• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Title Page
 Preface
 Table of Contents
 Outlook
 Introduction
 How livestock enterprises improve...
 Facilitating the successful addition...






Group Title: Technical bulletin - Office of Agriculture, U.S. Agency for International Development - no. 19
Title: Combined crop/livestock farming systems for developing countries of the tropics and sub-tropics
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 Material Information
Title: Combined crop/livestock farming systems for developing countries of the tropics and sub-tropics
Series Title: Technical bulletin - Office of Agriculture, U.S. Agency for International Development - no. 19
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Creator: Sprague, Howard Bennett
Publisher: Office of Agriculture, Bureau for Technical Assistance, Agency for International Development,
Publication Date: 1976
 Subjects
Subject: Farming   ( lcsh )
Agriculture   ( lcsh )
Farm life   ( lcsh )
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Funding: Electronic resources created as part of a prototype UF Institutional Repository and Faculty Papers project by the University of Florida.
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Resource Identifier: oclc - 06003703

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Title Page
        Title Page
    Preface
        Preface
    Table of Contents
        Table of Contents
    Outlook
        Unnumbered ( 5 )
    Introduction
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Land resources and livestock populations
            Page 5
            Page 6
            Page 7
    How livestock enterprises improve the profitibility of farming systems
        Page 8
        Providing nitrogen in the crop rotation
            Page 8
        Soil improvement for greater production
            Page 8
        Providing feed for livestock
            Page 9
        Animal maures for enhancing soil productivity
            Page 9
        Improved control of plant pests
            Page 10
        Feed supplies for work animals
            Page 10
        Effective use of non-arable lands associated with cropped lands
            Page 11
        Profitable use of crop residues and by-products
            Page 12
        Animal products for human foods
            Page 12
    Facilitating the successful addition of livestock enterprises to crop farming systems
        Page 13
        Information on costs and benefits
            Page 13
        Providing livestock feed during dry seasons
            Page 14
        Technical assistance on effective use of feedstuffs
            Page 15
        Developing milk processing to greatly enlarge markets for local milk producers
            Page 15
        Effective livestock husbandry
            Page 16
        Perennial forage grasses and legumes in crop rotations to support animal enterprises
            Page 17
            Cultural practices
                Page 18
                Page 19
                Page 20
                Page 21
                Page 22
                Page 23
        Suitable credit for animal enterprises H. Providing livestock health care
            Page 24
            Page 25
        Cautions on use of communal or open grazing lands
            Page 26
            Page 27
            Page 28
            Page 29
            Page 30
Full Text






Agriculture Technology
for Developing Countries



Technical Series Bulletin No. 19
Combined Crop/Livestock Farming Systems
For Developing Countries of the Tropics and
Sub-Tropics








July 1976

Office of Agriculture
Technical Assistance Bureau
Agency for International Development
Washington, D.C. 20523




















COMBINED CROP/LIVESTOCK FARMING SYSTEMS


for

DEVELOPING COUNTRIES OF THE TROPICS AND SUB-TROPICS


Prepared by:


Howard B. Sprague


DIVISION OF SOIL AND WATER MANAGEMENT
DIVISION OF LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION







OFFICE OF AGRICULTURE
BUREAU FOR TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE
AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT
WASHINGTON, D.C. 20523








PREFACE


Developing countries should be encouraged to establish jawming
systems that provide a combination of cAop production entexprises with
livestock production enteAprUise. Each individual enteApAise must be
adapted to the locate environmental conditions, but also mus it it into
a system that is feasible undeA. the social and economic conditions that
prevail. The advantages o4 weUl designed systems must be to improve
the ptwoitabiity fon the practicing aAumens and heAdsmen.
Not only should each cAop and Livestock enteAprise be. ieLd tested
to pAove it suitabitity but theAe should be pilot testing of combined
Systems to demonsttate theit practicability and ede.cts on net aAnm
income. MoAe dependable pAoductivity and moe. stable incomes Jot JaA-
meAs ae. essential to nations that ae. stLiving fon sf sufficiency
in food pAoduction, both in quantity and nut'rtonal quality. In most
developing countries, meeting food goals by national production is
supeAior to a continuing AzLe in food impoAts.


Leon F. Hessex
ite.ctok
Ofice. o Agkicuttwue.
TechniZca Assistance Bukeau
Agency oa. InteAnational
Development
Washington, p. C. 20523










OUTLINE

I. Introduction
Benefits from combined farming systems
Land Resources and Livestock Populations
II. How Livestock Enterprises Improve the Profitibility of Farming Systems
A. Providing nitrogen in the crop rotation
B. Soil improvement for greater production
C. Providing feed for livestock
D. Animal manures for enhancing soil productivity
E. Improved control of plant pests
F. Feed supplies for work animals
G. Effective use of non-arable lands associated with cropped lands
H. Profitable use of crop residues and by-products
I. Animal products for human foods
J. Livestock enterprises in combined farming systems should
stabilize incomes and cash flow
III. Facilitating the Successful Addition of Livestock Enterprises
to Crop Farming Systems
A. Information on costs and benefits
B. Providing livestock feed during dry seasons
C. Technical assistance on effective use of feedstuffs
D. Developing milk processing to greatly enlarge markets for local
milk producers
E. Effective livestock husbandry
F. Perennial forage grasses and legumes in crop rotations to
support animal enterprises
1. Cultural practices
G. Suitable credit for animal enterprises
H. Providing livestock health care
I. Cautions on use of communal or open grazing lands











OUTLOOK



During the past decade, there has been a growing awareness of the

deteriorating world food situation. We now know of the urgent need for

massive efforts to increase agricultural productivity in scores of develo-

ping countries and simultaneously to raise the incomes of hundreds of

millions of their farmers and other rural people. It is hoped that such

efforts, if successful, will buy time for population growth rates to

be reduced.



