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Proceedings of the Jordanian Farming Systems Research and Extenstion Training Workshop

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Title:
Proceedings of the Jordanian Farming Systems Research and Extenstion Training Workshop
Creator:
The Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan, Ministry of Agriculture
Gaudreau, M.
Khraisat, E.
Galt, D. L.
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Amman, Jordan
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The Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan, Ministry of Agriculture, the National Center for Agricultural Research and Technology Transfrer, Monitoring and Evaluation Unit
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Farming ( LCSH )
Agriculture ( LCSH )
Farm life ( LCSH )
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Asia -- Jordan

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Electronic resources created as part of a prototype UF Institutional Repository and Faculty Papers project by the University of Florida.

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Full Text
MOA/NCARTT/MEU
Training Report No. 0189
PROCEEDINGS OF THE JORDANIAN FARMING SYSTEMS RESEARCH AND EXTENSION TRAINING WORKSHOP
August 5-24, 1989
Edited by
M. Gaudreau
E. Khraisat
D. L. Galt
Published by
The Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan Ministry of Agriculture the National Center for Agricultural Research and Technology Transfer Monitoring and Evaluation Unit
Supported by the
United States Agency for International Development Through a Contract With The Consortium for International Development via Washington State University
Implementing the Jordan National Agricultural Development Project (JNADP) Amman, Jordan and
Pullman, Washington
USAID Contract No. ANE-0264-C-00-7006-00







PROCEEDINGS OF THE JORDANIAN FARMING SYSTEMS RESEARCH AND EXTENSION TRAINING WORKSHOP
August 5-24, 1989
Edited by
M. Gaudreau
E. Khraisat
D. L. Galt
Contents Authored by
D. L.' Galt, NCARTT/JNADP Socio-economist/FSR Specialist
A. F. Al-Kadi, Head, Monitoring and Evaluation Unit, NCARTT/MOA
M. Gaudreau, Soil Scientist/FSR Specialist, TRD, Inc.
Y. Tamimi, Dept. of Agronomy and Soil Science, Univ. of Hawaii J. Gammoh, Head, Extension Division, NCARTT/MOA
M. Salem, Department of Agricultural Economics, Univ. of Jordan S. Arabiat, Dean of the Agricultural College, Univ. of Jordan Y. Rushdi, Acting Director and Director of Research, NCARTT/MOA
N. Katkhuda, Head, Stations and RASCs Section, NCARTT/MOA E. Khraisat, Socio-economist, Monitoring and Evaluation Unit Participants from six NCARTT regional centers and
Participants representing NCARTT Research and Extension Sections
1







TABLE OF CONTENTS
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS . . . ............... 2
INTRODUCTION........... . . ........ 3
The Objectives of the Joint NCARTT/UOJ Farming Systems
Research Training Workshop .... .......... 4
What is the Meaninq of Farming Systems Research? ... .... 5
The Procedures of Farming Systems Research ......... 8
Where is FSR Going at NCARTT? A Strategy Statement ... 13
The Farm as a System ....................... 22
Procedural Models ........ .................... .28
Structural Models ................. ........ 30
An Overview of the NCARTT Combined Sondeo ........ 36
(In Arabic) Use of Existing Information in FSR/E ..... ...40 Basic Differences between Formal and Informal Surveys. . 50 How to Interview Farmers .......... .......... 51
(In Arabic) Collecting Farming Record Information ..... ..56 Topic Guidelines for the RASCs ......... ....... ..62
Additional Tools for Collecting Farmer Information . . 83
Farm Map ............................ 83
Crop Calendar .d......................... --84
Planning On-Farm Experiments, ...... .............. ..86
Extension Workplan Summary ......... .......... .93
General Characteristics of On-Farm Trial Types ....... ..99 Introduction to Field Week Exercise ..... ............ .101
Specifics of NCARTT Combined Sondeo Process ........... .105
Use of Data Collected from Farmers ..... ............ .116
Selecting Cooperating Farmers ...... ............... .117
Notes on On-Farm Trial Design and Evaluation .. ....... .119
Types of Experiments and Evaluation Considerations .....122 Monitoring Trials during the Season ..... ............ .125
(In Arabic) Steps for Economic Analysis .......... 129
The Farmer's Circumstances ....... ............... .148
Introducing Measures of Impact of On-Farm Research . . 151 Team Reports and RASC Workplan Outputs ........... 156
Revision of RASC Workplan for 1989/90 ...... ........ 156
Khaldieh Report ............ ............. 158
Ramtha Report. ..................... 180
Deir Alla Report ........ ............. ..... 195
Shoubak Report ...... .................... ... 207
Mushaqar Report ........ ..................... ..227
Rabba Report ......... .................... .241
EVALUATION ....... ........ 262
Future Training Needs'Expressed by Participants. ..... .267




LIST OF APPENDICES
lAl List of Participants for FSR/E Training Course 1A2 List of Trainers for FSR/E Training Course 1B (In Arabic) List of Participants and Trainers for FSR/E
Training Course
2A Agenda for NCARTT FSR/E Training Workshop 2B Actual Agenda for FSR/E Training Workshop 2C (In Arabic) Agenda for NCARTT FSR/E Training Workshop
3 The Purpose of Training in the FSR Approach 4 Why FSR? The Evaluation of the FSR Approach
5 FSR Definitions
6A (In Arabic) FSR in ICARDA 6B (In Arabic) University of Jordan/Agriculture Faculty 7A (In Arabic) The Relationship between the RASCs, NCARTT and
the Agriculture Department 7B (In Arabic) NCARTT
7C1 (In Arabic) Extension Programs 7C2 (In Arabic) Evaluation of Extension Programs 7C3 The Objectives of the Extension Division
-8 Activity: Interdisciplinary Teamwork9 (In Arabic) Sources of Information 10 (In Arabic) Topic Guidelines for Farmer Interviews 11A Farm Maps (in both languages) 1lB Crop Calendar: Bugenyuzi Commune 12A (In Arabic) Notes on a "Bad" Farmer Interview 12B (In Arabic) Notes on a "Good" Farmer Interview 13A Exercise: List 1 for RASC Team Field Week Form 13B Exercise: List 2 for RASC Team Field Week Form 13C Exercise: List 3 for RASC-Team Field Week Form 13D Exercise: List 4A for RASC Team Field Week Form 13E Exercise: List 4B for RASC Team Field Week Form 13F Exercise: List 5 for RASC Team Field Week Form 14 (from Caribbean Agricultural Research Unit's On-Farm Manual)
Chapter 3. Problems (with on-farm trials)
15 (In Arabic) Unexpected Problems with On-Farm Trials 16 Results of On-Farm Potato Fertilizer and Insect Control
Trials in the Mantaro Valley, Peru.
17A (In Arabic) First Week's Evaluation Form 17B (In Arabic) Field Week's Evaluation Form 17C (In Arabic) Whole Training Course Evaluation Form




ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
The editors, authors and facilitators of the Jordanian FSR/E Training Workshop wish to acknowledge the assistance of the following individuals and institutions, without whom the training could not have taken place:
-- The 238 Jordanian farmers who were patient during our individual interviews with them early in week two, and the 94 Jordanian farmers who attended the farmer group meeting on Thursday of the field week.
-- The 43 participants, who exhibited such uniformly
outstanding attitudes toward the training and, more importantly, toward the work aspects of the workshop. Their willingness to work on team and group activities was high enough to make our jobs as trainers and facilitators much easier.
-- His Excellency the Minister of Agriculture Dr. A. Badran, for opening and closing the workshop; Mr. 0. Bilbeisi, Director of Projects at the National Center for Agricultural Research and Technology Transfer (NCARTT), for arranging and facilitating the opening and .closing ceremonies; and Dr. R. C. Cummings, USAID ARDO, for his timely remarks during the opening ceremony.
-- The directors of the six Regional Agricultural Service Centers (RASCs), for their collaboration in the use of their facilities, staff and vehicles during the field activity week and for their assistance in working in the regional areas; and the heads of the NCARTT headquarters divisions, sections and units, for their cooperation in allowing representatives to attend the training workshop and participate in the RASC team activities.
-- Mr. F. Quashir, USAID JNADP Project Officer, and Dr. R. C. Cummings); Dr. G. Rodewald, Acting Chief of Party, Jordan National Agricultural Development Project (JNADP); Dr. Y. Rushdi, Director of NCARTT; Mr. N. Katkhuda, Head, Stations and RASCs Section, for their extreme efforts in making sufficient funds and human resources to available so as to allow the training to be done in the manner most technically correct.
-- JNADP support staff (S. Issa, S. Nesheiwat Rihani and Z. Abd Rabu) and NCARTT support staff (N. Al-Bana, R. Altick, K. Qutaineh and H. Qaqish) for their efforts in assisting with the logistics necessary, allowing the training to be a success. The three NCARTT/MOA drivers for devoting their services for a week of driving in the Shoubak area and to and from Mushaqar each day.
-- NCARTT, the MOA and the University of Jordan (Jordan); USAID, the Consortium for International Development (CID) and Washington State University through the JNADP, and TRD, Inc. (U.S.A.), for encouraging and funding the facilitators.
2




