• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Cover
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 List of Illustrations
 Acknowledgement
 Summary
 Introduction
 Crop-Livestock Systems in...
 Crop-Livestock Systems in...
 Lessons from field visits
 Lessons from the Tour Organiza...
 Lessons from the Plenary Sessions...
 Conclusion
 Reference
 Papers presented by the West African...
 Summary of monitoring tour...
 Illustrations






Group Title: Network report - Farming Systems Support Project - no. 3
Title: Integrated livestock systems in Nepal and Indonesia
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE PAGE TEXT
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00054786/00001
 Material Information
Title: Integrated livestock systems in Nepal and Indonesia implications for animal traction programs in West Africa
Series Title: Network report Farming Systems Support Project
Alternate Title: Implications for animal traction programs in West Africa
Physical Description: v, 64 p. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Starkey, Paul
Apetofia, Kossivi V
Farming Systems Support Project
Publisher: Farming Systems Support Project
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: <1986>
 Subjects
Subject: Livestock systems -- Nepal   ( lcsh )
Livestock systems -- Indonesia   ( lcsh )
Genre: non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: by Paul H. Starkey and Kossivi V. Apetofia.
General Note: "March 1986."
Funding: Network report (Farming Systems Support Project) ;
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00054786
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida
Resource Identifier: aleph - 001938176
oclc - 37191887
notis - AKB4311

Table of Contents
    Cover
        Cover
    Title Page
        Page i
    Table of Contents
        Page ii
        Page iii
    List of Illustrations
        Page iv
    Acknowledgement
        Page v
    Summary
        Page 1
    Introduction
        Page 2
        General
            Page 2
        Asian rice farming systems network
            Page 2
    Crop-Livestock Systems in Nepal
        Page 6
        General description
            Page 6
        West Africa integrated livestock systems network
            Page 3
        Crop livestock systems research monitoring tour of Nepal and Indonesia
            Page 3
            Page 4
            Page 5
    Crop-Livestock Systems in Indonesia
        Page 9
        General description
            Page 9
    Lessons from field visits
        Page 12
        The intensity of agricultural production
            Page 12
        Terraced hillsides
            Page 12
        Animal traction in Nepal
            Page 7
        Farming systems research in Nepal
            Page 8
        Animal traction in Indonesia
            Page 10
        Farming systems research in Indonesia
            Page 10
            Page 11
    Lessons from the Tour Organization
        Page 18
        Itinerary
            Page 18
        Erosion
            Page 13
        Stall feeding
            Page 13
        Field visits
            Page 19
        Field visits
            Page 19
        Plow designs
            Page 15
        Yokes and other equipment
            Page 15
        Plenary sessions
            Page 20
        Control of working animals
            Page 16
        Use of cattle in swamp conditions
            Page 16
        Banteng or Bali cattle
            Page 17
        Waste disposal and fish farming
            Page 17
        Use of fodder trees
            Page 14
        Manure utilization
            Page 14
        Communal grazing
            Page 14
    Lessons from the Plenary Sessions and Group Discussions
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Research methodology
            Page 21
            General
                Page 21
                Assessment of draft power
                    Page 21
        Research and extension teams
            Page 24
        Lessons from Burma, Chinal and the Philippines
            Page 24
            Page 25
    Conclusion
        Page 26
        Farms and farming systems
            Page 26
        Animal traction and farming systems research
            Page 26
        Multi-disciplinary tours
            Page 27
        Inter-network exchanges
            Page 27
    Reference
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
    Papers presented by the West African participants
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
    Summary of monitoring tour itinerary
        Page 44
        Page 45
    Illustrations
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
Full Text
I


Implications


for Animal Traction Programs
in West Africa


U


ITD Library
ISt.E. 28
Starkey, P.H.,


S Farming Systems Support Project
Network Report No. 3


r


Integrated Livestock Systems
in Nepal and Indonesia










INTEGRATED LIVESTOCK SYSTEMS

IN NEPAL AN3D I1NDON1ESIA




Implications for

AniXmal Txrac-tionCm Pr og ram s

in WCest Africa







by
Paul H. Starkey
and
Kossivi V. Apetofia
March 1986


Farming System Support Project
International Prorams Office of Agiculture and
Institute of Food and Office of Multisctoral Developmet
Agricultural Sciences Bureau for Science and Technoloy
University of Florida Agency for International Delopment
Gainesille, Florida 32611 Washinton, D.C. 20523







- ii


CONTENTS

Page

List of illustrations ........................................ iv
Acknowledgements ............................................... v


1. SUMMARY .... ......... . . .. .


2. INTRODUCITION ............... ..... ... ................... ...... 2

2.1. General ......................................................2
2.2. Asian Rice Farming Systems Network........................2
2.3. West Africa Integrated Livestock Systems Network ............ 3
2.4. Crop Livestock Systems Research Monitoring Tour of
Nepal and Indonesia................ ......................... 3


3. CROP-LIVESTOCK SYSTEMS IN NEPAL..............................6

3.1. General description ......................................... 6
3.2. Animal traction in Nepal...................... .............. 7
3.3. Farming systems research in Nepal........................... 8


4. CROP-LIVESTOCK SYSTEMS IN INDONESIA........................... 9

4.1. General description......... ............................... 9
4.2. Animal traction in Indonesia ............................... 10
4.3. Farming systems research in Indonesia......................10


5. LESSONS FROM FIELD VISITS ..................................12

5.1. The intensity of agricultural production.................. 12
5.2. Terraced hillsides ................ .......................12
5.3. Erosion..................... ............................. .. 13
5.4. Stall feeding........... ..................................13
5.5. Use of fodder trees.......... ....... .......................14
5.6. Manure utilization ..................... ................... 14
5.7. Communal grazing...........................................14
5.8. Plow designs ............................................... 15
5.9. Yokes and other equipment .................................15
5.10. Control of working animals................................ 16
5.11. Use of cattle in swamp conditions ........................16
5.12. Banteng or Bali cattle................................. 17
5.13. Waste disposal and fish farming.......................... 17








- iii


CONTENTS

Page


6. LESSONS FROM THE TOUR ORGANIZATION .......................... 18

6.1. Itinerary ........... .................................. ... 18
6.2. The balance of tour activities ...........................19
6.3. Field Visits ...............................................19
6.4. Plenary Sessions................... ....................... 20


7. LESSONS FROM PLENARY SESSIONS AND GROUP DISCUSSIONS ..........21

7.1. Research methodology. .................... ..........21
7.1.1. General ............. .............. ....... ...... 21
7.1.2. Assessment of draft power................................ 21
7.1.3. Measuring the weight of cattle..................... ......22
7.1.4. Measuring feed intake......................... ......... 23
7.2. Research and extension teams............................. 24
7.3. Lessons from Burma, China and the Philippines............. 24


8. CONCLUSIONS ................................. ...............26

8.1. Farms and farming systems.................................26
8.2. Animal traction and farming systems research................26
8.3. Multi-disciplinary tours.......... ......................... 27
8.4. Inter-network exchanges..................................... 27


9. REFERENCES ......................... ......... ... .............28


10. PAPERS PRESENTED BY THE WEST AFRICAN PARTICIPANTS ............34
10.1. Animal traction in Togo ................................... 34
10.2. Animal traction in Sierra Leone............................37
10.3. Animal traction networking activities
in Africa and Asia ......................................... 40


11. SUMMARY OF MONITORING TOUR ITINERARY ........................44'


12. ILLUSTRATIONS.............................................. ..46







- iv -


LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS

Page

Figure 1 Using draught cattle to prepare a rice swamp 46
in the Terai of Nepal.

Figure 2 Examining locally made plow, Sumatra, Indonesia. 47

Figure 3 Pokhara Valley, Nepal, showing terraced fields. 48

Figure 4 Homestead at Pumdi Bhumdi, in the hills of Nepal. 49

Figure 5 Woman carrying harvested forage for zero-grazed
livestock, Kathmandu, Nepal. 50

Figure 6 Use of two oxen to plow maize field in Nepal.
(Note one man working alone, without reins). 51

Figure 7 Simple wooden plow at Pumdi Bhumdi, Nepal, 52

Figure 8 Buffalo cart in the Terai area of Nepal. 53

Figure 9 Ox cart carrying sand, in hill area of Nepal. 54

Figure 10 Ongole oxen plowing in Sumatra, Indonesia. 55

Figure 11 Muzzled oxen plowing in Sumatra, Indonesia. 56

Figure 12 Simple moldboard plow with wooden beam,
Sumatra Indonesia. 57

Figure 13 Young Banteng carrying plow, Sumatra, Indoneisa. 58

Figure 14 Banteng, or "Bali cattle", Sumatra, Indonesia. 59

Figure 15 Transporting cassava on a terraced hillside,
Java, Indonesia. 60

Figure 16 Fishpond and toilet, Java, Indonesia. 61

Figure 17 Tour participants and a recently planted forage
hedge in stratified feeding research trials,
Bali, Indonesia. 62

Figure 18 Simple village chaff-cutter in Burma. 63

Figure 19 Drawing of simple chaff-cutter used in Burma. 64







- V -


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS



The authors would like to express their great
appreciation to the Farming Systems Support Project for
sponsoring their participation in the Second
Crop-Livestock Systems Research Monitoring Tour of Nepal
and Indonesia, to which this report refers.

The authors would also like to thank and congratulate the
organizers of the tour, that is the IRRI Rice Farming
Systems Group, the Department of Agriculture, Nepal and
the Ministry of Agriculture, Indonesia. As indicated in
this report, these organizations efficiently planned and
executed tour arrangements that were stimulating,
professionally valuable, exhausting and enjoyable.

This document is a joint report in that all the
observations and conclusions were discussed in detail by
the authors during the tour and at three subsequent
meetings. However responsibility for the actual writing
was assigned to Paul Starkey.

The authors would like to stress that the opinions
expressed in this report are their own, and do not
necessarily represent the views of the Farming Systems
Support Project, or its affiliates.



Paul Starkey,
Specialist in Animal Traction,
2. Wychwood Crescent,
Earley, Reading RG6 2RA,
United Kingdom.


Kossivi Apetofia
Directeur,
Project pour la Promotion de la Traction Animale (PROPTA),
BP 82, Atakpame,
Togo.


March, 1986.







- 1 -


1. SUMMARY

The authors participated in the Second Crop-Livestock Research
Monitoring Tour of Nepal and Indonesia organized by the International
Rice Research Institute (IRRI), the Department of Agriculture of
Nepal and the Ministry of Agriculture of Indonesia. The proceedings
of this tour have been published by IRRI, and this present report is
to highlight points of particular relevance to animal traction
programs in West Africa.

Forty scientists participated in the tour, which covered 4,500 km in
two weeks. Case studies and discussion papers were presented at
plenary sessions in Kathmandu, Nepal and research methodology and
results were discussed during field visits near Pokhara, Nepal and on
the islands of Sumatra, Java and Bali in Indonesia. The tour was
efficiently organized and valuable to all persons.

Animal traction is commonly used in both Nepal and Indonesia, even in
areas of steep, terraced hillsides and high population densities.
Land is very intensively used,- and draft animals are sometimes
maintained on holdings of less than 0.5 hectare. While villages
often allocate specific communal grazing areas, stall feeding and
zero grazing is also very common. In Nepal a high proportion of the
feed of draft animals comes from browse trees.

In both Nepal and Indonesia, plows are made in the villages,
primarily of wood, and they are cheap and can also be maintained in
villages. Plows are joined to withers (shoulder) yokes by a long
wooden pole. Nose ropes and reins are sometimes used, but even
without these, control of animal pairs is invariably by one person.
Although draft buffaloes are well adapted to rice swamps, the much
greater number of draft cattle owned in southern Asia means that
cattle are more commonly used for rice cultivation than buffaloes.

In Burma, simple village-manufactured chaff cutters are used to
assist in the feeding of gathered forage and rice straw. In this
report illustrations are provided of the design of these.

Discussions during plenary sessions and field visits highlighted the
importance of a multi-disciplinary approach to research, and the
value of researchers regularly visiting villages together as a team,
for detailed dialogue with farmers. Farmers should be involved at
all stages in the research process, and considering them as
"consultants" can be helpful. The use of the farmers' own criteria
for assessing the value, condition and output of animals may be more
useful and simpler than using weighing instruments or dynamometers.

It is recommended that further exchanges between the Asian Rice
Farming Systems Network and the West African Integrated Livestock
Systems Network be undertaken.







- 2


2. INTRODUCTION


2.1. General

This report follows the participation of the authors in the Second
Crop-Livestock Systems Research and Monitoring Tour of Nepal and
Indonesia. This was organized by the Asian Rice Farming Systems
Network, coordinated by the International Rice Research Institute,
based in the Philippines. The authors attended as representatives of
the West Africa Animal Traction Networkshop Committee of the West
Africa Integrated Livestock Systems Network. Their participation was
made possible by the Farming Systems Support Project of the
University of Florida. Some background information will be provided
on these various organizations, before technical lessons from the
tour itself are given.


2.2. Asian Rice Farming Systems Network

In 1974, the Rice Farming Systems Program of IRRI facilitated the
establishment of a network of Asian research organizations involved
in rice farming systems. Initially the network was known as the
Asian Cropping Systems Network, but in 1983 the name was changed to
the Asian Farming Systems Network, in view of the importance of
developing an integrated approach to crop and livestock systems
research. However in order to emphasize the mandate of IRRI, which
is specifically concerned with research related to rice production,
the present name of "Asian Rice Farming Systems Network" (ARFSN) was
adopted in 1985.

ARFSN is coordinated from IRRI's headquarters in the Philippines, and
currently involves organizations in Bangladesh, Bhutan, Burma, China,
India, Indonesia, Korea (S), Nepal, Pakistan, Philippines, Sri Lanka,
Thailand and Vietnam. In addition, ARFSN collaborates with other
related networks and organizations for example, twelve counties are
involved in a rice-wheat systems network, in cooperation with CIMMYT
(Centro Internacional de Mejoramiento de Maiz y Trigo). As IRRI now
places much emphasis on a systems approach to its research, the IRRI
rice breeding program is orientated to optimizing total production
within specific farming systems, rather than simply maximizing grain
yield. Thus the International Rice Testing Program, also coordinated
by IRRI, cooperates closely with ARFSN in evaluating varieties.

While the systems network initially emphasized crop production,
increasing importance is now placed on research into crop-livestock
integration and interactions. Network organizations in Burma, China,
Indonesia, Nepal, Philippines, Sri Lanka and Thailand are engaged in
specific research projects relating to the role of livestock within
farming systems, and the implication of this for crop-livestock







- 2


2. INTRODUCTION


2.1. General

This report follows the participation of the authors in the Second
Crop-Livestock Systems Research and Monitoring Tour of Nepal and
Indonesia. This was organized by the Asian Rice Farming Systems
Network, coordinated by the International Rice Research Institute,
based in the Philippines. The authors attended as representatives of
the West Africa Animal Traction Networkshop Committee of the West
Africa Integrated Livestock Systems Network. Their participation was
made possible by the Farming Systems Support Project of the
University of Florida. Some background information will be provided
on these various organizations, before technical lessons from the
tour itself are given.


2.2. Asian Rice Farming Systems Network

In 1974, the Rice Farming Systems Program of IRRI facilitated the
establishment of a network of Asian research organizations involved
in rice farming systems. Initially the network was known as the
Asian Cropping Systems Network, but in 1983 the name was changed to
the Asian Farming Systems Network, in view of the importance of
developing an integrated approach to crop and livestock systems
research. However in order to emphasize the mandate of IRRI, which
is specifically concerned with research related to rice production,
the present name of "Asian Rice Farming Systems Network" (ARFSN) was
adopted in 1985.

ARFSN is coordinated from IRRI's headquarters in the Philippines, and
currently involves organizations in Bangladesh, Bhutan, Burma, China,
India, Indonesia, Korea (S), Nepal, Pakistan, Philippines, Sri Lanka,
Thailand and Vietnam. In addition, ARFSN collaborates with other
related networks and organizations for example, twelve counties are
involved in a rice-wheat systems network, in cooperation with CIMMYT
(Centro Internacional de Mejoramiento de Maiz y Trigo). As IRRI now
places much emphasis on a systems approach to its research, the IRRI
rice breeding program is orientated to optimizing total production
within specific farming systems, rather than simply maximizing grain
yield. Thus the International Rice Testing Program, also coordinated
by IRRI, cooperates closely with ARFSN in evaluating varieties.

While the systems network initially emphasized crop production,
increasing importance is now placed on research into crop-livestock
integration and interactions. Network organizations in Burma, China,
Indonesia, Nepal, Philippines, Sri Lanka and Thailand are engaged in
specific research projects relating to the role of livestock within
farming systems, and the implication of this for crop-livestock







- 2


2. INTRODUCTION


2.1. General

This report follows the participation of the authors in the Second
Crop-Livestock Systems Research and Monitoring Tour of Nepal and
Indonesia. This was organized by the Asian Rice Farming Systems
Network, coordinated by the International Rice Research Institute,
based in the Philippines. The authors attended as representatives of
the West Africa Animal Traction Networkshop Committee of the West
Africa Integrated Livestock Systems Network. Their participation was
made possible by the Farming Systems Support Project of the
University of Florida. Some background information will be provided
on these various organizations, before technical lessons from the
tour itself are given.


2.2. Asian Rice Farming Systems Network

In 1974, the Rice Farming Systems Program of IRRI facilitated the
establishment of a network of Asian research organizations involved
in rice farming systems. Initially the network was known as the
Asian Cropping Systems Network, but in 1983 the name was changed to
the Asian Farming Systems Network, in view of the importance of
developing an integrated approach to crop and livestock systems
research. However in order to emphasize the mandate of IRRI, which
is specifically concerned with research related to rice production,
the present name of "Asian Rice Farming Systems Network" (ARFSN) was
adopted in 1985.

ARFSN is coordinated from IRRI's headquarters in the Philippines, and
currently involves organizations in Bangladesh, Bhutan, Burma, China,
India, Indonesia, Korea (S), Nepal, Pakistan, Philippines, Sri Lanka,
Thailand and Vietnam. In addition, ARFSN collaborates with other
related networks and organizations for example, twelve counties are
involved in a rice-wheat systems network, in cooperation with CIMMYT
(Centro Internacional de Mejoramiento de Maiz y Trigo). As IRRI now
places much emphasis on a systems approach to its research, the IRRI
rice breeding program is orientated to optimizing total production
within specific farming systems, rather than simply maximizing grain
yield. Thus the International Rice Testing Program, also coordinated
by IRRI, cooperates closely with ARFSN in evaluating varieties.

