Citation
Integrated livestock systems in Nepal and Indonesia

Material Information

Title:
Integrated livestock systems in Nepal and Indonesia implications for animal traction programs in West Africa
Series Title:
Network report Farming Systems Support Project
Portion of title:
Implications for animal traction programs in West Africa
Creator:
Starkey, Paul
Apetofia, Kossivi V
Farming Systems Support Project
Place of Publication:
Gainesville Fla
Publisher:
Farming Systems Support Project
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
v, 64 p. : ill. ; 28 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Livestock systems -- Nepal ( lcsh )
Livestock systems -- Indonesia ( lcsh )
Genre:
non-fiction ( marcgt )

Notes

General Note:
"March 1986."
Funding:
Network report (Farming Systems Support Project) ;
Statement of Responsibility:
by Paul H. Starkey and Kossivi V. Apetofia.

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University of Florida
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37191887 ( OCLC )
AKB4311 ( NOTIS )

Full Text
Integrated Livestock Systems in Nepal and Indonesia
Implications for Animal Traction Programs in West Africa
1''
ITD Library Farming Systems Support Project
IIIE 2Network Report No. 3
Starkey, P.H.,




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by
Paul H. Starkey
and
Kossivi V. Apetofia March 1986
Farming System Support Projeot
Interriatiortal Programs Office of Aviculture and
Inaltute of Food and Office of MuldsorUwal Dmlopmeft
Aericullural Sciersm Bureau for Science and TedmolM
Inbrersity of Florida 'AgwicyforinterruttimalDevelowneft
Gainewille, Florida 32611 Washingw% D.C. 20523




Page
List of illustrations . .. ........ .................iv
Acknowledgements .......... .. .. .. .. .. .... .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ...... v
2. INTRODIJCTION ......................... ....2
2.2. Asian Rice Farming Systems Network...................... 2
2.3. West Africa Integrated Livestock Systems Network ......... 3
2.4. Crop Livestock Systems Research Monitoring Tour of
Nepal and Indonesia .......... ... ............. .. ..... .3
3 CREOP-LIVESTIOCIC SYSTEM'4 IN NEA .. .. ................. .. *.6
3 .2 Animal traction in Nepal. ... .. .. . ... .. .. .. . ......... 73 .3 Faring systems research in Nepal .. .. .. ... .. ... ... .. .. .. 8
4 CRPLIESTOC SYST'E IN IN'DONEJSIA. .. ... .. .. .. ... .. .. .. .... 9
4.*1 General description. . .. .. 0 .. 0 ... .. .. ... .. ... .. ....... 9
4.2. Animal traction in Indonesia. ... .. ... ... .. .. ... .. .. .. ... 10
4.3. Farming systems research in Indonesia .....................10
5. LESSONS FROM~ IFIELD VTISITrS .. .. .. ........................ 12
5.1. The intensity of agricultural production ..........1
5 .2. Terraced hillsides. .. .. .. .. .. ... ... ... .. .. ........... 12
5.3 Urso f....e..re. .. ... .. ... . . . .. ....... 14
5.7. Stiial f reding .......... ................................13
5.9. Maoke andliot in ... .. . .. .. .. . .. .. s .. .. .. .. .15
.5 .10. Control of working animals ....................... .. 16
5.11. Use ofcatti eswmpcnwtinspco.....tio..s........16
5.12. Baniteng or Bali cattle................................ 1
51. Waste disposal and fish farm ing ....................17




Page
6.* LESSONS FROM' TH~E TOMJ ORGJAN'IZATION. .. .. .. ... .. .. .. .. .. .. ... 18
6.2. The balance of tour activities ...... .. ... ... .. ... ... 6 ...... .19
6.4. Plenaryr Sessions. ..................... .. .......... 20
7. LESSONS FRCM~ PLENARY SESSIONS AND GROUP DISCUSSIONS .......... 21
7 .1 Research methodologyr ................. ..... ..... .. 21
7.1.1. General. ..................................... 21
7. 1.2. Assessment of draft power ......... .. . ... ... .. .. .. .... o21
7.1.3. Measuring the weight of cattle...................... 22
7.1.4. Measu'rig feed intake ........ ... .. .. ... .. .. ... ... ..... 23
7 .2 Research anid exctension teams .. ... ...... # ...... ....... 24
7.3. Lessons from Burma, China and the Philippines ..............24
8. (X1CLUSIONS.o..................o..................... 26
8.1. Farms and farming systems............ ....... .2
8.2. Animal traction and farming systems research.............. 26
8.*3 Muilti-disciplinary tours .. .. .. ... o .. .. .. .. .. .. o .. ... ... 27
8.*4. Inter-network exchanges. .. ... .. ............ ........ .. 27
10o* PAPERS PRESENTED BY THlE WEST AFRICAN PARTICIPANTS ............ 34
10.*1o. Animal traction in Togo ..* ...... # .. .. o . ... s .. .. ... .... 34
10.2. Animal traction in Sierra Leone .........................37
10.3. Animal traction networking activities
11 SUMMt'ARY OF MOKNITORING TOMf J ITINERARY. .. . ... .. .. .. .. .44'
12. ILLUSTRATIONS ........................................... 46




- iv
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS
Page
Figure I Using draught cattle to prepare a rice swamp 46
in the Terai of Nepal.
Figure 2 Examining locally made plow, Sumatra, Indonesia. 47
Figure 3 Pokhara Valley, Nepal, showing terraced fields. 48
Figure 4 Homestead at Pumdi Bhumdi, in the hills of Nepal. 49
Figure 5 Woman carrying harvested forage for zero-grazed
livestock, Kathmandu, Nepal. 50
Figure 6 Use of two oxen to plow maize field in Nepal.
(Note one man working alone, without reins). 51
Figure 7 Simple wooden plow at Pumdi Bhumdi, Nepal, 52
Figure 8 Buffalo cart in the Terai area of Nepal. 53
Figure 9 Ox cart carrying sand, in hill area of Nepal. 54
Figure 10 Ongole oxen plowing in Sumatra, Indonesia. 55
Figure 11 Muzzled oxen plowing in Sumatra, Indonesia. 56
Figure 12 Simple moldboard plow with wooden beam, Sumatra Indonesia. 57
Figure 13 Young Banteng carrying plow, Sumatra, Indoneisa. 58
Figure 14 Banteng, or "Bali cattle", Sumatra, Indonesia. 59
Figure 15 Transporting cassava on a terraced hillside, Java, Indonesia. 60
Figure 16 Fishpond and toilet, Java, Indonesia. 61
Figure 17 Tour participants and a recently planted forage
hedge in stratified feeding research trials,
Bali, Indonesia. 62
Figure 18 Simple village chaff-cutter in Burma. 63
Figure 19 Drawing of simple chaff-cutter used in Burma. 64




- V
AIK NOWLE DGEME NT S
The authors would like to express their great appreciation to the Farming Systems Support Project for sponsoring their participation in the Second Crop-Livestock Systems Research Monitoring Tour of Nepal and Indonesia, to which this report refers.
The authors would also like to thank and congratulate the organizers of the tour, that is the IRRI Rice Farming Systems Group, the Department of Agriculture, Nepal and the Ministry of Agriculture, Indonesia. As indicated in this report, these organizations efficiently planned and executed tour arrangements that were stimulating, professionally valuable, exhausting and enjoyable.
This document is a joint report in that all the observations and conclusions were discussed in detail by the authors during the tour and at three subsequent meetings. However responsibilty for the actual writing was assigned to Paul Starkey.
The authors would like to stress that the opinions expressed in this report are their own, and do not necessarily represent the views of the Farming Systems Support Project, or its affiliates.
Paul Starkey,
Specialist in Animal Traction,
2. Wychwood Crescent,
Earley, Reading RG6 2RA,
United Kingdom.
Kossivi Apetofia
Directeur,
Projet pour la Promotion de la Traction Animale (PROPTA), BP 82, Atakpame,
Togo.
March, 1986.




1. SUMMARY
The authors participated in the Second Crop-Livestock Research Monitoring Tour of Nepal and Indonesia organized by the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI), the Department of Agriculture of Nepal and the Ministry of Agriculture of Indonesia. The proceedings of this tour have been published by IRRI, and this present report is to highlight points of particular relevance to animal traction programs in West Africa.
Forty scientists participated in the tour, which covered 4,500 km in two weeks. Case studies and discussion papers were presented at plenary sessions in Kathmandu, Nepal and research methodology and results were discussed during field visits near Pokhara, Nepal and on the islands of Sumatra, Java and Bali in Indonesia. The tour was efficiently organized and valuable to all persons.
Animal traction is commonly used in both Nepal and Indonesia, even in. areas of steep, terraced hillsides and high population densities. Land is very intensively used,- and draft animals are sometimes maintained on holdings of 1&ss than 0.5 hectare. While villages often allocate specific communal grazing areas, stall feeding and zero grazing is also very common. In Nepal a high proportion of the feed of draft animals comes from browse trees.
In both Nepal and Indonesia, plows are made in the villages, primarily of wood, and they are cheap and can also be maintained in villages. Plows are joined to withers (shoulder) yokes by a long wooden pole. Nose ropes and reins are sometimes used, but even without these, control of animal pairs is invariably by one person. Although draft buffaloes are well adapted to rice swamps, the much greater number of draft cattle owned in southern Asia means that cattle are more commonly used for rice cultivation than buffaloes.
In Burma, simple village-manufactured chaff cutters are used to assist in the feeding of gathered forage and rice straw. In this report illustrations are provided of the design of these.
Discussions during plenary sessions and field visits highlighted the importance of a multi-disciplinary approach to research, and the value of researchers regularly visiting villages together as a team, for detailed dialogue with farmers. Farmers should be involved at all stages in the research process, and considering them as Consultants" can be helpful. The use of the farmers' own criteria for assessing the value, condition and output of animals may be more useful and simpler than using weighing instruments or dynamometers.
It is recommended that further exchanges between the Asian Rice Farming Systems Network and the West African Integrated Livestock Systems Network be undertaken.




