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Conference proceedings : Association for International Agricultural and Extension Education

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Title:
Conference proceedings : Association for International Agricultural and Extension Education
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Conference proceedings
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Association for International Agricultural and Extension Education
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University of Florida -- Farming Systems Research and Extension -- Department of Agricultural Education and Communication
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Association for International Agricultural and Extension Education
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English
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v. : ill. ; 28 cm.

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Subjects / Keywords:
Farming ( LCSH )
Agriculture ( LCSH )
Farm life ( LCSH )
University of Florida. ( LCSH )
Agriculture -- Study and teaching -- Congresses ( LCSH )
Agricultural extension work -- Study and teaching -- Congresses ( LCSH )
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serial ( sobekcm )
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North America -- United States of America -- Florida

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Electronic resources created as part of a prototype UF Institutional Repository and Faculty Papers project by the University of Florida.

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Full Text
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A Description of a Small Scale Farm Systems in Lower Casamance, Senegal:
The Initial Programming Step



Matt Baker
Associate Professor
Agricultural Education and Communication
University of Florida
P.O. Box 110540
Gainesville, FL 32611-0504
Phone: (352) 392-0502
Fax: (352) 392-9585
E-Mail: MTB@GNV.IFAS.UFL.EDU

Mamadou Lo
Former Graduate Student
Farming Systems Research and Extension Specialization
Department of Agricultural Education and Communication
University of Florida

Peter Hildebrand
Professor 'n o
Food and Resource Economics
University of Florida d ..' ..

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to provide diagnostic programming
information for extension stakeholders in the lower Casamance, Senegal.
The village of Loudia Ouloff was purposefully selected as being a
representative village in one of the five agricultural zones in the region.
Selected data for this socio-economic analysis of small, limited resource
farms were collected from the 1984 agro-socioeconomic survey
(SAIR,1984). Verification and supplemental data were collected by one of
k.. the researchers during the summer of 1996. Linear programming was used
Stb1conceptualize and to model the nature and complexity of the small farm
.systems. The average size of the work force by household was five. The
family constituted the main source of labor for all activities. By maximizing
cash income after satisfying consumption requirements, palm oil and fruit
sales netted the family 92,945 francs CFA ($265). Based upon the
'availability of raw materials and a stable market price (500 francs CFA), a
basket making enterprise holds promise as a scenario for boosting family
-income. Basket making is a female activity that generally happens during the
dry season.
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Introduction


The west African country of Senegal has an agricultural economy. In
1980, agriculture accounted for 28% of the gross national product and
provided employment for 80% of the economically active population. In
recent years, cereal production in Senegal has not been sufficient to meet
consumption needs and most of the production was generated by the small
holders which represent 60 to 70% of the farming population. The general
crisis in Senegalese agriculture during the last two decades and in Lower
Casamance in particular derives from an insufficient adaptation of traditional
farming systems to agroclimatic changes (decreased rainfall, shortening of
seasons, degradation of the edaphic milieu) and an evolution of the
socioeconomic environment (population growth, government policies, trade
conditions, development of social dynamics). This unfavorable
agro-socioeconomic context negatively influenced the production strategies
of small-scale farms and family livelihood systems.

It has been recognized and accepted by the government aind
development agencies that agricultural and social changes in the production
systems of these farms, based on the utilization of new or modified
technologies, is an important strategy and a challenge for the agricultural,
economic and social development of the country.
According to Merrell-Sands (1986), Farming Systems Research and
Extension (FSR&E) is characterized as being farmer-centered and systems-
oriented. Interdisciplinary teams consisting of applied social scientists and
biological.scientists, draw upon a broad base of existing knowledge in the
problem-solving process. These teams communicate continuously with
village-level households as they conduct on-farm research in an effort to
provide solutions to complex village-based problems. The Steps of FSR&E
involve diagnosis, design, testing and dissemination. (Hildebrand & Russell,
1996).

The diagnosis of a need has been defined as the difference between a
current condition and the condition that is desired (Boyle, 1981). According
to Bennett and Rockwell (1995), such conditions generally occur within a
social, economic, or environmental domain. Due to limited resources in
developing countries, the economic domain is crucial in the village-level
development process. In Senegal, a fifteen-year drought has contributed to
food shortages in the lower Casamance (southern region) of the country.
The over-riding concern of small-scale, limited resource farmers in the area is
to sustain family rather than to produce agricultural products for export (Lo,
1997).