While the systems network initially emphasized crop production,
increasing importance is now placed on research into crop-livestock
integration and interactions. Network organizations in Burma, China,
Indonesia, Nepal, Philippines, Sri Lanka and Thailand are engaged in
specific research projects relating to the role of livestock within
farming systems, and the implication of this for crop-livestock







- 6


3. CROP-LIVESTOCK SYSTEMS IN NEPAL

3.1. General description


Nepal is a small landlocked country, lying between two large and
populous countries, India and China. The country has an area of
141,000 sq km, and a population of more than 16 million. To put this
in a West African context, Nepal is about twice the size of Sierra
Leone, or Togo, but only one ninth the size of Mali, yet its
population is greater than these three countries combined. The
climate of Nepal ranges from subtropical to alpine, and is closely
correlated with elevation. The "Terai", that is the. southern plain
with an altitude of 60-300 metres, represents 23% of the whole
country, but accounts for 52% of its cultivated area. A further 43%
of Nepal comprises hills ranging from 300-3000 metres, in which is
found about 42% of the nation's cultivated area. While the
Himalayas to the north represent 34% of the land area, agriculture in
the mountain zone is limited by the topography and climate, and is
generally restricted to the grazing of livestock.

Almost 95% of the population of Nepal derive their livelihood
directly or indirectly from agriculture, which accounts for 56% of
the gross domestic product. A large proportion of the grain
production of Nepal comes from the Terai, which is being increasingly
settled as communications improve and disease problems are reduced.
Much agriculture in the Himalayan foothills is of a subsistence
nature, with access to external markets being hampered by the
extremely poor communications, with most villages being more than a
days walk from the nearest road.

The traditional staple grains of rice and maize are grown in both the
Terai and the hills, and wheat is becoming increasingly important,
especially in the Terai. Throughout Nepal, cropping is highly
intensive, with very little land left uncultivated and with three
crops a year being quite common. Cropping patterns, particularly in
the hills, are complex, with risk being reduced by inter-cropping,
relay cropping and a large range of crop associations.

Erosion is a particular problem in the hills, and estimates suggest
that Nepal loses 1.7 mm of top soil annually, with 240,000,000,000
cubic metres of soil flowing out of country in the swollen rivers
every year (Bhattarai, 1986). With increasing deforestation and crop
cultivation in the hills, the problem is a major national concern.

Farming systems in Nepal are generally integrated crop-livestock
enterprises, with the importance of animals increasing with the
higher altitudes. The six million cattle and three million buffaloes
are maintained primarily for work and milk, and on average 3.4 large
ruminants are owned per household of 5.8 persons (Poudyal, 1986).







- 6


3. CROP-LIVESTOCK SYSTEMS IN NEPAL

3.1. General description


Nepal is a small landlocked country, lying between two large and
populous countries, India and China. The country has an area of
141,000 sq km, and a population of more than 16 million. To put this
in a West African context, Nepal is about twice the size of Sierra
Leone, or Togo, but only one ninth the size of Mali, yet its
population is greater than these three countries combined. The
climate of Nepal ranges from subtropical to alpine, and is closely
correlated with elevation. The "Terai", that is the. southern plain
with an altitude of 60-300 metres, represents 23% of the whole
country, but accounts for 52% of its cultivated area. A further 43%
of Nepal comprises hills ranging from 300-3000 metres, in which is
found about 42% of the nation's cultivated area. While the
Himalayas to the north represent 34% of the land area, agriculture in
the mountain zone is limited by the topography and climate, and is
generally restricted to the grazing of livestock.

Almost 95% of the population of Nepal derive their livelihood
directly or indirectly from agriculture, which accounts for 56% of
the gross domestic product. A large proportion of the grain
production of Nepal comes from the Terai, which is being increasingly
settled as communications improve and disease problems are reduced.
Much agriculture in the Himalayan foothills is of a subsistence
nature, with access to external markets being hampered by the
extremely poor communications, with most villages being more than a
days walk from the nearest road.

The traditional staple grains of rice and maize are grown in both the
Terai and the hills, and wheat is becoming increasingly important,
especially in the Terai. Throughout Nepal, cropping is highly
intensive, with very little land left uncultivated and with three
crops a year being quite common. Cropping patterns, particularly in
the hills, are complex, with risk being reduced by inter-cropping,
relay cropping and a large range of crop associations.

Erosion is a particular problem in the hills, and estimates suggest
that Nepal loses 1.7 mm of top soil annually, with 240,000,000,000
cubic metres of soil flowing out of country in the swollen rivers
every year (Bhattarai, 1986). With increasing deforestation and crop
cultivation in the hills, the problem is a major national concern.

Farming systems in Nepal are generally integrated crop-livestock
enterprises, with the importance of animals increasing with the
higher altitudes. The six million cattle and three million buffaloes
are maintained primarily for work and milk, and on average 3.4 large
ruminants are owned per household of 5.8 persons (Poudyal, 1986).







- 3


research methodology. The Network is also encouraging work on other
topics relating to crop-livestock integration in the prevailing
socio-economic environment, such as rice-fish production and the
role of women in rice farming systems.

In December 1984, the ARFSN organized its first Crop-Livestock
Systems Research Monitoring Tour in the Philippines and Thailand.
39 scientists participated and a further 18 observers from the two
host countries were present. 47 of the participants came from
organizations based in the Philippines and Thailand, but ten
scientists came form China, Indonesia, Nepal and Sri Lanka. Four
days were spent on a combination of paper presentations and field
visits in the Philippines, and a further four were spent on
presentations, field visits and discussions in Thailand. The
proceedings were published in detail (IRRI,1984). Following the
success of this first tour, which constructively combined "workshop"
discussions with visits to farms and sites of farming systems
research, it was decided to hold a second network tour in 1985, this
time involving two other participating countries, Nepal and
Indonesia. It is to this second tour of the ARFSN that this report
refers.


2.3. West Africa Integrated Livestock Systems Network

In March 1985, the Farming Systems Support Project (FSSP) of the
University of Florida organized a "networkshop" on "Animal Traction
in a Farming Systems Perspective" in Kara, Togo. At this
networkshop, five West African countries were represented by African
nationals, while technical expertise from five other countries in the
region was brought by expatriates. The program included keynote
presentations, field trips, small group discussions and plenary
discussions, all related to animal traction research and extension.
The proceedings of this workshop are being published in English and
French (Poats, Lichte, Oxley, Russo and Starkey, 1986). Several
recommendations for follow-up activities were proposed. These
included: the holding of a second networkshop relating to animal
traction in 1986, probably in Sierra Leone; the establishment of a
West Africa committee to arrange and coordinate this 1986
networkshop; various exchange visits between animal traction programs
in West Africa; and the participation of representatives of the
networkshop on the Asian Rice Farming Systems Network tour of Nepal
and Indonesia.


2.4. Crop Livestock Systems Research Monitoring Tour of Nepal
and Indonesia

The second crop-livestock systems research monitoring tour of ARFSN
was held from 18th to 31st August 1985. Of the 33 participants from







- 3


research methodology. The Network is also encouraging work on other
topics relating to crop-livestock integration in the prevailing
socio-economic environment, such as rice-fish production and the
role of women in rice farming systems.

In December 1984, the ARFSN organized its first Crop-Livestock
Systems Research Monitoring Tour in the Philippines and Thailand.
39 scientists participated and a further 18 observers from the two
host countries were present. 47 of the participants came from
organizations based in the Philippines and Thailand, but ten
scientists came form China, Indonesia, Nepal and Sri Lanka. Four
days were spent on a combination of paper presentations and field
visits in the Philippines, and a further four were spent on
presentations, field visits and discussions in Thailand. The
proceedings were published in detail (IRRI,1984). Following the
success of this first tour, which constructively combined "workshop"
discussions with visits to farms and sites of farming systems
research, it was decided to hold a second network tour in 1985, this
time involving two other participating countries, Nepal and
Indonesia. It is to this second tour of the ARFSN that this report
refers.


2.3. West Africa Integrated Livestock Systems Network

In March 1985, the Farming Systems Support Project (FSSP) of the
University of Florida organized a "networkshop" on "Animal Traction
in a Farming Systems Perspective" in Kara, Togo. At this
networkshop, five West African countries were represented by African
nationals, while technical expertise from five other countries in the
region was brought by expatriates. The program included keynote
presentations, field trips, small group discussions and plenary
discussions, all related to animal traction research and extension.
The proceedings of this workshop are being published in English and
French (Poats, Lichte, Oxley, Russo and Starkey, 1986). Several
recommendations for follow-up activities were proposed. These
included: the holding of a second networkshop relating to animal
traction in 1986, probably in Sierra Leone; the establishment of a
West Africa committee to arrange and coordinate this 1986
networkshop; various exchange visits between animal traction programs
in West Africa; and the participation of representatives of the
networkshop on the Asian Rice Farming Systems Network tour of Nepal
and Indonesia.


2.4. Crop Livestock Systems Research Monitoring Tour of Nepal
and Indonesia

The second crop-livestock systems research monitoring tour of ARFSN
was held from 18th to 31st August 1985. Of the 33 participants from








- 4 -


network countries, 13 travelled from the Philippines and IRRI
headquarters, six were from Indonesia, four from Nepal, four from
Thailand, three from China, two from Burma and one came from Sri
Lanka. In addition, four participants represented African
organizations: these were the two FSSP-sponsored animal traction
specialists from West Africa, and two research workers from Zimbabwe,
who were financed by the International Development Research Centre
(IDRC) of Canada. During the meetings and field visits in Nepal and
Indonesia, there were also several observers from the host countries.

While the tour organization was coordinated by the IRRI Rice Farming
Systems Program, logistical details in Nepal were arranged by the
Department of Agriculture of His Majesty's Government, and its
Integrated Cereals Project. The host organization in Indonesia was
the Ministry of Agriculture, and in particular its Agency for
Agricultural Research and Development. These organizations prepared
schedules for the tour which were designed to allow visits to a
variety of farming systems, and discussions with research teams in
different parts of each country. Given the limited time available
and the geographies of Nepal and Indonesia, this necessitated a great
deal of travelling and highly efficient logistical arrangements. It
is to the credit of the coordinators and organizers that the
.transport and accommodation arrangements were impeccable.

The week in Nepal commenced with the opening ceremony and keynote
addresses in Kathmandu. The tour then drove the 200 km along winding
mountainous roads to Pokhara. Here the participants spent two nights,
which allowed field visits to hillfarms and time for some discussion
of the local research programs, notably those based at the village of
Pumdi Bhumdi. The return to Kathmandu was by a research site on the
flatter lands (Terai) at Ratna Nagar. There then followed three days
in the same location, at Kathmandu, which were spent on paper
presentations, group discussions and some brief field visits. At the
end of the first week, the tour flew the 4,500 km to Jakarta,
Indonesia, with an overnight stop in Thailand.

In order that farming sites could be visited on the islands of Java,
Sumatra and Bali, the week in Indonesia involved six changes of
accommodation, four airflights and five coach journeys. From Jakarta,
the tour flew to Bandar Lampung in Sumatra, and drove the 300 km to
Baturaja, where field visits were arranged. Central Java was then
reached by means of two airflights and two coach journeys, and visits
were arranged at Ciamis. The tour then drove to Yogyakarta, in order
to fly to Denpasar, in Bali. Here the final farm visits were
undertaken and a day was spent on group discussions and the final
plenary sessions. A more detailed summary of the program is given in
Section 11 of this report.

Through its initiation of the tour, the IRRI Rice Farming Systems
Program envisaged there would be valuable exchange of experience







- 5


between network scientists, particularly relating to the
implementation of on-farm crop-livestock research. For this reason,
emphasis was placed on field visits and group discussion, rather than
formal presentations. Nevertheless there were a total of 35 papers
distributed during the tour, based on experiences in nine countries,
and these are listed, together with other relevant publications, in
Section 9 of this report. The participants were divided into three
multi-disciplinary groups, for discussion purposes,and these groups
covered research methodology, tour observations and farm case
studies. In addition, consultations were held on various new
proposals for research project funding within the ARFSN.

The proceedings of the network tour have been published and included
are most of the papers formally presented during the tour, as well as
summaries of the group discussions. The full reference to the
publication is:

IRRI, 1986. Report of Second Crop-Livestock Systems Research
Crop-Livestock Systems Research Nepal and Indonesia, 17-31
August 1985. International Rice Research Institute, Manila,
Philippines. 668p. (E).


Copies may be obtained from:

Rice Farming Systems Program
International Rice Research Institute,
P.O. Box 933,
Manila, Philippines.







- 9


4. CROP-LIVESTOCK SYSTEMS IN INDONESIA

4.1. General description

Indonesia is an archipelago of about 13,000 islands, many of which
are tiny and uninhabited, but others, including Sumatra, Sulawesi,
Kalimantan, Irian Jaya and Java, are listed with the world's largest
islands. The country spans 5,000 km of ocean, between the mainland
of Southeast Asia and northern Australia. The total land area is 1.2
million sq km and the population is about 165 million people, making
Indonesia the fifth most populous country in the world. There is a
great contrast between the population densities of the various
islands, with the island of Java, which represents just 7% of
Indonesia's land, supporting about 61% of the country's people. With
an average of 690 people per square kilometre, Java is one of the
most densely populated areas of the world, and the Indonesian
Government is therefore actively promoting the transmigration of
people to the less populated islands.

The climate of Indonesia is generally warm tropical, with an average
of 2500 mm of rain falling mainly between September and April.
However, there is considerable variation within and between the
islands, and many islands have mountain areas which have greater
extremes of rainfall and temperature.

Despite the population pressures on the island of Java, in the
country as a whole about 62% of the land area is forest and only 11%
is under permanent cultivation. Of the cropped area, 9 million
hectares are dryland fields, 7 million hectares are wetlands suitable
for rice production, and 6 million hectares are planted with
perennial crops. About 90 million Indonesians are directly dependant
on agriculture, which accounts for 26% of the gross domestic
product. Holdings are generally very small. In Java, 43% of farm
households (average 4.8 persons) cultivate 0.25 ha or less, and
throughout the country 63% of the farm households cultivate less than
0.5 ha (AARD, 1985). Cropping is intensive, and two or three crops a
year is normal, particularly on the fertile volcanic soils of Java.

The staple grain is rice, and in recent years Indonesia has become
self-sufficient in rice production, with 61% of the production coming
from Java. Maize is the second most important crop, followed by
cassava, sweet potatoes, groundnuts and beans. Indonesia has a
cattle population of about 6.3 million, and 2 million buffaloes, 60%
of which are found on the island of Java (Petheram, Thahar and
Bernsten, 1985). Small ruminants number about 10 million. As
Indonesia is a predominantly Muslim country, few pigs are kept.
However fish farming is closely integrated into many farming systems.

Indonesia is the home of the banteng (Bos javanicus), also known as
Bali cattle. The banteng is a bovine species that resembles cattle,
but is genetically very distinct (NRC, 1983). There are about







- 9


4. CROP-LIVESTOCK SYSTEMS IN INDONESIA

4.1. General description

Indonesia is an archipelago of about 13,000 islands, many of which
are tiny and uninhabited, but others, including Sumatra, Sulawesi,
Kalimantan, Irian Jaya and Java, are listed with the world's largest
islands. The country spans 5,000 km of ocean, between the mainland
of Southeast Asia and northern Australia. The total land area is 1.2
million sq km and the population is about 165 million people, making
Indonesia the fifth most populous country in the world. There is a
great contrast between the population densities of the various
islands, with the island of Java, which represents just 7% of
Indonesia's land, supporting about 61% of the country's people. With
an average of 690 people per square kilometre, Java is one of the
most densely populated areas of the world, and the Indonesian
Government is therefore actively promoting the transmigration of
people to the less populated islands.

The climate of Indonesia is generally warm tropical, with an average
of 2500 mm of rain falling mainly between September and April.
However, there is considerable variation within and between the
islands, and many islands have mountain areas which have greater
extremes of rainfall and temperature.

Despite the population pressures on the island of Java, in the
country as a whole about 62% of the land area is forest and only 11%
is under permanent cultivation. Of the cropped area, 9 million
hectares are dryland fields, 7 million hectares are wetlands suitable
for rice production, and 6 million hectares are planted with
perennial crops. About 90 million Indonesians are directly dependant
on agriculture, which accounts for 26% of the gross domestic
product. Holdings are generally very small. In Java, 43% of farm
households (average 4.8 persons) cultivate 0.25 ha or less, and
throughout the country 63% of the farm households cultivate less than
0.5 ha (AARD, 1985). Cropping is intensive, and two or three crops a
year is normal, particularly on the fertile volcanic soils of Java.

The staple grain is rice, and in recent years Indonesia has become
self-sufficient in rice production, with 61% of the production coming
from Java. Maize is the second most important crop, followed by
cassava, sweet potatoes, groundnuts and beans. Indonesia has a
cattle population of about 6.3 million, and 2 million buffaloes, 60%
of which are found on the island of Java (Petheram, Thahar and
Bernsten, 1985). Small ruminants number about 10 million. As
Indonesia is a predominantly Muslim country, few pigs are kept.
However fish farming is closely integrated into many farming systems.

Indonesia is the home of the banteng (Bos javanicus), also known as
Bali cattle. The banteng is a bovine species that resembles cattle,
but is genetically very distinct (NRC, 1983). There are about







- 12 -


5. LESSONS FROM FIELD VISITS

5.1. The intensity of agricultural production

Inevitably there are numerous contrasts between the agricultural
systems of Nepal and Indonesia, and those of West Africa. However the
most striking is the intensity of the farming systems. This was
particularly apparent in the farm sites visited in Nepal and Java.
The farms visited in Sumatra were more like those in comparable
rainfall areas of West Africa, as they had similar crop densities and
made use of bush-fallow in the rotation. In Nepal and Java, it
appeared that every portion of land was being cultivated, often with
several crops. Thus even the small bunds in rice fields were planted
with legumes and tubers. Around the homesteads (Figure 4) were
planted complex associations of a wide range of vegetables and root
crops. Large and small ruminants were maintained through carefully
controlled grazing, often on steep slopes, or by stall feeding. The
overall impression can well be summed up by an amusing remark made
towards the end of a four-hour coach journey, from Kathmandu to
Pokhara, during which the- farming patterns being observed were
described and discussed. A member of the tour simply pointed out
"Look, there, at last, is a square metre that is not being farmed!".
In fact the small portion being referred to, turned out to be a
little outcrop of solid rock, reinforcing the point that almost all
land, including that of the road verges, was being used for
agricultural purposes. While there may be major differences in soil
fertility and population pressures, between the farms viewed in Asia
and those familiar in West Africa, the major lesson appeared to be
that where land is a scarce resource, the potential for intensive
associations of crops and livestock can be effectively exploited by
the small farmers.


5.2. Terraced hillsides

In the hills of Nepal and in Java, the majority of the hillsides have
been terraced, to allow crops to be grown on remarkably steep
slopes. Slopes on which it is difficult for a person to stand have
been cut into steps, thus increasing the surface area, the water
retention and the ease of crop cultivation (Figure 15). The terraces
also make it easier for animals to be used for land preparation,
although on steep slopes the terraces have to be narrow, and the
manoeuvring of a pair of oxen becomes difficult. The terracing
reinforces the impression of highly intensive agriculture, and the
making use of every portion of land. It would be expected that many
West African farmers would marvel at this system of hill farming, but
would understand that the enormous labor requirement to create and
maintain terraces, is only likely to be justified if available farm
land is a very scarce resource.