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2. INTRODUCTION
2.1. General
This report follows the participation of the authors in the Second Crop-Livestock Systems Research and Monitoring Tour of Nepal and Indonesia. This was organized by the Asian Rice Farming Systems Network, coordinated by the International Rice Research Institute, based in the Philippines. The authors attended as representatives of the West Africa Animal Traction Networkshop Committee of the West Africa Integrated Livestock Systems Network. Their participation was made possible by the Farming Systems Support Project of the University of Florida. Some background information will be provided on these various organizations, before technical lessons from the tour itself are given.
2.2. Asian Rice Farming Systems Network
In 1974, the Rice Farming Systems Program of IRRI facilitated the establishment of a network of Asian research organizations involved in rice farming systems. Initially the network was known as the Asian Cropping Systems Network, but in 1983 the name was changed to the Asian Farming Systems Network, in view of the importance of developing an integrated approach to crop and livestock systems research. However in order to emphasize the mandate of IRRI, which is specifically concerned with research related to rice production, the present name of "Asian Rice Farming Systems Network" (ARFSN) was adopted in 1985.'
ARFSN is coordinated from IRRI's headquarters in the Philippines, and currently involves organizations in Bangladesh, Bhutan, Burma, China, India, Indonesia, Korea (S), Nepal, Pakistan, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand and Vietnam. In addition, ARFSN collaborates with other related networks and organizations for example, twelve counties are involved in a rice-wheat systems network, in cooperation with CIMMYT (Centro Internacional de Mejoramiento de Maiz y Trigo). As IRRI now places much emphasis on a systems approach to its research, the IRRI rice breeding program is orientated to optimizing total production within specific farming systems, rather than simply maximizing grain yield. Thus the International Rice Testing Program, also coordinated by IRRI, cooperates closely with ARFSN in evaluating varieties.
While the systems network initially emphasized crop production, increasing importance is now placed on research into crop-livestock integration and interactions. Network organizations in Burma, China, Indonesia, Nepal, Philippines, Sri Lanka and Thailand are engaged in specific research projects relating to the role of livestock within farming systems, and the implication of this for crop-livestock




-3
research methodology. The Network is also encouraging work on other topics relating to crop-livestock integration in the prevailing socio-economic environment, such as rice-fish production and the role of women in rice farming systems.
In December 1984, the ARFSN organized its first Crop-Livestock Systems Research Monitoring Tour in the Philippines and Thailand. 39 scientists participated and a further 18 observers from the two host countries were present. 47 of the participants came from organizations based in the Philippines and Thailand, but ten scientists came form China, Indonesia, Nepal and Sri Lanka. Four days were spent on a combination of paper presentations and field visits in the Philippines, and a further four were spent on presentations, field visits and discussions in Thailand. The proceedings were published in detail (IRRI,1984). Following the success of this first tour, which constructively combined "workshop" discussions with visits to farms and sites of farming systems research, it Was decided to hold a second network tour in 1985, this time involving two other participating countries, Nepal and Indonesia. It is to this second tour of the ARFSN that this report refers.
2.3. West Africa Integrated Livestock Systems Network
In March 1985, the Farming Systems Support Project (FSSP) of the University of Florida organized a "networkshop" on "Animal Traction in a Farming Systems Perspective" in Kara, Togo. At this networkshop, five West African countries were represented by African nationals, while technical expertise from five other countries in the region was brought by expatriates. The program included keynote presentations, field trips, small group discussions and plenary discussions, all related to animal traction research and extension. The proceedings of this workshop are being published in English and French (Poats, Lichte, Oxley, Russo and Starkey, 1986). Several recommendations for follow-up activities were proposed. These included: the holding of a second networkshop relating to animal traction in 1986, probably in Sierra Leone; the establishment of a West Africa committee to arrange and coordinate this 1986 networkshop; various exchange visits between animal traction programs in West Africa; and the participation of representatives of the networkshop on the Asian Rice Farming Systems Network tour of Nepal and Indonesia.
2.4. Crop Livestock Systems Research Monitoring Tour of Nepal and Indonesia
The second crop-livestock systems research monitoring tour of ARFSN was held from 18th to 31st August 1985. Of the 33 participants from




-4
network countries, 13 travelled from the Philippines and IRRI headquarters, six were from Indonesia, four from Nepal, four from Thailand, three from China, two from Burma and one came from Sri Lanka. In addition, four participants represented African organizations: these were the two FSSP-sponsored animal traction specialists from West Africa, and two research workers from Zimbabwe, who were financed by the International Development Research Centre (IDRC) of Canada. During the meetings and field visits in Nepal and Indonesia, there were also several observers from the host countries.
While the tour organization was coordinated by the IRRI Rice Farming Systems Program, logistical details in Nepal were arranged by the Department of Agriculture of His Majesty's Government, and its Integrated Cereals Project. The host organization in Indonesia was the Ministry of Agriculture, and in particular its Agency for Agricultural Research and Development. These organizations prepared schedules for the tour which were designed to allow visits to a variety of farming systems, and discussions with research teams in different parts of each country. Given the limited time available and the geographies of Nepal and Indonesia, this necessitated a great deal of travelling and highly efficient logistical arrangements. It is to the credit of the coordinators and organizers that the transport and accommodation arrangements were impeccable.
The week in Nepal commenced with the opening ceremony and keynote addresses in Kathmandu. The tour then drove the 200 km along winding mountainous roads to Pokhara. Here the participants spent two nights, which allowed field visits to hillfarms and time for some discussion of the local research programs, notably those based at the village of Pumdi Bhumdi. The return to Kathmandu was by a research site on the flatter lands (Terai) at Ratna Nagar. There then followed three days in the same location, at Kathmandu, which were spent on paper presentations, group discussions and some brief field visits. At the end of the first week, the tour flew the 4,500 km to Jakarta, Indonesia, with an overnight stop in Thailand.
In order that farming sites could be visited on the islands of Java, Sumatra and Bali, the week in Indonesia involved six changes of accommodation, four airflights and five coach journeys. From Jakarta, the tour flew to Bandar Lampung in Sumatra, and drove the 300 km to Baturaja, where field visits were arranged. Central Java was then reached by means of two airflights and two coach journeys, and visits were arranged at Ciamis. The tour then drove to Yogyakarta, in order to fly to Denpasar, in Bali. Here the final farm visits were undertaken and a day was spent on group discussions and the final plenary sessions. A more detailed summary of the program is given in Section 11 of this report.
Through its initiation of the tour, the IRRI Rice Farming Systems Program envisaged there would be valuable exchange of experience




between network scientists, particularly relating to the implementation of on-farm crop-livestock research. For this reason, emphasis was placed on field visits and group discussion, rather than formal presentations. Nevertheless there were a total of 35 papers distributed during the tour, based on experiences in nine countries, and these are listed, together with other relevant publications, in Section 9 of this report. The participants were divided into three multi-disciplinary groups, for discussion purposes,and these groups covered research methodology, tour observations and farm case studies. In addition, consultations were held on various new proposals for research project funding within the ARFSN.
The proceedings of the network tour have been published an *d included are most of the papers formally presented during the tour, as well as summaries of the group discussions. The full reference to the publication is:
IRRI, 1986.- Report of Second Crop-Livestock Systems Research
Crop-Livestock Systems Research Nepal and Indonesia, 17-31
August 1985. International Rice Research Institute, Manila,
Philippines. 668p. (E).
Copies may be obtained from:
Rice Farming Systems Program
International Rice. Research Institute,
P.O. Box 933,
Manila, Philippines.




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3. CROP-LIVESTOCK SYSTEMS IN NEPAL
3.1. General description
Nepal is a small landlocked country, lying between two large and populous countries, India and China. The country has an area of 141,000 sq kin, and a population of more than 16 million. To put this in a West African context, Nepal is about twice the size of Sierra Leone, or Togo, but only one ninth the size of Mali, yet its population is greater than these three countries combined. The climate of Nepal ranges from subtropical to alpine, and is closely correlated with elevation. The "Terai", that is the. southern plain with an altitude of 60-300 metres, repr 'esents 23% of the whole country, but accounts for 52% of its cultivated area. A further 43% of Nepal comprises hills ranging from 300-3000 metres, in which is found about 42% of the nation's cultivated area. While the Himalayas to the north represent 34% of the land area, agriculture in the mountain zone is limited by the topography and climate, and is generally restricted to the grazing of livestock.
Almost 95% of the population of Nepal derive their livelihood directly or indirectly from agriculture, which accounts for 56% of the gross domestic product. A large proportion of the grain production of Nepal comes from the Terai, which is being increasingly settled as communications improve and disease problems are reduced. Much agriculture in the Himalayan foothills is of a subsistence nature, with access to external markets being hampered by the extremely poor communications, with most villages being more than a days walk from the nearest road.
The traditional staple grains of rice and maize are grown in both the Terai and the hills, and wheat is becoming increasingly important, especially in the Teirai. Throughout Nepal, cropping is highly intensive, with very little land left uncultivated and with three crops a year being quite common. Cropping patterns, particularly in the hills, are complex, with risk being reduced by inter-cropping, relay cropping and a large range of crop associations.
Erosion is a particular problem in the hills, and estimates suggest that Nepal loses 1.7 mm of top soil annually, with 240,000,000,000 cubic metres of soil flowing out of country in the swollen rivers every year (Bhattarai, 1986). With increasing deforestation and crop cultivation in the hills, the problem is a major national concern.
Farming systems in Nepal are generally integrated crop-livestock enterprises, with the importance of animals increasing with the higher altitudes. The six million cattle and three million buffaloes are maintained primarily for work and milk, and on average 3.4 large ruminants are owned per household of 5.8 persons (Poudyal, 1986).




-7
National and religious regulations ensure that cattle are not slaughtered for meat production, but surplus male buffaloes may be culled. The national flock of 5.5 million smallruminants comprise mainly goats, and the average ownership is two per household, with larger numbers being found in the hills and mountains. The total number of pigs in the country is less than 500,000. Poultry are relatively few in number, with an average of only three per household, and this is associated with certain socio-cultural taboos.
3.2. Animal traction in Nepal
The majority of the farmers in Nepal use large ruminants for plowing. Both cattle and buffaloes are used, although cattle are more common. To persons unfamiliar with Nepal, it might be assumed that draft animals would be restricted to the relatively flat Terai, but in fact, cattle are used extensively in the hill areas, and they are often used to plow the small te 'rraces on steep hills. -The only part of the country in which fields are never cultivated by draft animals is the Kathmandu Valley, sacred to Lord Shiva, and his bull-form- incarnation, Nandin.
Animals are almost always yoked in pairs, using a withers or shoulder yoke. A simple wooden plow body, with a metal tip, is attached to a long wooden beam, which is tied to the yoke. A single handle is joined to the plow body, and the farmer holds this in one hand, leaving the other hand free to hold reins or a stick. The animals are invariably controlled by just one person, and often, this is accomplished without any system of reins (Figure 6).
By far the most common operation is plowing, and animals plow both upland and swamp fields. To break up the plowed land, simple wooden harrows may be used, or the ground may be reworked with the same plow. In rice swamps, the ground may be levelled and puddled with animals dragging a board, on which the farmer may stand (Figure 1 ) Planting rows may be marked with an animal drawn rake. moldboard plows and steel equipment for use with draft animals are almost unknown in the villages.
Historically animal drawn vehicles have been relatively rare, as there have been few roads in the country. However, in the Terai, locally made ox carts and buffalo carts are becoming common. The fact that carts have not been traditional, means that few artisans have developed the skills of making wooden wheels, and carts often make use of pneumatic tires (Figures 8 and 9). However in the hills animal carts are of little use, as the terrain is steep, and wide tracks or roads are extremely rare.