The bulk of the basic food supplies of the agrarian nations are pro-

duced by the many farmers with tiny landcoldings, often in remote and

isolated areas, plus those people in coastal areas who depend upon near-

shore fisheries and aquaculture for a livelihood. For the most part,

the gains in productivity and income of these rural people the poorest

of the poor will require the development for and use by many farmers

of new high-yielding, science-based crop and animal production systems

tailored to the unique combination of soil, climate, biological, and

economic conditions of every locality in every nation.*






*Quotation from statement prepared by Dr. Sterling Wortman, Vice-
President, Rockefeller Foundation for 2 Subcommittees of the U.S. House
of Representatives, Sept. 23, 1975.
"The World Food Situation: A New Initiative."










COMBINED CROP/LIVESTOCK FARMING SYSTEMS
FOR DEVELOPING COUNTRIES OF THE TROPICS
AND SUB-TROPICS


I. INTRODUCTION

The production of adequate foods to achieve substantial self

sufficiency has become a major concern of virtually all developing

countries. The population growth has equalled or surpassed total

food production in the latest decade, and there is little evidence

that population growth will decline in the near future. Populations

generally have increased 30 to 35 percent between 1963 and 1974,

(Table No. 1). When food production is expressed on a per capital

basis, Latin American has made slight progress, but Asian and African

countries generally have lost ground (Table No. 2).

Benefits From Combined Systems

There is need to more fully utilize natural resources available

to agriculture, including a substantial development of livestock

enterprises in farming systems that are now largely devoted to the

production of crops. In some regions where there are extensive natural

grasslands, livestock are produced with little involvement in crop

production. However, nearly all crop farmers have some livestock

that contribute to family subsistence. The development of appropriate

livestock enterprises on arable land offers substantial opportunity

for significant improvement in total food production and in profit-

ability of farming systems. The benefits that may be derived from

including livestock enterprises in farming systems of the tropics

and sub-tropics may be summarized as follows:












Table No. 1.


HUMAN POPULATION
(in millions)


Region 1963


USA and Canada 208


Mexico
Central America
Caribbean 74


South America 157


Asia* 1070


Africa 289


*excluding Mainland China

Data from FAO Production Yearbook, 1974


1974


234


Increase


+12.5%


106


212


1395


384


+43.2%


+35.0%


+30.4%


+32.9%











Table No. 2


SELECTED ECONOMIC DATA FOR DEVELOPING COUNTRIES


1974 Per Capita
Food Production
(1961-65=100)


Agricultural Land
per capital
(Arable plus grassland)


Latin America

105%




5.0 acres


Asia

97%


1.0 acres


Urban populations 56% 23%


Rural Populations 44% 77%


Total Population 273 million 1,212 million


Literacy rate 70% 35%


Data from Economic Research Service, U.S. Dept. of Agriculture


Africa

95%


8.0 acres



18%


82%


300 million


18%













1. More effective use of natural resources climate, land

and soil, and vegetation.

a. Use of rainfall-deficient areas not suited to cropping,

b. Use of associated non-arable lands and soils in humid

regions.

c. Use of lands remote from markets.

d. Use of forages grown in crop rotations.

2. Conversion through feeding to livestock of crop residues and

by-products to produce foodstuffs for human consumption.

3. Contributions to incomes and food supplies.

a. Production of milk and milk products.

b. Production and sale of meat animals.

c. Providing animal power for crop farming.

4. Production of animal manures for application to land for

improvement of soil productivity.

5. Contribution to soil conservation and sustained land productivity

by use of forages grown in rotations to control erosion to control weeds and

pests and to improve soil fertility, with animal enterprises providing the

income from consumption of these forages.

6. Contribution of livestock enterprises through stabilization of

seasonal and yearly food production, improvements of net farm income,

better distribution of labor and power-requirements for production, thus

supporting more profitable farming systems.












Crop and livestock enterprises should be mutually beneficial when

they employ currently available technology. Heretofore, the production

of grains and certain export crops have tended to monopolize the attention

of both country governments and external assistance agencies. However,

the current interest in over-all agricultural development with food

production as a major factor has improved opportunities for exploiting

the advantages of mixed farming systems.

Land Resources & Livestock Populations

The land resources and the livestock population in the developing

countries are indicated in table 3. It should be noted that ruminant

livestock (cattle, buffalo, sheep, goats and camels) have a dual role,

being important both for utilizing natural grazing lands, and for

combined crop/livestock farming. These ruminants produce milk, meat

animals, and also supply animal power in many countries. Milk is produced

by all classes of lactating ruminants; there are few "dairy" herds

managed exclusively for milk production but widespread milk production

in conjunction with meat production is normally feasible and profitable,

and is a common practice in many developing countries.

Pigs and poultry (non-ruminants) are widely used in developing

countries, supported largely by concentrate feeds and by-products.

For family support, these animals generally consume by-products and

kitchen wastes as scavengers of a variety of available feedstuffs that

would otherwise be wasted; but for commercial enterprises, more substantial

feed sources are required. Pig and poultry enterprises enjoy good

markets, but feed costs often make them less profitable than enterprises










Table No. 3


Lands and Their Use by Livestock
Data from FAO Production Yearbook, 1974


A. Land Types and Uses, 1970-74

So. Amer. Asia* Africa Three Continents

Millions of Hectares TOTAL

Total Area 1,783 1,995 3,031 6.809

Arable lands (cropped) 89 350 211 650
(irrigated) (6) (76) (8) (90)
Permanent grasslands (1) 385 333 792 1,510


not including Mainland China
(1) Most permanent grasslands are unsuited for cropping because of unfavorable climate
or topographic or soil limitations. They must be utilized by ruminant livestock
to support people aid contribute to total food production.