- 12 -


5. LESSONS FROM FIELD VISITS

5.1. The intensity of agricultural production

Inevitably there are numerous contrasts between the agricultural
systems of Nepal and Indonesia, and those of West Africa. However the
most striking is the intensity of the farming systems. This was
particularly apparent in the farm sites visited in Nepal and Java.
The farms visited in Sumatra were more like those in comparable
rainfall areas of West Africa, as they had similar crop densities and
made use of bush-fallow in the rotation. In Nepal and Java, it
appeared that every portion of land was being cultivated, often with
several crops. Thus even the small bunds in rice fields were planted
with legumes and tubers. Around the homesteads (Figure 4) were
planted complex associations of a wide range of vegetables and root
crops. Large and small ruminants were maintained through carefully
controlled grazing, often on steep slopes, or by stall feeding. The
overall impression can well be summed up by an amusing remark made
towards the end of a four-hour coach journey, from Kathmandu to
Pokhara, during which the- farming patterns being observed were
described and discussed. A member of the tour simply pointed out
"Look, there, at last, is a square metre that is not being farmed!".
In fact the small portion being referred to, turned out to be a
little outcrop of solid rock, reinforcing the point that almost all
land, including that of the road verges, was being used for
agricultural purposes. While there may be major differences in soil
fertility and population pressures, between the farms viewed in Asia
and those familiar in West Africa, the major lesson appeared to be
that where land is a scarce resource, the potential for intensive
associations of crops and livestock can be effectively exploited by
the small farmers.


5.2. Terraced hillsides

In the hills of Nepal and in Java, the majority of the hillsides have
been terraced, to allow crops to be grown on remarkably steep
slopes. Slopes on which it is difficult for a person to stand have
been cut into steps, thus increasing the surface area, the water
retention and the ease of crop cultivation (Figure 15). The terraces
also make it easier for animals to be used for land preparation,
although on steep slopes the terraces have to be narrow, and the
manoeuvring of a pair of oxen becomes difficult. The terracing
reinforces the impression of highly intensive agriculture, and the
making use of every portion of land. It would be expected that many
West African farmers would marvel at this system of hill farming, but
would understand that the enormous labor requirement to create and
maintain terraces, is only likely to be justified if available farm
land is a very scarce resource.







- 12 -


5. LESSONS FROM FIELD VISITS

5.1. The intensity of agricultural production

Inevitably there are numerous contrasts between the agricultural
systems of Nepal and Indonesia, and those of West Africa. However the
most striking is the intensity of the farming systems. This was
particularly apparent in the farm sites visited in Nepal and Java.
The farms visited in Sumatra were more like those in comparable
rainfall areas of West Africa, as they had similar crop densities and
made use of bush-fallow in the rotation. In Nepal and Java, it
appeared that every portion of land was being cultivated, often with
several crops. Thus even the small bunds in rice fields were planted
with legumes and tubers. Around the homesteads (Figure 4) were
planted complex associations of a wide range of vegetables and root
crops. Large and small ruminants were maintained through carefully
controlled grazing, often on steep slopes, or by stall feeding. The
overall impression can well be summed up by an amusing remark made
towards the end of a four-hour coach journey, from Kathmandu to
Pokhara, during which the- farming patterns being observed were
described and discussed. A member of the tour simply pointed out
"Look, there, at last, is a square metre that is not being farmed!".
In fact the small portion being referred to, turned out to be a
little outcrop of solid rock, reinforcing the point that almost all
land, including that of the road verges, was being used for
agricultural purposes. While there may be major differences in soil
fertility and population pressures, between the farms viewed in Asia
and those familiar in West Africa, the major lesson appeared to be
that where land is a scarce resource, the potential for intensive
associations of crops and livestock can be effectively exploited by
the small farmers.


5.2. Terraced hillsides

In the hills of Nepal and in Java, the majority of the hillsides have
been terraced, to allow crops to be grown on remarkably steep
slopes. Slopes on which it is difficult for a person to stand have
been cut into steps, thus increasing the surface area, the water
retention and the ease of crop cultivation (Figure 15). The terraces
also make it easier for animals to be used for land preparation,
although on steep slopes the terraces have to be narrow, and the
manoeuvring of a pair of oxen becomes difficult. The terracing
reinforces the impression of highly intensive agriculture, and the
making use of every portion of land. It would be expected that many
West African farmers would marvel at this system of hill farming, but
would understand that the enormous labor requirement to create and
maintain terraces, is only likely to be justified if available farm
land is a very scarce resource.







- 7


National and religious regulations ensure that cattle are not
slaughtered for meat production, but surplus male buffaloes may be
culled. The national flock of 5.5 million smallruminants comprise
mainly goats, and the average ownership is two per household, with
larger numbers being found in the hills and mountains. The total
number of pigs in the country is less than 500,000. Poultry are
relatively few in number, with an average of only three per
household, and this is associated with certain socio-cultural taboos.


3.2. Animal traction in Nepal

The majority of the farmers in Nepal use large ruminants for
plowing. Both cattle and buffaloes are used, although cattle are
more common. To persons unfamiliar with Nepal, it might be assumed
that draft animals would be restricted to the relatively flat Terai,
but in fact, cattle are used extensively in the hill areas, and they
are often used to plow the small terraces on steep hills. The only
part of the country in which fields are never cultivated by draft
animals is the Kathmandu Valley, sacred to Lord Shiva, and his
bull-form- incarnation, Nandin.

Animals are almost always yoked in pairs, using a withers or shoulder
yoke. A simple wooden plow body, with a metal tip, is attached to a
long wooden beam, which is tied to the yoke. A single handle is
joined to the plow body, and the farmer holds this in one hand,
leaving the other hand free to hold reins or a stick. The animals
are invariably controlled by just one person, and often this is
accomplished without any system of reins (Figure 6).

By far the most common operation is plowing, and animals plow both
upland and swamp fields. To break up the plowed land, simple wooden
harrows may be used, or the ground may be reworked with the same
plow. In rice swamps, the ground may be levelled and puddled with
animals dragging a board, on which the farmer may stand (Figure 1 ).
Planting rows may be marked with an animal drawn rake. moldboard
plows and steel equipment for use with draft animals are almost
unknown in the villages.

Historically animal drawn vehicles have been relatively rare, as
there have been few roads in the country. However, in the Terai,
locally made ox carts and buffalo carts are becoming common. The
fact that carts have not been traditional, means that few artisans
have developed the skills of making wooden wheels, and carts often
make use of pneumatic tires (Figures 8 and 9). However in the hills
animal carts are of little use, as the terrain is steep, and wide
tracks or roads are extremely rare.








- 8


3.3. Farming systems research in Nepal

As the Chief Agronomist of the Nepalese Department of Agriculture
observed, agricultural research in developing countries often closely
follows the fashions of the donor agencies who fund many of the
research programs.. Thus during the time that the major agencies
favored on-station evaluation of novel genotypes, Nepal undertook
trials with Triticale and high protein and high lysine maize. As
cropping systems research became fashionable, Nepal started an
integrated cereals project, with financial support from USAID. More
recently, crop-livestock integration has become popular, and research
workers in Nepal are presently looking at farming systems in
multi-disciplinary teams in several sites in the different ecological
zones of the country (Bhattarai, 1986).

A valuable output of the Integrated Cereals Project, was an excellent
publication, illustrated in color, giving an introduction to the
methodology and initial results of the cropping systems research
program in Nepal (ICP, 1984). The title "Through farmers' eyes"
succinctly summarizes the systems research principles of this
project.

One of the sites selected for a multi-disciplinary study, was the
village of Pumdi Bhumdi, near Pokhara, in the hill region of Nepal.
Preliminary reports of the first few months of research have included
initial descriptions of the farms (Delobel, Shrestha, Singh and
Sayre, 1985) and the socio-economic conditions (Delobel, 1986d), the
evaluation of oats as a potential green fodder for buffalo milk
production (Singh and Gautam, 1986), and studies on: livestock
management (Delobel, 1986c), livestock balance (Shrestha, 1986b),
buffalo milk production (Singh and Joshi, 1986), farm economics
(Krishna Bahadur, 1986a), farm labor and power (Delobel, 1986b), task
partitioning within farming families (Krishna Bahadur, 1986b),
bullock power (Shrestha, 1986a), and farmers associations (Delobel,
1986a).

Considerable manpower is being allocated to the studies at Pumdi
Bhumdi, in order to increase the researchers' understanding of the
complex farming systems of the hill region. While, the farmers and
their families are not generally able to express their detailed
knowledge in modern farming systems jargon, nor quantify their inputs
and outputs in standard international units, they clearly know far
more about their own farming systems, and the complex interactions,
than do the young research workers. For this reason, the farmers
are considered not just as collaborators, but as consultants, whose
expert knowledge can save the research team years of study, provided
the researchers make full use of the valuable opportunity.

Elsewhere in Nepal, studies have been carried out with a legume
(Sesbania spp.), that has successfully increased crop yields when
used as a green-manure crop, to fertilize the annual rice-wheat
sequence in the Terai (Shrestha, 1986).







- 10


1.5 million banteng in the country, and following normal practice,
these have been included in the total "cattle" population.


4.2. Animal traction in Indonesia

The majority of large ruminants in Indonesia are used for work, and
estimates put the number of draft cattle at 3.5 million, and the
buffaloes used for work at 2 million (Ramaswamy, 1985). Despite the
small holdings and high human labor force found in Java, large
numbers of working animals are used on this island. Draft cattle,
including banteng, are most common in eastern Java, which is drier
and which produces more maize. Draft animals are seldom used in the
steep upland areas.

Animals are generally used in pairs, yoked with a shoulder or withers
yoke, (Figure 10), although some buffaloes are used singly in West
Java. Indonesian farmers use both male and female draft animals, and
they seldom castrate bulls or milk working cows (Petheram et al.,
1985). The main operation is the plowing of rice and maize fields,
using two passes of a traditional plow. In addition, swamp rice
areas are puddled and levelled with two passes of a rake or levelling
board.

The implements are made in the villages, primarily of wood, with
shares, and sometimes moldboards, made of steel (Figure 12). A long
wooden beam connects the plow body to the yoke, and a single wooden
handle is used to control the implement. Whether or not reins are
used, only one person works with the draft animals (Figure 11). As
more people wish to use draft animals than own them, the borrowing or
hiring of animals is quite common.

While both cattle and buffalo carts are used in some villages, horses
are the preferred species for pulling carts on both urban and rural
roads. Cattle and buffaloes are also used to drive sugar cane mills
(Petheram et al., 1985).


4.3. Farming systems research in Indonesia

The Agency for Agricultural Research and Development (AARD) of the
Ministry of Agriculture is undertaking both component research and
farming systems research in many parts of Indonesia (AARD, 1985). In
the islands of Sumatra and Sulawesi, studies are being carried out at
the various settlement schemes of the transmigration program
(Pandang, Maamun, Bahar, Prastowo, Felizardo and Corpuz, 1986:
Pandang, Bahar. Felizardo and Corpuz,1986). Unlike the highly
populated islands of Java and Bali, these schemes are characterized
by the relative abundance of land, and farms in which trees, shrubs
and the presence of stumps restrict the rate of adoption of animal
traction. The fact that many settled farmers have not previously







- 10


1.5 million banteng in the country, and following normal practice,
these have been included in the total "cattle" population.


4.2. Animal traction in Indonesia

The majority of large ruminants in Indonesia are used for work, and
estimates put the number of draft cattle at 3.5 million, and the
buffaloes used for work at 2 million (Ramaswamy, 1985). Despite the
small holdings and high human labor force found in Java, large
numbers of working animals are used on this island. Draft cattle,
including banteng, are most common in eastern Java, which is drier
and which produces more maize. Draft animals are seldom used in the
steep upland areas.

Animals are generally used in pairs, yoked with a shoulder or withers
yoke, (Figure 10), although some buffaloes are used singly in West
Java. Indonesian farmers use both male and female draft animals, and
they seldom castrate bulls or milk working cows (Petheram et al.,
1985). The main operation is the plowing of rice and maize fields,
using two passes of a traditional plow. In addition, swamp rice
areas are puddled and levelled with two passes of a rake or levelling
board.

The implements are made in the villages, primarily of wood, with
shares, and sometimes moldboards, made of steel (Figure 12). A long
wooden beam connects the plow body to the yoke, and a single wooden
handle is used to control the implement. Whether or not reins are
used, only one person works with the draft animals (Figure 11). As
more people wish to use draft animals than own them, the borrowing or
hiring of animals is quite common.

While both cattle and buffalo carts are used in some villages, horses
are the preferred species for pulling carts on both urban and rural
roads. Cattle and buffaloes are also used to drive sugar cane mills
(Petheram et al., 1985).


4.3. Farming systems research in Indonesia

The Agency for Agricultural Research and Development (AARD) of the
Ministry of Agriculture is undertaking both component research and
farming systems research in many parts of Indonesia (AARD, 1985). In
the islands of Sumatra and Sulawesi, studies are being carried out at
the various settlement schemes of the transmigration program
(Pandang, Maamun, Bahar, Prastowo, Felizardo and Corpuz, 1986:
Pandang, Bahar. Felizardo and Corpuz,1986). Unlike the highly
populated islands of Java and Bali, these schemes are characterized
by the relative abundance of land, and farms in which trees, shrubs
and the presence of stumps restrict the rate of adoption of animal
traction. The fact that many settled farmers have not previously







- 11 -


used draft animals, leads to close parallels with some settlement
schemes in the forest-fringe and Guinea-savannah areas of West
Africa. As land can be allocated both to individual farmers and to
the new village communities, there is much scope for defining the
grazing needs of draft animals early in the settlement program, and
this can be critical to the success of animal power development, and
community relations, in the new areas.

On the island of Java, the Research Institute for Animal Production
at Bogor, is undertaking several crop-livestock research studies,
including one in cooperation with CWMDC at Ciamis (Prawiradiputra and
Kusnadi, 1986: CWMDC, 1983). This latter involves increasing erosion
control measures and forage production in a hilly area, where cassava
is a major crop (Figure 15). It has been found that improved terrace
designs (bench terraces and ridge terraces) can reduce soil losses
and increase overall forage production (including crop residues) from
as little as 2 tonnes fresh weight per hectare under traditional
systems, to 12 t/ha. While cattle are used for land preparation in
some parts of the area of the studies, few large ruminants are
maintained high in the hills, and here forage is used for feeding
sheep and goats. On-going studies involve the evaluation, in
cooperation with local farmers, of the legume shrubs Leucaena
leucocephala and Calliandra callothyrsus for erosion control,
fuel-wood and livestock feed. The role of fish farming within the
hill-farming systems is also -being studied.

On the island of Bali, crop-livestock research is being undertaken by
the Faculty of Animal Husbandry of the Udayana University (Nitis,
Lana and Suarna, 1986). The banteng, or Bali cattle, are important
for both work purposes and meat production on Bali, which contains
areas of relatively infertile and rocky calcareous soils. Research,
therefore, is focusing on intensifying the "cattle" production
through stall feeding and the use of three "strata" of forages,
comprising grass-legume mixtures, .shrubs and trees. A six year
trial is being undertaken in cooperation with 26 local farmers. The
objective is to allow farmers to prolong the natural season of forage
availability, through the use of forage trees and shrubs. During the
rainy season, and the start of the dry season, a grass-legume mixture
dominated by Cenchrus ciliaris, Panicum maximum, Styloanthes
guyanensis and Centrocema pubescense, is intended to provide
sufficient forage for zero-grazing up to 4 banteng per hectare. As
the dry season develops, increasing use is to be made of branches
harvested from shrub hedges planted around the fields, as seen in
Figure 17. Leucaena leucocephala and Gliricidia sepium are being
evaluated as the shrub legumes. Towards the end of the dry season,
branches will be cut from the forage tree, which include: Ficus
poocelie, Lannea corromandilica and Hibiscus tilliceus. The
long-term study will involve many variables, including forage
species, associated cash-crop species, stocking densities and field
topography. Routine measurements will include monthly weighing of
Banteng and feed sampling for quantity and quality.







- 18


6. LESSONS FROM THE TOUR ORGANIZATION


6.1. Itinerary

The logistics of organizing such a tour would seem to be daunting.
Nevertheless about forty participants from ten countries, travelled
over 4,500 km, and in the process took six plane flights, ten coach
journeys and changed accommodation nine times. This was entirely in
addition to the various international arrival and departure
journeys. That this was successfully undertaken, without major
problems or complaints, and with very little wasted time, says a
great deal for the IRRI coordinators and the national programs in
Nepal and Indonesia. All who took part in the tour praised the
effectiveness of the organization. The participants from African
countries were particularly impressed, as all had previously
experienced more problems during simple workshops involving just one
field visit.

'In many ways, by fixing such a tight schedule, the organizers ensured
that all logistical arrangements had to be made perfectly, and that
timekeeping was adhered to by all participants, for the consequences
of a major delay at any point were clear to all. This meant that
field visits could not be delayed at all, even if the weather was
inappropriate.

By undertaking such extensive travelling, the participants were able
to see many more ecosystems than would have been possible on a less
ambitious itinerary. However this advantage was partially offset by
the fact that everyone was tired by the travelling, and with so much
time spent in transit, opportunities for detailed discussions were
reduced. In general, the participants were happy with the balance
achieved, and were happy to have had the opportunity to see so many
sites of farming research.

The host projects were all pleased to have received the tour, as the
visits gave valuable opportunities for external comments and
evaluation. The necessity to present their work to experts from other
countries encouraged the projects to undertake constructive internal
reassessments of priorities and this was considered very helpful. As
the members of host projects joined in the tour activities for one or
more days, the limited time of each field visit was not too
disappointing, as people were able to discuss the research activities
and farming systems during subsequent activities. It is suggested
that should any comparable tour or activity be organized in West
Africa, the key members of host projects should also join the tour
for a minimum of one day.







- 18


6. LESSONS FROM THE TOUR ORGANIZATION


6.1. Itinerary

The logistics of organizing such a tour would seem to be daunting.
Nevertheless about forty participants from ten countries, travelled
over 4,500 km, and in the process took six plane flights, ten coach
journeys and changed accommodation nine times. This was entirely in
addition to the various international arrival and departure
journeys. That this was successfully undertaken, without major
problems or complaints, and with very little wasted time, says a
great deal for the IRRI coordinators and the national programs in
Nepal and Indonesia. All who took part in the tour praised the
effectiveness of the organization. The participants from African
countries were particularly impressed, as all had previously
experienced more problems during simple workshops involving just one
field visit.