INTRODUCTION
A Farming Systems Research Workshop was conducted at NCARTT Headquarters in Al-Baqa'a from August 5-24, 1989. The participants were NCARTT researchers and extension personnel from the Center and from each of the six RASCs. Resource persons from the University of Jordan, consultants to the Jordan National Agricultural Development Project, as well as personnel from the Monitoring and Evaluation Unit and Extension Division of NCARTT facilitated the workshop. A list of participants and resource persons is found in Appendix 1.
The purpose of the workshop was to introduce new NCARTT
personnel to and further develop the understanding of all NCARTT personnel regarding the concepts and procedures of Farming Systems Research and Extension and to provide them with the skills necessary to formulate research and technology transfer workplans that are more relevant in addressing farmer specified needs. While this was a training activity, it was also a workshop, with the output being a revised workplan incorporating on-farm research and technology transfer interventions responsive to farmers' needs.
During the three weeks of the workshop (Agendas, Appendix
2), the participants worked in interdisciplinary teams organized byoRASC with a representative of the NCARTT Center integrated into each RASC team. The first week's activities in Amman introduced the participants to the concepts and procedures of Farming Systems Research and Extension. During the second week, the teams worked out of their respective RASCs to informally interview farmers about their crop and livestock systems, and to discuss with them the problems that limit their production.
Training activities in Amman the third week were oriented toward the evaluation and interpretation of on-farm research. The teams also had time to revise their workplans using the data collected in the field. Because farmers have many constraints that are outside the domain of research and technology transfer, the participants made recommendations about agricultural policy issues that impact farmers.
This report will focus on the Farming Systems Research process as it was used by the RASC teams, the outputs of the workshop, the workshop evaluation, and future training needs expressed by the participants. The participants received over forty handouts as training materials during the workshop. These handouts are incorporated as appropriate into the text of this report.
3




WORKSHOP PROCESS
WEEK 1: INTRODUCTION TO FARMING SYSTEMS RESEARCH
The objectives of the Farming Systems Research Workshop were presented in the following handout:
THE OBJECTIVES OF THE JOINT NCARTT/UOJ
FARMING SYSTEMS RESEARCH TRAINING WORKSHOP
by
Dan Galt, NCARTT/JNADP Socio-economist/FSR Specialist and
A. F. Al-Kadi, Head, Monitoring and Evaluation Unit, NCARTT/MOA
July 13, 1989
The objectives of this Farming Systems Research training are to allow all participants to master these skills:
o Conduct a Rapid Rural Appraisal (RRA) survey of a
representative sample of farmers from a given,
homogeneous area of Jordan;
o Analyze this information collected from farmer
interviews to identify and prioritize
The predominant farming systems (both crop and livestock enterprises), including any fallow in
these patterns,
The major constraints within each predominant crop
or livestock enterprise, as revealed by farmeridentified problems;
o Working together (researchers and technology transfer
personnel), formulate both
-- farm-level and station-level research trials, and
research and technology transfer workplans which
will be more relevant in addressing farmerspecified needs;
o The ability for NCARTT headquarter and RASC staff to
work together as parts of interdisciplinary teams to
focus on practical solutions to identified farmer
constraints at each RASC, leading to the either
4




research or technology transfer work (or both) at both
the RASC and NCARTT headquarter levels.
The purpose of training in FSR (Appendix 3) is to provide research and extension personnel with communication skills, analytical skills, and management skills so they can work with farmers to address their problems through appropriate research and extension interventions.
Farming Systems Research has evolved in developing countries (Appendix 4) because the impact of traditional agricultural research has not reached the majority of the world's farmers. With the evolution of FSR over the past twenty years, there has been agreement on the two basic characteristics of FSR, that is interdisciplinary work and collaboration with farmers.
What is the meaning of Farming Systems Research, and how will the FSR approach be defined in Jordan?
WHAT IS THE MEANING OF FARMING SYSTEMS RESEARCH?
May 15, 1989
by
D. L. Galt
NCARTT/JNADP Socio-economist/FSR Specialist and
A. F. Al-Kadi
Head, Monitoring and Evaluation Unit, NCARTT/MOA
INTRODUCTION -- TRAINING OBJECTIVES:
This FSR training handout presents a working definition of FSR. It also describes the relationship between research, extension, and farmers. When FSR training participants have read this material, they should be able to:
(1) Provide a definition of FSR in the Jordanian
agricultural research and technology transfer setting; and
(2) Describe the relationship, between researchers, extension personnel, and farmers in FSR in Jordan.




WHAT IS THE MEANING OF FSR?
As we saw in the FSR training document No. 1-1-6, the FSR approach is less than 20 years old. Partly for this reason, there are a great number of definitions of FSR. The definition which is most often quoted is the one provided in the "1FSR Bible" by W. W. Shaner, P. F. Philipp and W. R. Schmehl, Farming Systems Research and Development: Guidelines for Developing Countries,
Westview Press, 1981. We will NOT give you that definition here, as it is too complicated for our needs. However, we have included this definition in the APPENDIX to this handout for those of you who are interested. (The reference Shaner, et al., may be found in the NCARTT library or in the Monitoring and Evaluation unit.)
We define the FSR approach in Jordan as follows:
FSR is agricultural research which involves several research disciplines, working together with technology transfer and farmers, to tailor and attend research solutions to groups of farmers who are subject to similar agronomic, ecologic and socioeconomic constraints.
This meaning will vary by region here in Jordan, but the key elements of it -- interdisciplinary research, cooperation between research and extension, and including farmers as full partners in the research and technology transfer process -- must be present throughout the process whenever it is applied in the Kingdom.
This interaction between researchers, extension personnel, and Jordanian farmers can best be demonstrated with a simple diagram. The following figure shows how this relationship starts out and develops over time. Notice the predominance of research at the beginning, the predominance of extension during the middle of the process, and the predominance of the farmers toward the end of the process. This indicates a natural progression in the relationship between researchers, extension personnel, and farmers. The relative roles vary by trial type, and the lines dividing the three groups are not fixed. The amount of involvement of each group with a set of on-farm trials is also flexible.
6




RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN RESEARCH, EXTENSION & FARMERS'
INVOLVEMENT IN ON-FARM TRIALS
YEAR 1 YEAR 2 YEAR 3
However, it is generally true that at the beginning of work with any set of trials, researchers have the most to do with design, layout, monitoring, harvesting and analyzing the results. Likewise, later (during the second year, for example) extension becomes more involved in a set of trials. Finally, during the last year, or later in the process, extension passes more and more of the responsibility for trial management to farmers, thi's is indicated by the right-hand side of the figure above.
In common FSR terminology, researchers are most involved in exploratory trials (year 1), technologyv transfer personnel are most involved in verification trials, and farmers are most involved in demonstration trials. As the diagram shows, however, no group is excluded at any stage of the process. The important fact of FSR is that all three groups -- researchers, technology transfer personnel, and farmers -- work together as partners across the entire process of research and technology transfer.
APPENDIX
The following definition of "1FSR"1 is the definition used by Shaner, et al., in their FSR text, Farming Systems Research and Development: Guidelines for Developing Countries, to define "1FSR&D"1 (Farming Systems Research and Development). This definition is THE SAME DEFINITION used by the Farming Systems Support Project (FSSP) to define "1FSR/E"1 (Farming Systems
Research and Extension). It is:
7




"FSR&D is an approach to agricultural research and
development that
o views the whole farm as a system
o focuses on (1) the interdependencies between
the components under the control of members of the farm
household and (2) how these components interact with
the physical, biological, and socioeconomic factors not
under the household's control." (p. 13)
While national agricultural research programs and
international agricultural research centers implement FSR differently depending on the resources available and their institutional structures, there is general agreement on the key elements of the FSR process: Diagnosis and planninQ, Experimentation, Analysis, interpretation, and redesign, and Dissemination.
HOW IS FSR DONE?
THE PROCEDURES OF FARMING SYSTEMS RESEARCH
May 15, 1989
by
D. L. Galt
NCARTT/JNADP Socio-economist/FSR Specialist and
A. F. Al-Kadi
Head, Monitoring and Evaluation Unit, NCARTT/MOA
INTRODUCTION -- TRAINING OBJECTIVES
This FSR training handout will cover briefly the stages involved in an FSR approach. It will make these stages as specific as possible to Jordanian conditions by placing them within the institutional context of NCARTT. When FSR training participants have read this material, they should be able to:
(1) describe a set of FSR stages which will allow research and extension in Jordan through NCARTT to work more effectively to address farmers problems;
8




(2) describe how FSR trials are based on a combination of socio-economic and biological factors important at the farm level.
WHAT ARE THE PROCEDURES OF FSR?
The number of steps involved in the procedure of FSR vary from as few as four to more than 10. The number of steps, and the details of each step, depend on which IARC or National Program has developed the approach. However, the key elements of the FSR/E process remain the same, regardless of the number of steps included in the procedure. These elements of the procedure are usually referred to as stages of the FSR process. These key stages are as follows:
KEY STAGES OF THE FSR PROCESS FOR NCARTT
STAGE 1: Diagnosis and planning.
STAGE 2: Experimentation on-farm and on-station via
a. Exploratory trials b. Verification trials
c. Demonstration trials.
STAGE 3: Analysis, interpretation (of the above trials),
and redesign of the next round of trials.
Analysis includes both
a. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA), and
b. Marginal economic analysis.
STAGE 4: Dissemination of verified results (technology
transfer).
DETAILS OF THE STAGES OF FSR
STAGES 1 AND 2: DIAGNOSIS, PLANNING AND EXPERIMENTATION
Planning is included with diagnosis because the two are inseparable. During the rest of this FSR training session, diagnosis, planning and the design of on-farm (exploratory) trials take place together in what is called, the "combined sondeo". A regular sondeo, which is Spanish for "rapid reconnaissance survey", has already taken place in Jordan. The sondeo occurred during 1987.
9