Background Information

The Lower Casamance covers an area of 7,300 km2 in southern







Senegal from the Soungrougrou Valley to the Atlantic Coast. The region's
subguinean climate receives a strong maritime wind and is characterized by
two seasons: a dry season from November to May and a rainy season from
June to October, with August receiving the heaviest rainfall. The Atlantic
Ocean has a dominant influence on the hydrology of the region because of its
very low elevation and the current rainfall deficit. Salt water frequently flows
as far as 220 km upstream from the mouth of the Casamance River. The
region has an extensive network of lowland swamps which facilitate even
further penetration of the sea water.

The Lower Casamance is essentially an agricultural region and plays an
important role in Senegal's agricultural development policy. Groundnuts, rice,
millet/sorghum and crops are grown in the region. Different types of
livestock are found in the Lower Casamance, such as N'dama cattle and
Guinean species of sheep, goats and pigs. However, very few donkeys and
horses exist in the region. During the last ten years the mean rainfall has
averaged from 1,000mm to 1,100mm in Ziguinchor (compared to the normal
1,500mm). This average, however does not reflect significant inter-annual
variations. Each of the three districts in the Lower Casamance has suffered
several years of drought over the past ten-year period, so severe as to place
the agricultural system at risk. As a result of the drought, there has been a
decrease in the total area cultivated, consequently the production of cereal
crops has decreased. ; -

Purpose abnd Objectives

The purpose of this study was to provide diagnostic information for
extension stakeholders in the lower Casamance, Senegal. The specific
objectives of this study were to: (1) identify the characteristics of a
representative community and household; (2) develop an economic model of
a representative household, and to (3) determine the influence of an
alternative scenario to increase the family income of a representative
household.

Methods and Materials


This study was a part of a broader study that used linear programming
(LP) to conceptualize and model the nature and complexity of the small farm
system. Due to a great deal of heterogeneity in social organization (division
of labor within a household) and agricultural production (upland vs. lowland
crops and the use of animal traction), a Farming Systems Research and
Extension (FSR&E) team from the Senegalese Institute of Agricultural
Research (SIAR), divided the lower Casamance into five agricultural zones.
The village of Loudia Ouloff was purposefully selected for this study as being
a representative village for one of the five agricultural zones in the region.
Selected data for this socio-economic analysis of small, limited resource








farms were collected from the 1984 agro-socioeconomic survey
(SAIR,1984). Verification and supplemental data were collected by one of
the researchers during the summer of 1996.

LP allows one to predict the response of family livelihood systems to
improved technologies, providing valuable feedback to researchers, policy
makers, local organizations (public and private) and technology change
agents. Linear programming used sets of linear equations in an optimization
procedure that allocated scarce resources among competing alternatives to
maximize specified objectives. The standard form of a LP model is composed
of three sections: (1) an objective function, (2) resource constraints, and (3)
activities or competing alternatives. According to Timmer, Falcon, and
Pearson (1983), linear programming solutions are beneficial in understanding
changes in a farming systems environment. Data were analyzed using the
Quattro-Pro 6.0 software program.

Results

Loudia Ouloff, a village located south of the River Casamance,
represented a traditional Diola system. The traditional Diola live in households
(butong) composed of conjugal units with autonomy in economic matters.
Villages were organized in groups of individual residential units (eluf).
Households followed an intensive aquatic rice production system with a
marked division of labor by task. The heavy work of dike building and ridging
was performed by men. Land was ,nominally:owned by patrifilial groups, but
usufruct rights to land were assigned with the conjugal unit under the direct
responsibility of the head of the compound. Women, as a rule did not own
land. The village of Loudia Ouloff had a population of 306 people with 43
households. The average size of the work force by household/farm was five.
The village had 172 hectares of community land.

The representative household was comprised of nine people (three
men, four women, and two children). The average size of the work force by
household/farm was five. The family constituted the main source of labor for
all activities. During the peak periods (plowing, transplanting, and
harvesting), the household could hire a limited amount *' labor if cash was
available. Fuel, medicine and other family needs were purchased from the
market. The household activities included crop and livestock production,
non-agricultural natural resource extractive activities, and domestic activities.