'In many ways, by fixing such a tight schedule, the organizers ensured
that all logistical arrangements had to be made perfectly, and that
timekeeping was adhered to by all participants, for the consequences
of a major delay at any point were clear to all. This meant that
field visits could not be delayed at all, even if the weather was
inappropriate.

By undertaking such extensive travelling, the participants were able
to see many more ecosystems than would have been possible on a less
ambitious itinerary. However this advantage was partially offset by
the fact that everyone was tired by the travelling, and with so much
time spent in transit, opportunities for detailed discussions were
reduced. In general, the participants were happy with the balance
achieved, and were happy to have had the opportunity to see so many
sites of farming research.

The host projects were all pleased to have received the tour, as the
visits gave valuable opportunities for external comments and
evaluation. The necessity to present their work to experts from other
countries encouraged the projects to undertake constructive internal
reassessments of priorities and this was considered very helpful. As
the members of host projects joined in the tour activities for one or
more days, the limited time of each field visit was not too
disappointing, as people were able to discuss the research activities
and farming systems during subsequent activities. It is suggested
that should any comparable tour or activity be organized in West
Africa, the key members of host projects should also join the tour
for a minimum of one day.







- 13 -


5.3. Erosion

Associated with the farming on very steep slopes is the problem of
erosion. This has become a major cause of concern for both farmers
and governments. The dramatic effects of erosion can be seen in
disintegrating terraces, dramatic gullys and silt-laden rivers. At
the local level, villages can lose both houses and fields in
landslides. At the national level, the potential for water
harnessing is reduced by the inevitability of dams silting up
rapidly. However at the field level, the problem is diminishing
fertility through loss of topsoil. The concentrated grazing of
livestock on higher slopes can increase the mechanical breakdown of
soil structure, and lead to greater runoff onto the terraced fields.
However, the stall-feeding of ruminants with forest leaves can also
increase erosion if it leads to further deforestation. Livestock can
also be implicated in erosion through damage to terrace bunds, for
example when oxen are moving between terraces before or after
plowing.

Although erosion is clearly important in Nepal and Indonesia, the
West African observer is probably more likely to be impressed by the
considerable degree of erosion control achieved by the farmers.
Through the use of terraces and bunds, farmers are able to farm very
steep slopes, year after year. Naturally this requires careful
maintenance, and the farmers achieve this using a variety of crops,
including cassava. This produces both harvestless tubers, and woody
stems that can be woven into the terrace banks, plowing of sloping
land, is generally very limited, as slopes are usually landscaped
into terraces. Thus while hill-farming will almost inevitably be
linked to some form of erosion, the Asian farmers have developed
numerous ways of limiting the seriousness of this.


5.4. Stall feeding

Closely associated with the intensity of the agriculture and the
integration of crop and livestock production in Nepal and Indonesia,
is the common practice of stall feeding buffaloes, cattle, sheep and
goats, particularly during the peak crop-growing seasons. In Nepal,
it is common to see women and men carrying large bundles of harvested
fodder on their backs (Figure 5). This is often cut from the bunds
between rice fields, on which it would be impossible for animals to
graze, without damaging the crops. This therefore allows animals to
be maintained on small, intensively cropped holdings, and ensures
that even weeds growing among the crops can be harvested, and put to
productive use. While stall feeding results in a lower labor
requirement for supervising animal grazing, or constructing fences,
which is a clear advantage, this has to be balanced against the labor
required to harvest and carry the forage. Farmers consider the
concentration of manure in the stalls to be one of the major benefits







- 13 -


5.3. Erosion

Associated with the farming on very steep slopes is the problem of
erosion. This has become a major cause of concern for both farmers
and governments. The dramatic effects of erosion can be seen in
disintegrating terraces, dramatic gullys and silt-laden rivers. At
the local level, villages can lose both houses and fields in
landslides. At the national level, the potential for water
harnessing is reduced by the inevitability of dams silting up
rapidly. However at the field level, the problem is diminishing
fertility through loss of topsoil. The concentrated grazing of
livestock on higher slopes can increase the mechanical breakdown of
soil structure, and lead to greater runoff onto the terraced fields.
However, the stall-feeding of ruminants with forest leaves can also
increase erosion if it leads to further deforestation. Livestock can
also be implicated in erosion through damage to terrace bunds, for
example when oxen are moving between terraces before or after
plowing.

Although erosion is clearly important in Nepal and Indonesia, the
West African observer is probably more likely to be impressed by the
considerable degree of erosion control achieved by the farmers.
Through the use of terraces and bunds, farmers are able to farm very
steep slopes, year after year. Naturally this requires careful
maintenance, and the farmers achieve this using a variety of crops,
including cassava. This produces both harvestless tubers, and woody
stems that can be woven into the terrace banks, plowing of sloping
land, is generally very limited, as slopes are usually landscaped
into terraces. Thus while hill-farming will almost inevitably be
linked to some form of erosion, the Asian farmers have developed
numerous ways of limiting the seriousness of this.


5.4. Stall feeding

Closely associated with the intensity of the agriculture and the
integration of crop and livestock production in Nepal and Indonesia,
is the common practice of stall feeding buffaloes, cattle, sheep and
goats, particularly during the peak crop-growing seasons. In Nepal,
it is common to see women and men carrying large bundles of harvested
fodder on their backs (Figure 5). This is often cut from the bunds
between rice fields, on which it would be impossible for animals to
graze, without damaging the crops. This therefore allows animals to
be maintained on small, intensively cropped holdings, and ensures
that even weeds growing among the crops can be harvested, and put to
productive use. While stall feeding results in a lower labor
requirement for supervising animal grazing, or constructing fences,
which is a clear advantage, this has to be balanced against the labor
required to harvest and carry the forage. Farmers consider the
concentration of manure in the stalls to be one of the major benefits







- 19 -


6.2. The balance of tour activities.

Overall, the fourteen days involved four days of plenary
presentations, one and a half days of group discussions, three and a
half days of field visits and five days of travelling. Some of the
travelling by road through unfamiliar farming systems was
constructive, while the air travel was merely a necessity. Given the
problems of travelling in Nepal and Indonesia, the relative
allocation of time was appropriate, although had it been technically
possible to exchange one of the three days in Kathmandu, for a
plenary session in Sumatra or Java, this would have achieved a better
balance. The organizers tried to combine field visits and plenary
sessions in the same day. When the day started with a formal session
and continued with a field visit, this was successful. Less
satisfactory were the briefing presentations during field visits. It
was observed that once a field visit commenced, the participants
attitude changed markedly, and levels of concentration dropped
significantly. Thus even well-prepared briefing sessions at project
headquarters were of limited value, and this was often exacerbated by
rooms not suited to holding large groups. It is therefore suggested
that, wherever possible, briefings for field visits should be given
during a plenary session, when concentration is generally at a high
level.


6.3. Field Visits

As noted above, the level of concentration on field visits was
inevitably below that of plenary sessions. In addition, when no
longer confined by walls, the participants spread out, as individuals
started examining (and photographing) the features of the farming
system of greatest interest to them. In such circumstances,
explanations became very difficult both to give and to hear, and as a
result, a great deal was often missed. However, in Ciamis, Java,
this problem was solved through the use of a portable amplifier, used
in conjunction with some cordless microphones. Using this system,
participants, spread out over an extensive hill-farming research
site, could hear a valuable commentary, even while they were
examining something, or taking photographs, some distance away.
Similarly, it was possible to obtain a nearby microphone, and ask a
question to the site research worker, even when he was some way
away. Had such a system been available during other field visits,
the increased information exchange and benefits would have been
substantial. Considering the relatively low cost of such a portable
amplifier and cordless microphones, in comparison to the huge
overhead costs of any workshop, it is suggested that such a system
should be considered a prerequisite for a profitable field visit
involving many people.







- 19 -


6.2. The balance of tour activities.

Overall, the fourteen days involved four days of plenary
presentations, one and a half days of group discussions, three and a
half days of field visits and five days of travelling. Some of the
travelling by road through unfamiliar farming systems was
constructive, while the air travel was merely a necessity. Given the
problems of travelling in Nepal and Indonesia, the relative
allocation of time was appropriate, although had it been technically
possible to exchange one of the three days in Kathmandu, for a
plenary session in Sumatra or Java, this would have achieved a better
balance. The organizers tried to combine field visits and plenary
sessions in the same day. When the day started with a formal session
and continued with a field visit, this was successful. Less
satisfactory were the briefing presentations during field visits. It
was observed that once a field visit commenced, the participants
attitude changed markedly, and levels of concentration dropped
significantly. Thus even well-prepared briefing sessions at project
headquarters were of limited value, and this was often exacerbated by
rooms not suited to holding large groups. It is therefore suggested
that, wherever possible, briefings for field visits should be given
during a plenary session, when concentration is generally at a high
level.


6.3. Field Visits

As noted above, the level of concentration on field visits was
inevitably below that of plenary sessions. In addition, when no
longer confined by walls, the participants spread out, as individuals
started examining (and photographing) the features of the farming
system of greatest interest to them. In such circumstances,
explanations became very difficult both to give and to hear, and as a
result, a great deal was often missed. However, in Ciamis, Java,
this problem was solved through the use of a portable amplifier, used
in conjunction with some cordless microphones. Using this system,
participants, spread out over an extensive hill-farming research
site, could hear a valuable commentary, even while they were
examining something, or taking photographs, some distance away.
Similarly, it was possible to obtain a nearby microphone, and ask a
question to the site research worker, even when he was some way
away. Had such a system been available during other field visits,
the increased information exchange and benefits would have been
substantial. Considering the relatively low cost of such a portable
amplifier and cordless microphones, in comparison to the huge
overhead costs of any workshop, it is suggested that such a system
should be considered a prerequisite for a profitable field visit
involving many people.







- 15


and Indonesia, it is common for villages to set aside specific areas
for grazing. This allows easier supervision of animals, and helps to
protect the crop fields from accidental damage. In a transmigration
settlement scheme visited in Sumatra, the allocation of communal land
for the grazing of draft cattle and other livestock was an early
priority of the village associations. While such village cooperation
might seem unremarkable, there have been many cases in West Africa
where the lack of agreement on grazing arrangements has inhibited the
adoption of draft animals or restricted the integration of crop and
livestock systems.


5.8. Plow designs

The plows seen in Nepal and Indonesia had several features in common,
that are not observed in West Africa. Most importantly they are
relatively cheap, being made in the villages, primarily from local
materials. While it is difficult to put an exact price on the
implements, it would be of the order of $10, which is less than one
tenth of the cost of a plow in West Africa.

The plows are made mainly of wood, with steel being used only for the
share (Figure 7), and sometimes for the moldboard as well
(Figure 12). The plows are made by village artisans, and even the
metal components are made in the villages, using scrap steel. In
some cases, there is no moldboard, and the plow breaks up the soil
without inverting it, while in other areas, a simple steel moldboard
is included in the design.

A long pole connects the plow body to the yoke, and this acts in a
similar way to the beam and chain of West African plows. This helps
to keep the cost down. The pole connection does not allow for
adjustments, once the pole is tied to the yoke, but reasonable
control can be achieved through the single wooden handle.

The plowing quality is not up to that of a well adjusted moldboard
plow, but is similar to that observed in many fields in West Africa.
Two passes of the plow are often required for adequate soil
preparation and weed control.


5.9. Yokes and other equipment

Yokes observed were all of a simple withers (or shoulder) design, and
were of very simple construction (Figures 6 and 9). In this respect
they were similar to those used in several parts of West Africa.
Although controversy surrounds the relative merits of neck yokes
(widely used in West Africa and Latin America) and withers/shoulder
yokes (widely used in East Africa and Asia), no evidence was obtained
during field visits or discussions that contradicted the assumption







- 15


and Indonesia, it is common for villages to set aside specific areas
for grazing. This allows easier supervision of animals, and helps to
protect the crop fields from accidental damage. In a transmigration
settlement scheme visited in Sumatra, the allocation of communal land
for the grazing of draft cattle and other livestock was an early
priority of the village associations. While such village cooperation
might seem unremarkable, there have been many cases in West Africa
where the lack of agreement on grazing arrangements has inhibited the
adoption of draft animals or restricted the integration of crop and
livestock systems.


5.8. Plow designs

The plows seen in Nepal and Indonesia had several features in common,
that are not observed in West Africa. Most importantly they are
relatively cheap, being made in the villages, primarily from local
materials. While it is difficult to put an exact price on the
implements, it would be of the order of $10, which is less than one
tenth of the cost of a plow in West Africa.

The plows are made mainly of wood, with steel being used only for the
share (Figure 7), and sometimes for the moldboard as well
(Figure 12). The plows are made by village artisans, and even the
metal components are made in the villages, using scrap steel. In
some cases, there is no moldboard, and the plow breaks up the soil
without inverting it, while in other areas, a simple steel moldboard
is included in the design.

A long pole connects the plow body to the yoke, and this acts in a
similar way to the beam and chain of West African plows. This helps
to keep the cost down. The pole connection does not allow for
adjustments, once the pole is tied to the yoke, but reasonable
control can be achieved through the single wooden handle.

The plowing quality is not up to that of a well adjusted moldboard
plow, but is similar to that observed in many fields in West Africa.
Two passes of the plow are often required for adequate soil
preparation and weed control.


5.9. Yokes and other equipment

Yokes observed were all of a simple withers (or shoulder) design, and
were of very simple construction (Figures 6 and 9). In this respect
they were similar to those used in several parts of West Africa.
Although controversy surrounds the relative merits of neck yokes
(widely used in West Africa and Latin America) and withers/shoulder
yokes (widely used in East Africa and Asia), no evidence was obtained
during field visits or discussions that contradicted the assumption







- 20 -


6.4. Plenary Sessions

In all formal sessions, the time keeping by the tour organizers,
participants, invited guests, speakers and chairpersons was good. In
some cases speakers read their papers, and this was unfortunate,
although understandable, as for many English was not a language
regularly used. It was universally agreed that people benefited when
the papers were circulated the day before presentation.
Unfortunately, not all papers. were available for circulation to
participants, as their reproduction was the responsibility of the
individual speakers. This was disappointing, and while photocopying
charges can mount up, they are small compared with the whole cost of
the tour. Thus it might have been preferable had some arrangements
been made to reproduce papers during the tour.

With the notable exception of the staff of IRRI, visual materials
tended to be poorly presented. In particular, slides and overhead
transparencies frequently contained too much information to be
assimilated in the available time. There was no use of flip-charts,
which can often help both the speaker and audience in following
logical sequences and in summarizing a presentation.

It was specifically requested that questions and answers be recorded
for the final report, and for this reason papers were issued to
participants for recording their questions and comments. This was
not highly successful, and rapporteurs might have been more able to
summarize discussions. In general, both the speaker and the
questioner are too busy with the public discussion to record their
contributions at the time, and yet, if not recorded immediately,
their points may be forgotten. A further point raised by one of the
discussion groups was that participants generally tried to combine
comments and a question, with a result that neither were clear. In
such circumstances, a brief comment followed by a specific brief
question, might be preferable.







- 16 -


that both systems can be used efficiently. However an extremely
unpleasant case of yoke gall observed in Nepal, illustrated the
potential problems that can be caused when withers yokes are allowed
to rub the skin.

For puddling rice fields, farmers use a simple wooden rake, on which
they may stand to increase the weight, as illustrated in Figure 1.
Like the plow, the puddling rake is joined to the yoke by a wooden
beam, rather than by a chain. The implement is very cheap, and
clearly effective.

The use of muzzles for working animals is common in both Nepal and
Indonesia. These are woven from lightweight flexible twigs, or from
bamboo, and can be seen in Figure 11. They are attached by a simple
string around the head, and prevent the animals from eating crops on
the way to the field of operation. It would seem that such a clearly
visible means of restricting crop damage, can play an important role
in maintaining good relations between neighbors in a village.


5.10. Control of working animals

In Nepal and Indonesia, working animals are invariably controlled by
just one person, as can be seen in the various illustrations. In
Nepal, animals are often used without nose ropes or reins (Figures 1
and 6), and the basis for control is verbal commands, and the tap of
a stick when necessary. Nose ropes and simple reins are sometimes
used in Nepal (Figure 8), and are common in Indonesia (Figures 10 and
13). When reins are used, they generally pass back to the farmers
between the animals, rather than on the outside of the pair. The
system of control differs greatly from that found in West Africa
where it is very rare to see draft animals controlled by just one
person. In West Africa, even when the animals are fitted with nose
rings and full reins, it is usual to have at least two people working
with draft animals. It is interesting to note that in Ethiopia,
where draft animals have been used for centuries, farmers also use
long-beam wooden plows and control the animals with one person.
Although the control by one person in both Asia and Ethiopia is
associated with the use of a long-beam plow, it is also correlated
with longstanding traditions of working with animals, and present
farmers have been brought up with the universally accepted premise
that pairs of animals can be effectively controlled by one person.
It is considered that this socio-cultural factor is likely to be more
important than any technical differences between the equipment and
harnessing systems used in Asia and Africa.


5.11. Use of cattle in swamp conditions

Figure 1 shows cattle puddling a rice swamp in Nepal. Both cattle
and buffalo are used for rice cultivation in Nepal and Indonesia, and







- 16 -


that both systems can be used efficiently. However an extremely
unpleasant case of yoke gall observed in Nepal, illustrated the
potential problems that can be caused when withers yokes are allowed
to rub the skin.

For puddling rice fields, farmers use a simple wooden rake, on which
they may stand to increase the weight, as illustrated in Figure 1.
Like the plow, the puddling rake is joined to the yoke by a wooden
beam, rather than by a chain. The implement is very cheap, and
clearly effective.

The use of muzzles for working animals is common in both Nepal and
Indonesia. These are woven from lightweight flexible twigs, or from
bamboo, and can be seen in Figure 11. They are attached by a simple
string around the head, and prevent the animals from eating crops on
the way to the field of operation. It would seem that such a clearly
visible means of restricting crop damage, can play an important role
in maintaining good relations between neighbors in a village.


5.10. Control of working animals

In Nepal and Indonesia, working animals are invariably controlled by
just one person, as can be seen in the various illustrations. In
Nepal, animals are often used without nose ropes or reins (Figures 1
and 6), and the basis for control is verbal commands, and the tap of
a stick when necessary. Nose ropes and simple reins are sometimes
used in Nepal (Figure 8), and are common in Indonesia (Figures 10 and
13). When reins are used, they generally pass back to the farmers
between the animals, rather than on the outside of the pair. The
system of control differs greatly from that found in West Africa
where it is very rare to see draft animals controlled by just one
person. In West Africa, even when the animals are fitted with nose
rings and full reins, it is usual to have at least two people working
with draft animals. It is interesting to note that in Ethiopia,
where draft animals have been used for centuries, farmers also use
long-beam wooden plows and control the animals with one person.
Although the control by one person in both Asia and Ethiopia is
associated with the use of a long-beam plow, it is also correlated
with longstanding traditions of working with animals, and present
farmers have been brought up with the universally accepted premise
that pairs of animals can be effectively controlled by one person.
It is considered that this socio-cultural factor is likely to be more
important than any technical differences between the equipment and
harnessing systems used in Asia and Africa.