B. Ruminant Livestock Population, 1974

Millions of Animals Three Continents

Type animal So. Amer. Asia Africa TOTAL

Cattle 207 289 148 644

Buffalo and Camels 30 12 42

Sheep and Goats 147 494 266 907


Total "Sheep Equivalents" 1,182 2,089 1,066 4.337
(One large animal equals 5 sheep. One goat equals 1 sheep)

C. Non-Ruminant Livestock(2), 1974

Millions o Animals

So. Amer, Asia Africa TOTAL

Pigs 50 56 7 113

Poultry 456 1,088 446 1,990


(2) Pigs and Poultry consume concentrate feeds, by-products, and crop products
unsuited for human food.













Table No. 4


CLASSES OF FOODSTUFFS PRODUCED IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES


A. Crop Foodstuffs for the Tropics and Subtropics

1. Cereal grains 5 major species
2. Food grain legimes 8 major species, 15 minor species
3. Oilseed crops 5 major species
4. Root and Tuber crops 5 major species
5. Plantain and Banana 2 plant types sweet and cooking types
6. Sugar crops 3 major species
7. Vegetables about 15 major species, many minor species
8. Fruits 6 major species and many minor species
9. Other tree crops 5 major species

(Collectively, one or more species of each group are grown extensively
in every tropical and subtropical region) (except semi-desert zones).


B. Types of Livestock


Food Animals


1. Ruminants

Cattle
Buffalo
Camels )
Sheep }
Goats J


2. Non-Ruminants

Pigs
Poultry


and Livestock food products


Products


(Utilization of grazing lands, harvested forages,
and crop residues)

Meat, Milk, Animal Power

Meat, Milk



(Utilization of concentrate feeds and by-products)

Meat
Meat, Eggs.













based on ruminant types of livestock that subsist on forages and other

cellulosic materials. Ruminant livestock enterprises are generally

beneficial to crop production and provide opportunities for strengthening

the farming system.


II. How livestock enterprises improve the
profitability of farming systems

The following advantages in farming systems may be exploited by

inclusion of livestock enterprises in farming systems.

a. Providing nitrogen in the crop rotation. Livestock enterprises

permit the exploitation of forage legumes in the cropping systems and

largely eliminate the need for nitrogen fertilizers. There is good field

evidence that a well adapted perennial forage legume will contribute

100 to 200 pounds of nitrogen per acre to the soil for each year of growth;

and this soil nitrogen will be released by normal decay of legume roots

and nodules over a period of 2-3 subsequent years of crop production.

The perennial legume seed must be inoculated with compatible root nodule

bacteria at planting time. Inoculums are available, this procedure is

simple and quite feasible for any farmer.

b. Soil improvement for greater production. The inclusion of a

mixed planting of perennial forage grasses and legumes for a period of

2 or more years, followed by several years of cropping, is one of the

most effective ways of controlling soil erosion on crop lands and of

improving soil structure and permeability to rainfall. This is due to

the mass of fibrous roots that the forage grasses produce, plus the













based on ruminant types of livestock that subsist on forages and other

cellulosic materials. Ruminant livestock enterprises are generally

beneficial to crop production and provide opportunities for strengthening

the farming system.


II. How livestock enterprises improve the
profitability of farming systems

The following advantages in farming systems may be exploited by

inclusion of livestock enterprises in farming systems.

a. Providing nitrogen in the crop rotation. Livestock enterprises

permit the exploitation of forage legumes in the cropping systems and

largely eliminate the need for nitrogen fertilizers. There is good field

evidence that a well adapted perennial forage legume will contribute

100 to 200 pounds of nitrogen per acre to the soil for each year of growth;

and this soil nitrogen will be released by normal decay of legume roots

and nodules over a period of 2-3 subsequent years of crop production.

The perennial legume seed must be inoculated with compatible root nodule

bacteria at planting time. Inoculums are available, this procedure is

simple and quite feasible for any farmer.

b. Soil improvement for greater production. The inclusion of a

mixed planting of perennial forage grasses and legumes for a period of

2 or more years, followed by several years of cropping, is one of the

most effective ways of controlling soil erosion on crop lands and of

improving soil structure and permeability to rainfall. This is due to

the mass of fibrous roots that the forage grasses produce, plus the













based on ruminant types of livestock that subsist on forages and other

cellulosic materials. Ruminant livestock enterprises are generally

beneficial to crop production and provide opportunities for strengthening

the farming system.


II. How livestock enterprises improve the
profitability of farming systems

The following advantages in farming systems may be exploited by

inclusion of livestock enterprises in farming systems.

a. Providing nitrogen in the crop rotation. Livestock enterprises

permit the exploitation of forage legumes in the cropping systems and

largely eliminate the need for nitrogen fertilizers. There is good field

evidence that a well adapted perennial forage legume will contribute

100 to 200 pounds of nitrogen per acre to the soil for each year of growth;

and this soil nitrogen will be released by normal decay of legume roots

and nodules over a period of 2-3 subsequent years of crop production.

The perennial legume seed must be inoculated with compatible root nodule

bacteria at planting time. Inoculums are available, this procedure is

simple and quite feasible for any farmer.

b. Soil improvement for greater production. The inclusion of a

mixed planting of perennial forage grasses and legumes for a period of

2 or more years, followed by several years of cropping, is one of the

most effective ways of controlling soil erosion on crop lands and of

improving soil structure and permeability to rainfall. This is due to

the mass of fibrous roots that the forage grasses produce, plus the













deeper penetration of the forage legume root system. This mass of

roots that the forage species produce in the soil, gradually decomposes

in the years following plowing of the forage plantings, to contribute

nitrogen to the subsequent crops, and to the addition of semi-permanent

soil humus that makes the soil more mellow and productive.

c. Providing feed for livestock. The growth of perennial forage

plants on each field for 2 or more years followed by a few years of

cropping, is an integral part of a farming system that includes live-

stock enterprises. Such forage is easily managed to produce highly

nutritious feed for ruminant livestock in the form of pasture, or feed

cut and fed green, or grass silage, or hay. These forages should be

harvested or grazed before or whenever the crop reaches the blooming

or heading stage to be most nutritious. This use is fully compatible

with benefits in soil improvement. The storage of forages for feeding

livestock during long rain-deficient seasons is a badly needed practice

in most developing countries, principally for milk production but also

to support satisfactory reproduction and growth of meat animals.

d. Animal manures for enhancing soil productivity. The inclusion

of ruminant livestock enterprises in mixed farming systems permits

the collection of animal manures and spreading these on the land for

incorporation in soil during land preparation for crop production.