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3.3. Farming systems research in Nepal
As the Chief Agronomist of the Nepalese Department of Agriculture observed, agricultural research in developing countries often closely follows the fashions of the donor agencies who fund many of the research programs.. Thus during the time that the major agencies favored on-station evaluation of novel genotypes, Nepal undertook trials with Triticale and high protein and high lysine maize. As cropping systems research became fashionable, Nepal started an integrated cereals project, with financial support from USAID. More recently, crop-livestock integration has become popular, and research workers in Nepal are presently looking at farming systems in multi-disciplinary teams in several sites in the different ecological zones of the country (Bhattarai, 1986).
A valuable output of the Integrated Cereals Project, was an excellent publication, illustrated in color, giving an introduction to the methodology and initial results of the cropping systems research program in Nepal (ICP, 1984). The title "Through farmers' eyes" succinctly summarizes the systems research principles of this project.
One of the sites selected for a multi-disciplinary study, was the village of Pumdi Bhumdi, near Pokhara, in the hill region of Nepal. Preliminary reports of the first few months of research have included initial descriptions of the farms (Delobel, Shrestha, Singh and Sayre, 1985) and the socio-economic conditions (Delobel, 1986d), the evaluation of oats as a potential green fodder for buffalo milk production (Singh and Gautam, 1986), and studies on: livestock management (Delobel, 1986c), livestock balance (Shrestha, 1986b), buffalo milk production (Singh and Joshi, 1986), farm economics (Krishna Bahadur, 1986a), farm labor and power (Delobel, 1986b), task partitioning within farming families (Krishna Bahadur, 1986b), bullock power (Shrestha, 1986a), and farmers associations (Delobel, 1986a).
Considerable manpower is being allocated to the studies at Pumdi Bhumdi, in order to increase the researchers' understanding of the complex farming systems of the hill region. While, the farmers and their families are not generally able to express their detailed knowledge in modern farming systems jargon, nor quantify their inputs and outputs in standard international units, they clearly know far more about their own farming systems, and the complex interactions, than do the young research workers. For this reason, the farmers are considered not just as collaborators, but as consultants, whose expert knowledge can save the research team years of study, provided the researchers make full use of the valuable opportunity.
Elsewhere in Nepal, studies have been carried out with a legume (Sesbania spp.), that has successfully increased crop yields when used as a green-manure crop, to fertilize the annual rice-wheat sequence in the Terai (Shrestha, 1986).




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4. CROP-LIVESTOCK SYSTEMS IN INDONESIA
4.1. General description
Indonesia is an archipelago of about 13,000 islands, many of which are tiny and uninhabited,' but others, including Sumatra, Sulawesi, Kalimantan, Irian Jaya and Java, are listed with the world's largest islands. The country spans 5,000 km of ocean, between the mainland of Southeast Asia and northern Australia. The total land area is 1.2 million sq km and the population is about 165 million people, making Indonesia the fifth most populous country in the world. There is a great contrast between the population densities of the various islands, with the island of Java, which represents just 7% of Indonesia's land, supporting about 61% of the country's people. With an average of 690 people per square kilometre, Java is one of the most densely populated areas of the world, and the Indonesian Government is therefore actively promoting the transmigration of people to the less populated -islands.
The climate of Indonesia is generally warm tropical, with an average of 2500 mm of rain falling mainly between September and April. However, there is considerable variation within and between the islands, and many islands have mountain areas which have greater extremes of rainfall and temperature.
Despite the population pressures on the island of Java, in the country as a whole about 62% of the land area is forest and only 11% is under permanent cultivation. Of the cropped area, 9 million hectares are dryland fields, 7 million hectares are wetlands suitable for rice production, and 6 million hectares are planted with perennial crops. About 90 million Indonesians are directly dependant on agriculture, which accounts for 26% of the gross domestic product. Holdings are generally very small. In Java, 43% of farm households (average 4.8 persons) cultivate 0.25 ha or less, and throughout the country 63% of the farm households cultivate less than
0.5 ha (AARD, 1985). Cropping is intensive, and two or three crops a year is normal, particularly on the fertile volcanic soils of Java.
The staple grain is rice, and in recent years Indonesia has become self-sufficient in rice production, with 61% of the production coming from Java. Maize is the second most important crop, followed by cassava, sweet potatoes, groundnuts and beans. Indonesia has a cattle population of about 6.3 million, and 2 million buffaloes, 60% of which are found on the island of Java (Petheram, Thahar and Bernsten, 1985). Small ruminants number about 10 million. As Indonesia is a predominantly Muslim country, few pigs are kept. However fish farming is closely integrated into many farming systems.
Indonesia is the home of the banteng (Bos javanicus), also known as Bali cattle. The banteng is a bovine species that resembles cattle, but is genetically very distinct (NRC, 1983). There are about




- 10
1.5 million banteng in the country, and following normal practice, these have been included in the total "cattle" population.
4.2. Animal traction in Indonesia
The majority of large ruminants in Indonesia are used for work, and estimates put the number of draft cattle at 3.5 million, and the buffaloes used for work at 2 million (Ramaswamy, 1985). Despite the small holdings and high human labor force found in Java, large numbers of working animals are used on this island. Draft cattle, including banteng, are most common in eastern Java, which is drier and which produces more maize. Draft animals are seldom used in the steep upland areas.
Animals are generally used in pairs, yoked with a shoulder or withers yoke, (Figure 10), although some buffaloes are used singly in West Java. Indonesian farmers use both male and female draft animals, and they seldom castrate bulls or milk working cows (Petheram et al., 1985). The main operation is the plowing of rice and maize fields, using two passes of a traditional plow. In addition, swamp rice areas are puddled and levelled with two passes of a rake or levelling board.
The implements are made in the villages, primarily of wood, with shares, and sometimes moldboards, made of steel (Figure 12). A long wooden beam connects the plow body to the yoke, and a single wooden handle is used to control the implement. Whether or not reins are used, only one person works with the draft animals (Figure 11). As more people wish to use draft animals than own them, the borrowing or hiring of animals is quite common.
While both cattle and buffalo carts are used in some villages, horses are the preferred species for pulling carts on both urban and rural roads. Cattle and buffaloes are also used to drive sugar cane mills (Petheram et al., 1985).
4.3. Farming systems research in Indonesia
The Agency for Agricultural Research and Development (AARD) of the Ministry of Agriculture is undertaking both component research and farming systems research in many parts of Indonesia (AARD, 1985). In the islands of Sumatra and Sulawesi, studies are being carried out at the various settlement schemes of the transmigration program (Pandang, Maamun, Bahar, Prastowo, Felizardo and Corpuz, 1986: Pandang, Bahar. Felizardo and Corpuz,1986). Unlike the highly populated islands of Java and Bali, these schemes are characterized by the relative abundance of land, and farms in which trees, shrubs and the presence of stumps restrict the rate of adoption of animal traction. The fact that many settled farmers have not previously




used draft animals, leads to close parallels with some settlement schemes in the forest-fringe and Guinea-savannah areas of West Africa. As land can be allocated both to individual farmers and to the new village communities, there is much scope for defining the grazing needs of draft animals early in the settlement program, and this can be critical to the success of animal power development, and community relations, in the new areas.
On the island of Java, the Research Institute for, Animal Production at Bogor, is undertaking several crop-livestock research studies, including one in cooperation with CWMDC at Ciamis (Prawiradiputra and Kusnadi, 1986: CWMDC, 1983). This latter involves increasing erosion control measures and forage production in a hilly area, where cassava is a major crop (Figure 15). It has been found that improved terrace designs (bench terraces and ridge terraces) can reduce soil losses and increase overall forage production (including crop residues) from as little as 2 tonnes fresh weight per hectare under traditional systems, to 12 t/ha. While cattle are used for land preparation in some parts of the area of the studies, few large ruminants are maintained high in the hills, and here forage is used for feeding sheep and goats. On-going studies involve the evaluation, in cooperation with local farmers, of the legume shrubs Leucaena leucocephala and Calliandra callothyrsus for erosion control, fuel-wood and livestock feed. The role of fish farming within the hill-farming systems is also -being studied.
On the island of Bali, crop-livestock research is being undertaken by the Faculty of Animal Husbandry of the Udayana University (Nitis, Lana and Suarna, 1986). The banteng, or Bali cattle, are important for both work purposes and meat production on Bali, which contains areas of relatively infertile and rocky calcareous soils. Research, therefore, is focusing on intensifying the "cattle" production through stall feeding and the use of three "strata" of forages, comprising grass-legume mixtures, shrubs and trees. A six year trial is being undertaken in cooperation with 26 local farmers. The objective is to allow farmers to prolong the natural season of forage availability, through the use of forage trees and shrubs. During the rainy season, and the start of the dry season, a grass-legume mixture dominated by Cenchrus ciliaris, Panicum maximum, Styloanthes guyanensis and Centrocema pubescense, is intended to provide sufficient forage for zero-grazing up to 4 banteng per hectare. As the dry season develops, increasing use is to be made of branches harvested from shrub hedges planted around the fields, as seen in Figure 17. Leucaena leucocephala and Gliricidia sepium are being evaluated as the shrub legumes. Towards the end of the dry season, branches will be cut from the forage tree, which include: Ficus poocelie, Lannea corromandilica and Hibiscus tilliceus. The long-term study will involve many variables, including forage species, associated cash-crop species, stocking densities and field topography. Routine measurements will include monthly weighings of Banteng and feed sampling for quantity and quality.




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5. LESSONS FROM FIELD VISITS
5.1. The intensity of agricultural production
Inevitably there are numerous contrasts between the agricultural systems of Nepal and Indonesia, and those of West Africa. However the most striking is the intensity of the farming systems. This was particularly apparent in the farm sites visited in Nepal and Java. The farms visited in Sumatra were more like those in comparable rainfall areas of West Africa, as they had similar crop densities and made use of bush-fallow in the rotation. In Nepal and Java, it appeared that every portion of land was being cultivated, often with several crops. Thus even the small bunds in rice fields were planted with legumes and tubers. Around the homesteads (Figure 4) were planted complex associations of a wide range of vegetables and root crOPB.. Large and small ruminants were maintained through carefully controlled grazing, often on steep slopes, or by stall feeding. The overall impression can well be summed up by an amusing remark made towards the end of a. four-hour coach journey, from Kathmandu to Pokhara, during which the- farming patterns being observed were described and discussed. A member of the tour simply pointed out "Look, there, at last, is a square metre that is not being farmed!". In fact the small portion being referred to, turned out to be a little outcrop of solid rock, reinforcing the point that almost all land, including that of the road verges, was being-used for agricultural purposes. While there may be major differences in soil fertility and population pressures') between the farms viewed in Asia and those familiar in West Africa, the major lesson appeared to be that where land is a scarce resource, the potential for intensive associations of crops and livestock can be effectively exploited by the small farmers.
5.2. Terraced hillsides.
In the hills of Nepal and in Java, the majority of the hillsides have been terraced, to allow crops to be grown on remarkably steep slopes. Slopes on which it is difficult for a person to stand have been cut into steps, thus increasing the surface area, the water retention and the ease of crop cultivation (Figure 15). The terraces also make it easier for animals to be used for land preparation, although on steep slopes the terraces have to be narrow, and the manoeuvring of a pair of oxen becomes difficult. The terracing reinforces the impression of highly intensive agriculture, and the making use of every portion of land. It would be expected that many West African farmers would marvel at this system of hill farming, but would understand that the enormous labor requirement to create and maintain terraces, is only likely to be justified if available farm land is a very scarce resource.