A sondeo is defined as a "...quick, informal or exploratory survey..." (by Shaner, et al., p. 216). However, the combined sondeo in Jordan differs from a regular sondeo in the following three ways:
(1) It explicitly includes researchers and Technology
Transfer personnel from NCARTT headquarters and from
each regional center (RASC);
(2) It explicitly includes design of farm-& station level
trials at both the RASC and NCARTT headquarters levels;
and
(3) It explicitly includes the process of annual workplan
development at both RASC and NCARTT levels for both
research and Technology Transfer.
This combined sondeo diagnostic exercise combines NCARTT headquarter and RASC researchers with RASC Technology Transfer personnel into interdisciplinary research teams in active, open dialogue with individual farmers. This open dialogue leads to the sequential identification of farmers'
(1) predominant farm systems (and timings of fallow), and
(2) the problems and constraints of each predominant
system.
This process of identification in turn will lead the teams
to prioritizing researchable constraints. This identification of researchable constraints in turn will lead to the design of simple exploratory on-farm trials for 1989/90 to address some the most important of these constraints.
This NCARTT/RASC research/technology transfer teamwork will also lead to a set of recommended trials for NCARTT experiment stations to address those researchable constraints which as yet have no-research solutions. Finally, the extension programs for 1989/90 will be planned for each RASC and for the Extension Division at NCARTT headquarters.
The combined sondeo will be institutionalized at NCARTT. Each year, another combined sondeo will take place before the annual planning process. In this manner, each RASC and the NCARTT Section Heads will be able to update their farm-level research workplans and programs, keeping them current and assuring that they always address farmers' felt needs, problems and constraints.
10




STAGES 3 AND 4: ANALYSIS, INTERPRETATION, REDESIGN AND DISSEMINATION (OF IMPROVED TECHNOLOGY)
Exploratory trials designed for 1989/90 will be analyzed
next year. Such analysis will be done using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and marginal economic analysis. Later in this FSR training, participants will be given some training in marginal economic analysis. Another training will have to be scheduled to review statistical analysis (ANOVA).
Following analysis of the results of the exploratory farm trials, a repeat combined sondeo will take place at each RASC. This time, the combined sondeo team will assess the impact of their research and technology transfer programs 1989/90, including the analyses of the exploratory farm-level trials. Again, farmer opinion will be sought and used to assist researchers and technology transfer personnel fine-tune, expand, reduce, or change trials and programs.
This 2nd year, verification trials will be designed. The verification trials contain less treatments than exploratory trials; but more treatments than demonstration trials. Both researchers and extension personnel are involved in the design, layout, management and analysis of these verification trials.
When verification trials have produced satisfactory results, the most productive treatments in them are advanced to demonstration trials. During this year,technology transfer personnel are involved to a maximum degree, whereas researchers are less involved.
More detailed information about the-plans of the NCARTT FSR approach is contained in FSR Training Document No. 1-2-9: "Where is FSR Going at NCARTT?".
Appendix 5 is a set of definitions commonly used in FSR. It was handed out as reference material for the participants.
Studying farming systems and identifying constraints to
agricultural production are not new to Jordan. Such activities have been conducted by the University of Jordan, ICARDA, and over the past two and one-half years, by NCARTT itself. A description of these activities is found in Appendix 6.
To understand better how FSR can be institutionalized within NCARTT, there were a series of presentations discussing the functions of NCARTT, the RASCs, and Technology Transfer. The handouts from these presentations are found in Appendix 7.
11




Since interdisciplinarity is one of the basic concepts of FSR, the participants were presented with some key points of interdisciplinary research and technology transfer.
Interdisciplinary can be defined as involving frequent
interactions among those from different disciplines who work on common tasks and come up with better results than had they worked independently.
Characteristics of an interdisciplinary team are:
Competent, Dedicated, Agreeable members
Sensitive, Balanced leadership
Collaborative teamwork
Frequent communication
Effective institutional support
from FSSP, Vol 1, "Diagnosis", pp. 27-31
The RASC teams then worked together to brainstorm on
solutions to problems in tomato production in Jordan (Appendix 8). Some of the potential solutions identified were: change cropping pattern in order to increase tomato production, develop and multiply improved tomato seeds, use soil analysis results to select appropriate varieties, develop an appropriate spraying schedule.
After the exercise, the participants were asked to reflect on the advantages and disadvantages of working as a member of an interdisciplinary team. The advantage cited by the participants was that they came up with better solutions more quickly. working as part of an interdisciplinary team gave them a clearer picture of the problems. They could cite no disadvantages.
To be useful, FSR/E must become part of the operating
methodology of a National Research Program. At NCARTT, FSR/E is in the process of being institutionalized. This training workshop is an important step in that process. A strategy statement explaining how the process of FSR can be implemented at NCARTT was presented.
12




WHERE IS FSR GOING AT NCARTT?
A STRATEGY STATEMENT
by
D. Galt, NCARTT/JNADP Socio-economist/FSR Specialist and
A. F. Al-Kadi, Head, Monitoring and Evaluation Unit, NCARTT/MOA
TRAINING OBJECTIVE: When participants finish with this material, they should be able to explain briefly how FSR will be used in Jordanian agricultural research and technology transfer.
INTRODUCTION
This handout presents the most important step in FSR in
Jordan: moving from where we are (the "status quo") to where we should be going. This handout presents the complete FSR approach for Jordan through NCARTT.
FSR began jointly under the Jordan National Agricultural
Development Project (JNADP) and NCARTT in early 1987. Training in the sondeo process was held for selected NCARTT staff in early 1988. Demonstration trials have been placed on RASC stations and in farmer's fields by several NCARTT research sections.
The Monitoring and Evaluation Unit (MEU), was created by the JNADP and the GOJ and began to function at NCARTT. One of the mandates of this unit is to assist other NCARTT research sections and all RASCs implement FSR in Jordan.
This handout outlines the Jordanian strategy for increasing the efficiency of FSR in research and technology transfer. It tells where Jordan will be going with the FSR approach over the next three years. It points out that the FSR approach is an asset to each section and RASC. The FSR approach must contribute positively to research sections and RASCs: if it does not, then the approach must be modified. until it does.
An FSR approach adapted to Jordanian conditions will lead to improved technology from a given section or RASC which is more adapted to farmers' needs than will adherence to traditional research and technology transfer. The key to successful use of FSR is for each section and RASC to select those parts of the FSR "menu" which help most in their research programs and workplans.
During this training, each section and RASC will be encouraged to "pick and choose" from a broad FSR menu those ideas and methods which are most appropriate to their unique research and technology transfer programs.
13




The rest of this FSR training handout moves the NCARTT FSR approach along a path toward placing greater emphasis on addressing real farmer needs. This workshop is dedicated to teaching each of you how to identify and prioritize farmer systems and constraints (both include farmer needs), to determine which of these needs are appropriate for either research or technology transfer, and to design research and technology transfer programs to address these needs more realistically than in the past.
STATUS OF FSR IN NCARTT
Much of research and technology transfer at NCARTT can be characterized by a one-way, "top-down" flow from NCARTT to farmers (Top two arrows, FIGURE 1, part (A).) The weak or nonexistent "backward" linkage from farmers to NCARTT is shown by the broken arrow at the bottom of FIGURE 1, part (A).
The FSR approach should strengthen this traditionally weak backward linkage between Jordanian farmers and agricultural researchers. This stronger linkage is shown by the larger number of solid arrows flowing from the farmers through technology transfer personnel and the RASCs to NCARTT headquarters in part
(B) of FIGURE 1. This stronger flow of information from farmers to NCARTT will lead to the use of more farmer needs in designing research and technology transfer programs.
FIGURE 1
(A) (B)
STATUS OF RESEARCH AT NCARTT PROPOSED STATUS
OF RESEARCH AT NCARTT
E E
F X N F X N
A< ------ T< ------ C A< ------ T< ------ R < ------ C
R< ------ E< .------A R< ------ E< ------ A< ------ A
M N R M ------ > N ------ > S ------ >R
E --> S --> T E ------ > S ------ > C ------ >T
R I T R I s T
S 0 S 0
N N
14




Farm-level research at NCARTT now consists of demonstration
trials. These trials combine components of available (shelf)
technology. They are designed to provide groups of farmers with
"best bet" technical packages.
This NCARTT FSR process is shown in the TOP HALF of FIGURE
2. Here, "appropriate" technology is placed in demonstration
trials on farmer's fields. Harvest, analysis and reports of
results of these trials are all performed by NCARTT researchers.
In FSR terms, these trials represent researcher-managed
demonstration trials. However, such technology is generally no further along the research pipeline than a "verification" stage
at best or, at worst, the "exploratory" stage (see the bottom
half of FIGURE 2). However, since these are still research trials, they should be renamed to reflect their true status.
This is because "demonstration trials" are at the end, not the
beginning, of the farm research process. While demonstration
trials may be designed in collaboration with research, they are
carried out by technology transfer personnel and farmers working
together. This is not the current situation in Jordan.
FIGURE 2
YEAR 1 YEAR 2 YEAR 3
TOP HALF: "APPROPRIATE" "APPROPRIATE" "APPROPRIATE"
TECHNOLOGY: TECHNOLOGY: TECHNOLOGY:
T --> DEMONSTRATION ---- >DEMONSTRATION ---- >DEMONSTRATION
N E TRIALS TRIALS ---- > TRIALS
C S C
A HH F F F
R EN A A A
TLO0 R R R
T FL M H M
0
G --> "1UNADAPTED" ----> MORE ---> MOST
Y TECHNOLOGY: ---- > APPROPRIATE ---- > APPROPRIATE
TECHNOLOGY: ---- > TECHNOLOGY:
* BOTTOM HALF: EXPLORATORY VERIFICATION DEMONSTRATION
PHASE PHASE PHASE
15