5.11. Use of cattle in swamp conditions

Figure 1 shows cattle puddling a rice swamp in Nepal. Both cattle
and buffalo are used for rice cultivation in Nepal and Indonesia, and








- 17


also in most other countries in southeast Asia. Persons outside this
region generally assume that the water buffalo is the animal
primarily used for swamp cultivation, but this is not the case. Both
cattle and buffalo appear able to work regularly in rice swamps,
without major health problems. Certainly buffaloes are well adapted
to swamp conditions, having large feet, slow movements and a
predilection for wet conditions, and they are often preferred for
swamp rice production. However cattle are also used regularly for
plowing and puddling swamps, and as there are many more draft cattle
than working buffaloes, cattle actually cultivate more rice swamps
than do buffaloes. Thus while Asian farmers have been exposed to the
merits (and demerits) of buffaloes for centuries, the majority have
continued to use cattle for draft work. It would seem that this
should be borne in mind when considering whether to continue attempts
to introduce water buffaloes in Africa.


5.12. Banteng or Bali cattle

Banteng (Bos javanicus) are known as Bali cattle, and in color and
size resemble the N'Dama cattle of West Africa (Figure 14). However
they have characteristic (almost antelope-like) features, including
distinct white rumps. Interestingly, the rufous color of females and
calves, is lost in bulls, which become black after puberty, but which
revert to rufous if castrated. About 1.1 million banteng are kept in
Indonesia, and on the tour they were seen in both Sumatra and Bali.
While a distinct species, they can be crossed with Bos indicus and
Bos taurus, and so, to preserve their genetic identity, they are
the only species of "cattle" allowed on the island of Bali. Banteng
are used as draft animals in both upland and swamp conditions, and a
pair of young animals carrying a plow to the field is shown in Figure
13. Banteng, and their stabilized hybrid known as Madura cattle, are
also used in a form of chariot racing, and can attain remarkable
speeds. On the island of Bali, banteng are raised for both work and
meat, and during on-farm trials have achieved impressive weight gains
at a stocking rate of four per hectare on rocky, shallow calcareous
soils.


5.13. Waste disposal and fish farming

An interesting form of integrated farming was observed in Indonesia,
where fish ponds are very common. In addition to receiving
vegetative matter, such as banana leaves, the fishponds are used for
disposal of human wasteproducts. Thus, as illustrated in Figure 16,
the fish ponds are provided with a screened platform, which are used
as latrines or toilets. This allows human wastes to be productively
recycled, although the system would seem to have implications for
possible recycling of human diseases as well.








- 17


also in most other countries in southeast Asia. Persons outside this
region generally assume that the water buffalo is the animal
primarily used for swamp cultivation, but this is not the case. Both
cattle and buffalo appear able to work regularly in rice swamps,
without major health problems. Certainly buffaloes are well adapted
to swamp conditions, having large feet, slow movements and a
predilection for wet conditions, and they are often preferred for
swamp rice production. However cattle are also used regularly for
plowing and puddling swamps, and as there are many more draft cattle
than working buffaloes, cattle actually cultivate more rice swamps
than do buffaloes. Thus while Asian farmers have been exposed to the
merits (and demerits) of buffaloes for centuries, the majority have
continued to use cattle for draft work. It would seem that this
should be borne in mind when considering whether to continue attempts
to introduce water buffaloes in Africa.


5.12. Banteng or Bali cattle

Banteng (Bos javanicus) are known as Bali cattle, and in color and
size resemble the N'Dama cattle of West Africa (Figure 14). However
they have characteristic (almost antelope-like) features, including
distinct white rumps. Interestingly, the rufous color of females and
calves, is lost in bulls, which become black after puberty, but which
revert to rufous if castrated. About 1.1 million banteng are kept in
Indonesia, and on the tour they were seen in both Sumatra and Bali.
While a distinct species, they can be crossed with Bos indicus and
Bos taurus, and so, to preserve their genetic identity, they are
the only species of "cattle" allowed on the island of Bali. Banteng
are used as draft animals in both upland and swamp conditions, and a
pair of young animals carrying a plow to the field is shown in Figure
13. Banteng, and their stabilized hybrid known as Madura cattle, are
also used in a form of chariot racing, and can attain remarkable
speeds. On the island of Bali, banteng are raised for both work and
meat, and during on-farm trials have achieved impressive weight gains
at a stocking rate of four per hectare on rocky, shallow calcareous
soils.


5.13. Waste disposal and fish farming

An interesting form of integrated farming was observed in Indonesia,
where fish ponds are very common. In addition to receiving
vegetative matter, such as banana leaves, the fishponds are used for
disposal of human wasteproducts. Thus, as illustrated in Figure 16,
the fish ponds are provided with a screened platform, which are used
as latrines or toilets. This allows human wastes to be productively
recycled, although the system would seem to have implications for
possible recycling of human diseases as well.







- 14


of the stall-feeding system, as this allows the farmer to distribute
the vital manure to the most important fields. Few animals are stall
fed all the year, and animals are generally encouraged to graze crop
residues after harvest.


5.5. Use of fodder trees

Related to the common practise of stall feeding ruminants is the
considerable use of fodder derived from trees. In the hill farms of
Nepal crop-livestock-forestry interactions are particularly strong,
and often at least half of the food of ruminants comes from trees.
In some areas the animals are allowed to browse in the forest areas
for part of the year,. before being brought to the homesteads during
the plowing and crop cultivation seasons, where they may be stall
fed. Cut branches of forest trees may be harvested to feed the
animals, with the choicest leaves being reserved for milking animals
(usually buffaloes), the second quality for the working animals and
the balance for the remaining livestock. Farmers plant traditional
fodder trees around their houses, with Artocarpus lakoocha (related
to jakfruit and breadfruit), being one of the most popular species.
This agroforestry is being actively encouraged by the appropriate
government departments, for forage trees provide three important
requirements, which are often scarce in the villages: animal forage,
firewood and a degree of erosion control. Thus emphasis is being
placed on government extension services building on traditional
agroforestry systems, to improve both animal nutrition and fuel wood
provision while reversing the tendency towards deforestation.


5.6. Manure utilization

In Nepal, farmers seem particularly aware of the importance of manure
and the close association of trees, crops and livestock. The use of
the manure from both large and small ruminants for maintaining or
increasing yields is an integral component of farm management. To
maximize its value, manure is carefully collected, stored and
distributed. During the fallow season, temporary sheds are
constructed in the fallow fields, in order to ensure both that the
animals are close to the areas being grazed, and that manure does not
have to be carried large distances. In some cases straw bedding is
provided to absorb the urine and conserve the manure, although
frequently the straw is reserved for animal feed. It is recognized
that by using fodder trees, resources from the forests can benefit
the crops, through the medium of the farm animals and manure.


5.7. Communal grazing

Associated with the close integration of crops and livestock is the
strict management of grazing areas at village level. In both Nepal







- 14


of the stall-feeding system, as this allows the farmer to distribute
the vital manure to the most important fields. Few animals are stall
fed all the year, and animals are generally encouraged to graze crop
residues after harvest.


5.5. Use of fodder trees

Related to the common practise of stall feeding ruminants is the
considerable use of fodder derived from trees. In the hill farms of
Nepal crop-livestock-forestry interactions are particularly strong,
and often at least half of the food of ruminants comes from trees.
In some areas the animals are allowed to browse in the forest areas
for part of the year,. before being brought to the homesteads during
the plowing and crop cultivation seasons, where they may be stall
fed. Cut branches of forest trees may be harvested to feed the
animals, with the choicest leaves being reserved for milking animals
(usually buffaloes), the second quality for the working animals and
the balance for the remaining livestock. Farmers plant traditional
fodder trees around their houses, with Artocarpus lakoocha (related
to jakfruit and breadfruit), being one of the most popular species.
This agroforestry is being actively encouraged by the appropriate
government departments, for forage trees provide three important
requirements, which are often scarce in the villages: animal forage,
firewood and a degree of erosion control. Thus emphasis is being
placed on government extension services building on traditional
agroforestry systems, to improve both animal nutrition and fuel wood
provision while reversing the tendency towards deforestation.


5.6. Manure utilization

In Nepal, farmers seem particularly aware of the importance of manure
and the close association of trees, crops and livestock. The use of
the manure from both large and small ruminants for maintaining or
increasing yields is an integral component of farm management. To
maximize its value, manure is carefully collected, stored and
distributed. During the fallow season, temporary sheds are
constructed in the fallow fields, in order to ensure both that the
animals are close to the areas being grazed, and that manure does not
have to be carried large distances. In some cases straw bedding is
provided to absorb the urine and conserve the manure, although
frequently the straw is reserved for animal feed. It is recognized
that by using fodder trees, resources from the forests can benefit
the crops, through the medium of the farm animals and manure.


5.7. Communal grazing

Associated with the close integration of crops and livestock is the
strict management of grazing areas at village level. In both Nepal







- 14


of the stall-feeding system, as this allows the farmer to distribute
the vital manure to the most important fields. Few animals are stall
fed all the year, and animals are generally encouraged to graze crop
residues after harvest.


5.5. Use of fodder trees

Related to the common practise of stall feeding ruminants is the
considerable use of fodder derived from trees. In the hill farms of
Nepal crop-livestock-forestry interactions are particularly strong,
and often at least half of the food of ruminants comes from trees.
In some areas the animals are allowed to browse in the forest areas
for part of the year,. before being brought to the homesteads during
the plowing and crop cultivation seasons, where they may be stall
fed. Cut branches of forest trees may be harvested to feed the
animals, with the choicest leaves being reserved for milking animals
(usually buffaloes), the second quality for the working animals and
the balance for the remaining livestock. Farmers plant traditional
fodder trees around their houses, with Artocarpus lakoocha (related
to jakfruit and breadfruit), being one of the most popular species.
This agroforestry is being actively encouraged by the appropriate
government departments, for forage trees provide three important
requirements, which are often scarce in the villages: animal forage,
firewood and a degree of erosion control. Thus emphasis is being
placed on government extension services building on traditional
agroforestry systems, to improve both animal nutrition and fuel wood
provision while reversing the tendency towards deforestation.


5.6. Manure utilization

In Nepal, farmers seem particularly aware of the importance of manure
and the close association of trees, crops and livestock. The use of
the manure from both large and small ruminants for maintaining or
increasing yields is an integral component of farm management. To
maximize its value, manure is carefully collected, stored and
distributed. During the fallow season, temporary sheds are
constructed in the fallow fields, in order to ensure both that the
animals are close to the areas being grazed, and that manure does not
have to be carried large distances. In some cases straw bedding is
provided to absorb the urine and conserve the manure, although
frequently the straw is reserved for animal feed. It is recognized
that by using fodder trees, resources from the forests can benefit
the crops, through the medium of the farm animals and manure.


5.7. Communal grazing

Associated with the close integration of crops and livestock is the
strict management of grazing areas at village level. In both Nepal







- 21


7. LESSONS FROM PLENARY SESSIONS AND GROUP DISCUSSIONS

7.1. Research methodology

7.1.1. General

Crop-livestock systems research methodology was one of the subjects
for group discussion, and the practical implications of research
methodologies were frequently discussed during the field visits. It
was recognized that there is often a major conflict between the
research workers' desire for quantifiable and statistically
significant data, and the difficulties (and costs), for the farmers
and the researchers, in collecting large quantities of reliable
information. The general conclusion was that research should be
aimed at achieving an understanding of crop-livestock systems, and
interactions, and working with farmers to assess possible options.
Thus methodologies should be chosen on the basis that the overall
reaction of farming families to a technology or system should be
considered more critical than statistically significant figures. In
this way, techniques relating to rapid appraisal, though inevitably
somewhat subjective, may be more valuable than detailed data
collection. It appeared that all research workers were aware of the
dangers of collecting more data than could be processed easily and
most had existing stockpiles of data awaiting analysis at that
utopian time in the future when work pressures will diminish. The
general feeling was that farmers involved in research studies should
be inconvenienced as little as possible, but that their own
techniques for assessing components of their systems should be used
as far as possible. The concept of the farmer as consultant advising
on the research appears to be useful.

Crop-livestock research generally involves the initial description of
farming systems and their interactions, and the subsequent evaluation
of potential improvements to the systems. It was agreed that
wherever possible, the farmers should be provided with a "menu" or
"basket" of potential improvements, so that the experience and
expertise of the farmer can be harnessed from the outset, in the
choice of the change in the system that is evaluated.

While it is not practicable to report in detail all the aspects of
crop-livestock systems research that were covered during the tour,
some specific examples will be provided that seem to be particularly
relevant to animal traction research and development programs in West
Africa


7.1.2.2 Assessment of draft power

The most important and ultimate assessment of animal power is simply
the ability of the animal, or animals, to perform all the work







- 22 -


required of them during the farming year, while making use only of
resources that are both available and affordable. This assessment
can be made by farmers, without the need for any measuring devices.

Instantaneous draft power can be measured using dynamometers, which
may be spring-type, hydraulic or load-cell. While these can measure
the draft at any given time, they do not by themselves give an
accurate assessment of the rate of work, which is particularly
important. Combined with simple tapes and watches, a general idea of
short-term work-rate can be obtained, but. care has to be exercised in
using such information, as it may not be representative of the actual
work performed over a longer period of time. Complicated
data-loggers that measure draft, distance and time have been
developed at the Centre for Tropical Veterinary Medicine, at the
University of Edinburgh, but these are too complex for most on-farm
evaluation work in developing countries. Such measuring devices may
be particularly useful in basic, component research on equipment
design, when absolute or comparative implement draft may be essential
information.

In farming systems research, draft power has to be assessed over
weeks and months, rather than hours or days, and absolute
measurements may be of limited value, as farmers are generally able
to judge the performance of their animals, and also identify the key
constraints to animal power (such as feed availability or animal
size). In particular, although research workers like to measure the
relative power of different breeds and species, there seems little
value in instantaneous or short-term measurements. Different breeds
should be compared in a holistic way in the villages, based on their
ability to perform effectively for the whole farm year, using the
available resources.

It is possible that economic criteria could be usefully combined to
judge the effectiveness of farm power, and that an assessment of
timeliness might be more appropriate than figures derived from
dynamometer readings. The various economic and social costs and
benefits of plowing, harrowing, seeding and weeding at different
rates and times might provide a valuable comparison of different farm
power technologies, particularly as these are likely to be the
criteria on which farmers base their own decisions.


7.1.3. Measuring the weight of cattle

In many studies relating to draft animals and cattle, it seems
desirable to accurately record the weight of animals, as weight
changes may accurately reflect changes in feed intake, feed quality,
work and production. However the logistical problems of accurately
weighing large animals in on-farm trials are formidable. The weight
of a large ruminant at any one time is greatly affected by changes in








- 23


gut fill from grazing and drinking. Such variations often exceed
monthly changes in starved body weight. Thus, unless weight
measurements are made under standard conditions (e.g. in early
morning after a night without food and water), the underlying body
changes may not be distinguishable from daily variations.

For accurate estimates of weight, some form of weighing implement has
to be used. Transportable scales may be used, if the financial
resources, labor and vehicles are available. Researchers should be
aware that even weighing scales provided with wheels can cause many
transportation problems on village tracks. When roads are poor
(which is normally the case in villages), portable bars containing
load cells may be preferred. Such systems use a car battery as a
power source, and they can be calibrated on-site, with a locally
constructed animal crate, but there always remains the problem of
ensuring the animals enter the crates peacefully.

Given the practical problems and expense of weighing equipment, it is
appropriate to consider the use of heart-girth measurements. Heart
girth correlates closely with body weight, and regressions valid for
any specific breed can be obtained if scales and a representative
animal population is available. Heart-girth measurement is subject
to significant variation between different operators and individual
measurements are not highly accurate. Nevertheless, weighing bands
can provide a cheap assessment of general weight trends, if used at
monthly or bimonthly intervals.

In view of the time consuming and possibly disruptive procedures
required to obtain weight measurements, and the limited reliability
of the results, researchers should seriously consider whether, or
not, accurate measurements are essential. In many cases a condition
score may be more appropriate. Farmers themselves are constantly
monitoring the condition of their animals, and may be able to help
with developing scoring systems. Meat traders generally have years
of professional experience of accurately assessing the weight and
condition of animals, and their unmatched and highly appropriate
skills could well be used in research trials.


7.1.4. Measuring feed intake

It appears universally agreed, by those with practical experience,
that collecting reliable data on feed intake of draft animals, or
other large livestock, during on-farm monitoring is extremely
difficult. In the circumstances, accurate measurement of feed intake
is probably seldom justified when working with farmers, as such data
collection is more suited to the more controlled conditions of
research stations. A general, overall monitoring of seasonal changes
in feed supply and quality may be appropriate for many farming
systems studies. Such general, and possibly subjective,







- 21


7. LESSONS FROM PLENARY SESSIONS AND GROUP DISCUSSIONS

7.1. Research methodology

7.1.1. General

Crop-livestock systems research methodology was one of the subjects
for group discussion, and the practical implications of research
methodologies were frequently discussed during the field visits. It
was recognized that there is often a major conflict between the
research workers' desire for quantifiable and statistically
significant data, and the difficulties (and costs), for the farmers
and the researchers, in collecting large quantities of reliable
information. The general conclusion was that research should be
aimed at achieving an understanding of crop-livestock systems, and
interactions, and working with farmers to assess possible options.
Thus methodologies should be chosen on the basis that the overall
reaction of farming families to a technology or system should be
considered more critical than statistically significant figures. In
this way, techniques relating to rapid appraisal, though inevitably
somewhat subjective, may be more valuable than detailed data
collection. It appeared that all research workers were aware of the
dangers of collecting more data than could be processed easily and
most had existing stockpiles of data awaiting analysis at that
utopian time in the future when work pressures will diminish. The
general feeling was that farmers involved in research studies should
be inconvenienced as little as possible, but that their own
techniques for assessing components of their systems should be used
as far as possible. The concept of the farmer as consultant advising
on the research appears to be useful.

Crop-livestock research generally involves the initial description of
farming systems and their interactions, and the subsequent evaluation
of potential improvements to the systems. It was agreed that
wherever possible, the farmers should be provided with a "menu" or
"basket" of potential improvements, so that the experience and
expertise of the farmer can be harnessed from the outset, in the
choice of the change in the system that is evaluated.