Manures are widely recognized as being strongly beneficial to crops when

incorporated in the soil, but the supply is very small unless livestock

enterprises are included in a substantial way in farming systems. In













deeper penetration of the forage legume root system. This mass of

roots that the forage species produce in the soil, gradually decomposes

in the years following plowing of the forage plantings, to contribute

nitrogen to the subsequent crops, and to the addition of semi-permanent

soil humus that makes the soil more mellow and productive.

c. Providing feed for livestock. The growth of perennial forage

plants on each field for 2 or more years followed by a few years of

cropping, is an integral part of a farming system that includes live-

stock enterprises. Such forage is easily managed to produce highly

nutritious feed for ruminant livestock in the form of pasture, or feed

cut and fed green, or grass silage, or hay. These forages should be

harvested or grazed before or whenever the crop reaches the blooming

or heading stage to be most nutritious. This use is fully compatible

with benefits in soil improvement. The storage of forages for feeding

livestock during long rain-deficient seasons is a badly needed practice

in most developing countries, principally for milk production but also

to support satisfactory reproduction and growth of meat animals.

d. Animal manures for enhancing soil productivity. The inclusion

of ruminant livestock enterprises in mixed farming systems permits

the collection of animal manures and spreading these on the land for

incorporation in soil during land preparation for crop production.

Manures are widely recognized as being strongly beneficial to crops when

incorporated in the soil, but the supply is very small unless livestock

enterprises are included in a substantial way in farming systems. In







-10-


addition to suppling major nutrient elements (nitrogen, phosphate,

potash, calcium and magnesium) manures are quite useful in providing

"trace" elements in an available form. These trace elements are essential

for crop growth, and one or more of these are often deficient in crop

lands. They are; iron, zinc, manganese, copper, boron and molybdenum.

The benefits of manure applications to the soil extend through

2 or more seasons of cropping. The effective use of manures involves

little or no purchased inputs, and the labor involved in obtaining

benefits may be spread over periods when crop production has low labor

requirements.

e. Improved control of plant pests. The inclusion of forage

plantings in the farming system has important values not found in systems

without livestock enterprises. There is a reduction in the abundance

of insects pests, nematodes, plant diseases, and of weeds that attack

crops, when there is a regular sequence of perennial forages for 2

or more years in a 5 to 6 year rotation.

These pests are naturally decimated during the periods when forages

are grown on the fields, because of the absence of susceptible host

plants.

f. Feed supplies for work animals. Draft animals have an important

role on mixed farms since they enable a larger farm operation than

would be possible with the farm work force. Also since energy is

farm produced, this does not involve out of pocket expense and obviates

the need for fossil fuels and sophisticated mechanization. A serious

limiting factor in the successful use of animal power to supplement







-10-


addition to suppling major nutrient elements (nitrogen, phosphate,

potash, calcium and magnesium) manures are quite useful in providing

"trace" elements in an available form. These trace elements are essential

for crop growth, and one or more of these are often deficient in crop

lands. They are; iron, zinc, manganese, copper, boron and molybdenum.

The benefits of manure applications to the soil extend through

2 or more seasons of cropping. The effective use of manures involves

little or no purchased inputs, and the labor involved in obtaining

benefits may be spread over periods when crop production has low labor

requirements.

e. Improved control of plant pests. The inclusion of forage

plantings in the farming system has important values not found in systems

without livestock enterprises. There is a reduction in the abundance

of insects pests, nematodes, plant diseases, and of weeds that attack

crops, when there is a regular sequence of perennial forages for 2

or more years in a 5 to 6 year rotation.

These pests are naturally decimated during the periods when forages

are grown on the fields, because of the absence of susceptible host

plants.

f. Feed supplies for work animals. Draft animals have an important

role on mixed farms since they enable a larger farm operation than

would be possible with the farm work force. Also since energy is

farm produced, this does not involve out of pocket expense and obviates

the need for fossil fuels and sophisticated mechanization. A serious

limiting factor in the successful use of animal power to supplement







-11-


manpower in farming is the failure to supply suitable feed for work

animals (oxen, buffalo, asses, etc.) so that they are strong enough

to be effective, and to survive heavy work. The frequent complaint

that work animals die during land preparation at the beginning of the

cropping season is primarily caused by the state of starvation these

animals are in at the end of the long dry season when there has been

little forage for grazing and no harvested feed available.

The production of nutritious feed on fields allocated to forages

would permit correction of this constraint. Sustained feeding of work

animals at all seasons, with additional feed when worked heavily, is

virtually impossible when forage plantings are not included as important

components of farming systems.

g. Effective use of non-arable lands associated with cropped

lands.

Combined farm systems are not limited solely to crop lands. Farmers

using systems that include ruminant livestock enterprises may make

effective use of associated or nearby lands that are non-arable (rough

topography, stony, or shallow soil, lands subject to flooding, etc.).

These lands may be improved for forage production by prudent management

and thus enlarge the size of the farm. Whether grazed or harvested as

forage, these lands should provide additional feed, which is the real basis

for livestock enterprises. Roadsides, field borders, wet areas and,

areas that have been allowed to grow up to brush may all be significant

sources of feed.