WHERE FSR IS GOING AT NCARTT
NCARTT research sections and RASCs should move toward the situation shown in the BOTTOM HALF of FIGURE 2. First, NCARTT researchers must acknowledge that all available technology may not be entirely appropriate to farmers' conditions. In addition, all necessary technology has not yet been completely developed or verified under farmers' conditions. In either case, exploratory trials, followed by verification trials, must come before demonstration trials. FIGURE 2 shows this to take three years.
THE FSR FARM-LEVEL TRIAL APPROACH
To move a "set" of improvements from a research station to acceptance by farmers, a minimum of three years is usually necessary. While the process may take less time, generally it takes more. However, we will present the FSR trial process as being three years in length.
Year 1: Exploratory Trials
FIGURE 2 shows that FSR begins with the greatest amount of uncertainty during the exploratory trial phase. Exploratory trials are planned and carried out when researchers have developed improved technoloaV on-station which has yet to be tested under farmer's actual conditions. At this stage, technology is "unadapted". However, during the combined sondeo exercise, farmer's researchable constraints can be addressed by designing exploratory trials which incorporate "best guess" components of such station-developed technology.
There is a large difference between the conditions under which farmers must operate their farms and those of most experiment stations. This first set of farm-level trials is called "exploratory" because the improved technology has not been verified under the biological, economic, social, and cultural conditions found on Jordanian farms.
Using the term "exploratory" allows research to admit to both technology transfer personnel and farmers that such technology is "improved" only under experiment station conditions. These trials are entered into as a partnership between research, technology transfer and collaborating farmers.
This partnership means that it is not necessary for the government to "guarantee" a certain level of yield to participating farmers. Won't the risk be too great, and farmers be unwilling to participate? While this is always a concern, remember that such trials are designed using prioritized,
16




farmer-identified constraints. Therefore, the technology is presumed to be as low-risk and as appropriate as possible.
Thus, NCARTT researchers and technology transfer staff will design exploratory trials around the major researchable farmer-identified constraints. This begins the "exploratory" phase of on-farm research. Such trials are usually researcher-managed. They consist of relatively small plots of several promising treatments. They are usually replicated at least once (for a total of two reps) per farm. A set of these trials is placed on any number of farms, but eight should be considered a minimum number.
These trials are refined through seasonal observations and
formal and informal analyses. The analyses consist of (1) ANOVA,
(2) other formal analyses, and (3) dialogue with farmers hosting such trials. Farmer opinions will be gathered during a follow-up sondeo which will include RASC personnel and representatives of the major NCARTT sections.
Year 2: Verification Trials
The next year, the FSR approach enters the "verification"
phase with on-farm, farmer-managed trials (center section, BOTTOM HALF, FIGURE 2). These trials are designed and monitored by a combination of NCARTT researchers and technology transfer staff during the next combined sondeo. Verification trials are implemented by the technology transfer personnel of the appropriate RASCs working even more closely with farmer collaborators this year than last. It is during the verification of improved technology that technology transfer becomes the leading partner in the FSR process.
Verification trials consist of an intermediate number of treatments (less than exploratory trials and more than demonstration trials), with plots of intermediate size (larger than those of exploratory trials but smaller than those of demonstration trials). Only the most promising improved technology components are kept in the trials when they move from the exploratory to the verification stage. The decisions of which treatments to keep and which to eliminate are made following the formal and informal analyses of the exploratory trials. In Jordan, such decisions will be made next year during the follow-up (recurrent) combined sondeo.
The number of farms selected as hosts for these verification trials is flexible and intermediate between those used for exploration and those used for demonstration. As a general rule, aim for a minimum of 15 farmers to host verification trials.
As before, these trials are formally analyzed using ANOVA.
17




An additional formal method of analysis is added during the verification stage. This new method is marginal economic analysis. Again, farmer dialogue by way of the follow-up combined sondeo mentioned above supplements agronomic and economic evaluations. If the marginal economic analysis shows the improvement to be quite profitable, farmers should also be stating their preference for it quite strongly. This method of using recurrent combined sondeos allows all farmer reactions to improved technology to be recorded and fed back to NCARTT researchers and policy makers through technology transfer staff.
Year 3: Demonstration Trials
Finally, during the third year, the FSR approach enters the "demonstration" phase (right-hand side, BOTTOM HALF, FIGURE 2). By this time, demonstration trials should be implemented entirely by participating farmers with assistance from the technology transfer personnel of the trial-hosting RASCs.
During this final stage, individual trials consist of a few (one or two) large blocks (plots), unreplicated on many farms. While it is hard to put numbers on this stage, a minimum of 20 farms should be considered for hosting any set of demonstration trials. After this year, the improved technology is ready for a "block" program through technology transfer personnel, at either the RASC or directorate level. Having been verified and demonstrated, this set of technology is completely in the hands of farmers and technology transfer staff.
Thus, the transition from researcher-designed,
researcher-implemented trials (during the exploration phase) to researcher/technology transfer-designed, technology transfer/farmer-implemented trials (during the demonstration phase) occurs over three crop years. Improved technology judged to fit most nearly the highest priority needs of a group of farmers has gradually been tested under their real farming conditions until the most risk-free and profitable treatments have emerged as those components most useful to these farmers.
STEPS IN FINE-TUNING FSR TO NCARTT CONDITIONS
Several steps are necessary to assist NCARTT transform
sectional research programs in order to incorporate more of the FSR approach into them. These seven steps are outlined below. Note that we have completed numbers one and two and are working now on number three.
STEP 1: Joint Explanatory Meetings. A series of joint meetings between NCARTT Section Heads and the Head of the Monitoring and Evaluation Unit and the JNADP FSR Specialist have




taken place to discuss how the FSR approach might assist each section in its research program.
STEP 2: Involve the Regional Centers. RASC visits have
taken place to assure support for FSR training, both in terms of philosophy and logistics.
STEP 3: Training in the FSR Approach. FSR Training will be held in the Summer of 1989 for selected RASC staff and NCARTT section representatives. Emphasis will be on relevant FSR theory and implementation of the FSR approach under Jordanian conditions. In addition, emphasis will be placed on the concept of the "combined sondeo". The combined sondeo in Jordan contains the following elements:
a. Section representatives are joined at each RASC by selected research and technology transfer staff. First, individual farmers are interviewed randomly for a minimum of two days to determine (1) the predominant crop and livestock systems of the area, and (2) the constraints upon these systems and between the systems;
b. afternoon research and technology transfer group sessions are spend in (1) detailing these predominant systems, and (2) listing and prioritizing the constraints in (and between) each;
c. one or two days are dedicated to the preliminary design of trials to address the prioritized, but researchable, farmer-identified constraints;
d. one or two days are spent producing a preliminary
group report of the combined sondeo (by assigning sections to the individuals with the most knowledge of the subject content). This report includes draft on-farm and on-station trials, as well as workplans for both research and technology transfer at both the RASC and NCARTT Headquarters levels; and
e. the final day includes a group meeting between those participating in the combined sondeo and the farmers interviewed earlier in the week. During this meeting, the research and technology transfer staff present (1) the prioritized constraints per system to the farmers, and (2) the suggested exploratory research trials they have drafted. Farmers are encouraged to participate in the dialogue by giving their opinions and suggestions for trial refinement.
This training in FSR will lead to an increase in
interdisciplinarity, both at the RASC and NCARTT headquarters levels. In addition, such training should assist RASC directors assign duties to their staff, based on a team approach to both research and technology transfer.
19




STEP 4: Farm-Level Trials. Beginning with 1989/90,
exploratory trials can be planned and placed with farmers around each RASC. These exploratory trials will each consist of small plots of NCARTT shelf technologies aimed at solving a specific, high priority problem, as identified by the combined sondeo carried out during the FSR training workshop in 1989. Next year, the most promising treatments from this year's exploratory trials can be advanced to verification trials. Such verification trials consist of slightly larger plots of those treatments which were superior in the exploratory trials of last year. Finally, in 1991/92, demonstration trials can evolve naturally from the verification trials, consisting of proven improved technology, larger plots (or blocks), and only one or two treatments. Responsibility for each set of trials moves gradually from research through technology transfer to the farmer-collaborators.
STEP 5: The Recurrent Combined Sondeo. A combined sondeo will be carried out by NCARTT section representatives and RASC personnel at each RASC on an annual basis. This sondeo will usually take place after cereals harvest (June) but before workplans are due (August 1). The purpose of this recurrent combined sondeo is to assist both research and technology transfer-staff to refine their farm- and station-level trials and workplans for each season.
STEP 6:. Data Analysis Training. A refresher course on
statistics and a hands-on Michigan Statistics (MSTAT) computer training on design and analysis of farm. trials will be given to the biometrics and economic staff of RASCs and NCARTT sections. MSTAT is a menu-driven statistical package which includes ANOVA for any trial design type and includes modified stability analysis, marginal economic analysis, and the ability to design field book forms.
STEP 7: Annual FSR Conference. An annual FSR Conference should be scheduled for Jordanian researchers and technology transfer personnel. This Conference, designed to allow FSR researchers and technology transfer personnel share professional FSR experiences, should begin next year. The FSR Conference will provide ample time for presentation of FSR results via a series of invited papers from NCARTT sections and RASC FSR staff, as well as for discussion of both specific FSR results and the general direction FSR is taking at NCARTT.
CONCLUSION
FSR has gotten off to a good start in Jordan through NCARTT. Research and technology transfer have been centralized at Al-Baqa'a, and six RASCs have been created and staffed. Many MOA personnel have been transferred, and new staff have been hired, to fill vital RASC research and technology transfer slots in many
20