While it is not practicable to report in detail all the aspects of
crop-livestock systems research that were covered during the tour,
some specific examples will be provided that seem to be particularly
relevant to animal traction research and development programs in West
Africa


7.1.2.2 Assessment of draft power

The most important and ultimate assessment of animal power is simply
the ability of the animal, or animals, to perform all the work







- 21


7. LESSONS FROM PLENARY SESSIONS AND GROUP DISCUSSIONS

7.1. Research methodology

7.1.1. General

Crop-livestock systems research methodology was one of the subjects
for group discussion, and the practical implications of research
methodologies were frequently discussed during the field visits. It
was recognized that there is often a major conflict between the
research workers' desire for quantifiable and statistically
significant data, and the difficulties (and costs), for the farmers
and the researchers, in collecting large quantities of reliable
information. The general conclusion was that research should be
aimed at achieving an understanding of crop-livestock systems, and
interactions, and working with farmers to assess possible options.
Thus methodologies should be chosen on the basis that the overall
reaction of farming families to a technology or system should be
considered more critical than statistically significant figures. In
this way, techniques relating to rapid appraisal, though inevitably
somewhat subjective, may be more valuable than detailed data
collection. It appeared that all research workers were aware of the
dangers of collecting more data than could be processed easily and
most had existing stockpiles of data awaiting analysis at that
utopian time in the future when work pressures will diminish. The
general feeling was that farmers involved in research studies should
be inconvenienced as little as possible, but that their own
techniques for assessing components of their systems should be used
as far as possible. The concept of the farmer as consultant advising
on the research appears to be useful.

Crop-livestock research generally involves the initial description of
farming systems and their interactions, and the subsequent evaluation
of potential improvements to the systems. It was agreed that
wherever possible, the farmers should be provided with a "menu" or
"basket" of potential improvements, so that the experience and
expertise of the farmer can be harnessed from the outset, in the
choice of the change in the system that is evaluated.

While it is not practicable to report in detail all the aspects of
crop-livestock systems research that were covered during the tour,
some specific examples will be provided that seem to be particularly
relevant to animal traction research and development programs in West
Africa


7.1.2.2 Assessment of draft power

The most important and ultimate assessment of animal power is simply
the ability of the animal, or animals, to perform all the work







- 21


7. LESSONS FROM PLENARY SESSIONS AND GROUP DISCUSSIONS

7.1. Research methodology

7.1.1. General

Crop-livestock systems research methodology was one of the subjects
for group discussion, and the practical implications of research
methodologies were frequently discussed during the field visits. It
was recognized that there is often a major conflict between the
research workers' desire for quantifiable and statistically
significant data, and the difficulties (and costs), for the farmers
and the researchers, in collecting large quantities of reliable
information. The general conclusion was that research should be
aimed at achieving an understanding of crop-livestock systems, and
interactions, and working with farmers to assess possible options.
Thus methodologies should be chosen on the basis that the overall
reaction of farming families to a technology or system should be
considered more critical than statistically significant figures. In
this way, techniques relating to rapid appraisal, though inevitably
somewhat subjective, may be more valuable than detailed data
collection. It appeared that all research workers were aware of the
dangers of collecting more data than could be processed easily and
most had existing stockpiles of data awaiting analysis at that
utopian time in the future when work pressures will diminish. The
general feeling was that farmers involved in research studies should
be inconvenienced as little as possible, but that their own
techniques for assessing components of their systems should be used
as far as possible. The concept of the farmer as consultant advising
on the research appears to be useful.

Crop-livestock research generally involves the initial description of
farming systems and their interactions, and the subsequent evaluation
of potential improvements to the systems. It was agreed that
wherever possible, the farmers should be provided with a "menu" or
"basket" of potential improvements, so that the experience and
expertise of the farmer can be harnessed from the outset, in the
choice of the change in the system that is evaluated.

While it is not practicable to report in detail all the aspects of
crop-livestock systems research that were covered during the tour,
some specific examples will be provided that seem to be particularly
relevant to animal traction research and development programs in West
Africa


7.1.2.2 Assessment of draft power

The most important and ultimate assessment of animal power is simply
the ability of the animal, or animals, to perform all the work







- 24 -


observations, combined with condition scoring and farmer assessment,
may be the most cost-effective way of judging the effectiveness of a
particular feeding regime.


7.2. Research and extension teams

Participants on the tour all appreciated the value of
multi-disciplinary teams, provided that adequate leadership was
apparent. It was also recognized that combining research and
extension was particularly valuable. This tended to result in the
adoption of less rigorous research methods, but overall research
quality was generally improved by the more realistic outlook. The
value of regular meetings of the research team with farmers was
stressed. While most research teams had regular staff meetings, few
met regularly with farmers. The case of the Lumle Agricultural
Centre in Nepal was of particular interest, as the multi-disciplinary
Lumle research and extension team undertakes walking treks to farm
sites. Due to the nature of the terrain, these treks take several
days, and provide a most valuable opportunity for exchanges between
the team members, and the farmers. Just as the international
research and monitoring tour provided a useful opportunity for people
of different backgrounds to exchange experience and observe on-farm
conditions, so within-country tours can lead to greater information
exchange, and provide reminders to the team of the real constraints
of the small farmers.


7.3. Lessons from Burma, China and the Philippines

During informal discussions, it was learned that farmers in Burma
have developed a very simple, yet very effective, chaff-cutter. This
is used primarily for chopping rice straw and green fodder to enhance
its palatability and so increase the feed intake of working oxen,
milking cattle or small ruminants. The design is illustrated in
Figures 18 and 19, provided by Dr. S. Palis (Palis, 1985). A mild
steel chopping blade is provided with upward lift through a sprung
pole, while downward cutting strokes are powered by the operator's
foot. The system is ingenious and efficient, particularly as it
allows the farmer to keep both hands free to manipulate the straw.
It is extremely simple and cheap, and it has been thoroughly proven
by years of village construction, use and maintenance. Such a tool
could be usefully introduced into West Africa, and might be included
in research programs related to fodder conservation or feed quality
enhancement.

The Agricultural Research Institute in Burma, in cooperation with
IRRI, has been undertaking research studies on the use of single
buffaloes. Traditionally pairs of animals are used in Burma, and
cattle are more commonly used than buffaloes. In addition design







- 24 -


observations, combined with condition scoring and farmer assessment,
may be the most cost-effective way of judging the effectiveness of a
particular feeding regime.


7.2. Research and extension teams

Participants on the tour all appreciated the value of
multi-disciplinary teams, provided that adequate leadership was
apparent. It was also recognized that combining research and
extension was particularly valuable. This tended to result in the
adoption of less rigorous research methods, but overall research
quality was generally improved by the more realistic outlook. The
value of regular meetings of the research team with farmers was
stressed. While most research teams had regular staff meetings, few
met regularly with farmers. The case of the Lumle Agricultural
Centre in Nepal was of particular interest, as the multi-disciplinary
Lumle research and extension team undertakes walking treks to farm
sites. Due to the nature of the terrain, these treks take several
days, and provide a most valuable opportunity for exchanges between
the team members, and the farmers. Just as the international
research and monitoring tour provided a useful opportunity for people
of different backgrounds to exchange experience and observe on-farm
conditions, so within-country tours can lead to greater information
exchange, and provide reminders to the team of the real constraints
of the small farmers.


7.3. Lessons from Burma, China and the Philippines

During informal discussions, it was learned that farmers in Burma
have developed a very simple, yet very effective, chaff-cutter. This
is used primarily for chopping rice straw and green fodder to enhance
its palatability and so increase the feed intake of working oxen,
milking cattle or small ruminants. The design is illustrated in
Figures 18 and 19, provided by Dr. S. Palis (Palis, 1985). A mild
steel chopping blade is provided with upward lift through a sprung
pole, while downward cutting strokes are powered by the operator's
foot. The system is ingenious and efficient, particularly as it
allows the farmer to keep both hands free to manipulate the straw.
It is extremely simple and cheap, and it has been thoroughly proven
by years of village construction, use and maintenance. Such a tool
could be usefully introduced into West Africa, and might be included
in research programs related to fodder conservation or feed quality
enhancement.

The Agricultural Research Institute in Burma, in cooperation with
IRRI, has been undertaking research studies on the use of single
buffaloes. Traditionally pairs of animals are used in Burma, and
cattle are more commonly used than buffaloes. In addition design







- 25


studies have been undertaken on a simple swamp plow, with a beam made
from water pipe. While such research is in a pilot stage, the
preliminary reports may be of interest to projects in West Africa
which use animals for swamp rice cultivation (Palis, Swe and Shin,
1983 a, 1983 b).

Although there are millions of draft animals in use in China, the
researchers participating in the tour were primarily involved in
other crop-livestock associations. While not of direct relevance to
West African animal traction programs, the highly integrated and
intensive systems being used and studied in China were of great
interest. These include crop-hog-fish systems and the use of smaller
livestock, such as geese and rabbits. Interactions in such systems
are complex, particularly when manure is used both for biogas
production and for mushroom cultivation, with the residues being
recycled through both fish-ponds and fields (Leng, Shen, Miu and Liu,
1986: Congyi and Junyao, 1986).

In the Philippines, draft buffaloes are a major source of farm power,
and they are generally used singly. They are very often stall-fed,
particularly in the crop-growing season. Rice straw, weeds from the
crops, and grass from field bunds are a major source of the feed of
working animals, and this is often supplemented with the legume shrub
Leucaena leucocephala. There has been recent work in the
Philippines on the use of banana residues for feeding working oxen,
buffaloes, milking animals and small ruminants. While banana plants
produce a large quantity of- leaf and pseudo-stem, which is certainly
edible by ruminants, the very high water content (and therefore
weight) of the stems makes stall feeding management difficult, as a
large weight has to be carried (even with an ox cart) for relatively
little nutritional benefit. However, if banana stems are to be used,
the use of Leucaena is clearly beneficial There is a suggestion
that cattle are better able to digest banana residues than buffaloes
(Sanchez, Gerona and Anduyan, 1986; Gerona, Posas, Barrientos and
Jaya, 1986).

Other research in the Philippines has included case-history studies
on the economics of mixed farms, on fattening cattle and buffaloes
using rice straw, farm weeds and Leucaena leucocephala, on the
importance of appropriate animal marketing in village economies, and
on rice-duck production systems (Calub and Mariano, 1986: Mariano,
Calub, Tacal, and Alegre, 1986: Godilano, 1986)).







- 26 -


8. CONCLUSIONS

8.1. Farms and farming systems

While there are great social, economic, cultural and historical
differences between Asia and West Africa, there are many similarities
between the farming systems of the two regions. Thus there are many
valuable lessons that can be learned from the farmers of Asia by
research and development workers in West Africa. Among these are:

Animal traction can be profitably used in highly intensive
farms of small area, even when population pressures are high.

Expensive metal plows are not a prerequisite for successful
animal traction. Effective cultivation can be achieved using
simple wooden plows made in villages.

Where free-range grazing may result in crop damage, work oxen
or milking animals can be effectively zero grazed.
Alternatively, villages can allocate special lands for grazing
purposes.

Forage trees can provide a valuable contribution to the feeding
of draft animals and other ruminants, while at the same time
assisting in erosion control and fuel wood production.


8.2. Animal traction and farming systems research

Farmers should be involved in the planning, monitoring and evaluation
of farming systems research. They know far more about their own
farming systems than do the research workers, although they may not
be able to express their knowledge in terms used by scientists.
Nevertheless, if farmers are given the opportunity to act "as
consultants" in the research, progress will be faster, and less time
will be wasted in "discovering" that which the farmers already know.

In order to save time and money in collecting and analysing large
quantities of data, researchers should carefully ascertain which
parameters are of greatest importance to the studies and to the
farmers. It may be that farmer assessment of these parameters will
be more easily obtainable and more meaningful than the technical
measurements conventionally used on research stations. Thus in
certain circumstances, farmers' own assessment of the condition and
working ability of draft animals may be more appropriate than
attempting to use mobile scales and dynamometers in the villages.

Farming systems research can only be undertaken if sufficient funds
are made available by agricultural planners, decision makers and
representatives of funding agencies. Such people will be favourably
influenced by clear and attractive technical reports, such as







- 26 -


8. CONCLUSIONS

8.1. Farms and farming systems

While there are great social, economic, cultural and historical
differences between Asia and West Africa, there are many similarities
between the farming systems of the two regions. Thus there are many
valuable lessons that can be learned from the farmers of Asia by
research and development workers in West Africa. Among these are:

Animal traction can be profitably used in highly intensive
farms of small area, even when population pressures are high.

Expensive metal plows are not a prerequisite for successful
animal traction. Effective cultivation can be achieved using
simple wooden plows made in villages.

Where free-range grazing may result in crop damage, work oxen
or milking animals can be effectively zero grazed.
Alternatively, villages can allocate special lands for grazing
purposes.

Forage trees can provide a valuable contribution to the feeding
of draft animals and other ruminants, while at the same time
assisting in erosion control and fuel wood production.


8.2. Animal traction and farming systems research

Farmers should be involved in the planning, monitoring and evaluation
of farming systems research. They know far more about their own
farming systems than do the research workers, although they may not
be able to express their knowledge in terms used by scientists.
Nevertheless, if farmers are given the opportunity to act "as
consultants" in the research, progress will be faster, and less time
will be wasted in "discovering" that which the farmers already know.

In order to save time and money in collecting and analysing large
quantities of data, researchers should carefully ascertain which
parameters are of greatest importance to the studies and to the
farmers. It may be that farmer assessment of these parameters will
be more easily obtainable and more meaningful than the technical
measurements conventionally used on research stations. Thus in
certain circumstances, farmers' own assessment of the condition and
working ability of draft animals may be more appropriate than
attempting to use mobile scales and dynamometers in the villages.

Farming systems research can only be undertaken if sufficient funds
are made available by agricultural planners, decision makers and
representatives of funding agencies. Such people will be favourably
influenced by clear and attractive technical reports, such as







- 26 -


8. CONCLUSIONS

8.1. Farms and farming systems

While there are great social, economic, cultural and historical
differences between Asia and West Africa, there are many similarities
between the farming systems of the two regions. Thus there are many
valuable lessons that can be learned from the farmers of Asia by
research and development workers in West Africa. Among these are:

Animal traction can be profitably used in highly intensive
farms of small area, even when population pressures are high.

Expensive metal plows are not a prerequisite for successful
animal traction. Effective cultivation can be achieved using
simple wooden plows made in villages.

Where free-range grazing may result in crop damage, work oxen
or milking animals can be effectively zero grazed.
Alternatively, villages can allocate special lands for grazing
purposes.

Forage trees can provide a valuable contribution to the feeding
of draft animals and other ruminants, while at the same time
assisting in erosion control and fuel wood production.


8.2. Animal traction and farming systems research

Farmers should be involved in the planning, monitoring and evaluation
of farming systems research. They know far more about their own
farming systems than do the research workers, although they may not
be able to express their knowledge in terms used by scientists.
Nevertheless, if farmers are given the opportunity to act "as
consultants" in the research, progress will be faster, and less time
will be wasted in "discovering" that which the farmers already know.

In order to save time and money in collecting and analysing large
quantities of data, researchers should carefully ascertain which
parameters are of greatest importance to the studies and to the
farmers. It may be that farmer assessment of these parameters will
be more easily obtainable and more meaningful than the technical
measurements conventionally used on research stations. Thus in
certain circumstances, farmers' own assessment of the condition and
working ability of draft animals may be more appropriate than
attempting to use mobile scales and dynamometers in the villages.

Farming systems research can only be undertaken if sufficient funds
are made available by agricultural planners, decision makers and
representatives of funding agencies. Such people will be favourably
influenced by clear and attractive technical reports, such as







- 27


Through farmers' eyes (ICP, 1984). The production of a comparable
publication relating to animal traction research in West Africa would
be most valuable.


8.3. Multi-disciplinary tours

Within multi-disciplinary teams, individual research workers tend to
implement their own studies in relative isolation. Even weekly or
monthly meetings can have minimal effects on broadening the
perspectives of different staff members and team leaders if they are
held in the atmosphere of administrative or technical headquarters.
Thus within research and development programs there is much advantage
to be gained from regular group visits or "treks" to the villages and
farmers' fields. The enforced realism of such visits allows research
objectives to be clarified and the perspective ("through farmers'
eyes") allows priorities to be defined. If animal traction programs
in West Africa were to adopt this system of group tours of villages,
this might stimulate more constructive multi-disciplinary exchanges
and a healthy reassessment, with the farmers, of overall research
priorities.

An itinerant workshop such as this one has much to commend it
provided the logistical arrangements are implemented efficiently. If
such a tour had involved long delays or inconveniences, the
constructive atmosphere would have been lost, and the activity become
a nightmare of complaints and frustration. Thus such a large and
ambitious tour should not be lightly undertaken in West Africa.
However a similar approach involving visits to several sites
interspersed with group discussions might be usefully adopted as one
of the activities of an animal traction or farming systems network.


8.4. Inter-network exchanges

The exchange of information and experiences between the Asian Farming
Systems Network and the West African Integrated Livestock Systems
Network was felt at the time to be mutually beneficial. The
long-term benefits of such an exchange will depend on how the
experiences of the individual participants are shared with others,
and on how they help to strengthen animal traction and crop-livestock
research in West Africa and Asia. The production and publication of
this report is intended as one mechanism for facilitating the
diffusion of the experience. This will be complemented by
audiovisual presentations at network meetings and informal technical
discussions. In this way it is envisaged the links established will
not simply be between the individuals, but between the two networks.
These links should be maintained and further strengthened and
reciprocal participation in workshops and monitoring tours together
with the exchange of documents should be encouraged.







- 27


Through farmers' eyes (ICP, 1984). The production of a comparable
publication relating to animal traction research in West Africa would
be most valuable.


8.3. Multi-disciplinary tours

Within multi-disciplinary teams, individual research workers tend to
implement their own studies in relative isolation. Even weekly or
monthly meetings can have minimal effects on broadening the
perspectives of different staff members and team leaders if they are
held in the atmosphere of administrative or technical headquarters.
Thus within research and development programs there is much advantage
to be gained from regular group visits or "treks" to the villages and
farmers' fields. The enforced realism of such visits allows research
objectives to be clarified and the perspective ("through farmers'
eyes") allows priorities to be defined. If animal traction programs
in West Africa were to adopt this system of group tours of villages,
this might stimulate more constructive multi-disciplinary exchanges
and a healthy reassessment, with the farmers, of overall research
priorities.

An itinerant workshop such as this one has much to commend it
provided the logistical arrangements are implemented efficiently. If
such a tour had involved long delays or inconveniences, the
constructive atmosphere would have been lost, and the activity become
a nightmare of complaints and frustration. Thus such a large and
ambitious tour should not be lightly undertaken in West Africa.
However a similar approach involving visits to several sites
interspersed with group discussions might be usefully adopted as one
of the activities of an animal traction or farming systems network.


8.4. Inter-network exchanges

The exchange of information and experiences between the Asian Farming
Systems Network and the West African Integrated Livestock Systems
Network was felt at the time to be mutually beneficial. The
long-term benefits of such an exchange will depend on how the
experiences of the individual participants are shared with others,
and on how they help to strengthen animal traction and crop-livestock
research in West Africa and Asia. The production and publication of
this report is intended as one mechanism for facilitating the
diffusion of the experience. This will be complemented by
audiovisual presentations at network meetings and informal technical
discussions. In this way it is envisaged the links established will
not simply be between the individuals, but between the two networks.
These links should be maintained and further strengthened and
reciprocal participation in workshops and monitoring tours together
with the exchange of documents should be encouraged.