-12-


h. Profitable use of crop residues and by-products. Livestock

provide an excellent means of utilizing crop residues and by-products

to add to total farm production. Vines, stalks and leaves, straw,

chaff from winnowing grain, and other plant residues may be used for

livestock feed. These plant products after being fed, may ultimately

be returned to the soil as manure. In such form, they are more useful

in maintaining soil fertility than when incorporated into the soil

directly. The additional values come from the livestock to which they

are fed. In addition to crop residues on the farm, locally available

by-products from central processing plants (cotton gin waste, rice

mills, banana packing sheds, groundnut processing, etc.) are important

feed stuffs. Many of the products are now wasted and lost in developing

countries.

i. Animal products for human foods. There is a widespread shortage

of protein foods in nearly all less developed countries, and this may

be greatly alleviated by the inclusion of livestock enterprises in

farming systems. Meat, milk, and eggs are often preferred protein

foods for man since they are not only palatable, but also rich in the

types of essential amino acids that are chronically deficient in plant

proteins. Ruminant livestock (cattle, buffalo, sheep, goats) are particularly

beneficial since these animals convert forages and roughages into meat

and milk. Ruminants produce these highly prized nutritious foods from

plant materials that are otherwise useless to man as foodstuffs.







-12-


h. Profitable use of crop residues and by-products. Livestock

provide an excellent means of utilizing crop residues and by-products

to add to total farm production. Vines, stalks and leaves, straw,

chaff from winnowing grain, and other plant residues may be used for

livestock feed. These plant products after being fed, may ultimately

be returned to the soil as manure. In such form, they are more useful

in maintaining soil fertility than when incorporated into the soil

directly. The additional values come from the livestock to which they

are fed. In addition to crop residues on the farm, locally available

by-products from central processing plants (cotton gin waste, rice

mills, banana packing sheds, groundnut processing, etc.) are important

feed stuffs. Many of the products are now wasted and lost in developing

countries.

i. Animal products for human foods. There is a widespread shortage

of protein foods in nearly all less developed countries, and this may

be greatly alleviated by the inclusion of livestock enterprises in

farming systems. Meat, milk, and eggs are often preferred protein

foods for man since they are not only palatable, but also rich in the

types of essential amino acids that are chronically deficient in plant

proteins. Ruminant livestock (cattle, buffalo, sheep, goats) are particularly

beneficial since these animals convert forages and roughages into meat

and milk. Ruminants produce these highly prized nutritious foods from

plant materials that are otherwise useless to man as foodstuffs.






-13-


Milk production and sales that are continuous through the year

provide a cash flow to farmers that is critically needed to cover on-

going farm expenditures in seasons when there are no crop/annual sales.

Since meat animals (male animals and less productive females) are a

separate source of income to milk production, these sales constitute

still further diversification in income, as well as increasing total

amount. Furthermore, the labor requirements for livestock enterprises

are well distributed throughout the year and thus largely avoid adding

to peak labor problems related to crop production.

III. Facilitating the successful addition of livestock enterprises to

crop farming systems.

There are specific types of action that may be taken to exploit

the benefits from mixed crop/livestock systems. It is probable that

suitable government programs will be needed in conjunction with specific

external assistance agents to avoid needless disappointment. The following

actions are suggested so as to fully capitalize on local farming situations:

a. Information on costs and benefits. An important type of

advance information is data on the probable cost/benefits related to

the livestock component enterprises, and to the entire farming system.

This may become available as a result of pilot programs to test the

effectiveness of methods that appear promising on the basis of experience

elsewhere. The determination of actual costs for each type of enterprise

is urgently needed. In most countries, it will be necessary to conduct

field tests to determine the most appropriate livestock enterprises,






-13-


Milk production and sales that are continuous through the year

provide a cash flow to farmers that is critically needed to cover on-

going farm expenditures in seasons when there are no crop/annual sales.

Since meat animals (male animals and less productive females) are a

separate source of income to milk production, these sales constitute

still further diversification in income, as well as increasing total

amount. Furthermore, the labor requirements for livestock enterprises

are well distributed throughout the year and thus largely avoid adding

to peak labor problems related to crop production.

III. Facilitating the successful addition of livestock enterprises to

crop farming systems.

There are specific types of action that may be taken to exploit

the benefits from mixed crop/livestock systems. It is probable that

suitable government programs will be needed in conjunction with specific

external assistance agents to avoid needless disappointment. The following

actions are suggested so as to fully capitalize on local farming situations:

a. Information on costs and benefits. An important type of

advance information is data on the probable cost/benefits related to

the livestock component enterprises, and to the entire farming system.

This may become available as a result of pilot programs to test the

effectiveness of methods that appear promising on the basis of experience

elsewhere. The determination of actual costs for each type of enterprise

is urgently needed. In most countries, it will be necessary to conduct

field tests to determine the most appropriate livestock enterprises,







-14-


and then make reliable estimates of cost/benefits. In some countries,

the equivalent of such estimates have been approximated by a very few

individual aggressive farmers with considerable personal success; but

government assistance doubtless would greatly expedite more adequate

testing and subsequent adoption of the more promising practices.

b. Providing livestock feed during dry seasons. Since the

production of herbaceous feeds (forages) during the growing season for

harvest or for reserved grazing in the dry season is almost completely

neglected in developing countries, there is great need to institute programs

to demonstrate the feasibility of supplying feeds and the best methods

for using these feeds. It has been estimated that adequate feeds during

the dry season could easily double the productivity of existing livestock

herds and flocks, and at low cost. Adequate feed supplies are basic to

successful livestock enterprises. When feeds are inadequate, lactation

stops, with severe effects on calves, lambs, and kids; there is prolonged

cessation in breeding; the animals cease growth; and continued feed de-

privation causes severe loss in animal weight. Most of these adverse

effects are quite unnecessary if feasible sources of feed are exploited.