disciplinary areas.
This year also marks the first time that demonstration
trials have been extended from NCARTT headquarters to the RASCs. However, these trials are researcher-designed, researcher-implemented and researcher-managed. FSR methodology normally calls for such trials to be implemented by a combination of technology transfer and farmer collaborators.
To fine-tune the FSR approach in Jordan, the Monitoring and Evaluation Unit proposes to assist NCARTT Sections move toward a series of research trials at the RASC level which will begin in an exploratory phase, proceed through verification, and end with demonstration trials. During this process, responsibility for design, implementation, monitoring, harvest, and analysis of trials will pass gradually from researchers to technology transfer agents to farmers. Feedback of farmer opinion will continuous throughout the process, and will be obtained by a series of annual combined sondeos. These combined sondeo activities also allow sections to work closely with RASC FSR research and technology transfer personnel in designing andrefining the series of exploratory-verification-demonstration trials and annual workplans.
After next year, the process of FSR in NCARTT should be pretty well adapted to the unique aspects of Jordanian agriculture. The following years should see the FSR process become more and-more fine-tuned. NCARTT sections should be able to pick and choose additional FSR activities from the overall FSR menu as such activities become appropriate to the research programs of individual sections. Working relations between NCARTT headquarters and the RASCs will smooth out and solidify along the lines of more meaningful scientific research by means of greater emphasis on interdisciplinary teamwork. Working relations between traditional research and technology transfer will be strengthened, as both divisions of agricultural development learn more and more from one another.
Finally, but most importantly, Jordanian farmers will be able to adopt more appropriate improved technology sooner than they do now. This latter result should in turn lead to (1) greater profits accruing to Jordanian farm families, and (2) some macroeconomic relief on Jordanian imports (in the cases of cereals and meat products) and to an increase in lucrative Jordanian agricultural exports (in the cases of vegetable and fruit products).
21




One of the reasons that interdisciplinarity is so important in agricultural research is that 'farmers manage multiple enterprises. To understand what farmers do and why they do it, a systems Approach is needed. No one discipline contains the necessary background (knowledge and tools) to understand and deal with this complexity.
THE FARM AS A SYSTEM
by
M. Gaudreau, NCARTT/JNADP Consultant and
E. Khraisat, Monitoring and Evaluation Unit, NCARTT/MOA
Adapted from: Volume I, Unit II: Modeling the Farming System, FSSP training manuals, Gainesville, FL.
TRAINING OBJECTIVE: At the end of this session, the participants will be able to understand the concept of farm as a system and be able to construct and use structural And process models to describe and analyze farmers' circumstances and decisions.
INTRODUCTION
To develop a research or extension program that addresses farmers' problems, it is important to know what farmers do and why they do it. Farmers in Jordan, like farmers in other parts of the world, have multiple enterprises that they manage. They therefore make choices about how to use their resources to best fulfill their goals and objectives.
Since farms are composed of different components that interact, it is useful to master and apply the concept of a system to farming enterprises. In this session of the workshop, we will explore the meaning of the word system, see how it applies to farms, and learn about two types of qualitative models that can be used to describe and analyze farmers' circumstances and decisions.
WHAT IS A SYSTEM?
A system is a collection of interrelated parts or
components. When one is changed, all the others are affected since the parts are interacting. A system has boundaries. It is, in effect, defined by the boundaries that are placed on it, so that each system is a subsystem (or part) of a larger system.
22




Let's look at how systems are hierarchical (parts of increasingly larger systems) by using an olive tree as an example. on a micro level, the tree is composed of cells (if you are a biochemist/geneticist, you will want to-start even lower and talk of DNA molecules). Groups of cells function together as organs, for example, leaves. The leaves interacting with stems form a tree limb, and tree limbs with the trunk form the tree. Each level (cell, leaf, limb, and tree) is a system by itself but it is also a subsystem of each successive level.
We arbitrarily defined the boundary of the system we wanted to describe as a single olive tree but the tree is also part of a larger system, the orchard, and the orchard is part of a farmer's total farming operation and so on.
The concept of a system can be very useful to us in
understanding what farmers do and why. Farm operations can be very complex and farmers are used to integrating information when they make management decisions. Let's look at the farm as a system.
FARM AS A SYSTEM
A farm is a system made up of subsystems which would include the cropping system, the animal system, and the farm family (household) or socio-economic subsystem. It functions within a community (a system itself) and is affected by environmental factors that are outside its control.
The cropping system is made up of plants which use the sun, soil nutrients, and water (inputs) to produce a crop yield (output). The animal production system uses pasture, feed supplements, and water (inputs) to produce meat, animal products and manure (outputs). The farm family (household) is fed, clothed, and sheltered (inputs) and makes management decisions (output) on how best to use their resources to attain their objectives.
The inputs to one subsystem may be the-outputs of another, for example, soil nutrients to crops (input) can be supplied by the manure (output) from the animal system. The inputs may also come from outside the immediate boundaries of the farm, for example, water for irrigation, or seeds and fertilizer from the market.
The farming system may be extremely complex or very simple. For example, in the humid tropics of Indonesia, farmers grow several crops a year on both their paddy fields and their upland fields. They have trees and perennial crops in the household gardens and most upland fields and household gardens are intercropped. Many families have cows, water buffalo, and ducks,
23




and at least one member of the family works off-farm. In contrast is a Minnesota corn and soybean farm which is highly mechanized and produces only one crop a year.
One way to describe a system and summarize its properties is to use a model.
WHAT IS A MODEL?
A model is a means of describing and summarizing a system. It helps researchers to understand what they are studying and where there are gaps in their knowledge. Models can be simple or complex, quantitative or qualitative. Let's look at a simple quantitative model:
Y = 5X
This model describes the response of sorghum production (Y kg. of sorghum) to nitrogen inputs (X = kg. of nitrogen fertilizer). It says that adding one kg. of nitrogen increases sorghum production by 5 kg.
An example of a simple qualitative model would be the
drawing your children bring home from school showing your house, family, and pets.
Our objective in FSR is to describe not only the farm
production system but also human behavior in order to understand how farmers manage their farms. This is much more complex than modeling fertilizer response.
There are two types of models which are useful in FSR: 1) the structural model and 2) the process model. Both of these models are qualitative. Given the complexity of farming systems, it is a good idea to start out with a qualitative description of the system. As more information becomes available through onfarm research and in-depth socio-economic surveys on specific topics, quantitative models such as econometrics and linear programming may be used.
THE STRUCTURAL MODEL
The structural model focuses on the interaction and
integration of the crop subsystem, the animal subsystem, and socio-economic subsystem including the off-farm enterprises of a farm family. The principal components include the household, crops, and animals. A structural model of a farming system in .Jordan, adapted from Mc Dowell and Hildebrand (1980), is found below.
24




I I III
sI
"I ii' I
The household (farm family) is the focus of the farm unit. Emphasis is placed on labor use, the roles of crop and livestock enterprises and sources of human food, household income, and animal feed.
The solid arrows depict strong flows or linkages (for
example, the use of crops for food and construction materials by the family). Less important linkages are shown by broken arrows (for example, the contribution of forest resources to animal feed).
The model represents a first step in describing the farming system. There are other activities that could be included such as off-farm activities if they are important to the functioning of the system. The linkages between each crop and animal enterprise and other parts could be drawn out instead of lumping enterprises into the two categories of crops and livestock.
25