- 28 -


9. REFERENCES


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C. S. P. 1985. Semi-Annual Report of the Cropping Systems Program of
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Delobel, T. C., 1986 (a). Dhukuti associations in Pumdi Bhumdi. Paper
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Delobel, T. C. 1986 (b). Labour and power exchanges in Pumdi Bhumdi.
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Delobel, T. C. 1986 (d). Socio-economic research at Pumdi Bhumdi,
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Delobel, T. C., Shrestha, R. B., Singh, B. K., and Sayre, K. D.
1985. Initial results of farmer monitoring for crop-livestock
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Rice Research Institute, Manila, Philippines. 668p. (E).

Dissanayake, L. D. 1986. The Yoda Ela crop-dairy integrated rainfed
farming system research pilot project, Sri Lanka. pp. 549-560 in:
Proceedings of the 2nd Monitoring Tour Crop-Livestock Systems
Research Nepal and Indonesia. International Rice Research
Institute, Manila, Philippines. 668p. (E).

Dissanayake, L. D. 1986. Project proposal: crop-livestock integrated
system research for the Mahaweli "H" area, Sri Lanka. pp. 272-289
in: Proceedings of the 2nd Monitoring Tour Crop-Livestock Systems
Research Nepal and Indonesia. International Rice Research
Institute, Manila, Philippines. 668p. (E).

Gerona, G. R., Posas, O. B., Barrientos, C. G., and Jaya, A. F.
1986. A progress report on the research project on banana-livestock
integrated farming system. Paper presented during the 2nd
Monitoring Tour Crop-Livestock Systems Research Nepal and Indonesia.
27p. (Unpublished). (E).

Godilano, E. C. 1986. Crop component of the crop-livestock systems
research, Sta. Barbara, Philippines. pp. 324-334 in: Proceedings
of the 2nd Monitoring Tour Crop-Livestock Systems Research Nepal and
Indonesia. International Rice Research Institute, Manila,
Philippines. 668p. (E).

Godilano, E. C. and Dabu, J. 1986. Crop-livestock research of the
agricultural research office, Ministry of Agriculture and Food,
Philippines. pp. 173-220 in: Proceedings of the 2nd Monitoring Tour
Crop-Livestock Systems Research Nepal and Indonesia. International
Rice Research Institute, Manila, Philippines. 668p. (E).

IRRI, 1985. Report of the Crop-Livestock Systems Research Monitoring
Tour of Philippines and Thailand. 10-18 Dec 1984. International
Rice Research Institute, Manila, Philippines. 480pp. (E).







- 30


IRRI, 1986. Report of Second Crop-Livestock Systems Research
Crop-Livestock Systems Research Nepal and Indonesia, 17-31 August
1985. International Rice Research Institute, Manila,
Philippines. 668p. (E).

ICP 1984. Through farmers eyes. Integrated Cereals Project,
Department of Agriculture, Kathmandu, Nepal. 29pp. (E).

Krishna Bahadur, K. C. 1986 (a). Initial six month results of
monitoring incomes and expenses at Pumdi Bhumdi. Paper presented
during the 2nd Monitoring Tour Crop-Livestock Systems Research
Nepal and Indonesia. 5p. (unpublished). (E).

Krishna Bahadur, K. C., 1986 (b). Initial six months results of
monitoring the partition of the tasks inside the household at Pumdi
Bhumdi. Paper presented during the 2nd Monitoring Tour
Crop-Livestock Systems Research Nepal and Indonesia. 6p.
(unpublished). (E).

Leng, H., Shen, S., Miu, Z. and Liu, Y. 1986. Crop-livestock
systems in a hilly country, its present and future. Paper presented
during the 2nd Monitoring Tour Crop-Livestock Systems Research
Nepal and Indonesia. 8p. (unpublished). (E).

Limcangco-Lopez, P. D. 1986. Livestock feed technology for small
farms. pp. 611-629 in: Proceedings of the 2nd Monitoring Tour
Crop-Livestock Systems Research Nepal and Indonesia. International
Rice Research Institute, Manila, Philippines. 668p. (E).

Lipinski, D., Rizal, M. P., Gurung, B. R., and Sayre, K. D. 1984.
Nepali Hill Farmer' Evaluation of the National Cropping Systems
Pre-production Verification Trial Program. Cropping Systems
Program, Department of Agriculture, Kathmandu, Nepal. 45pp. (E).

Mariano, E. P., Calub, A. D., Tacal, E. N., and Alegre, A. 1986. A
case study of a rice-based multi-crop farm in Vigan, Ilocos Sur,
Philippines. pp.517-546 in: Proceedings of the 2nd Monitoring Tour
Crop-Livestock Systems Research Nepal and Indonesia. International
Rice Research Institute, Manila, Philippines. 668p. (E).

N.R.C. 1983. Little-known Asian animals with a promising future.
Report of Board on Science and Technology for International
Development of National Research Council. National Academy Press,
Washington D.C., USA. 131pp. (E).

Ndimande, B. N. and Avila, M. 1986. The farming systems research model
in Zimbabwe. pp.126-134 in: Proceedings of the 2nd Monitoring Tour
Crop-Livestock Systems Research Nepal and Indonesia. International
Rice Research Institute, Manila, Philippines. 668p. (E).







- 31


Nitis, I. M., Lana, K., and Suarna, M., 1986. Three strata system
for cattle feeds and feeding in dryland farming area in Bali,
Indonesia. pp.245-271 in: Proceedings of the 2nd Monitoring Tour
Crop-Livestock Systems Research Nepal and Indonesia. International
Rice Research Institute, Manila, Philippines. 668p. (E).

Oli, K.P., 1984. Utilization of draught animal power in the hill
agriculture systems of Nepal. Paper presented at Livestock
Workshop held at Lumle Agricultural Centre, Nepal 17-19 Jan 1984.
Pakhribas Agricultural Centre, Nepal. (mimeo). 5pp. (E).

Palis, R. K., 1985. Personal communication. Cropping Systems
Agronomist, IRRI-Burma Cooperative Project, P 0 Box 1369, Rangoon,
Burma.

Palis, R. K., Aye Swe and Kyaw Shinn 1983. Comparative performance
of one work animal, a team of two work animals and an 8.5 HP power
tiller in preparing lowland rice field. Agricultural Research
Institute, IRRI-Burma Cooperative Project, PO Box 1369, Rangoon,
Burma. 6pp. (E). (Unpublished.)

Palis, R. K., Aye Swe and Kyaw Shinn 1983. Training a young buffalo
or cattle as single work animal. Agricultural Research Institute,
IRRI-Burma Cooperative Project, P 0 Box 1369, Rangoon, Burma. 7pp.
(E). (Unpublished).

Pandang, M. S., Bahar, F. A., Felizardo, B. C., and Corpuz, I. T.,
1986. Farm case study: farming systems in the transmigration
settlement at Southeast Sulawesi, Indonesia. pp. 562-570 in:
Proceedings of the 2nd Monitoring Tour Crop-Livestock Systems
Research Nepal and Indonesia. International Rice Research
Institute, Manila, Philippines. 668p. (E).

Pandang, M. S., Maamun, Y., Bahar, F. A., Prastowo, B., Felizardo, B.
and Corpuz, I. T., 1986. Survey of some farming systems in the
transmigration areas of southeast Sulawesi, Indonesia. pp. 571-582
in: Proceedings of the 2nd Monitoring Tour Crop-Livestock Systems
Research Nepal and Indonesia. International Rice Research
Institute, Manila, Philippines. 668p. (E).

Patanothai, A., 1986. Farming systems research at Khon Kaen
University, Thailand. pp. 88-111 in: Proceedings of the 2nd
Monitoring Tour Crop-Livestock Systems Research Nepal and
Indonesia. International Rice Research Institute, Manila,
Philippines. 668p. (E).

Petheram, R. J., Thahar, A., and Bernsten, R. H. 1985.
Socio-economic aspects of draught animal power in southeast Asia,
with special reference to Java. pp 13-19 in: Copland, J. W. (Ed).
Draught animal power for production. Australian Centre for
International Agricultural Research, Canberra, Australia. (E).







- 32


Prawiradiputra, B. R., and Kusnadi, U., 1986. Progress and plans for
farming system research in Citanduy Watershed area, Ciamis,
Indonesia. pp. 236-243 in: Proceedings of the 2nd Monitoring Tour
Crop-Livestock Systems Research Nepal and Indonesia. International
Rice Research Institute, Manila, Philippines. 668p. (E).

Poats, S. V., Lichte, J., Oxley, J., Russo, S. L. and Starkey, P. H.
1986. Animal traction in a farming systems perspective. Report
of networkshop held Kara, Togo March 3-8 1985. Farming Systems
Support Project. University of Florida, USA. (in press). (E,F).

Poudyal, S. P. 1986 Contribution of livestock in Nepalese farming
systems. pp. 478-501 in: Proceedings of the 2nd Monitoring Tour
Crop-Livestock Systems Research Nepal and Indonesia. International
Rice Research Institute, Manila, Philippines. 668p. (E).

Sanchez, P.L., Gerona, G. R., and Anduyan, G. A. P. 1986. Chemical
and nutritive value of banana and other crop residues for cattle
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Crop-Livestock Systems Research Nepal and Indonesia. International
Rice Research Institute, Manila, Philippines. 668p. (E).

Sayre, K. D., Singh, B. K., Shrestha, S. L., 1984 Strategy for
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Shrestha, R. B. 1986 (a). Initial six month results of monitoring
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Shrestha, R. B. 1986 (b). Initial six month results of monitoring
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- 33


Singh, B. K., and Gautam, Y. P. 1986. Oat cultivation and its use as a
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Starkey, P. H. 1986. Animal traction networking activities in Africa
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Starkey, P. H. 1986. Animal traction research and extension in
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Starkey, P. H. and Apetofia, K. V. 1986. Animal traction in Togo.
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Starkey, P. H. and Kanu, B. H. 1986. Animal traction in Sierra Leone.
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Van Der Veen, M. G. 1986. Economic evaluation of on-farm
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Van der Veen, M. G., Calub, A. D., and Garcia, L. L., 1983. On farm
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Philippines. 17pp. (mimeo). (E).







- 34


10. PAPERS PRESENTED BY THE WEST AFRICAN PARTICIPANTS



10.1. ANIMAL TRACTION IN TOGO


Written by P. Starkey and K. Apetofia, and presented by K. Apetofia.


Agroclimatic typology and livestock resources

Togo is a small West African country (56,000 km2) extending 700 km
north from the port of Lome, with an average of only 80 km between its
western boundary with Ghana and its eastern frontier with Benin. The
climate is Sudano-Guinean, with a marked contrast between the northern
half of the country, which has one rainy season and seven months
drought, and the south which has two distinct rainy seasons. The
staple foods are maize, sorghum, yams and cassava, intercropped in a
traditional rainfed bush-fallow system, in which a fallow period of 3-5
years is now common. Some rice growing is being promoted in irrigation
schemes. The human population is about three million.

Trypanosomiasis risk and tick challenge range from low in the north to
high in the south. 80% of the national herd of 225,000 cattle are
trypanotolerant taurines, although there is often an admixture with
zebu genes, particularly in the north. Only one quarter of the
national herd is found in the southern half of the country. Cattle
ownership is very limited and is concentrated in the minority
Peul/Fulani ethnic group. It is common for cattle owners of other
tribes to entrust their cattle to Peul/Fulani herders who are then
completely responsible for their management. Traditionally, cattle are
not closely associated with crop farms, and they obtain all their feed
from grazing natural pasture on fallow land. Cattle weight losses
during the dry season can be considerable.


Previous project influences

Animal traction was first introduced on a small scale between 1908 and
1913, but very few farmers adopted the technology. During the 1960s,
several small projects tried to extend the use of draft animals, but
with limited success. However the technology spread a little in the
north, partly due to the influence of farmers from neighboring Ghana,
Burkina Faso and Benin. In the early 1970s small government-backed
projects to promote animal traction included assistance from Peace
Corps Volunteers. After disappointing experiences with tractorization
schemes, the Government started to place major emphasis on the
development of draft animal power in 1978.







- 35


Socio-economic and ecological factors affecting animal traction

Few crop farmers own cattle or have experience of managing large
animals. Until recently most farmers, particularly in the south,
appear to have been unaware of the potential for farming with animal
traction. The purchasing power of farmers is very low, and savings are
very rarely sufficient to contemplate the purchase of oxen and
equipment. Farm profitability is low, and using conventional cropping
practices, it is difficult to justify commercially priced loans for
investment in animal traction on average-size farms. However
timeliness of primary cultivation is crucial, and this represents a
labor bottleneck that can be alleviated using animal power. Village
blacksmiths have little or no experience in the manufacture and
maintenance of plows and other equipment. Most land, particularly in
the south, contains many tree stumps, which make animal plowing
difficult, and the labor requirement to destump land is a major
constraint. Although cattle have much genetic disease resistance, the
pathogenic challenge to cattle is high, and the veterinary services
have not the resources to cover all farmers. For the small farmers,
the risk of sickness or death of an animal represents too great a
financial disaster to contemplate without external insurance.


Present project activities and methodology

With national emphasis recently placed on expanding the use of animal
traction in Togo, there are now 30 governmental and non-governmental
organizations and projects, supported by several donor agencies,
actively engaged in the development of animal traction in various parts
of the the country. These are coordinated through a national committee
(COCA) with national liaison being assured through the activities of
PROPTA, a project for the promotion of animal traction in the country.
The various regional projects and government services, in association
with PROPTA, the national credit bank (CNCA) and the equipment workshop
(UPROMA), are responsible for extending the use of draft animals. This
involves the training of extension workers, the selection and training
of farmers and their animals, the provision of animals, equipment and
credit, and the supply of back-up services including animal health,
spare parts and advice on the care and utilization of the animals.

As a result of project activities over the past seven years, the number
of pairs of draft animals has increased from less than 1,000 in 1978 to
more than 4,000 in 1984, and the number is rising quite rapidly. The
great majority of the work oxen are in the northern half of the
country, with only 325 pairs in use in the south.

Detailed recommendations for future project development have been
prepared. Training and publicity activities will be improved, with the
use of audio-visuals in schools and in the government extension
service. Increasing publicity emphasis will be placed in the south of







- 36


the country. In-service training of extension workers will be
backed-up with a technical newsletter. Farmer training will continue
to be based at special centres, but the training period will be
extended to a minimum of three weeks and there will be additional
follow-up meetings at different times during the farming calendar.
Criteria for selecting farmers for training and assistance will be
harmonized in the country. The extension system will be developed with
more farmer training and demonstration centres, more frequent visits
to the farmers and greater information and logistical resources being
made available to extension workers. Studies will be conducted on the
credit needs of the farmers, and their ability to repay loans, taking
particular note of the proven importance of cash crops such as cotton
in allowing the repayment of debts. It is intended to improve the
national infrastructure for the purchase of young animals and the sale
of old ones. To alleviate the scarcity of young oxen, a system of
ranches is being developed, and PROPTA aims to provide 400 taurine oxen
each year form these ranches. Animal health services are to be further
developed with more emphasis on the training of farmers in the
day-to-day care of their animals, particularly in the south where
animal husbandry experience is limited. While a proven range of
manufactured implements is now available in the country from the UPROMA
workshop, cooperation between PROPTA and UPROMA will continue to allow
further adaptations of designs and specifications where necessary.
Emphasis will be placed on the improved distribution of manufactured
spare parts and the training of village artisans to undertake repair
work.

To date, no specific farming systems studies relating to animal
traction have been carried out, but these will be undertaken in the
coming second phase of the project. The farming systems studies will
concentrate on systems for improving farm profitability with animal
traction through the use of new crop combinations, more efficient use
of animal dung and increasing the annual utilization of draft animals
through additional cropping, post-harvest and transport operations.

The Togo animal traction projects are keen to develop links with draft
animal programs elsewhere, particularly in West Africa. To this end,
Togo hosted a Farming Systems Support Project (FSSP) animal traction
networkshop in March 1985, and a visit from personnel of the Sierra
Leone Work Oxen Project in July 1985. PROPTA hopes to be closely
involved in the regional animal power networking activities being
stimulated by FSSP, the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and the
International Livestock Centre for Africa (ILCA).







- 37


10.2. ANIMAL TRACTION IN SIERRA LEONE



Written by Paul Starkey and Bai Kanu, and presented by Paul Starkey.



Agroclimatic typology and livestock resources

Sierra Leone is a small West African country (73,000 km2) with Guinea
Savannah ecology in the north, where rainfall is 1,800 mm, and rain
forest in the south, where rainfall exceeds 2,500 mm. The staple food
of rice is the dominant species in the rain-fed intercropping of the
traditional bush-fallow agricultural system, and swamp rice is also
grown in numerous inland valleys.

The. whole country is considered to be of medium trypanosomiasis risk,
and the national herd of 333,000 cattle are all of the N'Dama
trypanotolerant taurine type. 75% of the cattle are found in the north
of the country, where natural pasture is available for most of the
year, with dry season growth being stimulated by fire. Cattle
ownership is concentrated in 5% of the farming population, notably
within the Fula and Madingo ethnic groups. Cattle obtain all their
feed from grazing natural pasture, but a traditional mineral supplement
of leaves, salt and termite-hill soil is provide two or three times a
year.


Previous project influences

Animal traction was introduced on a small scale in 1927. In 1950 a
government sponsored scheme to expand draft animal usage was initiated
in one part of the country, but it was not followed up, and was
forgotten by the agricultural department after a few years. However
the farmers in this area continued to use work oxen, and the technology
was transferred to subsequent generations. In 1985, three quarters of
the plows bought in 1950 were still in regular use, indicating that
animal traction was perceived as economically viable by the farmers,
and that it could be sustained without significant government
intervention. The farmers only used their draft animals for plowing
and harrowing, mainly for swamp rice production, but with some
cultivation of rain-fed rice and groundnuts.

Several subsidized tractor cultivation schemes have been attempted, but
have proved impossible to maintain. However they have raised
unattainable aspirations in many sections of society, and this has had
the effect of reducing national interest in the potential for animal
traction.







- 38


Socio-economic and ecological factors affecting animal traction

Agricultural investment is affected by land tenure systems which do not
guarantee continued usage of specific areas of land to individual
farmers. In general farmers' income is low, and arable cropping is
seldom profitable if conventional economic criteria are used to assess
farming costs and benefits. However a serious labor constraint exists,
particularly for land preparation.

Ownership of draft oxen is associated with more affluent farmers
cultivating above-average areas. However smaller farmers can have
access to draft animal power through traditional systems of hiring. In
one area surveyed, 274 farming families made use of 52 pairs of oxen.
Some women farmers have been among those hiring oxen from others, and
recently some women's groups have started using animal traction.
Through the influence of donor agencies, some village associations have
been formed for communal ownership of work oxen.