The longer the normal dry season for a region, the greater is the need

for providing dry season pastures, standing or stored forages to feed

cattle, buffalo, sheep and goats until the next growing season occurs.

This practice whichis traditional in temperate zone winters, is equally

important in tropical regions with dry seasons.







-15-


c. Technical assistance on effective use of feed stuffs. Much

information has been assembled from laboratory analyses of feedstuffs

as to their nutritive value, and of the nutritional requirements of

different classes of livestock, so that technical assistance now can

be provided on how best to use the feeds that are currently available.

It is feasible to summarize such information for local conditions,

and make recommendations that individual growers may follow. It is

often found that feed production practices can be changed to improve the

nutritive value of a feed. In other situations, it may be found that

relatively small and inexpensive additions of minerals (notably, phosphate),

alone or with salt or of a concentrated protein supplement, may greatly

improve the feeding value of a local feedstuff. This type of technical

information will greatly improve the productivity of livestock particularly

those of small producers who need guidance.

d. Developing milk processing to greatly enlarge markets for

local milk producers. Milk processing is needed to provide milk products

that are safe and in marketable form. Also in certain developing countries,

the production of milk for processing into condensed or evaporated

milk, or to milk powder, and for butter and cheese has had great benefits

on the profitability of farming. For success, there must be prompt

daily collection of milk and prompt cooling at central stations enroute

to processing plants. The final milk products may be stored and marketed

through normal food channels, including exports. Private enterprise

has been notably successful in some countries, but there doubtless

are many situations where government intervention (in the beginning)

would be essential for development of a milk processing industry. In







-15-


c. Technical assistance on effective use of feed stuffs. Much

information has been assembled from laboratory analyses of feedstuffs

as to their nutritive value, and of the nutritional requirements of

different classes of livestock, so that technical assistance now can

be provided on how best to use the feeds that are currently available.

It is feasible to summarize such information for local conditions,

and make recommendations that individual growers may follow. It is

often found that feed production practices can be changed to improve the

nutritive value of a feed. In other situations, it may be found that

relatively small and inexpensive additions of minerals (notably, phosphate),

alone or with salt or of a concentrated protein supplement, may greatly

improve the feeding value of a local feedstuff. This type of technical

information will greatly improve the productivity of livestock particularly

those of small producers who need guidance.

d. Developing milk processing to greatly enlarge markets for

local milk producers. Milk processing is needed to provide milk products

that are safe and in marketable form. Also in certain developing countries,

the production of milk for processing into condensed or evaporated

milk, or to milk powder, and for butter and cheese has had great benefits

on the profitability of farming. For success, there must be prompt

daily collection of milk and prompt cooling at central stations enroute

to processing plants. The final milk products may be stored and marketed

through normal food channels, including exports. Private enterprise

has been notably successful in some countries, but there doubtless

are many situations where government intervention (in the beginning)

would be essential for development of a milk processing industry. In







-16-


addition, to stimulating dariy operations, this movement should substantially

increase the supply of meat animals moving to market.

Where milk processing has made progress to date, and where there

has not been a companion program to improve feed supplies and to more

fully utilize information on balancing feed rations to improve production

at relatively low cost, there are additional opportunities that should

be exploited. In view of the tremendous unfulfilled demand for dairy

products in developing countries, as shown by massive imports in virtually

all of these, the outlook is very promising. A key element at first

is the development of markets, and an adequate road system for daily

milk collection.

e. Effective livestock husbandry. In general, farmers and herdsmen

have a natural affection of their livestock, but they often lack basic

knowledge of their animals requirements and how to satisfy these.

These livestock producers need guidance on (1) feeds and animal nutrition,

(2) the management of animals for reproduction and milk production,

(3) the absolute necessity to provide sustained feeding during dry

seasons for year-round animal growth an production, (4) the basic principles

for prevention ofdisease, and (5) the development of markets for both

milk and meat animals. Most of this guidance must come from government

programs directed to the small producers. These are the types of in-

formation needed to make livestock enterprises major income producers

in combined farming systems.







-17-


One of the greatest contributions that an external assistance

agency might make to the agriculture of a developing country would

be to counsel governments to give a high priority to combined farming

systems and the livestock components of such systems. In this connection,

policies are needed that favor field testing in producing areas, ef-

fective extension education programs, supplemented with innovative

methods for farm credit that will serve such enterprises.

f. Perennial forage grasses and legumes in crop rotations to

support livestock enterprises. The advantage of including forage legumes

and grasses in crop rotations to improve soil productivity have been

stated in a foregoing section. They are usually equally valuable in

improving feed supplies for ruminant livestock enterprises. These

plantings should persist for at least two years to produce the desired

improvement in soil conditions. (see Table 5, pp. 19&20)

The attached list of forage grasses and legumes is preliminary

in nature; based on the limited printed information available. As

additional experience is acquired on performance of species grown in

mixtures and as components of farm rotations, the number of suitable

grasses and legumes that perform well without becoming weed hazards

should be enlarged. For example, Brachiara decumbens might be added

as a useful grass, and Desmodium distortum as a forage legume. Some

species may be useful in certain regions and not in others. The ultimate

potential for perennial forages suited for inclusion in crop rotations

will doubtless be greatly enlarged by research and experience.







-18-


It should be noted that the species shown in table 5 have been

selected to avoid any possibility that they might become weeds. This

is important so that subsequent crops will not have additional weed

problems. An additional factor in effective use is to graze the crop

or harvest it whenever the legume or grass begins to flower or produce

heads. During the growing seasons, the forage should not be allowed

to produce seed, since the digestibility of the feed declines rapidly

after heading or blooming. However, forage will mature when left standing

to be used as feed in the dry season.