The structural model is important for orienting and guiding the work of the interdisciplinary team. Understanding the context within which new technologies are to be used will help the team evaluate their potential impact. For example, the model shows that crops are not only produced for food and sale, but are used for construction materials, ritual purposes, animal feed, bedding, and mulch. In assisting the farmer to increase production of grain for food and sale, the team must insure that other critical uses are not sacrificed.
THE PROCESS MODEL
The process model is used to develop an understanding of how farmers manage their farms. The model focuses on four types of information:
1. Farmers, Objectives and Priorities
The first priority of farmers is-often to assure'a stable
supply of foods at all periods of the year. other objectives are influenced by cash requirements and the level of risk that farmers can live with. These will affect the tradeoffs that farmers make in their investments: invest in production-or spend for home consumption; invest in farm or non-farm enterprises; and how they will allocate their resources among enterprises.
2. Environment (natural and socio-economic)
How do physical factors such as soil, rainfall, altitude influence a farmers' management decisions? The socio-economic environment includes such factors as land tenure, household composition and labor patterns by gender and by age, markets, and access to inputs and credit. Farmers are affected by institutions outside their control such as rural development organizations and government agencies which establish agricultural policies.
3. Resource Availability and Use
Land, labor, capital, and management practices are used by
farmers to attain their goals and objectives. What types of land are available and how will they be used? What is the total and seasonal availability of labor? What is the composition of the labor force? Do farmers have access to cash when needed, access to machinery or draft power, access to other inputs such as seeds and chemicals?
4. Principal Constraints
It is important to identify the constraints farmers face.
Constraints may be linked to resource availability such as peak
26




season labor requirements or cash for purchasing inputs. They may be linked to environmental factors such as soil fertility, rainfall distribution and variation,"lack of markets, and land tenure issues.
The researcher uses this information to develop an
understanding of farmer management strategies. That is, how farmers use their resources to meet their objectives in the environment in which they live and given the constraints which they face. These strategies include selection of enterprises and their relative importance in the system as well as the cultural practices used. Often these reflect ways farmers minimize risk.
Why is it important to understand farmers' management
practices? Farmers know a lot about their environment and their agricultural enterprises. In many instances, farmers recognize their problems and have ways, which vary in effectiveness, for dealing with these problems. Our objective is to work together with them to improve their ability to deal with their problems. Tapping their knowledge will help researchers identify evaluation criteria for screening technologies which are acceptable to farmers. Understanding the current situation is necessary before we can determine how best to modify it.
The following is an example of a process model examining strategies for land preparation/planting in Middle Kirinyaga, Kenya.
PROCESS MODEL FOR LAND PREPARATION/PLANTING IN MIDDLE KIRINYAGA, KENYA
Objectives Environment Resources Constraints Farmer Mat.
Strategies
Stable food Low rain- 2-3 ha. Short rainy No-till
supply (maize fall farms season planting
& beans).
Rich loam Family labor Lack of Hire or
oxen borrow oxen
Sale of maize Good market Little cash plant before
& beans for access Oxen not rains
cash for pur- Only about available
chases Uncertain 30% own oxen at planting Hire or
rainfall borrow oxen
after rains
Prepare land
and plant
with hoe
Both of these tools, the structural model and the process
27




model, can aid researchers to organize what they know about farming systems and to identify areas where additional information is needed for a better understanding of the production and management decisions made by farmers.
The participants worked in RASC teams to develop both
structural and process models describing farming systems found in their areas. Examples of the process models and structural models are included in this report.
PROCESS MODEL--RABBA
Objectives Environment Resources Constraints Farmer Mgt.
Strategies
Production Drip Irr. 10 ha. Diseases Add fert.
with water
Laborers by irr.
Selling Sandy clay Insects Spray insect.
with machine
from ag. dept
Processing High cost Grading of
of inputs fruit
chemicals
insecticides
fertilizers
PROCESS MODEL--DEIR ALLA
Objectives Environment Resources Constraints Farmer Mgt.
Strategies
Family Plastic 50 dunum Marketing Different
Consumption houses open field planting
dates
Trade Irrigated 10 dunum High cost Suitable
plastic inputs varieties
Fertile houses
soil
Cows and Amount of Use machines Poultry water
Use plastic
houses
28




PROCESS MODEL--RAMTHA
Objectives Environment Resources Constraints Farmer Mcrt.
Strategies
Family Heavy red 100 dunum Lack of
Consumption soil improved seeds
Laborers
Sale of Rainfall Cracked soil
Surplus >=350 mm Rented
Machinery
29




STRUCTURAL MODEL: RABBA
- .~~i/ /!7~ 30




STRUCTURAL MODEL: KHALDIEH
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STRUCTURAL MODEL: RAMTHA
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32




STRUCTURAL MODEL: SHOUBAK
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STRUCTURAL MODEL: DEIR ALLA
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STRUCTURAL MODEL: MUSHAQAR
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LaLewpi&
35




As part of the workshop, the participants were to conduct a combined sondeo to determine the predominant farming systems in the area and to identify farmers' problems and constraints within priority systems. The procedure for the combined sondeo is summarized below.
AN OVERVIEW OF THE NCARTT COMBINED SONDEO
by
D. Galt, NCARTT/JNADP Socio-economist/FSR Specialist and
A. F. Al-Kadi, Head, Monitoring and Evaluation Unit, NCARTT/MOA
July 14, 1989
The NCARTT combined sondeo can be summarized in the following steps:
1. Interview farmers informally
2. Discuss farmer interviews to
a. Allow frequency of farmer response to rank
predominant farming systems
b. Use RASC team expertise to focus on a some of the
selected, predominant systems
3. Within these selected, predominant systems,
a. Allow frequency of farmer response to group and
rank farmer-identified problems
b. Use RASC team discussion to decide which problems
to work on for either research trials or
technology transfer programs
4. Identify the constraints which cause all selected
problems to be problems. Assign each constraint to one of three categories:
a. "R" if the constraint should be solved by research
b. "TT" if the constraint should be solved by
technology transfer
c. "N" if the constraint either cannot be solved at
present or if it is beyond the mandate of NCARTT
36




5. Draft design on-farm or on-station trials around those constraints which can be solved by research
6. Draft a technology transfer program around those constraints which can be solved by technology transfer
A diagram showing the decision making process to be followed during the combined sondeo is presented on the next page.
37




FSR TRAINING DOCUMENT NO. 1-4-X
NCARTT COMBINED SONDEO DECISION TREE
INTERVIEW FARMERS ----- > REJECTED FARMERS
ACCEPTABLE FARMERS
PRIORITIZE SYSTEMS ---- > REJECTED SYSTEMS IDENTIFY COMPONENTS
ACCEPTED SUB-SET OF PREDOMINANT SYSTEMS
PRIORITIZE PROBLEMS WITHIN ----- > REJECTED SELECTED COMPONENTS OF SYSTEMS PROBLEMS
IDENTIFY CONSTRAINTS BEHIND PROBLEMS AND ASSIGN TO:
----- RESEARCH OR EXTENSION -------DRAFT SET OF EXTENSION ACTIVITIES
CROP RELATED LIVESTOCK RELATED
DRAFT EXPLORATORY TRIAL SETS FOR:
----------------------- STATION(S) AND FARMS-------------NCARTT HQ RASC Fl F2 F3 F4 F5 F6 F7
CROPS CROPS CROPS AND/OR LIVESTOCK
ON-FARM TRIALS LIVESTOCK LIVESTOCK
38




To prepare for going into the field, it is important to
learn as much about the area as possible from secondary sources of information. Some of the sources of information that are useful in FSR/E are described below. A more theoretical treatment is found in Appendix 9.
39




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41




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NCARTT will be using informal surveys as part of the
combined sondeo to get information from farmers. There are advantages to both formal and informal surveys. However, in general, to start a field program and get an overview of the area, informal surveys are preferred.
49




BASIC DIFFERENCES BETWEEN FORMAL AND INFORMAL SURVEYS
>>>> INFORMAL SURVEY <<<< >>>> FORMAL SURVEY <<<<
----------------------------------- ---------------------------------ADVANTAGE TO INFORMAL:
1. --NO QUESTIONNAIRE IS USED --A WRITTEN QUESTIONNAIRE, OR
FORMAL SURVEY INSTRUMENT, IS USED
2. FORMAT ALLOWS --FOLLOW-UP LIMITED BY FORM OF
UNLIMITED FOLLOW-UP WITH FARMER QUESTION AND SURVEY INSTRUMENT
3. --MORE ACCURATE IN GATHERING --LESS ACCURATE IN GATHERING
TYPES OF INFORMATION FROM FARMERS TYPES OF INFORMATION FROM FARMERS
WHICH TAKES SOME "DISCUSSION" WHICH TAKES SOME "DISCUSSION"
4. --ANALYSIS IS EXTREMELY QUICK --ANALYSIS TAKES LONGER
5. --EASIER TO DEVELOP "TRUST" ~DIFFICULT TO DEVELOP "TRUST"
BETWEEN INTERVIEWER AND FARMER BETWEEN INTERVIEWER AND FARMER
6. ~PROCESSING COSTS ARE LOW ~PROCESSING COSTS ARE HIGH
7. --QUICK TURN-AROUND MAKES IT --DELAY IN USE IS VERY COMMON
OF MOST IMMEDIATE USE TO BECAUSE ANALYSIS TAKES SO LONG
RESEARCH AND EXTENSION
8. --EASIER TO MAKE SURVEY --MAY BE HARD TO MAKE SURVEY
"CULTURALLY SENSITIVE" INSTRUMENT "CULTURALLY SENSITIVE"
9. ~DEVELOPMENT TIME AND COSTS ~DEVELOPMENT TIME AND COSTS
ARE LOWER ARE HIGHER (I.E., DESIGN & PRETEST)
ADVANTAGE TO-FORMAL:
1. ~STATISTICAL ANALYSIS IS NOT ~STATISTICAL ANALYSIS IS POSSIBLE
POSSIBLE
2. ~TRAINING OF STAFF IN USE IS OF STAFF IN USE IS
MORE IMPORTANT LESS IMPORTANT
3. --MORE DISCUSSION BETWEEN --LESS DISCUSSION BETWEEN
INTERVIEWERS IS NEEDED TO INTERVIEWERS IS NEEDED TO
COMPLETE THE INFORMAL ANALYSIS COMPLETE THE FORMAL ANALYSIS
4. MORE DIVERSE --REQUIRES LESS DIVERSE
PROFESSIONAL STAFF TIME TO DEVELOP PROFESSIONAL STAFF TIME TO DEVELOP
50