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5.3. Erosion
Associated with the farming on very steep slopes is the problem of erosion. This has become a major cause of concern for both farmers and governments. The dramatic effects of erosion can be seen in disintegrating terraces, dramatic gullys and silt-laden rivers. At the local level, villages can lose both houses and fields in landslides. At the national level, the potential for water harnessing is reduced by the inevitability of dams silting up rapidly. However at the field level' the problem is diminishing fertility through loss of topsoil. The concentrated grazing of livestock on higher slopes can increase the mechanical breakdown of soil structure, and lead to greater runoff onto the terraced fields. However, the stall-feeding of ruminants with forest leaves can also increase erosion if it leads to further deforestation. Livestock can also be implicated in erosion through damage to terrace bunds, for example when oxen are moving between terraces before or after plowing.
Although erosion is clearly important in Nepal and Indonesia, the West African observer is probably more likely to be impressed by the considerable degree of erosion control achieved by the farmers. Through the -use of terraces and bunds, farmers are able to farm very steep slopes, year after year. Naturally this requires careful maintenance, and the farmers achieve this using a variety of crops, including cassava. This produces both harvestless tubers, and woody stems that can be woven into the terrace banks. plowing of sloping land, is generally very limited, as slopes are usually landscaped into terraces. Thus while hill-farming will almost inevitably be linked to some form of erosion, the Asian farmers have developed numerous ways of limiting the seriousness of this.
5.4. Stall feeding
Closely associated with the intensity of the agriculture and the integration of crop and livestock production in Nepal and Indonesia, is the common practice of stall feeding buffaloes, cattle, sheep and goats, particularly during the peak crop-growing seasons. In Nepal, it is common to see women and men carrying large bundles of harvested fodder on their backs (Figure 5). This is often cut from the bunds between rice fields, on which it would be impossible for animals to graze, without damaging the crops. This therefore allows animals to be maintained on small, intensively cropped holdings, and ensures that even weeds growing among the crops can be harvested, and put to productive use. While stall feeding results in a lower labor requirement for supervising animal grazing, or constructing fences, which is a clear advantage, this has to be balanced against the labor required to harvest and carry the forage. Farmers consider the concentration of manure in the stalls to be one of the major benefits




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of the stall-feeding system, as this allows the farmer to distribute the vital manure to the most important fields. Few animals are stall fed all the year, and animals are generally encouraged to graze crop residues after harvest.
5.5. Use of fodder trees
Related to the common practise of stall feeding ruminants is the considerable use of fodder derived from trees. In the hill farms of Nepal crop-livestock-forestry interactions are particularly strong, and often at least half of the food of ruminants comes from trees. In some areas the animals are allowed to browse in the forest areas for part of the year,. before being brought to the homesteads during the plowing and crop cultivation seasons, where they may be stall fed. Cut branches of forest trees may be harvested to feed the animals, with the choicest leaves being reserved for milking animals (usually buffaloes), the -second quality for the working animals and the balance for the remaining livestock. Farmers plant traditional fodder trees around their houses, with Artocarpus lakoocha (related to jakfruit and breadfruit), being one of the most popular species. This agroforestry is being actively encouraged by the appropriate government departments, for forage trees provide three important requirements, which are often scarce in the villages: animal forage, firewood and a degree of erosion control. Thus emphasis is being placed on government extension services building on traditional agroforestry systems, to improve both animal nutrition and fuel wood provision while reversing the tendency towards deforestation.
5.6. Manure utilization
In Nepal, farmers seem particularly aware of the importance of manure and the close association of trees, crops and livestock. The use of the manure from both large and small ruminants for maintaining or increasing yields is an integral component of farm management. To maximize its value, manure is carefully collected, stored and distributed. During the fallow season, temporary sheds are constructed in the fallow fields, in order to ensure both that the animals are close to the areas being grazed, and that manure does not have to be carried large distances. In some cases straw bedding is provided to absorb the urine and conserve the manure, although frequently the straw is reserved for animal feed. It is recognized that by using fodder trees, resources from the forests can benefit the crops, through the medium of the farm animals and manure.
5.7. Communal grazing
Associated with the close integration of crops and livestock is the strict management of grazing areas at village level. In both Nepal




and Indonesia, it is common for villages to set aside specific areas for grazing. This allows easier supervision of animals, and helps to protect the crop fields from accidental damage. In a transmigration settlement scheme visited in Sumatra, the allocation of communal land for the grazing of draft cattle and other livestock was an early priority of the village associations. While such village cooperation might seem unremarkable, there have been many cases in West Africa where the lack of agreement on grazing arrangements has inhibited the adoption of draft animals or restricted the integration of crop and livestock systems.
5.8. Plow designs
The plows seen in Nepal and Indonesia had several features in common, that are not- observed in West Africa. Most importantly they are relatively cheap, being made in the villages, primarily from local materials. While it is difficult to put an exact price on the implements, it would be of the order of $10, which is less than one tenth of the cost of a plow in West Africa.
The plows are made mainly of wood, with steel being used only for the share (Figure 7), and sometimes for the moldboard as well (Figure 12). The plows are made by village artisans, and even the metal components are made in the villages, using scrap steel. In some cases, there is no moldboard, and the plow breaks up he soil without inverting it, while in other areas, a simple steel moldboard is included in the design.
A long pole connects the plow body to the yoke, and this acts in a similar way to the beam and chain of West African plows. This helps to keep the cost down. The pole connection does not allow for adjustments, once the pole is tied to the yoke, but reasonable control can be achieved through the single wooden handle.
The plowing quality is not up to that of a well adjusted moldboard plow, but is similar to that observed in many fields in West Africa. Two passes of the plow are often required for adequate soil preparation and weed control.
5.9. Yokes and other equipment
Yokes observed were all of a simple withers (or shoulder) design, and were of very simple construction (Figures 6 and 9). In this respect they were similar to those used in several parts of West Africa. Although controversy surrounds the relative merits of neck yokes (widely used in West Africa and Latin America) and withers/shoulder yokes (widely used in East Africa and Asia), no evidence was obtained during field visits or discussions that contradicted the assumption




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that both systems can be used efficiently. However an extremely unpleasant case of yoke gall observed in Nepal, illustrated the potential problems that can be caused when withers yokes are allowed to rub the skin.
For puddling rice fields, farmers use a simple wooden rake, on which they may stand to increase the weight, as illustrated in Figure 1. Like the plow, the puddling rake is joined to the yoke by a wooden beam, rather than by a chain. The implement is very cheaply and clearly effective.
The use of muzzles for working animals is common in both Nepal and Indonesia. These are woven from lightweight flexible twigs, or from bamboo, and can be seen in Figure 11. They are attached by a simple string around the head, and prevent the animals from eating crops on the-way to the field of operation. It would seem that such a clearly visible means of restricting crop damage, can play an important role in maintaining good relations between neighbors in a village.
5.10. Control of working animals
In Nepal and Indonesia, working animals are invariably controlled by just one person, as can be seen in the various illustrations. In Nepal, animals are often used without nose ropes or reins (Figures 1 and 6), and the basis for control is verbal commands, and the tap of a stick when necessary. Nose ropes and simple reins are -sometimes used in Nepal (Figure 8), and are common in Indonesia (Figures 10 and 13). When reins are used, they generally pass back to the farmers between the animals, rather than on the outside of the pair. The system of control differs greatly from that found in West Africa where it is very rare to see draft animals controlled by just one person. In West Africa, even when the animals are fitted with nose rings and full reins, it is usual to have at least two people working with draft animals. It is interesting to note that in Ethiopia, where draft animals have been used for centuries, farmers also use long-beam wooden plows and control the animals with one person. Although the control by one person in both Asia and Ethiopia is associated with the use of a long-beam plow, it is also correlated with longstanding traditions of working with animals, and present farmers have been brought up with the universally accepted premise that pairs of animals can be effectively controlled by one person. It is considered that this socio-cultural factor is likely to be more important than any technical differences between the equipment and harnessing systems used in Asia and Africa.
5.11. Use of cattle in swamp conditions
Figure 1 shows cattle puddling a rice swamp in Nepal. Both cattle and buffalo-are used for rice cultivation in Nepal and Indonesia, and




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also in most other countries in southeast Asia. Persons outside this region generally assume that the water buffalo is the animal primarily used for swamp cultivation, but this is not the case. Both cattle and buffalo appear able to work regularly in rice swamps, without major health problems. Certainly buffaloes are well adapted to swamp conditions, having large feet, slow movements and a predilection for wet conditions, and they are often preferred for swamp rice production. However cattle are also used regularly for plowing and puddling swamps, and as there are many more draft cattle than working buffaloes, cattle actually cultivate more rice swamps than do buffaloes. Thus while Asian farmers have been exposed to the merits (and demerits) of buffaloes for centuries, the majority have continued to use cattle for draft work. It would seem that this should be borne in mind when considering whether to continue attempts to introduce water buffaloes in Africa.
5.12. Banteng or Bali cattle
Banteng (Bos javanicus) are known as Bali cattle, and in color and size resemble the N'Dama cattle of West Africa (Figure 14). However they have characteristic (almost antelope-like) features, including distinct white rumps. Interestingly, the rufous color of females and calves, is lost in bulls, which become black after puberty, but which revert to rufous if castrated. About 1.1 million banteng are kept in Indonesia, and on the tour they were seen in both Sumatra and Bali. While a distinct species, they can be crossed with Bos indicus and Bos taurus, and so, to preserve their genetic identity, they are the only species of "cattle" allowed on the island of Bali. Banteng are used as draft animals in both upland and swamp conditions, and a pair of young animals carrying a plow to the field is shown in Figure 13. Banteng, and their stabilized hybrid known as Madura cattle, are also used in a form of chariot racing, and can attain remarkable speeds. On the island of Bali, banteng are raised for both work and meat, and during on-farm trials have achieved impressive weight gains at a stocking rate of four per hectare on rocky, shallow calcareous soils.
5.13. Waste disposal and fish farming
An interesting form of integrated farming was observed in Indonesia, where fish ponds are very common. In addition to receiving vegetative matter, such as banana leaves, the fishponds are used for disposal of human wasteproducts. Thus, as illustrated in Figure 16, the fish ponds are provided with a screened platform, which are used as latrines or toilets. This allows human wastes to be productively recycled, although the system would seem to have implications for possible recycling of human diseases as well.




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6. LESSONS FROM THE TOUR ORGANIZATION
6.1. Itinerary
The logistics of organizing such a tour would seem to be daunting. Nevertheless about forty participants from ten countries, travelled over 4,500 km, and in the process took six plane flights, ten coach journeys and changed accommodation nine times. This was entirely in addition to the various international arrival and departure journeys. That this was successfully undertaken, without major problems or complaints, and with very little wasted time, says a great deal for the IRRI coordinators and the national programs in Nepal and Indonesia. All who took part in the tour praised the effectiveness of the organization. The participants from African countries were particularly impressed, as all had previously experienced more problems during simple workshops involving just one field visit.
'"In many ways, by fixing such a tight schedule, the organizers ensured that all logistical arrangements had to be made perfectly, and that timekeeping was adhered to by all participants, for the consequences of a major delay at any point were clear to all. This meant that field visits could not be delayed at all, even if the weather was inappropriate.
By undertaking such extensive travelling, the participants were able to see many more ecosystems than would have been possible on a less ambitious itinerary. However this advantage was partially offset by the fact that everyone was tired by the travelling, and with so much time spent in transit, opportunities for detailed discussions were reduced. In general, the participants were happy with the balance achieved, and were happy to have had the opportunity to see so many sites of farming research.
The host projects were all pleased to have received the tour, as the visits gave valuable opportunities for external comments and evaluation. The necessity to present their work to experts from other countries encouraged the projects to undertake constructive internal reassessments of priorities and this was considered very helpful. As the members of host projects joined in the tour activities for one or more days, the limited time of each field visit was not too disappointing, as people were able to discuss the research activities and farming systems during subsequent activities. It is suggested that should any comparable tour or activity be organized in West Africa, the key members of host projects should also join the tour for a minimum of one day.