Cultural practices for establishing perennial forage plantings

should be adjusted so that seeding occurs at the beginning of the rainy

season. This insures rapid seedling establishment and growth.

Seed mixtures should contain 2 species each of perennial grasses

and legumes. The total amount of seed will range from 5 to 10 lbs.

per acre (5 to 10 kg per hectare), with about equal weights of grasses

and legume seed. Lighter seedings rates are suitable for regions of

lesser rainfall, and heavier rates for regions of more abundant rainfall.

Fertilizer. Limited amounts of nitrogen fertilizer (or animal

manures) may sometimes stimulate seedling establishment, but no further

nitrogen is needed after the legumes are well established. Phosphate

fertilizers will benefit the legumes particularly, and should be incorporated

in the soil during seed bed preparation. Other fertilizer needs may

be determined y soil testing or actual field trials, as used on crops

of the rotation.






-19-


TABLE 5 Perennial Tropical Forage Grasses and Legumes, Suited for Use
in Crop Rotation to Maintain Soil Productivity, and to Support
Livestock Enterprises.

A. For regions with 10 inches or more annual rainfall (250 mm. or more)

1. Grasses

Birdwood grass Cenchrus setigerus

Buffel grass (short variety) Cenchrus ciliaris

Love grass Eragrostis curvula

B. For regions with 20 inches or more animal rainfall (500 mm or more)

1. Grasses (including those in section A)

Blue Panic grass Panicum antidotale

Makarikari grass Panicum coloratum makarikariense

2. Legumes

Dwarf Koa Desmanthus virgatus

Townsville Lucerne Stylosanthes humilis (cool season rainfall only)

C. For regions with 30 inches or more annual rainfall (750 mm or more)

1. Grasses (including those in preceding sections)

Harding grass Phalaris tuberosa stenoptera

Plicatulum grass Paspalum plicatulum

2. Legumes (including those in preceding sections)

Leucaena Leucaena leucocephala

Lucerne Medicago sativa

Phasey bean Phaseolus lathyroides






-20-


TABLE 5 (cont'd)

D. For regions with 35 inches or more annual rainfall (845 mm or more)

1. Grasses (including those in preceding sections)

Pigeon grass Setaria sphacelata

Scrobic grass Paspalum commersoni

2. Legumes (including those in preceding sections)

Stylosanthes Stylosanthes guyanensis

E. For regions with 40 inches or more annual rainfall (1000 mm or more)

1. Grasses (Including those in preceding sections)

Alabang grass Dicanthium caricosum

Molasses grass Melinis minutiflora

2. Legumes (including those in preceding sections)

Lablab Dolichos lablab

Silverleaf desmodium Desmodium uncinatum






-21-


Table No. 6


Perennial tropical forage grasses and legumes suitable for use


in crook rotations


to maintain soil productivity, and to support livestock enterprises


Plant Species


Minimum
Seed Quality Seed Size
Standards Thousands
Germi- Purity per lb per kg
natioF
% I %


Seeding
Rates
Acrel Ha


Minimum Tolerance
Yr. Rainfall to to soil
In. mm drought water
logging


A. Regions with 10 inches or more annual rainfall
Grasses
Birdwood grass 30% 80% 80 175 2 2 10 250 very poor
good
Buffel grass 30 80 200 440 4- 4 4 10 250 very poor
good
Love grass 80 90 1500 3300 1 1 10 250 good poor

B. Regions with 20 inches or more annual rainfall
Grasses (including those in section Q) very
Blue panic grass 50 80 650 1430 3 3 20 500 good fair
Makarikari grass 30 90 725 1600 1- 3 1i-3 20 500 good good
Legumes
Dwarf koa 80 70 20 40 2 2 20 500 good poor
Townsville lucerne 90 40 200 440 2- 3 2- 3 20 500 good poor
(cool season rainfall only) ___

C. Regions with 30 inches or more annual rainfall
Grasses (including those in preceding sections)
Harding grass 60 90 300 660 2- 4 2- 4 30 750 good good
Plicatulum grass 30 5 5 385 850 2- 4 2- 4 30 750 good good
Legumes (including those in preceding sections)
Leucaena 90 50 12 26 4- 6 4- 6 30 750 good good
Lucerne 90 80 200 440 1- 5 2- 5 30 750 good poor
Phaseybean 90 70 56 125 1-31- 3 30 750 good good

D. Regions with 35 inches or more annual rainfall
Grasses (including those in preceding sections)
Pigeon grass 30 90 | 600 | 660 12- 5 2- 5 35 875 fair good
Scrobic grass I 30 95 170 375 12- 5 2- 5 35 875 fair good
Legumes (including those in preceding sections)
Stylosanthes I 90 I 40 I 160 I 350 12- 5 2- 5 35 875 good fair

E. Regions with 40 inches or more annual rainfall
Grasses (including thope in p eceding sections)
Alabang grass 34 23 18 20 40 1000 fair fair
Molasses grass 30 I 60 6000 13000 2- 4 2- 4 40 1000 fair fair
Legumes (including those in preceding sections)
Lablab e 90 1 50 2 1 5 15-20 5-20 40 1000 good fair
Silverleaf desmpdium 90 I 50 95 I 210 1- 3 1- 3 40 1000 fair fair
For further information on these forage species, see Technical Series
Bulletin No. 14, "Characteristics of Economically Important Food and
Forage Legumes and Forage Grasses for the Tropics and Sub-Tropics", pub-
lished by TA/AGR, U.S. Agency for International Development, Washington,
D.C., 1975.






-22-


Since a single fertilization is made at planning time to support

the forage crop for at least 2 years, the amount of fertilizer should

be increased proportionately, particularly the phosphate fertilizer.