Interviewing skills are very important in FSR/E, because informal surveys, while appearing to be "chats" between technicians and farmers, are really directed conversations with farmers. Some techniques for interviewing farmers were presented.
HOW TO INTERVIEW FARMERS
by
D. Galt, NCARTT/JNADP Socio-economist/FSR Specialist and
A. F. Al-Kadi, Head, Monitoring and Evaluation Unit, NCARTT/MOA
July 15, 1989
INTRODUCTION
The combined sondeo depends heavily upon informal farmer
interviews. Later today, you will receive a general summary list of question topics. The summary list will be modified by your RASC team today, then used as a prompt to guide you in this informal interview process. The key to interviewing farmers is to make logical progress in questioning. Switch from one major topic to another as needed. Don't skip from minor point to minor point, nor from major topic to major topic back to the first major topic. Do not interrupt one another when interviewing. Avoid large groups of interviewers. Fill in information which may have been left out or skipped as the interview is winding down. Allow enough time to enter, exit, and be sociable with the farmer and/or his family.
PRE-INTERVIEW ETIQUETTE
1. Talk to the Farmer. If the oldest son "manages" the
family farm, interview him, not his father. Of course, be courteous and include the father in your discussion,
but remember the answers given by the decision maker.
If the farmer-manager is a women, interview her.
2. Use a sensitive approach. Timing of farmer interviews
are extremely important. Be sensitive to the daily
work schedule of farmers and their work habits. These
affect a farmer's willingness to give you a quality
interview. Don't start an interview just as it is time
for the call to prayer, for example.
51




3. Use a proper qreetinq and introduction. Before the
interview, greet the farmer according to local custom.
Explain your presence and the purpose of the interview as soon as possible. Accept coffee or tea if offered.
This part of the interview process is known as the
"warm-up".
4. Most importantly, TREAT ALL FARMERS WITH RESPECT.
Don't patronize farmers. Don't preach to farmers.
Don't argue with farmers. Don't position yourself
"above" farmers. Farmers are a wealth of information:
they are your social resource!
TECHNIQUES TO USE IN INTERVIEWING FARMERS
1. Do NOT ask leading questions. Avoid: "Your dryland
cropping pattern is wheat-fallow-wheat, isn't it?"
Instead, phrase your question like this: "What is your
dryland cropping pattern?" Avoid: "You do spray to
control weeds, don't you? Instead, try asking, "Do you
spray for weeds?"
2. Avoid sensitive questions. Don't ask farmers how many
Dinar they earned last year.
3. Don't lust "qcet the facts". We are not using a formal
questionnaire. For this reason, follow up promising
leads. Allow the farmer to elaborate on his or her
response if it seems important. If a farmer replies, "No" when asked if he sprays his weeds; it is natural
to ask him, "Why not?" The informal survey, or
combined sondeo, makes this type of questioning easy.
Don't worry if your farmer seems to be rambling on and on .... most farmers end up by saying something which is
important. Remember, antidotes often provide
unforeseen insights into realities of the farming
system we would otherwise forget to ask about.
4. Be flexible during the interview. This goes along with
the point above. If an interesting topic or question
comes up during the conversation, and it is not on your
master list of question topics, go ahead and let the
farmer talk more deeply about it. This is especially true if he or she feels strongly about the topic. If it seems to be a serious problem, make some attempt to
get at the root cause of it (identify the constraint
that makes the topic a problem).
52




5. Be careful when interviewing more than one family
member. Often family interest means that you and your
partner will end up in a discussion with the father, the mother, and three sons. They may interrupt one
another or give conflicting answers to a given
question. What do you do?
In this situation, try to remember the response given
by the person who is the decision maker for that aspect
of the farming operation. For example, while the
father might be the main decision maker for a unit, his
second oldest son may operate the tractor and his
cultural equipment. When the discussion evolves to
questions about land preparation in the field, the
second son's responses are likely to be the most
accurate. However, listen to all family members and
don't exclude anyone from a discussion of their farming
system.
INFORMATION TO GATHER DURING A FARMER INTERVIEW
While the later handout (FSR training handout No. 1-3-8)
provides the general list of specific question topics for farmer interviews, the following list provides the six major areas for which information is obtained during most FSR interviews.
1. The predominant crop and livestock patterns, or
components, of each farming system. These should be
obtained according to the relevant domain: in Jordan,
these are often delimited by rainfall.
2. The malor Problems'in each major crop and livestock
component. When you have identified the crop or
livestock components, go back through each and have the
farmer tell you About his problems in each. Here,
always use an open-ended question. Ask: "What is your
most important problem with your sheep?" Or,
alternatively, ask: "What problems do you have raising
barley?"
3. The division of labor. The three components to
division of labor are (1) by gender, (2) by age, and
(3) by payment. Are there certain tasks done only by
females? What are they? Likewise, are there jobs
which are only done by old persons? or by young
*persons (tending small sheep flocks by young boys or
girls, for example)? Are there tasks on the farm only
performed by hired'labor, not by family members (tomato
harvest by Egyptian laborers, for example)?
53




4. Crop and livestock yields. Obtain estimates of yields
of crops by season or year, whichever is appropriate.
Try to obtain weekly or monthly output of livestock
products (milk, for example).
5. Farmer's experiences. Note what has worked in the past
and what has not worked in the past. For example, a
farmer may not practice weed control because he has
noticed that 2,4-D no longer seems to control the weeds
in his wheat crop. This is extremely important
information to record for future research into weed
control in Jordanian wheat.
6. Farmer's needs. The farmer may mention these at any
time during the interview. Needs may be biological -"I need a new variety of chickpea". Needs may be socio-economic -- "I can't get any credit to buy
improved wheat varieties". Needs may be
infrastructural or institutional -- "We need more
irrigation water here!" Note them all down separately
immediately after the interview is over.
HELPS IN INTERVIEWING FARMERS
1. Make use of the crop calendar. One of the most
effective ways of getting information about the farm
system is to have the farmer help you make a crop
calendar. Begin with the main crop and proceed to
other crops during this season. Follow this by
repeating the process for any crops grown during the
next season. The resulting calendar provides a graphic illustration of the entire farm system for each farmer.
2. Obtaining information about commercial crops. List
major fruits and vegetables, the areas dedicated to
each, and whether they are sold commercially. If they are, find out where, when and for how much. Ask about
vine crops (grapes or berries) as well. If farmers
report an olive tree system, be sure to ask if olives
are the only crop grown in that parcel (often in
Jordan, grapes are interplanted with olives).
3. Obtaining information about livestock. Identify all
types of livestock in the system. For large animals
(camels, donkeys, horses, cows) obtain the numbers,
ages, genders, use, and feed sources for each. In the
case of feed sources, try to identify months of
shortages of feed. For small animals (sheep and
goats), obtain, numbers, genders, use and feed sources.
Again, try to determine if there are periods of chronic
feed shortages.
54




For all animals (and poultry), try to obtain general
and specific health information. Have animals or birds
died this past year? If so, what killed them?
Be sure farmer identify any problems associated with raising livestock. Record all problems by animal or
bird type.
Finally, remember one thing: no one ever conducted THE
perfect interview. Likewise, no one has ever completely botched up an interview. Have confidence in yourself and your partner and things will go well. Treat farmers as you would have them treat you!
55




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Because the survey is informal, there are no predetermined questions or forms to be completed. Instead, there are topic guidelines that can be used when conversation lags or to make sure information is collected on all aspects of the farming system. Two examples of topic guidelines were given to the participants to assist them (Appendix 10). The participants were then asked to modify them so they would be appropriate for the agricultural systems served by their RASCs. The guidelines
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Prior to going to the field, the participants were shown two additional tools for organizing information collected from farmers: (1) farm maps, and (2) crop calendars. An example of each is found below; the others that were distributed to the participants are in Appendix 11.
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After preparing the topic guidelines, mock interviews were conducted to demonstrate bad and good interviewing techniques (Appendix 12).
As part of the combined sondeo, the teams are asked to
determine the predominant farminQ systems (crop and animal) in the area and the most important problems by system. As a first step, frequencies of each can be used. Discussions based on personal experience in the field help verify or modify the impressions gained from the frequency analysis. The team then determines which problems are researchable and whether they can be solved by on-farm or on-station research. This then leads to desiQninQ draft research trials.
In some cases, problems can be addressed by extension
interventions which can be added to the RASC workplan. In other cases, problems are outside the realm of both research and extension. Generally, such problems touch on policy issues. The team can make recommendations to appropriate ministries to address these policy issues.
The results of this process depend on team composition.
Often, the relative importance of the systems and the components within the system is determined by the disciplines and backgrounds of the researchers and extension personnel performing the task.
In order to practice this new process before the field week exercise, the RASC teams completed a group exercise using a set of farm maps as the source of field level information. An example worked out prior to the workshop is found in Appendix 13, and some results of the exercise are given here.
MAJOR CROPPING SYSTEMS FREQUENCY
Wheat-Fallow 8
Pasture 3
Olive-grape 3
Vegetables 2
Tobacco 2
MAJOR LIVESTOCK SYSTEMS FREQUENCY
Poultry 1
85