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6.2. The balance of tour activities.
Overall, the fourteen days involved four days of plenary presentations, one and a half days of group discussions, three and a half days of field visits and five days of travelling. Some of the travelling by road through unfamiliar farming systems was constructive, while the air travel was merely a necessity. Given the problems of travelling in Nepal and Indonesia, the relative allocation of time was appropriate, although had it been technically possible to exchange one of the three days in Kathmandu, for a plenary session in Sumatra or Java, this would have achieved a better balance. The organizers tried to combine field visits and plenary sessions in the same day. When the day started with a formal session and continued with a field visit, this was successful. Less satisfactory were the briefing presentations during field visits. It was observed that once a field visit commenced, the participants attitude changed markedly, and levels of concentration dropped significantly. Thus even well-prepared briefing sessions at project headquarters were of limited value, and this was often exacerbated by rooms not suited to holding large groups. It is therefore suggested that, wherever possible, briefings for field visits should be given during a plenary session, when concentration is generally at a high level.
6.3. Field Visits
As noted above, the level of concentration on field visits was inevitably below that of plenary sessions. In addition, when no longer confined by walls, the participants spread out$ as individuals started examining (and photographing) the features of the farming system of greatest interest to them. In such circumstances, explanations became very difficult both to give and to hear, and as a result, a great deal was often missed. However, in Ciamis, Java, this problem was solved through the use of a portable amplifier, used in conjunction with some cordless microphones. Using this system, participants, spread out over an extensive hill-farming research site, could hear a valuable commentary, even while they were examining something, or taking photographs, some distance away. Similarly, it was possible to obtain a nearby microphone, and ask a question to the site research worker, even when he was some way away. Had such a system been available during other field visits, the increased information exchange and benefits would have been substantial. Considering the relatively low cost of such a portable amplifier and cordless microphones, in comparison to the huge overhead costs of any workshop, it is suggested that such a System should be considered a prerequisite for a profitable field visit involving many people.




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6.4. Plenary Sessions
In all formal sessions, the time keeping by" the tour organizers, participants, invited. guests, speakers and chairpersons was good. In some cases speakers read their papers, and this was unfortunate, although understandable, as for many English was not a language regularly used. It was universally agreed that people benefited when the papers were circulated the day before presentation. Unfortunately, not all papers. were available for circulation to participants, as their reproduction was the responsibility of the individual speakers. This was disappointing, and while photocopying charges can mount up, they are small compared with the whole cost of the tour. Thus it might have been preferable had some arrangements been made to reproduce papers during tiie tour.
With the notable exception of the staff of IRRI, visual materials tended to be poorly presented. In particular, slides and overhead transparencies frequently contained too much information to be assimilated in the available time. There was no use of flip-charts, which can often help both the speaker and audience in following logical sequences and in summarizing a presentation.
It was specifically requested that questions and answers be recorded for the final report, and for this reason papers were issued to participants for recording their questions and comments. This was not highly successful, and rapporteurs might have been more able to summarize discussions. In general, both the speaker and the questioner are too busy with the public discussion to record their contributions at the time, and yet, if not recorded immediately, their points may be forgotten. A further point raised by one of the discussion groups was that participants generally tried to combine comments and a question, with a result that neither were clear. In such circumstances, a brief comment followed by a specific brief question, might be preferable.




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7. LESSONS FROM PLENARY SESSIONS AND GROUP DISCUSSIONS
7.1. Research methodology
7.1.1. General
Crop-livestock systems research methodology was one of the subjects for group discussion, and the practical implications of research methodologies were frequently discussed during the field visits. It was recognized that there is often a major conflict between the research workers' desire for quantifiable and statistically significant data, and the difficulties (and costs), for the farmers and the researchers, in collecting large quantities of reliable information. The general conclusion was that research should be aimed at achieving an understanding of crop-livestock systems, and interactions, and working with farmers to assess possible options. Thus methodologies should be chosen on the basis that the overall reaction of farming families to a technology or system should be considered more critical than statistically significant figures. In this way, techniques relating to rapid appraisal, though inevitably somewhat subjective, may be more valuable than detailed data collection. It appeared that all research workers were aware of the dangers of collecting more data than could be processed easily and most had existing stockpiles of data awaiting analysis at that utopian time in the future when work pressures will diminish. The. general feeling was that farmers involved in research studies should be inconvenienced as little as possible, but that their own techniques for assessing components of their systems should be used as far as possible. The concept of the farmer as consultant advising on the research appears to be useful.
Crop-livestock research generally involves the initial description of farming systems and their interactions, and the subsequent evaluation of potential improvements to the systems. It was agreed that wherever possible, the farmers should be provided with a "menu" or "basket" of potential improvements, so that the experience and expertise of the farmer can be harnessed from the outset, in the choice of the change in the system that is evaluated.
While it is not practicable to report in detail all the aspects of crop-livestock systems research that were covered during the tour, some specific examples will be provided that seem to be particularly relevant to animal traction research and development programs in West Africa
7.1.2.2 Assessment of draft power
The most important and ultimate assessment of animal power is simply the ability of the animal, or animals, to perform all the work




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required of them during the farming year, while making use only of resources that are both available and affordable. This assessment can be made by farmers, without the need for any measuring devices.
Instantaneous draft power can be measured using dynamometers, which may be spring-type, hydraulic or load-cell. While these can measure the draft at any given time, they do not by themselves give an accurate assessment of the rate of work, which is particularly important. Combined with simple tapes and watches, a general idea of short-term work-rate can be obtained, but.care has to be exercised in using such information, as it may not be representative of the actual work performed over a longer period of time. Complicated data-loggers that measure draft, distance and time have been developed at the Centre for Tropical Veterinary Medicine, at the University of Edinburgh, but these are too complex for most on-farm evaluation work in developing countries.. Such measuring devices may be particularly useful in basic, component research on equipment design, when absolute or comparative implement draft may be essential information.
In farming systems research, draft power has to be assessed over weeks and months, rather than hours or days, and absolute measurements may be of limited value as farmers are. generally able to judge the performance of.their animals, and also identify the key constraints to animal power (such as feed availability or animal size). In particular, although research workers like to measure the relative power of different breeds and species, there seems little value in instantaneous or short-term measurements. Different breeds should be compared in a holistic way in the villages, based on their ability to perform effectively for the whole farm year, using the available resources.
It is possible that economic criteria could be usefully combined to judge the effectiveness of farm power, and that an assessment of timeliness might be more appropriate than figures derived from dynamometer readings. The various economic and social costs and benefits of plowing, harrowing, seeding and weeding at different rates and times might provide a valuable comparison of different farm power technologies, particularly as these are likely to be the criteria on which farmers base their own decisions.
7.1.3. Measuring the weight of cattle
In many studies relating to draft animals and cattle, it seems desirable to accurately record the weight of animals, as weight changes may accurately reflect changes in feed intake, feed quality, work and production. However the logistical problems of accurately weighing large animals in on-farm trials are formidable. The weight of a large ruminant at any one time is greatly affected by changes in




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gut fill from grazing and drinking. Such variations often exceed monthly changes in starved body weight. Thus, unless weight measurements are made under standard conditions (e.g. in early morning after a night without food and water), the underlying body changes may not be distinguishable from daily variations.
For accurate estimates of weight, some form of weighing implement has to be used. Transportable scales may be used, if the financial resources, labor and vehicles are available. Researchers should be aware that even weighing scales provided with wheels can cause many transportation problems on village tracks. When roads are poor (which is normally the case in villages), portable bars containing load cells may be preferred. Such systems use a car battery as a power source, and they can be calibrated on-site, with a locally constructed animal crate, but there always remains the problem of ensuring the animals enter the crates peacefully.
Given the practical problems and expense of weighing equipment, it is appropriate to consider the use of heart-girth measurements. Heart girth correlates closely with body weight, and regressions valid for any specific breed can be obtained if scales and a representative animal population is available. Heart-girth measurement is subject to significant variation between different operators and individual measurements are not highly accurate. Nevertheless, weighing bands can provide a cheap assessment of general weight trends, if used at monthly or bimonthly intervals.
In view of. the time consuming and possibly disruptive procedures required to obtain weight measurements, and the limited reliability of the results, researchers should seriously consider whether, or not, accurate measurements are essential. In many cases a condition score may be more appropriate. Farmers themselves are constantly monitoring the condition of their animals, and may be able to help with developing scoring systems. Meat traders generally have years of professional experience of accurately assessing the weight and condition of animals, and their unmatched and highly appropriate skills could well be used in research trials.
7.1.4. Measuring feed intake
It appears universally agreed, by those with practical experience, that collecting reliable data on feed intake of draft animals, or other large livestock, during on-farm monitoring is extremely difficult. In the circumstances, accurate measurement of feed intake is probably seldom justified when working with farmers, as such data collection is more suited to the more controlled conditions of research stations. A general, overall monitoring of seasonal changes in feed supply and quality may be appropriate for many farming systems studies. Such general, and possibly subjective,




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observations, combined with condition scoring and farmer assessment, may be the most cost-effective way of judging the effectiveness of a particular feeding regime.
7.2. Research and extension teams
Participants on the tour all appreciated the value of multi-disciplinary teams, provided that adequate leadership was apparent. It was also recognized that combining research and extension was particularly valuable. This tended to result in the adoption of less rigorous research methods, but overall research quality was generally improved by the more realistic outlook. The value of regular meetings of the research team with-farmers was stressed. While most research teams had regular staff meetings, few met regularly with farmers. The case of the Lumle Agricultural Centre in Nepal was of particular interest, as the multi-disciplinary Lumle research and extension team undertakes walking treks to farm sites. Due to the nature of the terrain, these treks take several days, and provide a most valuable opportunity for exchanges between the team members, and the farmers. Just as the international research and monitoring tour provided a useful opportunity for people of different backgrounds to exchange experience and observe on-farm conditions, so within-country tours can lead to greater information exchange, and provide reminders to the team of the real constraints of the small farmers.
7.3. Lessons from Burma, China and the Philippines
During informal discussions, it was learned that farmers in Burma have developed a very simple, yet very effective, chaff-cutter. This is used primarily for chopping rice straw and green fodder to enhance its palatability and so increase the feed intake of working oxen, milking cattle or small ruminants. The design is illustrated in Figures 18 and 19, provided by Dr. S. Palis (Palis, 1985). A mild steel chopping blade is provided with upward lift through a sprung pole, while downward cutting strokes are powered by the operator's foot. The system is ingenious and efficient, particularly as it allows the farmer to keep both hands free to manipulate the straw. It is extremely simple and cheap, and it has been thoroughly proven by years of village construction, use and maintenance. Such a tool could be usefully introduced into West Africa, and might be included in research programs related to fodder conservation or feed quality enhancement.
The Agricultural Research Institute in Burma, in cooperation with IRRI, has been undertaking research studies on the use of single buffaloes. Traditionally pairs of animals are used in Burma, and cattle are more commonly used than buffaloes. In addition design