Present project activities and methodology

The present Sierra Leone Work Oxen Project is a national project
charged with promoting animal traction through adaptive research,
extension and training. It is primarily catalytic, providing technical
advice and training services to other agricultural development
programs, which then develop their own animal traction components.

The project started from a university based pilot study, which included
the review of past records from Sierra Leone and published experience
from other countries, as well as a program of on-station trials and
on-farm socio-economic studies. The socio-economic surveys were
stratified to allow comparisons of ox-users and non ox-users in
villages where draft animals were maintained, and between ox-hirers and
non ox-hirers in villages where no work oxen were owned. Studies
identified the unavailability of equipment as a limiting factor, and
implements from several countries were tested, first on research
stations and then by farmers in various villages. The preferred design
of multipurpose implement was appropriately modified and its local
manufacture was started. The toolbar is now available with both 6" and
9" plow bodies to suit different ecosystems and different sizes/ages of
animals. A triangular harrow is also available, and other cultivation
implements and carts are being evaluated by farmers in several
locations.

All innovative ideas, such as the use of nose-rings to improve animal
control and the use of inter-row weeding, are first tested on-station
and then by selected farmers in different villages. If proven
acceptable, techniques are recommended for widespread adoption, and
their progress is followed through monitoring and evaluation studies.







- 39


The project comprises a multi-disciplinary team of Sierra Leonean,
French and British research workers, who must all participate in
general extension and promotional activities in addition to their
specific research areas. All staff, both senior and junior, commence
their project experience by training a pair of work oxen themselves.
French language training is given to anglophone senior staff to allow
liaison with neighboring francophone countries. Present research
interest covers equipment evaluation, animal health, traditional animal
husbandry techniques and medicines, row-cropping systems,
socio-economic studies and the formation of farmers' associations
including women's groups. Monthly multi-disciplinary technical
meetings of staff ensure a farming systems approach is maintained.
Overall project policy is determined by a national liaison committee,
comprising representatives of the Ministry of Agriculture, agricultural
development projects, the University and several aid donors.

The project has placed great emphasis on publicity, with the
development of symbolic logos, participation in agricultural shows, the
wide circulation of project reports and the organization of an annual
national ox-plowing competition The project has also emphasized
external liaison, and has initiated several exchange visits, notably
with Guinea, Liberia and Togo.







(Mr. Bai Kanu is Project Coordinator of the Sierra Leone Work Oxen
Project, Private Mail Bag 766, Freetown, Sierra Leone. It was intended
that he should have participated in the Crop-Livestock Systems Research
Monitoring Tour of Nepal and Indonesia, but unfortunately last minute
complications made this impossible.)







- 40


10.3. ANIMAL TRACTION NETWORKING ACTIVITIES IN AFRICA AND ASIA


Written and presented by Paul Starkey.


In most of Sub-Saharan Africa, with the notable exception of Ethiopia,
animal traction has only been introduced in agriculture in the present
century, and it is still only used by a minority of the farmers.
Bush-fallow cultivation, using hand tools, is still the dominant
farming system, and attempts to go straight from hand cultivation to
motorized cultivation have seldom succeeded (Pingali, Bigot and
Binswanger, 1985). The use of animal traction is now increasing in
most African countries, but many projects to promote its adoption have
been disappointed by slow rates of uptake. This has often been
associated with poor farm profitability, .inadequate credit
arrangements, unsuitable equipment or insufficient attention to good
animal husbandry to overcome problems of poor animal nutrition and
health (Mettrick, 1978; Sargent et al., 1981; Barratt et al., 1982;
Munzinger, 1982). Little systematic replicated research has been
carried out on animal traction in Africa, but very many man-years have
been spent on the local development of equipment and techniques for
farming with draft animals. With very little communication between
workers in this field, whether within a single country or between
countries, there has been unnecessary duplication of work, and little
or no opportunity for researchers to build on each other's experience.
With many national governments in Africa, supported by multilateral,
bilateral and NGO aid agencies, developing new draft animal projects,
there is now perceived to be an urgent need to initiate liaison or
"networking" activities relating to animal traction research, training
and extension in Africa.

In most of southern Asia, the use of draft animals has been an integral
part of farming systems for centuries. Indeed animal traction has been
such an accepted part of the traditional systems, that it has, until
recently, received relatively little attention from governments and
research workers. However with increasing population and land
pressures, emphasis is being put on methods to maximize the output of
small farms. With draft animals an integral component of many farming
systems, current research involves a range of studies relating to
animal traction, including feeding systems and appropriate implements.
In addition, the demand for increased milk production, and in some
cases meat production, has involved increasing the milk/meat/draft
output of indigenous multipurpose breeds, and using novel breeds and
crossbreeds for draft purposes. This has prompted significant research
interest in the relative performance of breeds and crosses for
multipurpose milk/draft/meat production. Thus in Asia also, there is
great potential to build on the research experiences of the different
countries through the development of a draft animal power (DAP) network
to foster closer liaison.







- 41


As a result of the perceived need for improved liaison, and following
the recommendation of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO)
Expert Consultation on Animal Energy in Agriculture in Africa and Asia
(FAO, 1982), FAO proposed the establishment of a draft animal power
network in Asia. It was intended that this would have linkages with a
similar initiative in Africa that would be organized in cooperation
with the International Livestock Centre for Africa (ILCA). In order to
assess reactions to such proposals, and to pave the way for network
establishment, in 1983 and 1984 FAO sent missions to five countries in
Asia and FAO/ILCA sent missions to nine countries in Africa. All
countries responded positively to the suggestions for the networks
(Imboden, Starkey and Goe, 1983; Pathak 1984; Starkey and Goe, 1984).
For Asia it was recommended that the DAP network have formal links with
two existing networks to ensure complementarity. These are APHCA
(Animal Production and Health Commission for Asia, the Far East and
South West Pacific) and RNAM (Regional Network for Agricultural
Machinery). For Africa it was proposed that interacting sub-regional
bureaux be established for West, East and Southern Africa.

While the principle of DAP networks has been accepted by FAO and ILCA,
there remains the preparation of detailed proposals, and most
importantly the provision of appropriate funding. However prior to the
formal establishment of the networks, FAO is to start publishing in
1986, a draft animal power newsletter within the journal "World Animal
Review". FAO is also to fund a DAP workshop in Africa in 1986, which
is likely to concentrate on a specific aspect of animal traction such
as credit provision, equipment standardization or animal health
constraints. Further facilitating missions in preparation for the
Africa network are planned by FAO/ILCA in the second half of 1985.

In addition to the FAO and ILCA proposals for formalized networks,
several other development agencies have been organizing network
activities relating to animal traction.

From 1978 to the present, the Commonwealth Secretariat has been
organizing liaison activities on rural technology, which have included
workshops, exchange visits and prototype exchange (Commonwealth
Secretariat, 1980). In 1983 CIMMYT (Centro Internacional de
Mejoramiento de Maiz y Trigo) organized a networkshop on the feeding of
draft animals, with participation from several eastern and southern
African countries (CIMMYT, 1983).

More recently the USAID supported Farming Systems Support Project
(FSSP) of the University of Florida has initiated animal traction
networking activities in West Africa. As a background to this
initiative, it may be noted that there is much evidence to suggest that
many of the failures of animal traction programs in Africa have been
caused by too much emphasis on single disciplinary studies, such as the
development of equipment by agricultural engineers working alone. This
has often resulted in a failure to appreciate the complexity of the







- 42


whole farming system, and crucial constraints relating to the animal
sub-system, the cultural environment or, most importantly, the economic
realities of farm costs and benefits. FSSP maintains that a holistic,
inter-disciplinary approach is a prerequisite for the successful
implementation of practical draft animal research and extension
programs in Africa. In addition, animal traction is seen as one way to
usefully integrate crop and livestock enterprises in African farming
systems, which historically have been characterized by differentiation
between crop farmers and pastoralists.

For these reasons, FSSP funded a West Africa animal traction
networkshop in Togo in March 1985 (Poats et al., 1986). This has
been followed by exchange visits between animal traction programs in
West Africa, and the participation by personnel involved in draft
animal research and development in West Africa in the Crop-Livestock
Research Monitoring Tour of Nepal and Indonesia initiated by IRRI.
FSSP is to fund a meeting of several representatives of West Africa
animal traction programs in The Gambia in November 1985 to prepare.for
another networkshop scheduled for 1986. This sub-regional committee
meeting will also involve visits to farming systems and draft animal
projects in Senegal and The Gambia. It should be noted that FSSP is
not establishing a formal or centralized network, but rather it is
facilitating networking activities that will promote a farming systems
approach to animal traction research and extension. Thus these FSSP-
funded activities are entirely complementary to the FAO/ILCA
initiatives.

Finally, in July 1985, the Australian Centre for International
Agricultural Research (ACIAR) organized a draft animal power workshop
in Townsville, Australia. This was attended by research workers from
the ASEAN countries of South East Asia, representatives of
international organizations, and participants from Africa and some
developed countries (Copland, 1985). The workshop emphasized the need
for improved liaison and information exchange, and recommended that a
draft animal power network should be established in Asia, and that
ACIAR should actively support such a network.

In conclusion, it would seem that a need has been clearly identified
for the development of networks in Africa and Asia dedicated to
stimulating and improving liaison and information exchange relating to
animal traction research, training and extension. The various
initiatives described here that have been taken over the past two years
should pave the way to the establishment of such networks.

References cited

Barratt, V., Gregory, L., Wilcock, D., Baker, D. and Crawford E.
1982. Animal traction in Eastern Upper Volta: a technical,
economic and institutional analysis. International Development
Paper 4. Department of Agricultural Economics, Michigan State
University, East Lansing, Michigan, USA. 118p. (E,F).







- 43


Copland, J. W., 1985 (Editor) Draught animal power for production.
Proceedings of an international workshop held at James Cook
University, Townsville, Qld, Australia, 10-16 July 1985. ACIAR
Proceedings Series 10, Australian Centre for International
Agricultural Research, Canberra. 170p. (E).

CIMMYT 1984. Report of a networkshop on draught power and animal
feeding, held Ezulwini, Swaziland October 4-6 1983. Networking
Workshops Report 2. CIMMYT Eastern and Southern Africa Economics
Programme, Mbabane, Swaziland. 93p. (E).

FAO 1982. Report of the FAO expert consultation on the appropriate
use of animal energy in agriculture in Africa and Asia, held 15-19
November 1982, Rome. FAO, Rome, Italy. 44p. (E,F).

Imboden, R., Starkey, P. H. and Goe, M. R. 1983. Report of the
consultation mission for the establishment of a technical
cooperation among developing countries (TCDC) network for
development, research and training in the field of draught animal
power utilization. AGAP, FAO, Rome, Italy. 81p. (E,F).

Mettrick, H. 1978. Oxenisation in The Gambia. Ministry of Overseas
Development, London. 68p. (E).

Munzinger, P. 1982. (Editor). Animal traction in Africa. GTZ,
Eschborn, Germany. 490p. (E,F,G).

Pathak, B. S. 1984. Report of the preparatory FAO mission for the
establishment of a TCDC Network for research, training and
development of draught animal power in Asia. AGAP, FAO, Rome,
Italy. 23p. (Unpublished). (E).

Pingali, P. L., Bigot, Y. and Binswanger, H. P. 1986. Agricultural
mechanization and the evolution of farming systems in Sub-Saharan
Africa. World Bank, Washington in association with John Hopkins
Press. (in press). (E).

Poats, S. V., Lichte, J., Oxley, J., Russo, S. L. and Starkey, P. H.
1986. Animal traction in a farming systems perspective. Report
of networkshop held Kara, Togo March 3-8 1985. Farming Systems
Support Project. University of Florida, USA. (in press). (E,F).

Sargent, M. W., Lichte, J. A., Matlon, P. J. and Bloom, R. 1981. An
assessment of animal traction in francophone West Africa. Working
Paper 34. Department of Agricultural Economics, Michigan State
University, East Lancing, USA. 101p. (E,F).

Starkey, P. H. and Goe, M. R. 1984. Report of the preparatory
FAO/ILCA mission for the establishment of a TCDC network for
research training and development of draught animal power in
Africa. FAO, Rome. 82p. (E,F).







- 44


11. SUMMARY OF MONITORING TOUR ITINERARY


Saturday 17th August.

Arrivals and joining formalities, Kathmandu, Nepal.

Sunday 18th August.

Opening ceremony and keynote address.
Presentations on:
- Cropping systems in Nepal.
- Economic evaluation of crop-livestock systems research.
Overland drive to Pokhara (in foothills of Himalayas).

Monday 19th August.

Field visit Pumdi Bhumdi (hill village).
Presentation and discussion of Pumdi Bhumdi research results.
Paper and discussions on options for livestock feeding.
Formation and first meetings of working discussion groups.

Tuesday 20th August.

Overland drive to Ratna Nagar (Terai lowland area).
Visit to site of cropping systems research.
Overland drive to Kathmandu.

Wednesday 21st August.

Plenary session in Kathmandu, with presentations and discussion of:
- Data collection for feeds and livestock. Different feeding systems.
- Case studies from Thailand, China, Sri Lanka and Philippines.
Field visit to Khumaltar (Cropping research station).

Thursday 22nd August.

Plenary session in Kathmandu, with presentations and discussion of:
- Farming systems research in Zimbabwe.
- Animal traction in Africa: Togo and Sierra Leone.
- Animal traction networking activities in Africa and Asia.
- Farming systems research activities: Nepal, Burma and Philippines.
- Project proposals: Sri Lanka and China.

Friday 23rd August.

Plenary session in Kathmandu, with presentations and discussion of:
- Farming systems research in Thailand.
- Farming systems research in Indonesia.
- Crop-livestock research in Philippines.
- Livestock in farming systems of Nepal.







- 45 -


Saturday 24th August.

Working group discussions.
Flight Kathmandu to Bangkok, Thailand.

Sunday 25th August.

Flight Bangkok, Thailand to Jakarta, Indonesia.

Monday 26th August.

Flight Jakarta, Java to Bandar Lampung, Sumatra.
Overland drive to Baturaja, Sumatra.
Visit farming systems sites (settlement areas in medium rainfall,
undulating lowlands).

Tuesday 27th August.

Presentation of farming systems research in Sumatra.
Visits farming systems sites (settlement areas).
Overland drive to Tanjung Karang.

Wednesday 28th August.

Flight Bandar Lampung (Sumatra) to Jakarta (Java).
Flight Jakarta (West Java) to Bandung (Central Java).
Overland drive to Tasikmalaya.

Thursday 29th August.

Presentation of farming systems research at Ciamis.
Field visits Ciamis (hill area subject to erosion).
Overland drive to Purwokerto.

Friday 30th August.

Field visits (hill areas and reclaimed swamps).
Overland drive to Yogyakarta.
Flight Yogyakarta (East Java) to Denpasar (Bali).
Field visit to farming systems site (stratified system: dryland area).

Saturday 31st August.

Working group discussions in Bali, Indonesia.
Plenary session with presentation of group reports.
Concluding and planning session.

Sunday 1st September.


International departures.









- 46 -


12. ILLUSTRATIONS



Figure 1


Using draught cattle to prepare a rice swamp in the Terai of Nepal.


(Photo: Paul Starkey)


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- 47


Integrated Livestock Systems in Nepal and Indonesia: Illustrations



Figure 2


Examining locally made plow, Sumatra, Indonesia.


(Photo: Paul Starkey)


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- 48


Integrated Livestock Systems in Nepal and Indonesia: Illustrations



Figure 3


Pokhara Valley, Nepal, showing terraced fields.


(Photo: Paul Starkey)


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49 -


Integrated Livestock Systems in Nepal and Indonesia: Illustrations


Figure 4

Homestead at Pumdi Bhumdi, in the hills of Nepal.

(Photo: Paul Starkey)








- 50


Integrated Livestock Systems in Nepal and Indonesia: Illustrations



Figure 5

Woman carrying harvested forage for zero-grazed livestock,
Kathmandu, Nepal.


(Photo: Paul Starkey)


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- 51 -


Integrated Livestock Systems in Nepal and Indonesia: Illustrations


Figure 6

Use of two oxen to plow maize field in Nepal.
(Note one man working alone, without reins).


(Photo: Paul Starkey)


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- 52


Integrated Livestock Systems in Nepal and Indonesia: Illustrations


Figure 7

Simple wooden plow at Pumdi Bhumdi, Nepal.

(Photo: Paul Starkey)


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- 53


Integrated Livestock Systems in Nepal and Indonesia: Illustrations


Figure 8

Buffalo cart in the Terai area of Nepal.


(Photo: Paul Starkey)


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- 54


Integrated Livestock Systems in Nepal and Indonesia: Illustrations




Figure 9

Ox cart carrying sand, in hill area of Nepal.


(Photo: Paul Starkey)


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55 -


Integrated Livestock Systems in Nepal and Indonesia: Illustrations


Figure 10

Ongole oxen plowing in Sumatra, Indonesia.

(Photo: Paul Starkey)







56 -


Integrated Livestock Systems in Nepal and Indonesia: Illustrations


Figure 11

Muzzled oxen plowing in Sumatra, Indonesia.

(Photo: Paul Starkey)







- 57


Integrated Livestock Systems in Nepal and Indonesia: Illustrations


Figure 12

Simple moldboard plow with wooden beam, Sumatra Indonesia.

(Photo: Paul Starkey)


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58 -


Integrated Livestock Systems in Nepal and Indonesia: Illustrations


Figure 13

Young Banteng carrying plow, Sumatra, Indonesia.

(Photo: Paul Starkey)








59 -


Integrated Livestock Systems in Nepal and Indonesia: Illustrations


Banteng, or


Figure 14

"Bali cattle", Sumatra, Indonesia.

(Photo: Paul Starkey)









- 60


Integrated Livestock Systems in Nepal and Indonesia: Illustrations



Figure 15


Transporting cassava on a terraced hillside, Java, Indonesia.


(Photo: Paul Starkey)


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61 -


Integrated Livestock Systems in Nepal and Indonesia: Illustrations


Figure 16

Fishpond and toilet, Java, Indonesia.

(Photo: Paul Starkey)







62 -


Integrated Livestock Systems in Nepal and Indonesia: Illustrations


Figure 17

Tour participants and a recently planted forage hedge in
stratified feeding research trials, Bali, Indonesia.

(Photo: Paul Starkey)







- 63


Integrated Livestock Systems in Nepal and Indonesia: Illustrations


Figure 18

Simple village chaff-cutter in Burma.

(Photo: Dr. R. K. Palis)








- 64


Integrated Livestock Systems in Nepal and Indonesia: Illustrations

Figure 19

Drawing of simple chaff-cutter used in Burma.
(Drawing: Dr. R. K. Palis)


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