PROBLEMS BY SYSTEM FREQUENCY
Wheat-Fallow
Machinery (N) 8
Olive-Grape
Insects (R) (TT) 2
Disease (TT) 3
Pruning (TT)
Livestock
Diseases (TT)
Forages (R)
The next step in FSR/E is to plan on-farm research and
technology transfer interventions based on data collected from farmers.
On-farm research is very similar to on-station research in many respects. The main differences are in the complexity of experiments and the loss of some control over non-experimental variables on farmers fields. The planning process is quite similar and is reviewed below.
PLANNING ON-FARM EXPERIMENTS by
M. Gaudreau, NCARTT/JNADP Consultant and
Y. Tamimi, NCARTT/JNADP Consultant
Adapted from: Palmer, A.F.E. 1986. Notes on Planning On-Farm
Experiments. CIMMYT.
Stroud, Ann. 1985. On-Farm Experimentation.
Concepts and Principles. CIMMYT.
TRAINING OBJECTIVE: At the end of this session, the participants will have a basic understanding of the factors involved in 86




research planning.
INTRODUCTION
After identifying the major problems affecting farmers in the areas where you work, you will have established research priorities. Now it's time to think about your work program and to design the experiments that you will put on-farm.
Designing on-farm experiments is not much different from designing on-station experiments. This handout will discuss those aspects of on-farm research which require more reflection and planning than perhaps are needed when working under the optimal conditions of a research station. These include:
1. Objective of experiment and stage of experimentation
2. Choice of treatments and treatment levels
3. Environmental conditions (non-experimental variables)'
4. Number of replications per site and number of sites per
experiment
5. Experimental design
6. Determination of plot size
7. Data to be collected
8. Management and logistical support
on-farm research has more logistical demands and
researchers have less control over what happens Particularly as farmers become more involved in the management. Therefore, wellplanned research will help you to respond to crises in the field and even avoid some of them.
OBJECTIVE OF EXPERIMENT AND STAGE OF EXPERIMENTATION
The objective of the experiment should answer, at least in part, the problem you have identified in the field with farmers. It should be simple and concise. one experiment cannot answer all questions. Several small, simple experiments may be better than one large one. Break a complex problem into manageable sections then put the segments back together after receiving the results. For example, this strategy may be useful in determining which parts of the wheat technology package would be acceptable to'farmers. .
The objective of the experiment will determine all the other factors that will be discussed in this handout: treatment number and type-, the number of replications and sites, data requirements, plot size, management, and stage of experimentation.
If the objective of the research is to test several
technologies that may be appropriate but have not been widely
87




tested, for example, control measures against pests or weeds, an exploratory trial is indicated. Exploratory trials are also used to identify critical management factors and to better define production problems. When the objective of the experiment is to test the bestTbet technical options identified in exploratory trials, verification trials are used. Demonstration trials are used when the objective of the experiment is to determine the acceptability of the technology to farmers.
CHOICE OF TREATMENTS AND TREATMENT LEVELS
The number of treatments and treatment levels will depend to a large extent on the objective of the experiment. The treatments should contribute to overcoming the identified constraints. It is important to keep on-farm experiments as simple as possible, so the number of treatments should be limited. Six treatments in a split plot design is generally considered to be as complicated as one should be in on-farm research.
A question that researchers should ask themselves in
selecting treatments and treatment levels is : Is the technology being tested a realistic option for the farmer? For example, a full factorial fertilizer trial is not appropriate for an exploratory trial if only a certain combination fertilizer is available (unless you are doing preliminary work for the ministry to determine which fertilizersto import).
The purpose of the control treatment is to provide a
standard of comparison for the other treatments. However, it is not always necessary to have a control in an exploratory experiment. There are several types of controls that can be used In on-farm research: optimum levels of the treatments, farmer's practice, current extension recommendation, and untreated (zero level). Depending on your objective, one or more of these controls can be useful for comparison of research results. A very common control to use in verification and demonstration trials is farmer practice. Most farmers are not interested in adopting a new technology if it does not outperform what they are currently doing.
ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS (NON-EXPERIMENTAL VARIABLES)
Environmental and management factors (non-experimental
variables) make major contributions to the variability found in on-farm research. Variability between farms is usually greater than within a farm. A problem exists for researchers when nonexperimental variables interact with and change the treatment response.
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There are several ways to deal with non-experimental variables in on-farm research. one way is to stratify the research sites by factors such as soil type, rainfall, and irrigation management. This is particularly useful when a limited number of sites will be used (exploratory trials). But by the time the technology reaches the verification trial stage, it is more important that they be tested over a wide range of environments to determine their stability. In this case, researchers should monitor the plots and record differences in non-experimental variables, and describe in detail the farmers' practices. This will help in explaining the variability and will permit later stratification useful in determining extension recommendations for homogenous farming systems.
Another alternative is to plan how to manage the nonexperimental variables during the trials. For example, 'it may be necessary to weed the plots of a fertilizer trial or irrigate plots that dry up. It is important to-specify the management operation, the date they are to be done (if known) and identify the person responsible. A final way of dealing with nonexperimental variables is to ensure that all plots on one farm are managed by the farmer in a similar way. That way there is no longer a distinction between the researcher's plot and the farmer's plot. This also helps to involve the farmer earlier in the on-farm research process.
REPLICATION AND NUMBER OF SITES
The number of replications used in on-farm research depends on site variability, type and complexity of the trial, management, space, type of precision wanted, and type of data needed. In general, .2-4 replications per farm are recommended for exploratory trials, 1-2 replications for verification trials, and one replication per farm for demonstration trials.
In some on-farm research, sampling variability is more
important than precision between fields and replication across fields or over years should be used. Also as farmer involvement in the trial increases, the number of replicates per location should decrease. This helps keep the trial simple, manageable, and understandable. Operational size plots may not be able to be replicated because of their large size.
Because on-farm research is not completely under the control of the researcher, you can expect between 20 and 30% of the plots installed to be lost and the data unavailable for statistical analysis. In planning the number of sites on which you want to install a particular trial, keep this loss in mind. As you move from exploratory trials to demonstration trials, the number of sites Vill increase while the number of replicates per site will decrease.
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EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN
Decisions as to the "best" design for on-farm experiments must take into account the number and nature of treatments, the availability of land suitable for the experiment on the participating farms, and the resources available. It is a basic principle that plots within blocks be as uniform as possible-with respect to slope, soil texture, weediness, plant number (except where this is an experimental variable), plant height and girth and so on. Block size (the number of plots per block) is often a major factor determining appropriate designs. Plots within blocks don't have to be contiguous (next to each other) and blocks can differ with respect to the above characteristics.
The most commonly used experimental designs in on-farm
research-are the randomized complete block design and the split plot. These designs can both be used for factorial arrangements of treatments.
The randomized complete block design keeps variability among treatments within a block as small as possible and maximizes differences between blocks. When there is a gradient in a field, for example a fertility gradient, place the blocks across the gradient (perpendicular). Block size will depend on plot size, but the larger the block, the more likely that there will be variability within the plot that is unaccounted for.
Sometimes treatment operations such as tillage or irrigation make it difficult to manage on randomly assigned plots. Split plot design facilitates plot layout and management but sacrifices precision on the treatment applied to the main plot or larger plot.
PLOT SIZE
Plots should be large enough to represent input use patterns and yield but not too large to impose an unreasonable burden or risk to the farmer. A rule of thumb is that the experimental area should not exceed 20% of the cropped land. In general, use of larger plots is recommended for demonstrations, operational scale testing, better farmer understanding, seed multiplication, insect trials, trees, labor measurements, and tillage operations. Smaller plots are used to explore a range of technology as in screening and levels trials. Size is determined by management type and manager resources. Many management problems are not apparent on small plots.
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DATA TO BE COLLECTED
Only collect data that will be used. For example,
agronomists traditionally take a lot of data on crop development from emergence to harvest. Not all of it is required to evaluate a trial particularly when the technology has reached the verification stage. At this point, sodio-economic information plays a more prominent role in data collection.
Farming systems researchers have discussed the need for a
minimum data set that will permit transfer of technology from one location to another with similar agro-ecological and socioeconomic characteristics. Information on plot characteristics (plot history, soil characteristics, etc.), management aspects (dates and order of operations performed, water management, cultural practices, etc), performance aspects (yield, losses due to-pests, quality, etc.), and socio-economic aspects (farmers' observations, characteristics of other parts of their farming system) needs to be taken. But the data should be of good quality and either contribute directly to the evaluation of the technology or to enhance your understanding of the farming system.
Farmer opinions should be solicited throughout the research process. For example, you can ask farmers by what criteria they select their new varieties and incorporate these criteria into your data collection sheets. Awn length may be as important as stalk length in evaluating wheat varieties if birds are a problem in the area.
MANAGEMENT AND LOGISTICAL SUPPORT
As you move from exploratory to demonstration trials,
farmers become increasingly involved in the management of both experimental and non-experimental variables. It is important to determine who is responsible for providing the resources used in the experiment. Does the farmer's involvement at the exploratory level include letting you use his land or must you rent it? Who provides the inputs? When equipment is involved, who provides it?
The team should establish a schedule of field operations, determine what materials are needed, identify the person responsible for each operation, and establish a contingency plan particularly for such common problems as lack of rain, pest, damage, and a delay in operations. Be prepared to make compromises and be flexible.
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On-farm research requires more logistical support
particularly transport. Transportation issues affect the technical aspects of the trials particularly site selection and numbers. Are collaborating farmers clustered in groups or are they spread out to be more representative of the various farming systems.in the area? If you make an appointment to install a trial, will the vehicles be available ? Will there be benzene? Transportation to and from the fields must be programmed into the research.
If you install the trials, you should follow up on them.
The team should agree on a monitoring schedule to do this. Such a schedule should consist only of vital measurements or observations.On-farm research is very rewarding but initially it requires more planning and the ability to compromise and be flexible.
The extension program planning process is also important. It is reviewed here.
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