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studies have been undertaken on a simple swamp plow, with a beam made from water pipe. While such research is in a pilot stage, the preliminary reports may be of interest to projects in West Africa which use animals for swamp rice cultivation (Palis, Swe and Shin, 1983 a, 1983 b).
Although there are millions of draft animals in use in China, the researchers participating in the tour were primarily involved in other crop-livestock associations. While not of direct relevance to West African animal traction programs, the highly integrated and intensive systems being used and studied in China were of great interest. These include crop-hog-fish systems and the use of smaller livestock, such as geese and rabbits. Interactions in such systems are complex, particularly when manure is used both for biogas production and for mushroom cultivation, with the residues being recycled through both fish-ponds and fields (Leng, Shen, Miu and Liu, 1986: Congyi and Junyao, 1986).
In the Philippines, draft buffaloes are a major source of farm power, and they are generally used singly. They are very often stall-fed, particularly in the crop-growing season. Rice straw, weeds from the crops, and grass from field bunds are a major source of the feed of working animals, and this is often supplemented with the legume shrub Leucaena leucocephala. There has been recent work in the Philippines on the use of banana residues for feeding working oxen, buffaloes, milking animals and small ruminants. While banana plants produce a large quantity of. leaf and pseudo-stem, which is certainly edible by ruminants, the very high water content (and therefore weight) of the stems makes stall feeding management difficult, as a large weight has to be carried (even with an ox cart) for relatively little nutritional benefit. However, if banana stems are to be used, the use of Leucaena is clearly beneficial There is a suggestion that cattle are better able to digest banana residues than buffaloes (Sanchez, Gerona and Anduyan, 1986; Gerona, Posas, Barrientos and Jaya, 1986).
Other research in the Philippines has included case-history studies on the economics of mixed farms, on fattening cattle and buffaloes using rice straw, farm weeds and Leucaena leucocephala, on the importance of appropriate animal marketing in village economies, and on rice-duck production systems (Calub and Mariano, 1986: Mariano, Calub, Tacal, and Alegre, 1986: Godilano, 1986)).




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8. CONCLUSIONS
8.1. Farms and farming systems
While there are great social, economic, cultural and historical differences between Asia and West Africa, there are many similarities between the farming systems of the two regions. Thus there are many valuable lessons that can be learned from the farmers of Asia by research and development workers in West Africa. Among these are:
Animal traction can be profitably used in highly intensive
farms of small area, even when population pressures are high.
Expensive metal plows are not a prerequisite for successful animal traction. Effective cultivation can be achieved using
simple wooden plows made in villages.
Where free-range grazing may result in 'Crop damage, work oxen
or milking animals can be effectively zero grazed.
Alternatively, villages can allocate special lands for grazing
purposes.
Forage trees can provide a valuable contribution to the feeding
of draft animals and other ruminants, while at the same time
aBBiBting in erosion control and fuel wood production.
8.2. Animal traction and farming systems research
Farmers should be involved in the planning, monitoring and evaluation of farming systems research. They know far more about their own farming systems than do the research workers, although they may not be able to express their knowledge in terms used by scientists. Nevertheless, if farmers are given the opportunity to act "as consultants" in the research, progress will be faster, and less time will be wasted in "discovering" that which the farmers already know.
In order to save time and money in collecting and analysing large quantities of data, researchers should carefully ascertain which parameters are of greatest importance to the studies and to the farmers. It may be that farmer assessment of these parameters will be more easily obtainable and more meaningful than the technical measurements conventionally used on research stations. Thus in certain circumstances, farmers" own assessment of the condition and working ability of draft animals may be more appropriate than attempting to use mobile scales and dynamometers in the villages.
Farming systems research can only be undertaken if sufficient funds are made available by agricultural planners, decision makers and representatives of funding agencies. Such people will be favourably influenced by clear and attractive technical reports, such as




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Through farmers' eyes (ICP, 1984). The production of a comparable publication relating to animal traction research in West Africa would be most valuable.
8.3. Multi-disciplinary tours
Within multi-disciplinary teams, individual research workers tend to implement their own studies in relative isolation. Even weekly or monthly meetings can have minimal effects on broadening the perspectives of different staff members and team leaders if they are held in the atmosphere of administrative or technical headquarters. Thus within research and development programs there is much advantage to be gained from regular group visits or "treks" to the villages and farmers' fields. The* enforced realism of such visits allows research objectives to be clarified and the perspective ("through farmers' eyes") allows priorities to be defined. If animal traction programs in West Africa were to adopt this system of group tours of villages, this might stimulate more constructive multi-disciplinary exchanges and a healthy reassessment, with the farmers, of overall research priorities.
An itinerant workshop such as this one has much to commend it provided the logistical arrangements are implemented efficiently. If such a tour had involved long delays or inconveniences the constructive atmosphere would have been lost, and the activity become a nightmare of complaints and frustration. Thus such, a large and ambitious tour should not be lightly undertaken in West Africa. However a similar approach involving visits to several sites interspersed with group discussions might be usefully adopted as one of the activities of an animal traction or farming systems network.
8.4. Inter-network exchanges
The exchange of information and experiences between the Asian Farming Systems Network and the West African Integrated Livestock Systems Network was felt at the time to be mutualljv beneficial. The long-term benefits of such an exchange will depend on how the experiences of the individual participants are shared with others, and on how they help to strengthen animal traction and crop-livestock research in West Africa and Asia. The production and publication of this report is intended as one mechanism for facilitating the diffusion of the experience. This will be complemented by audiovisual presentations at network meetings and informal technical discussions. In this way it is envisaged the links established will not simply be between the individuals, but between the two networks. These links should be maintained and further strengthened and reciprocal participation in workshops and monitoring tours together with the exchange of documents should be encouraged.




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IRRI, 1986. Report of Second Crop-Livestock Systems Research
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Krishna Bahadur, K. C. 1986 (a). Initial six month results of
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Krishna Bahadur, K. C., 1986 (b). Initial six months results of
monitoring the partition of the tasks inside the household at Pumdi
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Leng, H., Shen, S., Miu, Z. and Liu, Y. 1986. Crop-livestock
systems in a hilly country, its present and future. Paper presented
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Limcangco-Lopez, P. D. 1986. Livestock feed technology for small
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Mariano, E. P., Calub, A. D., Tacal, E. N., and Alegre, A. 1986. A
case study of a rice-based multi-crop farm in Vigan, Ilocos Sur,
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N.R.C. 1983. Little-known Asian animals with a promising future.
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Ndimande, B. N. and Avila, M. 1986. The farming systems research model
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Nitis, I. M., Lana, K., and Suarna, M., 1986. Three strata system
for cattle feeds and feeding in dryland farming area in Bali,
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of one work animal, a team of two work animals and an 8.5 HP power
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Pandang, M. S., Bahar, F. A., Felizardo, B. C., and Corpuz, I. T.,
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and Corpuz, I. T., 1986. Survey of some farming systems in the
transmigration areas of southeast Sulawesi, Indonesia. pp. 571-582 in: Proceedings of the 2nd Monitoring Tour Crop-Livestock Systems
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Prawiradiputra, B. R., and Kusnadi, U., 1986. Progress and plans for
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Poats, S. V., Lichte, J., Oxley, J., Russo, S. L. and Starkey, P. H.
1986. Animal traction in a farming systems perspective. Report
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Support Project. University of Florida, USA. (in press). (E,F).
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Singh, B. K., and Gautam, Y. P. 1986. Oat cultivation and its use as a
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Philippines. 17pp. (mimeo). (E).




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10. PAPERS PRESENTED BY THE WEST AFRICAN PARTICIPANTS
10.1. ANIMAL TRACTION IN TOGO
Written by P. Starkey and K. Apetofia, and presented by K. Apetofia.
Agroclimatic typology and livestock resources
Togo is a small West African country (56,000 km2) extending 700 km north from the port of Lome, with an average of only 80 km between its western boundary with Ghana and its eastern frontier with Benin. The climate is Sudano-Guinean, with a marked contrast between the northern half of the country, which has one rainy season and seven months drought, and the south which has two distinct rainy seasons. The staple foods are maize, sorghum, yams and cassava, intercropped in a traditional rainfed bush-fallow system, in which a fallow period of 3-5 years is now common. Some rice growing is being promoted in irrigation schemes. The human population is about three million.
Trypanosomiasis risk and tick challenge range from low in the north to high in the south. 80% of the national herd of 225,000 cattle are trypanotolerant taurines, although there is often an admixture with zebu genes, particularly in the north. Only one quarter of the national herd is found in the southern half of the country. Cattle ownership is very limited and is concentrated in the minority Peul/Fulani ethnic group. It is common for cattle owners of other tribes to entrust their cattle to Peul/Fulani herders who are then completely responsible for their management. Traditionally, cattle are not closely associated with crop farms, and they obtain all their feed from grazing natural pasture on fallow land. Cattle weight losses during the dry season can be considerable.
Previous project influences
Animal traction was first introduced on a small scale between 1908 and 1913, but very few farmers adopted the technology. During the 1960s, several small projects tried to extend the use of draft animals, but with limited success. However the technology spread a little in the north, partly due to the influence of farmers from neighboring Ghana, Burkina Faso and Benin. In the early 1970s small government-backed projects to promote animal traction included assistance from Peace Corps Volunteers. After disappointing experiences with tractorization schemes, the Government started to place major emphasis on the development of draft animal power in 1978.




