our consultant group has been hired by PRAPESCE, an NGO in the northern Coast of
Ecuador that works with fishing communities.


The area is a coastal area of small communities which are located on mangrove forested
islands or along the banks of rivers near the sea. The culture is mainly a black culture and
distinct from the other cultures in Ecuador. The men mainly earn their living from fishing
and the women from gathering mollusks. Women's work is often as important as or more
important than the men's fishing in providing money to the family for food and clothing.
Women also have a strong role in managing the household and often managing the income
from the man as well as her own income. The main products fish, shrimp and mollusks are
sold to a variety of local, regional and national buyers. There has been a notable decline in
the productivity offish and mollusks in recent years which is beginning to impact family
well being. Except for fishing and mollusk gathering there is a lack of economic
alternatives for the people.

Agriculture has become marginal and few people earn significant income from agriculture
products, mainly because the main cash crop, coconuts, have suffered a drastic decline due
to diseases.

The area has only towns over 3,000 people these towns serve as intermediate market
towns. Only a small portion of the production is kept for home consumption. There is an
extensive system of public transportation by boat, but most towns are not accessible by

There is a severe lack of basic services, such as electricity, drinking water, sewage, and
health care except in the 3 regional towns. Few of the people have more than a primary
education. Only the three major towns and one of the island villages have secondary

Institutional context

The NGO is requesting the training which is being funded by a grant from a German
development agency (GTZ). The training was requested by the director of the NGO and
the idea is supported by the staff with varying levels of interest. The NGO is small (about
15) people, composed of a director who is a sociologist and a woman from another region
of the country. Three sectional coordinators are: an economic coordinator who is a male
fisheries specialist from the coastal region; an social coordinator, who is a female trained
in social work from the local area; and an environmental coordinator, who is a female
biologist from the capital. Each person has about three staffpeople.

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