Inoculation of legume seed just before planting is highly essential.

The legume inoculants must be composed of strains of root nodule bacteria

that are compatible with the legume species being planted. The inoculation

material is usually supplied as a black powdery material; and the rates

of use are given on the container. Mixing is simple; the culture is

sprinkled on slightly moistened seed, and well stirred so that every

seed carries some of the inoculum. Treated seed should be planted

promptly thereafter, and shallow tillage given to cover the seed lightly.

The bacteria in the culture begin growth as the seed germinates, and

will inoculate the legume roots at an early stage of growth.

Seed bed preparation should produce a well compacted pulverized

soil surface, since the seeds are small and should not be planted too

deeply. Light tillage after planting will provide sufficient coverage

of seed.

Protect new plantings. The young plantings should normally be

protected from all grazing or harvest until the grasses begin to produce

heads or the legumes to produce flowers. After the first harvest,

the fields may be grazed intermittently, or harvested whenever a new

crop of grass heads or legume flowers occur. The greatest benefits

to soil improvement, and the greatest yields of forage for livestock

are achieved when regrowth is protected until blooming or heading occurs.







-23-


However, best performance takes place as to yields and forage quality

when top growth is harvested promptly as these growth stages.

When forage plantings are grazed, it is important that the livestock

be managed in a way that is compatible with good animal production, as

well as fostering sustained forage plant vigor. Overgrazing and over-

stocking are self-defeating. These practices are unfortunately widespread,

and they must be corrected by any feasible means because of adverse

effects on productivity, and on profitability to the farmer. Desirable

management practices for local conditions are simple and feasible, and

these are easily transferrable to producers.

It should be noted that this bulletin does not deal with production

of other forages on arable lands, that may be periodically cut and

fed green to livestock. There are many such feedstuffs, but they do

not fall within the scope of mixtures of perennial forages grown in

crop rotations to: (a) improve the long-term productivity of arable

lands, and (b) to provide nutritious feed for ruminant livestock.

Some examples of such feedstuffs would include elephant grass grown

with abundant water and supplemental nitrogen fertilizer for harvest

every 60 days, sugar cane harvested whenever height of 3 to 4 feet

is reached, berseen (a cool season annual) grown with irrigation or

adequate rainfall for harvest every 30 to 45 days, sorghum-sudan hybrids

grown as warm season annuals with periodic harvests, and others that

may have good regional performance.







-24-


g. Suitable credit for animal enterprises. The small farmers

who wish to develop livestock enterprises as part of the farming system

require a different type of credit from that suitable for seasonable

cropping. Livestock enterprises require the purchase of animals that

will not be fully productive until they reach maturity and either begin

production of milk or until meat animals can be marketed. Consequently,

it is necessary to have longer term loans for livestock purchases

and also for establishment of forage plantings and their maintenance

for at least 2 years of production. Other needs may be the purchase

of fencing materials and of machinery services for planting, and shelter

for controlled animals. There may be need also for new facilities

for the collection, storage and field application of manures, to capitalize

on such beneficial opportunities.

The Government may directly, or through farmer cooperatives, provide

such credit to small farmers, on terms that are suitable to effective

development of new animal enterprises by crop farmers. An integral

part of such credit may be the continuing counsel and guidance to the

borrower on how best to use the credit for economic improvement. Without

suitable credit and counsel, the advantages of combined crop/livestock

farming systems may not be exploited successfully by the small farmers.

h. Providing animal health care. Any increase in numbers of

livestock in a locality inevitably increases possibility of significant

disease and animal health problems. To the extent that livestock of

each farmer are restricted in movement to the boundaries of the farm

and there is virtually no intermingling with communally managed herds,

the increase in diseases may be minimal. However, a preventive program







-25-


A particular problem must be solved in those regions where there

are relatively large areas of public grazing lands in relation to

crop lands. In those regions, there appear to be no alternatives to

placing full responsibility for effective management of these grazing

lands on the village leaders. These leaders should be counseled on the

merits of controlled stocking rates, on the improvement of forage

producing capacity of the lands by regulated grazing (such as rotation

grazing, and protection of areas reserved for dry season feed), brush

control, introduction of superior grasses and legumes, etc.). In

some areas, village cooperatives may be developed to manage these open

grazing lands. External assistance agencies generally have elected to

remain aloof from such matters, but there would be merit in sensible

development and management of open grazing lands in regions where they

are extensive.


7H1S PARAGRAPH SHOULD b.,---Y
"" rT.F. go







-26-


is the least expensive and most effective type of program for animal

health control, and this requires the intervention of government in

providing veterinary health services. In some situations, particularly

after livestock enterprises have been widely adopted, farmer cooperatives

may assume full responsibility for providing animal health services.

But for initial introduction of such enterprises, crop farmers will need

assistance. There are advantages in combining counsel and guidance on

standard livestock management with technical assistance on disease control,

since both types of aid are essential. However, the veterinarians may

serve a larger region than the livestock management specialists, and be'

made available on call from the latter.

i. Cautions on use of communal or open grazing lands. Farm villages

in much of Africa and the Near East make considerable use of communal or

other open grazing lands. While the livestock are all individually

family owned, the mixed herds of ruminants (cattle, buffalo, goats, sheep)

are not segregated. Such common grazing lands do not occur in Latin

America, and are absent in some other regions. There are serious

problems in trying to develop livestock enterprises on individual farms,

by using such open grazing. First, these open grazing lands are chronically

overstocked, and are undependable sources of feed since no beneficial

management practices for sustained feed production are invoked by the

village leaders. Second, these communal herds as they grow in size,

provide increasing dangers for spread of parasites and communicable live-

stock diseases throughout these herds. As individual farmers become

more concerned and proficient in producing feed for their own livestock,

they may decide to relinquish any use of open grazing lands.






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