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Socio-economic and ecological factors affecting animal traction
Few crop farmers own cattle or have experience of managing large animals. Until recently most farmers, particularly in the south, appear to have been unaware of the potential for farming with animal traction. The purchasing power of farmers is very low, and savings are very rarely sufficient to contemplate the purchase of oxen and equipment. Farm profitability is low, and using conventional cropping practices, it is difficult to justify commercially priced loans for investment in animal traction on average-size farms. However timeliness of primary cultivation is crucial, and this represents a labor bottleneck that can be alleviated using animal power. Village blacksmiths have little or no experience in the manufacture and maintenance of plows and other equipment. Most land, particularly in the south, contains many tree stumps, which make animal plowing difficult, and the labor requ .irement to destump land is a major constraint. Although cattle have much genetic disease resistance, the pathogenic challenge to cattle is high, and the veterinary services have not the resources to cover all farmers. For the small farmers, the risk of sickness or death of an animal represents too great a financial disaster to contemplate without external insurance.
Present project activities and methodology
With national emphasis recently placed on expanding the use of animal traction in Togo, there are now 30 governmental 'and non-governmental organizations and projects, supported by several donor agencies, actively engaged in the development of animal traction in various parts of the the country. These are coordinated through a national committee (COCA) with national liaison being assured through the activities of PROPTA, a project for the promotion of animal traction in the country. The various regional projects and government services, in association with PROPTA, the national credit bank (CNCA) and the equipment workshop (UPROMA), are responsible for extending the use of draft animals. This involves the training of extension workers, the selection and training of farmers and their animals, the provision of animals, equipment and credit, and the supply of back-up services including animal health, spare parts and advice on the care and utilization of the animals.
As a result of project activities over the past seven years, the number of pairs of draft animals has increased from less than 1,000 in 1978 to more than 4,000 in 1984, and the number is rising quite rapidly. The great majority of the work oxen are in the northern half of the country, with only 325 pairs in use in the south.
Detailed recommendations for future project development have been prepared. Training and publicity activities will be improved, with the use of audio-visuals in schools and in the government extension service. Increasing publicity emphasis will be placed in the south of




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the country. In-service training of extension workers will be backed-up with a technical newsletter. Farmer training will continue to be based at special centres, but the training period will be extended to a minimum of three weeks and there will be additional follow-up meetings at different times during the farming calendar. Criteria for selecting farmers for training and assistance will be harmonized in the country. The extension system will be developed with more farmer training and demonstration centres, more frequent visits to the farmers and greater information and logistical resources being made available to extension workers. Studies will be conducted on the credit needs of the farmers, and their ability to repay loans, taking particular note of the proven importance of cash crops such as cotton in allowing the repayment of debts. It is intended to improve the national infrastructure for the purchase of young animals and the sale of old ones. To alleviate the scarcity of young oxen, a system of ranches is being developed, and PROPTA aims to provide 400 taurine oxen each year form these ranches. Animal health services are to be further developed with more emphasis on the training of farmers in the day-to-day care of their animals, particularly in the south where animal husbandry experience is limited. While a proven range of manufactured implements is now available in the country from the UPROMA workshop, cooperation between PROPTA and UPROMA will continue to allow further adaptations of designs and specifications where necessary. Emphasis will be placed on the improved distribution of manufactured spare parts and the training of village artisans to undertake repair work.
To date, no specific farming systems studies relating to animal traction have been carried out, but these will be undertaken in the coming second phase of the project. The farming systems studies will concentrate on systems for improving farm profitability with animal traction through the use of new crop combinations, more efficient use of animal dung and increasing the annual utilization of draft animals through additional cropping, post-harvest and transport operations.
The Togo animal traction projects are keen to develop links with draft animal programs elsewhere, particularly in West Africa. To this end, Togo hosted a Farming Systems Support Project (FSSP) animal traction networkshop in March 1985, and a visit from personnel of the Sierra Leone Work Oxen Project in July 1985. PROPTA hopes to be closely involved in the regional animal power networking activities being stimulated by FSSP, the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and the International Livestock Centre for Africa (ILCA).




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10.2. ANIMAL TRACTION IN SIERRA LEONE
Written by Paul Starkey and Bai Kanu, and presented by Paul Starkey.
Agroclimatic typology and livestock resources
Sierra Leone is a small West African country (73,000 kin2) with Guinea Savannah ecology in the north, where rainfall is 1,800 mm, and rain forest in the south, where rainfall exceeds 2,500 mm. The staple food of rice is the dominant species in the rain-fed intercropping of the traditional bush-fallow agricultural system, and swamp rice is also grown in numerous inland valleys.
The. whole country is considered to be of medium trypanosomiasis risk, and the national herd of 333,000 cattle are all of the N'Dama trypanotolerant taurine type. 75% of the cattle are found, in the north of the country, where natural pasture is available for most of the year, with dry season growth being stimulated by fire. Cattle ownership is concentrated in 5% of the farming population, notably within the Fula and Madingo ethnic groups. Cattle obtain all their feed from grazing natural pasture, but a traditional mineral supplement of leaves, salt and termite-hill soil is provide two or three times a year.
Previous project influences
Animal traction was introduced on a small scale in 1927. In 1950 a government sponsored scheme to expand draft animal usage was initiated in one part of the country, but it was not followed up, and was forgotten by the agricultural department after a few years. However the farmers in this area continued to use work oxen, and the technology was transferred to subsequent generations. In 1985, three quarters of the plows bought in 1950 were still in regular use, indicating that animal traction was perceived as economically viable by the farmers, and that it could be sustained without significant government intervention. The farmers only used their draft animals for plowing and harrowing, mainly for swamp rice production, but with some cultivation of rain-fed rice and groundnuts.
Several subsidized tractor cultivation schemes have been attempted, but have proved impossible to maintain. However they have raised unattainable aspirations in many sections of society, and this has had the effect of reducing national interest in the potential for animal traction.




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Socio-economic and ecological factors affecting animal traction
Agricultural investment is affected by land tenure systems which do not guarantee continued usage of specific areas of land to individual farmers. In general farmers' income is low, and arable cropping is seldom profitable if conventional economic criteria are used to assess farming costs and benefits. However a serious labor constraint exists, particularly for land preparation.
Ownership of draft oxen is associated with more affluent farmers cultivating above-average areas. However smaller farmers can have access to draft animal power through traditional systems of hiring. In one area surveyed, 274 farming families made use of 52 pairs of oxen. Some women farmers have been among those hiring oxen from others, and recently some women's groups have started using animal traction. Through the influence of donor agencies, some village associations have been formed for communal ownership of work oxen.,
Present project activities and methodology
The present Sierra Leone Work Oxen Project is a national project charged with promoting animal traction through adaptive research, extension and training. It is primarily catalytic, providing technical advice and training services to other agricultural development programs, which then develop their own animal traction components.
The project started from a university based pilot study, which included the review of past records from Sierra Leone and published experience from other countries, as -well as a program of on-station trials and on-farm socio-economic studies. The socio-economic surveys were stratified to allow comparisons of ox-users and non ox-users in villages where draft animals were maintained, and between ox-hirers and non ox-hirers in villages where no work oxen were owned. Studies identified the unavailability of equipment as a limiting factor, and implements from several countries were tested, first on research stations and then by farmers in various villages. The preferred design of multipurpose implement was appropriately modified and its local manufacture was started. The toolbar is now available with both 6" and 9" plow bodies to suit different ecosystems and different sizes/ages of animals. A triangular harrow is also available, and other cultivation implements and carts are being evaluated by farmers in several locations.
All innovative ideas, such as the use of nose-rings to improve animal control and the use of inter-row weeding, are first tested on-station and then by selected farmers in different villages. If proven acceptable, techniques are recommended for widespread adoption, and their progress is followed through monitoring and evaluation studies.




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The project comprises a multi-disciplinary team of Sierra Leonean, French and British research workers, who must all participate in general extension and promotional activities in addition to their specific research areas. All staff, both senior and junior, commence their project experience by training a pair of work oxen themselves. French language training is given to anglophone senior staff to allow liaison with neighboring francophone countries. Present research interest covers equipment evaluation, animal health, traditional animal husbandry techniques and medicines, row-cropping systems, socio-economic studies and the formation of farmers' associations including women's groups. Monthly multi-disciplinary technical meetings of staff ensure a farming systems approach is maintained. Overall project policy is determined by a national liaison committee, comprising representatives of the Ministry of Agriculture, agricultural development projects, the University and several aid donors.
The project has placed great emphasis on publicity, with the development of symbolic logos, participation in -agricultural shows, the wide circulation of project reports and the organization of an annual national ox-plowing competition The project has also emphasized external liaison, and has initiated several exchange visits, notably with Guinea, Liberia and Togo.
(Mr. Baf Kanu is Project Coordinator of the Sierra Leone Work Oxen Project, Private Mail Bag 766, Free town, Sierra Leone. It was intended that he should have participated in the Crop-Livestock Systems Research Monitoring Tour of Nepal and Indonesia, but unfortunately last minute cornplica tions made this impossible.)




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10.3. ANIMAL TRACTION NETWORKING ACTIVITIES IN AFRICA AND ASIA
Writ ten and presented by Paul Starkey.
In most of Sub-Saharan Africa, with the notable exception of Ethiopia, animal traction has only been introduced in agriculture in the present century, and it is still only used by a minority of the farmers. Bush-fallow cultivation, using hand tools, is still the dominant farming system, and attempts to go straight from hand cultivation to motorized cultivation have seldom succeeded (Pingali, Bigot and Binswanger, 1985). -The use of animal traction is now increasing in most African countries, but many projects to promote its adoption have been disappointed by slow rates of uptake. This has often been associated with poor farm profitability,. inadequate credit arrangements, unsuitable equipment or insufficient attention to good animal husbandry to overcome problems of poor animal nutrition and health (Mettrick, 1978; Sargent et al., 1981; Barratt et al., 1982; Munzinger, 1982). Little systematic replicated research has been carried out on animal traction in Africa, but very many man-years have been spent on the local development of equipment and techniques for farming with draft animals. With very little communication between workers in this field, whether within a single country or between countries, there has been unnecessary duplication of work, and little or no opportunity for researchers to build on each other's experience. With many national governments in Africa, supported by multilateral, bilateral and NGO aid agencies, developing new draft animal projects, there is now perceived to be an urgent need to initiate liaison or "networking" activities relating to animal traction research, training and extension in Africa.
In most of southern Asia, the use of draft animals has been an integral part of farming systems for centuries. Indeed animal traction has been such an accepted part of the traditional systems, that it has, until recently, received relatively little attention from governments and research workers. -However with increasing population and land pressures, emphasis is being put on methods to maximize the output of small farms. With draft animals an integral component of many farming systems, current research involves a range of studies relating to animal traction, including feeding systems and appropriate implements. In addition, the demand for increased milk production, and in some cases meat production, has involved increasing the milk/meat/draft output of indigenous multipurpose breeds, and using novel breeds and crossbreeds for draft purposes. This has prompted significant research interest in the relative performance of breeds and crosses for multipurpose milk/draft/meat production. Thus in Asia also, there is great potential to build on the research experiences of the different countries through the development of a draft animal power (DAP) network to foster closer liaison.