The average farm size consisted of two hectares of family land for
crop production, and three hectares of community land (Table 1). Crops that
were produced included rice, groundnuts, maize, sweet potatoes, and
cowpeas. The community land provided fruit, firewood, and palm oil, of
which fruit and palm oil supplied the main source of revenue to the family.
Households followed an intensive, aquatic rice production system, with an
average yield of 854 kg/ha. ,AII rice that was produced on the farm was







consumed within the household. In terms of livestock, the average farm had
six sheep, six goats, a family herd of fifteen cattle and some chickens. The
livestock were used for ceremonies and rituals and constituted the main
source of manure for crop production. By maximizing cash income, using the
linear programming model, after satisfying consumption requirements, palm
oil and fruit sales netted the family 92,945 francs CFA ($265). The average
farm household could produce 114 liters of palm oil, 242 kg of fruit, and was
able to satisfy its consumption needs using the family and community land
that was available. The farm household used 207 person-days of the family
wet-season labor and 240 person-days (the maximum) of the family dry
season labor.

Based upon the LP model, it was apparent that the average household
had limited resources but earned substantial revenues from non-agronomic
activities such as fruit production and palm oil collection. Increased
production was limited due to the lack of land. Labor also constituted a
constraint to increased production of palm oil during the dry season. Based
upon the availability of raw materials and a stable market price (500 francs
CFA), a basket making enterprise held promise as a scenario for boosting
family income. Basket making was a female activity that generally happened


Table .1 :" "
Description of a Representative Household

Farm resources
Family farm size (ha) 2
Community land (ha) 3
Family labor (person-day/ha) 700
Cash available (francs CFA) 6000
Seeds groundnut (kg) 40
Seeds maize (kg) 20
Seeds aquatic rice (kg) 100
Seeds cowpea (kg) 12
Seeds sweet potatoes (cuttings) 100

Labor for the different activities (person days/ha)
Groundnuts 96
Maize 94
Aquatic rice 144
Cowpea 30
Sweet potatoes 8
Palm oil 158
Fruit production 15

Family consumption needs (kg/year)
- Groundnuts 83


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- Maize 500
- Aquatic rice 602
- Cowpea 30
- Sweet potatoes 46
- Palm oil (liters) 50
- Fruit production 84

Seeds for different crops (kg/ha)
- Groundnuts 60
- Maize 15
- Aquatic rice. 120
- Cowpea 10
- Sweet potatoes (cuttings) 10000

Yields of crops (kg/ha)
- Groundnuts 608
- Maize 554
- Aquatic rice 854
- Cowpea : 122
- Sweet potatoes 4600
- Palm oil (liters) 120
- Fruit production 200
during the dry season. The linear programming model showed that female i
labor during this season was binding. However, male dry season labor was
not a constraint. To be successful in this enterprise, the household would
need to hire labor to collect raw material and make baskets. Thus ,young
village males could be employed in this basket making alternative.The ,:;
acceptability of this innovation depends mainly on the availability of cash
which can easily be obtained from the revenues of palm oil and fruit
production. The result shows that by hiring labor (50 person days) at the
rate of 250 francs CFA ($0.71) per person, the farm can produce 133
baskets, 252.96 kg of fruit, 107.83 liters of palm oil and easily satisfy the
family consumption needs. Participation in this enterprise would add 66,500
francs CFA ($190) to the household income, which would increase the total
family income to 143,915 francs CFA ($412).

Educational Importance

This study of small-scale farmers in the village of Loudia Ouloff has
important implications for future extension programming activities. The
community and household characteristics and the economic model of a
representative household provide important baseline information on Loudia
Ouloff's current situation. Broad economic program goals can now be
developed and related programs implemented. As per the alternative
scenario examined in this study, a pilot program should be implemented to
confirm it's anticipated success.









References
Boyle, P. G. (1981). Planning better programs. New York: Mcgraw-
Hill.
Bennett, C., & and Rockwell, K. (1995). Targeting outcomes of
programs (TOP) : an integrated approach to planning and evaluation.
(Unpublished Paper)
Hildebrand, P. E. & Russell, J. (1996). Adaptability analysis: A
method for design, analysis and interpretation of on-farm research-extension.
IA: Iowa State University Press.
Institute Senegalais de Recheres Agricoles. (The Senegalese Institute of
Agricultural Research). (1984), La rechere sur les systems de production en
Basse Casamance. (The research of production systems in the lower
Casamance (region)). Dakar: Department de Reserche sur les Systemes de
Production et le Transfert de Technologies en Miliieu. (Department of
Research on Production Systems and Technology Transfer in Milieu).
Lo, M. A comparison of on-farm research and extension methods in
small scale farm systems in Lower Casamance, Senegal. Unpublished
master's thesis, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL.
Merrell-Sands, D. (1986). Farming systems research: clarification of
the terms and concepts. Experimental Science. 22: 87-104.
Timmer, C. P., Falcon, W. P., & Pearson, S. R. (1983). Food policy
analysis. Baltimore, Md: The Johns Hopkins University Press.