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As a result of the perceived need for improved liaison, and following the recommendation of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) Expert Consultation on Animal Energy in Agriculture in Africa and Asia (FAO, 1982), FAO proposed the establishment of a draft animal power network in Asia. It was intended that this would have linkages with a similar initiative in Africa that would be organized in cooperation with the International Livestock Centre for Africa (ILCA). In order to assess reactions to such proposals, and to pave the way for network establishment, in 1983 and 1984 FAO sent missions to five countries in Asia and FAO/ILCA sent missions to nine countries in Africa. All countries responded positively to the suggestions for the networks (Imboden, Starkey and Goe, 1983; Pathak 1984; Starkey and Goe, 1984). For Asia it was recommended that the DAP network have formal links with two existing networks to ensure complementarity. These are APHCA (Animal Production and Health Commission for Asia, the Far East and South West Pacific) and RNAM (Regional Network for Agricultural Machinery). For Africa it was proposed that interacting sub-regional bureaux be established for West, East and Southern Africa.
While the principle of DAP networks has been accepted by FAO and ILCA, there remains the preparation of detailed proposals, and most importantly the provision of appropriate funding. However prior to the formal establishment of the networks, FAO is to start publishing in 1986, a draft animal power newsletter within the journal "World Animal Review". FAO is also to fund a DAP workshop in Africa in 1986, which is likely to concentrate on a specific aspect of animal traction such as credit provision, equipment standardization or animal health constraints. Further facilitating missions in preparation for the Africa network are planned by FAO/ILCA in the second half of 1985.
In addition to the FAO and ILCA proposals for formalized networks, several other development agencies have been organizing network activities relating to animal traction.
From 1978 to the present, the Commonwealth Secretariat has been organizing liaison activities on rural technology, which have included workshops, exchange visits and prototype exchange (Commonwealth Secretariat, 1980). In 1983 CIMMYT (Centro Internacional de Mejoramiento de Maiz y Trigo) organized a networkshop on the feeding of draft animals, with participation from several eastern and southern African countries (CIMMYT, 1983).
More recently the USAID supported Farming Systems Support Project (FSSP) of the University of Florida has initiated animal traction networking activities in West Africa. As a background to this initiative, it may be noted that there is much evidence to suggest that many of the failures of animal traction programs in Africa have been caused by too much emphasis on single disciplinary studies, such as the development of equipment by agricultural engineers working alone. This has often resulted in a failure to appreciate the complexity of the




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whole farming system, and crucial constraints relating to the animal sub-system, the cultural environment or, most importantly, the economic realities of farm costs and benefits. FSSP maintains that a holistic, inter-disciplinary approach is a prerequisite for the successful implementation of practical draft animal research and extension programs in Africa. In addition, animal traction is seen as one way to usefully integrate crop and livestock enterprises in African farming systems, which historically have been characterised by differentiation between crop farmers and pastoralists.
For these reasons, FSSP funded a West Africa animal traction networkshop in Togo in March 1985 (Poats et al., 1986). This has been followed by exchange visits between animal traction programs in West Africa, and the participation by personnel involved in draft animal research and development in West Africa in the Crop-Livestock Research Monitoring Tour of Nepal and Indonesia initiated by IRRI. FSSP is to fund a meeting of several representatives of West Africa animal traction programs in The Gambia in November 1985 to prepare for another networkshop scheduled for 1986. This sub-regional committee meeting will also involve visits to farming systems and draft animal projects in Senegal and The Gambia. It should be noted that FSSP is not establishing a formal or centralized network, but rather it is facilitating networking activities that will promote a farming systems approach to animal traction research and extension. Thus these FSSPfunded activities are entirely complementary to the FAO/ILCA initiatives.
Finally, in July 1985, the Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research (ACIAR) organized a draft animal power workshop in Townsville, Australia. This was attended by research workers from the ASEAN countries of South East Asia, representatives of international organizations, and participants from Africa and some developed countries (Copland, 1985). The workshop emphasized the need for improved liaison and information exchange, and recommended that a draft animal power network should be established in Asia, and that ACIAR should actively support such a network.
In conclusion, it would seem that a need has been clearly identified for the development of networks in Africa and Asia dedicated to stimulating and improving liaison and information exchange relating to animal traction research, training and extension. The various initiatives described here that have been taken over the past two years should pave the way to the establishment of such networks.
References cited
Barratt, V., Gregory, L., Wilcock, D., Baker, D. and Crawford E.
1982. Animal traction in Eastern Upper Volta: a technical,
economic and institutional analysis. International Development Paper 4. Department of Agricultural Economics, Michigan State
University, East Lansing, Michigan, USA. 118p. (E,F).




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Copland, J. W., 1985 (Editor) Draught animal power for production.
Proceedings of an international workshop held at James Cook University, Townsville, Qid, Australia, 10-16 July 1985. ACIAR
Proceedings Series 10, Australian Centre for International
Agricultural Research, Canberra. 170p. (E).
CIMMYT 1984. Report of a networkshop on draught power and animal
feeding, held Ezulwini, Swaziland October 4-6 1983. Networking
Workshops Report 2. CIMMYT Eastern and Southern Africa Economics
Programme, Mbabane, Swaziland. 93p. (E).
FAO 1982. Report of the FAO expert consultation on the appropriate
use of animal energy in agriculture in Africa and Asia, held 15-19
November 1982, Rome. FAO, Rome, Italy. 44p. (E,F).
Imboden, R., Starkey, P. H. and Goe, M. R. 1983. Report of the
consultation mission for the establishment of a technical
cooperation among developing countries (TCDC) network for
development, research and training in the field of draught animal
power utilization. AGAP, FAO, Rome, Italy. 81p. (E,F).
Mettrick, H. 1978. Oxenisation in The Gambia. Ministry of Overseas
Development, London. 68p. (E).
Munzinger, P. 1982. (Editor). Animal traction in Africa. GTZ,
Eschborn, Germany. 490p. (E,F,G).
Pathak, B. S. 1984. Report of the preparatory FAO mission for the
establishment of a TCDC Network for research, training and
development of draught animal power in Asia. AGAP, FAO, Rome,
Italy. 23p. (Unpublished). (E).
Pingali, P. L., Bigot, Y. and Binswanger, H. P. 1986. Agricultural
mechanization and the evolution of farming systems in Sub-Saharan
Africa. World Bank, Washington in association with John Hopkins
Press. (in press). (E).
Poats, S. V., Lichte, J., Oxley, J., Russo, S. L. and Starkey, P. H.
1986. Animal traction in a farming systems perspective. Report
of networkshop held Kara, Togo March 3-8 1985. Farming Systems
Support Project. University of Florida, USA. (in press). (E,F).
Sargent, M. W., Lichte, J. A., Matlon, P. J. and Bloom, R. 1981. An
assessment of animal traction in francophone West Africa. Working
Paper 34. Department of Agricultural Economics, Michigan State
University, East Lancing, USA. I01p. (E,F).
Starkey, P. H. and Goe, M. R. 1984. Report of the preparatory
FAO/ILCA mission for the establishment of a TCDC network for research training and development of draught animal power in
Africa. FAO, Rome. 82p. (E,F).




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11. SUMMARY OF MONITORING TOUR ITINERARY
Saturday 17th August.
Arrivals and joining formalities, Kathmandu, Nepal.
Sunday 18th August.
Opening ceremony and keynote address. Presentations on:
- Cropping systems in Nepal.
- Economic evaluation of crop-livestock systems research. Overland drive to Pokhara (in foothills of Himalayas).
Monday 19th August.
Field visit Pumdi Bhumdi (hill village). Presentation and discussion of Pumdi Bhumdi research results. Paper and discussions on options for livestock feeding. Formation and first meetings of working discussion groups.
Tuesday 20th August.
Overland drive to Ratna Nagar (Terai lowland area). Visit to site of cropping systems research. Overland drive to Kathmandu.
Wednesday 21st August.
Plenary session in Kathmandu, with presentations and discussion of:
- Data collection for feeds and livestock. Different feeding systems.
- Case studies from Thailand, China, Sri Lanka and Philippines. Field visit to Khumaltar (Cropping research station).
Thursday 22nd August.
Plenary session in Kathmandu, with presentations and discussion of:
- Farming systems research in Zimbabwe.
- Animal traction in Africa: Togo and Sierra Leone.
- Animal traction networking activities in Africa and Asia.
- Farming systems research activities: Nepal, Burma and Philippines.
- Project proposals: Sri Lanka and China.
Friday 23rd August.
Plenary session in Kathmandu, with presentations and discussion of:
- Farming systems research in Thailand.
- Farming systems research in Indonesia.
- Crop-livestock research in Philippines.
- Livestock in farming systems of Nepal.




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Saturday 24th August.
Working group discussions.
Flight Kathmandu to Bangkok, Thailand.
Sunday 25th August.
Flight Bangkok, Thailand to Jakarta, Indonesia.
Monday 26th August.
Flight Jakarta, Java to Bandar Lampung, Sumatra.
Overland drive to Baturaja, Sumatra.
Visit farming systems sites (settlement areas in medium rainfall,
undulating lowlands).
Tuesday 27th August.
Presentation of farming systems research in Sumatra.
Visits farming systems sites (settlement areas).
Overland drive to Tanjung Karang.
*Wednesday 28th August.
Flight Bandar Lampung (Sumatra) to Jakarta (Java).
Flight Jakarta (West Java) to Bandung (Central Java).
Overland drive to Tasikmalaya.
Thursday 29th August.
Presentation of farming systems research at Ciamis.
Field visits Ciamis (hill area subject to erosion).
Overland drive to Purwokerto.
Friday 30th August.
Field visits (hill areas and reclaimed swamps).
Overland drive to Yogyakarta.
Flight Yogyakarta (East Java) to Denpasar (Bali).
Field visit to farming systems site (stratified system: dryland area).
Saturday 31st August.
Working group discussions in Bali, Indonesia.
Plenary session with presentation of group reports.
Concluding and planning session.
Sunday 1st September.
International departures.




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12. ILLUSTRATIONS Figure 1
Using draught cattle to prepare a rice swamp in the Terai of Nepal.
(Photo: Paul Starkey)
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Integrated Livestock Systems in Nepal and Indonesia: Illustrations
Figure 3
Pokhara Valley, Nepal, showing terraced fields.
(Photo: Paul Starkey)
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- 49
Integrated Livestock Systems in Nepal and Indonesia: Illustrations
Figure 4
Homestead at Pumdi Bhumdi, in the hills of Nepal.
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Integrated Livestock Systems in Nepal and Indonesia: Illustrations
Figure 5 Woman carrying harvested forage for zero-grazed livestock, Kathmandu, Nepal. (Photo: Paul Starkey)
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Integrated Livestock Systems in Nepal and Indonesia: Illustrations
Figure 6
Use of two oxen to plow maize field in Nepal.
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(Photo: Paul Starkey)
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- 52
Integrated Livestock Systems in Nepal and Indonesia: Illustrations
Figure 7
Simple wooden plow at Pumdi Bhumdi, Nepal.
(Photo: Paul Starkey)




- 53
Integrated Livestock Systems in Nepal and Indonesia: Illustrations
Figure 8
Buffalo cart in the Terai area of Nepal.
(Photo: Paul Starkey)




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Figure 15 Transporting cassava on a terraced hillside, Java, Indonesia.
(Photo: Paul Starkey)
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- 61
Integrated Livestock Systems in Nepal and Indonesia: Illustrations
Figure 16 Fishpond and toilet, Java, Indonesia.
(Photo: Paul Starkey)
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Integrated Livestock Systems in Nepal and Indonesia: Illustrations
Figure 17 Tour participants and a recently planted forage hedge in
stratified feeding research trials, Bali, Indonesia.
(Photo: Paul Starkey)
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- 63
Integrated Livestock Systems in Nepal and Indonesia: Illustrations
Figure 18
Simple village chaff-cutter in Burma.
(Photo: Dr. R. K. PaHs)
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- 64
Integrated Livestock Systems in Nepal and Indonesia: Illustrations
Figure 19 Drawing of simple chaff-cutter used in Burma.
(Drawing: Dr. R. K. Pais)
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